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LL2870.book Page 1 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMLL2870.book Page 2 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM 3
Chapter 1 5 Introduction to AirPort
5 About the AirPort Extreme Base Station
6 The AirPort Extreme Base Station at a Glance
7 AirPort Extreme Base Station Ports
8 About the AirPort Software
Chapter 2 9 Setting Up Your AirPort Extreme Base Station
10 Mounting the AirPort Extreme Base Station on a Wall
12 Setup Overview
Chapter 3 15 Using Your AirPort Extreme Base Station
15 Configuring the Base Station
16 Monitoring the AirPort Extreme Base Station’s Internet Connection Status
17 Monitoring AirPort Extreme Base Station Communication
17 Connecting to the Internet Via the AirPort Network
18 Connecting Additional Base Stations to Your AirPort Network
18 Connecting Multiple Base Stations to Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)
18 Extending the Range of Your AirPort Network
19 Controlling the Range of Your AirPort Network
19 More Information About AirPort
Chapter 4 21 Basic Network Designs
22 Setting Up a Home Office Network
23 Setting Up a Network at School
25 Connecting AirPort Base Stations Using Power Over Ethernet (PoE)
Chapter 5 27 Troubleshooting
Appendix 31 AirPort Extreme Base Station Specifications
33 Communications Regulation Information
LL2870.book Page 3 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM4 Contents
LL2870.book Page 4 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM1
1 Introduction to AirPort
AirPort is a simple and fast way to access the Internet
from anywhere in your home, classroom, or office
without cables, additional phone lines, or complicated
AirPort is a wireless local area network (WLAN) technology that provides highperformance wireless communication between multiple computers and the Internet.
When you connect to the Internet using AirPort, you can share a single Internet
connection with many computers at the same time and share files among them.
To use AirPort to access the Internet, you may need an account with an Internet service
provider (fees may apply) and a way to access the Internet—either through a DSL or
cable modem, or an Ethernet network. If your base station has an internal modem, and
you have a PPP dial-up connection with an ISP, you can connect to the Internet using
the base station’s internal modem.
Note: This manual includes information for setting up the AirPort Extreme Base Station
using Mac OS X and Windows XP and Windows 2000. The screenshots and general
instructions are based on Mac OS X. For more detailed Windows XP and Windows 2000
instructions, see AirPort Help in the AirPort Admin Utility on computers using Windows.
About the AirPort Extreme Base Station
The AirPort Extreme Base Station establishes a wired connection to the Internet or a
network and wireless connections to wireless client computers. Once the base station is
connected to the network, all wireless client computers can connect to the Internet by
joining the AirPort network. Computers connected to the AirPort network by Ethernet
can also share the base station’s Internet connection. The base station manages
communications between the Internet and the wireless client computers.
LL2870.book Page 5 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM6 Chapter 1 Introduction to AirPort
The AirPort Extreme Base Station has the following ports:
• 10/100Base-T Ethernet WAN ( ) port for connecting a DSL or cable modem, or for
connecting to an existing Ethernet network with Internet access
• 10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN (G) port for high-speed connection to local printers and
Ethernet computers that don’t have Internet access
• USB port ( ) for connecting a printer to the base station
Some models of the base station also have a built-in 56K modem port (W) for dial-up
Internet access with a standard telephone line.
Some models of the base station can also receive power over Ethernet (PoE). When the
base station Ethernet WAN port is connected to IEEE 802.3af-compliant Power Sourcing
Equipment (PSE), such as a line-powered Ethernet switch or hub, with a CAT 5 Ethernet
cable, it receives power over the Ethernet cable.
The AirPort Extreme Base Station at a Glance
LL2870.book Page 6 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 1 Introduction to AirPort 7
AirPort Extreme Base Station Ports
Your AirPort Extreme Base Station may have six ports, depending on which model you
Note: If this AirPort Extreme Base Station did not come with a power adapter and you
don’t plan to use PoE, you can purchase a base station power adapter from your Appleauthorized dealer, Apple retail stores, or the Apple Store at www.apple.com/store.
If the base station supports PoE, it and its mounting bracket conform to UL Standard
2043, “Fire Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release for Discrete Products and Their
Accessories Installed in Air-Handling Spaces,” for placement in the air-handling space
above suspended ceilings. Using PoE allows you to install a base station in places away
from a standard electrical outlet. For more information about using PoE, see the
document “Designing AirPort Extreme Networks,” or “AirPort Networks for Windows,”
that came on the AirPort CD. The documents are also available at
To determine if your base station supports PoE, check the label on the bottom of the
Note: To use the base station in an air-handling space above suspended ceilings, you
must connect the Ethernet WAN port to an 802.3af-compliant PSE with a plenum-rated
Ethernet cable. You cannot use the AC power adapter to power a base station installed
in an air-handling space. If you connect an external antenna to a base station mounted
in an air-handling space, make sure it is plenum-rated. See the documentation that
came with the antenna.
10/100Base-T Ethernet WAN port
Connect a DSL or cable modem, or connect to an existing Ethernet network with
G 10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN port
Connect local Ethernet computers (computers without Internet access) and printers, or other Ethernet
devices, such as a hub or a switch.
W Internal modem port (on some models)
Connect one end of a phone cord to the internal modem port and the other end to a standard
Universal Serial Bus (USB) printer port
Connect a USB printer so that computers connected to the AirPort network can share the printer.
External antenna port
Connect an Apple-certified external antenna to extend the range of the wireless network.
¯ Power adapter port
Connect one end of the AirPort Extreme Base Station power adapter to the port and the other end
to an electrical outlet.
You can purchase a security cable and lock to secure your AirPort Extreme Base Station.
LL2870.book Page 7 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM8 Chapter 1 Introduction to AirPort
About the AirPort Software
To extend the range of your network, you can use AirPort Admin Utility to set up
multiple base stations in your network connected to one another wirelessly, known as
a Wireless Distribution System (WDS), or over Ethernet. You can also extend the range
of your wireless network by connecting an Apple-certified external antenna to the
If you connect a USB printer to the base station, computers on the AirPort network can
print to it by selecting the printer via Rendezvous in Printer Setup Utility, located in
Applications/Utilities on a Macintosh. You must use Mac OS X v10.2.3 or later, or
Windows XP or Windows 2000, to print to a USB printer via an AirPort Extreme Base
Station. For information about setting up a computer using Windows XP or Windows
2000, see the document “AirPort Networks for Windows,” that came on the AirPort CD.
Note: If the base station is set up to receive power over the Ethernet WAN port, do not
connect a printer to the USB port. You cannot print to a USB printer if the base station
is powered over Ethernet.
AirPort Setup Assistant
Use the AirPort Setup Assistant to configure the AirPort Extreme Base Station and to set
up your computer to use AirPort. The Assistant is located in Applications/Utilities on a
computer using Mac OS X.
AirPort Admin Utility
AirPort Admin Utility is an advanced tool for setting up and managing the AirPort
Extreme Base Station. Use AirPort Admin Utility to adjust network, routing, and security
settings and other advanced options. AirPort Admin Utility is located in Applications/
Utilities on a computer using Mac OS X, and in Start > All Programs > AirPort on a
computer using Windows XP or Windows 2000.
AirPort status menu in the menu bar
Use the AirPort status menu to switch quickly between AirPort networks, monitor the
signal quality of the current network, create a Computer-to-Computer network, and
turn AirPort on and off. The AirPort status menu in the menu bar is part of AirPort for
Max OS X.
If your base station supports Power over Ethernet, the following Mac OS X applications
are included on the AirPort Management Tools CD.
AirPort Management Utility
AirPort Management Utility allows network administrators to set up and manage
multiple base stations from a single location.
AirPort Client Monitor
The AirPort Client monitor application monitors the signal strength and transmit rate of
wireless client computers.
LL2870.book Page 8 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM2
2 Setting Up Your
AirPort Extreme Base Station
Use the information in this chapter to set up your
AirPort Extreme Base Station.
Before you set up the AirPort Extreme Base Station for Internet access, make sure that:
• You have a computer with an AirPort Card or an AirPort Extreme Card, or a
compatible Wi-Fi card installed in a computer using Windows XP or Windows 2000.
• Your computer has the latest version of the AirPort software installed.
For the latest information on AirPort software, check Software Update in System
Preferences or the following Apple websites:
• Apple AirPort website at www.apple.com/airportextreme
• Apple Support website at www.apple.com/support
• You have an account with an Internet service provider (fees may apply) or you have
Internet access through a network.
For more information on using AirPort with your Internet account, contact your
Internet service provider (ISP) or go to the Apple Service & Support website at
• You have a suitable location for your AirPort Extreme Base Station.
You can place your AirPort Extreme Base Station on a desk, bookcase, or other flat
surface, or you can mount it on a wall. Place your base station in the center of your
home or office, away from any source of interference or signal blockage, such as a
microwave oven or large metal appliances, and close to a power outlet.
If the base station supports PoE, it is suitable for use in environmental air-handling
spaces (in accordance with section 300.22(C) of the National Electrical Code and 12-010
of the Canadian Electrical Code), and capable of receiving power over Ethernet. You can
install it in a ceiling air-handling space, away from a power outlet. If you install the base
station in an air-handling space, you need to connect the Ethernet WAN port to
802.3af-compliant Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) with a plenum-rated Ethernet
cable. If you connect the base station power adapter to an outlet, the Ethernet WAN
port no longer receives power from a PSE.
LL2870.book Page 9 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM10 Chapter 2 Setting Up Your AirPort Extreme Base Station
If you use an Ethernet LAN for Internet access, such as in a school or office, connect the
Ethernet cable to the 10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN (G) port on the AirPort Extreme Base
Note: The “Distribute IP address” checkbox in the Network pane of AirPort Admin Utility
is deselected for AirPort Extreme Base Stations that support Power over Ethernet. By
default the base stations are set to be used as a bridge, rather than to distribute IP
addresses to AirPort clients. For more information on AirPort Admin Utility and using
the 10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN (G) port, see the document “Designing AirPort Extreme
Networks,” or “AirPort Networks for Windows,” located on the AirPort CD or at
You can use the AirPort Extreme Base Station to provide Internet access to non-AirPort
computers that are not otherwise connected to the Internet by connecting them to the
10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN (G) port on the AirPort Extreme Base Station. The base
station must be connected to the Internet by the 10/100Base-T Ethernet WAN ( ) port.
Mounting the AirPort Extreme Base Station on a Wall
You can use the mounting bracket provided with your AirPort Extreme Base Station to
mount the base station on a wall. Follow these steps:
1 Select a location close to power and a network connection.
If the base station is UL rated and certified for use in suspended ceilings and airhandling spaces, the base station can be mounted in a ceiling space, away from a
power outlet, and powered over Ethernet. If you mount the base station in an airhandling space, plug the base station into 802.3af-compliant Power Sourcing
Equipment with a plenum-rated Ethernet cable.
2 Screw the mounting bracket into a wall stud using the two screws that came with the
LL2870.book Page 10 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 2 Setting Up Your AirPort Extreme Base Station 11
3 Locate the two mounting bracket holes on the bottom of the base station.
4 Feed the cables through the mounting bracket and then connect them to the base
The base station is designed to mount with the ports on the top (Apple logo right side
up), with the cables passing behind it through the mounting bracket as shown.
Note: The mounting bracket has enough space for six cables (power, two Ethernet
cables, USB printer cable, a telephone cable, and external antenna cable). In most cases,
only two or three cables are used.
Mounting bracket holes
LL2870.book Page 11 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM5 Carefully insert the bottom two prongs on the mounting bracket into the mounting
bracket holes on the bottom of the base station. Clip the top prongs on the mounting
bracket around the bottom lip of the base station.
Once you’re ready, you can set up the AirPort Extreme Base Station in a few steps:
1 Plug the AirPort Extreme Base Station in to a power outlet and connect it to your
Internet networking interface.
2 Use the AirPort Setup Assistant on a Macintosh, or use AirPort Admin Utility on a
Windows XP or Windows 2000 computer.
Step 1: Connect the AirPort Extreme Base Station
1 Connect the power adapter to the AirPort Extreme Base Station power adapter port
and an electrical outlet.
Important: Use only the power adapter that came with your AirPort Extreme Base
Station. Adapters for other electronic devices may look similar, but they may damage
the base station.
The AirPort Extreme Base Station turns on when the power adapter is plugged into an
electrical outlet. There is no power switch.
When you plug in the base station, the status lights glow while the base station starts
up. Only the middle light glows when startup is complete. The startup process takes
about 30 seconds. See “Monitoring AirPort Extreme Base Station Communication” on
page 17 for a complete explanation of the lights on the AirPort Extreme Base Station.
2 Connect the AirPort Extreme Base Station to your DSL or cable modem, Ethernet
network, or, if your base station has an internal modem, a standard phone line.
• If you have an Internet account that uses a device such as a DSL or cable modem,
connect the device to the 10/100Base-T Ethernet WAN ( ) port on the AirPort
Extreme Base Station.
• If you use an Ethernet LAN for Internet access, such as in a school or office, connect
the Ethernet cable to the 10/100Base-T Ethernet LAN (G) port on the AirPort
Extreme Base Station.
• If you use a standard modem and analog telephone line (the type of telephone line
found in most residences) to access the Internet, connect one end of the phone cord
to the internal modem (W) port and the other end to your telephone jack.
Important: Do not connect the base station to a digital telephone line, such as a PBX
LL2870.book Page 12 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 2 Setting Up Your AirPort Extreme Base Station 13
If your base station has a built-in modem and you connect to the Internet using it, the
base station can provide Internet access to computers connected to both Ethernet
ports (WAN and LAN G).
Step 2: Use the AirPort Setup Assistant on a Macintosh computer
The AirPort Setup Assistant:
• Sets up your AirPort network
• Configures your computer to access the AirPort network created by the AirPort
Extreme Base Station
Note: You can’t use the AirPort Setup Assistant to set up some advanced features. Use
AirPort Admin Utility, located in Applications/Utilities.
To use the AirPort Setup Assistant to configure the AirPort Extreme
1 Make sure you have plugged in the base station and the middle light is on.
2 Open the AirPort Setup Assistant (in Applications/Utilities on a Mac, and follow the
Use AirPort Admin Utility on a Windows XP or Windows 2000 computer
See the document “AirPort Networks for Windows” that came on the AirPort CD for
detailed instructions for setting up your AirPort Extreme Base Station using AirPort
LL2870.book Page 13 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMLL2870.book Page 14 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM3
3 Using Your
AirPort Extreme Base Station
The information in this chapter will help you understand
how to use your base station and how to get the most
from your AirPort network.
Use the information provided in this chapter to:
• Configure your base station’s Internet connection
• Use AirPort Admin Utility to modify advanced base station settings
• Monitor your AirPort Extreme Base Station status
• Connect to and disconnect from the AirPort network
• Connect additional base stations to your AirPort network
• Extend the range of your AirPort network
Configuring the Base Station
The AirPort Setup Assistant provides complete configuration options for most AirPort
For advanced settings, you can use AirPort Admin Utility (in Applications/Utilities) to
configure your AirPort Extreme Base Station. You can use AirPort Admin Utility to do
• Configure your AirPort network, including changing the network name and
password and specifying whether users need a password to join your network.
• Change the AirPort Extreme Base Station name and password.
• Set advanced security settings, like Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA).
• Enter the TCP/IP settings for your AirPort Extreme Base Station.
• Set up the way Internet access is provided to computers on the AirPort network.
• Set up multiple base stations on a single AirPort network.
Note: If your base station does not support PoE, by default it is set to use the Internet
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Network Address Translation (NAT) to
share a single IP address. If your base station supports PoE, by default it is set up as a
bridge, and the “Distribute IP address” checkbox is deselected in the Network pane of
AirPort Admin Utility.
LL2870.book Page 15 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM16 Chapter 3 Using Your AirPort Extreme Base Station
Important: If you use AirPort Admin Utility instead of the AirPort Setup Assistant to
configure your base station for the first time, you may be asked for a password. The
initial password for the AirPort Extreme Base Station is public.
See the document “Designing AirPort Extreme Networks,” or “AirPort Networks for
Windows,” located on the AirPort CD and at www.apple.com/airportextreme, for indepth information on designing and setting up your AirPort network using the AirPort
Setup Assistant and AirPort Admin Utility.
If you are setting up larger AirPort Extreme networks with base stations that support
PoE, you can also use AirPort Management Utility and AirPort Client Monitor (on the
Management Tools CD) to set up and manage multiple base stations. See the
document “Managing AirPort Extreme Networks,” located on the Management Tools
CD, and at www.apple.com/airportextreme, for information and instructions for setting
up, managing, and monitoring larger AirPort Extreme networks.
Monitoring the AirPort Extreme Base Station’s
Internet Connection Status
Use the Internet Connect application, located in the Applications folder on a
Macintosh, to monitor the wireless signal level and status of your AirPort Extreme Base
Station’s Internet connection, as shown below.
Use the Wireless Connection Status menu on a Windows XP or Windows 2000
computer to monitor the wireless signal level.
LL2870.book Page 16 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 3 Using Your AirPort Extreme Base Station 17
Monitoring AirPort Extreme Base Station Communication
The following table explains the AirPort Extreme Base Station indicator lights.
For more information about the base station’s indicator lights, see “Designing AirPort
Extreme Networks,” or AirPort Networks for Windows,” located on the AirPort CD, or at
Connecting to the Internet Via the AirPort Network
If your computer is connected to an AirPort network that has continuous Internet
access via Ethernet, DSL, or a cable modem, you may already be connected to the
Internet and can open and use any application that requires an Internet connection,
such as a web browser or email application. If you are not connected, open Internet
Connect, located in the Applications folder, click AirPort in the toolbar, and click
Light number Indicator Status
1 Flashing The AirPort Extreme Base Station is communicating via AirPort.
2 Steady glow The AirPort Extreme Base Station is receiving power and is in
normal operating mode.
3 Flashing The AirPort Extreme Base Station is communicating via the LAN
1 2 3
LL2870.book Page 17 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM18 Chapter 3 Using Your AirPort Extreme Base Station
Connecting Additional Base Stations to Your
You can connect additional AirPort Extreme Base Stations to extend the range of your
wireless network. You can connect the base stations wirelessly or using Ethernet. A
network with base stations connected using Ethernet is known as a roaming network.
Connecting base stations wirelessly creates what is known as a Wireless Distribution
System (WDS). See the document “Designing AirPort Extreme Networks,” or “AirPort
Networks for Windows” for more information about setting up a roaming network or
extending your network with WDS.
Connecting Multiple Base Stations to Power Sourcing
If your base stations support PoE, you can connect multiple base stations to an 802.3afcompliant Ethernet device (known as a PSE), and send power and a network or Internet
connection over category 5 Ethernet cables. Receiving power over the base station’s
Ethernet connection eliminates extra cables and the need to locate the base station
near a power outlet.
Base stations that support PoE meet flammability classification standards and are UL
listed for use above suspended ceilings and in air-handling spaces. The US National
Electric Code (NEC) and the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) require that you use
plenum-rated Ethernet cables in air-handling spaces.
Extending the Range of Your AirPort Network
In addition to adding base stations to your network, you can attach an Apple-certified
external antenna to the base station to extend your network’s range. External antennas
are available from your Apple-authorized dealer, Apple retail stores, or the Apple Store
External antennas may not be permitted in some regions outside the US.
If your base station supports PoE and is mounted in an air-handling space and receives
power over the Ethernet WAN port, do not connect an external antenna unless it is
plenum-rated and conforms to UL Standard 2043.
Note: Before connecting or disconnecting an external antenna, you must unplug the
base station’s power adapter, connect or disconnect the antenna, and then plug the
base station back in to its power source.
LL2870.book Page 18 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 3 Using Your AirPort Extreme Base Station 19
Controlling the Range of Your AirPort Network
You can also shorten the range of your AirPort network by adjusting the power
transmitted to the radio in the base station. This might be useful if you want to control
access to the network by restricting the range to a single room, for example.
To shorten the range of your AirPort network:
1 Open AirPort Admin Utility, in Applications/Utilities on a Macintosh and in Start > All
Programs > AirPort on a Windows XP or Windows 2000 computer.
2 Select your base station and click Configure.
3 On a Macintosh, click Wireless Options. On a Windows XP or Windows 2000 computer,
4 Choose a percentage from the Transmitter Power slider.
More Information About AirPort
You can find more information about AirPort in the following locations:
• AirPort Help
Look in AirPort Help for information on setting up an AirPort network, using an
AirPort Base Station, editing base station settings, avoiding sources of interference,
locating additional information on the Internet, and more. Choose Help > Mac Help,
and then choose Library > AirPort Help.
• “Designing AirPort Extreme Networks”
For in-depth information on configuring AirPort networks, see the “Designing AirPort
Extreme Networks” document, located at www.apple.com/airportextreme.
• “Managing AirPort Extreme Networks”
For in-depth information on setting up and managing multiple base stations in
AirPort networks, see the “Managing AirPort Extreme Networks” document, located at
• “AirPort Networks for Windows”
For in-depth information on configuring AirPort networks from a Microsoft Windows
computer, see the “AirPort Networks for Windows” document, located at
• AirPort website
• Apple Support website
LL2870.book Page 19 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMLL2870.book Page 20 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM4
4 Basic Network Designs
You can set up your AirPort Extreme Base Station just
about anywhere and use it for Internet access and
You need only a connection to the Internet and a computer with wireless capabilities.
You can even add non-wireless computers to the network by connecting them to the
base station through the built-in Ethernet LAN (G) port. Connect a USB printer to the
base station, and all the computers on the network using Mac OS X v10.2.3 or later,
both wired and wireless, can share the printer.
If you want to extend the range of your AirPort network, connect an Apple-certified
external antenna to the base station antenna port. Apple-certified external antennas
for the AirPort Extreme Base Station are available from your Apple-authorized dealer,
Apple retail stores, or the Apple Store at store.apple.com.
Note: External antennas may not be permitted in some regions. Do not connect an
external antenna to a base station that supports PoE and is mounted in the air space
above a ceiling.
This chapter explains how to set up your base station:
• In your home or small office with an Ethernet or dial-up connection to the Internet
• In school, where you might have both a broadband and an Ethernet connection
• In a business or school using Power over Ethernet
LL2870.book Page 21 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM22 Chapter 4 Basic Network Designs
Setting Up a Home Office Network
If you are setting up an AirPort network in your home or small office and you have a
broadband DSL or cable modem connection to the Internet, and an existing Ethernet
network, you may need the following items:
• An AirPort Extreme Base Station or multiple base stations
• A DSL or cable modem with Internet access
• AirPort- or other wireless-equipped computers
• An optional Ethernet network
The following illustration is an example of an AirPort network in an office. The AirPort
Extreme Base station is connected by the Ethernet WAN ( ) port to the DSL or cable
modem (if your base station came with a built-in modem, you can use it to connect).
The base station shares its Internet connection with the AirPort-equipped computers
wirelessly and with computers connected to the Ethernet LAN (G) port.
For more information on AirPort Extreme network designs, see “Designing AirPort
Extreme Networks,” located at www.apple.com/airport. For information on managing
larger AirPort Extreme networks, see “Managing AirPort Extreme Networks,” located at
To the Internet To Ethernet (LAN) To USB printer Power adapter
LL2870.book Page 22 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 4 Basic Network Designs 23
Setting Up a Network at School
If you are setting up a network at school, and have a broadband DSL or cable modem
connection to the Internet, and an existing Ethernet network, you may need the
• An AirPort Extreme Base Station or multiple base stations
• A DSL or cable modem with Internet access
• AirPort- or other wireless-equipped computers
• An optional Apple-certified external antenna
The following illustration is an example of an AirPort network in a school with multiple
rooms or buildings. The AirPort Extreme Base Stations are set up as a Wireless
Distribution System (WDS), with the main base station connected by the Ethernet WAN
( ) port to the DSL or cable modem. The main base station shares its Internet
connection with the wireless computers in the room, or with computers connected to
the main base station’s Ethernet LAN (G) port. The main base station also shares the
Internet connection with the relay base station in the other room or building. The relay
base station transfers the Internet connection to a remote base station set up in a third
building. The relay and remote base stations can be set up to share the Internet
connection with wireless computers in the room, or computers connected to the base
station’s Ethernet LAN (G) port.
LL2870.book Page 23 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM24 Chapter 4 Basic Network Designs
To the Internet To Ethernet (LAN) Power adapter To USB printer
LL2870.book Page 24 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 4 Basic Network Designs 25
Connecting AirPort Base Stations Using
Power Over Ethernet (PoE)
You can connect multiple base stations that support PoE to 802.3af-compliant Power
Sourcing Equipment (PSE), and send power and a network or Internet connection over
Ethernet cables. Receiving power over the Ethernet connection eliminates extra cables
and the need to locate the base station near a power outlet.
The following illustration is an example of an AirPort network in a business or school
with multiple rooms or buildings. Plenum-rated Ethernet cables connect to the
Ethernet WAN ( ) ports on the base stations and to an 802.3af-compliant PSE. The
base stations are mounted in the ceiling air-handling space, and are secure and out
When the base stations receive power and a network connection over the WAN port,
the USB port is disabled. You can connect the Ethernet LAN port to a computer or
other Ethernet device, but power does not travel to the Ethernet LAN port.
Important: Do not connect an external antenna to a base station mounted in an airhandling space above a suspended ceiling unless it is plenum-rated and conforms to
UL Standard 2043.
LL2870.book Page 25 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM26 Chapter 4 Basic Network Designs
To 802.3af-compliant PSE
Base stations mounted
in air-handling space
Power Sourcing Equipment
(PSE) connected to a network
Base stations mounted
in air-handling space
LL2870.book Page 26 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM5
Use the information in this chapter if you are having
trouble setting up your AirPort Extreme Base Station.
If the AirPort Setup Assistant can’t detect the proper AirPort hardware
Make sure that the computer you are using has an AirPort Card or an AirPort Extreme
Card installed. If you recently installed the card, shut down your computer and make
sure the card is properly installed. Make sure that the AirPort antenna cable is securely
connected to the card (you should hear a click when the antenna is connected
securely). Make sure that the other end of the card is firmly inserted into the connector
in the AirPort Card slot.
If you forget your AirPort network or base station password
You can clear the AirPort network or base station password by resetting the base
station. Follow these steps:
1 On a Mac, open Network preferences. Choose AirPort from the Show pop-up menu and
choose Using DHCP from the Configure pop-up menu. On a computer using Windows
XP or Windows 2000, open Control Panel from the Start menu, right-click Wireless
Network Connection and choose Properties. Click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click
Properties. Make sure “Obtain an IP address automatically” is selected.
2 Press and hold the reset button for one full second.
LL2870.book Page 27 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM28 Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
The middle light flashes, indicating that the base station is in reset mode. The base
station remains in reset mode for five minutes. If you do not make your changes within
five minutes of pressing the reset button, you must reset it again.
3 Use the AirPort status menu in the menu bar to select the network created by the base
station (the network name does not change).
4 Open AirPort Admin Utility (in Applications/Utilities on a Mac, and in Start > All
Programs > AirPort on a Windows computer).
5 Select your base station and click Configure.
6 In the dialog that appears, make the following changes:
• Reset the AirPort Extreme Base Station password.
• Turn encryption on to activate password protection for your AirPort network. If you
turn on encryption, enter a new password for your AirPort network.
7 Click OK.
The base station restarts to load the new settings.
Note: While the base station is in reset mode, access control and RADIUS settings are
temporarily interrupted. All of the base station settings will be available after the base
station has restarted.
If your base station isn’t responding
Try unplugging the base station and plugging it back in to a power outlet. If power is
supplied over Ethernet, make sure the cables are properly connected and the PSE is
plugged in and working correctly.
If your base station stops responding completely, you may need to reset it to the
factory default settings. This erases all of the settings you’ve made and resets them to
the settings that came with the base station.
To return the base station to the factory settings:
Press and hold the reset button for five full seconds.
The base station restarts with the following settings:
• The base station receives its IP address using DHCP.
• The network name reverts to Apple Network XXXXXX (where X is a letter or number).
• The base station password returns to public.
Important: Resetting the base station to factory defaults erases all the settings you
have entered for the base station, including access control and RADIUS settings.
LL2870.book Page 28 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMChapter 5 Troubleshooting 29
If you move your AirPort Extreme Base Station to a location on your network
with a different subnet and lose communication with the base station
Your AirPort Extreme Base Station may have an invalid IP address.
1 Make sure that your computer is set to access the network from the new location
(where you moved the AirPort Extreme Base Station) and that it is in range of the
2 Make sure that the computer is set to use AirPort.
3 Use the AirPort Setup Assistant to reconfigure the base station.
Important: You cannot use the AirPort Setup Assistant if you have used AirPort Admin
Utility to turn off Internet sharing for your base station. If Internet sharing is turned off,
you need to reset your base station and enter a new IP address. See “If you forget your
AirPort network or base station password” on page 27.
If your printer isn’t responding
If you connected a printer to the USB port on the base station and the computers on
the AirPort network can’t print, try doing the following:
1 Make sure the printer is plugged in and turned on.
2 Make sure the cables are securely connected to the printer and to the base station’s
3 Make sure the printer is selected in the Printer List on client computers. To do this:
a Open Printer Setup Utility, located in Applications/Utilities.
b If the printer is not in the list, click Add.
c Choose Rendezvous from the pop-up menu.
d Select the printer and click Add.
Note: If the base station is set up to receive power over Ethernet, the USB port is
disabled. You cannot print to a USB printer connected to the USB port if the base
station is powered over Ethernet.
LL2870.book Page 29 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMLL2870.book Page 30 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM 31
AirPort Extreme Base Station
• Wireless Data Rate: Up to 54 megabits per second (Mbps)
• Range: Up to 150 feet (45 meters) in typical use (varies with building)
• Frequency Band: 2.4 gigahertz (GHz)
• Radio Output Power: 15 dBm (nominal)
• Standards: Compliant with 802.11 HR Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
11 Mbps standard, 802.11 DSSS 1 and 2 Mbps standard, and 802.11g specification
• RJ-45 Ethernet WAN connector for built-in 10/100Base-T ( ). The WAN port may
accept power as a Class 0 IEEE 802.3af-compliant Powered Device (PD).
• RJ-45 Ethernet LAN connector for built-in 10/100Base-T (G)
• Universal Serial Bus (USB) printing ( )
• Operating Temperature: 32° F to 95° F (0° C to 35° C)
• Storage Temperature: –13° F to 140° F (–25° C to 60° C)
• Relative Humidity (Operational): 20% to 80% relative humidity
• Relative Humidity (Storage): 10% to 90% relative humidity, noncondensing
• Operating Altitude: 0 to 10,000 feet (0 to 3048 m)
• Maximum Storage Altitude: 15,000 feet (4572 m)
Size and Weight
• Diameter: 6.9 inches (175 mm)
• Height: 3.2 inches (80 mm)
• Weight: 1.25 pounds (565 grams) not including the mounting bracket
LL2870.book Page 31 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM32 Appendix AirPort Extreme Base Station Specifications
Base Station LED Sequences
The following table explains the base station’s light sequences and what they indicate.
Left Center Right Status/description
Off Off Off The base station is unplugged or has failed.
If the base station is plugged in and all
lights are off, contact your Apple-authorized
On On On The base station is in self-check mode.
Rapid sequenced flashing, right-to-left The base station is starting up.
Slowly flashing Slowly flashing Slowly flashing The base station has failed the power-on
self-test. Contact your Apple-authorized
Off Flashing slowly Off The base station is being reset. The network
and base station passwords are reset to
Off Flashing three
Off The base station is being reset, and all
settings are returned to their factory
Off/Flashing On Off/Flashing Left and right flashing indicates normal
network activity. The left LED flashing
indicates AirPort wireless activity and the
right LED flashing indicates Ethernet or
LL2870.book Page 32 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM 33
Communications Regulation Information
FCC Declaration of Conformity
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules.
Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation. See instructions if
interference to radio or television reception
Radio and Television Interference
The equipment described in this manual generates,
uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy. If it is
not installed and used properly—that is, in strict
accordance with Apple’s instructions—it may cause
interference with radio and television reception.
This equipment has been tested and found to
comply with the limits for a Class B digital device in
accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC
rules. These specifications are designed to provide
reasonable protection against such interference in a
residential installation. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a
You can determine whether your computer system is
causing interference by turning it off. If the
interference stops, it was probably caused by the
computer or one of the peripheral devices.
If your computer system does cause interference to
radio or television reception, try to correct the
interference by using one or more of the following
• Turn the television or radio antenna until the
• Move the computer to one side or the other of the
television or radio.
• Move the computer farther away from the
television or radio.
• Plug the computer into an outlet that is on a
different circuit from the television or radio. (That
is, make certain the computer and the television or
radio are on circuits controlled by different circuit
breakers or fuses.)
If necessary, consult an Apple-authorized service
provider or Apple. See the service and support
information that came with your Apple product. Or,
consult an experienced radio/television technician
for additional suggestions.
Important: Changes or modifications to this product
not authorized by Apple Computer, Inc., could void
the FCC Certification and negate your authority to
operate the product.
This product was tested for FCC compliance under
conditions that included the use of Apple peripheral
devices and Apple shielded cables and connectors
between system components. It is important that
you use Apple peripheral devices and shielded
cables and connectors between system components
to reduce the possibility of causing interference to
radios, television sets, and other electronic devices.
You can obtain Apple peripheral devices and the
proper shielded cables and connectors through an
Apple-authorized dealer. For non-Apple peripheral
devices, contact the manufacturer or dealer for
Responsible party (contact for FCC matters only):
Apple Computer, Inc., Product Compliance,
1 Infinite Loop M/S 26-A, Cupertino, CA 95014-2084,
Use in Air-Handling Spaces
This device has been designed and tested for use in
environmental air handling spaces, in accordance
with Section 300.22(C) of the National Electrical
Code, and Sections 2-128, 12-010(3), and 12-100 of
the Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, C22.1.
Peut étre utilisé dans des gaines transportant de l’air
traité, coonformément à la section 300.22(C) du
National Electrical Code et aux articles 2-128, 12-
010(3) et 12-100 du Code Canadien de l’électricité,
Premiére partie C22.1.
Industry Canada Statement
This Class B device meets all requirements of the
Canadian interference-causing equipment
Cet appareil numérique de la Class B respecte toutes
les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur
LL2870.book Page 33 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM34
VCCI Class B Statement
Europe — EU Declaration of Conformity
Complies with European Directives
72/23/EEC, 89/336/EEC, 1999/5/EC
© 2004 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
Apple, the Apple logo, AirPort, AppleTalk, Mac, and Mac OS
are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the
U.S. and other countries. Rendezvous is a trademark of
Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCare and AppleStore are service
marks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and
other countries. Wi-Fi is a registered certification mark, and
Wi-Fi Protected Access is a certification mark of the Wi-Fi
LL2870.book Page 34 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMLL2870.book Page 35 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PMwww.apple.com/airport
Printed in XXXX
LL2870.book Page 36 Thursday, October 28, 2004 12:45 PM
User ManualK Apple Inc.
Copyright © 2005 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
Your rights to the software are governed by the
accompanying software license agreement. The owner
or authorized user of a valid copy of Final Cut Studio
software may reproduce this publication for the purpose
of learning to use such software. No part of this
publication may be reproduced or transmitted for
commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this
publication or for providing paid for support services.
The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered
in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard”
Apple logo (Shift-Option-K) for commercial purposes
without the prior written consent of Apple may
constitute trademark infringement and unfair
competition in violation of federal and state laws.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not
responsible for printing or clerical errors.
Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions
and updates to its system software, applications, and
Internet sites, images shown in this book may be slightly
different from what you see on your screen.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014–2084
Apple, the Apple logo, AppleWorks, Final Cut,
Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Studio, FireWire, Keynote,
LiveType, Mac, Macintosh, and QuickTime are trademarks
of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
Finder is a trademark of Apple Inc. AppleCare is a
service mark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and
Helvetica is a registered trademark of Heidelberger
Druckmaschinen AG, available from Linotype
Other company and product names mentioned herein
are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention
of third-party products is for informational purposes
only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a
recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with
regard to the performance or use of these products. 3
Preface 7 An Introduction to LiveType
7 How Does Titling Work?
8 A Realm of Creative Possibilities
9 Workflow for Creating Titles
10 About This Manual
10 LiveType Onscreen User Manual
11 Apple Websites
Chapter 1 13 The LiveType Interface
25 Media Browser
28 LiveType Media Files
Chapter 2 31 Setting Up a Project
33 Starting a New Project and Setting Defaults
34 Setting Project Properties
Chapter 3 41 Adding a Background
41 Setting a Background Color
42 Adding a Background Texture
43 Importing a Background Movie or Still Image
45 Considerations for Rendering the Background
Chapter 4 47 Working With Tracks
48 Positioning Tracks in the Canvas
49 Creating Angles and Curves
51 Linking Endpoints
52 Adding, Copying, and Deleting Tracks
53 Working With Tracks in the Timeline4 Contents
Chapter 5 57 Working With Text
57 Inserting Text
60 Adjusting the Timing of LiveFonts
62 Formatting Text
68 Enhancing Text With Styles
72 Creating a Matte
77 Modifying Individual Characters
78 Disabling Fonts in Mac OS X
Chapter 6 79 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
80 Working With LiveType Objects
81 Working With LiveType Textures
82 Importing Graphics, Images, and Movies
83 Transforming Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
Chapter 7 87 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
88 Preset Effects
88 Applying Preset Effects
90 Adjusting the Timing of an Effect
93 Changing the Order of Effects
93 Duplicating Effects and Tracks
93 Modifying a Preset Effect
103 Creating a New Effect From Scratch
Chapter 8 109 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie
109 Previewing Your Work
112 Optimizing Preview Performance
113 Rendering, Saving, and Exporting Your Titling Movie
Chapter 9 117 Advanced Design Techniques
117 Words Within Words
119 Warping Shadows and Glows
121 Track Curves
123 Creative Use of Special Characters
126 LiveFonts and Layers
128 Creating Scrolls and Crawls
UP01103TOC.fm Page 4 Monday, March 7, 2005 7:23 PMContents 5
Appendix A 131 Solutions to Common Problems and Customer Support
131 Frequently Asked Questions
133 Apple Applications Page for Pro Apps Developers
134 Calling AppleCare Support
Appendix B 135 Creating and Editing EffectScripts
135 Default Timing
140 Sample EffectScripts
UP01103TOC.fm Page 5 Monday, March 7, 2005 7:23 PMUP01103TOC.fm Page 6 Monday, March 7, 2005 5:05 PM 7
An Introduction to LiveType
Welcome to LiveType, a special-effects titling application
that’s powerful, easy to use, and completely versatile—
whether you’re creating movie titles and credits,
broadcast ads, or web banners.
Producing dynamic video titles—titles that really pop—can be a painstaking process,
fraught with manual adjustments and keyframe stacks daunting even to experienced
animators. With LiveType, you can create phenomenal results, in the output format you
require, with a fraction of the effort.
How Does Titling Work?
Traditionally, titling was the term for adding text to film. The evolution of digital
graphics and video technologies has expanded the definition, which now includes just
about any combination of text and images you want to add to a movie. Titling is the
process of creating a digital overlay, which is added to edited footage in your nonlinear
editor (NLE), or compositing program. LiveType is the design studio where you
generate titles to import into Final Cut Pro.
Alpha channel technology is the basis of titling. Most compositing and animation
programs allow you to create art with an alpha channel. In addition, most NLEs use
alpha channels they detect in an image or movie to properly lay the element over video.
An alpha channel represents eight bits of grayscale pixel information in a 32-bit file. The
eight grayscale bits determine which portions of the image to superimpose over other
layers. White alpha-channel pixels make the superimposed image completely opaque,
while black pixels make the overlay completely transparent, or invisible. Gray levels
represent varying levels of opacity.
LiveType automatically creates an alpha channel for your project when you render it
with a transparent background.8 Preface An Introduction to LiveType
A Realm of Creative Possibilities
LiveType has revolutionized titling in two major ways. First, it introduced 32-bit
LiveFonts, a new approach to text animation in which every character of a font is a
separate, animated movie. Second, LiveType handles effects and animation with greater
ease than any other titling application.
Animated Fonts, Objects, and Textures
Three types of animated media are included in LiveType:
Â LiveType objects are animated graphics.
Â LiveType textures are moving images used to fill backgrounds, text, or objects.
Â LiveFonts are complete, animated character sets.
All of these elements move inherently, even before you apply motion paths and special
effects to them.
LiveType comes with dozens of LiveFonts and hundreds of objects and textures. What’s
more, you can create your own animated fonts using the LiveType FontMaker utility,
building characters using virtually any graphical object—from 3D animations and
images created in Photoshop to video clips—and apply effects to them, just as you
would to words.
Effects in LiveType are handled as separate entities—“packages” encompassing
movement, transformation, and timing parameters—that can be applied to any
number of elements in the Canvas. You can take advantage of more than 100
customizable effects that come with LiveType, including fades, zooms, rotations, and
motion paths. Or you can create your own styles by adjusting existing effects or
building them from scratch.
From an animation standpoint, LiveType is easier to work with than other titling
applications, since one keyframe marker contains all the parameters for an element at a
point in time, eliminating the complexity of long keyframe stacks.
And powerful timing features allow you to control every aspect of your animation. In
addition to basic functions such as loop, speed, and duration, LiveType allows you to
sequence your effects. Sequencing lets you animate characters in a line of text
individually, with their own timing elements, so you’re not constrained to blocks of text
that fly around the screen as a unit.
Whether you’re combining prebuilt elements or generating all the pieces yourself, you
can create wholly original, eye-catching compositions with surprisingly little effort.Preface An Introduction to LiveType 9
Workflow for Creating Titles
Video production is typically approached in layers from back to front, starting with
shooting and editing the footage, then building in effects, then applying titles and
sound. Likewise, your approach to title creation should be loosely approached from
back to front. Of course, because the design process is fluid, there is no hard-and-fast
prescription, but the following steps give you a sense of what’s involved for a
Step 1: Configure the working environment
Â Set the output resolution, frame rate, and other project properties.
Â Set up the grid, guides, and rulers in the Canvas, according to your working
Step 2: Apply a background, if any
Step 3: Create elements (text or objects) in the Canvas, one by one
Â Position and shape a track for the element.
Â Add an element to the track.
Â Select a font.
Â Adjust attributes and apply styles to the element.
Step 4: Animate the elements
Â Define the movie duration.
Â Apply effects and adjust the timing.
Â Customize the animation with keyframe adjustments.
Step 5: Preview and fine-tune the movie
Step 6: Render the final movie for compositing into your video
Step 7: Export the movie to an alternative format, if needed
You may be able to save considerable time by taking advantage of LiveType
templates—project files provided with the software that offer many examples of titling
formats. One might suit your needs with few changes, or you may find that certain
elements within a template are useful, which you can copy into your own project. More
about templates can be found in Chapter 2, “Setting Up a Project,” on page 31.10 Preface An Introduction to LiveType
About This Manual
Because LiveType is a creative tool, documentation can only go so far in describing its
potential. This manual provides a detailed description of the LiveType interface,
features, and functionality, and introduces you to the built-in resources and templates
to give you a sense of the versatility of this product. In the end, you are limited only by
your own creative vision, and the way to push the limits of LiveType is to jump in and
This manual begins with a description of the interface, followed by a series of chapters
that explain the tasks you’ll need to perform, as well as advanced techniques.
Note: This user manual is written for people with a rudimentary understanding of film
or video production. Experienced users will be quite familiar with all such terminology
herein. Others will find that most terms are defined in context, and the glossary at the
end of this manual may be helpful as well.
LiveType Onscreen User Manual
The LiveType onscreen user manual allows you to access information directly onscreen
while you’re working in LiveType. To view the onscreen user manual, choose Help >
LiveType User Manual. The onscreen user manual is a fully hyperlinked version of the
user manual, enhanced with many features that make locating information quick
Â The home page provides quick access to various features, including Late-Breaking
News, the index, and the LiveType website.
Â A comprehensive bookmark list allows you to quickly choose what you want to see
and takes you there as soon as you click the link.
In addition to these navigational tools, the onscreen user manual gives you other
means to locate information quickly:
Â All cross-references in the text are linked. You can click any cross-reference and jump
immediately to that location. Then, you can use the navigation bar’s Back button to
return to where you were before you clicked the cross-reference.
Â The table of contents and index are also linked. If you click an entry in either of these
sections, you jump directly to that section of the user manual.
Â You can also use the Find dialog to search the text for specific words or a phrase.
LiveType Help also contains information about issues with third-party software and
known bugs. This information is found in the Late-Breaking News section of
LiveType Help.Preface An Introduction to LiveType 11
To access Late-Breaking News:
m Choose Help > Late-Breaking News.
Note: You must be connected to the Internet to download the Late-Breaking News file.
Additionally, LiveType Help contains a link to the Creating LiveFonts PDF file. This
document details the process of creating custom LiveFonts for use with LiveType.
To access the Creating LiveFonts PDF file:
m Choose Help > Creating LiveFonts.
There are a variety of discussion boards, forums, and educational resources related to
LiveType on the web.
For general information and updates, as well as the latest news on LiveType, go to:
Apple Service and Support Website
For software updates and answers to the most frequently asked questions for all Apple
products, including LiveType, go to:
You’ll also have access to product specifications, reference documentation, and Apple
and third-party product technical articles.
For LiveType support information, go to:
Other Apple Websites
Start at the Apple homepage to find the latest and greatest information about Apple
QuickTime is industry-standard technology for handling video, sound, animation,
graphics, text, music, and 360-degree virtual reality (VR) scenes. QuickTime provides a
high level of performance, compatibility, and quality for delivering digital video. Go to
the QuickTime website for information on the types of media supported, a tour of the
QuickTime interface, specifications, and more:
Â http://www.apple.com/quicktime12 Preface An Introduction to LiveType
FireWire is one of the fastest peripheral standards ever developed, which makes it great
for use with multimedia peripherals, such as video camcorders and the latest highspeed hard disk drives. Visit this website for information about FireWire technology and
available third-party FireWire products:
For information about seminars, events, and third-party tools used in web publishing,
design and print, music and audio, desktop movies, digital imaging, and the media arts,
For resources, stories, and information about projects developed by users in education
using Apple software, including LiveType, go to:
Go to the Apple Store to buy software, hardware, and accessories direct from Apple
and to find special promotions and deals that include third-party hardware and
1 The LiveType Interface
The LiveType interface consists of four primary
windows—the Canvas, the Inspector, the Media Browser,
and the Timeline.
Â Canvas: This is where projects take shape. You use it to position text and objects,
create motion paths, and view the results as you design.
Â Inspector: A toolbox of settings and parameters, including virtually every option for
building and customizing your titling creations.
Â Media Browser: This area provides access to all the fonts, textures, objects, and effects
you’ll use to create your titles.
Â Timeline: This is where you manage the frame-by-frame action of your titling
projects. Animation keyframes are created and adjusted in the Timeline, allowing you
to orchestrate the movement of your titling elements.
Canvas Inspector Media Browser
Timeline14 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
The four windows float freely, and can be moved and resized to suit your
To restore the default layout of LiveType:
m Choose Window > Apply Default Layout.
The Canvas is your creative working environment, reflecting the output dimensions you
configure in the Project Properties dialog. (See “Setting Project Properties” on page 34.)
Whether you are working in HDTV, NTSC, PAL, or any other format, the Canvas is
designed to help you lay out and view your titling project easily.
About the Canvas Interface
There are various interface elements and controls in the Canvas, outlined below.
When you first open LiveType, the default checkerboard pattern in the Canvas
represents a transparent background, allowing alpha channel titles to overlay video
footage when composited in a nonlinear editor (NLE) such as Final Cut Pro. You can set
the background as any combination of the following:
Â Solid color
Â Animated texture or object
Â Still image
Background (transparent) Action safe guidelines
Track, showing multiple
lines of text on one track
Zoom pop-up menu
Title safe guidelines
Transport controlsChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 15
Backgrounds often cover the entire Canvas. However, when used with the matte
feature in the Attributes tab of the Inspector, an element can appear to “punch
through” an underlying element to reveal the background color, image, or movie. See
“Creating a Matte” on page 72 for more about creating mattes.
The dark blue horizontal line that appears in the default Canvas is a track. Tracks are the
foundation of any LiveType composition. Every element of a project resides on a track.
Â The position of text and objects in the Canvas
Â The layering of elements
Â In some cases, the path taken by moving elements
Tracks have two endpoints, and can have any number of “control points,” which are
nodes that create angles and curves in the track. When more than one track is in the
Canvas, only the endpoints of the selected, or active, track are visible. This identification
is helpful when you’re applying attributes to a track.
Action Safe and Title Safe Guidelines
The green hairline boxes in the Canvas represent the “action safe” and “title safe” areas.
The action safe area, defined by the outer line, is the extent of the screen where the
image is readily visible, given the curvature of the cathode-ray tube (CRT). The title safe
area, represented by the inner line, is the boundary beyond which text is not easily read.
To turn the action safe and title safe guidelines off or on:
m Choose View > Title Safe.16 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
Canvas Zoom Pop-up Menu
At the bottom of the Canvas is a pop-up menu for changing the magnification of the
To change the Canvas zoom, do one of the following:
m Open the Canvas zoom pop-up menu at the bottom of the Canvas and choose one of
the magnification options.
m Choose Fit to Window from the Canvas Zoom pop-up menu, then resize the Canvas
window to a new magnification.
m Choose View > Zoom In or Zoom Out.
m With the Canvas active, use the Command-Z keyboard shortcut for Fit to Window.
m With the Canvas active, use the Command-+ or Command-– keyboard shortcut to
zoom in or out.
The transport controls allow you to generate a RAM preview of your project so you can
preview your titling movie right in the Canvas. When you click the Play button, LiveType
renders each frame into RAM memory. This feature is referred to as a RAM preview.
Play Next Frame
LoopChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 17
To render a RAM preview of your project in the Canvas:
1 Click the Play button (or press the Space bar when the Canvas or Timeline is active).
The preview renders each frame, then runs through the preview in real time.
2 Stop the preview by clicking anywhere in the Canvas.
The Play icon turns into a Pause icon when the RAM preview is playing. The Loop
button is a toggle that gives you the choice of a single run-through or repeating the
preview in a continuous loop.
See Chapter 8, “Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie,” on page 109 for
more about previewing your work.
Customizing the Canvas
Most Canvas settings can be customized from the View menu, allowing you to
configure guidelines and magnification, and choose which elements appear in the
Canvas. The grid, rulers, and guides are helpful for precisely aligning and positioning
elements in the Canvas.
To show the rulers or the grid:
m Choose View > Rulers.
m Choose View > Grid.
You can set the number of pixels between each grid line in the Project Properties dialog.
horizontal guides18 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
To customize the grid:
1 Choose Edit > Project Properties.
2 In the Ruler and Grid Settings area at the bottom, enter a new value in the Grid Width
To add a guide to the Canvas:
m Click inside one of the rulers to insert a guide marked by its horizontal or vertical
To add crosshairs to the Canvas:
m Click inside one of the rulers and drag the pointer onto the Canvas.
To remove guides from the Canvas, do one of the following:
m Drag guide markers off either end of the ruler.
m Choose View > Clear Guides, which removes all guides.
You can isolate a single track and display all other elements as bounding boxes—
rectangles that roughly show the size, position, and orientation of an element. This
option is useful for cleaning up the Canvas as you work on a single track, and it saves
preview-rendering time, because only one item of your composition is being rendered.
Guide marker showing
Crosshair guideChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 19
To isolate a single track in the Canvas:
m Select the track you want to continue working on, then choose View > Selected Only.
Revert to the normal view by choosing View > Selected Only again.
The Proxy Frame Only option in the View menu–which applies only when you’re using
installed LiveType media—renders LiveFonts, textures, and objects as proxy frames in
the Canvas, essentially freezing their inherent animation.
Particularly when the animated element has highly variable content from frame to
frame (such as Particles objects, which contain few if any pixels in the beginning and
ending frames), the proxy frame is easier to work with, because it shows a more
representative shape of the object regardless of the playhead position.
Bounding boxes show the size
and position of deselected
Choose View > Selected Only
to view only the contents of
the selected track.20 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
The Inspector is your toolbox for transforming elements—text, objects, or images.
There are unlimited combinations of parameters and attributes you can use to make
your titles dynamic and original.
The Inspector consists of a text-entry box and Live Wireframe Preview at the top of the
window, and five tabs of parameters. Inspector settings always apply to the track,
character, or effect that is currently selected in the Canvas or Timeline.
There are two areas in the Inspector where you can add text to a track. One of these is
in the upper-left corner of the Inspector. Because this text-entry box is visible no matter
which Inspector tab is selected, it is a convenient way to identify the active track, as
well as to add or change the text on a track, as you can type directly into it. The textentry box at the bottom of the Text tab is larger, making it easier to insert and edit
larger amounts of text.
The text-entry boxes also allow you to select individual letters or words on a track.
When you highlight text in the text-entry box, those characters are selected in the
Canvas. This is particularly useful when the text you want to modify is obscured in the
Canvas by other elements.
(in the Text tab only)Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface 21
Live Wireframe Preview
In the upper-right corner of the Inspector, the Live Wireframe Preview continually plays
your titling movie, with small bounding boxes indicating the movement of each
character or object. This feature gives you a quick indication of how your adjustments
have changed the overall animation, without rendering a full preview with every
change you make.
To freeze or unfreeze the Live Wireframe Preview:
m Click inside the preview area.
There are five tabs in the Inspector.
Â Text tab: This is where you enter text and adjust the size, alignment, and spacing of
text on the active track.
Small bounding boxes
depict the movement of
the Canvas elements.
Click to turn the
preview on or off.
Text tab settings22 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
Â Style tab: This tab provides options for the Shadow, Glow, Outline, and Extrude
treatments, which can be applied to text or objects. These are often used to add
depth and highlight the text or object, although a wide variety of graphical
outcomes are possible.
Â Effects tab: This tab lists the effects that have been applied to the active track, and is
used to view and change effect parameters at any point in your titling movie. Effects
are combinations of movement and transformation that can be applied to any track.
The On column of the Effects tab allows you to turn an effect off or on for individual
characters on the track.
Style tab settings
Effects tabChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 23
Â Timing tab: Timing parameters for tracks and effects are controlled in this tab. While
the Timeline provides a frame-by-frame diagram of tracks and effects with their
associated keyframes, the Timing tab is a single pane that allows you to adjust the
overall timing and modify the parameters of your animation.
Some timing adjustments are made more easily by moving elements in the Timeline,
rather than entering values in the Timing tab. However, the Timing tab gives you
access to the full range of timing variables, as well as effect parameters that let you
fine-tune your animation, creating exactly the look you want.
Timing tab24 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
Â Attributes: This is where you assign a variety of attributes—opacity, blur, scale, offset,
rotation, and color—to elements in the Canvas. Attributes can be applied to entire
tracks or individual characters on a track.
The Attributes tab also contains options for creating a matte effect, in which an
element appears as a cut-out window that reveals the element below it. A simple
line of text, for example, can be matted to a movie clip, which essentially “fills” the
text. The Matte to Texture option lets you fill track contents—even individual
characters—with an animated texture, without having to add the texture to your
project as a separate element.
Matte settings are variables
for creating cutouts and
Glyph settings include
attributes such as the
shape, color, and position
of text and objects.
Attributes tab in the
Attributes tab in the
Glyph paneChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 25
Most of the installed resources available for your titling projects are available through
the Media Browser—except for LiveType templates and images and movies you import
from other sources. There are various tabs representing different elements installed on
your computer: LiveFonts, system fonts, textures, objects, and effects. Using the
Media Browser, you can scroll through and view representations of all these elements
before you apply them to your project.
The Media Browser preview is the only way to see how LiveType media—LiveFonts,
textures, and objects—move and transform until you install the full data file onto
your computer. When you first apply one of these elements to the Canvas, a single
representative frame is displayed, not the entire animated sequence. Installing the
data component allows you to see a true representation of the LiveFont in each
frame of your movie. See “LiveType Media Files” on page 28 for more about LiveType
Tabs of media and effects26 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
The Timeline depicts the frame-by-frame orchestration of your titling project, and
provides many tools for designing the movement and timing of your titles. The
Timeline allows you to do the following:
Â Set the timing and duration of tracks and effects
Â Manage the track order, or layers
Â Group tracks to maintain their relative position
Â Enable and disable tracks and effects
Â Work with keyframes to customize your animation
Â Select specific frames to view or adjust
Â Set markers to render only a portion of your movie for previews or final output
About the Timeline Interface
The following are the interface elements and controls in the Timeline.
Tabs at the upper-left corner of the Timeline indicate which projects are currently open,
and which one is active.
Playhead, Timecode, and Frame Ruler
The playhead and timecode on the frame ruler indicate which frame is showing in the
Canvas. The playhead moves along the frame ruler when you play your project, and it
can be dragged to any given frame.
To view a specific frame, do one of the following:
m Drag the playhead to the desired frame.
m Click a frame in the frame ruler.
The Canvas always reflects the frame under the playhead.
Timeline zoom slider
Keyframe Background bar
Out pointChapter 1 The LiveType Interface 27
Render Selection Markers
The In Point and Out Point markers in the frame ruler allow you to determine the
portion of your movie you want to render. Using these markers, you can:
Â Save time rendering previews when you don’t need to see the entire movie
Â Choose the precise number of frames you want to include in your final output
To change the render selection, do one of the following:
m Drag the In Point and Out Point markers in the frame ruler.
m Position the playhead and press the I key on your keyboard to set the Render Selection
In Point, or the O key to set the Render Selection Out Point. The Timeline must be
active for these hot keys to work.
As you constrain the range of frames to be rendered, the information box in the upperleft corner of the Timeline reflects the modified duration and number of frames.
Note: To quickly locate the Out Point marker when it is beyond the end of the visible
Timeline, move the Timeline zoom slider all the way to the right.
Tracks and Effects
Tracks are numbered according to their layer position in the left column of the
Timeline, and Track 1 is always the top layer.
Effects are depicted as separate bars underneath the track they apply to. An effect may
extend for the entire duration of the track, or only a portion of it. One track may have
several effects applied to it, in sequence or overlapping.
Any item that falls below the background bar is a background element. You can drag
the background bar up or down to any position between tracks in the Timeline. For
more information, see “About the Background Bar” on page 43.
The basis of most digital animation, keyframes contain the parameters that elements in
the Canvas reflect at a specific point in time. When a movie is rendered, LiveType
interpolates the movement of the elements in between keyframes for smooth,
continuous motion. When an effect is increased in duration, or stretched, the keyframes
spread out with it, and the effect takes longer to complete. See Chapter 7, “Working
With Effects and Keyframe Animation,” on page 87 to learn more about keyframes.
Grouping buttons let you group tracks together in the Canvas, locking their relative
position while allowing you to move the group as a unit.28 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
The Enable/Disable buttons turn tracks and effects off or on. When a track is disabled, its
contents are removed from the Canvas, although the blue track line remains. Disabled tracks
are not rendered in previews or movies. Similarly, effects can be disabled.
Timeline Zoom Controls
Typically you use the zoom controls to adjust the amount of time represented in the
Timeline window. This is helpful to do while working with timing a long or complex
The main zoom control is the Timeline zoom slider, which zooms in and out around the
playhead as you drag.
You can also use the Command-+ or Command-– keyboard shortcut to zoom in or
zoom out on the playhead when the Timeline is active. Another helpful command is
Shift-Z, which adjusts the Timeline to show the entire project at once.
LiveType Media Files
LiveType includes hundreds of media and effects files, which are the resources available
to you within the Media and Template Browsers. Animated files include LiveFonts,
objects and textures. Preset effects and templates, as well as various other LiveType
resources, are also included with the application. These files are collectively known as
LiveType media files.
LiveType now uses a single file format for media such as LiveFonts, textures, and
objects, but media using the earlier “pair format” is still supported.
Shortcuts and Hot Keys
The LiveType interface includes numerous menu items and shortcuts to help you use
the application easily and efficiently. It’s important to note that the function of these
options depends on which LiveType window is active.
For example, when the Canvas is active, the arrow keys nudge the active track in
small increments. However, when the Timeline is active, the right and left arrow keys
advance the playhead or move it back one frame.Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface 29
Locating LiveType Media Files
When you install LiveType, a folder hierarchy is placed in the following location:
Library Application Support/LiveType/. This is where LiveType looks first for media files
such as LiveFonts, objects, textures, effects, images, movies and templates. LiveType
media files can also be installed on other hard disks including a network server. You can
assign any location for media files from the Preferences dialog.
About Installing LiveType Media Files
The LiveType installation process allows you to install LiveType media files in any
location. For more details concerning installing LiveType and the LiveType media files,
see the Installing Your Software document that is enclosed with the installation discs.
Managing LiveType Media Files
Any element in the LiveFonts, Textures, Objects, and Effects tabs of the Media Browser
has a corresponding media file, which contains the components needed to work with
LiveType. Once these media files are installed in the /Library/Application Support/
LiveType folder, you can move them to a different disk.
To use LiveType media that is located outside the application support folder:
m Assign the location of the media files from within LiveType using the Preferences
dialog. Choose LiveType > Preferences.
Note: To use LiveType media that is located outside the application support folder,
assign its location from within LiveType using the Preferences dialog. If you have media
installed from a previous version of LiveType, the Media Browser reads “Yes” or “No” in
the Installed column for that media which indicates whether or not the media files are
installed. This convention only applies to earlier “file pair” formats. New content comes
in the form of media files that appear in the Media Browser with a double dash in the
Installed column indicating they are installed. The Install and Uninstall buttons in the
lower-left corner of the Media Browser do not apply to the newer content, only to
LiveType media files from previous versions of the application.
Media file types Media filenames Media file contents
Effects LTFX Contains effects files and sample
movies for each effect.
LiveFonts LTLF Animated font characters
Objects .LTOB Pre-rendered animations with
an alpha channel
Templates LTTM LiveType projects
Textures LTTX Full screen animated
backgrounds. These animations
can also be matted to any font
character or element on the
LiveType Canvas.30 Chapter 1 The LiveType Interface
Creating Custom Categories for LiveType Media files
You can create custom categories for LiveType Media by simply creating a new folder
within the Media folder, such as LiveFont/My folder/My font.
LiveType only recognizes one folder level after the original media category.
You can move “file pair” media files from previous versions of LiveType to another disk,
but they must be in the same folder hierarchy that they were previously located in.
Using Imported Files
When you use graphics or movies from other sources in your project, LiveType needs
to refer to the source files for these external elements. Therefore, once you’ve placed an
image or movie, it’s best not to move or rename the source file. The Images folder in
the LiveType folder hierarchy is a convenient place to store images associated with
2 Setting Up a Project
The most important step as you begin any LiveType
project is to configure the project properties.
As tempting as it may be to jump right in and start designing, you should define your
output parameters and save the project to disk at the outset, to be sure your titles are
generated at the size and resolution you need.
If you go ahead and generate a titling movie without initially configuring the project,
you’re bound to run into trouble. Although these settings can be changed at any time,
a titling composition created for standard broadcast, for example, will fill only a portion
of the screen if it’s changed to high definition format after the fact.
First, you need to open a new project. You have two options:
Â Start with a LiveType template.
Â Start with an existing LiveType project you’ve already created.
LiveType includes dozens of templates, which are LiveType project files organized by
category. You can use templates in several ways:
Â As the starting point for your own creations
Â As repositories of preconfigured elements you can paste into your own projects
Â As a resource for sparking ideas and seeing what’s possible with LiveType
The templates comprise many types of prebuilt projects, all of which you can revise for
your own purposes.32 Chapter 2 Setting Up a Project
To open a template:
1 Choose File > Open Template.
2 Browse the categories of templates in the Template Browser.
3 In the Template Browser, choose NTSC, PAL, or HD from the Format pop-up menu.
4 Choose a template, then click OK.
Whenever you open a template, make sure to set your project properties immediately.
See “Setting Project Properties” on page 34.
You can save your own projects as templates, so they’re accessible through the
To save your project as a template:
1 Place the project file (.ipr) in a folder in this location: /Library/Application Support/
2 Generate a short QuickTime movie of the project (with the same name but an
appropriate movie extension, such as .mov or .mp4).
Once you do this, the template will appear in the preview window of the
The Template BrowserChapter 2 Setting Up a Project 33
Starting a New Project and Setting Defaults
When you open LiveType, an untitled default project appears in the interface.
If you want to start a new project when LiveType is already open, you need to open a
new default project.
To open a new project:
m Choose File > New.
A new project with an empty Canvas appears and an “Untitled” project tab is added to
Note: At least one LiveType project must be open at any time, so if you close the only
open project, a new default project automatically opens.
You can configure your LiveType interface and save your settings as the default. Default
settings include project properties, font and media choices, Canvas options, the tabs
that are revealed, and various other settings. This is particularly useful for saving your
preferred output format, so you don’t have to reconfigure the project properties each
time you open a project.
To save your default settings:
1 Set up a LiveType project with the settings and configuration you want.
2 Choose LiveType > Settings > Remember Settings.
Every time you subsequently open a new project or open LiveType, the current default
settings apply. Content elements in the original project are not saved as part of the
It is possible to find yourself with a default configuration that’s undesirable and
difficult to get out of. You can easily wipe clean your settings and revert to the original
To erase your project settings:
m Choose LiveType > Settings > Clear Settings.34 Chapter 2 Setting Up a Project
Setting Project Properties
Once you’ve opened a new project and saved it to disk, you need to define the output
you want to create. All of the essential project settings are accessed through the
Project Properties dialog.
To open the Project Properties dialog:
1 Choose Edit > Project Properties.
2 Make the desired changes, then click OK.
For detailed information, see the next section, “Settings in the Project Properties
The Project Properties dialogChapter 2 Setting Up a Project 35
Settings in the Project Properties Dialog
There are various pop-up menus, colors, and settings you can select when specifying
the properties for your project.
Presets establish the width, height, frame rate, and pixel aspect defined by the
Â Presets: This pop-up menu lists the most common output formats. After you select a
different preset, you’ll notice how the settings change. You can also see how
selecting different presets affects the shape and size of the Canvas.
If none of the presets conform to your project, you can configure the dimensions and
frame rate manually. “Custom” will then automatically appear in the Presets field.
Note: Web banner and multimedia options are included among the presets, since
LiveType is effective for building animations for the web or for Keynote, for example,
which imports QuickTime movies directly. Keep in mind that web banners are
typically created in GIF format. To create a GIF, you need to use another program to
translate your LiveType output.
Â Width: This is the width, in pixels and inches.
Â Height: This is the height, in pixels and inches.
Â Frame Rate: This is the frame rate, in frames per second.
Preset properties automatically
set the project resolution, frame
rate, and so on, for the most
common output formats.36 Chapter 2 Setting Up a Project
Â Field Dominance: When your project is intended for interlaced video output, choose
either Upper (Odd) or Lower (Even) for the smoothest animation. After the proper
option is chosen, LiveType renders fields with either the upper or the lower field first.
Choose None for footage that is non-interlaced. DV footage is typically Lower Field
First, while certain video capture cards may need to be rendered with the Upper
(Odd) option chosen. In all cases, use the fielding option that matches your video
system settings. For more about this, see “Choosing a Field Order” on page 38.
Â Pixel Aspect: The ratio of width to height of a single pixel, or pixel aspect, can differ
from format to format. The pixel aspect is set by preset properties, or you can enter a
custom pixel aspect value.
Â Start Time: You can map the start time of your project to a precise point in your
edited video, making it easy to overlay your video at the compositing stage. Start
Time units reflect the time format entered in the field to the right.
Â Time Format: This setting defines how the position of audio or video is marked in
time. There are several choices—Frames, SMPTE, and SMPTE Drop.
The description field is a useful place to store notes about the project, as well as
a description of any nonstandard output parameters you’ve configured, for
Quality settings can have a big impact on the amount of time you invest in a project.
As you design your titling animation and try out different effects, you will preview
your movie many times. And each time, your system has to render the movie, frame
Time Format options
Quality options for the
Canvas, movie renders,
and preview moviesChapter 2 Setting Up a Project 37
These settings in this area allow you to configure the quality of three different items:
Â Canvas: A RAM preview in the Canvas
Â Movie Render: A full movie render
Â Preview: A standard preview accessed via the File menu
How you preview your movie depends on where you are in the design process. You
may find yourself changing these settings several times as you design your titles,
particularly if it’s a complex composition that takes considerable time to render.
A Wireframe preview, which displays rectangular bounding boxes representing each
character, renders very quickly. When you’re focusing on the motion of your Canvas
elements, not their visual attributes, previewing in Wireframe mode is highly efficient.
The Wireframe, Draft, and Normal settings render your project at increasing
These settings allow you to select a Canvas color and its opacity level.
Â Color: This allows you to choose a background color in the Canvas.
Â Opacity: This setting reflects the opacity of the color selected above. An opacity level
of 0 equates to no background color, and the Canvas shows the checkerboard
pattern indicating a transparent background.
Â Render Background: When this checkbox is selected, any background color, as well as
other background elements, render in previews or final movies.
Important: The Render Background checkbox applies to all elements that fall below
the background bar in the Timeline, as well as the background color, which is not
represented in the Timeline. If the checkbox is not selected, the background color
and other background elements are not rendered in previews or final movie renders.
For more information, see Chapter 3, “Adding a Background,” on page 41 which
presents a complete explanation of working with backgrounds in LiveType.
Ruler and Grid Settings
You can display or hide the Canvas rulers and grid, and set the space between gridlines
at the bottom of the Project Properties dialog. See “Customizing the Canvas” on
page 17 for more about the rulers and grid.
The gridline frequency, or grid
width, is set in the Project
Properties dialog.38 Chapter 2 Setting Up a Project
Choosing a Field Order
You can run a simple test to determine the proper field order for your system.
When you make a movie, the rendering order (upper field first or lower field first)
should correspond to the method used by your equipment, or your movie will
Note: The field order with which you record to video equipment can be altered by
changes in the hardware or software of your production setup. For example, changing
your video board, device control software, or VCR after setting the field order can
reverse your fields. Therefore, any time you make a change to your setup, you should
run this test for field rendering order.
To test your system, render two LiveType projects, one rendered with upper field first
and one with lower field first.
Important: You may need to familiarize yourself with the basic functions of LiveType
before you go through these steps.
To test the field rendering order:
1 Start a new LiveType project.
2 Choose Edit > Project Properties.
3 In the Project Properties dialog, do the following:
a Choose an NTSC or PAL setting from the Presets pop-up menu.
b Choose Lower (Even) from the Field Dominance pop-up menu.
Do not choose Upper (Odd). In this case, you are rendering the lower field first.
4 In the Inspector, do the following:
a Type a capital “O” in a system font on Track 1.
b Increase its size to fill most of the Canvas.
c Color the letter red, then choose black as your background color.
5 Apply a fast-moving effect to the track, such as Jumpy, in the Caricature effect category
in the Media Browser.
6 In the Timing tab, set the speed of the effect to 100 percent.
7 Choose File > Render Movie.
8 Enter lower.mov as the filename in the Save As field, then click Save.
The movie renders to your chosen location.
9 Now change the color of the capital “O” to blue. Select Upper (Odd) in the Project
10 Save the file, naming it upper.mov.
11 Render the second movie.Chapter 2 Setting Up a Project 39
12 Import the rendered files into Final Cut Pro, then play back both movies on an
One of the two movies will look distorted; the other movie will play correctly, with
sharply defined edges. Whenever you render a LiveType movie for that system, use the
settings you used for the undistorted output.3
3 Adding a Background
Backgrounds in LiveType generally serve one of two
purposes: Either they are an integral part of the titling
composition, or they are used as an aid to position
elements and key the timing of the titling movie.
Although anything can be a background, a background is usually a uniform color,
animated texture, still image, or movie that fills the Canvas. While background images,
movies, and textures tend to fill the Canvas and aren’t extensively manipulated, they
can be sized, positioned, and transformed in many ways. For more information, see
Chapter 6, “Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements,” on page 79.
Setting a Background Color
The most basic kind of background is a background color, which covers the Canvas and
cannot be manipulated except for its opacity level. It’s best to think of the background
color as a project property, not an element that can be moved or changed.
The default background has an opacity of 0 percent, which means the Canvas displays
a transparent background, represented by the white and gray checkerboard pattern.
Background settings in the
Project Properties dialog42 Chapter 3 Adding a Background
To choose a background color:
1 Choose Edit > Project Properties.
2 Click the Color button in the Project Properties dialog.
3 In the Colors window, choose a color, then close the window.
Note: Make sure you always close this window after you have selected a color.
4 Drag the opacity slider or enter a value in the field greater than 0 percent. Click OK.
The background color appears in the Canvas.
Adding a Background Texture
LiveType textures make vibrant, animated backgrounds. They are also frequently used
with the matte feature, which allows you to apply a textured fill to text or an object.
See Chapter 5, “Working With Text,” on page 57 for information about creating a matte.
To create a textured background:
1 Click the Textures tab in the Media Browser.
2 Browse the texture categories and select a texture.
3 Click the Apply To New Track button.
The texture fills the Canvas and appears as a background track in the Timeline.
Category pop-up menu
(colored and lightened)Chapter 3 Adding a Background 43
Importing a Background Movie or Still Image
You can import images or movies from other sources and use them as backgrounds for
your titling project. For any given project, you might choose to use the following:
Â A single frame or movie clip as a temporary background, to accurately position and
time the action of your titles
Â A movie to embed as part of your titles
Â A static image or graphic
LiveType can import background elements in a variety of formats:
Â MPEG-2 and MPEG-4
About the Background Bar
The background color is different from background elements in your project.
Background elements are represented in the Timeline and can be manipulated in
various ways. A project can have many background elements, or none. The only
definitive way to distinguish a background element, be it a LiveType object or texture,
a movie, or an image, is that it falls below the background bar in the Timeline.
You can drag the background bar up or down to any position between tracks in the
Timeline. Any element below the background bar is subject to the Render
Background checkbox in the Project Properties dialog.
Background bar Background texture44 Chapter 3 Adding a Background
Â QuickTime image file
Â QuickTime movie
To import a background movie:
1 Choose File > Place Background Movie.
2 Locate the movie file you want to place, then click Open.
Note: When you import a background movie, the project dimensions and frame rate
adjust automatically to conform. It’s a good idea to review your project properties
when you import a new background movie.
To import a background image:
1 Choose File > Place.
2 Locate the file you want to place in the Canvas, then click Open.
3 In the Timeline, do one of the following:
Â Drag the image track below the background bar.
Â Drag the background bar above the image track.
Note: Placing an image or movie using File > Place does not affect the resolution or
frame rate of the project. That is, the image or movie conforms to the project settings.
Placed background movieChapter 3 Adding a Background 45
Importing a Background Movie With Timing Markers
Final Cut Pro allows you to save movies that include timing markers, which can be
useful when setting the precise timing of your titles. When you place a Final Cut Pro
movie in LiveType, the markers appear in the frame ruler of the Timeline. Markers
cannot be repositioned in the Timeline. Clicking them, however, moves the playhead to
the marked frame.
Considerations for Rendering the Background
You have the option of rendering or not rendering the background in your project. The
background settings in the Project Properties dialog—Color, Opacity, and Render
Background—provide several options that affect your working environment and the
final result of your project.
If you’re creating a standalone animation, web banner, or multimedia component, for
example, you might want to include a full background as part of your movie output. If
you’re creating a titling overlay, you won’t want to render the background in most cases.
Consider these options:
Â To include a background image, movie, or animated texture in your final output, leave
the background color opacity at 0 percent and select the Render Background
Â If you want an opaque or semitransparent solid color background in your final output,
choose a color and opacity level, and select the Render Background checkbox.
Â If you don’t want background elements in your final output, deselect the Render
Background checkbox. This option allows you to do the following:
Â Import a background movie or image for placement and timing reference only,
without incorporating it into your titling output.
Â Define a Canvas color other than the default checkerboard pattern, according to
your working preferences.
Marker imported as part of
a Final Cut Pro movie4
4 Working With Tracks
To create anything in LiveType, you need to be familiar
with tracks. Every element of a titling composition is part
of a track, and each track can contain one or more lines of
text, an image, a movie, or an animated object or texture.
Tracks are “containers” of content, represented by dark blue lines in the Canvas with
corresponding bars in the Timeline. A track comprises all of the information about its
Â Position, shape, and baseline
Â Attributes such as color, shadow, font, and spacing
Â Effects and timing
This chapter explains how tracks are moved and shaped in the Canvas, and how they
can be manipulated in the Timeline. The next three chapters describe in detail how to
apply text, objects, and effects to tracks to assemble your composition.
Empty track48 Chapter 4 Working With Tracks
Positioning Tracks in the Canvas
When you first open LiveType, the default Canvas contains a single empty track with
The shape of a track defines the default baseline on which its contents sit. Tracks can
be manipulated at any time, whether or not they contain an element. If you’re creating
a track along which to slide text, or if you want your text to conform to a specific shape,
you might want to shape and position the track before you add text to it.
To position a track:
m Drag a track to move it anywhere in the Canvas, or partially off the Canvas.
Tracks can extend beyond the boundaries of the Canvas, allowing elements to slide in
and out of the viewable area.
To create a sloping track or to resize it:
m Drag one of the track’s endpoints.
Note: Hold down the Shift key when you position an item in the Canvas to constrain its
horizontal, diagonal, or vertical position. This applies to tracks, endpoints, objects,
Active track, extending off the Canvas
Title safe boundary
Action safe boundary
Canvas Zoom pop-up
menu set to 50 percent
TracksChapter 4 Working With Tracks 49
Creating Angles and Curves
Tracks can take any linear path. You can even link the endpoints of a track so that an
element can flow around it in a continuous loop.
To add an angle to a track, you must add a control point to it. A track can have any
number of control points.
To create an angle on a track:
1 Hold down the Control key and click the track anywhere between the endpoints, then
choose Add Control Point from the shortcut menu.
2 Drag the new control point and the endpoints to create the angle you want.
Control points are also necessary for creating curves. If you’re familiar with Bezier
curves, this will be a snap. If not, it may take a bit of experimentation.50 Chapter 4 Working With Tracks
To create a curved track:
1 Follow steps 1–2 above to create an angle on a track.
2 Hold down the Control key and click the control point, then choose Curve In from the
3 Drag the Bezier handle to adjust the curve.
4 Hold down the Control key and click the same control point, then choose Curve Out
from the shortcut menu.
Another Bezier handle appears, and the curve is smooth at the control point.
A Bezier handle appears
as a small point on
the track near the
control point.Chapter 4 Working With Tracks 51
Note: You can apply a curve to an endpoint as well, but clicking an endpoint brings up
only the Curve In or Curve Out option—not both—since the track extends in only one
direction away from the endpoint.
The Slide parameter, used in several preset effects, allows text to move along a track. If
the endpoints are linked, the text can move around the track on a continuous path. See
Chapter 7, “Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation,” on page 87 for more about
effects and motion paths.
To create a motion path that is a continuous loop, you need to link the endpoints of a
track. The endpoints do not need to overlap. In fact, they can be positioned at opposite
ends of the Canvas, and still be linked. Linking the endpoints allows text or objects to
loop immediately from the end to the beginning of the track when an effect using the
Slide parameter is applied to them.
To link the endpoints of a track:
m Control-click one of the endpoints of any track, then choose Link Endpoints from the
You can unlink endpoints using the same method.52 Chapter 4 Working With Tracks
Adding, Copying, and Deleting Tracks
There are numerous ways to add a track to the Canvas.
To add a new, empty track, do one of the following:
m Choose Track > New Text Track (or press Command-T).
m Choose a font in the Media Browser, then select Apply To New Track.
Sometimes it’s useful to create a duplicate track, with the identical position, shape,
contents, timing, and effects as a track you’ve already built.
To duplicate a track:
1 Select the track you want to duplicate.
2 Choose Track > Duplicate Track (or press Command-D).
The duplicate overlays the original track precisely, so at first, you can only tell that a
duplicate has been made by the addition of a new track in the Timeline. Overlaying
tracks with identical elements but different effects and parameters is a great way to
produce sophisticated title animations. Drag the duplicate off the original to see
To delete a track:
1 Select the track you want to delete.
2 Do one of the following:
Â Choose Track > Delete Track.
Â Press the Delete key.
You can also copy a track from another project, such as a LiveType template or a
project you’ve created previously, into your current project.
To copy a track from one project to another:
1 Open both the source and destination projects.
A tab for each of the projects appears in the Timeline.
2 In the source project, select the track you want to copy, then choose Edit > Copy.
3 Click the tab of the destination project in the Timeline, then choose Edit > Paste.Chapter 4 Working With Tracks 53
Working With Tracks in the Timeline
As you add tracks to the Canvas, they appear as numbered bars in the Timeline. As you
apply effects to each track, they appear as unnumbered bars below the track.
Adjusting the Timing of a Track
When you add a track to the Canvas, by default it begins at the frame indicated by the
playhead. The duration of a track varies, depending on its contents. A track containing
text in a system font or a static image defaults to a duration of two seconds. The
duration of a track containing LiveType media or any imported movie depends on the
length of the movie.
These basic timing parameters are easily changed in the Timeline window by stretching
and moving the track bars. Delay and duration can also be defined in the Timing tab of
the Inspector, as can many other timing parameters.
Track 254 Chapter 4 Working With Tracks
To adjust the duration of a track, do one of the following:
m Drag either edge of the track bar to the right or left.
Note: Changing the duration of tracks that contain movies or LiveType media changes
the speed at which the movie plays. If you shorten the duration of a LiveFont track, for
instance, it plays faster.
m Select the track and do one of the following:
Â For static content, adjust the Duration parameter in the Timing tab of the Inspector.
Â For movies and animated content, adjust the Speed parameter in the Timing tab.
If you like, you can make the track contents appear later than the first frame.
To delay the appearance of a track, do one of the following:
m Click inside the track bar and drag it to the right.
m Select the track and adjust the Delay slider in the Timing tab of the Inspector.
You can also reposition more than one track at the same time, which is a useful way to
maintain the relative position of tracks as you change their delay times. This is known
as a ripple drag.
To move two or more tracks in the Timeline at once:
m Press the Option key, and drag the left-most track (the track with the earliest starting
time) of the group you want to move.
All tracks to the right of the selected track (tracks with later starting times), including
their associated effects, move as a block with the selected track.
Drag either end of a track to
adjust its duration or speed.
Drag a track to adjust
its starting time.Chapter 4 Working With Tracks 55
Layers and Track Order
Elements in the Canvas invariably overlap, which is why it’s important to manage track
layers. When you create a new track, it is always the top layer. Any content you add to
that track is in front of all other elements in the Canvas.
Note: In the Timeline, tracks are displayed in front-to-back order, with Track 1 in front.
To change a track’s front-to-back position, do one of the following:
m Click inside the track bar in the Timeline and drag it up or down, to a new position.
m Select the track you want to move, either in the Canvas or in the Timeline, then choose
one of the options from the Layout menu: Bring to Front, Send to Back, Bring Forward
[one layer], and Send Backward.
The tracks renumber to accommodate the new order.
You can disable tracks, as well as effects applied to tracks, in the Timeline window. This
can be useful in reducing clutter in the Canvas, and it saves preview-rendering time
when you only need to preview one or a few elements. Deactivating elements is also
useful for comparing different design choices.
To disable a track or effect:
m Click the Enable/Disable button immediately to the left of a track or effect in the
While the blue baseline of a disabled track remains in the Canvas, its contents no
longer appear in the Canvas, are not represented in the Inspector’s Live Wireframe
Preview, and do not render when you generate a preview or final movie.
Track 1 (top layer)
Enable/Disable buttons56 Chapter 4 Working With Tracks
It is often useful to group two or more tracks together, to maintain their relative
position in the Canvas. Grouped tracks can be moved in the Canvas, but they stay
together as a group. When tracks are stacked on top of each other, grouping is the
only way to move the stack as a unit.
For example, you might want to create a two-layer effect where a word fades out to
nothing, revealing the same word underneath with an animated texture applied to it.
To do this, you have to create a track that precisely overlays the original using the
Duplicate Track command in the Track menu. Now, if you want to reposition the tracks
in the Canvas, you need to group them together.
To group two or more tracks:
1 Make sure you have more than one track in the Canvas.
2 Select a track in the Canvas or Timeline.
This is now the active track, and the grouping button to the far left of the track bar is
3 Click the grouping button of a different track.
The link icon appears, indicating that the track is grouped with the active track (the
track you selected in Step 2).
4 In the Canvas, move either of the grouped tracks, and notice that they move together.
5 In the Timeline, click the grouping button of a third track.
Now three tracks are grouped together.
To ungroup tracks:
m Select one of the grouped tracks, then click the grouping button of the track you want
The link icon disappears, and the tracks can now be moved independently.
Note: Grouped tracks maintain their relative position, but their contents can still be
altered and moved. If you drag a grouped track, other tracks belonging to the group
move too. However, if you drag a glyph that resides on one of the grouped tracks, the
glyph moves independently. Its Offset parameter is being changed while the track
itself stays put.
5 Working With Text
Titles can incorporate all kinds of visual elements, but
their traditional function is to display text. This chapter
describes how to insert and format text, including
manipulating individual characters on the same track.
Adding movement to text—that is, beyond the inherent animation of LiveFonts—is
covered in Chapter 7, “Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation,” on page 87.
Like any Canvas element, text must reside on a track. There are three approaches to
adding text, in a particular font, to the Canvas:
Â Create a track, select a font, and then add text to the track.
Â Create a track, add text to it, and then apply a font.
Â Choose a font first, click the Apply To New Track button in the Media Browser, and
type in the text.58 Chapter 5 Working With Text
The steps below describe the first approach.
To add text to the Canvas:
1 Create a new track by choosing Track > New Text Track (or press Command-T).
Note: A corresponding track in the Timeline appears.
2 Choose a font:
a Click either the LiveFonts or Fonts tab in the Media Browser.
LiveType comes with a variety of LiveFonts. Click the Category pop-up menu to
access different sets of LiveFonts, including third-party and custom LiveFonts that
you can create.
b Select a system font or LiveFont.
c Click the Apply button.
3 Enter text onto the active track by doing one of the following:
Â Type into one of the text-entry boxes in the Inspector.
Â Cut and paste text from another application into a text-entry box. (Formatting from
other applications does not carry over into LiveType.)
Note: If you add text to a track before selecting a font, the new text appears in the
Canvas in the default font, size, color, and spacing.
LiveFonts tab System Fonts tab
UP01103TXT Page 58 Tuesday, March 8, 2005 1:55 PMChapter 5 Working With Text 59
To change the font of an existing text track:
1 Select the text track.
2 Choose a font from the LiveFonts or Fonts tab of the Media Browser.
3 Do one of the following:
Â Click the Apply button.
Â Double-click the font name.
Note: The Apply option does not cross genres of track content. That is, you cannot
apply a texture or object to a track that already has text on it. Likewise, you cannot
apply a font to a track that contains a texture, object, image, or movie.
Multiple lines of text can exist on a single track. This enables you to create a long text
element governed by one set of parameters. If you’re designing credits, for example,
you can generate the copy in another program, cut and paste it into the text-entry box,
and apply the font and attributes along with a scrolling effect.
LiveFonts vs. System Fonts
The two kinds of fonts available in LiveType are very different. LiveFonts have more
“life” to them, because they are fully designed animations. System fonts, on the other
hand, are more like blank slates you can modify to achieve a wide range of
appearances. Both kinds of fonts can be transformed using all the parameters
described in this chapter, but keep in mind that some parameters will not make
much visual sense when applied to LiveFonts.
Note: The Use LiveFont Defaults button in the Text tab of the Inspector restores the
original attributes of LiveFonts, objects, and textures, including timing, color, and
other characteristics. This can be a valuable way to revert to the original design of
these LiveType elements when you’re experimenting with different formatting
LiveFonts and system fonts also have several practical differences in LiveType:
Â You can apply two or more system fonts to the same track, while only one LiveFont
can be applied to a track.
Â LiveFonts are digital movies, and therefore have timing options you can control
through the Timing tab of the Inspector. See “Adjusting the Timing of LiveFonts” on
Â System fonts are always vector-based, while LiveFonts can either be raster-based or
vector-based. So it is possible to use LiveFonts at such a large size (in excess of 500
point) that the edges begin to degrade.
Â LiveFonts have a much greater impact on previewing and rendering time.60 Chapter 5 Working With Text
To apply a second system font to text on a track:
1 Create a text track with one or two words on it, in a system font.
2 Select one or more characters on the track by highlighting them in the text-entry box
or selecting them in the Canvas.
3 In the Fonts tab of the Media Browser, choose a system font different from the one
you’ve already used.
4 Click the Apply button at the bottom of the Fonts tab.
LiveFont Character Set
The LiveFonts included in LiveType consist of 127 characters, which include all standard
English, French, German, and Spanish characters:
To access characters that aren’t represented on your keyboard, use the Keyboard
Viewer feature, which you can select in the Input Menu pane in the International pane
of System Preferences.
Adjusting the Timing of LiveFonts
When you create a system font track, its default duration is always two seconds.
LiveFonts, on the other hand, have various durations, as shown in the middle column in
the LiveFonts tab of the Media Browser.
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
! # $ % & ( ) , . < > @ + = : ; _ - ? “ ‘/ * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Áá Àà Ââ Ää Çç Èè Éé Êê Ëë Îî Íí Ïï Ññ Ôô Öö Óó ß Üü Úú Ùù Ûû €Chapter 5 Working With Text 61
Because they are movies, LiveFonts are subject to several timing parameters, available
in the Timing tab of the Inspector.
Settings for LiveFonts in the Timing Tab
Â Random and Sequence: Let you apply the LiveFont movie to each character on the
track in a different order, with a variable delay between each letter.
Â Speed: Allows you to play the LiveFont movie more quickly or slowly. Notice that as
you change the speed, the duration of the track in the Timeline increases or
decreases. Likewise, if you change the duration of the track in the Timeline, the speed
parameter changes in the Timing tab.
Â Delay: Allows you to set the starting time of the track.
Â Loop: Determines how many times the LiveFont movie plays through. The default
setting is 1, meaning that the LiveFont plays one time. A value of 2 means that it
plays through twice. The duration of the track doubles with a Loop value of 2, in
Note: Several LiveFonts, including Burn Barrel, Cool, and Gutter, take advantage of
“segmented animation,” which defines beginning, middle, and ending segments of
the movie. When you adjust the Loop parameter for these fonts, only the middle
segment of the animation is looped.
Â Duration: Does not apply to LiveFont tracks.
Â Hold First and Hold Last: Allow you to have the first frame of the LiveFont appear for a
designated amount of time before the movie begins to play. Likewise, Hold Last
perpetuates the last frame.
Settings in the
Timing tab62 Chapter 5 Working With Text
After you’ve selected the font, you have countless formatting options, available
through the Inspector, to change the appearance of the text. As you adjust formatting
parameters, the contents of the active track change dynamically in the Canvas, making
it easy to see what you’re doing. These options can apply to the entire track or to one
or more individual characters on a track.
To format any element in the Canvas, you must first select its track.
To select the entire track, do one of the following:
m Click the blue track line in the Canvas.
m Click the corresponding track in the Timeline.
Note: If you click the text itself, a bounding box appears around the character you
clicked, and your modifications affect only that character. See “Modifying Individual
Characters” on page 77.
After you have selected the track you want to format, use the Text, Style, and
Attributes tabs of the Inspector to specify options such as alignment, size, tracking,
leading, and color.
Alignment, Size, Tracking, and Leading
In the Text tab of the Inspector, you can adjust the size, tracking, and leading of a text
track, as well as its horizontal and vertical alignment. Size values are in points, and
tracking and leading values are percentages of the font’s default spacing.
Formatting options in the
Text tab of the InspectorChapter 5 Working With Text 63
Â Alignment: With the alignment options, text can be set to run horizontally as well as
vertically on a track. The Left, Center, and Right Alignment buttons apply to both text
orientations. The position of the track itself is not affected by alignment settings. The
alignment options are also important to position text appropriately when the track is
used with an effect that uses the Slide parameter.
For example, if you want to slide text onto the screen from left to right, create a track
that begins to the left of the Canvas. The text should be left-aligned, so that it starts
from the left end of the track, off the Canvas. Then apply the Slide Right effect from
the Motion Path category.
Â Size: Text size is adjusted by dragging the slider, clicking within the slider track, or
entering a value in the box to the right of the slider.
Note: Because LiveFonts are raster images made up of pixels, their edges will start to
degrade at very large sizes, usually 500 point and larger. System fonts are vectorbased, and therefore retain their integrity at any size.
Â Tracking: Character spacing is adjusted with the tracking setting. The value for
normal character spacing is 100 percent. A setting of 110 percent adds a modest
amount of space between letters. When tracking is set to 0 percent, all characters
overlay each other.
Â Leading: Leading sets the amount of space between the baseline of one line of text
and the next. This setting only applies to tracks with more than one line of text, not
to the spacing between different tracks. The default leading value is 100 percent. At
0 percent, all lines of text on a track overlay each other.64 Chapter 5 Working With Text
Color options are in the Glyph pane of the Inspector’s Attributes tab. The lower portion
of the tab contains the color controls.
Â Color: The Color parameter replaces existing pixels of color in the selected element
with the color indicated in the Color box, while keeping the luminosity values intact.
A setting of 100 percent completely replaces the existing colors, whereas a Color
setting of 20 percent combines some of the new color with the original. Click the
Color box to choose a different color.
Note: Once you have selected a color, close the Colors window. You need to reopen
the Colors window to make any subsequent color choices.
Â Hue, Saturation, and Lightness (HSL): These three sliders work together to establish
the color of the selected element. Hue defines the shift in color value, in degrees, on
a 360-degree spectrum. Saturation defines the intensity or vividness of the color, in
percentage points. Lightness defines the intensity along the black and white axis, in
The default color of a system font is black, which renders the Hue, Saturation, and
Lightness sliders ineffective. HSL and Color are useful for adjusting raster-based
elements such as LiveFonts while, as a rule of thumb, system fonts and other vectorbased elements should be colored using the Color feature.
Â Alpha pop-up menu: When you have a clip or imported graphic in a LiveType
composition, you can choose a type of alpha channel from this menu. Choose from
Premultiply White, Premultiply Black, or Straight.
Color settings in the Glyph
pane of the Attributes tabChapter 5 Working With Text 65
To change the color of a system font:
1 Select a track that contains a black system font.
2 In the Attributes tab, in the Glyph pane, click inside the Color box and choose a color
from the Colors window (preferably a bright, primary color).
3 Set Color to 100 percent.
The contents of the track change to this color.
LiveFonts are typically built using primary colors, which means that the Hue, Saturation,
and Lightness sliders can be used effectively, in addition to the Color parameter.
Beyond basic text formatting, LiveType gives you many additional treatments with
which to stretch, blur, fade, reposition, and rotate your text. These features are all in the
Glyph pane of the Attributes tab.
Â Opacity: Opacity defines how much of the underlying content shows through. An
opacity setting of 0 makes text completely transparent and, in most instances, a
setting of 100 makes it opaque. When the blur attribute is off (set to 0), a 50 percent
opaque character has sharp edges and is somewhat transparent.
Note: LiveType allows opacity values to be higher than 100 percent. This can be
desirable when you’re working with glow parameters (Style tab), or LiveFonts and
elements that are blurred or partially transparent. For example, the Charge LiveFont
still reveals some of the background at 100 percent opacity. At 150 percent (which
you must enter in the opacity field), the font reveals very little background.
Glyph parameters in the
Attributes tab of the Inspector66 Chapter 5 Working With Text
Â Blur: The blur attribute is similar to opacity, but it fades and expands the outer edges
as if the text is out of focus. Blur can be applied equally to the X and Y axes or
unequally, for different outcomes. A blur setting of 0 is off, with no blurring effect.
The maximum blur setting is 25.
Â Scale: Scale stretches or squeezes text on the X and Y axes, with 100 being the same
size as the original text. Note that scale parameters are applied independently to
each character around its pivot point, not to the entire track as a unit.
Note: Unlike the Scale parameter, the Size parameter in the Text tab scales text from
the baseline, and also takes text tracking into consideration.
Â Offset: Offset repositions the text relative to its original position on the track. An
offset of 0 indicates no position shift on that axis.
Â Rotate: With the rotation dial, you can position an element not only in the 360
degree range, but configure any number of revolutions in the context of an effect.
A glyph sized using the Size parameter
keeps its original baseline and tracks
with adjacent characters.
A glyph sized using the Scale parameter
expands around its pivot point without
affecting the position of other glyphs
on the track.Chapter 5 Working With Text 67
For example, you can set an early keyframe at 45 degrees and set a later keyframe at
four revolutions plus 180 degrees. When you play the movie, the element spins
clockwise four times plus an additional 135 degrees between those two keyframes.
Positive values reflect clockwise motion, and negative values reflect counterclockwise
motion. Working with keyframes is defined fully in Chapter 7, “Working With Effects
and Keyframe Animation.”
Text example set at 35 percent
opacity in the Attributes tab
Text example using the blur
and scale options in the
Text example with the
Solid background color68 Chapter 5 Working With Text
Enhancing Text With Styles
The Style tab in the Inspector offers four options for enhancing your text. Styles allow
you to add depth and emphasis to text—as well as to objects—mostly by altering the
space around each character.
The Shadow, Glow, Outline, and Extrude buttons in the Style tab each reveal the
settings applicable to that treatment.
Shadow and Glow
The Shadow and Glow styles are essentially two “flavors” of the same style, using
identical parameters to create quite different looks.
Â Character: The character setting allows you to make the original element invisible,
isolating the style treatment in the Canvas. This can be a helpful way to eliminate
clutter as you compose your treatment, or you may choose to leave the original
element invisible in the finished product.
Â Enable: The Enable checkbox allows you to turn a style on or off, without affecting
the settings you’ve established. Again, this is a helpful tool for eliminating clutter as
you design, or as you compare different styles and combinations of styles.
Â Layer: The Layer pop-up menu allows you to place the shadow or glow treatment in
front of or behind the original element. The In Front Only setting restricts the shadow
or glow effect to the boundaries of the original element, without extending beyond
the edges of the letters or object.
Shadow parameters in
the Style tab of the
Reset Warp parametersChapter 5 Working With Text 69
Â Opacity: Opacity sets the intensity of the shadow or glow. An opacity setting of 0
makes the shadow or glow completely transparent, that is, invisible, and completely
opaque at 100, with no background showing through. If blur is turned off (set to 0), a
50 percent opaque shadow has sharp edges that match the original element, but
whatever lies behind the shadow shows through it.
Â Blur: The blur parameter is similar to the opacity setting, but fades and expands the
outer edges as if the glow or shadow is out of focus. A blur setting of 0 is off, with no
blurring effect. The maximum blur setting is 25. Blur can be applied independently to
the x and y axes. A y-direction blur creates the look of an up and down motion, even
in a static image.
Â Scale: Scale stretches or squeezes the glow or shadow on the X and Y axes, with 100
being the same size as the original element. Note that scale parameters are applied
independently to each character of text on a track, not to the entire shadow or glow
as a unit.
Â Offset: Offset repositions the shadow or glow relative to the original element. An
offset of 0 indicates no position shift on that axis.
Â Color: The Color box lets you select the color of the shadow or glow.
Â Warp: The warp area allows you to stretch and reshape the shadow or glow by
dragging the four corner points, or inserting x and y coordinates for each corner. A
simple application of the warp feature is to stretch shadows to represent different
Text example using glow
options in the Style tab
Text example with an
outline and an enlarged, offset shadow
Text example using the
Solid background color70 Chapter 5 Working With Text
This style adds an outline to the contents of any track. See the preceding section for a
definition of the opacity, blur, color, and warp parameters. Click the Outline button at
the top of the tab to adjust the outline settings.
Â Weight: The weight value, which defines the thickness of the outline, is set in pixels.
Â Show Outline Only: Show Outline Only eliminates the original element, creating an
outline effect that allows the background to show through.
Note: The Show Outline Only setting is used with the character parameter set to
Visible. Otherwise, the outline will be rendered invisible along with the character itself.
Outline parameters in the
Style tab of the InspectorChapter 5 Working With Text 71
Â Outline Extrusion: When the text has been extruded (see below), selecting this
checkbox extends the outline around the extrusion.
Extrude settings consist of direction, length, and color. The direction setting determines
which way to “pull” the extrusion and the length determines how far to pull it.
Â Length: The length value is set in pixels.
Â Direction: The direction value is set in degrees, from 0 to 360.
Â Color: The Color box lets you select the color of the extrusion.
Text example using the Show
Outline Only and Outline Extrusion
options in the Style tab
Text example using X and Y scaling
options in the Attributes tab, with
Text example using the invisible
character option with the Shadow
and Glow styles in the Style tab
Solid background color72 Chapter 5 Working With Text
Creating a Matte
The matte feature in LiveType allows you to reveal a background element in the area
defined by a foreground element, seemingly cutting a hole through any layers in
between. When you create a matte, every pixel of the foreground element is replaced
by a corresponding pixel in the background element. In other words, a matte acts as a
window into another layer.
In LiveType, you have three options for creating mattes, available in the Matte pane of
the Attributes tab in the Inspector. The first option—Matte to Background—allows you
either to fill the foreground element with a background element, or to create an empty
window, which can remain transparent when you render your titling movie.
To create a matte with two project elements:
1 Create the background element by placing a texture, image, movie, or object as the
bottom layer reflected in the Timeline.
See Chapter 3, “Adding a Background,” on page 41 and Chapter 6, “Working With
Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements,” on page 79 for information about placing
these kinds of elements in the Canvas.
2 Make sure the background is beneath the background bar in the Timeline, and that no
other elements are below the background bar.
3 Create a texture or any other element that obscures the background.
4 Create a foreground element, that is, the text or object you want the background to “fill.”
5 With the foreground track selected, click the Matte button in the Attributes tab of
Background bar Background textureChapter 5 Working With Text 73
6 Choose Background from the “Matte to” pop-up menu.
The background image appears to fill the foreground element.
To create a window into a transparent background:
1 Create a texture or any combination of elements that covers the Canvas.
For information about placing textures and other elements in the Canvas, see
Chapter 3, “Adding a Background,” on page 41 and Chapter 6, “Working With Objects,
Textures, and Imported Elements,” on page 79.
2 Create a foreground element, that is, the text or object that defines the shape of
3 If any elements are below the background bar in the Timeline, drag the bar below all
4 With the foreground track selected, click the Attributes tab of the Inspector, then click
the Matte button.
5 Choose Background from the “Matte to” pop-up menu. 74 Chapter 5 Working With Text
The transparent Canvas (or background color if defined in the Project Properties dialog)
appears to fill the foreground element.
The other two matte options, Matte to Movie or Image and Matte to Texture, differ
because the background doesn’t appear as a discrete project element that’s reflected in
the Timeline. And, there’s no need for a layer that the matte has to “punch through.”
Instead, the track contents are simply filled with the designated image.
These two matte alternatives have scale, speed, and sequencing options in the Matte
pane. Scale adjusts the size of the background image, speed adjusts the speed of the
background movie or texture, and sequencing allows you to offset the timing of the
background for each letter residing on the foreground track.
Note: When you matte a word to a movie or image, LiveType calculates which portion
of the image “underlies” each letter, imitating a true window into a lower layer. When
you reposition the letters on the track, they retain the same image content. This feature
can create an interesting look as you apply movement to the text, particularly when
the matte is with a movie.
down on the y axis
Text track matted to the
transparent backgroundChapter 5 Working With Text 75
To fill the track contents with an image or movie:
1 Select a track that contains the text or object you want to fill with an image or movie.
2 Click the Attributes tab of the Inspector.
3 In the Matte pane, choose Movie or Image from the “Matte to” pop-up menu.
4 Locate the file in the Choose Movie or Image dialog, then click Open.
The track contents fill with the background movie or image.
Note: If you want to reveal a specific portion of the image or movie within your
foreground element, you may find that this matte option is not appropriate, since you
cannot adjust the relative position of the image and your foreground element. If this is
the case, you must use the Matte to Background option described above, which allows
you to position the two components independently.
Text track matted
to a movie76 Chapter 5 Working With Text
To fill the track contents with a texture:
1 Select a track that contains the text or object you want to fill with a texture.
2 Choose a texture from the Media Browser, then click the Apply to Matte button.
The default texture fills the contents of the active track.
Note: A variety of mattes is available for use in the Objects tab of the Media Browser
from the Category pop-up menu. The blue areas of a LiveType matte define the area
where the texture will play back. Text or glyphs from the character palette may also be
used as mattes.
Note: Individual characters on the same track can be matted to different textures,
movies, or images. See “Modifying Individual Characters,” next.
You can get a nice effect by combining the matte function with the outline style.
To fill an invisible element’s outline:
1 Create or select a text track.
2 In the Style tab of the Inspector, click the Visible button.
3 In this case, make sure the Enable checkbox is deselected for the Shadow, Glow, and
4 Click the Outline button in the Style tab, and select the Enable checkbox.
5 Select the Show Outline Only checkbox, and increase the weight of the outline, so it’s
6 Choose a texture to fill the outline, then click the Apply to Matte button.
The outline is now filled with the texture.Chapter 5 Working With Text 77
Modifying Individual Characters
You can also assign attributes to individual characters on a track. All of the attributes
discussed in this chapter can apply to only one, or more than one, character on the
This is a powerful option in LiveType, particularly because it allows you to reposition
individual characters, or glyphs, without breaking their relationship to the track.
For example, with individual character adjustments, you could make one word in a
phrase float above the track, expand and glow, and then return to the track. This would
take only a few moments to animate. Or you could make a series of characters do
similar transformations, one after the other.
To modify one or more characters on a track, try the following steps:
1 Select or create a track that contains some text.
2 Select one or more letters by doing one of the following:
Â Select one of the letters in the Canvas and, to modify more than one character at a
time, hold down the Shift key while selecting additional, contiguous letters. A
bounding box appears around the selected letter(s), with a handle in each of the
Â Highlight one or more letters in one of the text-entry areas of the Inspector.
Bounding boxes appear around the selected letters in the Canvas.
Â Marquis-select one or more letters in the Canvas by dragging a box with the cursor.
Any letter that touches the marquis area is selected, and reveals its bounding box.
3 Click inside the bounding box and drag the letter anywhere in the Canvas.
4 Drag the upper-left handle to rotate the letter.
All of the characters
reside on a single track.
Glyph bounding box78 Chapter 5 Working With Text
5 Drag the upper-right handle to change the letter’s size.
Note: You can restore a letter to its original size and placement by choosing
Layout > Reset Position.
6 Change the letter’s attributes in the Attributes tab or the Style tab of the Inspector.
7 Click in the Canvas away from the track.
The bounding box around the character disappears, but the track is still selected.
8 Reposition the track in the Canvas and modify its attributes.
Note: These adjustments affect the entire track, including the letter you’ve just
Disabling Fonts in Mac OS X
In Mac OS X v10.3, you can use the Font Book application to disable fonts. However,
LiveType requires that certain fonts—Geneva and Helvetica—are always available, so
these two fonts should not be disabled. If you disable these fonts, you may experience
unpredictable behavior in LiveType. 6
6 Working With Objects, Textures,
and Imported Elements
Titling compositions often center around words, but all
kinds of additional elements are used to frame, enhance,
and accompany them.
For the purpose of this manual, these elements fall into three categories:
Â Objects included with LiveType
Â Textures included with LiveType
Â Static images and movies originating from other sources
All of these elements are modified and moved around in the Canvas in the same way.
They do not rest on a linear track, as text does, unless you add multiple, identical
objects to a track (see “Creating Strings or Stacks of Elements” on page 84). Instead,
when selected, they display a bounding box, like a single character selected on a text
track. At the upper-right and upper-left corners of the bounding box are scale and
rotation handles. 80 Chapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
Working With LiveType Objects
Objects in LiveType are graphical elements with an alpha channel, designed to frame or
emphasize text. Most of them are animated and, much like LiveFonts, can be sized,
rotated, colored, and stretched. You can add a shadow, glow, or an extrusion. And you
can apply effects to them.
Objects placed in the Canvas are represented as tracks in the Timeline, like any other
To add a LiveType object to the Canvas:
1 Click the Objects tab in the Media Browser.
2 Browse the categories of objects displayed in the Category pop-up menu, and select an
object in the Name column of the Objects tab.
3 Click the Apply To New Track button.
The object appears in the Canvas, and a corresponding track appears in the Timeline.
LiveType objects available
in the Media BrowserChapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements 81
Working With LiveType Textures
Textures in LiveType are colorful animated patterns that can be used as full-screen or
partial backgrounds, or as animated fills when used with the matte function, described
in Chapter 5, “Working With Text,” on page 57. Textures are versatile, and can be
transformed in the same ways an object is transformed, particularly if the texture is
reduced in size to take up only a portion of the Canvas.
To add a texture to the Canvas:
1 Click the Textures tab in the Media Browser.
2 Browse the categories of textures displayed in the Category pop-up menu, and select a
texture in the Name column of the Textures tab.
3 Click the Apply To New Track button at the bottom of the Textures tab.
The texture fills the Canvas, and a track appears in the Timeline, just above the
Textures available in the Media Browser82 Chapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
Importing Graphics, Images, and Movies
Graphical elements in a wide range of formats can be incorporated into a LiveType
project. Scanned images, photos, and illustrations, as well as movies and animations,
can be used as part of your titling composition. And, like objects and textures, they can
be modified and placed in numerous ways.
LiveType can import elements in a variety of formats.
To import a graphic, image, or movie:
1 Choose File > Place.
2 Locate the file, then click Open.
The element appears in the Canvas, and a corresponding track appears in the Timeline.
LiveType import formats
AVI JPEG PICT QuickTime movie
BMP MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 PLS SGI
DV Photoshop PNG Targa
GIF PICS QuickTime image file TIFF
Imported movie, scaled
LiveType texture, scaled
and rotatedChapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements 83
Transforming Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
Imported elements can be positioned, changed, and animated as easily as text. A
photo can be made to bounce around the Canvas, fade in and out, grow and shrink, or
take on a purple hue, for example.
Sizing and Positioning Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
When you first place a movie or texture in the Canvas, its position is locked by default.
These types of elements are frequently used as full-screen background elements that
don’t need to be sized or moved. However, you can unlock them easily.
To unlock the position of a texture or imported movie:
1 Select the track you want to unlock. (Sometimes this is easiest to do in the Timeline.)
2 Choose Layout > Lock Position.
The checkmark next to Lock Position disappears, and the bounding box handles on the
element are now active.
When you select a non-text element in the Canvas, a bounding box appears around it,
the same as an individual character on a text track. If you select a full-screen element,
it’s easier to see the bounding box if you zoom out in the Canvas.
To resize, rotate, and reposition a non-text element in the Canvas:
m Drag the bounding box and its upper-left and upper-right handles.
Non-text elements can also be transformed with any of the attributes available to text
characters: shadow, color, blur, and so on.84 Chapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements
Creating Strings or Stacks of Elements
In a way, LiveType looks at textures, objects, and imported elements as special kinds of
glyphs, or text characters. More to the point, individual elements are treated like fonts
whose character set consists of only one glyph.
This allows you to do an unusual thing in LiveType: You can create strings, or multiple
copies, of these elements on what, for all intents and purposes, amounts to a text track.
Anything you can do with one letter of a text font, you can do with objects, textures,
and imported elements.
Note: Objects cannot, however, be formatted as multiple lines on one track.
To create a string of elements on one track:
1 Add an object, texture, or imported element to the Canvas.
2 Make the object a reasonably small size to duplicate in the Canvas:
a Click the Attributes tab of the Inspector, then click the Glyph button.
b Make sure the lock icon next to the Scale sliders is closed, or locked, for proportional
scaling. If it appears to be unlocked, click the icon to lock it.
c Adjust the Scale sliders, or enter a value in one of the Scale fields.
3 Click inside the text-entry box in the upper-left corner of the Inspector. Note that a
single bullet is in the window, representing the object as a single glyph.
One imported graphic
duplicated on one trackChapter 6 Working With Objects, Textures, and Imported Elements 85
4 With the blinking cursor in the text-entry box, press the Space bar or type any key.
A second bullet appears in the text-entry box, and now two identical objects are on a
linear track in the Canvas. Add as many objects as you like.
5 Adjust the tracking and alignment in the Text tab of the Inspector, and any other
attributes that you might apply to a string of letters, including formatting individual
elements on the track separately.
Changing Attributes and Styles
Just as non-text elements can be treated as glyphs, they can take on all of the same
styles and attributes available to text. Chapter 5, “Working With Text,” on page 57
describes all the transformations available in the Inspector.
You might want to try the following for a digital image or movie:
Â Reduce the size of the image, position it in the Canvas, and rotate it 20 degrees,
using the Scale, Offset, and Rotate controls in the Glyph pane of the Attributes tab in
Â Add a shadow, outline, or extrusion to the image, using Style functions.
Â Shift the color of the image using the Color controls in the Glyph pane of the
Attributes tab in the Inspector.
Â Apply a preset effect to the image, or animate it yourself by building your own effect.
Chapter 7, “Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation,” on page 87 explains how
to do this.
Other imported elements—logos, line art, or simple graphical elements—are even
more versatile. They might lend themselves to a matte treatment, glow or blur, or an
outline with the original element rendered invisible. There’s no end to the possibilities.
Replacing Media in a Track
You can easily replace any movie or image in a track on the Timeline at any time.
To replace any movie or image with new content:
1 Control-click the chosen track, then choose > Reconnect Media from the shortcut
2 Navigate to the new file in the Open dialog, then click Open.
The existing media is replaced with a new movie or image.7
7 Working With Effects
and Keyframe Animation
Effects are what make your Canvas elements move
and transform. They are “packages” of animation,
encapsulating the parameters that govern motion
and timing, as well as an element’s attributes in any
The key ideas about effects are as follows:
Â All motion and transformations built into your titling movie are controlled by effects,
whether you create your own or take advantage of the preconfigured effects in
Â Effects are applied to tracks. They appear in the Timeline as bars underneath the
track they’re applied to.
Â More than one effect can be applied to the same track, even at the same time.
Â You can change an effect once it is applied to a track, and you can save the modified
effect so it’s available to use on other tracks and in other projects.
Â When a track and an effect have conflicting parameters, the effect parameter
overrides the track parameter. For example, if an effect specifically turns the Glow
style off, the track’s glow settings are irrelevant.
Â When a track and an effect have complementary parameters, the two values are
combined. For example, if a track has an opacity of 50 percent, applying an effect
with 50 percent opacity will result in an opacity of 25 percent in the Canvas, or half of
the track’s 50 percent opacity.
Â You can edit or build an effect outside of the LiveType interface. Instructions for
writing EffectScript code are in Appendix B, “Creating and Editing EffectScripts,” on
Â Effects can be applied to individual characters on a track and managed from the
Effects tab in the Inspector.88 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
Following is a table listing all of the 41 available preset effects found in LiveType. These
effects are located in the Effects tab of the Media Browser.
Applying Preset Effects
The preset effects in LiveType add personality to your titles and can be used to set the
tone of your composition. Browse through the available effects in the Media Browser to
get a sense of what they can do.
To apply a preset effect to a track:
1 Create a track that contains text or any other kind of element. Make sure it is the
2 Click the Effects tab in the Media Browser.
The Category pop-up menu reveals the categories of installed effects, corresponding
to the subfolders on your computer located at
Â Bounce Track
Â Quick Twist
Â Pile Up
Â Chatter Out
Â Send Off
Â Z Space
Â Blue Light
Â Light Beam In
Â Light Beam Out
Â Rising Sun
Â Text Static
Â Buzz Saw
Â TV Off
Â Random Drop
Â Slide Hang
Â Pit Stop
Â ViewpointChapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 89
3 Choose an effect in the Name column of the Effects tab.
The Browser preview depicts how the effect works, the Duration column shows the
default effect length, and the Description field contains notes about how best to apply
4 Do one of the following:
Â Select the effect name and click Apply.
Â Double-click the effect.
Â Drag the effect into the Effects tab of the Inspector.
When you apply an effect, a bar appears under the active track in the Timeline, labeled
with the effect name.
If the effect includes motion, you immediately see the movement reflected in the Live
Wireframe Preview in the Inspector.
Depending on the position of the playhead in the Timeline, the Canvas itself may or
may not change noticeably. Move the playhead to see how the track elements change
at different points in time, or click the Play button in the Canvas to view a RAM render.
The effect also appears in the Effects tab of the Inspector. The Effects tab shows a list of
the effects that have been applied to a track. The stack order does not affect the
sequence, or timing, of any effect.
To disable an effect:
m Click the Enable/Disable button in the Timeline next to the effect.
The Effects tab
of the Media Browser90 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
To disable an effect for one or more glyphs on a track:
1 Select the track.
2 Select the character(s) that you don’t want the effect to apply to, either by highlighting
them in the text-entry box or selecting them in the Canvas.
Because you cannot select noncontiguous characters at the same time, you may have
to do these steps more than once.
3 In the Effects tab of the Inspector, deselect the checkbox next to the effect you want to
turn off for the selected characters.
Adjusting the Timing of an Effect
All of the timing parameters applicable to tracks that contain LiveType media elements
also apply to effects.
Just as you can drag a track in the Timeline to adjust its starting point and duration,
you can do the same with an effect. Settings in the Timing tab of the Inspector
determine how an effect is applied to each letter on a track, how fast it runs, and how
many times the effect repeats.
The Timing tab includes an array of options that allow you to orchestrate the
movement of your Canvas elements. Timing tab settings apply to the effect that is
selected in the Timeline.
Canvas elements reflect the
current frame, as determined
by the playhead position.
The Effects tab of the
Inspector shows the effects
applied to the active track.
Preset effects are applied
from the Effects tab of
the Media Browser.
Playhead Effects TrackChapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 91
To adjust an effect’s timing parameters:
1 In the Timeline, select an effect that has been applied to a track.
2 Click the Timing tab in the Inspector.
The current timing parameters for the selected effect are reflected.
The Timing tab contains the following timing options:
Â Random: A randomized effect treats each character on a track separately, as opposed
to applying the effect parameters to the entire track at once. With this setting, the
effect transforms each character in a random order, separated by the designated
number of frames or seconds. The Seed field allows you to select alternative random
orders, up to 255, if the order doesn’t look quite right.
Â Sequence: A sequenced effect starts by transforming one character, then moves to
the next adjacent character, and so on. A sequence value of 0 indicates that the
effect plays simultaneously for all characters. With a value of 25, the effect begins to
transform the first character, then when the effect is 25 percent into the
transformation, it begins to transform the next character, and so on. The Start pop-up
menu below the Sequence slider defines the direction from which the sequence
Â Speed: You can change the speed of an effect, as a percentage of its default speed.
Increasing an effect’s speed decreases its duration. The Start pop-up menu below the
Speed slider allows you to run the effect in reverse.
Â Delay: The delay setting sets the start or end time of the effect in relation to the
beginning or endpoint of the track. Using this setting is an alternative to positioning
an effect directly in the Timeline.
The Timing tab
of the Inspector92 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
Â Loop: The loop setting determines how many times the effect will repeat. A loop
value of two doubles the duration of the effect. The To End checkbox makes the
effect loop continuously for the duration of the track.
Â Duration: This setting governs the duration of a track containing system font text or
any other static element. The duration of effects, as well as tracks containing dynamic
elements such as a movie clip or LiveFont, is adjusted with the Speed slider.
Â Hold First: With this option, the parameters for the first frame of an effect are
maintained for the designated period of time before the effect kicks in. For example,
if you want a track to fade in after two seconds, you can choose Hold First for two
seconds, during which time the track is invisible (or 0 percent opaque), before the
Fade In effect begins.
Â Hold Last: This works the same way as Hold First, but at the end of the effect, to
extend the final-frame parameters of the effect for a designated amount of time.
To adjust the timing of an effect in the Timeline, do one of the following:
Â Drag in the middle of the effect bar (but not on a keyframe) to position the effect
without changing its speed. This affects the effect’s Delay value, as seen in the Timing
tab of the Inspector.
Note: You can position an effect so that it extends beyond the boundaries of the
track, in which case the extraneous effect parameters aren’t used.
Â Drag either edge of the effect to adjust its speed. An effect that is shorter in duration
runs through its motions more quickly.
Resizing from the left edge of an effect whose Delay Start value is set “From Start”
changes the effect’s speed and delay. The same is true when resizing the right edge
of a “From End” effect.
Repositioning Groups of Effects Within a Track to Adjust Timing
If you have multiple effects in a single track, you can move them in unison to adjust
To reposition groups of effects within a track:
m In a track with multiple effects, hold down the Option key as you drag any single effect.
The effects move up and down the Timeline in unison. All effects in the track maintain
their relative positions but occur at an earlier or later point in time.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 93
Changing the Order of Effects
In a track with more than one effect, you can change the order (precedence) of an
effect by dragging it vertically. If the effect has timing information, its position in the
new track may be adjusted.
To change the order an effect:
m Drag the effect up or down within the track.
The order of the effects has now been changed.
Duplicating Effects and Tracks
You can easily duplicate effects and tracks, including duplicating an effect from one
track to another.
To duplicate an effect or track:
In the Timeline, Option-drag an effect or track to the new location or track. Holding
down the Option key while dragging an effect makes a copy of the effect in a new
Modifying a Preset Effect
In addition to adjusting the timing parameters of an effect, you can change what the
effect actually does; that is, how it transforms the track it’s applied to.
Altering an effect used in your project does not alter the original preset effect. Once
you have applied the effect, you are free to adjust it, and the changes you make are
saved as part of your project.94 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
Keyframes and Sequencing Markers
Computer animation is based on the concept of keyframes. Animators define a
graphical element’s parameters—position, color, size, shape, and so on—at periodic
intervals, and the software interpolates the parameters for each frame in between.
Keyframes are represented in the Timeline as diamond-shaped markers in effects. When
you select a keyframe, the playhead moves to that frame, and the Canvas reveals the
state of the project elements at that point in time.
To view the parameters defined by a keyframe:
1 Select the keyframe in the Timeline.
2 Click the Effects tab in the Inspector.
The parameters defined by that keyframe appear in the Active Parameters window.
The Clockwise effect, for example, only has one active parameter for its keyframes.
Regardless of the track attributes or other effects that may affect the track, the
Clockwise effect is concerned only with making the letters on the track spin. The
sequence timing parameter for the effect applies the rotation to each character on the
track one after the other, from left to right.
Sequencing markers, vertical lines in the light purple area of an effect bar, show when
each glyph starts to be acted on by the effect. The number of sequencing markers,
including the first frame of the effect and the beginning keyframe of the effect
(depicted by half diamonds), always equals the number of glyphs on the track.
Note: Not all effects are sequenced or randomized; therefore, not all effects have
Sequencing marker KeyframeChapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 95
Adjusting Keyframe Parameters
To change what an effect does, you have to alter its keyframes. While you can change
an effect’s parameters through the Effects tab by entering numeric values, it is usually
easier to make changes in a more visual way, using the full LiveType interface.
To adjust a keyframe by changing parameters in the Inspector:
1 Select a keyframe in the Timeline.
The playhead moves over the keyframe and the Canvas reflects the appearance of the
composition at that frame.
Note: If you change an effect parameter when the playhead is not over a keyframe, a
new keyframe is added at the current playhead position.
2 Adjust the attributes of the track.
The LED indicators in the Inspector indicate which attributes can be changed in the
context of an effect—they are all in the Text, Style, and Attributes tabs of the Inspector.
3 Click the Play button in the Canvas to see the results of your modification.
LED indicators appear
when an effect is
selected.96 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
To adjust a keyframe by changing parameters in the Canvas:
1 Select a keyframe in the Timeline.
2 Click a letter or the object to reveal its bounding box.
3 Manipulate the selected glyph to change its position, rotation, or scale.
When you drag the glyph, the entire word moves with it, and a motion path with small
incremental dots appears. Each dot on the motion path represents the pivot point of
the selected letter at every frame of the movie. Notice that if you select a different
letter, a slightly different motion path appears, representing the center position of that
letter for each frame.
4 Click the Play button in the Canvas to see the results of your modification.
LED Indicators in the Inspector
When you select an effect or keyframe, the Text, Style, and Attributes tabs in the
Inspector reveal small round lights, or LEDs, to the left of all attributes that can be
modified in an effect. The LEDs serve three purposes:
Â They indicate which parameters in the tab are active in the selected effect, allowing
you to see the pertinent values at a glance.
Â They allow you to activate a new parameter for an effect.
Â They let you apply an attribute evenly across all keyframes in the effect. This is a very
useful feature, as it lets you make global changes to an effect without having to
select and modify each keyframe.
To apply an attribute evenly across all keyframes in an effect:
1 Select the effect.
2 Change an attribute in the Text, Style, or Attributes tab.
3 Hold down the Option key and click the LED indicator next to the attribute you
just changed.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 97
The Active Parameters area of the Effects tab of the Inspector is a valuable resource for
identifying which parameters are active in an effect, and what their values are at any
point in time, as defined by the playhead position.
Active parameters are displayed with the values associated with the current frame.
Parameter variables are further described in Appendix B, “Creating and Editing
EffectScripts,” on page 135.
To change a parameter value in the Effects tab:
1 Select a keyframe.
2 Double-click a parameter in the Active Parameters stack.
3 Enter a value in the parameter dialog, then click OK.
Note: If you change a parameter when the playhead is not at a keyframe, a keyframe is
added to the effect at the playhead position.
The Parameter pop-up menu lists all of the keyframe parameters.
To add a new parameter to the Active Parameters stack of an effect:
1 Select the effect.
2 Do one of the following:
Â Click the LED next to the parameter in the Text, Style, or Attributes tab of the
Inspector. The selected LED illuminates.
Â In the Effects tab of the Inspector, make a selection from the Parameter pop-up
menu and click the + button. The parameter appears in the Active Parameters stack.
Â Change the parameter for one keyframe in the Text, Style, or Attributes tab of
Â Add Offset, Rotation, or Scale to the stack by modifying a glyph of the active track
using the bounding box handles or dragging the glyph to a new position.98 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
Example: Modifying an Effect
The following example shows how easy it is to change an effect and create a
dramatically different look. In this case, you want to add motion to the Fade In effect.
1 Set up a new project as follows:
a Choose File > New.
b Type “Adventure” into one of the text-entry boxes in the Inspector to add the word to
c Apply any system font to the track, for simplicity.
d Set the Render Selection Out Point by positioning the playhead at one second, then
pressing the O key.
2 Apply the Fade In effect to the track, which is in the Fades category in the Effects tab of
the Media Browser. Notice the following changes:
Â The effect is immediately represented in the Live Wireframe Preview of the Inspector.
Â If your playhead is on the first frame, the text disappeared in the Canvas when you
applied the effect. That’s because the Fade In effect begins with an opacity of 0.
3 If your playhead is not at the first frame, move it there.
For this example, start
with a simple text track
in a system font.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 99
4 In the text-entry box of the Inspector, highlight the “A” of Adventure.
Even though the text is invisible in the Canvas, a bounding box appears, allowing you
to adjust the glyph. Notice also that the first keyframe of the effect is now at the first
frame, with the sequencing markers behind, representing the other letters in the word.
5 Modify the glyph in the Canvas as follows, and watch the results in the Live Wireframe
Preview as you go:
a Drag the sizing handle in the upper-right corner of the bounding box to make the
glyph quite large, about one-third of the width of the Canvas.
b Using the rotation handle in the upper-left corner of the bounding box, tilt the glyph
about 45 degrees counterclockwise.
c Drag the glyph so its pivot point is in the lower-left corner of the Canvas, allowing
part of the glyph to extend off the Canvas.
Make sure the
playhead is on
the first frame.
Position the Render Selection
Out Point at one second.
Sequencing markers representing the
end of the effect for each remaining
letter in the word.
Duration of the
Fade In effect on
the “A” glyph
and reposition the
bounding box of
the “A” glyph.
UP01103EFF Page 99 Tuesday, March 8, 2005 1:56 PM100 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
The stack (in the Effects tab of the Inspector) has been changed automatically. The
Scale, Rotate, and Offset parameters now apply to this effect, in addition to the original
6 Click the Play button in the Canvas or press the Space bar to play a RAM preview.
Moving, Deleting, Adding, and Copying Keyframes
The more you experiment with effects, the more you’ll want to create and change
them to suit your own tastes. For example, you can change the placement of keyframes
in an effect to make it play out differently. Or you can add or delete a keyframe entirely.
To move the position of a keyframe in the Timeline:
m Drag the keyframe marker left or right within the effect bar.
To delete a keyframe:
1 Select the keyframe you want to remove.
2 Choose Track > Delete Keyframe.
Note: If you select a keyframe and press the Delete key, the entire effect is deleted.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 101
To add a keyframe to an effect:
1 Select the effect you want to add a keyframe to.
2 Drag the playhead to the frame where you want to insert a keyframe, or click that
frame’s position in the frame ruler.
3 Do one of the following:
Â With the playhead in position and the effect selected, choose Track > Add Keyframe
(or press Command-K).
Â Change any parameter in the Text, Style, or Attributes tab of the Inspector, or adjust a
glyph of the active track using the bounding box handles or dragging the glyph to a
A keyframe marker appears in the effect bar.
To copy a keyframe:
1 Select the keyframe you want to copy, then choose Edit > Copy.
2 Position the playhead over the frame where you want to insert the duplicate keyframe,
then choose Edit > Paste.
You can copy and paste keyframes from other effects, even in other projects.
Copying and Pasting Keyframes, Effects, and Tracks
You can easily copy and paste keyframes, effects, and tracks from one project
To copy and paste a keyframe between projects:
1 Open the project you want to copy the keyframe from.
2 In the Timeline, do one of the following:
Â Select a keyframe, then choose Edit > Copy Keyframe (or press Command-C).
Â Control-click the keyframe, then choose Copy Track, Copy Effect, or Copy Keyframe
from the shortcut menu.
3 Open the second project, and in the Timeline, position the playhead where you want
the new keyframe to appear.
4 Do one of the following:
Â Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V).
Â Control-click the track, then choose Paste from the shortcut menu.
The keyframe is copied into the second project.102 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
To copy and paste effects or tracks between projects:
1 Open the project you want to copy from.
2 In the Timeline, do one of the following:
Â Select the effect or track, then choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C).
Â Control-click the effect or track, then choose Copy Track or Copy Effect from the
3 Open the second project, click in the Timeline, then do one of the following:
Â Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V).
Â Control-click a track, then choose Paste from the shortcut menu.
The new effect or track is copied into the second project.
Renaming and Saving Modified Effects
When you change an effect in a LiveType project, it no longer has the same attributes
as the preset effect accessed through the Media Browser. You might even use different
versions of the same preset effect in one project. There are two ways to keep track of
these changes: rename effects within your project to distinguish them from the
original preset effects, or save them as new effects you can use any time.
To rename an effect within a project:
1 Select the effect or the track it’s applied to.
2 Click the Effects tab of the Inspector.
3 Select the effect whose name you want to change, and edit the name.
The new name is reflected in the Timeline.
To save a new or modified effect:
1 Select the effect.
2 Choose Track > Save Effect.
3 In the Save Effect dialog, name the effect and select the category you want to save it
into, or create a new category.
The effect appears in the Effects tab of the Media Browser.
Note: For the Media Browser to display a preview of the saved effect, you must create a
preview clip at 160 x 120 pixels, and give it the same name as the effect with the
appropriate extension. Preview clips can be in any QuickTime format, but if you’re
planning to create a lot of these, MPEG-4 is a good format choice, as it saves
considerable disk space. Save preview clips into the Effects folder located at /Library/
Application Support/LiveType, where saved effects are stored.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 103
Creating a New Effect From Scratch
Sometimes the most efficient way to create the effect you want is to start from scratch,
as opposed to changing an existing one.
The workflow goes like this:
1 Decide, roughly, what you want to animate and how you want it to move and
2 Create a track that contains the element you want to animate, preferably in its firstframe state.
3 Configure the timing of the track—its starting frame and duration.
4 Add a new, blank effect to the track.
5 Add keyframes to the effect, and adjust the parameters for each.
6 Save the effect, if desired, for use with other tracks or in other projects.
To add a new, blank effect to a track:
1 Select the track you want to add the effect to.
2 Choose Track > New Effect (or press Command-E).
A new effect appears in the Timeline below the active track.
3 Name the new effect, if you want, by double-clicking the New Effect name in the
Effects tab of the Inspector.104 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
Example: Creating a New Effect
The following example demonstrates how to build a new effect. In this case, part of the
text on a single track will bounce around the Canvas.
This example highlights how motion paths are built into an effect.
1 Start a new default project, and add a few words of text to the empty track in any font.
One of these words is going to move around the screen, independent of the other
word(s) on the track.
2 Position the track in the Canvas as you like. This will not affect the movement of the
3 Set the duration of the track by dragging its right edge in the Timeline. Two or three
seconds is plenty.
4 Create a new, blank effect, which enables you to apply movement to the text. Make the
effect duration match the track duration in the Timeline.
5 Now, even before you build the effect, make it apply to only one word on the track.
That is, turn off the effect, as described in “Preset Effects” on page 88, for the words
that won’t be moving.
6 Add the first of three or four keyframes spaced evenly across the effect.
a Click in the frame ruler to position the playhead.
b With the playhead in position and the effect selected, choose Track > Add Keyframe
(or press Command-K).Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 105
7 The next step is to position the word at the point of its first “bounce.” You’re adding x
and y offset parameters to the effect.
a With the keyframe selected, select one of the letters you want to move. A bounding
box appears around it.
b Drag the letter to a new position in the Canvas. The entire word, or all the letters that
the effect applies to in this case, moves with the selected letter. Notice that the
motion path appears.
c If you like, change the size, color, or any other attribute of the text for this keyframe.
8 Create a second keyframe, and drag the text to another location. Now the motion path
is a triangle. Create a few more “bounces” for the word.
Motion paths can also be curves. The process is similar to creating curved tracks as
described in Chapter 4, “Working With Tracks,” on page 47.
9 Add curves to your motion path by doing the following:
a With the effect selected in the Timeline, click a keyframe, or move the playhead over
b Select one glyph in the “bouncing” word.
c Hold down the Control key and drag the pivot point of the glyph, which is over the
keyframe point in the motion path.
Motion path of
the “u” glyph106 Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation
d Bezier handles extend away from the point, allowing you to adjust the curve.
10 Click Play in the Canvas, or press the Space bar, to see the results.
Creating Effects for Individual Glyphs
A unique and powerful feature of LiveType lies in the ability to instantly assign an effect
to individual or selected groups of glyphs, or characters, on a track. This method can be
used with new effects, as well as preset effects.
To assign an effect to individual characters:
m Select the character or characters you want to apply the effect to, then do one of the
Â Choose a preset effect from the Effects tab of the Media Browser, then click Apply.
Â Create your own effect by choosing Track > New Effect, then applying effects from
the parameter menu in the Effects tab of the Inspector.
The selected effect is automatically turned off for all characters that are deselected. If
the track is selected and no characters are selected, the effect is applied to the entire
group of characters on the track. You can reassign all characters to a single effect at
Hold down the Option key and
drag a keyframe point to pull
out Bezier handles, creating a
curved motion path.Chapter 7 Working With Effects and Keyframe Animation 107
Finding Effects and Media Using the Timeline
You can quickly find effects, movies, and images from the Timeline using a
To find effects and media using the Timeline:
m In the Timeline, Control-click a track, then do one of the following:
Â To find effects, choose Reveal in Media Browser from the shortcut menu.
Â To find movies or images, choose Reveal in Finder from the shortcut menu.
The effect is selected in the appropriate tab in the Media Browser, or a Finder window
appears with the movie or image selected.8
8 Previewing and Fully Rendering
Your Titling Movie
As your project progresses, you’ll want to view the results
of your changes every step of the way, until you’re ready
to generate the final output.
LiveType offers several modes and choices for managing the time it takes to
Previewing Your Work
Viewing a frame of your titling movie is as simple as moving the playhead in the
Timeline to any frame marker and looking at the Canvas elements. Obviously, you also
need to be able to see the action of your movie. LiveType offers several ways to do this.
Live Wireframe Preview
The Live Wireframe Preview window in the upper-right corner of the Inspector
continually scrolls through your animation, with small bounding boxes indicating the
movement of each character or object. This feature gives you an indication of your
project’s motion and timing at any moment.
To freeze or unfreeze the Live Wireframe Preview:
m Click inside the Live Wireframe Preview window in the Inspector.
Live Wireframe Preview
in the Inspector110 Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie
RAM Preview in the Canvas
The transport controls at the bottom of the Canvas allow you to play a preview of
your titling movie right in your working environment. A RAM preview displays all
elements that are visible and enabled in the Canvas, as well as the Canvas guides,
rulers, and so on. Thus, it differs from a preview movie, which reflects the final movie
output more closely.
To play a RAM preview, do one of the following:
m Click the Play button in the transport controls at the bottom of the Canvas.
m Press the Space bar.
At first, the frames are rendered and loaded into memory one by one; then the preview
plays in real time. The Pause button is displayed during this process.
The right-most transport control, the Loop button, is a toggle that sets the RAM
preview to either play once through or continually loop through the movie. When the
Loop button is activated, or blue, the RAM preview loops until you click anywhere in
the LiveType interface.
To stop a looping RAM preview:
m Click anywhere in the LiveType interface.
To pause a RAM preview:
m Click the Pause button at any time during a RAM preview.
The Play button appears and the RAM preview stops. The RAM preview resumes when
you click the Play button once more.
Transport controlsChapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie 111
A preview movie is basically a limited render of your titling movie.
To render a preview movie:
1 Choose File > Render Preview, then choose Wireframe or Normal.
The Normal setting renders your preview at the level defined in the Project Properties
dialog. LiveType looks for the .afd files in your /Library/Application Support/LiveType/
LiveType Data folder if you have used any LiveType media in your composition. If the
data files have not yet been installed, the Missing AFD dialog appears, giving you the
option to install the full data files or to use proxy frames (from the corresponding .afp
files) in the preview.
2 Do one of the following:
Â Select “Install missing LiveType Data now.”
This allows you to install the .afd files at a location other than the LiveType Data
folder, but still access them to render previews and final movies. See “Managing
LiveType Media Files” on page 29 for instructions.
Â Select “Use Poster Frames for Tracks with missing Data.”
The preview appears in a separate window. You can save a preview movie by
choosing File > Save As. Otherwise, LiveType deletes the preview movie when you
close the window.112 Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie
Optimizing Preview Performance
LiveType works with bitmapped elements that consist of pixels of information, as
opposed to vector-based data. While this format is what makes possible the wide range
of effects offered in LiveType, file sizes are inevitably large, and the time it takes to
render a preview can become lengthy.
Rendering time is affected by each layer of complexity added to a project, including
the number and file size of project elements, the number of effects applied to each
element, and the duration of the movie (that is, the number of frames to render).
Quality Settings for Previews and Movie Output
LiveType offers four levels of rendering quality, set in the Project Properties dialog, to
help you manage the amount of time you spend generating previews. Naturally, a
lower-quality preview takes less time to render.
A wireframe-quality preview represents each element as an empty bounding box,
much like the small Live Wireframe Preview in the Inspector. Draft, Normal, and High
Quality settings differ only in the resolution of the preview. A draft-quality Canvas
appears slightly grainy at 100 percent zoom. A draft-quality preview movie appears
small on the screen.
You may find that, as you build your project, it is useful to adjust the quality settings
several times, to suit your preferences.
To adjust the quality settings for viewing the Canvas, generating preview
movies, and rendering a final movie:
1 Choose Edit > Project Properties.
2 In the Quality area of the dialog, choose the quality level for each of the three modes.Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie 113
Strategies for Improving Render Times
In addition to the quality settings, LiveType offers numerous strategies to avoid
excessive waiting for frames and previews to render:
Â The Render Selection markers in the frames ruler of the Timeline limit the number of
frames that are rendered in preview movies and in the final output.
Â The Selected Only option in the View menu reveals only the contents of the active
track in the Canvas, in preview movies, and in final movie output. This can be useful
when you’re focusing on the movement of a single element.
Â The Enable/Disable buttons in the Timeline allow you to temporarily disable effects
and remove tracks from the Canvas. This is another way to reduce complexity when
you only require a partial preview.
Â The file size of imported elements affects system performance. For example, instead of
importing a large movie as a background for keying titles, consider importing a
single frame or small clip. If an imported element is to be used in your final output,
generate the original file at or near the needed resolution, as opposed to bringing in
a large image and shrinking it down in LiveType.
Â The amount of RAM memory on your system may be a factor. If saving time is critical,
you may want to consider increasing your available RAM.
Rendering, Saving, and Exporting Your Titling Movie
There are a couple of different ways to handle rendering, saving, and exporting your
LiveType project once you have completed it. The most practical method to choose
largely depends on whether you are going to work with your project within
Final Cut Pro or in another application.
Â If you are working with Final Cut Pro, import the LiveType project directly into
Final Cut Pro for final rendering.
Â If you are working with another application, render within LiveType first, then import
the rendered movie to the application.
Importing a LiveType Project Into Final Cut Pro for Rendering
Typically, a saved LiveType project file is imported into Final Cut Pro for rendering. This
saves time as, unlike third-party applications, you do not have to render the file in
LiveType prior to importing it.
To import a LiveType project into Final Cut Pro for rendering:
1 Choose File > Import > Files (or press Command-I), select the LiveType project file, then
The LiveType movie is imported into Final Cut Pro, appearing as a clip.
2 Edit the clip into a Final Cut Pro sequence.
3 Render the movie as you would any other clip.114 Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie
Making Changes to a LiveType Movie from Final Cut Pro
If you have imported a LiveType movie into Final Cut Pro and need to make a change,
you can make the change in LiveType and have it update in Final Cut Pro.
To make changes to a LiveType movie already imported into Final Cut Pro:
1 Select the LiveType clip in the Final Cut Pro Timeline.
2 Control-click the clip, then choose > Open in Editor from the shortcut menu.
LiveType opens with the movie ready for adjustment.
3 In LiveType, make any changes you want, then choose File > Save.
The change immediately updates in Final Cut Pro.
Note: You will have to re-render any changes that you have made within Final Cut Pro.
Rendering a LiveType Movie for Export
When working with a third-party application, you will need to render your movie
within LiveType prior to importing it.
To render a full-resolution movie of your project for export:
1 Choose File > Render Movie.
2 Choose a filename and location in the Save dialog, then click “Create new movie file.”
3 Just as with preview movies, LiveType requests that you install any missing LiveType
Data files. Do one of the following:
Â Select “Install missing LiveType Data now.”
This allows you to install LiveType media files to a location other than the LiveType
Data folder, but still access them to render previews and final movies. See “Managing
LiveType Media Files” on page 29 for instructions.
Â Select “Use Poster Frames for Tracks with missing Data.”
Note: By default, a QuickTime movie with an alpha channel is created in the Animation
codec. If another codec is preferred, use the options from File > Export Movie instead.Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie 115
Once LiveType has finished rendering your project, it appears in a new window.
LiveType Export Formats
LiveType natively generates QuickTime movies with the Animation 32-bit codec for
proper keying to your video. If your NLE or compositing program imports QuickTime 4
or later movies, you should be able to import these movies directly. You can also export
to a variety of motion and still-image formats. Keep in mind, however, that if you want
to retain the alpha channel, you must use a format that supports the 32-bit format,
such as Photoshop, Targa, TIFF, and AVI.
Your rendered movie
appears in a separate
viewer. (In this example,
the background movie
was rendered with the
Animation Motion JPEGA BMP AVI
BMP Motion JPEGB JPEG DV Stream
Cinepak None (No compression) JPEG 2000 Image FLC
Component Video PhotoJPEG MacPaint Heuris MPEG
DV/DVCPRO-NTSC Planar RGB Photoshop MPEG-2
DVCPRO-PAL PNG PICT MPEG-4
Graphics Sorenson Video PNG
H.261 Sorenson Video 3 QuickTime image
H.263 TGA SGI image
Intel Indeo Video r3.2 TIFF TGA
Intel Raw Video TIFF116 Chapter 8 Previewing and Fully Rendering Your Titling Movie
To export a rendered LiveType movie to a new format:
1 Open your movie output so it appears in the viewer window.
If you just rendered your project, the QuickTime movie will be open already. If you
previously rendered and saved the movie, open it using File > Open.
2 Choose File > Export Movie.
The dialog prompts you for a new name and file location, and offers a variety of file
formats to export to.
3 In the Export pop-up menu, choose the category of output you want to create.
4 In the Use pop-up menu, choose the appropriate file format or protocol.
5 Click the Options button to reveal additional settings pertinent to the format
9 Advanced Design Techniques
The key to designing great titles is to combine the
capabilities and media in LiveType in creative ways. A few
“recipes” for interesting looks are included in this chapter.
The following examples assume a general familiarity with the basic functions of
LiveType. Because each step is not explained in great detail, you may need to refer to
earlier chapters to perform some of the tasks.
Words Within Words
The Matte to Background option can be used to create some very interesting titling
compositions. Unlike Matte to Texture and Matte to Movie or Image, this matting
option creates a “window” into any background—even backgrounds composed of
For example, you can create words inside of words. In this case, foreground text defines
a window into background text, which slides right to left behind it. Follow these steps:
1 Create the foreground text to define the shape of the matte.
a Add a text track in a heavy system font such as Helvetica Bold.
b Type a word onto the track, then set the size so the word fills the width of the Canvas.
2 Create an intermediate layer to obscure the background.
a Choose a texture from the Media Browser, then click Apply To New Track.118 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
b Make sure the texture is underneath the text, but above the background bar in
3 Create a dynamic background that’s visible through the window created by the
a Add a new text track to the Canvas, then enter some text that’s smaller than the
foreground word you created in step 1.
b Position the track over the foreground text, and format the background text as
c Apply a crawl or slide effect to the track, to make the text move right to left.
d Drag the track below the background bar in the Timeline.
e Temporarily disable the texture and the foreground text track in the Timeline.
f Define a background color in the Project Properties dialog, or place a different
background behind the background text.
g Enable the texture and the foreground text track in the Timeline.
Foreground text to define
the shape of the “window”
into the background
Texture to obscure the
Foreground elementsChapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 119
4 Select the foreground text and choose Background from the “Matte to” pop-up menu
in the Matte pane of the Attributes tab of the Inspector.
Warping Shadows and Glows
The Warp feature in the Style tab of the Inspector can be used to create a surprising
variety of shapes to enhance your titles. This section describes how the Needle Drop
effect takes advantage of the Warp parameter, in combination with several other
parameters, to create a unique look.
1 Open a new project, and enter some text in a system font onto the track.
2 Change the text to a bright color in the Glyph pane of the Attributes tab of the
Inspector, then close the Colors window.
3 In the Project Properties dialog, change the background color to black, at 100
Matted text reveals a
moving word in the
background.120 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
4 Apply the Needle Drop effect to the track, which is in the Glows category in the Effects
tab of the Media Browser.
5 Set the track and effect durations to 1 second, set the Render Selection Out Point at 1
second, then click the Play button to render a RAM preview.
6 With the playhead over the effect in the Timeline, click the Effects tab of the Inspector
to view the active parameters.
The essential parameters used to create the Needle Drop effect are as follows:
Â Glyph settings: At the beginning keyframe, the glyphs on the track are small,
transparent, and blurred. At the ending keyframe, the characters are normal. The
middle keyframe simply makes the letters larger than normal.
Â Glow settings: At the beginning keyframe, the glow is invisible, with a 0 percent
opacity, and has a vertical offset of –200 pixels. At the middle keyframe, the glow
opacity is set at 500 percent, with some Scale and Blur adjustments and no offset.
And at the ending keyframe, the glow is invisible again, and the vertical offset is
Â Shadow settings: The shadow is what creates the “needles.” The shadow color is set to
white, and the scale is set to 10 percent on the x axis, making the shadows very thin.
The warp settings accentuate the narrow tips of the needles. And the shadow blur is
set to 2 percent, which is essential for this effect. At the ending keyframe, the
shadow goes to 0 percent opacity.
Â Timing settings: The Random parameter in the Timing tab is used to make this effect
apply to each glyph in a random order.
The Needle Drop effect
applied to text on a black
Canvas backgroundChapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 121
One track, one effect, three keyframes—it’s actually fairly easy to re-create this effect.
And even with the numerous parameters involved, the LiveType Timeline is remarkably
clean, since one keyframe encapsulates all the parameters at a point in time.
For another example showing an effective use of Warp parameters, take a look at the
Screech effect, in the Caricature category of the Effects tab in the Media Browser. This
effect is created by making the glyphs invisible and using the glow channel to display
the letters, which are distorted using Warp parameters.
Using a Slide effect along a curved track can create a three-dimensional effect.
This example explains how to combine these features to send text into a vortex in only
a few steps.
1 Open a new project, and enter some text onto the track.
2 Left-justify the text on the track.
3 Move the track up toward the top of the Canvas.
4 Add a control point in the middle of the track by holding down the Control key and
clicking the track line in the Canvas. Control-click the control point to choose Curve Out.
You want to leave the left half of the track more or less in the same position, and create
a curved path arcing down and around clockwise from that point. Only a couple of
additional control points are needed. See Chapter 4, “Working With Tracks,” on page 47
for more about making curved tracks.122 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
5 Add a new effect to the track.
6 Select the ending keyframe of the effect.
7 In the Effects tab of the Inspector, add the Slide parameter to the Active Parameters
stack. Double-click the Slide parameter and set the value to 100, which is a percentage
of the track’s length.
When you assign the Slide value to the ending keyframe, the beginning keyframe
defaults to a Slide value of 0.
8 While you’re still on the ending keyframe, set the Size parameter to 0.
9 In the Timing tab of the Inspector, set the Sequence value to 10, and choose From Right
from the Start pop-up menu.
Add parameters using the
Parameter pop-up menu and
the + button.
Change parameter values by
double-clicking an active
parameter.Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 123
10 Adjust the ending keyframe Slide value as needed for the right look, which can vary
depending on the length of the track and the text sliding on it.
Creative Use of Special Characters
Symbols and other kinds of special characters can be very useful and convenient as
titling elements. Because these characters are vector-based shapes, they have very
small file sizes, and no upper limit to their size in the Canvas. Plus, they’re easy to access.
This example shows you how to create a pattern of boxes, covering the Canvas, which
randomly change colors and fade away to reveal a message or image behind them.
1 Open a new LiveType project, and click in one of the text-entry areas.
2 Open the Character Palette.
Â If your Character Palette is enabled in your Mac OS X System Preferences, it appears
as a small icon on the right side of the LiveType menu.
The text appears to spiral
down into a vortex.124 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
Â To enable the Character Palette, open System Preferences, click International, click
the Input Menu button, and select Character Palette.
Â Alternatively, in LiveType, you can Control-click inside one of the text-entry boxes in
the Inspector, then choose Font > Show Fonts from the shortcut menu. The Font
dialog appears. Choose Characters from the Extras pop-up menu located on the
bottom-left corner of the Font dialog.
3 Choose a solid square character, then click Insert to add the character to the text-entry
box. Insert three lines of four boxes on the same text track.
Enable the Character
Palette in your System
Preferences.Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 125
4 Adjust the Size, Tracking, and Leading parameters in the Text tab of the Inspector to
create a panel of evenly spaced squares.
5 In the Style tab, disable the shadow, and add a white outline thick enough for the
outlines of each square to touch each other, obscuring the Canvas background.
6 Add a new effect, and set the duration of both the track and the effect to 1 second in
7 Select the beginning keyframe of the effect, and choose a glyph color in the Attributes
tab of the Inspector. Change the ending keyframe to a different color. Then position the
playhead at several intermittent points, changing the color each time.
If you change an effect parameter when the playhead is not on a keyframe, a new
keyframe is automatically added to the effect under the playhead. This step shows how
automatic keyframe insertion can be a convenient time saver.
8 Set the glyph opacity to 0 percent at the ending keyframe, so that squares fade out at
First Keyframe Ending Keyframe126 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
9 In the Timing tab, set the Random setting to 15.
10 Add text or another element behind the panel of squares, so it is gradually revealed as
the squares fade away.
LiveFonts and Layers
Several LiveFonts that come with LiveType are designed to work in tandem with other
fonts. One of these is the Nitro font, which can make text look like it explodes. These
steps explain how to use such fonts effectively.
Note: You need to install the Nitro data file to follow this example. See “Managing
LiveType Media Files” on page 29 for information on installing LiveType media.
1 Create a text track, and apply a system font with any basic formatting you like.
2 Choose Track > Duplicate Track to create a copy positioned directly over the
3 In the Timeline, lock the two tracks together using the grouping buttons.
4 Select Track 1, and apply the Nitro LiveFont.
5 In the Style tab of the Inspector, disable the shadow for Track 1.
6 In the Timing tab, set Sequence at 5 percent, then shorten the duration of the track,
either by dragging the end of the track in the Timeline or by adjusting the Speed
parameter in the Timing tab.Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 127
7 Apply the Fade Out effect to Track 2, since you want the letters to disappear once
The trick is that you want the letters to fade out just as they explode, and because they
are exploding in sequence, you need to align the timing of the sequencing markers for
the two tracks.
8 Using the sequencing markers in the Timeline as your guide, adjust the speed of the
Fade Out effect to line up the sequencing markers of Track 1 and the Track 2 effect.
Align the sequencing markers of the
Nitro LiveFont and the Fade Out effect.
The combination of the top layer
of text in the Nitro LiveFont, and
the underlying text that fades
away, makes the letters appear
to explode from left to right.128 Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques
Creating Scrolls and Crawls
Scroll and crawl effects are used to create credit rolls, or to slide strings of text across
the screen like a stock ticker. These two kinds of effects use the Canvas Offset
parameter to create a vertical or horizontal motion path long enough to move text
onto the Canvas and fully off the opposite side.
The offset value, which defines the length of the motion path, is based on the length of
the element that’s scrolling or crawling. So it’s best to enter and format the text before
applying the effect, so you don’t have to reposition the starting point of the element
Note: From a design standpoint, scrolls and crawls are best used with system fonts, as
opposed to LiveFonts. If you do choose to scroll a LiveFont, you’ll need to work with
the font’s timing parameters, including speed and the Hold First and Hold Last options
in the Timing tab of the Inspector, to coordinate the LiveFont animation with the
scrolling or crawling movement.
To create scrolling text:
1 Enter several lines of text onto a new track, using the Return key to create line breaks in
the text-entry box.
2 Format the text, paying particular attention to any parameter affecting the total vertical
length of the lines of text—font, size, leading, and so on.
3 Apply a scroll effect from the Scrolls and Crawls category in the Effects tab of the
4 Adjust the speed of the scroll, which is now visible in the Live Wireframe preview, by
dragging the right edge of the effect bar in the Timeline, or by changing the Speed
setting in the Timing tab of the Inspector.
5 In the Timeline, drag the right edge of the track to match the duration of the effect.
6 Move the text to its starting position.
a Make sure the playhead is over the first frame in the Timeline.
b Set the Canvas zoom to 25 percent, to see outside the boundaries of the Canvas.
c Drag the track in the Canvas to set the starting position of the scrolling text. (Text
that is beyond the edge of the Canvas is represented by blue bounding boxes.) Hold
down the Shift key as you drag to constrain the horizontal position of the track.
If you are using the Scroll Up effect, for example, you might want to set the starting
position of the first line of text just below the bottom edge of the Canvas. Chapter 9 Advanced Design Techniques 129
To create crawling text:
1 Enter text—typically several words or a sentence on one line—onto a new track.
2 Format the text, paying particular attention to any parameter affecting the total
horizontal length of the text—font, size, tracking, and so on.
3 Apply a crawl effect from the Scrolls and Crawls category in the Effects tab of the
4 Adjust the speed of the crawl, which is now visible in the Live Wireframe preview, by
dragging the right edge of the effect bar in the Timeline, or by changing the Speed
setting in the Timing tab of the Inspector.
5 In the Timeline, drag the right edge of the track to match the duration of the effect.
6 With the playhead over the first frame, drag the track in the Canvas to adjust its
starting position. 131
A Solutions to Common Problems
and Customer Support
If you run into problems while working with LiveType, there are several resources you
can use to find a solution.
Â This appendix: This appendix includes information about some of the most frequent
issues users encounter.
Â Late-Breaking News: A late-breaking news page in the LiveType Help menu provides
last-minute information that didn’t make it into the manual. Be sure to consult this
help page as soon as you install LiveType.
Â AppleCare Knowledge Base: AppleCare Support maintains a database of common
support issues that is updated and expanded to include new issues as they arise. This
is an excellent, free resource for LiveType users. To access the AppleCare Knowledge
Base, go to the AppleCare support page at http://www.apple.com/support.
Â AppleCare Support: There are a variety of support options available to LiveType
customers. For more information, see the Apple Professional Software Service &
Support Guide that comes with your Final Cut Pro documentation.
Frequently Asked Questions
Some fonts appear to shake in the preview movie.
Â Because LiveType uses a small sampling for low-quality previews, some images may
be missing pixel data that provides smoother movement. Increase your quality
settings in the Project Properties dialog to produce smooth results.
My images appear pixelated.
Â If you render a preview, your movie is displayed in low resolution and appears a bit
pixelated. Also, if you size your elements beyond their original size, some pixelization
may occur.132 Appendix A Solutions to Common Problems and Customer Support
LiveType doesn’t open anymore.
Â It is possible to save a set of default settings that prevents LiveType from opening.
Try erasing your default settings file: