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User-Guide-iPad-For-ios-5-1-Software

iPod touch Benutzerhandbuch5 Kapitel 1: Einführung 5 Voraussetzungen 5 Registrieren des iPod touch 6 Synchronisieren mit iTunes 11 E-Mail-, Kontakt- und Kalender-Accounts 13 Installieren von Konfigurationsprofilen 14 Trennen des iPod touch von Ihrem Computer 15 Kapitel 2: Grundlagen 15 Ihr iPod touch im Überblick 17 Home-Bildschirm 20 Tasten 22 Touchscreen-Bildschirm 24 Bildschirmtastatur 29 Herstellen der Internetverbindung 29 Batterie 31 Reinigen des iPod touch 31 Neustarten und Zurücksetzen des iPod touch 32 Kapitel 3: Musik und Video 32 Laden von Musik, Videos und mehr 34 Musik und andere Audiodateien 41 Videos 43 Festlegen eines Timers für den Ruhezustand 44 Ändern der Tasten zum Blättern 45 Kapitel 4: iTunes und der App Store 45 iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store 51 App Store 57 Synchronisieren von gekauften Inhalten 57 Prüfen der Einkäufe 58 Aktualisieren Ihres Accounts 2 InhaltInhalt 3 59 Kapitel 5: Safari 59 Anzeigen von Webseiten 62 Suchen im Internet 63 Lesezeichen 64 Weblinks 65 Kapitel 6: Mail 65 Konfigurieren von E-Mail-Accounts 65 Senden von E-Mails 67 Abrufen und Lesen von E-Mails 70 Verwalten von E-Mails 72 Kapitel 7: Weitere Programme 72 Karten 79 YouTube 82 Fotos 86 Kalender 91 Kontakte 93 Aktien 94 Wetter 95 Notizen 95 Rechner 98 Uhr 100 Nike + iPod 101 Kapitel 8: Einstellungen 101 Wi-Fi 102 VPN 103 Neue Daten laden 103 Helligkeit 104 Allgemeine Probleme 110 Musik 111 Video 112 Fotos 112 Mail, Kontakte, Kalender 116 Safari 117 Nike + iPod 118 Anhang A: Fehlerbeseitigung 118 Allgemeine Probleme 119 iTunes und Synchronisierung 121 Ton, Musik und Video 123 iTunes Stores4 Inhalt 123 Safari, Mail und Kontakte 124 Sichern der iPod touch-Daten 126 Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen der iPod touch-Software 127 Verwenden der iPod touch-Bedienungshilfe 129 Anhang B: Weitere Ressourcen 129 Informationen zu Sicherheit, Software und Service 130 Für die Anzeige auf dem iPod touch optimiertes Benutzerhandbuch 130 Informationen zur Entsorgung und zum Recycling 5 · ACHTUNG: Lesen Sie zu Ihrer eigenen Sicherheit alle Anleitungen zum Umgang mit dem Gerät in diesem Handbuch sowie die Sicherheitsinformationen im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch bevor Sie den iPod touch verwenden. Voraussetzungen Für die Verwendung des iPod touch ist Folgendes erforderlich:  Ein Mac oder ein PC mit einem USB 2.0-Anschluss und einem der folgenden Betriebssysteme:  Mac OS X Version 10.4.10 (oder neuer)  Windows XP Home oder Professional mit Service Pack 2 (oder neuer)  Windows Vista Home Premium, Business, Enterprise oder Ultimate Edition  Ein Computerbildschirm, dessen Auflösung auf 1024 x 768 (oder höher) eingestellt ist  iTunes 8.0.2 (oder neuer), verfügbar unter www.itunes.com/de/download  Ein iTunes Store-Account (um Musik im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store oder App Store zu kaufen)  Eine Internetverbindung für Ihren Computer (Breitband empfohlen) Registrieren des iPod touch Damit Sie die Funktionen des iPod touch nutzen können, müssen Sie den iPod touch zuerst mithilfe von iTunes konfigurieren. Sie können den iPod touch auch registrieren und einen iTunes Store-Account (in den meisten Ländern verfügbar) erstellen, falls Sie noch keinen Account besitzen. Registrieren des iPod touch: 1 Laden und installieren Sie die neuste Version von iTunes von folgender Website: www.itunes.com/de/download. 1 Einführung2 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mithilfe des mit dem iPod touch gelieferten Kabels mit einem USB 2.0-Anschluss Ihres Mac oder PCs. 3 Befolgen Sie die in iTunes angezeigten Anleitungen, um den iPod touch zu registrieren und den iPod touch mit Ihren Kontakten, Kalendern und Lesezeichen auf Ihrem Computer zu synchronisieren. Synchronisieren mit iTunes Mit dem iPod touch können Sie schnell und einfach auf Ihre Musik, Videos, geladenen Programme und andere Inhalte der iTunes-Mediathek zugreifen. iTunes kann diese Informationen sowie Ihre Kontakte, Kalender und Browser-Lesezeichen mit dem iPod touch synchronisieren. Konfigurieren der Synchronisierung Sie können iTunes so konfigurieren, dass nur einige oder aber alle der folgenden Informationen synchronisiert werden:  Musik und Hörbücher  Filme  Fernsehsendungen  Podcasts  Fotos  Kontakte – Namen, Telefonnummern, Adressen, E-Mail-Adressen und mehr  Kalender – Termine und Ereignisse  E-Mail-Account-Einstellungen  Lesezeichen für Webseiten  Programme, die Sie im iTunes Store gekauft oder geladen haben 6 Kapitel 1 EinführungKapitel 1 Einführung 7 Die Einstellungen für die Synchronisierung lassen sich immer dann anpassen, wenn der iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer verbunden ist. Musik, Hörbücher, Podcastas, Videoinhalte und gekaufte Programme werden mit Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek synchronisiert. Wenn Sie noch keine iTunes-Inhalte besitzen, können Sie über den iTunes Store (in einigen Ländern verfügbar) Inhalte kaufen oder abonnieren und in iTunes laden. Sie können Musik auch von Ihren CDs zu Ihrer iTunesMediathek hinzufügen. Näheres zu iTunes und dem iTunes Store erfahren Sie, indem Sie iTunes öffnen und dann „Hilfe“ > „iTunes-Hilfe“ auswählen. Kontakte, Kalender und Webbrowser-Lesezeichen werden wie im Folgenden beschrieben mit Programmen Ihres Computers synchronisiert. Bei Kontaktinformationen und Kalendern erfolgt die Synchronisierung zwischen Computer und iPod touch in beide Richtungen. Neue Einträge oder Änderungen, die Sie auf dem iPod touch vornehmen, werden mit Ihrem Computer synchronisiert und umgekehrt. Bei WebbrowserLesezeichen erfolgt die Synchronisierung ebenfalls in beide Richtungen. Fotos können von einem Programm oder einem Ordner synchronisiert werden. E-Mail-Account-Einstellungen werden dagegen nur vom E-Mail-Programm Ihres Computers auf den iPod touch übertragen. So können Sie Ihre E-Mail-Accounts auf dem iPod touch anpassen, ohne dass dies Auswirkungen auf die E-Mail-AccountEinstellungen auf Ihrem Computer hat. Hinweis: Sie können E-Mail-Accounts auch direkt auf dem iPod touch einrichten. Vgl. „E-Mail-, Kontakt- und Kalender-Accounts“ auf Seite 11. Einkäufe, die Sie mit dem iPod touch im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store oder dem App Store getätigt haben, werden erneut mit Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek synchronisiert. Sie können Musik und Programme auch direkt im iTunes Store erwerben oder auf Ihren Computer laden und anschließend mit dem iPod touch synchronisieren. Wenn Sie möchten, können Sie den iPod touch so einrichten, dass nur ein Teil der auf Ihrem Computer enthaltenen Daten synchronisiert wird. Möglicherweise möchten Sie z. B. nur bestimme Musik-Wiedergabelisten oder noch nicht angesehene VideoPodcasts synchronisieren. Wichtig: Sie können nur jeweils einen iPod touch anschließen und synchronisieren. Trennen Sie das Gerät vom Computer, bevor Sie ein weiteres anschließen und synchronisieren. Sie müssen mit Ihrem eigenen Benutzer-Account am Computer angemeldet sein, bevor Sie den iPod touch anschließen. Wenn Sie auf einem PC mehrere iPod touch- oder iPod-Geräte mit demselben Benutzer-Account synchronisieren, müssen Sie für alle Geräte dieselben Einstellungen für die Synchronisierung verwenden. Konfigurieren der iTunes-Synchronisierung: 1 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer und öffnen Sie iTunes (sofern es nicht automatisch geöffnet wird).2 Wählen Sie in iTunes den iPod touch in der Seitenleiste aus. 3 Konfigurieren Sie die Optionen für die Synchronisierung in den einzelnen Einstellungsbereichen. Im folgenden Abschnitt finden Sie Beschreibungen zu den verschiedenen Bereichen. Hinweis: Wenn Sie den iPod touch so konfiguriert haben, dass Kontakte, Kalender oder Lesezeichen mit MobileMe oder Microsoft Exchange synchronisiert werden, ist die Synchronisierung für diese Objekte in iTunes deaktiviert. Vgl. „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11. 4 Klicken Sie auf „Anwenden“ unten rechts im Bildschirm. Standardmäßig ist die Option „iTunes öffnen, wenn dieser iPod angeschlossen wird” ausgewählt. iPod touch-Einstellungsbereiche in iTunes Die folgenden Abschnitte bieten einen Überblick über die einzelnen Einstellungsbereiche des iPod touch. Näheres hierzu erfahren Sie, indem Sie iTunes öffnen und dann „Hilfe“ > „iTunes-Hilfe“ auswählen. Übersicht Wählen Sie die Option „“”iTunes öffnen, wenn dieser iPod angeschlossen wird” aus, damit iTunes automatisch geöffnet und eine Synchronisierung des iPod touch ausgeführt wird, wenn Sie das Gerät mit Ihrem Computer verbinden. Deaktivieren Sie diese Option, wenn Sie die Synchronisierung durch Klicken auf die Taste „Synchronisieren“ in iTunes selbst starten wollen. Näheres zum Verhindern der automatischen Synchronisierung finden Sie im Abschnitt „Verhindern der automatischen Synchronisierung“ auf Seite 10. 8 Kapitel 1 EinführungKapitel 1 Einführung 9 Wählen Sie die Option „Nur markierte Titel und Videos synchronisieren“ aus, wenn nur Objekte synchronisiert werden sollen, die Sie in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek markiert haben. Wählen Sie „Musik und Videos manuell verwalten“ aus, damit die automatische Synchronisierung in den Einstellungsbereichen „Musik“ und „Video“ deaktiviert wird. Vgl. „Manuelles Verwalten von Inhalten“ auf Seite 33. Die Bereiche „Musik“, „Filme“, „Sendungen“ und „Podcasts“ Verwenden Sie diese Bereiche, um die Medien anzugeben, die Sie synchronisieren möchten. Sie können alle Musiktitel, Filme, Fernsehsendungen und Podcasts synchronisieren oder die Wiedergabelisten und Objekte auswählen, die auf dem iPod touch verfügbar sein sollen. Wenn Sie ausgeliehene Filme auf dem iPod touch ansehen möchten, übertragen Sie sie auf den iPod touch. Dazu verwenden Sie den Bereich „Filme“ in iTunes. Wenn der Speicherplatz auf dem iPod touch nicht für alle angegebenen Medien ausreicht, werden Sie von iTunes gefragt, ob Sie eine spezielle Wiedergabeliste anlegen wollen. iTunes erstellt diese Wiedergabeliste und richtet sie für die Synchronisierung mit dem iPod touch ein. Bereich „Fotos“ Sie können Fotos mit iPhoto 4.0.3 oder neuer oder Aperture (Mac) oder mit Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 oder neuer bzw. Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 oder neuer (PC) synchronisieren. Alternativ können Sie auch Fotos in jedem Ordner auf Ihrem Computer für die Synchronisierung verwenden. Bereich „Infos“ In diesem Bereich können Sie die Einstellungen für die Synchronisierung für Ihre Kontakte, Kalender, E-Mail-Accounts und Webbrowser-Lesezeichen festlegen.  Kontakte Sie können Kontakte mit Programmen wie dem Mac OS X-Adressbuch, Microsoft Entourage und dem Yahoo!- Adressbuch sowie dem Google-Adressbuch auf einem Mac oder mit dem Yahoo!- Adressbuch, Google-Adressbuch, Windows-Adressbuch (Outlook Express), Vista Contacts oder Microsoft Outlook 2003 oder 2007 auf einem PC synchronisieren. (Mit einem Mac können Sie Kontaktinformationen mit mehreren Programmen synchronisieren. Mit einem PC können Sie Kontakte nur mit jeweils einem Programm synchronisieren.) Wenn Sie Ihre Yahoo!- ID oder das Kennwort nach dem Einrichten der Synchronisierung geändert haben, müssen Sie für eine Synchronisierung mit dem Yahoo!-Adressbuch nur auf „Konfigurieren“ klicken und Ihre neuen Anmeldedaten eingeben.  KalenderSie können Kalender aus Programmen wie iCal und Microsoft Entourage auf einem Mac oder Microsoft Outlook 2003 oder 2007 auf einem PC synchronisieren. (Auf einem Mac können Sie Kalender mit mehreren Programmen synchronisieren. Auf einem PC können Sie Kalender nur mit jeweils einem Programm synchronisieren.)  E-Mail-Accounts Sie können E-Mail-Account-Einstellungen von Mail auf einem Mac und von Microsoft Outlook 2003 oder 2007 bzw. Outlook Express auf einem PC synchronisieren. Account-Einstellungen werden nur vom Computer auf den iPod touch übertragen. Änderungen, die Sie an einem E-Mail-Account auf dem iPod touch vornehmen, haben keine Auswirkungen auf den Account auf Ihrem Computer. Hinweis: Das Kennwort für Ihren Yahoo!- E-Mail-Account wird nicht auf dem Computer gesichert. Daher kann es nicht synchronisiert werden und muss auf dem iPod touch separat eingegeben werden. Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“, tippen Sie auf Ihren Yahoo!- Account und geben Sie das Kennwort ein.  Webbrowser Lesezeichen lassen sich mit Safari (Mac) oder mit Safari bzw. Microsoft Internet Explorer (PC) synchronisieren.  Erweitert Mit diesen Optionen können Sie bei der nächsten Synchronisierung die Informationen auf dem iPod touch durch die auf Ihrem Computer ersetzen. Bereich „Programme“ Im Bereich „Programme“ können Sie festlegen, welche Programme des App Store Sie auf dem iPod touch installieren wollen. Alle direkt auf dem iPod touch geladenen Programme werden beim Synchronisieren automatisch in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek gesichert. Wenn Sie ein Programm manuell auf dem iPod touch löschen, können Sie es über diesen Bereich erneut installieren, sofern es zuvor synchronisiert wurde. Verhindern der automatischen Synchronisierung Es ist ratsam, die automatische Synchronisierung des iPod touch zu deaktivieren, wenn Sie den iPod touch an einen anderen Computer anschließen als an den, den Sie normalerweise für die Synchronisierung verwenden. Deaktivieren der automatischen Synchronisierung des iPod touch: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. Wählen Sie den iPod touch in der iTunesSeitenleiste aus und klicken Sie dann auf den Titel „Übersicht“. Deaktivieren Sie die Option „iTunes öffnen, wenn dieser iPod angeschlossen wird”. Sie können jederzeit eine Synchronisierung ausführen, indem Sie auf die Taste „Synchronisieren“ klicken. 10 Kapitel 1 EinführungKapitel 1 Einführung 11 Verhindern der Synchronisierung für alle iPhone- und iPod-Geräte: Wählen Sie in iTunes „iTunes“ > „Einstellungen“ (Mac) oder „Bearbeiten“ > „Einstellungen“ (PC), klicken Sie auf „Geräte“ und wählen Sie „Automatische Synchronisierung für alle iPhones und iPods deaktivieren“. Wenn dieses Markierungsfeld ausgewählt ist, wird der iPod touch nicht automatisch synchronisiert, auch wenn „iTunes öffnen, wenn dieser iPod angeschlossen wird” im Bereich „Übersicht” ausgewählt ist. Vorübergehendes Verhindern der automatischen Synchronisierung ohne Ändern der Einstellungen: Öffnen Sie iTunes. Drücken Sie beim Verbinden des iPod touch mit dem Computer die Tastenkombination „Befehl-Wahl“ (Mac) oder „Umschalt-Strg“ (PC), bis der iPod touch in der Seitenleiste angezeigt wird. Manuelles Synchronisieren: Wählen Sie den iPod touch in iTunes in der Seitenleiste aus und klicken Sie dann unten rechts im Fenster auf „Synchronisieren“. Wenn Sie Einstellungen für die Synchronisierung geändert haben, klicken Sie auf „Anwenden“. E-Mail-, Kontakt- und Kalender-Accounts Der iPod touch funktioniert mit MobileMe, Microsoft Exchange und vielen anderen gängigen E-Mail-Systemen. Einrichten von Accounts MobileMe und Microsoft Exchange bieten nicht nur E-Mail-Funktionen, sondern auch Kontakt- und Kalenderinformationen, die sich automatisch per Funk mit dem iPod touch synchronisieren lassen. MobileMe kann auch Ihre Lesezeichen bzw. Favoriten auf dem iPod touch mit Safari (Mac) oder mit Safari bzw. Microsoft Internet Explorer (PC) synchronisieren. Sie richten MobileMe-, Exchange- und andere E-MailAccounts direkt auf dem iPod touch ein. Der iPod touch verwendet das Protokoll „Exchange ActiveSync“, um E-Mails, Kalender und Kontakte mit den folgenden Versionen von Microsoft Exchange zu synchronisieren:  Exchange Server 2003 Service Pack 2  Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 1 Bei vielen der gängigen E-Mail-Accounts werden die meisten Einstellungen auf dem iPod touch automatisch für Sie eingegeben. Falls Sie noch keinen E-Mail-Account besitzen, können Sie online unter www.yahoo.com, www.google.com oder www.aol.com einen kostenlosen Account einrichten. Sie können auch MobileMe 60 Tage kostenlos testen. Besuchen Sie dazu die Website www.me.com. Fügen Sie einen Account auf dem iPod touch hinzu: 1 Tippen Sie im Home-Bildschirm des iPod touch auf „Einstellungen“.2 Tippen Sie auf „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und dann auf „Account hinzufügen“. 3 Tippen Sie auf einen Account-Typ:  Microsoft Exchange  MobileMe  Google Mail  Yahoo! Mail  AOL  Andere 4 Geben Sie Ihre Account-Informationen ein und tippen Sie auf „Sichern“. Ihr E-Mail-Anbieter oder Systemadministrator kann Ihnen die erforderlichen AccountEinstellungen zur Verfügung stellen. Exchange-Accounts: Geben Sie Ihre vollständige E-Mail-Adresse, die Domain (optional), den Benutzernamen, das Kennwort und eine Beschreibung ein. Die Beschreibung können Sie nach Belieben wählen. Der iPod touch unterstützt den Autodiscovery-Dienst von Microsoft, der die Adresse des Exchange-Servers anhand Ihres Benutzernamens und Kennworts ermittelt. Kann die Adresse des Servers nicht ermittelt werden, werden Sie aufgefordert, sie einzugeben. (Geben Sie die vollständige Adresse in das Feld „Server“ ein.) Nachdem Sie die Verbindung zum Exchange-Server hergestellt haben, werden Sie möglicherweise zur Änderung Ihres Codes aufgefordert, damit dieser mit den auf dem Server festgelegten Richtlinien übereinstimmt. 5 Wenn Sie einen Exchange- oder MobileMe-Account einrichten, tippen Sie auf die zu synchronisierenden Objekte – E-Mails, Kontakte, Kalender und Lesezeichen (nur MobileMe). Bei Exchange-Accounts können Sie auch festlegen, aus welchem Zeitraum E-Mails mit dem iPod touch synchronisiert werden sollen. Tippen Sie auf „Sichern“. Wichtig: Wenn Sie Kontakte oder Kalender mit Ihrem Exchange- oder MobileMeAccount synchronisieren, wird die Synchronisierung von Kontakten oder Kalendern in iTunes deaktiviert. Alle Kontakt- oder Kalenderinformationen auf dem iPod touch werden durch die Kontakte und Kalender Ihres Exchange- oder MobileMe-Account ersetzt. Push-Accounts MobileMe, Microsoft Exchange und Yahoo! Mail werden als „Push“-Accounts bezeichnet. Wenn neue Informationen – etwa eingehende E-Mails – verfügbar sind, werden diese Informationen automatisch an den iPod touch weitergeleitet (Push- Übertragung). (Im Gegensatz dazu ist es bei „Fetch”-Diensten erforderlich, dass Ihre E-Mail-Software regelmäßig bei Ihrem Dienstanbieter nachprüft, ob neue Nachrichten eingegangen sind, und deren Zustellung anfordert.) MobileMe und Exchange verwenden die Push-Übertragung auch, um Ihre Kontakte, Kalender und Lesezeichen (nur MobileMe) zu synchronisieren, wenn Sie diese Objekte in den Account-Einstellungen ausgewählt haben. 12 Kapitel 1 EinführungKapitel 1 Einführung 13 Synchronisierte Informationen werden automatisch über Ihre drahtlose Verbindung übertragen. Sie müssen den iPod touch nicht an den Computer anschließen, um ihn zu synchronisieren. Der iPod touch kann via Push-Funktion (über eine Wi-Fi-Verbindung) übertragene Daten nur empfangen, wenn der iPod touch aktiviert ist (der Bildschirm ist eingeschaltet oder der iPod touch ist mit dem Computer oder einem Netzteil verbunden). Installieren von Konfigurationsprofilen Wenn Sie in einer Unternehmensumgebung arbeiten, können Sie möglicherweise Accounts und andere Einstellungen auf dem iPod touch einrichten, indem Sie ein Konfigurationsprofil installieren. Konfigurationsprofile bieten Systemadministratoren eine Möglichkeit, den iPod touch schnell so zu konfigurieren, dass er mit den Informationssystemen von Unternehmen, Schulen oder Organisationen verwendet werden kann. Mit einem Konfigurationsprofil kann Ihr iPod touch beispielsweise so konfiguriert werden, dass der iPod touch während der Arbeit auf die Exchange-Server und auf Ihre Exchange-E-Mails, -Kalender und -Kontakte zugreifen kann. Mit Konfigurationsprofilen lassen sich mehrere Einstellungen auf dem iPod touch gleichzeitig konfigurieren. Beispielsweise können Sie mit einem Konfigurationsprofil Ihren Microsoft Exchange-Account, VPN-Account und Zertifikate für den sicheren Zugriff auf das Netzwerk und auf Informationen Ihres Unternehmens einrichten. Ein Konfigurationsprofil aktiviert u. U. die Code-Sperre, sodass Sie einen Code erstellen und eingeben müssen, um den iPod touch verwenden zu können. Ihr Systemadministrator verteilt Konfigurationsprofile möglicherweise per E-Mail oder stellt sie auf einer sicheren Webseite bereit. Installieren eines Konfigurationsprofils: 1 Öffnen Sie auf dem iPod touch die entsprechende E-Mail oder laden Sie das Konfigurationsprofil von der von Ihrem Systemadministrator bereitgestellten Website. 2 Tippen Sie auf „Installieren“, nachdem das Konfigurationsprofil geöffnet wurde. 3 Geben Sie Kennwörter und andere Informationen wie erforderlich ein. Wichtig: Möglicherweise werden Sie aufgefordert zu bestätigen, dass das Konfigurationsprofil vertrauenswürdig ist. Fragen Sie im Zweifelsfall Ihren Systemadministrator, bevor Sie ein Konfigurationsprofil installieren. Die von einem Konfigurationsprofil vorgegebenen Einstellungen können nicht geändert werden. Wenn Sie die Einstellungen ändern möchten, müssen Sie zunächst das Konfigurationsprofil entfernen oder ein aktualisiertes Konfigurationsprofil installieren. Entfernen eines Profils: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Allgemein“ > „Profil“ und wählen Sie das Konfigurationsprofil aus. Tippen Sie dann auf „Entfernen“.Durch Entfernen eines Konfigurationsprofils werden die Einstellungen und alle anderen Informationen vom iPod touch gelöscht, die vom Konfigurationsprofil installiert wurden. Trennen des iPod touch von Ihrem Computer Sofern der iPod touch nicht gerade mit dem Computer synchronisiert wird, können Sie die Verbindung zum Computer jederzeit trennen. Wird der iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer synchronisiert, zeigt der iPod touch die Meldung „Synchronisieren“ an. Wenn Sie den iPod touch vom Computer trennen, bevor die Synchronisierung beendet ist, werden möglicherweise nicht alle Daten korrekt übertragen. Sobald die Synchronisierung des iPod touch beendet ist, zeigt iTunes die Meldung „Synchronisierung des iPod touch abgeschlossen“ an. Abbrechen einer Synchronisierung: Bewegen Sie den Schieberegler auf dem iPod touch. 14 Kapitel 1 Einführung15 Ihr iPod touch im Überblick Standby-Taste Lautstärketasten Dock-Anschluss Kopfhöreranschluss Wi-Fi-Antenne Home-Taste Interner Lautsprecher Touchscreen -Bildschirm Programmsymbole Statusleiste 2 GrundlagenMit dem iPod touch geliefertes Zubehör Stereokopfhörer Dock Connector-auf-USB-Kabel Reinigungstuch iPod Komponente Funktion Stereo-Kopfhörer Hören Sie Musik, Hörbücher, Podcasts und Videos. Dock Connector-auf-USB-Kabel Verwenden Sie das Kabel, um den iPod touch zum Synchronisieren und Aufladen an Ihren Computer oder zum Aufladen an das Netzteil anzuschließen. Das Kabel kann mit dem optionalen Dock verwendet oder direkt an den iPod touch angeschlossen werden. Reinigungstuch Wischen Sie hiermit den Bildschirm des iPod touch ab. Symbole in der Statusleiste Die Symbole in der Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm stellen Informationen über den iPod touch bereit: Symbol in der Statusleiste Bedeutung Wi-Fi Zeigt, dass der iPod touch über ein Wi-FiNetzwerk mit dem Internet verbunden ist. Je mehr Balken angezeigt werden, desto besser ist die Verbindung. Vgl. Seite 101. Netzwerkaktivität Zeigt die Netzwerkaktivität an. Möglicherweise wird dieses Symbol von Drittanbieterprogrammen verwendet, um einen aktiven Prozess anzuzeigen. VPN Zeigt an, dass Sie mit einem Netzwerk über VPN verbunden sind. Vgl. „Netzwerk“ auf Seite 105. 16 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 17 Symbol in der Statusleiste Bedeutung Schloss Zeigt, dass der iPod touch gesperrt ist. Vgl. Seite 20. Abspielen Zeigt, dass ein Musiktitel, Hörbuch oder Podcast wiedergegeben wird. Vgl. Seite 35. Wecker Zeigt, dass der Wecker gestellt wurde. Vgl. Seite 99. Batterie Zeigt den Batterieladezustand oder den Status des Aufladevorgangs an. Vgl. Seite 29. Home-Bildschirm Drücken Sie die Home-Taste , um sofort zum Home-Bildschirm zurückzukehren, in dem Ihre iPod touch-Programme angezeigt werden. Tippen Sie auf eines der Programme, um es zu starten. iPod touch-Programme Die folgenden Programme sind im Lieferumfang des iPod touch enthalten: Musik Hören Sie Ihre Musiktitel, Hörbücher und Podcasts an. Erstellen Sie „On-the-Go“- Wiedergabelisten oder verwenden Sie die Funktion „Genius“, um automatisch Wiedergabelisten mit Musiktiteln aus Ihrer Mediathek zu erstellen, die perfekt zusammenpassen. Videos Sehen Sie gekaufte oder geliehene Filme, Musikvideos, Videopodcasts und Fernsehsendungen an, während Sie unterwegs sind. Oder verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Fernsehgerät, um die Inhalte auf einem größeren Bildschirm anzuzeigen (für die Verbindung mit dem Fernsehgerät ist ein separat erhältliches Kabel erforderlich). Fotos Zeigen Sie Fotos und Bilder an, die Sie von Ihrem Computer auf den iPod touch übertragen oder gesichert haben. Zeigen Sie die Fotos im Hoch- oder Querformat an. Vergrößern Sie jedes Foto beliebig. Zeigen Sie eine Diashow an. Senden Sie Fotos per E-Mail, integrieren Sie sie in eine MobileMe Galerie, weisen Sie sie Kontakten zu oder verwenden Sie sie als Hintergrundbilder. iTunes Durchsuchen Sie den Musikkatalog des iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store oder suchen Sie gezielt nach Neuerscheinungen sowie Songs und Alben aus den Charts, spielen Sie Hörproben davon ab und kaufen Sie diese. Übertragen und laden Sie Podcasts. Finden Sie in bestimmten Starbucks Cafés heraus, welcher Titel gerade gespielt wird, und kaufen Sie ihn sofort. Suchen Sie nach anderen von der Starbucks Collection empfohlenen Musiktiteln, spielen Sie Hörproben davon ab und kaufen Sie sie.App Store Suchen Sie im App Store nach iPod touch-Programmen, die Sie kaufen oder per Wi-Fi-Verbindung laden können. Lesen oder schreiben Sie Rezensionen Ihrer bevorzugten Programme. Laden Sie die Programme und installieren Sie sie auf Ihrem Home-Bildschirm. Safari Surfen Sie via Wi-Fi im Internet. Drehen Sie den iPod touch, um Inhalte im Breitbildformat anzusehen. Zoomen Sie durch Doppeltippen ein oder aus – Safari passt den Ausschnitt der Webseite für eine optimale Lesbarkeit automatisch an den iPod touch-Bildschirm an. Synchronisieren Sie Lesezeichen mit Safari oder Microsoft Internet Explorer auf Ihrem Computer. Fügen Sie Weblinks aus Safari zum HomeBildschirm hinzu, um schnell auf bevorzugte Websites zugreifen zu können. Sichern Sie Bilder von Websites in Ihrem Fotoarchiv. Kalender Zeigen Sie Ihre MobileMe-, iCal-, Microsoft Entourage-, Microsoft Outlook- oder Microsoft Exchange-Kalender an. Geben Sie Ereignisse auf dem iPod touch ein und lassen Sie sie mit dem Kalender Ihres Computers synchronisieren. Legen Sie Warntöne als Erinnerung für Ereignisse, Verabredungen und Termine fest. Mail Der iPod touch funktioniert mit MobileMe, Microsoft Exchange und vielen anderen gängigen E-Mail-Systemen, einschließlich Yahoo! Mail, Google Mail und AOL sowie mit den meisten standardmäßigen POP3- und IMAP-E-Mail-Systemen. Zeigen Sie PDFs und andere E-Mail-Anhänge in Mail an. Sichern Sie angehängte Fotos und Bilder in Ihrem Fotoarchiv. Kontakte Lassen Sie Kontaktinformationen von MobileMe, dem Mac OS X-Adressbuch, dem Yahoo!- Adressbuch, dem Google-Adressbuch, dem Windows-Adressbuch (Outlook Express), Microsoft Outlook oder Microsoft Exchange synchronisieren. Suchen Sie Kontakte, fügen Sie sie hinzu, ändern oder löschen Sie sie. Die Kontakte werden wieder mit Ihrem Computer synchronisiert. YouTube Spielen Sie Videos aus der YouTube-Online-Sammlung ab. Suchen Sie nach bestimmten Videos oder nach den meist gesehenen, kürzlich geladenen und best bewerteten Videos. Aktien Beobachten Sie bevorzugte Aktienkurse, die automatisch über das Internet aktualisiert werden. Karten Zeigen Sie Orte auf der ganzen Welt auf einer Straßenkarte, in Satellitenansicht oder in Hybrid-Darstellung an. Vergrößern Sie den Ausschnitt für mehr Details. Suchen Sie nach Ihrem aktuellen, ungefähren Standort. Rufen Sie ausführliche Wegbeschreibungen und die aktuelle Verkehrssituation auf Autobahnen ab. Suchen Sie nach Firmen in der Nähe. 18 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 19 Wetter Informieren Sie sich über die aktuelle Wetterlage und rufen Sie eine Vorhersage für die folgenden sechs Tage ab. Fügen Sie Städte Ihrer Wahl hinzu, um jederzeit schnell den Wetterbericht dazu anzeigen zu können. Uhr Zeigen Sie die Uhrzeit in Städten rund um den Globus an – erstellen Sie Uhren für bevorzugte Städte. Stellen Sie einen oder mehrere Wecker. Verwenden Sie die Stoppuhr oder stellen Sie den Timer ein. Rechner Addieren, subtrahieren, multiplizieren und dividieren Sie. Drehen Sie den iPod touch, um erweiterte wissenschaftliche Funktionen zu nutzen. Notizen Machen Sie sich unterwegs Notizen, etwa als Erinnerung, für Ihren Einkaufszettel oder zum Festhalten genialer Ideen. Senden Sie die Notizen per E-Mail. Einstellungen Passen Sie alle iPod touch-Einstellungen an einer zentralen Stelle an. Stellen Sie die Lautstärke wunschgemäß ein. Wählen Sie Hintergrundbild, Bildschirmhelligkeit und Einstellungen für Netzwerk, E-Mail, Internet, Musik, Videos, Fotos und mehr aus. Definieren Sie zum Schutz Ihrer Daten die automatische Sperre und einen Code. Beschränken Sie den Zugriff auf ausgewählte iTunes-Inhalte und bestimmte Programme. Setzen Sie den iPod touch zurück. Nike + iPod Ist die Funktion „Nike + iPod“ in den Einstellungen aktiviert, wird Ihr iPod touch zu Ihrem Trainingspartner. Vergleichen Sie die Laufgeschwindigkeit, -zeit und -strecke Ihrer Trainingseinheiten und wählen Sie einen passenden Musiktitel. (Ausgewählte Nike-Schuhe und Nike + iPod-Sensor erforderlich, separat erhältlich. Nicht verfügbar für die erste Generation des iPod touch.) Hinweis: Die Programmfunktionalität kann abhängig von dem Land oder der Region, in der Sie den iPod touch verwenden, variieren. Anpassen des Home-Bildschirms Sie können die Anordnung von Symbolen im Home-Bildschirm anpassen, einschließ- lich der Symbole im Dock unten auf dem Bildschirm. Wenn Sie möchten, können Sie die Symbole auch in mehreren Home-Bildschirmen anordnen. Neuanordnen von Symbolen: 1 Halten Sie den Finger auf einem beliebigen Symbol im Home-Bildschirm, bis die Symbole anfangen sich leicht zu bewegen. 2 Ordnen Sie die Symbole an, indem Sie sie wunschgemäß bewegen. 3 Drücken Sie die Home-Taste , um Ihre Anordnung zu sichern. Sie können auch Links zu Ihren bevorzugten Webseiten zum Home-Bildschirm hinzufügen. Vgl. „Weblinks“ auf Seite 64.Erstellen weiterer Home-Bildschirme: Bewegen Sie beim Anordnen von Symbolen ein Symbol an den rechten Rand des Bildschirms. Daraufhin wird ein neuer Bildschirm eingeblendet. Streichen Sie mit dem Finger über den Bildschirm, um zum Originalbildschirm zurückzukehren und weitere Symbole zum neuen Bildschirm hinzuzufügen. Sie können bis zu neun Bildschirme erstellen. An der Anzahl der Punkte über dem Dock können Sie erkennen, wie viele Bildschirme Sie angelegt haben und welcher davon gerade angezeigt wird. Wechseln zu einem anderen Home-Bildschirm: Streichen Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts oder tippen Sie links oder rechts neben die Punkte. Anzeigen des ersten Home-Bildschirms: Drücken Sie die Home-Taste . Zurücksetzen Ihres Home-Bildschirms auf die Standardanordnung: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Home-Bildschirm zurücksetzen“. Tasten Mit einigen einfachen Tasten kann der iPod touch ein- und ausgeschaltet und die Lautstärke angepasst werden. Standby-Taste Wenn Sie den iPod touch nicht verwenden, können Sie ihn sperren. Ist der iPod touch gesperrt, geschieht nichts, wenn Sie den Bildschirm berühren. 20 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 21 Der iPod touch ist standardmäßig so eingerichtet, dass er automatisch gesperrt wird, wenn Sie den Bildschirm eine Minute lang nicht berührt haben. Standby-Taste Sperren des iPod touch Drücken Sie die Standby-Taste. Freigeben der Sperre des iPod touch Drücken Sie die Home-Taste oder die StandbyTaste und bewegen Sie dann den Finger auf dem Schieberegler. Komplettes Ausschalten des iPod touch Drücken und halten Sie die Standby-Taste einige Sekunden lang, bis der rote Regler eingeblendet wird, und bewegen Sie den Finger auf dem Schieberegler. Einschalten des iPod touch Drücken und halten Sie die Standby-Taste, bis das Apple-Logo angezeigt wird. Informationen dazu, wie Sie ändern, nach welcher Zeit der iPod touch gesperrt wird, finden Sie im Abschnitt „Automatische Sperre“ auf Seite 106. Näheres zum Festlegen eines Codes zum Aufheben der Sperre des iPod touch finden Sie im Abschnitt „CodeSperre“ auf Seite 106. Lautstärketasten Wenn Sie Musik, Filme oder andere Medien abspielen, können Sie mit den Tasten an der Seite des iPod touch die Lautstärke anpassen. Andernfalls wird mit diesen Tasten die Lautstärke für Warnhinweise und andere Audioeffekte gesteuert. Hinweis: Der iPod touch der ersten Generation besitzt keine Lautstärketasten. ACHTUNG: Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise zum Vermeiden von Hörschäden finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter: www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Verwenden Sie die Tasten an der Seite des iPod touch, um die Lautstärke anzupassen. Lauter LeiserInformationen zum Einstellen der maximalen Lautstärke für Musik und Videos auf dem iPod touch finden Sie im Abschnitt „Musik“ auf Seite 110. Touchscreen-Bildschirm Die Bedienelemente des iPod touch-Touchscreen-Bildschirms verändern sich dynamisch abhängig von der gerade ausgeführten Aufgabe. Öffnen von Programmen Öffnen eines Programms: Tippen Sie auf ein Symbol. Zurückkehren zum Home-Bildschirm: Drücken Sie die Home-Taste unter dem Bildschirm. Blättern Bewegen Sie einen Finger auf dem Bildschirm, um aufwärts und abwärts zu blättern. Bei einigen Bildschirmanzeigen wie Webseiten können Sie auch seitlich blättern. Beim Blättern mithilfe des Fingers werden die Objekte auf dem Bildschirm nicht ausgewählt oder aktiviert. 22 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 23 Streichen Sie mit dem Finger schnell über den Bildschirm. Sie können warten, bis der Blättervorgang stoppt, oder auf eine beliebige Stelle auf dem Bildschirm tippen, um den Vorgang sofort zu stoppen. Wenn Sie einen Blättervorgang durch Tippen oder Berühren stoppen, werden Objekte auf dem Bildschirm nicht ausgewählt oder aktiviert. Tippen Sie einfach auf den Statusbalken, um schnell an den Anfang einer Liste, Webseite oder E-Mail zu blättern. Listen Einige Listen verfügen über einen Index, der an der rechten Seite angezeigt wird. Suchen von Objekten in einer indizierten Liste: Tippen Sie auf einen Buchstaben, um zu Objekten zu springen, die mit dem betreffenden Buchstaben beginnen. Fahren Sie dem Finger auf dem Index entlang, um schnell durch die Liste zu blättern. Index Auswählen eines Objekts: Tippen Sie auf ein Objekt in der Liste. Je nachdem, um welche Art Liste es sich handelt, wird durch Tippen auf ein Objekt eine andere Aktion ausgeführt – etwa eine neue Liste geöffnet, ein Musiktitel abgespielt, eine E-Mail angezeigt oder die Kontaktdaten einer Person eingeblendet. Zurückkehren zu einer vorherigen Liste: Tippen Sie auf die Zurück-Taste oben links.Verkleinern oder Vergrößern Bei der Anzeige von Fotos, Webseiten, E-Mails oder Karten können Sie ein- und auszoomen. Ziehen Sie die Anzeige mit den Fingern zu oder auf. Bei Fotos und Webseiten können Sie durch Doppeltippen (schnelles zweimaliges Tippen) einzoomen und durch nochmaliges Doppeltippen auszoomen. Karten lassen sich durch Doppeltippen einzoomen und durch einmaliges Tippen mit zwei Fingern auszoomen. Bildschirmtastatur Verwenden Sie die Bildschirmtastatur, um Text einzugeben, etwa Kontaktdaten, SMSNachrichten oder Internetadressen. Eingeben Je nachdem, welches Programm Sie verwenden, schlägt die intelligente Tastatur bei der Eingabe möglicherweise automatisch Korrekturen vor. Auf diese Weise können Tippfehler vermieden werden. Eingeben von Text: 1 Tippen Sie auf ein Textfeld, etwa in einer Notiz oder für einen neuen Kontakt, um die Tastatur einzublenden. 2 Tippen Sie auf die Tasten der Tastatur. Tippen Sie anfangs nur mit dem Zeigefinger. Wenn Sie mit der Funktion besser vertraut sind, können Sie schneller mithilfe beider Daumen schreiben. 24 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 25 Während Sie tippen, wird der jeweilige Buchstabe über Ihrem Daumen oder Zeigefinger eingeblendet. Wenn Sie auf eine falsche Taste tippen, ziehen Sie Ihren Finger oder Daumen einfach auf die richtige Taste. Der Buchstabe wird erst eingegeben, wenn Sie den Finger oder Daumen von der Taste nehmen. Großbuchstaben Tippen Sie auf die Umschalttaste , bevor Sie auf einen Buchstaben tippen. Schnelles Eingeben von Punkt und Leerzeichen Tippen Sie zweimal auf die Leertaste. (Sie können diese Funktion durch Auswahl von „Einstellungen“ > „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ aktivieren oder deaktivieren.) Aktivieren der Feststelltaste Tippen Sie zweimal auf die Umschalttaste . Die Umschalttaste wird blau dargestellt und alle Buchstaben werden groß geschrieben. Tippen Sie nochmals auf die Umschalttaste, um die Feststelltaste wieder zu deaktivieren. (Sie können diese Funktion durch Auswahl von „Einstellungen“ > „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ aktivieren oder deaktivieren.) Anzeigen von Zahlen, Interpunktionszeichen oder Symbolen Tippen Sie auf die Taste mit den Ziffern . Tippen Sie auf die Symboltaste , um weitere Interpunktionszeichen und Symbole anzuzeigen. Eingeben von Buchstaben oder Symbolen, die nicht auf der Tastatur vorhanden sind Drücken und halten Sie den entsprechenden Buchstaben bzw. das betreffende Symbol und bewegen Sie ihn/es, um eine Variante auszuwählen.Internationale Tastaturen Der iPod touch stellt verschiedene Tastaturen bereit, die die Texteingabe in zahlreichen Sprachen ermöglichen. Eine vollständige Liste der unterstützten Tastaturen finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/de/iphone/specs.html. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren internationaler Tastaturbelegungen: 1 Wählen Sie in den Einstellungen „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ > „Internationale Tastaturen“. 2 Aktivieren Sie die gewünschten Tastaturen. Bei Sprachen mit mehreren Tastaturen wie Japanisch oder Chinesisch wird die Anzahl der verfügbaren Tastaturen angezeigt. Wählen Sie durch Tippen eine Tastatur für diese Sprache aus. Wechseln der Tastatur bei mehreren aktivierten Tastaturen Tippen Sie auf , um zwischen Tastaturen zu wechseln. Beim Tippen auf das Symbol wird der Name der nun aktivierten Tastatur kurz eingeblendet. Eingeben von Zeichen in Japanisch Kana Verwenden Sie die Kana-Tastaturbelegung, um Silben auszuwählen. Weitere Optionen für Silben können Sie anzeigen, indem Sie auf die Pfeiltaste tippen und eine andere Silbe oder ein anderes Wort im angezeigten Fenster auswählen. Eingeben von Zeichen in Japanisch QWERTY Verwenden Sie die QWERTY-Tastaturbelegung, um einen Code für japanische Silben einzugeben. Beim Schreiben werden die vorgeschlagenen Silben eingeblendet. Tippen Sie auf eine Silbe, um sie auszuwählen. Eingeben von koreanischen Zeichen Verwenden Sie die koreanische 2-Set-Tastaturbelegung zum Eingeben von Hangul-Zeichen. Zur Eingabe von Doppelkonsonanten oder mehreren Vokalen drücken und halten Sie die Buchstabentaste und bewegen Sie sie, um den Doppelbuchstaben auszuwählen. 26 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 27 Eingeben von vereinfachtem Chinesisch Pinyin Verwenden Sie die QWERTY-Tastaturbelegung, um Pinyin für chinesischen Zeichen einzugeben. Beim Schreiben werden die vorgeschlagenen chinesischen Zeichen eingeblendet. Tippen Sie auf ein Zeichen, um es auszuwählen, oder geben Sie weiterhin Pinyin ein, um weitere Zeichenoptionen anzuzeigen. Eingeben von handschriftlichem vereinfachtem oder traditionellem Chinesisch Verwenden Sie das Touchpad zur Eingabe von chinesischen Zeichen mit Ihrem Finger. Beim Schreiben der Zeichen erkennt der iPod touch diese und zeigt übereinstimmende Zeichen in einer Liste an. Die beste Übereinstimmung wird oben in der Liste angezeigt. Wenn Sie ein Zeichen auswählen, werden die zugehörigen Zeichen in der Liste als zusätzliche Auswahlmöglichkeiten angezeigt. Sie können einige komplexe Schriftzeichen durch Kombinieren von zwei oder mehr Zeichen eingeben. Wenn Sie beispielsweise 魚 (Fisch) und dann 巤 (Borste) eingeben, wird 鱲 (Teil des Namens des Hong Kong International Airport) in der Zeichenliste angezeigt und durch einen Pfeil gekennzeichnet. Tippen Sie auf das Zeichen, um die eingegebenen Zeichen zu ersetzen. Wenn die Tastaturbelegungen für vereinfachtes oder traditionellen Chinesisch aktiviert sind, können Sie chinesische Zeichen mit Ihrem Finger wie hier gezeigt eingeben: Wörterbuch Der iPod touch besitzt Wörterbücher für viele Sprachen, die Sie bei der Texteingabe unterstützen. Bei der Auswahl einer Tastaturbelegung wird automatisch das passende Wörterbuch aktiviert. Eine Liste der unterstützten Sprachen finden Sie unter www.apple.com/de/iphone/specs.html. Der iPod touch verwendet das aktive Wörterbuch für Rechtschreibvorschläge oder für die Vervollständigung eines eingegebenen Worts. Es ist nicht erforderlich, den Schreibvorgang zu unterbrechen, um den Vorschlag zu akzeptieren. Korrektur oder Schreibvorschlag Annehmen oder Ablehnen von Vorschlägen aus dem Wörterbuch: m Wenn Sie den Schreibvorschlag ablehnen wollen, schreiben Sie das Wort fertig und tippen Sie dann auf das „x”, bevor Sie weiter schreiben. Mit jedem Ablehnen eines Vorschlags für dasselbe Wort erhöht sich die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass Ihr iPod touch das von Ihnen geschriebene Wort als korrekt interpretiert. m Wenn Sie den Schreibvorschlag verwenden möchten, geben Sie ein Leerzeichen, ein Interpunktionszeichen oder ein Zeilenendezeichen ein. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren der Option „Auto-Korrektur“: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Auto-Korrektur“. Die AutoKorrektur ist standardmäßig aktiviert. Hinweis: Wenn Sie Chinesisch oder Japanisch eingeben, tippen Sie auf eine der vorgeschlagenen Alternativen. Bearbeiten von Text: Berühren Sie den Bildschirm, bis die Anzeige vergrößert dargestellt wird, und bewegen Sie dann Ihren Finger, um die Einfügemarke zu setzen. 28 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 29 Herstellen der Internetverbindung Der iPod touch stellt die Internetverbindung über Wi-Fi-Netzwerke her. Der iPod touch kann auf AirPort- und andere Wi-Fi-Netzwerke zu Hause, im Büro oder an Wi-Fi-Zugangspunkten (Hotspots, WLAN-Zonen) weltweit zugreifen. Sobald die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang hergestellt ist, aktiviert der iPod touch die Internetverbindung automatisch, wenn Sie Programme wie Mail, Safari, YouTube, Aktien, Karten, Wetter, den App Store oder den iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store verwenden. Herstellen einer Wi-Fi-Netzwerkverbindung Mithilfe der Wi-Fi-Einstellungen können Sie Wi-Fi aktivieren und die Verbindung zu WiFi-Netzwerken herstellen. Aktivieren von Wi-Fi: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Wi-Fi“ und aktivieren bzw. deaktivieren Sie die Option „Wi-Fi“. Herstellen einer Wi-Fi-Netzwerkverbindung: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Wi-Fi“. Warten Sie einen Augenblick, bis der iPod touch Netzwerke in Reichweite erkannt hat, und wählen Sie ein Netzwerk aus. (Beim Herstellen einer Verbindung zu einigen Wi-FiNetzwerken können Gebühren anfallen.) Geben Sie ggf. ein Kennwort ein und tippen Sie auf „Verbinden“. (Netzwerke, für die ein Kennwort eingegeben werden muss, sind mit einem Vorhängeschloss gekennzeichnet. Wenn Sie die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk einmal manuell hergestellt haben, aktiviert der iPod touch diese Verbindung automatisch, wenn Sie sich innerhalb der Reichweite dieses Netzwerks befinden. Werden mehrere zuvor verwendete Netzwerke innerhalb der Reichweite gefunden, stellt der iPod touch die Verbindung zum zuletzt verwendeten Netzwerk her. Wenn der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk verbunden ist, wird durch das Wi-FiSymbol in der Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm die aktuelle Signalstärke angezeigt. Je mehr Balken angezeigt werden, desto stabiler ist die Verbindung. Näheres zum Konfigurieren von Wi-Fi-Einstellungen finden Sie im Abschnitt „Wi-Fi“ auf Seite 101. Batterie Der iPod touch verfügt über eine interne wiederaufladbare Batterie. Aufladen der Batterie ACHTUNG: Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise zum Aufladen des iPod touch finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Aufladen der Batterie und Synchronisieren des iPod touch: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch über das mitgelieferte USB-Kabel mit Ihrem Computer. Wichtig: Die Batterie des iPod touch kann sich entladen, wenn der iPod touch mit einem Computer verbunden ist, der ausgeschaltet ist oder sich im Ruhezustand bzw. Standby-Modus befindet. Der iPod touch kann nicht über eine FireWire-basierte Stromquelle aufgeladen werden. Ein Symbol oben rechts im Bildschirm zeigt den Ladezustand der Batterie. Wird geladen Aufgeladen Wenn Sie die Batterie laden, während der iPod touch synchronisiert oder aufgeladen wird, kann der Ladevorgang länger dauern. Sie können den iPod touch auch mit dem Apple USB Power Adapter (Netzteil) aufladen. Das Netzteil ist separat erhältlich. Wichtig: Wenn die Batterieladung des iPod touch niedrig ist, wird unter Umständen einer der folgenden Batteriewarnhinweise eingeblendet, um Sie darauf aufmerksam zu machen, dass der iPod touch mindestens 10 Minuten lang aufgeladen werden muss, bevor Sie ihn wieder verwenden können. Wenn die Batterie des iPod touch nahezu vollständig entladen ist, bleibt die Bildschirmanzeige unter Umständen bis zu zwei Minuten lang leer, bevor einer der Batteriewarnhinweise eingeblendet wird. oder 30 Kapitel 2 GrundlagenKapitel 2 Grundlagen 31 Schonen der Batterie Der iPod touch ist mit Lithium-Ionen-Batterien ausgestattet. Weitere Informationen dazu, wie Sie die Lebensdauer der Batterie maximieren und die Batterie des iPod touch schonen können, finden Sie unter www.apple.com/de/batteries. Austauschen der Batterie Die Anzahl der Ladezyklen von wiederaufladbaren Batterien ist begrenzt. Daher müssen diese Batterien irgendwann ersetzt werden. Die iPod touch-Batterie darf nicht vom Benutzer ausgetauscht werden. Sie darf nur von einem Apple autorisierten Service-Partner ausgewechselt werden. Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter www.apple.com/de/support/iphone/service/battery. Reinigen des iPod touch Zum Reinigen des iPod touch trennen Sie alle Kabel und schalten den iPod touch aus (drücken und halten Sie die Standby-Taste und bewegen Sie dann den Schieberegler auf dem Bildschirm). Verwenden Sie ein weiches, leicht angefeuchtetes und fusselfreies Tuch. Achten Sie darauf, dass keine Feuchtigkeit in das Gehäuse eindringt. Verwenden Sie keine Fensterreiniger, Haushaltsreiniger, Sprays, Lösungsmittel, alkoholhaltige Reiniger, Ammoniaklösungen oder Scheuermittel für die Reinigung des iPod touch. Neustarten und Zurücksetzen des iPod touch Wenn der iPod touch nicht ordnungsgemäß funktioniert, kann dieses Problem möglicherweise durch einen Neustart oder durch Zurücksetzen des Geräts behoben werden. Neustarten des iPod touch: Drücken und halten Sie die Standby-Taste, bis der rote Schieberegler angezeigt wird. Bewegen Sie den Schieberegler mit dem Finger, um den iPod touch auszuschalten. Zum Wiedereinschalten des iPod touch drücken und halten Sie die Standby-Taste, bis das Apple-Logo angezeigt wird. Zurücksetzen des iPod touch: Drücken Sie die Standby-Taste und die Home-Taste gleichzeitig mindestens zehn Sekunden lang, bis das Apple-Logo angezeigt wird. Weitere Tipps zur Fehlerbeseitigung finden Sie im Abschnitt Anhang A,„Fehlerbeseitig ung,“ auf Seite 118.32 Der iPod touch wird mit iTunes auf Ihrem Computer synchronisiert, um Musiktitel, Videos und andere Inhalte zu übertragen, die sich in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek befinden. Informationen dazu, wie Sie Musik und andere Medien zu Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek hinzufügen, erhalten Sie, indem Sie iTunes öffnen und dann „Hilfe“ > „iTunes-Hilfe“ auswählen. Laden von Musik, Videos und mehr Zum Laden von Musik, Videos und Podcasts auf den iPod touch können Sie iTunes auf Ihrem Computer so konfigurieren, dass der Inhalt Ihrer Mediathek synchronisiert wird. Alternativ können Sie die auf Ihrem iPod touch verfügbaren Medien auch manuell verwalten. Synchronisieren von iTunes-Inhalten Sie können Musik, Videos und mehr auf den iPod touch übertragen, indem Sie Inhalte aus iTunes synchronisieren. Sie können alle Medien synchronisieren oder nur bestimmte Musiktitel, Videos und Podcasts auswählen. Konfigurieren von iTunes zur Synchronisierung von iPod-Inhalten: 1 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. 2 Wählen Sie in iTunes den iPod touch in der Seitenleiste aus. 3 Wählen Sie in den Bereichen „Musik“, „Filme“, „Fernsehsendungen“ und „Podcasts“ den Inhalt aus, den Sie auf den iPod touch übertragen möchten. Sie können beispielsweise festlegen, dass iTunes ausgewählte Wiedergabelisten und die drei aktuellsten Episoden Ihres Lieblings-Video-Podcasts synchronisiert. 4 Klicken Sie auf „Anwenden“. 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 33 Es werden nur die Musiktitel und Videos auf den iPod touch übertragen, die in vom iPod touch unterstützten Formaten codiert sind. Informationen zu den vom iPod touch unterstützten Formaten finden Sie im Abschnitt „Musiktitel, Video oder andere Objekte werden nicht wiedergegeben“ auf Seite 122. Umfasst Ihre iTunes-Mediathek mehr Titel als auf dem iPod touch Platz finden, bietet iTunes die Möglichkeit, eine spezielle Wiedergabeliste für die Synchronisierung mit dem iPod touch zu erstellen. iTunes füllt die Wiedergabeliste mit ausgewählten Titeln aus Ihrer Mediathek. Sie können Musiktitel zur Wiedergabeliste hinzufügen oder lö- schen und die Synchronisierung erneut starten. Wenn Sie einen Teil eines Podasts oder Hörbuchs anhören, wird die Stelle, an der Sie die Wiedergabe unterbrechen, auch bei der Synchronisierung der Inhalte mit iTunes gekennzeichnet. Haben Sie den ersten Teil der Erzählung mit dem iPod touch angehört, können Sie die Wiedergabe genau an der Stelle fortsetzen, an der Sie unterbrochen haben – oder umgekehrt. Weitere Informationen dazu, wie Sie mit iTunes Musik und andere Medien auf Ihren Computer übertragen, finden Sie im Abschnitt „Voraussetzungen“ auf Seite 5. Manuelles Verwalten von Inhalten Mit der Funktion für die manuelle Verwaltung von Inhalten können Sie gezielt die Musik, Videos und Podcasts auswählen, die auf Ihrem iPod touch verfügbar sein sollen. Konfigurieren des iPod touch für die manuelle Verwaltung von Inhalten: 1 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. 2 Wählen Sie in iTunes den iPod touch in der Seitenleiste aus. 3 Klicken Sie auf den Titel „Übersicht“ und wählen Sie „Musik und Videos manuell verwalten“. 4 Klicken Sie auf „Anwenden“. Hinzufügen von Objekten zum iPod touch: Bewegen Sie Musiktitel, Videos, Podcasts oder Wiedergabelisten aus Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek auf den iPod touch (in der Seitenleiste). Drücken Sie beim Klicken die Umschalttaste bzw. die Befehlstaste, um mehrere Objekte auszuwählen und gleichzeitig hinzuzufügen. iTunes synchronisiert den Inhalt sofort. Wenn Sie die Option „Musik und Videos manuell verwalten“ deaktiviert haben, wird der manuell hinzugefügt Inhalt vom iPod touch entfernt, wenn iTunes den Inhalt das nächste Mal synchronisiert. Entfernen von Objekten vom iPod touch: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer und wählen Sie das iPod touch-Symbol in der Seitenleiste in iTunes aus. Klicken Sie auf das Dreieck links neben dem Symbol, um den Inhalt anzuzeigen. Wählen Sie einen Bereich wie „Musik“ oder „Filme“ und dann die Objekte aus, die Sie löschen wollen. Drücken Sie anschließend die Rückschritttaste.Durch das Löschen eines Objekts vom iPod touch wird dieses Objekt nicht aus der iTunes-Mediathek gelöscht. Wichtig: Wenn Sie ein Objekt aus iTunes löschen, wird es bei der nächsten Synchronisierung auch vom iPod touch gelöscht. Laden von Musik und Podcasts Sie können den iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store auf dem iPod touch verwenden, um Musiktitel und Alben zu kaufen und direkt auf den iPod touch zu laden. Sie können auch Audio- und Video-Podcasts per Streaming übertragen und laden. Vgl. „iTunes WiFi Music Store“ auf Seite 45. Übertragen gekaufter Inhalte auf einen anderen Computer Es ist mit dem iPod touch möglich, mit einem bestimmten Computer über iTunes gekaufte Inhalte in die iTunes-Mediathek eines anderen für die Wiedergabe aktivierten Computers zu übertragen. Der Computer muss für die Wiedergabe von Inhalten mit Ihrem iTunes-Account aktiviert werden, damit Sie die Inhalte abspielen können. Zum Aktivieren des Computers öffnen Sie iTunes und wählen „Store“ > „Computer aktivieren“. Übertragen gekaufter Inhalte: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit dem anderen Computer. iTunes fragt Sie dann, ob Sie die gekauften Inhalte übertragen wollen. Konvertieren von Videos für den iPod touch Sie können auch andere als im iTunes Store gekaufte Videos zu Ihrem iPod touch hinzufügen. Dies können z. B. Videos sein, die Sie in iMovie auf einem Mac erstellt oder aus dem Internet geladen und zu iTunes hinzugefügt haben. Wenn Sie ein Video mit iTunes zum iPod touch hinzufügen und die Meldung sehen, dass das Video auf dem iPod touch nicht abgespielt werden kann, können Sie es konvertieren. Konvertieren eines Videos für die Verwendung auf dem iPod touch: Wählen Sie das Video in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek aus und wählen Sie „Erweitert“ > „Version für iPod oder iPhone erstellen”. Übertragen Sie das konvertierte Video dann auf den iPod touch. Musik und andere Audiodateien Dank der hohen Auflösung des Multitouch-Bildschirms wird Musikhören mit dem iPod touch nicht nur zu einem akustischen, sondern auch zu einem visuellen Erlebnis. Sie können durch die Wiedergabelisten blättern oder Cover Flow verwenden, um die Albumcover durchzusehen. 34 Kapitel 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 35 Sie können Audiomaterial über die integrierten Lautsprecher anhören (nur iPod touch der zweiten Generation) oder über Kopfhörer, die mit dem Kopfhöreranschluss verbunden sind. Wenn Kopfhörer angeschlossen sind, sind die Lautsprecher stumm geschaltet. ACHTUNG: Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise zum Vermeiden von Hörschäden finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Wiedergeben von Musik Durchsuchen Ihrer Sammlung: Tippen Sie auf „Listen“, „Interpreten“ oder „Titel“. Tippen Sie auf „Weitere“, um Kategorien wie Alben, Hörbücher, Compilations, Komponisten, Genres oder Podcasts zu durchsuchen. Abspielen eines Musiktitels: Tippen Sie auf den Musiktitel. Steuern der Musikwiedergabe Beim Abspielen eines Musiktitels wird auf dem Bildschirm „Sie hören“ angezeigt. Vor/Schneller Vorlauf Start/Pause Zurück Titelliste Zurück/Schneller Rücklauf Lautstärke Anhalten eines Musiktitels Tippen Sie auf oder drücken Sie die Mikrofontaste des iPod touch-Headsets. Fortsetzen der Wiedergabe Tippen Sie auf oder drücken Sie die Mikrofontaste des iPod touch-Headsets. Erhöhen oder Reduzieren der Lautstärke Bewegen Sie den Lautstärkeregler oder verwenden Sie die Tasten an der Seite des iPod touch. Erneutes Starten eines Musiktitels oder eines Kapitels in einem Hörbuch oder Podcast Tippen Sie auf .Springen zum nächsten oder vorherigen Musiktitel oder Kapitel in einem Hörbuch oder Podcast Tippen Sie zweimal auf , um zum vorherigen Musiktitel zu springen. Tippen Sie auf , um zum nächsten Titel zu springen, oder drücken Sie zweimal schnell hintereinander die Mikrofontaste des iPod touch-Headsets. Schneller Vorlauf/Schneller Rücklauf Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf oder . Je länger Sie den Finger auf dem Steuerelemente halten, desto schneller erfolgt der Vorlauf oder Rücklauf des Musiktitels. Zurückkehren zur iPod-Suchliste Tippen Sie auf oder fahren Sie mit dem Finger nach rechts über das Albumcover. Zurückkehren zum Bildschirm „Sie hören“ Tippen Sie auf „Sie hören“. Anzeigen des Liedtexts eines Titels Tippen Sie auf das Albumcover, wenn ein Song abgespielt wird. (Liedtexte werden nur angezeigt, wenn Sie sie über das Fenster „Infos“ des Titels in iTunes hinzugefügt haben.) Es ist möglich, die Bedienelemente für die Wiedergabe jederzeit einzublenden, wenn Sie Musik hören oder eines der anderen Programme verwenden. Sogar wenn der iPod touch gesperrt ist, lassen sich diese Elemente anzeigen. Drücken Sie dazu zweimal auf die Home-Taste . Wenn Sie ein Programm verwenden, werden die Bedienelemente für die Wiedergabe über dem Programm eingeblendet. Benötigen Sie die Bedienelemente nicht mehr, schließen Sie sie oder tippen Sie auf „iPod“, um wieder den Bildschirm „Sie hören“ anzuzeigen. Wenn der iPod touch gesperrt ist, werden die Bedienelemente eingeblendet, solange Sie sie verwenden, und danach automatisch wieder ausgeblendet. Weitere Bedienelemente Wenn der Bildschirm „Sie hören“ zu sehen ist, tippen Sie auf das Albumcover. Die Bedienelemente für die Titelwiederholung, die Funktion „Genius“ und die Zufallswiedergabe sowie die Navigationsleiste werden eingeblendet. Sie können die verstrichene Zeit, die verbleibende Zeit und die Titelnummer sehen. Haben Sie den Liedtext des Titels in iTunes hinzugefügt, wird dieser ebenfalls angezeigt. Navigationsleiste Wiederholen Abspielposition Genius Zufällig 36 Kapitel 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 37 Konfigurieren des iPod touch zum Wiederholen von Musiktiteln Tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie erneut auf , damit der iPod touch nur den aktuellen Musiktitel wiederholt. = Der iPod touch wiederholt alle Musiktitel des aktuellen Albums bzw. der aktuellen Wiedergabeliste. = Der iPod touch ist für die Endloswiederholung des aktuellen Musiktitels eingestellt. = Der iPod touch ist nicht für die Wiederholung von Musiktiteln eingestellt. Springen zu einer beliebigen Stelle in einem Musiktitel Bewegen Sie die Abspielposition auf der Navigationsleiste. Erstellen einer „Genius“-Wiedergabeliste Tippen Sie auf . Die Genius-Wiedergabeliste wird angezeigt. Vgl. „Verwenden der Funktion „Genius“ auf dem iPod touch“ auf Seite 39. Konfigurieren des iPod touch für die Zufallswiedergabe von Musiktiteln Tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie erneut auf , um den iPod touch für die Wiedergabe in normaler Reihenfolge einzustellen. = Der iPod touch ist für die Zufallswiedergabe eingestellt. = Der iPod touch ist für die Wiedergabe in normaler Reihenfolge eingestellt. Abspielen der Titel in jeder beliebigen Wiedergabeliste, jedem Album oder jeder anderen Titelliste in zufälliger Reihenfolge Tippen Sie oben in den Listen auf „Zufällig“. Damit z. B. alle Musiktitel auf dem iPod touch in zufälliger Reihenfolge abgespielt werden, wählen Sie „Titel“ > „Zufällig“. Unabhängig davon, ob der iPod touch für die zufällige Wiedergabe konfiguriert ist, spielt der iPod touch die Musiktitel in einer Liste in zufälliger Folge, wenn Sie oben in den Listen auf „Zufällig“ tippen.Durchblättern von Albumcovern mit Cover Flow Wenn Sie durch Ihre Musiktitel blättern, können Sie den iPod touch um 90 Grad drehen, damit Ihre iTunes-Inhalte mit Cover Flow dargestellt werden und Sie die Cover Ihrer Alben ansehen können. Anzeigen von Cover Flow Drehen Sie den iPod touch. Suchen nach Albumcovern Streichen Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts über den Bildschirm. Anzeigen der Titel auf einem Album Tippen Sie auf ein Cover oder auf . Abspielen eines beliebigen Titels Tippen Sie auf den Titel. Bewegen Sie den Finger nach oben oder unten, um die Musiktitel durchzublättern. Zurückkehren zum Cover Tippen Sie auf die Titelleiste. Oder tippen Sie erneut auf . Abspielen oder Anhalten des aktuellen Musiktitels Tippen Sie auf oder . Wenn Sie das mitgelieferte Stereo-Headset verwenden, können Sie auch die Mikrofontaste drücken. 38 Kapitel 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 39 Anzeigen aller Titel eines Albums Anzeigen aller Musiktitel des Albums, das den aktuellen Musiktitel enthält: Tippen Sie im Bildschirm „Sie hören“ auf . Tippen Sie auf einen Musiktitel, um ihn abzuspielen. Tippen Sie auf die Miniatur des Albumcovers, um zum Bildschirm „Sie hören“ zurückzukehren. Bewertungsleiste Zurück zum Bildschirm „Sie hören“ Albumtitel In der Darstellung „Titelliste“ können Sie Musiktitel bewerten. Sie können Wertungen verwenden, um intelligente Wiedergabelisten in iTunes zu erstellen, die dynamisch aktualisiert werden, damit sie beispielsweise die von Ihnen am besten bewerteten Musiktitel enthalten. Bewerten eines Musiktitels: Bewegen Sie Ihren Daumen über die Bewertungsleiste, um einen Musiktitel mit 0 bis 5 Sternen zu bewerten. Verwenden der Funktion „Genius“ auf dem iPod touch Mit der Funktion „Genius“ wird automatisch eine Wiedergabeliste mit Musiktiteln aus Ihrer Mediathek erstellt, die perfekt zu dem Titel passen, der gerade abgespielt wird. Hiermit steht Ihnen ein digitaler Diskjockey zur Verfügung, der Ihren Musikgeschmack so gut kennt, dass er genau die richtige Mischung zusammenstellen kann. Damit Sie Genius auf dem iPod touch verwenden können, müssen Sie sie zuerst in iTunes einrichten und den iPod touch anschließend mit iTunes synchronisieren. Genius ist ein kostenfreier Dienst, für den allerdings ein iTunes Store-Account benötigt wird. Sie können Genius-Wiedergabelisten in iTunes erstellen und mit dem iPod touch synchronisieren. Sie haben auch die Möglichkeit, direkt auf dem iPod touch GeniusWiedergabelisten zu erstellen. Erstellen einer Genius-Wiedergabeliste auf dem iPod touch: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Listen“ und dann auf „Genius“. 2 Tippen Sie auf einen Musiktitel in der Liste. Mit der Funktion „Genius“ wird eine Wiedergabeliste mit zusätzlichen Musiktiteln erstellt, die zu dem gewählten Titel passen. Sie können auch basierend auf dem gerade abgespielten Titel eine GeniusWiedergabeliste erstellen. Tippen Sie dazu im Bildschirm „Sie hören“ auf das Albumcover, um zusätzliche Steuerelemente anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie anschließend auf .Sichern einer Genius-Wiedergabeliste: Tippen Sie in der Wiedergabeliste auf „Sichern“. Die Wiedergabeliste wird mit dem Namen des gewählten Titels unter „Listen“ gespeichert. Sie können beliebig viele Genius-Wiedergabelisten erstellen und sichern. Wenn Sie eine auf dem iPod touch erstellte Genius-Wiedergabeliste sichern, wird sie mit iTunes synchronisiert, wenn Sie das nächste Mal eine Verbindung herstellen. Aktualisieren einer Genius-Wiedergabeliste: Tippen Sie in der Wiedergabeliste auf „Aktualisieren“. Beim Aktualisieren einer Wiedergabeliste wird eine Wiedergabeliste mit verschiedenen Titeln erstellt, die zum gewählten Titel passen. Sie können beliebige GeniusWiedergabelisten aktualisieren, unabhängig davon, ob diese in iTunes angelegt und mit dem iPod touch synchronisiert oder direkt auf dem iPod touch erstellt wurde. Erstellen einer Genius-Wiedergabeliste basierend auf einem neuen Musiktitel: Tippen Sie in der Wiedergabeliste auf „Neu“ und wählen Sie einen neuen Titel aus. Löschen einer gesicherten Genius-Wiedergabeliste: Tippen Sie in einer Wiedergabeliste, die Sie direkt auf dem iPod touch gesichert haben, auf „Bearbeiten“ und dann auf „Liste löschen“. Nachdem eine Genius-Wiedergabeliste mit iTunes synchronisiert wurde, können Sie sie nicht mehr direkt vom iPod touch löschen. Sie können iTunes verwenden, um den Namen der Wiedergabeliste zu bearbeiten, die Synchronisierung zu beenden oder die Wiedergabeliste zu löschen. Erstellen von „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabelisten Erstellen einer „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabeliste: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Listen“ und dann „On-The-Go“. 2 Suchen Sie mithilfe der Tasten unten im Bildschirm nach Musiktiteln. Tippen Sie auf die Titel oder Videos, die in die Wiedergabeliste aufgenommen werden sollen. Tippen Sie am Anfang einer Titelliste auf „Alle Titel hinzufügen“, damit alle Musiktitel zur „On-TheGo“-Liste hinzugefügt werden. 3 Tippen Sie abschließend auf „Fertig“. Wenn Sie eine „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabeliste erstellen und den iPod touch anschlie- ßend mit Ihrem Computer synchronisieren, wird die „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabeliste auf dem iPod touch und in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek gesichert und dann vom iPod touch gelöscht. Die erste Liste wird „On-The-Go 1“ benannt, die zweite „On-The-Go 2“ usw. Soll die „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabeliste wieder auf den iPod touch übertragen werden, wählen Sie den iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste aus, klicken Sie auf „Musik“ und synchronisieren Sie die gewünschte Wiedergabeliste. Bearbeiten einer „On-The-Go“-Wiedergabeliste: Tippen Sie auf „Listen“, tippen Sie auf „On-the-Go“, tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“ und führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus: 40 Kapitel 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 41  Zum Bewegen eines Musiktitels nach oben oder unten bewegen Sie das Symbol neben den Titel.  Zum Löschen eines Musiktitels aus der Liste tippen Sie auf neben dem Musiktitel und dann auf „Löschen“. Durch Löschen eines Titels aus der „On-the-Go“- Wiedergabeliste wird dieser nicht vom iPod touch entfernt.  Zum Löschen der gesamten Wiedergabeliste tippen Sie auf „Wiedergabeliste löschen“.  Zum Hinzufügen weiterer Musiktitel tippen Sie auf . Videos Sie können mit dem iPod touch Videoinhalte wie Filme, Musikvideos und VideoPodcasts ansehen. Enthält ein Video Kapitel, können Sie zum nächsten oder vorherigen Kapitel wechseln oder eine Liste einblenden und die Wiedergabe bei einem Kapitel Ihrer Wahl beginnen. Bietet ein Video die Option zum Ändern der Sprache, können Sie eine andere Audiosprache wählen oder Untertitel einblenden. Anzeigen von Videos Abspielen eines Videos: Tippen Sie auf „Videos“ und dann auf das Video. Einblenden der Bedienelemente für die Wiedergabe Tippen Sie auf den Bildschirm, um die Bedienelemente einzublenden. Tippen Sie erneut, um die Bedienelemente wieder auszublenden. Steuern der Videowiedergabe Videos können im Breitbildformat angezeigt werden, um die große Anzeigefläche des Bildschirms optimal zu nutzen. Skalieren Start/Pause Anfang/Rücklauf Schneller Vorlauf Abspielposition Lautstärke Navigationsleiste Run von Gnarls Barkley ist in bestimmten Ländern über iTunes verfügbar.Wiedergeben oder Anhalten eines Videos Tippen Sie auf oder . Erhöhen oder Reduzieren der Lautstärke Bewegen Sie den Lautstärkeregler. Erneutes Abspielen eines Videos Bewegen Sie die Abspielposition in der Navigationsleiste ganz nach links oder tippen Sie auf , falls das Video keine Kapitel enthält. Springen zum vorherigen oder nächsten Kapitel (falls verfügbar) Tippen Sie auf , um zum vorherigen Kapitel zu springen. Tippen Sie auf , um zum nächsten Kapitel zu springen. Starten der Wiedergabe bei einem bestimmten Kapitel (falls verfügbar) Tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie dann ein Kapitel aus der Liste aus. Schneller Vorlauf/Schneller Rücklauf Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf oder . Springen zu einer Stelle in einem Video Bewegen Sie die Abspielposition auf der Navigationsleiste. Abbrechen der Wiedergabe vor dem Filmende Tippen Sie auf „Fertig“ oder drücken Sie die Home-Taste . Auswählen zwischen einer bildschirmfüllenden oder einer auf die Bildschirmgröße skalierten Videodarstellung Tippen Sie auf , um das Video bildschirmfüllend anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie auf , um es auf die Bildschirmgröße zu skalieren. Sie können das Video auch durch Doppeltippen auswählen, um zwischen der skalierten und der bildschirmfüllenden Darstellung zu wechseln. Wenn Sie ein Video für die bildschirmfüllende Anzeige skalieren, wird es möglicherweise an den Seiten oder oben abgeschnitten. Wenn Sie ein Video an die Bildschirmgröße anpassen, werden unter Umständen schwarze Balken an den Seiten bzw. oben und unten angezeigt. Auswählen einer anderen Audiosprache (falls verfügbar) Tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie dann eine Sprache aus der Liste „Audio“ aus. Ein- oder Ausblenden von Untertiteln (falls verfügbar) Tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie dann eine Sprache oder „Aus“ aus der Liste „Untertitel“ aus. Ansehen von Leihfilmen Sie können Filme im iTunes Store ausleihen und auf dem iPod touch ansehen. Zum Ausleihen und Übertragen von Filmen auf den iPod touch verwenden Sie iTunes. (Leihfilme sind nicht in allen Regionen verfügbar.) Leihfilme lassen sich nur eine begrenzte Zeit lang abspielen. Neben dem Filmtitel wird angezeigt, wie viel Zeit Sie noch haben, um den Leihfilm anzusehen. Nach Ablauf der Leihfrist werden die Filme automatisch gelöscht. Prüfen Sie im iTunes Store die Leihfrist, bevor Sie einen Film ausleihen. 42 Kapitel 3 Musik und VideoKapitel 3 Musik und Video 43 Übertragen von Leihfilmen auf den iPod touch: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. Wählen Sie dann den iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste aus, klicken Sie auf „Filme“ und wählen Sie die Leihfilme aus, die Sie übertragen möchten. Ihr Computer muss mit dem Internet verbunden sein. Ansehen eines Leihfilms: Wählen Sie „Videos“ und dann einen Film aus. Ansehen eines Videos mit einem Fernsehgerät Sie können den iPod touch mit Ihrem Fernsehgerät verbinden, um Ihre Videos auf einem größeren Bildschirm anzusehen. Verwenden Sie dazu das Apple Component AV-Kabel, das Apple Composite AV-Kabel oder ein anderes mit dem iPod touch kompatibles Kabel. Sie können diese Kabel auch verwenden, um das Apple Universal Dock (separat erhältlich) mit dem iPod touch und Ihrem Fernsehgerät zu verbinden. (Das Apple Universal Dock wird mit einer Fernbedienung geliefert, die es ermöglicht, die Wiedergabe zu steuern.) Apple-Kabel und -Docks erhalten Sie im Internet unter folgender Adresse: www.apple.com/de/ipodstore. Löschen von Videos vom iPod touch Sie können Videos vom iPod touch löschen, um Speicherplatz freizugeben. Löschen eines Videos: Wählen Sie in der Liste „Videos“ ein Video aus, indem Sie mit dem Finger darüber streichen, und tippen Sie auf „Löschen“. Wenn Sie ein Video (ausgenommen Leihfilme) vom iPod touch löschen, wird das Video nicht aus Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek gelöscht und Sie können es zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt durch Synchronisieren wieder auf den iPod touch übertragen. Möchten Sie das Video nicht wieder mit dem iPod touch synchronisieren, legen Sie dies in iTunes entsprechend fest. Vgl. „Voraussetzungen“ auf Seite 5. Wichtig: Wenn Sie einen Leihfilm vom iPod touch löschen, wird der Film dauerhaft gelöscht und kann nicht mehr zurück auf Ihren Computer übertragen werden. Festlegen eines Timers für den Ruhezustand Sie können den iPod touch so konfigurieren, dass die Wiedergabe von Musik oder Videos nach einer bestimmten Zeit gestoppt wird. Festlegen eines Timers für den Ruhezustand: Wählen Sie im Home-Bildschirm „Uhr“ > „Timer“ und wählen Sie die gewünschten Stunden und Minuten aus. Tippen Sie auf „Timer-Ende“ und wählen Sie „iPod-Ruhezustand“ aus. Tippen Sie dann auf „Einstellen“ und „Starten“, um den Timer zu starten. Wenn der Timer abgelaufen ist, stoppt der iPod touch die Musik- oder Videowiedergabe, schließt alle geöffneten Programme und aktiviert die Sperre.Ändern der Tasten zum Blättern Sie können die Tasten „Listen“, „Interpreten“, „Titel“ oder „Videos“ zum Durchsuchen unten im Bildschirm durch Tasten ersetzen, die Sie häufiger verwenden. Wenn Sie beispielsweise häufig Podcasts hören, jedoch kaum Videos ansehen, können Sie die Taste „Videos“ durch „Podcasts“ austauschen. Ändern der Tasten zum Blättern: Tippen Sie auf „Weitere“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“ und bewegen Sie eine Taste nach unten im Bildschirm über die Taste, die ersetzt werden soll. Sie können die Tasten unten im Bildschirm auch nach links oder rechts bewegen, um sie wunschgemäß anzuordnen. Tippen Sie abschließend auf „Fertig“. Tippen Sie auf „Weitere“, um jederzeit auf die ausgetauschten Tasten zugreifen zu können. 44 Kapitel 3 Musik und Video45 iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store Mit dem iPod touch können Sie Musiktitel und Alben im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store suchen, als Hörprobe spielen, kaufen und laden. Sie können Musik oder Video-Podcasts aus dem iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store hören bzw. sehen, indem Sie diese Objekte entweder per Streaming über das Internet übertragen oder sie direkt auf den iPod touch laden. Damit Sie den iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store zum Suchen von Musiktiteln und Alben verwenden können, muss der iPod touch Zugriff auf ein Wi-Fi-Netzwerk haben, das mit dem Internet verbunden ist. Podcasts können sowohl über Funknetze als auch Wi-Fi-Verbindungen übertragen und geladen werden. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Sie benötigen zudem einen iTunes Store-Account, um Musiktitel über Wi-Fi zu kaufen (der iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store ist nur in einigen Ländern verfügbar). Wenn Sie noch keinen iTunes Store-Account besitzen, öffnen Sie iTunes auf Ihrem Computer und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Account erstellen“, um einen Account einzurichten. Sie benötigen keinen iTunes Store-Account, um Podcasts abzuspielen oder zu laden. Suchen von Musiktiteln, Alben und Podcasts Durchsuchen Sie die Kategorie „Empfohlen“ nach Neuerscheinungen und Empfehlungen des iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store. In den Chartlisten können Sie nach den gefragtesten Musiktiteln und Alben verschiedener Kategorien suchen. Durchsuchen Sie die Podcasts, um eine Liste der empfohlenen Podcasts anzusehen. Verwenden Sie die Suchfunktion, wenn Sie gezielt nach einem Musiktitel, einem Album oder Interpreten suchen wollen. 4 iTunes und der App StoreDurchsuchen empfohlener Musiktitel und Alben: Tippen Sie auf „Empfohlen“ und wählen Sie oben im Bildschirm eine Kategorie (Genre) aus. Suchen nach Musiktiteln und Alben in den Chartlisten: Tippen Sie auf „Chartlisten“ und wählen Sie eine Kategorie (Genre) aus. Tippen Sie dann auf „Top-Titel“ oder „TopAlben“. 46 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 47 Durchsuchen von Podcasts: Tippen Sie auf „Podcasts“. Video-Podcasts sind durch das Symbol gekennzeichnet. Tippen Sie auf einen Podcast, um eine Episodenliste anzuzeigen. Suchen nach Musiktiteln, Alben oder Podcasts: Tippen Sie auf die Taste „Suche“ und auf das Suchfeld. Geben Sie dann ein oder mehrere Wörter ein und tippen Sie auf „Suchen“. Die Suchergebnisse werden nach Alben, Titeln und Podcasts gruppiert. Anzeigen der Titel auf einem Album: Tippen Sie auf das Album. Anzeigen des Albums, auf dem sich ein Musiktitel befindet: Wählen Sie den Titel durch Doppeltippen aus. Anzeigen von Informationen zu Podcast-Episoden: Tippen Sie auf den Titel des Podcast.Durchsuchen der Starbucks-Empfehlungen Wenn Sie das Starbucks-Wi-Fi-Netzwerk in einigen Starbucks-Cafés (derzeit nur in den USA verfügbar) verwenden, wird unten im Bildschirm das Starbucks-Symbol neben der Taste „Empfohlen“ angezeigt. Tippen Sie auf das Starbucks-Symbol, wenn Sie wissen möchten, welcher Titel gerade im Café gespielt wird, und durchsuchen Sie die empfohlenen Starbucks-Sammlungen. Eine Liste ausgewählter Starbucks-Cafés finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/itunes/starbucks. Herausfinden des gerade gespielten Musiktitels: Tippen Sie auf „Starbucks“. Der Name des gerade gespielten Titels wird oben im Bildschirm eingeblendet. Tippen Sie auf den Musiktitel, um das Album, auf dem sich der Titel befindet, und die anderen Titel auf dem Album anzuzeigen. Anzeigen der zuletzt gespielten Titel und anderer StarbucksWiedergabelisten: Tippen Sie auf „Starbucks“, wählen Sie die Option für die zuletzt gespielten Titel oder eine der Starbucks-Wiedergabelisten aus. Kaufen von Musiktiteln und Alben Wenn Ihnen Musiktitel oder Alben im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store gefallen, können Sie sie kaufen und auf den iPod touch laden. Sie können eine Hörprobe eines Titels abspielen, bevor Sie ihn kaufen, um sicherzustellen, dass es der richtige Titel ist. In einigen Starbucks-Cafés (derzeit nur in den USA verfügbar) können Sie auch die gerade gespielten Musiktitel und andere Titel aus empfohlenen Starbucks-Sammlungen als Hörprobe abspielen und kaufen. Spielen einer Hörprobe: Tippen Sie auf den Musiktitel. Kaufen und Laden eines Musiktitels oder Albums 1 Tippen Sie auf den Preis und dann auf die Option „Kaufen“. 48 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 49 Wenn Sie beim letzten Synchronisieren des iPod touch bei iTunes mit Ihrem iTunes Store-Account angemeldet waren, müssen Sie Ihre Account-ID nicht eingeben. Andernfalls werden Sie aufgefordert, Ihre Account-ID einzugeben. 2 Geben Sie Ihr Kennwort ein und tippen Sie auf „OK“. Ihr Einkauf wird über Ihren iTunes Store-Account abgerechnet. Für alle weiteren innerhalb der nächsten fünfzehn Minuten getätigten Einkäufe muss das Kennwort nicht erneut eingegeben werden. Wenn Sie zuvor bereits einen oder mehrere Titel eines Albums gekauft haben, wird ein Warnhinweis angezeigt. Tippen Sie auf „Kaufen“, wenn Sie das Album, auf dem sich die bereits gekauften Titel befinden, kaufen möchten. Tippen Sie auf „Abbrechen“, wenn Sie weitere Albumtitel einzeln kaufen möchten. Auf einigen Alben befindet sich Bonusmaterial, das in Ihre iTunes-Mediathek auf Ihren Computer übertragen wird. Nicht alle Bonusinhalte werden direkt auf den iPod touch geladen. Anzeigen des Ladevorgangs von Musiktiteln und Alben: Tippen Sie auf „Downloads“. Zum Anhalten des Ladevorgangs tippen Sie auf . Wenn Sie den iPod touch während eines Ladevorgangs ausschalten oder den Aktionsradius der aktuellen Wi-Fi-Zone verlassen müssen, gehen keine Daten verloren. Der iPod touch setzt den Ladevorgang fort, sobald der iPod touch das nächste Mal die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk herstellt. Auch wenn Sie iTunes auf Ihrem Computer öffnen, wird der Ladevorgang fortgesetzt und der Titel vollständig in Ihre iTunes-Mediathek übertragen (wenn der Computer mit dem Internet verbunden ist). Gekaufte Musiktitel werden zur Wiedergabeliste „Einkäufe“ auf dem iPod touch hinzugefügt. Wenn Sie die Wiedergabeliste „Einkäufe“ löschen, erstellt iTunes eine neue, wenn Sie ein Objekt im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store kaufen. Übertragen oder Laden von Podcasts Sie können Audio-Podcasts anhören bzw. Video-Podcasts ansehen, die über das Internet per Streaming aus dem Wi-Fi Music Store übertragen werden. Sie können Audio- und Video-Podcasts auch auf den iPod touch laden. Podcasts, die Sie auf den iPod touch laden, werden mit Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek synchronisiert, wenn Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer verbinden.Übertragen eines Podcast: Tippen Sie auf den Titel des Podcast. Audio-Podcasts werden in einem neuen Fenster mit Bedienelementen für die Wiedergabesteuerung angezeigt. Video-Podcasts werden im Breitbildformat mit Bedienelementen für die Wiedergabesteuerung angezeigt. Laden eines Podcast: Tippen Sie auf die Taste „Kostenlos“ und dann auf „Laden“. Geladene Podcasts werden in der Podcast-Liste im BildschirmMusik aufgelistet. Hören oder sehen Sie einen geladenen Podcast: Tippen Sie im Bildschirm Musik, auf „Podcasts“ unten im Bildschirm (möglicherweise müssen Sie zuerst auf „Mehr“ tippen). Tippen Sie dann auf den Podcast. Video-Podcasts werden ebenfalls in Ihrer Videoliste angezeigt. Laden Sie weitere Episoden des geladenen Podcasts: Tippen Sie im Bildschirm Musik in der Podcast-Liste auf den Podcast und dann auf „Weitere Episoden laden“. Löschen eines Podcast: Streichen Sie im Bildschirm Musik in der Podcast-Liste nach links oder rechts über den Podcast und tippen Sie dann auf „Löschen“. Anzeigen des Ladevorgangs von Podcasts: Tippen Sie auf „Downloads“. Zum Anhalten des Ladevorgangs tippen Sie auf . Wenn Sie den iPod touch während eines Ladevorgangs von Podcasts ausschalten oder den Aktionsradius der aktuellen Wi-Fi-Zone verlassen müssen, gehen keine Daten verloren. Der iPod touch setzt den Ladevorgang fort, sobald der iPod touch das nächste Mal die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk herstellt. 50 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 51 App Store Mit dem iPod touch können Sie Programme im App Store suchen, als Demo anzeigen, kaufen, laden und bewerten. Programme, die Sie vom App Store auf den iPod touch geladen und dort installiert haben, werden bei der nächsten Synchronisierung des iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek gesichert. Beim Synchronisieren mit dem iPod touch können Sie auch die Programme installieren, die Sie mit iTunes gekauft und auf Ihren Computer geladen haben. Damit Sie den App Store verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Sie benötigen zudem einen iTunes Store-Account (in zahlreichen Ländern verfügbar), um Programme laden zu können. Wenn Sie keinen iTunes Store-Account besitzen, öffnen Sie iTunes auf Ihrem Computer und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Account erstellen“, um einen Account einzurichten. Suchen und Finden Sie haben die Möglichkeit, die Kategorie „Empfohlen“ zu durchsuchen, um Neuerscheinungen und App Store-Empfehlungen zu finden. Durchsuchen Sie die Top 25, um die bekanntesten Programme anzuzeigen. Wenn Sie nach einem bestimmten Programm suchen wollen, verwenden Sie die Suchfunktion. Suchen nach empfohlenen Programmen: Tippen Sie auf „Empfohlen“ und wählen Sie oben im Bildschirm eine empfohlene Kategorie aus.Suchen nach Kategorie (Genre): Tippen Sie auf „Genres“ und wählen Sie eine Kategorie (Genre) aus. Wählen Sie in einer Kategorie eine Sortiermethode aus. Durchsuchen der Top 25 der Programme: Tippen Sie auf „Top 25“ und blättern Sie dann durch die Liste der Programme. 52 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 53 Suchen nach Programmen: Tippen Sie auf die Taste „Suche“ und auf das Suchfeld. Geben Sie dann ein oder mehrere Wörter ein und tippen Sie auf „Suchen“. Info-Bildschirm Tippen Sie auf ein Programm in der Liste, um weitere Informationen wie den Kaufpreis des Programms, Rezensionen oder andere Informationen anzuzeigen. Wenn Sie ein Programm bereits installiert haben, wird im Info-Bildschirm statt des Preises der Hinweis „installiert“ angezeigt.Senden eines Links zur Infoseite des Programms in iTunes per Mail: Tippen Sie auf „Empfehlen“ im Info-Bildschirm. Lesen von Rezensionen: Tippen Sie auf „Rezensionen“ im Info-Bildschirm. Melden eines Problems: Tippen Sie auf „Problem melden“ im Info-Bildschirm. Wählen Sie ein Problem in der Liste aus oder geben Sie optionale Kommentare ein. Tippen Sie dann auf „Melden“. Laden von Programmen Wenn Sie das gewünschte Programm im App Store gefunden haben, laden Sie es auf den iPod touch. Ist das Programm kostenlos, können Sie es nach Eingabe Ihrer iTunesAccount-Informationen ohne Gebühren laden. Nach dem Laden wird das Programm sofort auf Ihrem iPod touch installiert. Laden und Installieren eines Programms: 1 Tippen Sie auf den Preis (oder tippen Sie auf „Kostenlos“ und anschließend auf „Kaufen“). Wenn Sie beim letzten Synchronisieren des iPod touch bei iTunes mit Ihrem iTunes Store-Account angemeldet waren, müssen Sie Ihre Account-ID nicht eingeben. Andernfalls werden Sie aufgefordert, Ihre Account-ID einzugeben. 2 Geben Sie Ihr Kennwort ein und tippen Sie auf „OK“. Der Preis für geladene Programme, die nicht kostenlos sind, wird Ihrem iTunes StoreAccount belastet. Für alle weiteren Ladevorgänge, die innerhalb der nächsten fünfzehn Minuten getätigt werden, muss das Kennwort nicht erneut eingegeben werden. 54 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 55 Anzeigen des Ladevorgangs von Programmen: Nachdem Sie mit dem Laden eines Programms begonnen haben, wird dessen Symbol im Home-Bildschirm angezeigt und gibt den Status des Lade- und Installationsvorgangs an. Wenn Sie den iPod touch während eines Ladevorgangs ausschalten oder den Aktionsradius der aktuellen Netzwerkverbindung verlassen müssen, gehen keine Daten verloren. Der iPod touch setzt den Ladevorgang fort, sobald der iPod touch das nächste Mal die Verbindung zu einem Netzwerk mit Internetverbindung herstellt. Löschen von App Store-Programmen Sie können Programme, die Sie über den App Store installiert haben, löschen. Wenn Sie ein Programm löschen, stehen zum Programm gehörende Daten dem iPod touch nicht mehr zur Verfügung, selbst wenn Sie das Programm erneut installieren. Sie können das Programm und die zugehörigen Daten von Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek erneut installieren, sofern Sie das Programm durch Synchronisieren mit Ihrem Computer gesichert haben. Beim Versuch ein Programm zu löschen, das nicht auf Ihrem Computer gesichert wurde, wird eine Warnmeldung angezeigt. Löschen eines App Store-Programms: 1 Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf ein beliebiges Programmsymbol im HomeBildschirm, bis die Symbole anfangen, sich leicht zu bewegen. 2 Tippen Sie auf das „x“ in der Ecke des Programms, das Sie löschen möchten. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Löschen und drücken Sie dann die Home-Taste , um Ihre Anordnung zu sichern. Wenn Sie die zu einem Programm gehörenden Daten überschreiben möchten, verwenden Sie die Option „Inhalte & Einstellungen löschen“ in den iPod touch-Einstellungen. Vgl. „Zurücksetzen des iPod touch“ auf Seite 109. Schreiben von Rezensionen Sie können direkt auf dem iPod touch Rezensionen für Programme schreiben und senden. Schreiben einer Rezension: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Rezensionen“ im Info-Bildschirm. 2 Tippen Sie im Bildschirm für Rezensionen auf „Rezension schreiben“.3 Wählen Sie die gewünschte Anzahl Sterne (1 - 5) für die Bewertung des Programms und einen Titel für die Rezension aus und fügen Sie optional Anmerkungen hinzu. Wenn Sie schon einmal Rezensionen geschrieben haben, ist das Feld für den Spitznamen bereits ausgefüllt. Andernfalls werden Sie aufgefordert, einen neuen Spitznamen einzugeben. 4 Tippen Sie auf „Senden“. Sie müssen mit Ihrem iTunes Store-Account angemeldet sein, um Rezensionen senden zu können. Aktualisieren von Programmen Jedes Mal, wenn Sie auf den App Store zugreifen, wird nach Aktualisierungen für die von Ihnen installierten Programme gesucht. Standardmäßig startet der App Store die automatische Überprüfung jede Woche. Im App Store-Symbol wird die Anzahl der verfügbaren Programmaktualisierungen angezeigt. Wenn eine Aktualisierung verfügbar ist und Sie auf den App Store zugreifen, wird sofort der Bildschirm zur Aktualisierung anzeigt. Programmaktualisierungen sind kostenlos und werden geladen und automatisch installiert, sofern Sie das Programm aktualisieren wollen. Programmaktualisierungen sind neue Versionen des Programms, die Sie erwerben und über den App Store auf den iPod touch oder über den iTunes Store auf Ihren Computer laden können. Aktualisieren eines Programms: 1 Tippen Sie unten im Bildschirm auf „Updates“. 2 Tippen Sie auf ein Programm, um weitere Informationen über die Aktualisierung zu erhalten. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Aktualisieren“. Aktualisieren aller Programme: Tippen Sie unten im Bildschirm auf „Updates“ und dann auf „Alle aktualisieren“. Wenn Sie versuchen, ein über einen anderen iTunes Store-Account erworbenes Programm zu aktualisieren, werden Sie aufgefordert, die zugehörige Account-ID und das entsprechende Kennwort einzugeben, um die Aktualisierung zu laden. 56 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App StoreKapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store 57 Synchronisieren von gekauften Inhalten iTunes synchronisiert Musiktitel, Alben, Podcasts und Programme, die Sie mit Ihrem iPod touch geladen oder gekauft haben, automatisch mit Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek, wenn Sie den iPod touch an Ihren Computer anschließen. Auf diese Weise können Sie die geladenen Titel und Programme auf Ihrem Computer anhören und sichern. Wenn Sie Programme oder gekaufte Inhalte von Ihrem iPod touch löschen, können Sie sie mithilfe der auf Ihrem Computer angelegten Sicherungskopie wiederherstellen. Musiktitel werden mit der Wiedergabeliste „Gekauft mit “ synchronisiert. iTunes erstellt diese Wiedergabeliste, wenn sie noch nicht vorhanden ist. iTunes kopiert Ihre Einkäufe zudem in die Liste der Einkäufe, die iTunes für die von Ihrem Computer getätigten Einkäufe verwendet. Voraussetzung dafür ist, dass diese Wiedergabeliste vorhanden und für die Synchronisierung mit dem iPod touch konfiguriert ist. Geladene Podcasts werden mit der Podcast-Liste in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek synchronisiert. Bei der nächsten Synchronisierung mit iTunes wird eine Sicherungskopie geladener Programme erstellt. Danach werden bei einer Synchronisierung mit iTunes nur Programmdaten gesichert. Programme werden mit der Programmliste in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek synchronisiert. Ist diese Liste nicht vorhanden, wird sie von iTunes erstellt. Prüfen der Einkäufe Mithilfe von iTunes können Sie überprüfen, ob sich alle Musiktitel, Videos, Programme und anderen Objekte, die Sie im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store oder App Store gekauft haben, in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek befinden. Dies empfiehlt sich beispielsweise, wenn ein Ladevorgang unterbrochen wurde. Prüfen Ihrer Einkäufe 1 Vergewissern Sie sich, dass Ihr Computer mit dem Internet verbunden ist. 2 Öffnen Sie iTunes und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Nach verfügbaren Downloads suchen“. 3 Geben Sie Ihre iTunes Store-Account-ID und Ihr Kennwort ein und klicken Sie auf „Überprüfen“. Einkäufe, die sich noch nicht auf Ihrem Computer befinden, werden geladen. Die Wiedergabeliste „Einkäufe“ zeigt alle Einkäufe an. Da Sie Objekte jedoch zu dieser Liste hinzufügen bzw. aus ihr entfernen können, ist sie unter Umständen nicht immer genau. Wenn Sie alle Einkäufe anzeigen möchten, vergewissern Sie sich, dass Sie bei Ihrem Account angemeldet sind, und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Meinen Account anzeigen“ und klicken Sie auf „Einkaufsstatistik“.Aktualisieren Ihres Accounts Der iPod touch erhält die Informationen zu Ihrem iTunes Store-Account von iTunes. Sie können Ihre iTunes Store-Account-Daten mit iTunes auf Ihrem Computer ansehen und ändern. Anzeigen und Ändern Ihrer iTunes Store-Account-Daten: Öffnen Sie iTunes und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Meinen Account anzeigen“. Sie müssen bei Ihrem iTunes Store-Account angemeldet sein. Wenn die Option „Meinen Account anzeigen“ im Menü „Store” nicht angezeigt wird, wählen Sie „Store“ > „Anmelden“. Kaufen von Musik oder Programmen von einem anderen iTunes StoreAccount: Melden Sie sich bei diesem Account an, wenn Sie eine Verbindung zum iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store herstellen oder wenn Sie ein Programm im App Store kaufen oder laden. 58 Kapitel 4 iTunes und der App Store59 Mit Safari können Sie im Internet surfen und Webseiten auf dem iPod touch so anzeigen, wie mit Ihrem Computer. Sie können Lesezeichen auf dem iPod touch erstellen und diese mit Ihrem Computer synchronisieren. Fügen Sie Weblinks für Ihre bevorzugten Websites direkt zum Home-Bildschirm hinzu, um schnell darauf zugreifen zu können. Damit Sie Safari verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Anzeigen von Webseiten Webseiten lassen sich im Hoch- oder Querformat anzeigen. Beim Drehen des iPod touch wird die Webseite ebenfalls gedreht und das Seitenformat wird entsprechend angepasst. 5 SafariÖffnen von Webseiten Öffnen einer Webseite: Tippen Sie auf das Adressfeld (links in der Titelleiste), geben Sie dann die Webadresse ein und tippen Sie auf „OK“. Wird das Adressfeld nicht angezeigt, tippen Sie auf die Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm, um schnell zum Adressfeld oben auf der Webseite zu blättern. Während Sie schreiben, werden die Webadressen, die mit diesen Buchstaben beginnen, angezeigt. Hierbei handelt es sich um Webadressen, die mit einem Lesezeichen versehen sind oder kürzlich geöffnet wurden. Tippen Sie auf eine Adresse, um die Seite zu öffnen. Schreiben Sie weiter, wenn Sie eine Webadresse eingeben möchten, die sich nicht in der Liste befindet. Löschen von Text im Adressfeld: Tippen Sie auf das Adressfeld und tippen Sie dann auf . Vergrößern/Verkleinern und Blättern Verkleinern oder Vergrößern: Wählen Sie eine Spalte auf einer Webseite durch Doppeltippen aus, um sie zu vergrößern. Durch erneutes Doppeltippen wird der Ausschnitt wieder verkleinert. Ziehen Sie den Bildrahmen auf oder zu, um das Bild manuell zu vergrößern bzw. zu verkleinern. Blättern in einer Webseite Bewegen Sie Ihren Finger nach oben, unten oder zur Seite. Beim Navigieren können Sie den Finger beliebig auf der Seite bewegen, ohne dabei Links zu aktivieren. Blättern innerhalb eines Ausschnitts auf einer Webseite Verwenden Sie zwei Finger, um innerhalb eines Ausschnitts auf einer Webseite zu blättern. Verwenden Sie einen Finger, um durch die gesamte Webseite zu blättern. Schnelles Blättern an den Anfang einer Webseite Tippen Sie auf die Statusleiste oben auf dem iPod touch-Bildschirm. 60 Kapitel 5 SafariKapitel 5 Safari 61 Navigieren auf Webseiten Die Links auf Webseiten führen Sie normalerweise zu einer anderen Website. Auswählen eines Links auf einer Webseite: Tippen Sie auf den Link. Mit Links auf dem iPod touch kann auch eine Position im Programm „Karten“ angezeigt oder eine bereits adressierte E-Mail erstellt werden. Möchten Sie zu Safari zurückkehren, nachdem mit einem Link ein anderes Programm geöffnet wurde, drücken Sie die Home-Taste und tippen Sie auf „Safari“. Anzeigen der Zieladresse eines Links Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf dem Link. Die Adresse wird neben Ihrem Finger eingeblendet. Sie können auch auf ein Bild tippen, um festzustellen, ob es mit einem Link verknüpft ist. Verhindern, dass eine Webseite geladen wird Tippen Sie auf . Erneutes Laden einer Webseite Tippen Sie auf . Zurückkehren zur vorherigen oder nächsten Seite Tippen Sie auf oder unten im Bildschirm. Anzeigen zuletzt besuchter Webseites Tippen Sie auf und tippen Sie auf „Verlauf“. Tippen Sie auf „Löschen“, um die Verlaufsliste zu löschen. Senden einer Adresse einer Webseite per E-Mail Tippen Sie auf und anschließend auf „URL für Seite senden“. Sichern eines Bilds oder Fotos in Ihrem Fotoarchiv Tippen Sie auf ein Bild, halten den Finger darauf und tippen Sie dann auf „Bild sichern“. Öffnen mehrerer Seiten Sie können bis zu acht Seiten gleichzeitig geöffnet haben. Einige Links öffnen automatisch eine neue Seite, statt die aktuelle zu ersetzen. Die Zahl im Seitensymbol unten im Bildschirm zeigt die Anzahl der geöffneten Seiten an. Wenn keine Zahl angezeigt wird, ist derzeit nur eine Seite geöffnet. Beispiel: = eine Seite ist geöffnet = drei Seiten sind geöffnet Öffnen einer neuen Seite: Tippen Sie auf und tippen Sie dann auf „Neue Seite“.Wechseln zu einer anderen Seite: Tippen Sie auf und streichen Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts über den Bildschirm. Wenn die gewünschte Seite angezeigt wird, tippen Sie darauf. Schließen einer Seite: Tippen Sie auf und tippen Sie dann auf . Wenn eine Seite als einzige geöffnet ist, dann lässt sie sich nicht schließen. Eingeben von Text und Ausfüllen von Formularen Auf einigen Webseiten befinden sich Textfelder und Formulare, die ausgefüllt werden müssen. Einblenden der Tastatur Tippen Sie auf ein Textfeld. Wechseln in ein anderes Textfeld Tippen Sie auf ein anderes Textfeld. Oder tippen Sie auf „Weiter“ bzw. „Zurück“. Absenden des Formulars Nachdem Sie die Textfelder auf einer Seite ausgefüllt haben, tippen Sie auf „OK“ oder „Suchen“. Auf den meisten Seiten befindet sich zudem ein Link, auf den Sie tippen können, um das Formular abzusenden. Ausblenden der Tastatur ohne Absenden des Formulars Tippen Sie auf „Fertig“. Suchen im Internet Standardmäßig verwendet Safari die Google-Suche. Sie können aber auch mit Yahoo! suchen. Suchen im Web: 1 Tippen Sie auf das Suchfeld (rechts in der Titelleiste). 2 Geben Sie ein Wort oder eine Wortgruppe ein, um das Gesuchte zu beschreiben. Tippen Sie dann auf „Google“. 62 Kapitel 5 SafariKapitel 5 Safari 63 3 Tippen Sie auf einen Link in der Liste der Suchergebnisse, um eine Webseite zu öffnen. Festlegen, dass Safari mit Yahoo! suchen soll: Wählen Sie im Home-Bildschirm „Einstellungen“ > „Safari“ > „Suchmaschine“ und wählen Sie dann „Yahoo!“. Lesezeichen Sie können Lesezeichen für Webseiten anlegen, die Sie zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt erneut besuchen möchten. Setzen von Lesezeichen auf einer Webseite: Öffnen Sie die Seite und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie dann auf „Lesezeichen“. Beim Sichern eines Lesezeichens können Sie dessen Titel bearbeiten. Standardmäßig wird das Lesezeichen auf der obersten Ebene im Lesezeichenordner gesichert. Tippen Sie auf „Lesezeichen“, um einen anderen Ordner auszuwählen. Wenn Sie Safari auf einem Mac oder Safari bzw. Microsoft Internet Explorer auf einem PC verwenden, können Sie Lesezeichen mit dem Webbrowser auf Ihrem Computer synchronisieren. Synchronisieren von Lesezeichen mit Ihrem Computer: 1 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. 2 Wählen Sie in iTunes den iPod touch in der Seitenleiste aus. 3 Klicken Sie auf den Titel „Infos“, wählen Sie „Webbrowser“ > „Lesezeichen synchronisieren“ und klicken Sie dann auf „Anwenden“. Vgl. „Synchronisieren mit iTunes“ auf Seite 6. Synchronisieren von Lesezeichen mit MobileMe: Wählen Sie im Bereich „Einstellungen“ des iPod touch die Option „Favoriten“ in Ihrem MobileMe-Account aus. Vgl. „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11. Öffnen einer mit Lesezeichen versehenen Webseite: Tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie dann ein Lesezeichen aus. Sie können auch auf einen Ordner tippen, um die darin enthaltenen Lesezeichen einzublenden. Bearbeiten eines Lesezeichens oder Lesezeichenordners: Tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie den Ordner mit dem Lesezeichen oder den zu bearbeitenden Ordner aus und tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“. Führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Zum Erstellen eines neuen Ordners tippen Sie auf „Neuer Ordner“.  Zum Löschen eines Lesezeichens oder Ordners tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Löschen“.  Zum neu Positionieren eines Lesezeichens oder Ordners bewegen Sie das Symbol .  Zum Bearbeiten von Name oder Adresse oder zum Ablegen dieser Daten in einem anderen Ordner tippen Sie auf das Lesezeichen oder den Ordner.Wenn Sie fertig sind, tippen Sie auf „Fertig“. Weblinks Fügen Sie Weblinks zum Home-Bildschirm hinzu, um schnell auf Ihre bevorzugten Webseiten zugreifen zu können. Weblinks werden im Home-Bildschirm als Symbole angezeigt und lassen sich zusammen mit den anderen Symbolen anordnen. Vgl. „iPod touch-Programme“ auf Seite 17. Hinzufügen eines Weblinks: Öffnen Sie die Webseite und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie dann auf „Zum Home-Bildschirm hinzufügen“. Wenn Sie einen Weblink öffnen, vergrößert Safari automatisch den Bereich der Webseite, der beim Sichern des Weblinks angezeigt wurde, und blättert dorthin. Das Symbol für den Weblink auf dem Home-Bildschirm wird ebenfalls aus dem angezeigten Teil der Webseite erstellt. Es sei denn, die Webseite besitzt ein eigenes Symbol. Wenn Sie einen Weblink hinzufügen, können Sie dessen Namen bearbeiten. Ist der Name zu lang (länger als ungefähr 10 Zeichen), wird er auf dem Home-Bildschirm möglicherweise abgekürzt angezeigt. Bei Weblinks handelt es sich nicht um Lesezeichen. Sie werden von MobileMe oder iTunes nicht synchronisiert. Löschen eines Weblinks: 1 Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf ein beliebiges Symbol im Home-Bildschirm, bis die Symbole anfangen, sich leicht zu bewegen. 2 Tippen Sie auf das „x“ in der Ecke des Weblinks, den Sie löschen möchten. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Löschen und drücken Sie dann die Home-Taste , um Ihre Anordnung zu sichern. 64 Kapitel 5 Safari65 Mail arbeitet mit MobileMe, Microsoft Exchange und vielen anderen gängigen E-MailSystemen – einschließlich Yahoo! Mail, Google Mail und AOL sowie mit anderen standardmäßigen POP3- und IMAP-E-Mail-Systemen. Sie können E-Mails mit Fotos und Grafiken senden und empfangen und PDFs und andere angehängte Daten anzeigen. Damit Sie E-Mails mit Mail laden und senden können, benötigt der iPod touch eine Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk, das mit dem Internet verbunden ist. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Konfigurieren von E-Mail-Accounts Sie haben zwei Möglichkeiten, E-Mail-Accounts auf dem iPod touch einzurichten:  Verwenden Sie in iTunes die Einstellungsbereiche für den iPod touch, um E-Mail-Account-Einstellungen von Ihrem Computer zu synchronisieren. Vgl. „Synchronisieren mit iTunes“ auf Seite 6.  Richten Sie direkt auf dem iPod touch einen Account ein. Vgl. „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11. Senden von E-Mails E-Mails können an alle Personen mit einer E-Mail-Adresse versendet werden. Verfassen und Senden einer E-Mail: 1 Tippen Sie auf . 2 Geben Sie einen Namen oder eine E-Mail-Adresse in das Feld „An“ ein oder tippen Sie auf , um einen Namen aus Ihrer Kontaktliste hinzuzufügen. Bei der Eingabe einer E-Mail-Adresse werden übereinstimmende E-Mail-Adressen aus Ihrer Kontaktliste darunter angezeigt. Tippen Sie auf eine Adresse, um sie hinzuzufü- gen. Tippen Sie auf „Return“ oder auf , um weitere Namen hinzuzufügen. 6 MailHinweis: Wenn Sie eine Nachricht über Ihren Microsoft Exchange-Account erstellen und Zugriff auf die GAL-Liste (Global Address List) Ihres Unternehmens haben, werden die Adressen, die mit den Kontakten auf dem iPod touch übereinstimmen, zuerst und die entsprechenden GAL-Adressen darunter angezeigt. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Kopie/Blindkopie/Von“, wenn Sie die E-Mail als Kopie oder Blindkopie an weitere Empfänger senden oder den Account ändern möchten, von dem die E-Mail gesendet wird. Wenn Sie mehrere E-Mail-Accounts besitzen, können Sie auf das Feld „Account“ tippen, um den Account zu ändern, von dem die E-Mail gesendet wird. 4 Geben Sie einen Betreff und anschließend Ihren Text ein. Tippen Sie auf „Return“, um von einem Feld zum nächsten zu gelangen. 5 Tippen Sie auf „Senden“. Senden eines Fotos in einer E-Mail Wählen Sie im Programm „Fotos“ ein Foto aus, tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Per E-Mail versenden“. Das Foto wird über Ihren standardmäßigen E-Mail-Account gesendet (vgl. „Mail“ auf Seite 113). Sichern einer E-Mail als Entwurf für die spätere Bearbeitung Tippen Sie auf „Abbrechen“ und dann Sie auf „Sichern“. Die E-Mail wird im Postfach „Entwürfe“ abgelegt. Antworten auf eine E-Mail Tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie auf „Antworten“, um nur dem Absender der E-Mail zu antworten. Tippen Sie auf „An alle“, um dem Absender und den anderen Empfängern zu antworten. Geben Sie dann Ihren eigenen Text ein und tippen Sie auf „Senden“. Die der Originalnachricht angehängten Dateien oder Bilder werden nicht zurückgesendet. Weiterleiten einer E-Mail Öffnen Sie eine E-Mail und tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Weiterleiten“. Fügen Sie eine oder mehrere E-Mail-Adressen hinzu, geben Sie Ihren Text ein und tippen Sie dann auf „Senden“. Wenn Sie eine E-Mail weiterleiten, können Sie die an die Originalnachricht angehängten Dateien oder Bilder hinzufügen. 66 Kapitel 6 MailKapitel 6 Mail 67 Abrufen und Lesen von E-Mails Das Symbol „Mail“ zeigt die Gesamtzahl der ungelesenen Nachrichten in allen Ihren Posteingängen an. Möglicherweise befinden sich in anderen Postfächern noch weitere ungelesene Nachrichten. Anzahl der nicht gelesenen E-Mails in Ihren Postfächern Auf jedem Account-Bildschirm wird die Anzahl der ungelesenen Nachrichten in jedem Postfach angezeigt. Anzahl der nicht gelesenen E-Mails Tippen Sie hier, um alle E-Mail-Accounts einzublenden. Tippen Sie auf ein Postfach, um die darin enthaltenen E-Mails anzuzeigen. Ungelesene E-Mails sind mit einem blauen Punkt gekennzeichnet. Nicht gelesene Nachrichten Wenn Sie ein Postfach öffnen, lädt Mail so viele aktuelle E-Mails wie in den Einstellungen des Programms „Mail“ angegeben, sofern die E-Mails nicht bereits automatisch geladen wurden. (Vgl. „Mail“ auf Seite 113.) Laden weiterer E-Mails: Blättern Sie in der Liste der E-Mails nach unten und tippen Sie auf „Weitere E-Mails laden“. Lesen einer E-Mail: Tippen Sie auf ein Postfach und dann auf eine E-Mail. Tippen Sie in einer E-Mail auf oder , um die nächste oder vorherige Nachricht anzuzeigen.Einzoomen eines Teils einer E-Mail Wählen Sie den Ausschnitt, der vergrößert werden soll, durch Doppeltippen aus. Durch erneutes Doppeltippen wird der Ausschnitt wieder verkleinert. Bildschirmfüllendes Vergrößern einer Textspalte Tippen Sie zweimal auf den Text. Manuelles Anpassen der Größe einer E-Mail Ziehen Sie den Ausschnitt mit zwei Fingern auf oder zu. Folgen eines Links Tippen Sie auf den Link. Die Textlinks sind üblicherweise unterstrichen und blau. Auch Bilder werden häufig als Links verwendet. Über einen Link wird z. B. eine Webseite oder Karte angezeigt oder eine neue, bereits adressierte E-Mail geöffnet. Mit Web- und Kartenlinks werden die Programme „Safari“, oder „Karten“ auf dem iPod touch geöffnet. Drücken Sie die Home-Taste und tippen Sie auf „Mail“, um zu Ihren E-Mails zurückzukehren. Anzeigen der Zieladresse eines Links Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf dem Link. Die Adresse wird neben Ihrem Finger eingeblendet. Der iPod touch zeigt die meisten angehängten Bilder (JPEG, GIF und TIFF) mit dem Text in der E-Mail-Nachricht an. Der iPod touch kann viele Audioanhänge abspielen (etwa MP3, AAC, WAV und AIFF). Sie können Dateien (wie PDF-, Webseiten-, Text-, Pages-, Keynote-, Numbers- und Microsoft Word-, Excel- und PowerPoint-Dokumente), die an eine E-Mail angehängt wurden, anzeigen und empfangen. Öffnen eines Anhangs: Tippen Sie auf den Anhang. Er wird auf den iPod touch geladen und dann geöffnet. Tippen Sie auf die Anlage, um sie zu laden. Anhänge lassen sich im Hoch- und Querformat anzeigen. Wird das Format eines Anhangs vom iPod touch nicht unterstützt, können Sie den Namen der Datei sehen, sie jedoch nicht öffnen. Der iPod touch unterstützt die folgenden Dokumenttypen: 68 Kapitel 6 MailKapitel 6 Mail 69 .doc Microsoft Word .docx Microsoft Word (XML) .htm Webseite .html Webseite .key Keynote .numbers Numbers .pages Pages .pdf Vorschau, Adobe Acrobat .ppt Microsoft PowerPoint .pptx Microsoft PowerPoint (XML) .txt Text .vcf Kontaktinformationen .xls Microsoft Excel .xlsx Microsoft Excel (XML) Sichern Sie einen Fotoanhang in Ihrem Fotoarchiv: Tippen Sie auf ein Bild, halten den Finger darauf und tippen Sie dann auf „Bild sichern“. Abrufen neuer Nachrichten Wählen Sie ein Postfach aus oder tippen Sie zu einem beliebigen Zeitpunkt auf . Anzeigen aller Empfänger einer E-Mail Tippen Sie auf „Details“. Tippen Sie auf einen Namen oder eine E-MailAdresse, um die Kontaktinformationen des Empfängers einzublenden. Tippen Sie anschließend auf eine E-Mail-Adresse oder eine SMS-Nachricht, um die Person zu kontaktieren. Tippen Sie auf „Ausblenden“, um die Empfänger auszublenden. Hinzufügen eines E-Mail-Empfängers zu Ihrer Kontaktliste Tippen Sie auf die E-Mail und tippen Sie falls erforderlich auf „Details“, um die Empfänger anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie dann auf einen Namen oder eine E-Mail-Adresse und anschließend auf „Neuen Kontakt erstellen“ oder „Zu Kontakt hinzufügen“. Kennzeichnen einer E-Mail als ungelesen Öffnen Sie die E-Mail und tippen Sie auf „Markieren“. Ein blauer Punkt wird neben der E-Mail in der Postfachliste angezeigt, bis Sie die E-Mail erneut öffnen.Öffnen einer Einladung zu einer Besprechung: Tippen Sie auf die Einladung. Sie können Kontaktinformationen für den Organisator und andere Teilnehmer abrufen, eine Erinnerung einstellen, Notizen festhalten und Kommentare hinzufügen, die in Ihre Antwort-E-Mail an den Organisator enthalten sind. Sie können die Einladung annehmen, vorläufig annehmen oder ablehnen. Vgl. „Antworten auf Einladungen zu Besprechungen“ auf Seite 88. Aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Funktion „Push“: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Neue Daten laden“ und tippen Sie dann auf „Push“. Vgl. „Neue Daten laden“ auf Seite 103. Verwalten von E-Mails Sie können E-Mails einzeln löschen oder mehrere E-Mails auswählen und gleichzeitig löschen. Ferner haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Nachrichten von einem Postfach oder Ordner in ein anderes bzw. einen anderen zu bewegen. Löschen einer E-Mail: Öffnen Sie die E-Mail und tippen Sie auf . Oder tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“ und tippen Sie dann neben der E-Mail auf . Sie können eine E-Mail auch direkt aus der E-Mail-Liste des Postfachs löschen, indem Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts über den Titel der Nachricht streichen und dann auf „Löschen“ tippen. Fahren Sie mit dem Finger auf der Nachricht nach links oder rechts, um die Taste zum Löschen einzublenden. 70 Kapitel 6 MailKapitel 6 Mail 71 Löschen mehrerer E-Mails: Wenn Sie eine Liste mit E-Mails anzeigen, tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“, wählen Sie die Nachrichten aus, die Sie löschen möchten, und tippen Sie dann auf „Löschen“. Bewegen einer E-Mail in ein anderes Postfach oder einen anderen Ordner: Wenn Sie eine E-Mail anzeigen, tippen Sie auf und wählen Sie dann ein Postfach oder einen Ordner aus. Bewegen mehrerer E-Mails: Wenn Sie eine Liste mit E-Mails anzeigen, tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“ und wählen Sie die zu bewegenden Nachrichten aus. Tippen Sie dann auf „Bewegen“ und wählen Sie ein Postfach oder einen Ordner aus.72 Karten Das Programm „Karten“ stellt Straßenkarten, Satellitenaufnahmen und HybridDarstellungen von Orten in vielen Ländern der Welt bereit. Sie können ausführliche Wegbeschreibungen und Verkehrsinformationen abrufen. Außerdem können Sie Ihren aktuellen (ungefähren) Standort suchen und basierend darauf Wegbeschreibungen nach oder von einem anderen Ort abrufen.1 Damit Sie das Programm „Karten“ verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. ACHTUNG: Wichtige Hinweise zu Sicherheit und Verhalten im Straßenverkehr finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter: www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Suchen und Anzeigen von Standorten Suchen eines Standorts und Anzeigen einer Karte: 1 Tippen Sie auf das Suchfeld, um die Tastatur einzublenden. 2 Geben Sie eine Adresse, eine Straßenkreuzung, einen Bezirk, den Namen eines wichtigen Punkts, den Namen eines Lesezeichens, den Namen eines Kontakts in Ihrer Kontaktliste oder eine Postleitzahl ein. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Suchen“. 1 Karten, Wegbeschreibungen und Standortinformationen basieren auf Daten und Diensten, die von Drittanbietern bereitgestellt werden. Diese Datendienste können geändert werden und sind möglicherweise nicht in allen Regionen verfügbar. Aus diesem Grund sind Karten, Wegbeschreibungen und Standortinformationen u. U. nicht verfügbar, ungenau oder unvollständig. Weitere Informationen hierzu finden Sie unter www.apple.com/de/ipodtouch. Die Daten, die zur Angabe Ihrer Position gesammelt werden, ermöglichen keine Identifizierung Ihrer Person. Wenn Sie nicht möchten, dass diese Daten gesammelt werden, verwenden Sie diese Funktion nicht. Die Funktionalität Ihres iPod touch wird nicht beeinträchtigt, wenn Sie die Funktion nicht verwenden. 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 73 Eine Stecknadel kennzeichnet den Standort auf der Karte. Tippen Sie auf die Stecknadel, um den Namen oder eine Beschreibung des Standorts anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie auf , um Informationen zu Ihrer Position oder Wegbeschreibungen abzurufen oder um den Ort zu Ihren Lesezeichen oder zur Kontaktliste hinzuzufügen. Einzoomen eines Teils einer Karte Ziehen Sie den Kartenausschnitt mit zwei Fingern auf. Alternativ wählen Sie den Ausschnitt, der vergrößert werden soll, durch Doppeltippen aus. Tippen Sie erneut zweimal, um den Ausschnitt noch stärker einzuzoomen. Auszoomen Ziehen Sie den Kartenausschnitt zu. Alternativ tippen Sie mit zwei Fingern auf die Karte. Tippen Sie erneut mit zwei Fingern, um die Karte noch weiter auszuzoomen. Schwenken oder Blättern zu einem anderen Teil der Karte Bewegen Sie Ihren Finger nach oben, unten, links oder rechts. Ermitteln Ihres aktuellen Standorts: Tippen Sie auf . Der iPod touch ermittelt Ihren aktuellen (ungefähre) Standort mithilfe von Ortungsdiensten. Die Ortungsdienste verwenden die verfügbaren Informationen von lokalen Wi-Fi-Netzwerken (sofern Wi-Fi aktiviert ist). Je genauer diese Informationen sind, desto genauer wird Ihr Standort angegeben. Diese Funktion ist nicht in allen Regionen verfügbar. Sind die Ortungsdienste deaktiviert, werden Sie aufgefordert, sie zu aktivieren. Bei deaktivierten Ortungsdiensten können Sie Ihren derzeitigen Standort nicht ermitteln . Vgl. „Ortungsdienste“ auf Seite 105. Ihr ungefährer Standort wird durch einen Kreis gekennzeichnet. Die Größe des Kreises hängt davon ab, wie genau Ihr Standort bestimmt werden kann. Wenn Sie die Karte bewegen und nochmals auf tippen, zentriert der iPod touch die Karte wieder entsprechend Ihrer Position.Hinweis: Schonen Sie die Batterie, indem Sie die Ortungsdienste deaktivieren, wenn Sie sie nicht verwenden. Wählen Sie in den Einstellungen „Allgemein“ > „Ortungsdienste“. Verwenden der Stecknadelfunktion: Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Stecknadel setzen“. Eine Stecknadel wird auf der Karte eingeblendet und kann an eine beliebige Position bewegt werden. Schnelles Bewegen der Stecknadel in den derzeit angezeigten Bereich: Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Stecknadel ersetzen“. 74 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 75 Anzeigen einer Satellitenansicht oder einer Hybrid-Darstellung: Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Satellit“ oder „Hybrid“, um eine Satellitenansicht oder eine HybridDarstellung der Karte anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie auf „Karte“, um zur Kartenansicht zurückzukehren. Anzeigen der Adresse einer Person aus Ihrer Kontaktliste auf der Karte Tippen Sie im Suchfeld auf und dann auf „Kontakte“ und wählen Sie einen Kontakt aus. Zum Kontakt muss mindestens eine Adresse vorhanden sein, damit Sie auf diese Weise eine Adresse auf der Karte finden können. Sind zum Kontakt mehrere Adressen angegeben, müssen Sie die gesuchte Adresse auswählen. Sie können auch nach einer Adresse auf der Karte suchen, indem Sie direkt in der Kontaktliste auf die Adresse tippen. Hinzufügen eines Standorts zu Ihrer Kontaktliste Suchen Sie nach einem Standort, tippen Sie auf neben dem Namen oder der Beschreibung. Tippen Sie auf „Zu Kontakten“ und danach auf „Neuen Kontakt erstellen“ oder „Zu Kontakt hinzufügen“. Anlegen eines Lesezeichens für einen Standort Sie können Standorte mit einem Lesezeichen versehen, um sie später schnell wiederfinden zu können. Anlegen eines Lesezeichens für einen Standort: Suchen Sie nach einem Standort, tippen Sie auf die Stecknadel des Standorts und tippen Sie dann neben dem Namen oder der Beschreibung auf . Tippen Sie anschließend auf „Zu Lesezeichen hinzufü- gen“ unten im Informationsbildschirm. Anzeigen eines mit einem Lesezeichen versehenen oder eines kürzlich angezeigten Standorts: Tippen Sie im Suchfeld auf und dann auf „Favoriten“ oder „Zuletzt benutzt“.Anfordern von Wegbeschreibungen Sie können für einen Zielort eine schrittweise Wegbeschreibung anfordern. Abrufen von Informationen zur Route: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Route“. 2 Geben Sie die Start- und Zieladresse in die Felder „Start“ und „Ende“ ein. Der iPod touch beginnt standardmäßig mit Ihrer aktuellen ungefähren Position (wenn diese Daten verfügbar sind). Tippen Sie in einem der Felder auf und wählen Sie eine Adresse aus den Listen „Favoriten“ (etwa die Ihres aktuellen ungefähren Standorts und der platzierten Stecknadel, falls verfügbar), bzw. „Zuletzt benutzt“ oder „Kontakte“ aus. Enthält die Kontaktliste beispielsweise die Adresse eines Freunds, können Sie auf „Kontakte“ und anschließend auf den Namen Ihres Freunds tippen, anstatt dessen Adresse manuell einzugeben. Tippen Sie auf , um Start- und Zieladresse zu tauschen. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Route“(wenn Sie Standorte manuell eingegeben haben). 4 Führen Sie einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Möchten Sie die Wegbeschreibung schrittweise anzeigen, tippen Sie auf „Start“ und dann auf , um Informationen zum nächsten Streckenabschnitt zu sehen. Tippen Sie auf , um einen Schritt zurückzugehen.  Möchten Sie die gesamte Wegbeschreibung in einer Liste ansehen, tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Liste“. Tippen Sie auf einen beliebigen Eintrag in der Liste, um eine Karte mit diesem Streckenabschnitt anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie auf „Routenübersicht“, um zum Übersichtsbildschirm zurückzukehren. Die ungefähre Entfernung und Fahrtzeit werden oben im Bildschirm angezeigt. Sind Verkehrsdaten verfügbar, wird die Fahrtzeit entsprechend angepasst. 76 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 77 Sie haben auch die Möglichkeit, eine Wegbeschreibung abzurufen, indem Sie auf der Karte nach einer Adresse suchen, auf die zugehörige Stecknadel tippen und dann auf tippen. Tippen Sie anschließend auf „Wegbeschreibung hierhin“ oder „Wegbeschreibung von hier“. Tauschen der Start- und Zieladresse für eine Wegbeschreibung in umgekehrter Richtung: Tippen Sie auf . Wird das Symbol nicht angezeigt, tippen Sie auf „Liste“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Ansehen kürzlich angezeigter Wegbeschreibungen: Tippen Sie im Suchfeld auf und anschließend auf „Zuletzt benutzt“. Anzeigen der Verkehrslage Wenn verfügbar, können Sie Informationen zur Verkehrslage auf Highways in den USA auf der Karte anzeigen. Ein- oder Ausblenden von Informationen zur Verkehrssituation: Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Verkehr einblenden“ oder „Verkehr ausblenden“. Die aktuelle Verkehrssituation wird anhand von Farben dargestellt: Grau = Derzeit keine Informationen verfügbar Rot = weniger als 40 km/h Gelb = 40 – 80 km/h Grün = über 80 km/h Wenn die Highways nicht farbig dargestellt werden, müssen Sie die Anzeige ggf. so weit auszoomen, dass nur die wichtigen Straßen zu sehen sind. Möglicherweise sind für diesen Bereich aber keine Verkehrsdaten verfügbar. Suchen und Kontaktieren von Firmen Suchen nach Unternehmen oder Betrieben in einer Region: 1 Suchen Sie einen Ort – beispielsweise eine Stadt und das Bundesland oder eine Postadresse – oder blättern Sie zu einer Position auf einer Karte. 2 Geben Sie die Art des Unternehmens in das Textfeld ein und tippen Sie auf „Suchen“.An den übereinstimmenden Standorten werden Stecknadeln angezeigt. Wenn Sie beispielsweise Ihre Stadt suchen und dann „Kino” eingeben und auf „Suchen“ tippen, kennzeichnen die Stecknadeln Kinos in Ihrer Stadt. Tippen Sie auf die Stecknadel eines Unternehmens, um dessen Name oder eine Beschreibung anzuzeigen. Suchen nach Unternehmen ohne vorheriges Suchen des Standorts: Geben Sie Begriff ein wie:  Restaurants San Francisco Ca  Apple Inc. New York Kontaktieren eines Unternehmens oder Abrufen von Wegbeschreibungen: Tippen Sie auf die Stecknadel, die den Standort eines Unternehmens oder Betriebs kennzeichnet, und tippen Sie dann neben dem Namen auf . Zeigen Sie die Weg- beschreibung an. Besuchen Sie die Website. Tippen Sie auf , um die Kontaktinformationen einzublenden. Nun haben Sie folgende Möglichkeiten:  Tippen Sie auf eine E-Mail-Adresse, um eine E-Mail dorthin zu senden, oder auf eine Webadresse, um die Website zu besuchen.  Eine Wegbeschreibung erhalten Sie, indem Sie auf „Wegbeschreibung hierhin“ oder „Wegbeschreibung von hier“ tippen.  Wenn Sie das Unternehmen zu Ihrer Kontaktliste hinzufügen möchten, blättern Sie nach unten und tippen Sie auf „Neuen Kontakt erstellen“ oder „Zu Kontakt hinzufügen“. Anzeigen einer Liste der gefundenen Unternehmen: Tippen Sie im Bildschirm „Karte“ auf „Liste“. Tippen Sie auf ein Unternehmen, um dessen Standort auf der Karte anzuzeigen. Oder tippen Sie auf neben einem Unternehmen, um die zugehörigen Informationen anzuzeigen. 78 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 79 YouTube Auf YouTube finden Sie kurze Videos, die von Benutzern weltweit veröffentlicht wurden. (Nicht in allen Sprachen und u. U. nicht in allen Regionen verfügbar.) Damit Sie YouTube verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Suchen und Ansehen von Videos Sie können in YouTube oder nach Videos suchen, die Sie ansehen wollen. Suchen von Videos: Tippen Sie auf „Highlights“, „Topvideos“ oder „Lesezeichen“. Oder tippen Sie auf „Weitere“, um mithilfe von Kategorien wie „Neue Videos“, „Bestwertungen“ oder „Verlauf“ zu suchen.  Highlights: Videos, die von den YouTube-Mitarbeitern empfohlen und bereitgestellt werden.  Topvideos: Videos, die von den YouTube-Besuchern am häufigsten angesehen werden. Tippen Sie auf „Alle“, um die bislang am häufigsten gesehenen Videos aufzulisten, oder auf „Heute“ bzw. „Woche“, um die meist gesehenen Videos des Tages oder dieser Woche zu sehen.  Lesezeichen: Videos, die Sie mit Lesezeichen versehen haben.  Neue Videos: Videos, die kürzlich an YouTube gesendet worden sind.  Bestwertungen: Videos, die von den YouTube-Besuchern am höchsten bewertet werden. Besuchen Sie die folgende Website, um Videos zu bewerten: www.youtube.com.  Verlauf: Videos, die Sie kürzlich angesehen haben. Suchen nach einem Video: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Suchen“ und dann auf das YouTube-Suchfeld. 2 Geben Sie ein Wort oder eine Wortgruppe ein, um das Gesuchte zu beschreiben. Tippen Sie dann auf die Taste „Suchen“. YouTube zeigt die Suchergebnisse basierend auf Videotiteln, Beschreibungen, Tags und Benutzernamen an. Abspielen eines Videos: Tippen Sie auf das Video. Das Video wird auf den iPod touch geladen und ein Statusbalken wird angezeigt. Sobald ausreichend Videomaterial geladen ist, wird die Wiedergabe gestartet. Sie können auch auf tippen, um die Videowiedergabe zu starten.Steuern der Videowiedergabe Während der Videowiedergabe werden die Bedienelemente ausgeblendet, sodass der Film nicht davon überlagert wird. Ein- oder Ausblenden der Steuerelemente für Videos: Tippen Sie auf den Bildschirm. Vor/Schneller Vorlauf Start/Pause E-Mail Skalieren Verlauf des Ladevorgangs Lautstärke Zurück/ Schneller Rücklauf Lesezeichen Abspielposition Navigationsleiste Wiedergeben oder Anhalten eines Videos Tippen Sie auf oder . Erhöhen oder Reduzieren der Lautstärke Bewegen Sie den Lautstärkeregler. Oder verwenden Sie die Tasten für die Lautstärkeregelung an der Seite des iPod touch. Erneutes Abspielen eines Videos Tippen Sie auf . Springen zum nächsten oder vorherigen Video Tippen Sie zweimal auf , um zum vorherigen Video zu springen. Tippen Sie auf , um zum nächsten Video zu springen. Schneller Vorlauf/Schneller Rücklauf Tippen und halten Sie den Finger auf oder . Springen zu einer Stelle in einem Video Bewegen Sie die Abspielposition auf der Navigationsleiste. Abbrechen der Wiedergabe vor dem Filmende Tippen Sie auf „Fertig“ oder drücken Sie die Home-Taste . Wechseln zwischen einer bildschirmfüllenden oder einer auf die Bildschirmgröße skalierten Videodarstellung Tippen Sie zweimal auf das Video. Sie können auch auf tippen, um das Video bildschirmfüllend anzuzeigen. Oder tippen Sie auf , um es auf Bildschirmgröße zu skalieren. 80 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 81 Setzen von Lesezeichen in einem Video Tippen Sie auf neben einem Video und tippen Sie dann auf „Lesezeichen“. Oder starten Sie die Wiedergabe eines Videos und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie auf „Lesezeichen“, um die mit Lesezeichen versehenen Videos aufzulisten. Versenden eines Links zum Video Tippen Sie auf neben einem Video und tippen Sie dann auf „Senden“. Oder starten Sie die Wiedergabe eines Videos und tippen Sie auf . Anzeigen von Informationen zu einem Video und Suchen nach ähnlichen Videos Spielen Sie das gesamte Video ab, tippen Sie auf „Fertig“, während ein Video abgespielt wird, oder tippen Sie auf neben einem Video in einer Liste. Der iPod touch blendet die Bewertung des Videos, eine Beschreibung, das Ladedatum und andere Informationen ein. Sie sehen außerdem eine Liste ähnlicher Videos, deren Wiedergabe Sie durch Tippen starten können. Ändern der Tasten zum Blättern Sie können die Suchtasten „Highlights“, „Topvideos“, „Lesezeichen“ und „Suchen“ unten im Bildschirm durch Tasten austauschen, die Sie häufiger verwenden. Wenn Sie beispielsweise häufig am besten bewertete, aber nicht viele der unter „Highlights“ empfohlenen Videos ansehen, empfiehlt es sich, die Taste „Highlights“ durch „Bestwertung“ zu ersetzen. Ändern der Tasten zum Blättern: Tippen Sie auf „Weitere“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“ und bewegen Sie eine Taste nach unten im Bildschirm über die Taste, die ersetzt werden soll.Sie können die Tasten unten im Bildschirm auch nach links oder rechts bewegen, um sie wunschgemäß anzuordnen. Tippen Sie abschließend auf „Fertig“. Wenn Sie nach Videos suchen, tippen Sie auf „Weitere“, damit die derzeit nicht sichtbaren Suchtasten eingeblendet werden. Hinzufügen eigener Videos zur YouTube-Website Informationen zum Hinzufügen eigener Videos zu der Website von YouTube erhalten Sie, wenn Sie die Website www.youtube.com besuchen und dort auf „Help“ (Hilfe) tippen. Fotos Mit Ihrem iPod touch können Sie Fotos immer dabei haben und Freunden, Verwandten und Kollegen zeigen. Synchronisieren von Fotos mit Ihrem Computer iTunes kann Ihre Fotos mit den folgenden Programmen synchronisieren:  Mac: iPhoto 4.0.3 (oder neuer) oder Aperture  PC: Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 (oder neuer) oder Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 (oder neuer) Vgl. „Voraussetzungen“ auf Seite 5. Anzeigen von Fotos Von Ihrem Computer synchronisierte Fotos können im Programm „Fotos“ angesehen werden. Ansehen von Fotos: 1 Im Programm „Fotos“:  Tippen Sie auf „Fotoarchiv“, damit alle Fotos eingeblendet werden.  Tippen Sie auf ein beliebiges Album oder tippen Sie auf ein bestimmtes Album, um nur die darin enthaltenen Fotos zu sehen. 2 Tippen Sie auf eine Miniatur, um das Foto im Vollbildmodus anzuzeigen. 82 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 83 Ein- oder Ausblenden der Steuerelemente: Tippen Sie auf das im Vollbildmodus angezeigte Foto, um die Bedienelemente einzublenden. Tippen Sie erneut, um die Bedienelemente wieder auszublenden. Anzeigen eines Fotos im Querformat: Drehen Sie den iPod touch. Das Foto wird automatisch neu ausgerichtet und (wenn es im Querformat vorliegt) vergrößert, um den gesamten Bildschirm auszufüllen. Vergrößern eines Fotoausschnitts: Tippen Sie zweimal auf die Stelle, die Sie vergrö- ßern möchten. Durch erneutes Doppeltippen wird der Ausschnitt wieder verkleinert. Ziehen Sie den Bildrahmen auf oder zu, um das Bild zu vergrößern bzw. zu verkleinern. Kameraschwenk über ein Bild: Bewegen Sie den Finger auf dem Foto.Anzeigen des nächsten oder des vorherigen Fotos: Streichen Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts über den Bildschirm. Sie können auch auf den Bildschirm tippen, um die Bedienelemente einzublenden, und dann auf oder tippen. Diashows Sie können Ihre Fotos komplett mit Hintergrundmusik in einer Diashow ansehen. Anzeigen von Fotos in einer Diashow: Wählen Sie ein Fotoalbum aus und tippen Sie dann auf . Sie können auch auf tippen, um beim Ansehen eines einzelnen Fotos eine Diashow zu starten. Wird das Symbol nicht angezeigt, tippen Sie auf das Foto, um die Bedienelemente einzublenden. Stoppen einer Diashow: Tippen Sie auf den Bildschirm. Festlegen der Diashow-Einstellungen: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Fotos“ und legen Sie die folgenden Optionen fest:  Zum Festlegen, wie lange jedes Dia angezeigt wird, tippen Sie auf „Anzeigezeit pro Dia“ und wählen Sie eine Zeit aus.  Zum Festlegen der Übergangseffekte beim Wechsel von Foto zu Foto tippen Sie auf „Übergang“ und wählen einen Übergangstyp aus.  Zum Festlegen, ob Diashows wiederholt werden sollen, aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Wiederholen“.  Zum Festlegen, ob Fotos in zufälliger Reihenfolge angezeigt werden sollen, aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Zufällig“. Abspielen von Musik während einer Diashow: Spielen Sie mit dem iPod einen Titel ab, wählen Sie dann „Fotos“ im Home-Bildschirm aus und starten Sie eine Diashow. 84 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 85 Hintergrundbild Sie sehen ein Hintergrundbild, wenn Sie die Bildschirmsperre des iPod touch aufheben. Festlegen eines Fotos als Hintergrundbild: 1 Wählen Sie ein Foto aus und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie dann auf „Als Hintergrundbild“. 2 Bewegen Sie den Finger auf dem Foto für einen Kameraschwenk oder ziehen Sie den Fotorahmen auf oder zu, bis der gewünschte Bildausschnitt sichtbar ist. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Hintergrund“. Sie können zwischen verschiedenen Hintergrundbildern wählen, die mit dem iPod touch geliefert werden, indem Sie im Home-Bildschirm „Einstellungen“ > „Hintergrundbild“ > „Hintergrundbild“ auswählen. Sichern von Bildern aus einer E-Mail-Nachricht oder von einer Webseite Sie können Bilder, die an eine E-Mail-Nachricht angehängt oder auf einer Webseite ver- öffentlicht wurden, zu Ihrem Fotoarchiv hinzufügen. Hinzufügen eines Fotos zu Ihrem Fotoarchiv: Tippen Sie auf ein Foto, halten den Finger darauf und tippen Sie dann auf „Bild sichern“. Das Bild wird zum Fotoarchiv hinzugefügt. Sie können Ihre Bilder in das Fotoprogramm Ihres Computers laden, indem Sie den iPod touch mit dem Computer verbinden. Senden eines Fotos per E-Mail Senden eines Fotos per E-Mail: Wählen Sie ein beliebiges Foto aus und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie dann auf „Per E-Mail versenden“. Der iPod touch muss zur Nutzung der E-Mail-Funktionalität konfiguriert und mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Konfigurieren von E-MailAccounts“ auf Seite 65. Senden eines Fotos an eine MobileMe Galerie Wenn Sie über einen MobileMe-Account verfügen, können Sie Fotos direkt vom iPod touch an eine Galerie senden. Sie haben auch die Möglichkeit, Fotos an die MobileMe Galerie eines anderen Benutzers zu senden, sofern der Benutzer diese Funktion aktiviert hat. Damit Sie Fotos an eine Galerie senden können, gehen Sie wie folgt vor:  Konfigurieren Sie Ihren MobileMe-Account auf dem iPod touch.  Veröffentlichen Sie eine MobileMe Galerie und erlauben Sie das Laden von Fotos via E-Mail.  Stellen Sie eine Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk her, das mit dem Internet verbunden ist.Weitere Informationen zum Erstellen einer Galerie finden Sie in der MobileMe-Hilfe. Senden eines Fotos an Ihre Galerie: Wählen Sie ein beliebiges Foto aus und tippen Sie auf . Tippen Sie dann auf „An MobileMe senden“. Zuweisen eines Fotos zu einem Kontakt Sie können einem Kontakt ein Foto zuweisen. Zuordnen eines Fotos zu einem Kontakt: 1 Wählen Sie ein beliebiges Foto auf dem iPod touch aus und tippen Sie auf . 2 Tippen Sie auf „Zu Kontakt zuweisen“ und wählen Sie einen Kontakt aus. 3 Positionieren Sie das Foto und passen Sie seine Größe an, bis es Ihren Vorstellungen entspricht. Bewegen Sie den Finger auf dem Foto für einen Kameraschwenk oder ziehen Sie den Fotorahmen auf oder zu. 4 Tippen Sie auf „Foto sichern“. Sie können auch einem Kontakt in der Kontaktliste ein Foto zuweisen, indem Sie auf „Bearbeiten“ und dann auf das Bildsymbol tippen. Kalender Mit dem Kalender können Sie Ihre Ereignisse in einer fortlaufenden Liste, nach Tagen oder nach Monaten anzeigen. Synchronisieren Sie den iPod touch mit den Kalendern auf Ihrem Computer. Erstellen, bearbeiten oder löschen Sie Termine auf dem iPod touch und synchronisieren Sie sie mit den Daten auf Ihrem Computer. Wenn Sie einen Microsoft Exchange-Account verwenden, können Sie Einladungen zu Besprechungen empfangen und darauf antworten. Synchronisieren von Kalendern Sie haben zwei Möglichkeiten, das Programm „Kalender“ zu synchronisieren:  In iTunes verwenden Sie den Einstellungsbereich auf dem iPod touch zum Synchronisieren der Daten in iCal oder Microsoft Entourage auf einem Mac oder Microsoft Outlook 2003 oder 2007 auf einem PC. Verbinden Sie hier den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. Vgl. „Synchronisieren mit iTunes“ auf Seite 6.  Wählen Sie im Bereich „Einstellungen“ auf dem iPod touch „Kalender“ in Ihren MobileMe- oder Microsoft Exchange-Accounts aus, um Ihre Kalenderinformationen per Funk zu synchronisieren. Vgl. „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11. 86 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 87 Damit Sie Kalender synchronisieren können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Hinzufügen von Kalenderereignissen auf dem iPod touch Sie haben auch die Möglichkeit, Kalenderereignisse direkt auf dem iPod touch zu bearbeiten. Hinzufügen eines Ereignisses: Tippen Sie auf und geben Sie Informationen zum Ereignis ein. Tippen Sie dann auf „Fertig“. Sie können beliebige der folgenden Informationen eingeben:  Titel  Ort  Anfangs- und Endzeit (oder aktivieren Sie „Ganztägig“, wenn es sich um ein ganztä- giges Ereignis handelt)  Anzahl der Wiederholungen – keine oder täglich, wöchentlich, alle zwei Wochen, monatlich oder jährlich  Zeitpunkt der Warnhinweise – von fünf Minuten bis zu zwei Tagen vor dem Ereignis Wenn Sie einen Zeitpunkt für Warnhinweise definieren, wird die Option zur Ausgabe eines zweiten Warnhinweises angezeigt. Wird eine Warnung ausgelöst, zeigt der iPod touch eine Meldung an. Sie können auch festlegen, dass der iPod touch einen akustischen Hinweis ausgibt (vgl. unten). Wichtig: Wenn Sie unterwegs sind, gibt der iPod touch den Warnhinweis möglicherweise nicht zur korrekten lokalen Uhrzeit aus. Möchten Sie die richtige Uhrzeit manuell einstellen, lesen Sie die Informationen im Abschnitt „Datum und Uhrzeit“ auf Seite 108.  Notizen Tippen Sie auf „Kalender“, um den Kalender auszuwählen, zu dem Sie das Ereignis hinzufügen wollen. Kalender mit Nur-Lese-Zugriff werden nicht in der Liste angezeigt. Bearbeiten eines Ereignisses Tippen Sie auf das Ereignis und dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Löschen eines Ereignisses Tippen Sie auf das Ereignis und auf „Bearbeiten“. Blättern Sie dann nach unten und tippen Sie auf „Ereignis löschen“.Antworten auf Einladungen zu Besprechungen Wenn Sie einen auf dem iPod touch konfigurierten Microsoft Exchange-Account verwenden und das Programm „Kalender“ aktiviert ist, können Sie Einladungen zu Besprechungen von anderen Personen Ihres Unternehmens empfangen und beantworten. Wenn Sie eine Einladung erhalten, wird die jeweilige Besprechung in Ihrem Kalender mit einer gepunkteten Linie umrandet. Das Symbol unten rechts im Bildschirm gibt die Gesamtzahl Ihrer neuen Einladungen an, ebenso wie das Symbol „Kalender“ im Home-Bildschirm. Damit Sie Einladungen zu Besprechungen empfangen und darauf antworten können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Anzahl der Einladungen zu Terminen 88 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 89 Antworten auf eine Einladung im Kalender: 1 Tippen Sie im Kalender auf eine Einladung zu einer Besprechung oder tippen Sie auf , um den Ereignis-Bildschirm einzublenden. Tippen Sie dann auf eine Einladung.  Tippen Sie auf „Einladung von“, um Kontaktinformationen des Organisators der Besprechung zu erhalten. Tippen Sie auf die E-Mail-Adresse, um eine Nachricht an den Organisator zu senden.  Tippen Sie auf „Teilnehmer“, um zu sehen, wer noch zur Besprechung eingeladen ist. Tippen Sie auf einen Namen, um die Kontaktinformationen eines Teilnehmers einzublenden. Tippen Sie auf die E-Mail-Adresse, um eine Nachricht an den Teilnehmer zu senden.  Tippen Sie auf „Warnhinweis“, um den iPod touch so einzustellen, dass er vor der Besprechung einen Warnton als Erinnerung ausgibt.  Tippen Sie auf „Kommentar hinzufügen“, um zu der Antwort-E-Mail an den Organisator der Besprechung Kommentare hinzuzufügen. Ihre Kommentare werden auch in Ihrem Info-Bildschirm zur Besprechung angezeigt. Notizen werden vom Organisator der Besprechung festgehalten. 2 Tippen Sie auf „Annehmen“, „Vielleicht“ oder „Ablehnen“. Wenn Sie die Einladung annehmen, vorläufig annehmen oder ablehnen, wird eine Antwort-E-Mail mit den Kommentaren, die Sie ggf. hinzugefügt haben, an den Organisator gesendet. Wenn Sie die Einladung annehmen oder vorläufig annehmen, können Sie Ihre Antwort zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt ändern. Tippen Sie auf „Kommentar hinzufügen“, wenn Sie Ihre Kommentare ändern möchten. Exchange-Einladungen zu Besprechungen werden ebenfalls per E-Mail gesendet. So können Sie den Info-Bildschirm der Besprechung im Programm „Mail“ öffnen.Öffnen einer Einladung zu einer Besprechung in einer E-Mail: Tippen Sie auf die Einladung. Warnhinweise Festlegen von Kalender-Warnhinweisen: Wählen Sie in den Einstellungen„Allgemein“ > „Töne“ und aktivieren Sie dann die Option „Kalender-Warnhinweis“. Ist die Option „Kalender-Warnhinweis“ deaktiviert, zeigt der iPod touch eine Nachricht an, wenn ein Ereignis ansteht, gibt aber kein akustisches Signal aus. Akustische Warnhinweise für Einladungen: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“. Tippen Sie unter „Kalender“ auf „Einladungsmeldungen“, um den Warnhinweis zu aktivieren. Anzeigen Ihres Kalenders Sie können die Kalenderereignisse in einer Liste, nach Tagen oder nach Monaten anzeigen. Die Ereignisse aller synchronisierten Kalender werden auf dem iPod touch in demselben Kalender angezeigt. Wechseln der Darstellungen: Tippen Sie auf „Liste“, „Tag“ oder „Monat“.  Listenansicht: Alle Ihre Termine und Ereignisse werden in einer Liste mit Blätterfunktion angezeigt.  Tagesansicht: Blättern Sie nach oben oder unten, um die Ereignisse eines Tags anzuzeigen. Tippen Sie auf oder , um die Ereignisse des vorherigen oder nächsten Tags zu sehen. 90 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 91  Monatsdarstellung: Tippen Sie auf einen Tag, um die zugehörigen Ereignisse einzublenden. Tippen Sie auf oder , um den vorherigen oder nächsten Monat anzuzeigen. Tage mit Punkten kennzeichnen Termine Hinzufügen eines Ereignisses Wechseln der Darstellungen Termine für den ausgewählten Tag Heutiger Tag Antworten auf eine Einladung Anzeigen der Informationen eines Termins oder Ereignisses: Tippen Sie auf den Termin. Kontakte Importieren und Synchronisieren von Kontakten Sie können Kontakte auf Ihrem iPod touch wie folgt hinzufügen:  Synchronisieren Sie Kontakte in iTunes mit Programmen auf Ihrem Computer (vgl. „Synchronisieren mit iTunes“ auf Seite 6).  Richten Sie MobileMe- oder Microsoft Exchange-Accounts auf dem iPod touch ein und achten Sie dabei darauf, dass das Programm „Kontakte“ geöffnet ist (vgl. „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11).  Installieren Sie ein Profil, mit dem ein Exchange-Account eingerichtet wird, während das Programm „Kontakte“ geöffnet ist (vgl. „Installieren von Konfigurationsprofilen“ auf Seite 13).  Geben Sie Kontakte direkt auf dem iPod touch ein.Suchen nach Kontakten Sie können in den Kontakten auf dem iPod touch nach dem Vor- und Nachnamen und nach Firmennamen suchen. Wenn Sie einen Microsoft Exchange-Account auf Ihrem iPod touch eingerichtet haben, können Sie möglicherweise auch in der GAL-Liste (Global Address List) Ihres Unternehmens nach Kontakten suchen. Bei der Eingabe der Suchinformationen werden die Kontakte, die die Suchkriterien erfüllen, sofort angezeigt. Suchen von Kontakten: Tippen Sie in der Kontaktliste auf das Suchfeld oben im Bildschirm und geben Sie einen Vor- oder Nachnamen oder einen Firmennamen ein. Suchen einer GAL-Liste: Tippen Sie auf „Gruppen“ und auf „Verzeichnisse“ unten in der Liste und geben Sie einen Vor- oder Nachnamen oder einen Firmennamen ein. Sie können GAL-Kontakte auf dem iPod touch nicht bearbeiten oder sichern. Verwalten von Kontakten auf dem iPod touch Hinzufügen eines Kontakts auf dem iPod touch: Tippen Sie auf „Kontakte“ und dann auf . Löschen eines Kontakts Wählen Sie in Kontakte einen Kontakt aus und tippen Sie dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Blättern Sie nach unten und tippen auf „Kontakt löschen“. Hinzufügen eines Kontakts über den Ziffernblock Tippen Sie auf „Ziffernblock“, geben Sie eine Nummer ein und tippen Sie dann auf . Tippen Sie auf „Neuen Kontakt erstellen“ und geben Sie Informationen ein. Sie können auch auf „Zu Kontakt hinzufügen“ tippen und einen Kontakt auswählen. Bearbeiten von Adressinformationen Wählen Sie in Kontakte einen Kontakt aus und tippen Sie dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Zum Hinzufügen eines Objekts tippen Sie auf . Zum Löschen eines Objekts tippen Sie auf . Hinzufügen einer Pause zu einer Telefonnummer Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „Pause“. Pausen werden beim Sichern einer Nummer als Kommas angezeigt. Zuordnen eines Fotos zu einem Kontakt: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Kontakte“ und wählen Sie einen Kontakt aus. 2 Tippen Sie auf „Bearbeiten“ und dann auf „Foto hinzufügen“ oder tippen Sie auf das vorhandene Foto. 3 Tippen Sie auf „Foto auswählen“ und wählen Sie ein Foto aus. 4 Bewegen und skalieren Sie das Foto nach Bedarf. 5 Tippen Sie auf „Foto sichern“. 92 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 93 Aktien Mit dem Programm „Aktien“ können Sie die neusten Kurse für ausgewählte Aktien anzeigen. Damit Sie das Programm „Aktien“ verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Anzeigen von Aktienkursen Die Kurse werden bei jedem Öffnen des Programms „Aktien“ aktualisiert, sofern eine Internetverbindung besteht. Bei der Aktualisierung kommt es ggf. zu einer Verzögerung von bis zu 20 Minuten. Hinzufügen einer Aktie, eines Index oder eines Fonds: 1 Tippen Sie auf und dann auf . 2 Geben Sie ein Symbol, einen Firmennamen, Index oder Fondnamen ein und tippen Sie dann auf „Suchen“. 3 Wählen Sie ein Objekt in der Suchliste aus. Anzeigen der Entwicklung einer Aktie über einen längeren oder kürzeren Zeitraum: Tippen Sie auf ein Aktiensymbol und tippen Sie dann auf 1T, 1W, 1M, 3M, 6M, 1J oder 2J. Das Diagramm wird angepasst und zeigt die Entwicklung im Zeitraum eines Tages, einer Woche, eines Monats bzw. drei oder sechs Monaten oder ein bzw. zwei Jahren an. Löschen einer Aktie: Tippen Sie auf und auf neben einer Aktie. Tippen Sie dann auf „Löschen“. Neuanordnen von Aktien: Tippen Sie auf . Bewegen Sie das Symbol neben einer Aktie an eine neue Position in der Liste. Anzeigen einer Änderung als Geldbetrag oder Prozent: Tippen Sie auf den Wert, der die Entwicklung angibt. Tippen Sie nochmals darauf, um wieder zurückzuwechseln. Oder tippen Sie auf und tippen Sie dann auf „%“ oder „Zahlen“. Anzeigen weitere Informationen Anzeigen von Informationen zu einer Aktie auf Yahoo.com: Wählen Sie die Aktie und tippen Sie dann auf . Sie können Nachrichten, Informationen, Websites und mehr zur entsprechenden Aktie anzeigen.Wetter Verwenden Sie das Programm „Wetter“, um die aktuelle Temperatur und eine Wettervorhersage für die folgenden sechs Tage zu einem Ort oder mehreren Orten Ihrer Wahl anzuzeigen. Damit Sie das Programm „Wetter“ verwenden können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Anzeigen eines Wetterberichts Tippen Sie im Home-Bildschirm auf „Wetter“, um die aktuellen Wetterdaten für den ausgewählten Ort anzuzeigen. Sechs-TageVorhersage Aktuelle Temperatur Aktuelle Wetterlage Heutige Höchst- und Tiefstwerte Ergänzen oder löschen Sie Städte. Anzahl der gespeicherten Städte Ist der Hintergrund hellblau, ist es in der entsprechenden Stadt Tag, d. h. zwischen 6:00 Uhr und 18:00 Uhr. Ist der Hintergrund dunkelviolett, ist es in der entsprechenden Stadt Nacht, d. h. zwischen 18:00 Uhr und 6:00 Uhr. Hinzufügen einer Stadt: 1 Tippen Sie auf und dann auf . 2 Geben Sie den Namen einer Stadt oder eine Postleitzahl ein und tippen Sie dann auf „Suchen“. 3 Wählen Sie eine Stadt in der Suchliste aus. Wechseln zu einer anderen Stadt: Streichen Sie mit dem Finger nach links oder rechts oder tippen Sie links oder rechts neben die Punkte. Die Anzahl der Punkte unter der Wetteranzeige entspricht der Anzahl der gespeicherten Städte. Neuanordnen von Städten: Tippen Sie auf und bewegen Sie dann das Symbol neben einer Stadt an eine neue Position in der Liste. Löschen einer Stadt: Tippen Sie auf und dann neben einer Stadt auf . Tippen Sie anschließend auf „Löschen“. 94 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 95 Anzeigen der Temperatur in Fahrenheit oder Celsius: Tippen Sie auf und dann auf „°F“ oder „°C“. Weitere Informationen zum Wetter Sie können einen ausführlicheren Wetterbericht, Nachrichten und Websites zur Stadt und mehr anzeigen. Anzeigen von Informationen zu einer Stadt auf Yahoo.com: Tippen Sie auf . Notizen Schreiben und Lesen von Notizen Notizen werden nach ihrem Datum sortiert. Die aktuellste Notiz befindet sich dabei ganz oben. Die ersten Wörter jeder Notiz sind in der Liste zu sehen. Hinzufügen einer Notiz: Tippen Sie auf , geben Sie Ihre Notiz ein und tippen Sie dann auf „Fertig“. Lesen einer Notiz: Tippen Sie auf die Notiz. Tippen Sie auf oder , um die vorherige oder nächste Notiz anzuzeigen. Bearbeiten einer Notiz: Tippen Sie auf die Notiz, um die Tastatur einzublenden. Löschen einer Notiz: Tippen Sie auf die Notiz und tippen Sie dann auf . Senden von Notizen per E-Mail Senden einer Notiz per E-Mail: Tippen Sie auf die Notiz und dann auf . Damit Sie eine Notiz per E-Mail senden können, muss die E-Mail-Funktionalität des iPod touch eingerichtet sein. Vgl. „Konfigurieren von E-Mail-Accounts“ auf Seite 65. Rechner Verwenden des Rechners Addieren, subtrahieren, multiplizieren und dividieren Sie wie mit einem Standardtaschenrechner. Wenn Sie auf die Taste zum Addieren, Subtrahieren, Multiplizieren oder Dividieren tippen, wird ein weißer Ring um die Taste eingeblendet, um darauf hinzuweisen, dass die Rechenoperation ausgeführt wird. Drehen Sie den iPod touch, um den erweiterten wissenschaftlichen Rechner zu nutzen.Standardspeicherfunktionen  C: Tippen Sie auf diese Taste, um die angezeigte Zahl zu löschen.  MC: Tippen Sie auf diese Taste, um den Speicher zu löschen.  M+: Tippen Sie auf diese Taste, um die angezeigte Zahl zum Speicher hinzuzufügen. Befindet sich keine Zahl im Speicher, tippen Sie auf die Taste, um die angezeigte Zahl im Speicher zu sichern.  M-: Tippen Sie auf diese Taste, um die angezeigte Zahl von der Zahl im Speicher zu subtrahieren.  MR: Tippen Sie auf diese Taste, um die angezeigte Zahl durch die Zahl im Speicher zu ersetzen. Ist die Taste mit einem weißen Ring gekennzeichnet, befindet sich eine Zahl im Speicher. Die gespeicherte Zahl bleibt im Speicher, wenn Sie zwischen dem Standard- und wissenschaftlichen Rechner wechseln. Tasten des wissenschaftlichen Rechners Drehen Sie den iPod touch, um den wissenschaftlichen Rechner im Querformat anzuzeigen. 2nd Durch Tippen auf diese Taste ändern sich die trigonometrischen Tasten (sin, cos, tan, sinh, cosh und tanh) in ihre inversen Funktionen (sin -1 , cos -1 , tan -1 , sinh -1 , cosh -1 und tanh -1 ). Außerdem ändert sich ln in log2 und e x in 2 x . Durch erneutes Tippen auf „2nd“ kehren Sie zur Originalfunktion der Tasten zurück. ( Öffnet einen Klammerausdruck. Ausdrücke können verschachtelt sein. ) Schließt einen Klammerausdruck. 96 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 97 % Berechnet Prozentwerte, fügt Aufschläge hinzu und subtrahiert Rabatte. Zum Berechnen von Prozentwerten verwenden Sie diese Taste zusammen mit der Multiplikationstaste (x). Zum Berechnen von 8 % von 500 geben Sie z. B. ein 500 x 8 % = und erhalten 40. Zum Hinzufügen eines Aufschlags oder zum Subtrahieren von Rabatten verwenden Sie diese Taste zusammen mit der Plustaste (+) oder Minustaste (-). Zum Berechnen der Gesamtkosten für einen Artikel, der $500 kostet und für den eine Umsatzsteuer von 8 % gilt, geben Sie z. B. ein 500 + 8 % = und erhalten 540. 1/x Stellt den Kehrwert eines Werts als Dezimalzahl dar. x 2 Quadriert einen Wert. x 3 Kubiert einen Wert. y x Tippen Sie zwischen zwei Werte, um den ersten mit dem zweiten zu potenzieren. Zum Berechnen von 3 4 geben Sie z. B. ein: 3 yx 4 = und erhalten 81. x! Berechnet die Fakultät eines Werts. √ Berechnet die Quadratwurzel eines Werts. x √y Tippen Sie zwischen die Werte, um die x-te Wurzel von y berechnen. Zum Berechnen von 4 √81 geben Sie z. B. ein 81 x√y 4 = und erhalten 3. log Berechnet den Logarithmus zur Basis 10 eines Werts. sin Berechnet den Sinus eines Werts. sin -1 Berechnet den Arcussinus eines Werts. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) cos Berechnet den Cosinus eines Werts. cos -1 Berechnet den Arcuscosinus eines Werts. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) tan Berechnet den Tangens eines Werts. tan -1 Berechnet den Arcustangens eines Werts. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) ln Berechnet den natürlichen Logarithmus eines Werts. log2 Berechnet den Logarithmus zur Basis 2. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) sinh Berechnet den hyperbolischen Sinus eines Werts. sinh -1 Berechnet den Umkehrwert des hyperbolischen Sinus. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) cosh Berechnet den hyperbolischen Cosinus eines Werts. cosh -1 Berechnet den Umkehrwert des hyperbolischen Cosinus. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.)tanh Berechnet den hyperbolischen Tangens eines Werts. tanh -1 Berechnet den Umkehrwert des hyperbolischen Tangens. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) e x Tippen Sie nach Eingabe eines Werts auf diese Taste, um die Konstante „e“ (2,718281828459045...) mit dem Wert zu potenzieren. 2 x Potenzieren Sie 2 mit dem angezeigten Wert. Beispielsweise 10 2 x = 1024. (Verfügbar nach Tippen auf die Taste „2nd“.) Rad Ändert den Modus, um trigonometrische Funktionen in Radiant darzustellen. Deg Ändert den Modus, um trigonometrische Funktionen in Grad darzustellen. π Gibt den Wert von π (3,141592653589793...) ein. EE Ein Operator, der den derzeit angezeigten Wert mit 10 hoch dem nächsten eingegeben Wert multipliziert. Rand Zeigt eine Zufallszahl zwischen 0 und 1 an. Uhr Mit dem Programm „Uhr“ können Sie die Uhrzeit an verschiedenen Orten anzeigen, einen Weckalarm einstellen, die Stoppuhr verwenden und einen Timer einstellen. Uhren Sie können Uhren hinzufügen, um die Uhrzeit in anderen Großstädten und Zeitzonen weltweit anzuzeigen. Anzeigen von Uhren: Tippen Sie auf „Uhr“. Wenn das Zifferblatt der Uhr weiß angezeigt wird, ist in der betreffenden Stadt Tag. Ist das Zifferblatt der Uhr schwarz, ist es Nacht. Wenn Sie mehr als vier Uhren verwenden, können Sie diese anzeigen, indem Sie mit dem Finger darüber streichen. Hinzufügen einer Uhr: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Uhr“. 2 Tippen Sie auf und geben Sie dann den Namen einer Stadt ein. Städte, die Ihrer Eingabe entsprechen, werden unten eingeblendet. 3 Tippen Sie auf eine Stadt, um eine Uhr für diese Stadt hinzuzufügen. Wenn Sie die gesuchte Stadt nicht sehen, suchen Sie nach einer Großstadt, die sich in derselben Zeitzone befindet. 98 Kapitel 7 Weitere ProgrammeKapitel 7 Weitere Programme 99 Löschen einer Uhr: Tippen Sie auf „Uhr“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Tippen Sie auf neben einer Uhr und tippen Sie anschließend auf „Löschen“. Neuanordnen von Uhren: Tippen Sie auf „Uhr“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Bewegen Sie das Symbol neben einer Uhr an eine neue Position in der Liste. Alarmfunktion Sie können mehrere Einstellungen für die Weck- und Erinnerungsfunktionen festlegen. Legen Sie fest, ob an angegebenen Tagen jedes Mal ein Warnton ausgegeben werden oder ob der Warnton nur einmal ertönen soll. Stellen eines Weckers: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Wecker“ und tippen Sie dann auf . 2 Anpassen beliebiger der folgenden Einstellungen:  Wenn das Weck- bzw. Erinnerungssignal wiederholt werden soll, tippen Sie auf „Wiederholen“ und wählen Sie die betreffenden Tage aus.  Wenn Sie den Klingelton für ein Weck- oder Erinnerungssignal auswählen wollen, tippen Sie auf „Ton“.  Zum Einstellen der Schlummerfunktion aktivieren bzw. deaktivieren Sie die Option „Schlummern“. Wenn die Option „Schlummern“ aktiviert ist und Sie bei einem Wecksignal auf „Schlummern“ tippen, wird der Ton gestoppt und ertönt nach zehn Minuten erneut.  Für eine Beschreibung des Weckers tippen Sie auf „Beschreibung“. Der iPod touch blendet die Beschreibung ein, wenn das Wecksignal ausgelöst wird. Wenn mindestens ein Wecker gestellt und aktiviert wurde, wird das Symbol in der iPod touch-Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm angezeigt. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren eines Weckers: Tippen Sie auf „Wecker“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Weck- bzw. Erinnerungsfunktion. Wenn ein Wecker deaktiviert ist, wird der Ton erst dann ausgegeben, wenn der Wecker erneut aktiviert wurde. Wenn der Wecker nur einmal klingeln soll, wird er nach dem Auslösen automatisch ausgeschaltet. Sie können den Wecker wieder einschalten, damit er erneut aktiviert wird. Ändern der Einstellungen für einen Wecker: Tippen Sie auf „Wecker“ und dann auf „Bearbeiten“. Tippen Sie danach neben dem Wecker auf , der neu gestellt werden soll. Löschen eines Weckers: Tippen Sie auf „Wecker“ und auf „Bearbeiten“. Tippen Sie dann neben dem Wecker auf und anschließend auf „Löschen“.Stoppuhr Verwenden der Stoppuhr zum Stoppen der Zeit eines Ereignisses: 1 Tippen Sie auf „Stoppuhr“. 2 Wählen Sie „Starten“, um die Stoppuhr zu starten.  Zum Erfassen von Streckenzeiten tippen Sie nach jeder Teilstrecke auf „Runde“.  Zum Anhalten der Stoppuhr wählen Sie „Stoppen“. Tippen Sie auf „Starten“, damit die Stoppuhr weiterläuft.  Zum Zurücksetzen der Stoppuhr tippen Sie auf „Löschen“, wenn die Stoppuhr angehalten ist. Wenn Sie die Stoppuhr starten und dann mit einem anderen iPod touch-Programm weiterarbeiten, läuft die Stoppuhr im Hintergrund weiter. Timer Stellen des Timers: Tippen Sie auf „Timer“ und legen Sie die Stunden und Minuten fest, indem Sie mit dem Finger darüber streichen. Wählen Sie „Starten“, um den Timer zu starten. Auswählen des Tons: Tippen Sie auf „Timer-Ende“. Festlegen eines Timers für den Ruhezustand: Stellen Sie den Timer ein, tippen Sie dann auf „Timer-Ende“ und wählen Sie „iPod-Ruhezustand“ aus. Wenn Sie einen Timer für den Ruhezustand festlegen, stoppt der iPod touch nach Ablauf der Zeit die Wiedergabe von Musik oder Videos. Wenn Sie den Timer starten und dann mit einem anderen iPod touch-Programm weiterarbeiten, läuft der Timer im Hintergrund weiter. Nike + iPod Ist diese Funktion in den Einstellungen aktiviert, wird das Programm „Nike + iPod“ zur Steuerung des Nike + iPod-Sensors (separat erhältlich) im Home-Bildschirm angezeigt. Auf dem iPod touch der ersten Generation ist die Funktion „Nike + iPod“ nicht verfügbar. Spezielle Anleitungen zum Aktivieren und Verwenden der Funktion „Nike + iPod“ finden Sie in der zugehörigen Dokumentation. 100 Kapitel 7 Weitere Programme101 Mit den Einstellungen können Sie die Programme des iPod touch anpassen, Datum und Uhrzeit einstellen, Ihre Netzwerkverbindung konfigurieren und andere Einstellungen für den iPod touch festlegen. Wi-Fi Die Wi-Fi-Einstellungen legen fest, ob der iPod touch lokale Wi-Fi-Netzwerke für die Verbindung zum Internet nutzt. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren von Wi-Fi: Wählen Sie „Einstellungen“ > „Wi-Fi“ und aktivieren bzw. deaktivieren Sie die Option „Wi-Fi“. Herstellen einer Wi-Fi-Netzwerkverbindung: Wählen Sie „Wi-Fi“, warten Sie kurze Zeit, bis der iPod touch Netzwerke in Reichweite gefunden hat, und wählen Sie ein Netzwerk aus. Geben Sie bei Bedarf ein Kennwort ein und tippen Sie auf „Verbinden“. (Netzwerke, für die ein Kennwort erforderlich ist, sind mit einem Vorhängeschloss gekennzeichnet.) Wenn Sie die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk einmal manuell hergestellt haben, aktiviert der iPod touch diese Verbindung automatisch, wenn Sie sich innerhalb der Reichweite dieses Netzwerks befinden. Werden mehrere zuvor verwendete Netzwerke innerhalb der Reichweite gefunden, stellt der iPod touch die Verbindung zum zuletzt verwendeten Netzwerk her. Wenn der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk verbunden ist, zeigt das Wi-Fi-Symbol in der Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm die aktuelle Signalstärke an. Je mehr Balken angezeigt werden, desto stabiler ist die Verbindung. Einstellen des iPod touch, sodass Sie gefragt werden, ob die Verbindung zu einem neuen Netzwerk hergestellt werden soll: Wählen Sie „Wi-Fi“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Verbindung bestätigen“. 8 EinstellungenWenn Sie versuchen, auf das Internet zuzugreifen, z. B. indem Sie Safari oder Mail verwenden, und Sie sich nicht in der Nähe eines zuvor verwendeten Wi-Fi-Netzwerks befinden, wird der iPod touch mit dieser Einstellung angewiesen, nach einem anderen Netzwerk zu suchen. Der iPod touch blendet eine Liste der verfügbaren WiFi-Netzwerke ein, sodass Sie eine Auswahl treffen können. (Netzwerke, für die ein Kennwort erforderlich ist, sind mit einem Vorhängeschloss gekennzeichnet.) Ist die Option „Verbinden bestätigen“ deaktiviert, müssen Sie für den Internetzugriff manuell eine Verbindung zu einem Netzwerk herstellen, wenn kein zuvor verwendetes Netzwerk verfügbar ist. Ignorieren einer Netzwerkverbindung, sodass der iPod touch nicht automatisch eine Verbindung herstellt: Wählen Sie „Wi-Fi“ und tippen Sie auf neben dem Netzwerk, das Sie zuvor verwendet haben. Tippen Sie dann auf „Dieses Netzwerk ignorieren“. Herstellen einer Wi-Fi-Verbindung zu einem geschlossenen Wi-FiNetzwerk: Möchten Sie auf ein Wi-Fi-Netzwerk zugreifen, das in der Liste der gefundenen Netzwerke nicht angezeigt wird, wählen Sie „Wi-Fi“ > „Anderes“ und geben Sie den Netzwerknamen ein. Wird für den Zugriff auf das Netzwerk ein Kennwort benötigt, tippen Sie auf „Sicherheit“. Wählen Sie dann den Sicherheitsstandard aus, der vom Netzwerk verwendet wird, und geben Sie das Kennwort ein. Damit Sie auf ein geschlossenes Netzwerk zugreifen können, müssen Sie Netzwerkname, Kennwort und Sicherheitsstandard kennen. Einige Wi-Fi-Netzwerke setzen möglicherweise auch voraus, dass Sie weitere Einstellungen eingeben oder anpassen, etwa eine Client-ID oder eine statische IPAdresse. Erkundigen Sie sich bei Ihrem Netzwerkadministrator, welche Einstellungen verwendet werden müssen. Anpassen von Einstellungen für die Verbindung zu einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk: Wählen Sie „Wi-Fi“ und tippen Sie neben einem Netzwerk auf . VPN Diese Einstellung wird angezeigt, wenn Sie VPN auf dem iPod touch konfiguriert haben. Hierdurch haben Sie die Möglichkeit, VPN zu aktivieren bzw. zu deaktivieren. Vgl. „Netzwerk“ auf Seite 105. 102 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 103 Neue Daten laden Mit dieser Einstellung können Sie MobileMe-, Microsoft Exchange-, Yahoo! Mail- und andere so genannte „Push”-Accounts aktivieren oder deaktivieren, die Sie auf dem iPod touch konfiguriert haben. Push-Accounts übermitteln neue Informationen automatisch an den iPod touch, wenn die Informationen auf dem Server angezeigt werden (dabei kann es gelegentlich zu Verzögerungen kommen). Damit Sie Push-Daten abrufen oder synchronisieren können, muss der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden sein. Sie können diese Push-Funktion bei Bedarf deaktivieren, um die Zustellung von E-Mails und anderen Informationen zu unterdrücken, oder um Batteriestrom zu sparen. Wenn die Push-Funktion deaktiviert ist oder Accounts verwendet werden, die diese Funktion nicht unterstützen, können Daten dennoch abgerufen werden. Der iPod touch kann also auf dem Server prüfen, ob neue Informationen vorhanden sind. Verwenden Sie die Einstellung „Neue Daten laden“, um festzulegen, wie oft nach neuen Daten gesucht werden soll. Führen Sie die Suche nicht zu häufig aus, wenn Sie Batteriestrom sparen wollen. Aktivieren der Push-Funktion: Tippen Sie auf „Neue Daten laden“ und aktivieren Sie die Option „Push“ durch Tippen. Festlegen des Intervalls, in dem Daten abgerufen werden: Tippen Sie auf „Neue Daten laden“ und wählen Sie dann aus, wie häufig Daten für alle Accounts abgerufen werden sollen. Schonen Sie die Batterie, indem Sie Daten nicht zu häufig abrufen. Legen Sie Einstellungen zum Abrufen oder Übertragen von Daten für einzelne Accounts fest: Wählen Sie „Neue Daten laden“ > „Erweitert“ und tippen Sie auf einen Account. Wenn Sie für „Push“ die Einstellung „AUS“ oder für „Laden“ die Einstellung „Manuell“ wählen, werden damit die Einstellungen einzelner Accounts überschrieben. Helligkeit Die Bildschirmhelligkeit hat Einfluss darauf, wie lange die Batterieladung reicht. Verringern Sie die Helligkeit, damit Sie die Batterie des iPod touch seltener laden müssen, oder verwenden Sie die Option „Auto-Helligkeit“. Anpassen der Helligkeit des Bildschirms: Wählen Sie „Helligkeit“ und bewegen Sie den Regler für die Helligkeit. Festlegen, ob der iPod touch die Bildschirmhelligkeit automatisch anpassen soll: Wählen Sie „Helligkeit“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „AutoHelligkeit“. Wenn die Option „Auto-Helligkeit“ aktiviert ist, verwendet der iPod touch den integrierten Sensor für das Umgebungslicht, um die Bildschirmhelligkeit der jeweiligen Umgebung entsprechend anzupassen.Allgemeine Probleme Die Einstellungen im Bereich „Allgemein“ umfassen Datum und Uhrzeit, Sicherheit, Netzwerk und andere Einstellungen, die mehr als ein Programm betreffen. Hier finden Sie auch Informationen über Ihren iPod touch und können die Originaleinstellungen des iPod touch wiederherstellen. Info Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Info“, um Informationen über den iPod touch abzurufen. Hierzu gehören:  Anzahl der Musiktitel, Videos und Fotos  Gesamtspeicherkapazität  Freier Speicherplatz  Softwareversion  Serien- und Modellnummer  Wi-Fi-Adressen  Copyright-Hinweise Hintergrundbild Das Hintergrundbild ist sichtbar, wenn Sie die Sperre des iPod touch aufheben. Sie können eines der mit dem iPod touch gelieferten Bilder oder eines der Fotos verwenden, die Sie von Ihrem Computer auf den iPod touch übertragen haben. Festlegen des Hintergrundbilds: Tippen Sie auf „Hintergrundbild“ und wählen Sie ein Bild aus. Töne Anpassen der Lautstärke von akustischen Signalen: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Töne“ und bewegen Sie den Schieberegler. Wird gerade kein Musiktitel oder Video abgespielt, verwenden Sie alternativ die Lautstärketasten an der Seite des iPod touch. Hinweis: Wählen Sie auf dem iPod touch der ersten Generation „Allgemein“ > „Töne“ und wählen Sie aus, ob Audioeffekte über den internen Lautsprecher, die Kopfhörer oder beides ausgegeben werden sollen. Festlegen von Warntönen und Effekten: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Töne“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die entsprechenden Objekte. Sie können den iPod touch so einrichten, dass in den folgenden Situationen ein Ton abgespielt wird:  bei eingehenden E-Mails  beim Senden einer E-Mail  bei Terminen, über die Sie informiert werden wollten  Sperren des iPod touch 104 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 105  beim Tippen mit der Tastatur Netzwerk Verwenden Sie die Netzwerkeinstellungen, um eine VPN-Verbindung (Virtual Private Network) zu konfigurieren oder auf Wi-Fi-Einstellungen zuzugreifen. Hinzufügen einer neuen VPN-Konfiguration: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Netzwerk“ > „VPN“ > „VPN-Konfiguration hinzufügen“. In Unternehmen verwendete virtuelle private Netzwerke (VPN) ermöglichen das sichere Übertragen von Daten über ein öffentliches Netzwerk. Sie müssen u. U. VPNEinstellungen konfigurieren, um Ihre geschäftlichen E-Mails mit dem iPod touch abrufen zu können. Der iPod touch kann eine Verbindung zu VPN-Netzwerken herstellen, die L2TP-, PPTP- oder Cisco IPSec-Protokolle verwenden. Die Nutzung eines VPN ist allgemein sowohl über Wi-Fi- als auch über Funknetzverbindungen möglich. Erkundigen Sie sich bei Ihrem Netzwerkadministrator, welche Einstellungen verwendet werden müssen. Wenn Sie ein VPN auf Ihrem Computer eingerichtet haben, können die gleichen Einstellungen in den meisten Fällen auch für den iPod touch verwendet werden. Nach Eingabe der VPN-Einstellungen wird auf der obersten Ebene des Menüs „Einstellungen“ eine VPN-Taste eingeblendet, die Sie zum Aktivieren und Deaktivieren von VPN verwenden können. Ändern einer VPN-Konfiguration: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Netzwerk“ > „VPN“ und tippen Sie auf die Konfiguration, die Sie aktualisieren möchten. Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren der Option „VPN“: Tippen Sie auf „Einstellungen“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „VPN“. Löschen einer VPN-Konfiguration: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Netzwerk“ > „VPN“ und tippen Sie auf den blauen Pfeil rechts neben dem Konfigurationsnamen. Tippen Sie dann auf „VPN löschen“ unten im Konfigurationsbildschirm. Verwenden von Wi-Fi: Vgl. „Wi-Fi“ auf Seite 101. Ortungsdienste Die Ortungsdienste ermöglichen es Programmen wie dem Programm „Karten“ Daten bezüglich Ihrer Position zu sammeln und zu verwenden. Die Ortungsdienste setzen die gesammelten Daten nicht mit Ihren persönlichen Daten in Beziehung. Ihre ungefähre Position wird anhand von Informationen ermittelt, die über lokale Wi-Fi-Netzwerke zur Verfügung stehen (sofern Wi-Fi aktiviert ist). Sie können die Ortungsdienste deaktivieren, wenn Sie diese Funktion nicht nutzen wollen. Wenn Sie die Ortungsdienste deaktivieren, werden Sie aufgefordert, sie wieder zu aktivieren, wenn ein Programm das nächste Mal versucht, diese Funktion zu verwenden.Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren der Ortungsdienste: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Ortungsdienste“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Ortungsdienste. Schonen Sie die Batterie, indem Sie die Ortungsdienste deaktivieren, wenn Sie sie nicht verwenden. Automatische Sperre Wenn der iPod touch gesperrt ist, wird der Bildschirm ausgeschaltet, um Batteriestrom zu sparen und um zu vermeiden, dass der iPod touch unbeabsichtigt bedient wird. Festlegen, nach welcher Zeit der iPod touch gesperrt wird: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Automatische Sperre“ und wählen Sie eine Zeit aus. Code-Sperre Standardmäßig ist der iPod touch so konfiguriert, dass kein Code eingegeben werden muss, um die Sperre aufzuheben. Festlegen eines Codes: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Code-Sperre“ und geben Sie einen 4-stelligen Code ein. Geben Sie den Code dann erneut ein, um ihn zu bestätigen. Der iPod touch fordert Sie danach auf, den Code einzugeben, um die Sperre aufzuheben oder um die Einstellungen für die Codesperre anzuzeigen. Deaktivieren der Code-Sperre: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Code-Sperre“ und geben Sie Ihren Code ein. Tippen Sie dann auf „Code deaktivieren“ und geben Sie Ihren Code erneut ein. Ändern des Codes: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Code-Sperre“ und geben Sie Ihren Code ein. Tippen Sie dann auf „Code ändern“. Geben Sie Ihren aktuellen Code nochmals ein und geben Sie danach zweimal den neuen Code ein. Falls Sie Ihren Code vergessen haben, müssen Sie die Software des iPod touch wiederherstellen. Vgl. „Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen der iPod touch-Software“ auf Seite 126. Festlegen, wann der Code eingegeben werden muss: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Code-Sperre“ und geben Sie Ihren Code ein. Tippen Sie auf „Code anfordern“ und legen Sie fest, wie lange der iPod touch inaktiv sein darf, bevor ein Code eingegeben werden muss, um die Sperre aufzuheben. Löschen von Daten nach zehn fehlgeschlagenen Code-Eingabeversuchen: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Code-Sperre“ und geben Sie Ihren Code ein. Tippen Sie dann auf Sie „Daten löschen“, um ihn einzuschalten. Nach zehn fehlgeschlagenen Code-Eingabeversuchen werden Ihre Einstellungen auf die Standardeinstellungen zurückgesetzt und alle Ihre Informationen und Medien auf dem iPod touch werden entfernt, indem die auf dem iPod touch gespeicherten Daten überschrieben werden. 106 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 107 Wichtig: Während die Daten überschrieben werden, können Sie den iPod touch nicht verwenden. Dieser Vorgang kann ein bis vier Stunden oder länger dauern, abhängig von der Speicherkapazität Ihres iPod touch. Einschränkungen Sie können den Zugriff auf iPod-Inhalte für die Verwendung mit bestimmten Programmen auf dem iPod touch einschränken. Eltern können beispielsweise festlegen, dass bestimmte Musiktitel nicht in Wiedergabelisten erscheinen, oder den Zugriff auf YouTube deaktivieren. Für Kinder ungeeignete Musik- oder Videoinhalte, die im iTunes Store erworben wurden, werden nicht angezeigt. Diese Inhalte werden von den Anbietern (wie Plattenfirmen) markiert, wenn sie über den iTunes Store vertrieben werden. Safari wird deaktiviert und das Programmsymbol wird vom Home-Bildschirm entfernt. Es ist nicht möglich, im Internet zu surfen oder auf Weblinks zuzugreifen. YouTube wird deaktiviert und das Programmsymbol wird vom Home-Bildschirm entfernt. Der iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store wird deaktiviert und das Symbol wird vom HomeBildschirm entfernt. Es ist nicht möglich, Inhalte anzusehen, zu kaufen oder zu laden. Der App Store wird deaktiviert und das Programmsymbol wird vom Home-Bildschirm entfernt. Es ist nicht möglich, Programme auf dem iPod touch zu installieren. Festlegen der Einschränkungen: 1 Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Einschränkungen“ und tippen Sie dann auf „Einschränkungen aktivieren“. 2 Geben Sie einen vierstelligen Code ein. 3 Geben Sie den Code erneut ein. 4 Legen Sie die gewünschten Einschränkungen fest, indem Sie die einzelnen Bedienelemente durch Tippen aktivieren und deaktivieren. Standardmäßig sind alle Einstellungen aktiviert (nicht eingeschränkt). Tippen Sie auf ein Objekt, um es zu deaktivieren und seine Verwendung einzuschränken.Deaktivieren aller Einschränkungen: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Einschränkungen“ und geben Sie dann den Code ein. Tippen Sie auf „Einschränkungen deaktivieren“ und geben Sie den Code erneut ein. Falls Sie Ihren Code vergessen haben, müssen Sie die Software des iPod touch mithilfe von iTunes wiederherstellen. Vgl. „Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen der iPod touchSoftware“ auf Seite 126. Datum und Uhrzeit Diese Einstellungen betreffen die Uhrzeit, die in der Statusleiste oben im Bildschirm sowie in den Programmen „Uhr“ und „Kalender“ angezeigt wird . Festlegen, ob der iPod touch die 24-Stunden-Uhr oder die 12-Stunden-Uhr anzeigen soll: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Datum & Uhrzeit“ und deaktivieren Sie die 24-StundenUhr. (Nicht in allen Ländern verfügbar.) Festlegen von Datum und Uhrzeit: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Datum & Uhrzeit. Tippen Sie auf „Zeitzone“ und geben Sie den Namen einer größeren Stadt in der gewünschten Zeitzone ein. Tippen Sie auf “Datum & Uhrzeit” > „Datum & Uhrzeit einstellen“ und geben Sie Datum und Uhrzeit ein. Tastatur Aktivieren und Deaktivieren der Option „Auto-Korrektur“: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Auto-Korrektur“. Wenn die Standardtastatur für die gewählte Sprache über ein Wörterbuch verfügt, schlägt der iPod touch automatisch Korrekturen vor oder vervollständigt Wörter beim Schreiben. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren der Option „Auto-Großschreibung“: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „AutoGroßschreibung“. Standardmäßig schreibt der iPod touch Wörter nach Punkten oder Zeilenendezeichen automatisch groß. Festlegen, ob die Feststelltaste aktiviert sein soll: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Feststelltaste“. Wenn die Feststelltaste aktiviert ist und Sie zweimal auf die Umschalttaste der Tastatur tippen, werden beim Schreiben Großbuchstaben erzeugt. Die Umschalttaste wird blau dargestellt, wenn die Feststellfunktion aktiviert ist. Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren des Kurzbefehls „.“: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie den Kurzbefehl „.“. Der Kurzbefehl „.” ermöglicht es, beim Schreiben durch Doppeltippen auf die Leertaste einen Punkt gefolgt von einem Leerzeichen einzugeben. Dieser Kurzbefehl ist standardmäßig aktiviert. 108 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 109 Aktivieren und Deaktivieren internationaler Tastaturbelegungen:Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Tastatur“ > „Internationale Tastaturen“ und aktivieren Sie die gewünschten Tastaturen. Wenn mehrere Tastaturen ausgewählt sind, tippen Sie auf , um die Tastaturbelegung beim Schreiben zu ändern. Beim Tippen auf das Symbol wird der Name der nun aktivierten Tastatur kurz eingeblendet. Vgl. „Internationale Tastaturen“ auf Seite 26. Landeseinstellungen Mit den Landeseinstellungen legen Sie die Sprache für den iPod touch fest, aktivieren und deaktivieren Tastaturbelegungen für verschiedene Sprachen und stellen die Formate für Datum, Uhrzeit und Telefonnummern für Ihr Land ein. Festlegen der Sprache für den iPod touch: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > “Landeseinstellungen“ > „Sprache“ und wählen Sie die gewünschte Sprache aus. Tippen Sie dann auf „Fertig“. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren internationaler Tastaturbelegungen:Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Landeseinstellungen“ > „Tastaturen“ und aktivieren Sie die gewünschten Tastaturen. Wenn mehrere Tastaturen ausgewählt sind, tippen Sie auf , um die Tastaturbelegung beim Schreiben zu ändern. Beim Tippen auf das Symbol wird der Name der nun aktivierten Tastatur kurz eingeblendet. Vgl. „Internationale Tastaturen“ auf Seite 26. Festlegen der Formate für Datum, Uhrzeit und Telefonnummern: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Landeseinstellungen“ > „Region“ und wählen Sie Ihre Region aus. Zurücksetzen des iPod touch Zurücksetzen aller Einstellungen: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Alle Einstellungen“. Alle Einstellungen werden zurückgesetzt. Informationen (wie Kontakte und Kalender) und Medien (wie Musiktitel und Videos) werden dabei nicht gelöscht. Löschen aller Inhalte und Einstellungen: Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer oder einem Netzteil. Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Inhalte & Einstellungen löschen“. Mit dieser Funktion werden alle Einstellungen auf die Standardeinstellungen zurückgesetzt und alle Informationen und Medien auf Ihrem iPod touch entfernt, indem die auf dem iPod touch gespeicherten Daten überschrieben werden. Wichtig: Während die Daten überschrieben werden, können Sie den iPod touch nicht verwenden. Dieser Vorgang kann ein bis vier Stunden oder länger dauern, abhängig von der Speicherkapazität Ihres iPod touch. Zurücksetzen des Tastaturwörterbuchs: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Tastaturwörterbuch“.Sie fügen Wörter zum Tastaturwörterbuch hinzu, indem Sie Korrekturvorschläge des iPod touch ablehnen. Tippen Sie auf ein Wort, um den Korrekturvorschlag abzulehnen, und fügen Sie das Wort zum Tastaturwörterbuch hinzu. Durch Zurücksetzen des Tastaturwörterbuchs werden alle von Ihnen hinzugefügten Wörter gelöscht. Zurücksetzen der Netzwerkeinstellungen: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Netzwerkeinstellungen“. Wenn Sie die Netzwerkeinstellungen zurücksetzen, werden Ihre Liste bisher genutzter Netzwerke und Ihre VPN-Einstellungen gelöscht. Wi-Fi wird deaktiviert und dann wieder aktiviert. Dabei werden alle eventuell vorhandenen Verbindung zu Netzwerken getrennt. Die Einstellungen für Wi-Fi und die Option „Verbindungen bestätigen” bleiben aktiviert. Zurücksetzen der Anordnung des Home-Bildschirms: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Home-Bildschirm“. Zurücksetzen der Ortswarnhinweise: Wählen Sie „Allgemein“ > „Zurücksetzen“ und tippen Sie auf „Ortswarnhinweise zurücksetzen“. Bei Ortswarnhinweisen handelt es sich um Anforderungen von Programmen (wie „Karten“), auf die Ortungsdienste zugreifen zu dürfen. Der iPod touch zeigt die Warnhinweise eines Programms nicht mehr an, nachdem Sie zum zweiten Mal auf „Ja“ getippt haben. Tippen Sie auf „Ortswarnhinweise zurücksetzen“, damit die Warnhinweise wieder angezeigt werden. Musik Die Musikeinstellungen betreffen Musiktitel, Podcasts und Hörbücher. Festlegen, dass iTunes Musiktitel mit der gleichen Lautstärke abspielt: Öffnen Sie iTunes und wählen Sie „iTunes“ > „Einstellungen“ (Mac) oder „Bearbeiten“ > „Einstellungen“ (PC). Klicken Sie dann auf „Wiedergabe“ und wählen Sie „Lautstärke anpassen“. Konfigurieren des iPod touch für die Übernahme der iTunes-Lautstärkeeinstellungen (Lautstärke anpassen): Wählen Sie „Musik“ und aktivieren Sie die Option „Lautstärke anpassen“. Sie können festlegen, dass Hörbücher schneller als normal abgespielt werden, um sie schneller anzuhören. Sie können sie auch langsamer abspielen, um sie deutlicher zu hören. Festlegen der Wiedergabegeschwindigkeit für ein Hörbuch: Wählen Sie „Musik“ > „Hörbuch-Vorlesen“ und wählen Sie „Langsamer“, „Normal“ oder „Schneller“. Verwenden des Equalizers, um den Klang des iPod touch für einen bestimmten Sound oder Stil anzupassen: Wählen Sie „Musik“ > „EQ“ und wählen Sie eine Einstellung aus. 110 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 111 Festlegen einer maximalen Lautstärke für Musik und Videos: Wählen Sie „Musik“ > „Maximale Lautstärke“ und bewegen Sie den Schieberegler, um die maximale Lautstärke anzupassen. Tippen Sie auf „Maximale Lautstärke sperren“, um einen Code zuzuweisen und zu verhindern, dass diese Einstellung geändert wird. ACHTUNG: Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise zum Vermeiden von Hörschäden finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Video Videoeinstellungen gelten für Videoinhalte, u. a. für Leihfilme. Sie können festlegen, an welcher Stelle die Wiedergabe von zuvor unterbrochenen Videos fortgesetzt werden soll, ob erweiterte Untertitel ein- oder ausgeblendet werden sollen und ob der iPod touch für die Wiedergabe von Videos auf dem Fernsehgerät konfiguriert werden soll. Festlegen, an welcher Stelle die Wiedergabe fortgesetzt werden soll: Wählen Sie „Video“ > „Wiedergabe“ und wählen Sie dann aus, ob Videos ab dem Start oder ab der Wiedergabeunterbrechung angezeigt werden sollen. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren erweiterter Untertitel: Wählen Sie „Video“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Erweiterte Untertitel“. TV-Ausgang Verwenden Sie diese Einstellungen, um festzulegen, wie das iPod touch Videos auf Ihrem Fernsehgerät wiedergibt. Weitere Informationen zur Verwendung des iPod touch für die Wiedergabe von Videos auf Ihrem Fernsehgerät finden Sie im Abschnitt „Ansehen eines Videos mit einem Fernsehgerät“ auf Seite 43. Aktivieren und Deaktivieren der Breitbildanzeige: Wählen Sie „iPod“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Breitbild“. Einstellen des TV-Signals auf NTSC oder PAL: Wählen Sie „iPod“ > „TV-Signal“ und wählen Sie NTSC oder PAL aus. NTSC und PAL sind TV-Sendestandards. Der iPod touch zeigt Inhalte im NTSC 480p/ PAL 576p-Format an, wenn er mit einem Komponentenkabel an ein Fernsehgerät angeschlossen ist, bzw. im NTSC 480i/PAL 576i-Format bei Verwendung eines CompositeKabels. Mit welchem dieser Standards Ihr Fernsehgerät arbeitet, hängt davon ab, in welchem Land es erworben wurde. Wenn Sie nicht wissen, welche Einstellung verwendet werden muss, lesen Sie bitte die entsprechenden Hinweise in der Dokumentation Ihres Fernsehgeräts.Fotos Verwenden Sie die Fotoeinstellungen, um festzulegen, wie Diashows Ihrer Fotos angezeigt werden. Festlegen, wie lange jedes Dia zu sehen sein soll: Wählen Sie „Fotos“ > „Anzeigezeit pro Dia“ und wählen Sie die gewünschte Dauer aus. Festlegen eines Übergangseffekts: Wählen Sie „Fotos“ > „Übergang“ und wählen Sie einen Übergangseffekt aus. Festlegen, ob Diashows wiederholt werden sollen: Wählen Sie „Fotos“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Wiederholen“. Festlegen, ob Fotos in zufälliger Folge angezeigt werden sollen: Wählen Sie „Fotos“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Zufällig“. Mail, Kontakte, Kalender Verwenden Sie die Einstellungen „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“, um Accounts für den iPod touch einzurichten und anzupassen:  Microsoft Exchange  MobileMe  Google Mail  Yahoo! Mail  AOL  andere POP- und IMAP-E-Mail-Systeme Accounts Im Bereich für die Accounts können Sie Ihre Accounts auf dem iPod touch einrichten. Welche Account-Einstellungen angezeigt werden, hängt vom verwendeten Account-Typ ab. Die erforderlichen Account-Informationen erhalten Sie bei Ihrem Dienstanbieter oder Systemadministrator. Weitere Informationen zum Hinzufügen von Accounts finden Sie im Abschnitt „Einrichten von Accounts“ auf Seite 11. Ändern der Einstellungen eines Accounts: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“, wählen Sie einen Account aus und nehmen Sie dann die gewünschten Änderungen vor. Die Änderungen, die Sie an den Einstellungen eines Accounts vornehmen, werden nicht mit Ihrem Computer synchronisiert. Daher können Sie Ihre Accounts ohne Auswirkungen auf die Account-Einstellungen Ihres Computers für den iPod touch einrichten. Deaktivieren eines Accounts: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“, wählen Sie einen Account aus und deaktivieren Sie diesen. 112 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 113 Ist ein Account deaktiviert, zeigt der iPod touch den Account nicht an, sendet und ruft keine E-Mails über diesen Account ab und synchronisiert keine Informationen mit diesem Account, bis Sie den Account wieder aktivieren. Anpassen erweiterter Einstellungen: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“, wählen Sie einen Account aus und führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Wenn Sie festlegen möchten, ob Entwürfe, gesendete Nachrichten und gelöschte Nachrichten auf dem iPod touch oder entfernt auf Ihrem E-Mail-Server gespeichert werden (nur IMAP-Accounts), tippen Sie auf „Erweitert“ und wählen Sie das Postfach „Entwürfe“, „Gesendet“ oder „Gelöscht“ aus. Wenn Sie E-Mails auf dem iPod touch speichern, können Sie auch dann darauf zugreifen, wenn Ihr iPod touch nicht mit dem Internet verbunden ist.  Wenn Sie angeben wollen, wie lange Nachrichten beibehalten werden sollen, bevor sie dauerhaft aus dem Programm „Mail“ auf dem iPod touch entfernt werden, tippen Sie auf „Erweitert“ und auf „Entfernen“ und wählen Sie dann eine Dauer aus: Nie oder nach einem Tag, einer Woche oder einem Monat.  Wenn Sie E-Mail-Servereinstellungen anpassen möchten, tippen Sie auf „Hostname“, „Benutzername“ oder „Kennwort“ unter „Server für eintreffende E-Mail“ oder „Server für ausgehende E-Mails“. Fragen Sie Ihren Netzwerkadministrator oder Internetanbieter nach den korrekten Einstellungen.  Wenn Sie SSL- und Kennworteinstellungen anpassen möchten, tippen Sie auf „Erweitert“. Fragen Sie Ihren Netzwerkadministrator oder Internetanbieter nach den korrekten Einstellungen. Löschen eines Accounts vom iPod touch: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und wählen Sie einen Account aus. Blättern Sie dann nach unten und tippen Sie auf „Account löschen“. Das Löschen eines Accounts bedeutet, dass Sie mit dem iPod touch nicht mehr darauf zugreifen können. Alle E-Mails sowie die Informationen zu Kontakten, Kalendern und Lesezeichen, die mit dem Account synchronisiert waren, werden vom iPod touch gelöscht. Durch das Löschen eines Accounts werden jedoch weder der Account noch die damit verbundenen Informationen von Ihrem Computer entfernt. Mail Die Einstellungen des Programms „Mail“ gelten, sofern nicht anders angegeben, für alle Accounts, die Sie auf dem iPod touch eingerichtet haben. Wenn Sie akustische Hinweise für neue oder gesendete E-Mails aktivieren oder deaktivieren möchten, verwenden Sie die Einstellungen „Allgemein“ > „Töne“. Einstellen der Anzahl der auf dem iPod touch angezeigten E-Mails: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Anzeigen“ und wählen Sie dann eine Einstellung aus.Wählen Sie aus, ob Sie die letzten 25, 50, 75, 100 oder 200 E-Mails sehen möchten. Möchten Sie weitere Nachrichten laden, während Mail geöffnet ist, blättern Sie in Ihrem Posteingang nach unten und tippen Sie auf die Option zum Laden weiterer E-Mails. Hinweis: Wählen Sie für Microsoft Exchange-Accounts „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und wählen Sie den Exchange-Account aus. Tippen Sie auf „Mail: Zu synchronis. Tage“ und wählen Sie aus, aus welchem Zeitraum die mit dem Server zu synchronisierenden E-Mails stammen sollen. Festlegen, wie viele Zeilen pro E-Mail in der Nachrichtenliste in der Vorschau angezeigt werden: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Vorschau“ und wählen Sie dann eine Einstellung aus. Sie können nach Wahl null bis fünf Zeilen jeder Nachricht einblenden. Auf diese Weise können Sie eine Liste mit E-Mails in einem Postfach überfliegen und eine Vorstellung über den Inhalt jeder E-Mail erhalten. Festlegen einer minimalen Schriftgröße für E-Mails: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Mindestschriftgröße“ und wählen Sie dann „Klein“, „Mittel“, „Groß“, „Sehr groß“ oder „Supergroß“ aus. Festlegen, ob der iPod touch die Felder „An“ und „Cc“ in Nachrichtenlisten anzeigt: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie dann „An/ Kopie anzeigen“. Ist die Option „An/Kopie anzeigen“ aktiviert, weisen die Symbole An oder Cc neben den E-Mails in einer Liste darauf hin, ob die E-Mail direkt an Sie gesendet wurde oder ob Sie auf Kopie gesetzt wurden. Festlegen, ob der iPod touch beim Löschen einer E-Mail eine Bestätigung anfordert: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Löschen bestätigen“. Ist die Option „Löschen bestätigen“ aktiviert, müssen Sie zum Löschen einer Nachricht auf tippen und den Vorgang dann durch Tippen auf „Löschen“ bestätigen. Festlegen, ob der iPod touch Ihnen eine Kopie aller gesendeten E-Mails schicken soll: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie dann die Option „Blindkopie an mich“. Festlegen des standardmäßigen E-Mail-Accounts: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Standard-Account“ und wählen Sie einen Account aus. Mit dieser Einstellung legen Sie fest, welcher Account zum Senden einer Nachricht verwendet wird, wenn Sie diese mit einem anderen iPod touch-Programm erstellen, etwa wenn Sie ein Foto vom Programm „Fotos“ senden oder auf die E-Mail-Adresse eines Unternehmens im Programm „Karten“ tippen. Zum Senden der Nachricht von einem anderen Account tippen Sie in der Nachricht auf das Feld „Von“ und wählen den gewünschten Account aus. 114 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 115 Hinzufügen einer Signatur zu Ihren E-Mails: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Signatur“ und geben Sie dann eine Signatur ein. Sie können festlegen, dass der iPod touch eine Signatur hinzufügt – etwa ein Lieblingszitat oder Name, Titel und Telefonnummer – die am Ende jeder gesendeten Nachricht angezeigt wird. Kontakte Festlegen der Sortierfolge von Kontakten: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und tippen Sie unter „Kontakte“ auf „Sortierfolge“. Führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Zum Sortieren nach Vornamen tippen Sie auf „Vorname, Nachname“.  Zum Sortieren nach Nachname, tippen Sie auf „Nachname, Vorname“. Festlegen der Anzeigefolge von Kontakten: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und tippen Sie unter „Kontakte“ auf „Anzeigefolge“. Führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Damit Vornamen zuerst angezeigt werden, tippen Sie auf „Vorname, Nachname“.  Damit Nachnamen zuerst angezeigt werden, tippen Sie auf „Nachname, Vorname“. Kalender Festlegen, dass beim Eingang von Einladungen zu Besprechungen ein akustisches Signal ausgegeben wird: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und tippen Sie unter „Kalender“ auf „Einladungsmeldungen“, um die Signale zu aktivieren. Festlegen, bis zu welchem Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit Kalenderereignisse auf dem iPod touch angezeigt werden sollen: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Sync“ und wählen Sie dann einen Zeitrahmen aus. Aktivieren des Zeitzonen-Supports für den Kalender: Wählen Sie „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ > „Zeitzonen-Support“ und aktivieren Sie dann den Zeitzonen-Support. Wählen Sie eine Zeitzone für Kalender aus, indem Sie auf „Zeitzone“ tippen und den Namen einer Großstadt eingeben. Wenn der Zeitzonen-Support aktiviert ist, zeigt das Programm „Kalender“ Datum und Uhrzeit der Termine in der Zeitzone der ausgewählten Stadt an. Wenn der ZeitzonenSupport deaktiviert ist, zeigt das Programm „Kalender“ Termine in der Zeitzone Ihres aktuellen Aufenthaltsorts an. Maßgeblich ist hierbei die Netzwerkzeit. Wichtig: Wenn Sie auf Reisen sind, gibt der iPod touch visuelle und akustische Hinweise auf Ereignisse möglicherweise nicht zur korrekten lokalen Uhrzeit aus. Möchten Sie die richtige Uhrzeit manuell einstellen, lesen Sie die Informationen im Abschnitt „Datum und Uhrzeit“ auf Seite 108.Safari In den Safari-Einstellungen können Sie Ihren Internetsuchdienst (Suchmaschine) auswählen, Sicherheitsfunktionen festlegen und Entwickler können DebuggingFunktionen aktivieren. Allgemeine Probleme Mit Google oder Yahoo! können Sie Recherchen im Internet ausführen. Auswählen eines Suchdiensts: Wählen Sie „Safari“ > „Suchmaschine“ und wählen Sie den gewünschten Suchdienst aus. Sicherheit Standardmäßig ist Safari so eingestellt, dass Komponenten wie Filme, Animationen und Internetprogramme aus dem Web geladen und angezeigt werden. Möglicherweise wollen Sie einige Funktionen deaktivieren, damit Ihr iPod touch vor potenziellen Sicherheitsrisiken aus dem Internet geschützt ist. Ändern der Sicherheitseinstellungen: Wählen Sie „Safari“ und führen Sie dann einen der folgenden Schritte aus:  Zum Aktivieren bzw. Deaktivieren von JavaScript aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „JavaScript“. Mit JavaScript können Webprogrammierer die Elemente auf einer Seite steuern. Eine Seite, die JavaScript einsetzt, kann beispielsweise das aktuelle Datum und die Uhrzeit anzeigen oder eine verknüpfte Seite in einem neuen Fenster anzeigen.  Zum Aktivieren bzw. Deaktivieren von Plug-Ins aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Plug-Ins“. Plug-Ins ermöglichen es Safari, einige Arten von Audio- und Videodateien abzuspielen und Microsoft Word-Dateien sowie Microsoft ExcelDokumente anzuzeigen.  Zum Unterdrücken von Pop-Ups aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Pop-Ups unterdrücken“. Durch das Unterdrücken von Pop-Ups wird nur die Anzeige von PopUps verhindert, die aktiviert werden, wenn Sie eine Seite schließen oder eine Seite durch Eingeben ihrer Adresse öffnen. Hiermit werden keine Pop-Ups unterdrückt, die nach dem Tippen auf einen Link geöffnet werden.  Zum Festlegen, ob Safari Cookies akzeptiert, tippen Sie auf „Cookies akzeptieren“ und wählen „Nie“, „Besuchte“ oder „Immer“. Ein Cookie besteht aus Informationen, die eine Website auf dem iPod touch ablegt, sodass die Website Sie wiedererkennt, wenn Sie sie erneut besuchen. Auf diese Weise können Webseiten, basierend auf den von Ihnen bereitgestellten Informationen, gezielt für Sie angepasst werden. Einige Seiten funktionieren erst ordnungsgemäß, wenn der iPod touch Cookies akzeptiert.  Zum Löschen des Verlaufs der angezeigten Webseiten tippen Sie auf „Verlauf löschen“. 116 Kapitel 8 EinstellungenKapitel 8 Einstellungen 117  Zum Löschen aller Cookies aus Safari tippen Sie auf „Cookies löschen“.  Zum Löschen des Browsercaches tippen Sie auf „Cache löschen“. Im Browsercache wird der Inhalt von Seiten gesichert, sodass die Seiten schneller geöffnet werden können, wenn Sie sie das nächste Mal besuchen. Wenn eine geöffnete Seite keine neuen Inhalte anzeigt, kann das Löschen des Caches dieses Problem beheben. Entwickler Das Programm „Debug-Konsole“ kann Sie dabei unterstützen, Fehler mit Webseiten zu beheben. Wenn das Programm aktiviert ist, wird das Konsolenfenster automatisch eingeblendet, wenn ein Fehler mit einer Webseite auftritt. Aktivieren bzw. Deaktivieren des Programms „Debug-Konsole“: Wählen Sie „Safari“ > „Entwickler“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option „Debug-Konsole“. Nike + iPod Verwenden Sie die Einstellungen „Nike + iPod“, um Einstellungen für den Nike + iPodSensor (separat erhältlich) zu aktivieren und anzupassen. Auf dem iPod touch der ersten Generation ist die Funktion „Nike + iPod“ nicht verfügbar. Spezielle Anleitungen zum Aktivieren und Verwenden der Funktion „Nike + iPod“ finden Sie in der zugehörigen Dokumentation. Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren der Option „Nike + iPod“: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ und aktivieren oder deaktivieren Sie die Option. Ist „Nike + iPod“ aktiviert, wird das zugehö- rige Symbol im Home-Bildschirm angezeigt. Auswählen eines PowerSong: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „PowerSong“ und wählen Sie einen Musiktitel aus Ihrer Musiksammlung aus. Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren des Sprach-Feedbacks: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „Sprach-Feedback“ und wählen Sie eine männliche oder weibliche Stimme als Begleitung für Ihr Lauftraining aus. Zum Deaktivieren des Sprach-Feedbacks tippen Sie auf „Aus“. Festlegen eines Einheit für die Streckenerfassung: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „Strecke“ und wählen Sie „Meilen“ oder „Kilometer“ als Einheit für die Streckenerfassung aus. Festlegen der Gewichtserfassung: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „Gewicht“ und streichen Sie mit dem Finger über den Bildschirm, um Ihr Gewicht einzugeben. Festlegen der Ausrichtung der Anzeige: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „Anzeige sperren“ und wählen Sie eine Einstellung für die Ausrichtung der Anzeige aus. Aktivieren des Nike + iPod-Sensors: Wählen Sie „Nike + iPod“ > „Sensor“ und befolgen Sie die angezeigten Anleitungen, um den Sensor (separat erhältlich) zu aktivieren.118 Allgemeine Probleme Das Symbol einer leeren Batterie wird angezeigt Der iPod touch arbeitet mit Reservestrom und muss bis zu zehn Minuten lang aufgeladen werden, bevor Sie weiterarbeiten können. Informationen zum Aufladen des iPod touch finden Sie im Abschnitt „Aufladen der Batterie“ auf Seite 29. oder Der iPod touch reagiert nicht  Der iPod touch muss unter Umständen aufgeladen werden. Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer oder mit dem Netzteil, um ihn aufzuladen. Vgl. „Aufladen der Batterie“ auf Seite 29.  Drücken Sie die Home-Taste unter dem Bildschirm mindestens sechs Sekunden lang, bis das verwendete Programm beendet wird.  Funktioniert dies nicht, schalten Sie den iPod touch aus und wieder ein. Drücken Sie die Standby-Taste oben am iPod touch einige Sekunden lang, bis ein roter Regler eingeblendet wird, und bewegen Sie den Finger auf dem Schieberegler. Drücken und halten Sie anschließend die Standby-Taste, bis das Apple-Logo angezeigt wird.  Funktioniert dies nicht, setzen Sie den iPod touch zurück. Drücken Sie die StandbyTaste und die Home-Taste mindestens zehn Sekunden lang, bis das Apple-Logo angezeigt wird. A Anhang FehlerbeseitigungAnhang A Fehlerbeseitigung 119 Der iPod touch reagiert auch nach dem Zurücksetzen nicht  Setzen Sie die iPod touch-Einstellungen zurück. Wählen Sie im Home-Bildschirm „Einstellungen“ > „Allgemein“ > „Einstellungen zurücksetzen“. Alle Ihre Einstellungen werden zurückgesetzt. Ihre Daten und Medien werden dabei nicht gelöscht.  Wenn dies nicht funktioniert, löschen Sie den gesamten Inhalt des iPod touch. Vgl. „Zurücksetzen des iPod touch“ auf Seite 109.  Wenn dies nicht funktioniert, stellen Sie die iPod touch-Software wieder her. Vgl. „Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen der iPod touch-Software“ auf Seite 126. Der iPod touch zeigt in einer Meldung an, dass ein Zubehörprodukt nicht unterstützt wird Das angeschlossene Zubehörprodukt funktioniert u. U. nicht mit dem iPod touch. Vergewissern Sie sich, dass sich im Dock-Anschluss keine Fremdkörper befinden. Die Meldung „Verbindung mit iTunes“ wird angezeigt Der iPod touch muss mithilfe von iTunes registriert werden. Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer und öffnen Sie iTunes, falls dies nicht automatisch geschieht. iTunes und Synchronisierung Der iPod touch wird in iTunes nicht angezeigt  Möglicherweise muss die Batterie des iPod touch aufgeladen werden. Informationen zum Aufladen des iPod touch finden Sie im Abschnitt „Aufladen der Batterie“ auf Seite 29.  Trennen Sie andere USB-Geräte von Ihrem Computer und schließen Sie den iPod touch an einem anderen USB 2.0-Anschluss Ihres Computers (nicht an der Tastatur) an.  Starten Sie Ihren Computer neu und schließen Sie den iPod touch wieder an Ihren Computer an.  Laden und installieren Sie die neuste Version von iTunes (oder installieren Sie diese neu) von folgender Website: www.apple.com/de/itunes. Die Synchronisierung funktioniert nicht  Möglicherweise muss die Batterie des iPod touch aufgeladen werden. Informationen zum Aufladen des iPod touch finden Sie im Abschnitt „Aufladen der Batterie“ auf Seite 29.  Trennen Sie andere USB-Geräte von Ihrem Computer und schließen Sie den iPod touch an einem anderen USB 2.0-Anschluss Ihres Computers (nicht an der Tastatur) an.120 Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung  Starten Sie Ihren Computer neu und schließen Sie den iPod touch wieder an Ihren Computer an.  Vergewissern Sie sich bei Push-Accounts, dass der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden ist. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29.  Laden und installieren Sie die neuste Version von iTunes (oder installieren Sie diese neu) von folgender Website: www.apple.com/de/itunes. Kontakte, Kalender oder Lesezeichen werden nicht synchronisiert  Laden und installieren Sie die neuste Version von iTunes (oder installieren Sie diese neu) von folgender Website: www.apple.com/de/itunes.  Vergewissern Sie sich bei Push-Accounts, dass der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden ist. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29.  Wenn Sie einen MobileMe- oder Microsoft Exchange-Account auf dem iPod touch eingerichtet haben, synchronisiert iTunes die Kontakte, Kalender oder Lesezeichen nicht, die Sie im Infobereich auf dem iPod touch für die Synchronisierung angegeben haben. Sie müssen alle Objekte in MobileMe oder Exchange deaktivieren, die Sie über iTunes synchronisieren möchten. Tippen Sie in den Einstellungen auf „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender” und auf den MobileMe- oder Exchange-Account. Deaktivieren Sie dann die Objekte, die Sie über iTunes synchronisieren wollen. Wenn Sie einen MobileMe- und einen Exchange-Account besitzen, müssen Sie diese Objekte in beiden Accounts deaktivieren. Hinweis: Wenn Sie Kontakte oder Kalender in Ihrem MobileMe- oder ExchangeAccount deaktivieren, sind die Kontakt- oder Kalenderinformationen über den iPod touch nicht mehr verfügbar. Die Informationen auf dem iPod touch sollen nicht mit Ihrem Computer synchronisiert werden Ersetzen Sie Kontakte, Kalender, E-Mail-Accounts oder Lesezeichen auf dem iPod touch durch Informationen von Ihrem Computer. Ersetzen von iPod touch-Informationen: 1 Öffnen Sie iTunes. 2 Drücken Sie beim Verbinden des iPod touch mit dem Computer die Tastenkombination „Befehl-Wahl“ (Mac) oder „Umschalt-Strg“ (PC), bis der iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste angezeigt wird. Diese Vorgehensweise verhindert, dass der iPod touch automatisch synchronisiert wird. 3 Wählen Sie den iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste aus und klicken Sie auf den Titel „Infos“.Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung 121 4 Wählen Sie unter „Informationen auf diesem iPod touch ersetzen“ die Option „Kontakte, „Kalender“, „Mail-Accounts“ oder „Lesezeichen“ aus. Sie können mehrere dieser Optionen auswählen. 5 Klicken Sie auf „Anwenden“. Informationen der ausgewählten Art werden von Ihrem iPod touch gelöscht und durch die Informationen auf Ihrem Computer ersetzt. Wenn die nächste Synchronisierung gestartet wird, synchronisiert der iPod touch die Daten wie gewohnt und fügt Daten, die Sie auf dem iPod touch eingegeben haben, auf dem Computer hinzu und umgekehrt. Das Yahoo!- oder Google-Adressbuch wird nicht synchronisiert iTunes kann möglicherweise die Verbindung zu Yahoo! oder zu Google nicht herstellen. Vergewissern Sie sich, dass der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden ist. Vergewissern Sie sich, dass Ihr Computer mit dem Internet verbunden ist und dass Sie die korrekte ID und das Kennwort in iTunes eingegeben haben. Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. Klicken Sie in iTunes auf den Titel „Infos“. Klicken Sie dann im Bereich „Kontakte“ auf „Konfigurieren“ und geben Sie Ihre aktuelle ID und das Kennwort ein. In Ihrem Yahoo!-Adressbuch sind noch Kontakte vorhanden, die vom iPod touch gelöscht wurden Das Yahoo!-Adressbuch erlaubt es nicht, Kontakte mit einer Messenger-ID durch eine Synchronisierung zu löschen. Zum Löschen eines Kontakts mit einer Messenger-ID müssen Sie sich bei Ihrem Yahoo!- Account anmelden und den Kontakt über das Yahoo!-Adressbuch löschen. Ton, Musik und Video Es erfolgt keine Tonwiedergabe  Ziehen Sie den Stecker des Kopfhörers heraus und schließen Sie ihn wieder an. Vergewissern Sie sich, dass der Stecker fest im Anschluss sitzt.  Stellen Sie sicher, dass die Lautstärke nicht vollständig heruntergedreht ist.  Die Musikwiedergabe des iPod touch wurde möglicherweise angehalten. Tippen Sie im Home-Bildschirm auf „Musik“, tippen Sie auf „Sie hören“ und dann auf .  Prüfen Sie, ob eine maximale Lautstärke festgelegt wurde. Wählen Sie im HomeBildschirm „Einstellungen“ > „iPod“ > „Maximale Lautstärke“. Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter „Musik“ auf Seite 110.  Vergewissern Sie sich, dass Sie die neuste iTunes-Version verwenden (besuchen Sie die Seite www.apple.com/de/itunes).122 Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung  Wenn Sie den Audio-/Videoausgang (Line Out) verwenden, stellen Sie sicher, dass die Lautstärke der Stereoanlage oder externen Lautsprecher nicht zu niedrig eingestellt ist und dass die Geräte korrekt funktionieren. Musiktitel, Video oder andere Objekte werden nicht wiedergegeben Der Musiktitel liegt möglicherweise in einem Format vor, das vom iPod touch nicht unterstützt wird. Die folgenden Audiodateiformate werden vom iPod touch unterstützt: Diese umfassen Formate für Hörbücher und Podcasts:  AAC (M4A, M4B, M4P, bis zu 320 KBit/Sek.)  Apple Lossless (komprimiertes Format von hoher Qualität)  MP3 (bis zu 320 KBit/Sek.)  MP3 Variable Bit-Rate (VBR)  WAV  AA (für gesprochenen Text, Formate audible.com 2, 3 und 4)  AAX (gesprochene Inhalte von Audible.com, AudibleEnhanced-Format)  AIFF Die folgenden Videodatei-Formate werden vom iPod touch unterstützt.  H.264 (Baseline Profile Level 3.0)  MPEG-4 (Simple Profile) Ein im Apple Lossless-Format codierter Musiktitel weist CD-Audioqualität auf, belegt auf dem iPod aber nur halb so viel Speicherplatz wie ein im AIFF- oder WAV-Format codierter Musiktitel. Derselbe Titel im AAC- oder MP3-Format benötigt sogar noch weniger Speicherplatz. Wenn Sie mit iTunes Musik von einer CD importieren, wird diese standardmäßig in das AAC-Format konvertiert. Wenn Sie iTunes für Windows verwenden, können Sie nicht geschützte WMA-Dateien in das AAC- oder MP3-Format konvertieren. Dies ist besonders dann von Vorteil, wenn Ihre Musikbibliothek im WMA-Format vorliegt. Der iPod touch unterstützt weder Audiodateien im Format WMA, MPEG Layer 1, MPEG Layer 2 noch das Format „audible.com 1“. Wenn ein Musiktitel oder Video in Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek vom iPod touch nicht unterstützt wird, können Sie den Titel oder das Video unter Umständen in ein Format konvertieren, das vom iPod touch unterstützt wird. Weitere Informationen hierzu finden Sie in der iTunes-Hilfe.Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung 123 iTunes Stores Der iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store ist nicht verfügbar Damit Sie den iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store zum Suchen von Musiktiteln und Alben verwenden können, muss der iPod touch Zugriff auf ein Wi-Fi-Netzwerk haben, das mit dem Internet verbunden ist. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Der iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store ist nicht in allen Ländern verfügbar. Das Kaufen von Musik oder Programmen ist nicht möglich Damit Sie den iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store oder den App Store besuchen können, muss der iPod touch Zugriff auf ein Wi-Fi-Netzwerk haben, das mit dem Internet verbunden ist. Vgl. „Herstellen der Internetverbindung“ auf Seite 29. Zum Kaufen von Musiktiteln im iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store (nur in einigen Ländern verfügbar) oder von Programmen im App Store müssen Sie einen iTunes Store-Account besitzen. Öffnen Sie iTunes auf Ihrem Computer und wählen Sie „Store“ > „Account erstellen“. Safari, Mail und Kontakte E-Mail-Anhänge können nicht geöffnet werden Möglicherweise wird der Dateityp nicht unterstützt. Der iPod touch unterstützt die folgenden Dateiformate für E-Mail-Anhänge: .doc Microsoft Word .docx Microsoft Word (XML) .htm Webseite .html Webseite .key Keynote .numbers Numbers .pages Pages .pdf Vorschau, Adobe Acrobat .ppt Microsoft PowerPoint .pptx Microsoft PowerPoint (XML) .txt Text .vcf Kontaktinformationen .xls Microsoft Excel .xlsx Microsoft Excel (XML)124 Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung E-Mails können nicht versendet werden (Port 25 Timed Out) Sie müssen möglicherweise die Port-Einstellung an einem Server für ausgehende Nachrichten für einen Ihrer E-Mail-Accounts ändern. Informationen hierzu finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/de/support/ipodtouch. Suchen Sie auf der Webseite nach einem Artikel, der beschreibt, dass mit dem iPod touch E-Mail empfangen, aber nicht gesendet werden können. GAL-Kontakte werden nicht angezeigt Vergewissern Sie sich, dass der iPod touch mit einem Wi-Fi-Netzwerk mit Internetzugang verbunden ist.Prüfen Sie Ihre Microsoft Exchange-Einstellungen, um sicherzustellen, dass Sie den korrekten Server verwenden. Tippen Sie in den Einstellungen auf „Mail, Kontakte, Kalender“ und wählen einen Account aus, um dessen Einstellungen anzuzeigen. Wenn Sie nach GAL-Kontakten im Programm „Kontakte“ suchen wollen, tippen Sie auf „Gruppen“ und unten in der Liste auf „Verzeichnisse“. Sichern der iPod touch-Daten iTunes erstellt Sicherungskopien von Einstellungen, geladenen Programmen und Daten und anderen Informationen, die sich auf dem iPod touch befinden. Mit einer Sicherungskopie können Sie diese Objekte nach einer Wiederherstellung von Software auf dem iPod touch wiederherstellen oder die Informationen auf ein anderes iPod touch übertragen. Das Erstellen einer Sicherungskopie des iPod touch oder das Wiederherstellen von Daten von einer Sicherungskopie ist nicht identisch mit dem Synchronisieren von Inhalten und anderen Objekten (wie Musik, Podcasts, Klingeltönen, Fotos, Videos und Programmen, die Sie über iTunes laden) mit Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek. Die Sicherungskopien umfassen Einstellungen, geladene Programme und Daten und andere auf dem iPod touch gespeicherte Informationen. Sie können diese Objekte mit iTunes von einer Sicherungskopie wiederherstellen, müssen möglicherweise aber auch den Inhalt Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek erneut synchronisieren. Bei der nächsten Synchronisierung mit iTunes wird eine Sicherungskopie der aus dem App Store geladenen Programme erstellt. Danach werden bei einer Synchronisierung mit iTunes nur Programmdaten gesichert.Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung 125 Erstellen von Sicherungskopien Sicherungskopien können wie folgt erstellt werden:  Nachdem der iPod touch für die Synchronisierung mit einem bestimmten Computer konfiguriert wurde, erstellt iTunes bei der Synchronisierung automatisch eine Sicherungskopie des iPod touch auf diesem Computer. Ein iPod touch, der nicht für die Synchronisierung mit diesem Computer konfiguriert ist, wird nicht automatisch von iTunes gesichert. Wenn Sie den iPod touch so konfiguriert haben, dass es automatisch mit iTunes auf einem bestimmten Computer synchronisiert wird, erstellt iTunes immer eine Sicherungskopie des iPod touch, wenn Sie es mit diesem Computer verbinden. Die automatische Synchronisierung ist standardmäßig aktiviert. iTunes erstellt bei jeder Verbindung nur eine Sicherungskopie, auch wenn Sie vor dem Trennen mehrmals eine Synchronisierung ausführen.  Wenn Sie die Software auf dem iPod touch aktualisieren, sichert iTunes den iPod touch automatisch, auch wenn es nicht für die Synchronisierung mit iTunes auf diesem Computer konfiguriert ist.  Wenn Sie die Software auf dem iPod touch wiederherstellen, werden Sie von iTunes gefragt, ob Sie vor der Wiederherstellung eine Sicherungskopie des iPod touch erstellen möchten. Wiederherstellen von einer Sicherungskopie Sie können Einstellungen, geladene Programme und andere Informationen von einer Sicherungskopie wiederherstellen oder mit dieser Funktion die genannten Objekte auf einen anderen iPod touch übertragen. Wiederherstellen der iPod touch-Daten von der Sicherungskopie: 1 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit dem Computer, mit dem Sie normalerweise die Synchronisierung vornehmen. 2 Wählen Sie den iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste aus und klicken Sie dann auf den Titel „Übersicht“. 3 Klicken Sie auf „Wiederherstellen“, um die iPod touch-Software neu zu installieren, die Standardeinstellungen wiederherzustellen und auf dem iPod touch gespeicherte Daten zu löschen. In iTunes können Sie auch Daten von einer Sicherungskopie wiederherstellen, ohne die auf dem iPod touch gespeicherten Daten zu löschen. Gelöschte Daten stehen nicht mehr auf der Benutzeroberfläche des iPod touch zur Verfügung, werden aber erst dauerhaft vom iPod touch gelöscht, wenn sie mit neuen Daten überschrieben werden. Informationen zum dauerhaften Löschen des gesamten Inhalts und aller Einstellungen finden Sie im Abschnitt „Zurücksetzen des iPod touch“ auf Seite 109.126 Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung Wählen Sie bei Aufforderung die Option zum Wiederherstellen Ihrer Einstellungen, geladenen Programme und anderen Informationen von einer Sicherungskopie aus. Wählen Sie dann die gewünschte Sicherungskopie aus. Die Sicherungskopien werden nach Gerät geordnet und in chronologischer Reihenfolge aufgelistet. Die aktuellste Sicherungskopie eines Geräts befindet sich jeweils ganz oben in der Liste. Entfernen einer Sicherungskopie Sie können eine Sicherungskopie des iPod touch von der Liste der Sicherungskopien in iTunes entfernen. Dies empfiehlt sich beispielsweise, wenn eine Sicherungskopie auf dem Computer eines anderen Benutzers erstellt wurde. Entfernen einer Sicherungskopie: 1 Öffnen Sie in iTunes den Bereich „Einstellungen“.  Windows: Wählen Sie „Bearbeiten“ > „Einstellungen“.  Mac: Wählen Sie „iTunes“ > „Einstellungen“. 2 Klicken Sie auf „Geräte“ (der iPod touch muss nicht angeschlossen sein). 3 Wählen Sie die Sicherungskopie aus, die Sie entfernen möchten, und klicken Sie auf „Backup löschen“. 4 Bestätigen Sie, dass Sie die gewählte Sicherungskopie entfernen möchten, indem Sie auf „Backup löschen“ klicken. 5 Klicken Sie auf „OK“, um das Fenster mit den iTunes-Einstellungen zu schließen. Weitere Informationen zu Sicherungskopien, u. a. zu den Einstellungen und Informationen, die in einer Sicherungskopie gespeichert werden, finden Sie unter: support.apple.com/kb/HT1766. Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen der iPod touch-Software Mit iTunes können Sie die iPod touch-Software aktualisieren, neu installieren, auf die Standardeinstellungen zurücksetzen und alle Daten auf dem iPod touch löschen.  Bei einer Aktualisierung wird die iPod touch-Software aktualisiert, Ihre geladenen Programme, Einstellungen und Musiktitel bleiben jedoch unverändert erhalten.  Bei einer Wiederherstellung wird die neuste Version der iPod touch-Software neu installiert, Standardeinstellungen werden wiederhergestellt und auf dem iPod touch abgelegte Daten werden gelöscht, einschließlich geladener Programme, Musiktitel, Videos, Kontakte, Fotos, Kalenderinformationen und alle sonstigen Daten. In iTunes können Sie auch Daten von einer Sicherungskopie wiederherstellen, ohne die auf dem iPod touch gespeicherten Daten zu löschen.Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung 127 Gelöschte Daten stehen nicht mehr auf der Benutzeroberfläche des iPod touch zur Verfügung, werden aber erst dauerhaft vom iPod touch gelöscht, wenn sie mit neuen Daten überschrieben werden. Informationen zum dauerhaften Löschen des gesamten Inhalts und aller Einstellungen finden Sie im Abschnitt „Zurücksetzen des iPod touch“ auf Seite 109. Aktualisieren oder Wiederherstellen des iPod touch 1 Vergewissern Sie sich, dass eine Internetverbindung besteht und die aktuelle iTunesVersion installiert ist (Sie können diese von der Seite www.apple.com/de/itunes laden). 2 Verbinden Sie den iPod touch mit Ihrem Computer. 3 Wählen Sie den iPod touch in der iTunes-Seitenleiste aus und klicken Sie auf den Titel „Übersicht“. 4 Klicken Sie auf „Nach Updates suchen“. iTunes prüft, ob eine neuere Version der iPod touch-Software verfügbar ist. 5 Klicken Sie auf „Aktualisieren“, um die neuste Version der Software zu installieren. Oder klicken Sie auf „Wiederherstellen“, um eine Wiederherstellung auszuführen. Befolgen Sie die Anweisungen auf dem Bildschirm, um den Wiederherstellungsprozess abzuschließen. Weitere Informationen zum Aktualisieren und Wiederherstellen von iPod touch-Software finden Sie unter: support.apple.com/kb/HT1414. Verwenden der iPod touch-Bedienungshilfe Die folgenden Funktionen können Menschen mit einem körperlichen Handicap die Verwendung des iPod touch erleichtern. Erweiterte Untertitel Sofern verfügbar, können Sie für Videos erweiterte Untertitel aktivieren. Vgl. „Video“ auf Seite 111. Minimale Schriftgröße für E-Mails Stellen Sie die minimale Schriftgröße für Text in E-Mails auf „Groß“, „Sehr groß“ oder „Supergroß“ ein, um die Lesbarkeit zu erhöhen. Vgl. „Mail“ auf Seite 113. Zoomen Vergrößern Sie die Anzeige von Webseiten, Fotos und Karten durch Doppeltippen oder Aufziehen eines Rahmens. Vgl. „Verkleinern oder Vergrößern“ auf Seite 24.128 Anhang A Fehlerbeseitigung Bedienungshilfen in Mac OS X Nutzen Sie die Funktionen der Bedienungshilfen von Mac OS X, wenn Sie Informationen und Inhalte Ihrer iTunes-Mediathek mithilfe von iTunes auf den iPod touch übertragen. Wählen Sie im Finder „Hilfe“ > „Mac-Hilfe” und suchen Sie nach „Bedienungshilfe“. Weitere Informationen zum iPod touch und zu den Mac OS X-Bedienungshilfen finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/de/accessibility.129 Informationen zu Sicherheit, Software und Service In der nachfolgenden Tabelle erfahren Sie, wo Sie zusätzliche Informationen zu Sicherheit, Software und Service für den iPod touch erhalten. Näheres über Aktion Sicherer Umgang mit dem iPod touch Die aktuellen Hinweise zur Sicherheit beim Umgang mit dem Gerät und anderen geltenden Regelungen finden Sie im Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. iPod touch-Service & Support, Tipps, Foren und Apple-Software zum Laden Besuchen Sie die Website www.apple.com/de/support/ipodtouch. Die neusten Informationen zum iPod touch Besuchen Sie die Website www.apple.com/de/ipodtouch. Verwenden von iTunes Öffnen Sie iTunes und wählen Sie „Hilfe“ > „iTunesHilfe“. Eine Online-Einführung zu iTunes (nur in bestimmten Sprachen verfügbar) finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/de/support/itunes. MobileMe Besuchen Sie die Website www.me.com. Verwenden von iPhoto von Mac OS X Öffnen Sie iPhoto und wählen Sie „Hilfe“ > „iPhoto-Hilfe“. Verwenden des Adressbuchs von Mac OS X Öffnen Sie das Adressbuch und wählen Sie „Hilfe“ > „Adressbuch-Hilfe“. Verwenden von iCal von Mac OS X Öffnen Sie iCal und wählen Sie „Hilfe“ > „iCal-Hilfe“. Microsoft Outlook, WindowsAdressbuch, Adobe Photoshop Album und Adobe Photoshop Elements Näheres hierzu finden Sie in der Dokumentation zu diesen Programmen. B Anhang Weitere Ressourcen130 Anhang B Weitere Ressourcen Näheres über Aktion Garantieleistungen Folgen Sie zuerst den Tipps zur Fehlerbeseitigung in diesem Handbuch und in den Online-Ressourcen. Besuchen Sie dann die Website www.apple.com/de/support oder lesen Sie das Handbuch Wichtige Produktinformationen unter www.apple.com/de/support/manuals/ipodtouch. Austauschen der Batterie Besuchen Sie die Webseite www.apple.com/de/support/iphone/service/battery. Verwenden des iPod touch in einer Unternehmensumgebung Besuchen Sie die Website www.apple.com/de/iphone/enterprise. Für die Anzeige auf dem iPod touch optimiertes Benutzerhandbuch Das iPod touch-Benutzerhandbuch, das für die Anzeige auf dem iPod touch optimiert wurde, ist unter folgender Adresse verfügbar: help.apple.com/ipodtouch. Anzeigen des Handbuchs auf dem iPod touch: Tippen Sie in Safari auf und anschließend auf das Lesezeichen für das iPod touch-Benutzerhandbuch. Hinzufügen eines Weblinks für das Handbuch zum Home-Bildschirm: Tippen Sie beim Anzeigen des Handbuchs auf und tippen Sie dann auf „Zum Home-Bildschirm“. Informationen zur Entsorgung und zum Recycling Entsorgen Sie Ihren iPod gemäß den geltenden umweltrechtlichen Bestimmungen. Da dieses Produkt eine Batterie enthält, muss es separat vom Hausmüll entsorgt werden. Wenden Sie sich bitte an Apple oder Ihre lokalen Behörden und erkundigen Sie sich nach Möglichkeiten zum Recyceln. Informationen zum Recycling-Programm von Apple finden Sie im Internet unter: www.apple.com/de/environment/recycling. Deutschland: Dieses Gerät enthält Batterien. Bitte nicht in den Hausmüll werfen. Entsorgen Sie dieses Gerät am Ende seines Lebenszyklus entsprechend den maßgeblichen gesetzlichen Regelungen. Nederlands: Gebruikte batterijen kunnen worden ingeleverd bij de chemokar of in een speciale batterijcontainer voor klein chemisch afval (kca) worden gedeponeerd. Taiwan: Anhang B Weitere Ressourcen 131 Austausch der Batterie: Die wiederaufladbare Batterie des iPod touch sollte nur von einem autorisierten Service-Partner ersetzt werden. Informationen zum Batterieaustausch finden Sie unter: www.apple.com/de/support/ipod/service/battery Europäische Union – Informationen zur Entsorgung Dieses Symbol weist darauf hin, dass dieses Produkt entsprechend den geltenden gesetzlichen Vorschriften und getrennt vom Hausmüll entsorgt werden muss. Geben Sie dieses Produkt zur Entsorgung bei einer offiziellen Sammelstelle ab. Bei einigen Sammelstellen können Produkte zur Entsorgung unentgeltlich abgegeben werden. Durch getrenntes Sammeln und Recycling werden die Rohstoff-Reserven geschont, und es ist sichergestellt, dass beim Recycling des Produkts alle Bestimmungen zum Schutz von Gesundheit und Umwelt eingehalten werden. Apple und der Umweltschutz Apple Inc. ist ständig darum bemüht, die Belastungen, die sich aus der Verwendung von Apple-Systemen und -Produkten für die Umwelt ergeben können, auf einem möglichst niedrigen Niveau zu halten. Weitere Informationen hierzu finden Sie auf der Website www.apple.com/de/environmentK © 2008 Apple Inc. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Apple, das Apple-Logo, AirPort, Cover Flow, FireWire, iCal, iPhoto, iPod, iTunes, Keynote, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Numbers, Pages und Safari sind Marken der Apple Inc., die in den USA und weiteren Ländern eingetragen sind. Finder, iPhone, Multi-Touch und Shuffle sind Marken der Apple Inc. iTunes Store ist eine Dienstleistungsmarke der Apple Inc., die in den USA und weiteren Ländern eingetragen ist. MobileMe ist eine Dienstleistungsmarke der Apple Inc. NIKE und das Swoosh Design sind Marken von NIKE, Inc. und deren Tochtergesellschaften und werden in Lizenz verwendet. Für das Nike + iPod Sport Kit gelten eine oder mehrere der folgenden US-Patentnummern: 6,018,705, 6,052,654, 6,493,652, 6,298,314, 6,611,789, 6,876,947 und 6,882,955, entweder allein oder bei Verwendung zusammen mit einem Nike + iPod-fähigen iPod-Media-Player. Adobe und Photoshop sind in den USA und/oder weiteren Ländern Marken oder eingetragene Marken der Adobe Systems Incorporated. Namen anderer hier genannter Firmen und Produkte sind Marken ihrer jeweiligen Rechtsinhaber. Die Nennung von Produkten, die nicht von Apple sind, dient ausschließlich Informationszwecken und stellt keine Werbung dar. Apple übernimmt hinsichtlich der Auswahl, Leistung oder Verwendbarkeit dieser Produkte keine Gewähr. Alle Vereinbarungen, Verträge oder Garantieansprüche, so vorhanden, gelten direkt zwischen dem jeweiligen Hersteller und den jeweiligen Benutzern. Es wurden alle Anstrengungen unternommen, um sicherzustellen, dass die in diesem Handbuch aufgeführten Informationen korrekt sind. Apple Inc. übernimmt jedoch keine Gewähr für die Richtigkeit des Inhalts dieses Handbuchs. Die Patentrechte der US- Patentnummern 4,631,603, 4,577,216, 4,819,098 und 4,907,093 werden in Lizenz und ausschließlich für eingeschränkte Ansichtszwecke verwendet. D019-1378/2008-11 VoiceOver Getting Started Includes instructions and complete command lists for using VoiceOver with Mac OS X version 10.4 Tiger.2 1 Contents Chapter 1 6 Introduction 6 About VoiceOver 7 What You Need to Get Started 7 Using This Document 8 Where to Find More Information 8 VoiceOver Quick Start 8 VoiceOver Help 8 VoiceOver Menu 8 Mac OS X Keyboard Shortcuts 9 Resources on the Internet 9 Teaching and Learning Tools 9 Darkening the Screen 9 VoiceOver Quick Start Application 9 VoiceOver Keyboard Commands Diagrams 10 About VoiceOver Accessibility Chapter 2 11 Introduction to Mac OS X 11 The Desktop 12 The Finder 12 Toolbar Buttons 12 Sidebar and View Browser 13 The Dock 13 The Menu Bar 14 Files and Folders 14 System Preferences 15 Spotlight Chapter 3 16 Keyboard Basics 16 Important Keys to Know 17 About Function Keys 18 Using Function Keys on Portable Computers 18 Using Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down on Portable Computers 18 Keyboard AccessibilityContents 3 18 Sticky Keys 19 Slow Keys 19 Key Repeat Rate 20 Keyboard Settings in VoiceOver Utility Chapter 4 22 VoiceOver Basics 22 Following Instructions 22 Turning On VoiceOver 23 Using VoiceOver in the Login Window 23 Pausing VoiceOver Speech 23 Controlling VoiceOver 24 Reading Window Contents 25 Reading Text 25 Changing Rate, Pitch, and Volume Temporarily 26 Interacting With Content Areas 27 Using Buttons and Controls 28 Learning More About an Item 28 Navigating Menus 29 Navigating Quickly in a Menu 29 Using Pop-up Menus 29 Using Contextual Menus 30 Understanding Duplicate Menu Items 30 Working With the VoiceOver Menu 31 Using the Commands Menu 32 Chapter 4 Exercises 32 Exercise 4.1: Moving the VoiceOver Cursor 32 Exercise 4.2: Interacting With a Content Area 32 Exercise 4.3: Navigating the Menu Bar 33 Exercise 4.4: Navigating in a Menu and Submenu 33 Exercise 4.5: Using the VoiceOver Menu Chapter 5 34 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 34 Using the Dock 35 Setting Dock Preferences 35 Working With Contextual Menus for Dock Items 35 Switching Between Applications and Windows 37 Navigating Finder Windows 38 Using Icon View 38 Using List View 39 Using Column View 40 Accessing Finder Window Buttons 40 Selecting Files and Folders 41 Copying and Moving Files4 Contents 42 The Item Chooser Menu 43 Interacting With Windows 43 Moving and Resizing Windows 43 Moving a Scroll Bar 44 Using Spotlight 44 Using the Spotlight Menu 45 Using the Spotlight Window 46 Changing the Sort Criteria 46 Chapter 5 Exercises 46 Exercise 5.1: Using the Dock 47 Exercise 5.2: Using the Item Chooser Menu 47 Exercise 5.3: Copying and Pasting a File Chapter 6 50 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 50 Saving VoiceOver Settings 51 Setting the Amount of Spoken Detail 51 Adjusting Punctuation Settings 52 Adjusting Text Attribute Settings 52 Setting Navigation Options 53 Setting Website Navigation Options 53 Setting VoiceOver Cursor Options 54 Customizing Voices 54 Using Different Voices 55 Changing Rate, Pitch, and Volume 55 Setting Visual Options 56 Magnifying the VoiceOver Cursor 57 Using the Caption Panel 57 Moving and Resizing the Caption Panel 57 Changing the Caption Panel Font Size 58 Tiling Visuals 58 Hiding Visuals 59 Setting Text Pronunciation 59 Chapter 6 Exercises 59 Exercise 6.1: Using VoiceOver to Change Voice Settings 60 Exercise 6.2: Using VoiceOver to Change Rate, Pitch, and Volume 61 Exercise 6.3: Adjusting the Caption Panel 62 Exercise 6.4: Magnifying the VoiceOver Cursor and Tiling VoiceOver Visuals 62 Exercise 6.5: Adding Pronunciation to the VoiceOver Dictionary Chapter 7 64 Web Browsing and Email 64 Connecting to the Internet 66 Using Mac OS X Mail 66 The Mail ToolbarContents 5 66 Opening Collapsed Folders in the Mailboxes Outline 67 Reading Email 68 Addressing a Message 68 Using the Safari Web Browser 68 Navigating Websites With VoiceOver 69 Using the Link Chooser Menu 70 Navigating Website Images 70 Chapter 7 Exercises 70 Exercise 7.1: Opening and Reading an Email Message 71 Exercise 7.2: Using the Link Chooser Menu Chapter 8 72 Reading and Editing Text 72 Reading a Document 73 Working With Text 73 Locating the Insertion Point 73 Navigating in a Document 74 Bookmarking a Document 74 Cursor Tracking in Text Areas 74 Selecting Text 75 Hearing Text Attributes 75 Using TextEdit With VoiceOver 75 Checking Spelling in TextEdit 76 Changing Tab Stops in TextEdit 77 Chapter 8 Exercises 77 Exercise 8.1: Following the Insertion Point 77 Exercise 8.2: Cutting and Pasting Text 78 Exercise 8.3: Saving a Document Chapter 9 79 Advanced Navigation Skills 79 Full Keyboard Navigation and VoiceOver 79 Advanced Cursor Tracking 80 Using the Cursor Control Keys 81 Using the Mouse With VoiceOver 81 Mouse Settings in VoiceOver Utility 82 Making the Mouse Pointer More Visible 82 Using the Numeric Keypad to Control the Mouse 83 Quickly Navigating to Content Areas 83 Chapter 9 Exercises 83 Exercise 9.1: Using Command-Tab to Switch Applications 84 Exercise 9.2: Moving Cursors Independently Appendix 85 VoiceOver Commands1 6 1 Introduction Welcome to VoiceOver Getting Started. This document introduces you to VoiceOver and gets you started using your Mac in a new way. VoiceOver is an alternative way for users with visual or learning disabilities to use Mac OS X. It provides magnification options, keyboard control, and spoken English descriptions of what’s happening on the computer screen. VoiceOver reads aloud the contents of documents (and webpages) and provides a comprehensive audible description of the user’s workspace and activities taking place on the computer. It also includes a rich set of keyboard commands for navigating the Mac OS X interface and interacting with application and system controls. About VoiceOver VoiceOver is an integrated part of the Mac OS X operating system. If your computer has Mac OS X version 10.4 or later installed, VoiceOver is already installed and ready to use. Just turn on VoiceOver to begin using it. VoiceOver works in conjunction with full keyboard access, the standard Mac OS X keyboard navigation method. With full keyboard access, you can use the Tab key and arrow keys to move to controls and text fields in windows, and the Space bar to select or activate them. But when you use VoiceOver, you can do so much more. VoiceOver uses keyboard commands to navigate your computer screen, windows, documents, and websites. It reads aloud everything it encounters and lets you know when events occur on your screen, such as when dialogs, alert messages, and progress bars appear.Chapter 1 Introduction 7 What You Need to Get Started To use VoiceOver, you need:  A Macintosh computer with Mac OS X version 10.4 or later installed  An English language Apple keyboard  Built-in or external speakers or headphones A mouse and display are optional. If you don’t need a display or mouse, you can use VoiceOver without them. An Internet connection is highly recommended. Using This Document This document is a comprehensive guide to using VoiceOver. It is organized into 11 chapters with a VoiceOver commands appendix. You can read the chapters in any order you choose, but if you are new to Mac OS X and to VoiceOver, you will find that reading them in the order presented lets you build upon knowledge gained in previous chapters.  Chapter 1, “Introduction”: In this chapter, you learn what VoiceOver is, what you need to get started using it, and where to find more information about VoiceOver.  Chapter 2, “Introduction to Mac OS X”: In this chapter, you learn Mac OS X basics that will help you use VoiceOver effectively. It includes a description of the screen layout, windows, Finder, and System Preferences.  Chapter 3, “Keyboard Basics”: In this chapter, you learn which keys control VoiceOver. You also learn about keyboard practice and how to set preferences in Mac OS X and VoiceOver if you have difficulty using a keyboard.  Chapter 4, “VoiceOver Basics”: In this chapter, you learn the basics of controlling VoiceOver. Users who have never used VoiceOver will find out how to navigate, read text in windows and dialogs, and select controls and objects.  Chapter 5, “Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X”: In this chapter, you learn how to use VoiceOver to navigate windows and perform everyday tasks on your computer using VoiceOver.  Chapter 6, “VoiceOver Utility and Preferences”: In this chapter, you learn how to use VoiceOver Utility to customize VoiceOver for your needs.  Chapter 7, “Web Browsing and Email”: In this chapter, you learn how to set up your Internet connection and use Mail and Safari to get email and browse the Internet.  Chapter 8, “Reading and Editing Text”: In this chapter, you learn how to use VoiceOver to read and edit text and check spelling.8 Chapter 1 Introduction  Chapter 9, “Advanced Navigation Skills”: In this chapter, you learn how to use the keyboard, mouse, and VoiceOver cursor independently. You also learn how to use the mouse with VoiceOver, and about alternate ways to control the mouse.  Appendix , “VoiceOver Commands”: In this appendix, you learn all the commands you can use to control VoiceOver. Where to Find More Information You can use the resources and VoiceOver features described below to learn more about using VoiceOver. VoiceOver Quick Start When you turn on a new Macintosh computer for the first time, you hear music play as Setup Assistant starts up. If you wait a moment, you hear a spoken invitation to learn how to use VoiceOver to set up your computer. If you are new to VoiceOver, follow the prompts to start the VoiceOver Quick Start. You will learn how to navigate with VoiceOver and interact with buttons and controls. VoiceOver Help Your computer comes with a built-in help system for Mac OS X and all its applications. You can access these in the Help menu in the menu bar. VoiceOver Help contains pages to help you with specific tasks, complete lists of all the keyboard commands for VoiceOver, and an orientation to VoiceOver. When you open VoiceOver Help, you can look for pages by typing keywords or phrases in the text field or by looking in the index of help topics. You can open a complete list of all the VoiceOver commands from the VoiceOver Utility Help menu. VoiceOver Menu The VoiceOver menu contains all the VoiceOver commands you can apply to the item in the VoiceOver cursor. It acts as a quick reference guide as you work. When you use the VoiceOver command Control-Option-F7, the VoiceOver menu appears in the middle of the screen for sighted users. Non-sighted users can use VoiceOver navigation to read the menu and make selections. Mac OS X Keyboard Shortcuts You can find lists of keyboard shortcuts for Mac OS X and most applications in the built-in help system. Search for “shortcuts” or “keyboard shortcuts” or check the index if there is one. You can change or create keyboard shortcuts in the Keyboard & Mouse preference pane of System Preferences.Chapter 1 Introduction 9 Resources on the Internet The Apple website has several sections devoted to VoiceOver and accessibility. You can find additional learning materials and support information at these addresses:  www.apple.com/accessibility  www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover  www.apple.com/support/tiger/voiceover  www.apple.com/education/accessibility/technology/voiceover.html In addition, you can find discussion groups on Apple’s website and other websites to help you connect with other VoiceOver users. Teaching and Learning Tools If you are teaching or collaborating with a VoiceOver user, you can turn on a caption panel that displays the text that VoiceOver is speaking. For more information about the caption panel and how to customize it, see “Setting Visual Options” on page 55. Darkening the Screen If you are a sighted user, you can use the screen curtain to simulate a non-sighted user’s experience. The screen curtain turns off all the visuals of the display, leaving a blank screen. This is a great way to learn how to use VoiceOver. To turn the screen curtain on and off: m Press Control-Option-Shift-F11. VoiceOver Quick Start Application The VoiceOver Quick Start is available as a separate application that you can use any time. Although it was designed to help users learn the basic commands necessary to set up a computer using VoiceOver, the VoiceOver Quick Start can also be used as a basic teaching tool. You can download the VoiceOver Quick Start from this Apple accessibility website: www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover. VoiceOver Keyboard Commands Diagrams You can download and print keyboard diagrams that show the VoiceOver commands assigned to keys on a standard Apple English language keyboard. These diagrams are intended for use by sighted users who want a more visual way to learn the VoiceOver commands. You can download these diagrams from this Apple accessibility website: www.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover.10 Chapter 1 Introduction About VoiceOver Accessibility VoiceOver is a new technology in Mac OS X version 10.4 Tiger. You can use VoiceOver with TextEdit, Mail, and Safari to do word processing, send and receive email, and browse websites on the Internet. You can also use VoiceOver with some other applications. As developers begin to support the underlying accessibility frameworks provided in Mac OS X, more applications will become accessible with VoiceOver. Contact the manufacturers of your favorite applications to inquire about the accessibility of their products. Visit the Apple website to learn about new developments and resources, and check the Internet for discussion groups and user groups.2 11 2 Introduction to Mac OS X This chapter introduces you to basic information about Mac OS X. When you understand how your computer is organized and how to use the Finder and application windows, learning to use VoiceOver is much easier. In Chapter 5, “Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X,” you will learn how to use VoiceOver with Mac OS X to complete everyday tasks on your computer. You can find much more information about Mac OS X in Mac Help on your computer and on the Apple website. The Desktop The desktop is the working area of your computer that contains folders, files, and other items. When you connect to a server or connect an external hard disk or an iPod, an icon that represents it appears on the desktop. When you insert a CD or DVD into your computer’s optical drive, it also appears on the desktop. You can store files and folders directly on your desktop for quick access.12 Chapter 2 Introduction to Mac OS X The Finder The Finder keeps track of files and folders and manages the desktop. When you open a folder or other item on the desktop, a new Finder window like the one shown below automatically opens. Finder windows have a toolbar at the top and two sections below the toolbar called the sidebar and the view browser. Three colored buttons above the toolbar are used to close the window, send the window to the Dock, or change the window to its previous size. See “Accessing Finder Window Buttons” on page 40 to learn the standard Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts or menu commands to use these buttons. Toolbar Buttons You use the buttons in the toolbar to navigate, change the view, find items, and perform some actions.  Use the Back and Forward buttons on the left side of the toolbar to move back and forth between locations on your computer, just as you would in a web browser.  Use the three view buttons to choose the way you want to view the contents of your hard disk and folders. You can choose icon, list, or column view.  Use the Action pop-up menu to choose commands you can perform for the item selected. For example, in the Finder window, some choices in the Action menu are New Folder, Get Info, or Open. In other applications, you see different choices in the Action menu.  Use the search text field to type a word or phrase to locate an item. You can use the buttons below the search text field to focus the search to a particular location. You can choose Servers, Computer, Home, the current folder, or another location you specify. Sidebar and View Browser Below the toolbar, the Finder window is split into two sections. The left side is called the sidebar. At the top of the sidebar are icons that represent your hard disk, hard disk partitions if you have them, any mounted servers or volumes, and the network. Chapter 2 Introduction to Mac OS X 13 Below a separator are icons that represent often used folders on your hard disk. Mac OS X has folders already set up for you to store your music, pictures, movies, and documents. In the sidebar, you also see folders for the desktop contents, your home folder, and applications. When a folder is selected in the sidebar, its contents are displayed on the right side of the Finder window in the view browser. Finder windows can display items in the view browser in icon, list, or column view. The Dock The Dock is a customizable list of items that provides quick access to applications and documents you use often. It appears as a row or column of icons on the screen. You can position the Dock along the bottom, left, or right edge of the screen. When an application is open, its icon appears temporarily in the Dock. When you minimize a window, it disappears from the desktop and appears as an icon on the right side of the Dock. Each item in the Dock has a contextual menu that gives you quick access to commands for that item. The contextual menu also contains the commands “Remove from Dock” for icons that have been placed there permanently, and “Keep in Dock” for applications that are open but whose icons are only there temporarily. The Menu Bar Mac OS X has a menu bar permanently located at the top of the screen. The menu bar contains a collection of menus for the application that is currently active. When you switch applications, the menus in the menu bar change to reflect the active application. Most applications include File, Edit, Format, Window, and Help menus. The Apple menu, located at the far left of the menu bar, is the same in every application. It contains system commands and preferences. The right side of the menu bar contains status menus. Status menus display information and provide shortcuts to system and application settings that you may frequently change. Common status menus include the volume slider, clock, and battery level indicator. You can show or hide individual status menus in System Preferences and other applications. At the far right side of the menu bar is the Spotlight menu. You can use Spotlight, the advanced search technology built in to Mac OS X, to search your entire system for information contained in files, emails, contacts, images, calendars, and applications. For more information about Spotlight, see “Spotlight” on page 15.14 Chapter 2 Introduction to Mac OS X Files and Folders Most of the information in your computer is stored in files. Files include documents, images, applications, and so on. Folders are simply a collection of files. Each file or folder is represented by an icon with its name below or to the right of the icon. You can select the text in the file’s name to change it, and you can copy, move, and delete files on your computer. Your computer comes with some folders already set up, but you can create and delete your own folders to organize your information. Most folders and files you create are stored in a home folder with your user account name. If you have multiple user accounts on your computer, each user account has its own home folder. You click once on a file or folder icon to select it and twice to open it. Clicking twice quickly is called a “double-click.” If you double-click an application icon, you start the application and a window for the application opens. If you double-click a file created by an application, you automatically open the application (if it wasn’t open already) and open the file. For example, if you double-click a TextEdit file on the desktop, TextEdit starts up and its icon appears in the Dock. At the same time, the document opens on the desktop. If you can’t use a mouse to select and click, you can use VoiceOver commands instead. System Preferences System Preferences is a Mac OS X utility that you use to customize your computer and choose essential settings such as your network configuration and Internet access. System Preferences is located in the Apple menu and has an icon in the Dock. You can find settings to improve accessibility in these preferences:  Displays preferences  Keyboard & Mouse preferences  Speech preferences  Universal Access preferences The easiest way to learn about the many options in System Preferences is to explore the different preference panes. Some preferences have multiple panes you access by clicking the tab buttons. Network preferences even has an Assistant button to help you troubleshoot connection problems.Chapter 2 Introduction to Mac OS X 15 Spotlight Spotlight is extraordinarily useful for VoiceOver users. In many cases, it may be easier to use than the Finder for opening files, folders, and applications. When you type text in the Spotlight search text field, search results appear immediately in a menu below the search text field. The more complete the word or phrase, the more refined your list of results will be. Search results are grouped by category, such as Applications, System Preferences, Documents, and Folders. You click an item in the list to open it. If you don’t find the item you want, you can search again or click Show All at the top of the results list. Clicking Show All displays a more complete list of results in a new window called the Spotlight window. Spotlight search results include all the metadata inside files, including the kind of content, the author, edit history, format, size, and many more details. Depending on the search word you type, you may find thousands of results. Spotlight narrows its results to show you the best matches, but you can also browse the entire list if you want. You can use Spotlight to find just about anything, anywhere, on your computer with lightning speed. You don’t have to remember folder hierarchies or carefully store project files in meaningful folders. You can find more information about Spotlight in Mac Help on your computer or on the Apple website at www.apple.com/macosx. See “Using Spotlight” on page 44 for information about using Spotlight with VoiceOver.3 16 3 Keyboard Basics This chapter provides basic information about using VoiceOver with the Apple keyboard. You use your keyboard to control VoiceOver, so you need to be very familiar with your keyboard before you can use VoiceOver effectively. If you are new to the Mac or have trouble using a keyboard, you’ll find important information in this chapter. If you use a portable computer, make sure you review the section in this chapter about function keys. Important Keys to Know You should be very familiar with the location of all the keys on your keyboard before you begin using VoiceOver. In addition to the letters and punctuation characters, you should know the location of these keys:  Control  Option  Command  Return  Escape  Home  End  Page Up  Page Down  Up, Down, Right, and Left arrows  Function keys (F1 through F11)Chapter 3 Keyboard Basics 17 If you’re not familiar with the layout of keys on your keyboard, you can use the keyboard practice built in to VoiceOver to help you learn the name and location of the keys. In the keyboard practice, you press keys to hear their names. Using keyboard practice: 1 Press Command-F5 to turn on VoiceOver. The Command keys are located directly to the left and right of the Space bar. You can press either one. The F5 key is in the top row of keys, sixth from the left. 2 Press Control-Option-K to begin keyboard practice The Control and Option keys are the first two keys on the left of the bottom row. On a portable keyboard, the Fn key comes first, then Control and Option. 3 Press keys to hear their names. Press the Shift key to hear the shifted characters on punctuation keys. 4 Press the Escape key to end keyboard practice The Escape key is on the top-left corner of the keyboard. While you’re using keyboard practice, you can’t use your computer or keyboard for any other tasks. You must press the Escape key to return your keyboard to its regular use. About Function Keys In VoiceOver, you use the function keys at the top of the keyboard to perform many important actions. The function keys are labeled F1–F12 on some keyboards, and some keyboards have function keys up to F16. You also use the function keys to perform actions and commands in many other software applications. To use a function key or other VoiceOver command keys for another software application when VoiceOver is on, press Control-Option-Tab and then press the function key. This command lets VoiceOver know that the next key combination is for another application. e s c F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 F 7 F 8 F 9 F 1 0 F 1 1 F 1 2 F 1 318 Chapter 3 Keyboard Basics Using Function Keys on Portable Computers On a portable computer, many of the function keys are programmed to perform hardware-related functions such as adjusting brightness and volume. When you want to perform an alternate action for the key, you press the Fn key and the function key together. For example, in VoiceOver you press the following key combination to open VoiceOver Utility: Control-Option-F8 If you use a portable computer, you must press the function key with the command Fn-Control-Option-F8 If you use VoiceOver all the time or very frequently, you can change the default behavior of the function keys so that they perform software actions. Then the portable keyboard behaves like a standard keyboard, and you press the Fn key only to change the volume or change any of the other hardware settings. To change the default behavior of the function keys: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Keyboard & Mouse button. 3 Click the Keyboard tab. 4 Select the checkbox labeled “Use the F1-F12 keys to control software features.” When this checkbox is selected, you press the Fn key when you want to use the hardware function of the key, such as adjusting volume. When you use the keys for VoiceOver commands, you don’t need to press the Fn key with the VoiceOver commands that use function keys. Using Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down on Portable Computers A standard keyboard has dedicated keys for Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down. These are important VoiceOver navigation keys. On a portable computer, you use the arrow keys with the Fn key for these functions. Keyboard Accessibility If you are able to use a keyboard but find it difficult, some other features included in Mac OS X may help you use your keyboard more effectively with VoiceOver. Sticky Keys The Sticky Keys feature treats a series of modifier key presses as a single key combination. For example, you can press Control, and then Option, and your keyboard interprets that combination as Control-Option held down together.Chapter 3 Keyboard Basics 19 To turn on Sticky Keys: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Universal Access button. 3 Click the Keyboard tab. 4 Select the On radio button for Sticky Keys. When you turn on Sticky Keys, you can also set options to hear a sound when a modifier key you press is accepted, and display an icon of the symbol for the modifier keys you pressed. Checkboxes for these options are below the Sticky Keys On and Off radio buttons. Slow Keys With the Slow Keys feature you can control the amount of time between when a key is pressed and when it is accepted by the keyboard. If you frequently press keys accidentally, you may want a longer delay. To turn on Slow Keys: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Universal Access button. 3 Click the Keyboard tab. 4 Select the On radio button for Slow Keys. 5 Move the Acceptance Delay slider to the left for a longer delay and to the right for a shorter delay. You can also hear audible feedback when you press keys. You hear one sound when a key is pressed and a different sound when the key is accepted. This is a very good way to monitor what’s happening if you can’t see the screen. Select the checkbox labeled “Use click key sounds” under the Slow Keys On and Off buttons to turn this on. Key Repeat Rate If you find that keys register more than once when you press them, you can adjust the key repeat rate. The key repeat rate and key repeat delay let you control how fast keys repeat and adjust how much time the keyboard will wait before it begins to repeat a key press. If you have trouble releasing keys fast enough, you can set the delay very long or turn off the repeat. To adjust the key repeat rate: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Keyboard & Mouse button.20 Chapter 3 Keyboard Basics 3 Click the Keyboard tab. 4 Move the Key Repeat Rate slider to the left if you want repeated keys to repeat slowly (if you tend to make mistakes when pressing keys, moving this slider to a slow setting will help minimize the number of repeated keystrokes). Move the slider to the right if you want the keys to repeat at a faster pace. 5 Move the Delay Until Repeat slider to the left to cause a longer delay between when you hold down the key and when the key begins to repeat. You can move the Delay Until Repeat slider all the way to the left to turn off key repeating completely. Keyboard Settings in VoiceOver Utility You use the VoiceOver Utility application to customize VoiceOver settings. The Verbosity pane of VoiceOver Utility shown below includes some settings to help you use your keyboard. Typing Echo As you type, VoiceOver can speak what you typed. If you are not a confident typist, or if you just want to hear confirmation, you may want to use the typing echo. VoiceOver is set to echo each character as you type it. You can change the setting in the “While typing speak” pop-up menu to one of these:  None: VoiceOver doesn’t speak what you type.  Every Character: VoiceOver speaks each character as you type it. This is the default setting for VoiceOver.  Every Word: VoiceOver speaks the word you type as soon as you press the Space bar, a punctuation key, or the Return key. This tells VoiceOver that the word is complete.Chapter 3 Keyboard Basics 21 Key Press Notification The “Announce when a modifier key is pressed” checkbox sets VoiceOver to say the name of the modifier key when you press it. VoiceOver speaks these keys:  Shift  Control  Option  Command  Fn Turning on this option may help you become accustomed to the location of modifier keys on your keyboard, and it may help prevent you from making mistakes. Caps Lock Key Notification If the Caps Lock key is pressed, you’ll be unable to use many VoiceOver commands. Select the “Announce when the caps lock key is pressed” checkbox to hear VoiceOver announce when this key is pressed. To open VoiceOver Utility when VoiceOver is turned off: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Universal Access button. 3 Click the Seeing tab. 4 Click the Open VoiceOver Utility button. When VoiceOver is turned on, you can open VoiceOver Utility with the VoiceOver command Control-Option-F8. You will find more information about other VoiceOver Utility settings in later chapters.4 22 4 VoiceOver Basics This chapter provides basic information about using VoiceOver to navigate your computer, click buttons, make selections in menus, and perform other basic tasks. After reading this chapter, you will have enough information to begin using VoiceOver. You will have practiced moving the VoiceOver cursor, interacting with scroll bars, and navigating menus. Following Instructions When you use VoiceOver, you use the keyboard to activate controls. For example, when you read “click,” use the VoiceOver command Control-Option-Space bar instead of the mouse. Menu commands are written using the greater than or right angle bracket symbol to show a sequence of menu commands. For example: Choose Finder > Services > Summarize. In this example, Finder is the name of a menu in the menu bar. Services is a submenu in the Finder menu, and Summarize is a command in the Services submenu. VoiceOver speaks the sequence as “Choose Finder greater than Services greater than Summarize.” Turning On VoiceOver You can turn VoiceOver on and off at any time; you don’t have to restart your computer or log in again. This makes it easier for users with different needs to share the same computer. You can turn on VoiceOver in System Preferences, and also with a quick VoiceOver command.Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 23 To turn on VoiceOver in System Preferences: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Universal Access button. 3 Click the Seeing tab. 4 Select the On radio button for VoiceOver. To turn VoiceOver on or off quickly: m Press Command-F5. If you are using a portable computer, press Fn-Command-F5. If VoiceOver is on, Command-F5 turns it off. If VoiceOver is off, the command turns it on. The change takes effect immediately and remains in effect even after you log out of your user account or restart your computer. Using VoiceOver in the Login Window If your computer requires you to log in and you want to use VoiceOver to navigate and read the contents of the Mac OS X login window, you must first set a preference in Accounts preferences. To turn on VoiceOver for the login window: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Accounts button. 3 Click the Login Options button below the accounts list. If the Login Options button is dimmed, click the lock icon at the bottom of the Accounts window and type an administrator’s name and password to unlock the window. 4 Select the checkbox labeled “Use VoiceOver at login window.” Pausing VoiceOver Speech When you’re using VoiceOver, you may want to silence the speech when you don’t want to hear something. Just press and release the Control key to stop VoiceOver from speaking. If VoiceOver is reading text and you don’t use any other commands after you press the Control key, you can press and release Control again to hear VoiceOver resume speaking where it left off. Controlling VoiceOver To control VoiceOver, you press and hold the Control and Option keys while you press other keys to get information and perform actions.24 Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics When VoiceOver is on, a box is drawn around an object on the screen to show where VoiceOver is focused. This box is called the VoiceOver cursor. The visual representation of the VoiceOver cursor helps sighted users track VoiceOver’s location. Objects in the VoiceOver cursor can be buttons and other controls, text, images, files, documents, and anything else that is displayed on your computer screen. To move the VoiceOver cursor, you hold down the Control and Option keys as you press the arrow keys. This moves the VoiceOver cursor vertically or horizontally. In general, you should navigate windows horizontally, using the Left and Right arrow keys. The VoiceOver cursor moves from left to right, wrapping to the next row as it moves forward or back. Use the Up and Down arrow keys to navigate vertically in lists and tables, or in windows where you are familiar with the layout. The VoiceOver cursor moves up and down, wrapping to the next column as it moves up or down. For convenience, you can lock the Control and Option keys so that you don’t have to press them while you are controlling VoiceOver. Locking the Control and Option keys is useful if you are doing a lot of navigation and exploration with VoiceOver. It reduces the number of keys you need to press to accomplish these goals. With Control and Option locked, all you need to press are the remaining keys for the command, usually one or two others. To lock or unlock the Control and Option keys: m Press Control-Option-semicolon (;). You can practice navigating with the VoiceOver cursor using the exercises at the end of this chapter. Reading Window Contents When you open a new window, the VoiceOver cursor goes to the first item in the upper-left corner of the window and stops there. As you navigate the window, you hear descriptions of the items in the VoiceOver cursor. If the VoiceOver cursor reaches text, it reads the text that’s visible on the screen. A good way to get a sense of how a window is laid out or to find out what information the window contains is to have VoiceOver read all the contents of the window. To read the window contents: m Press Control-Option-Shift-W.Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 25 When you use the Control-Option-Shift-W command to read the contents of the window, VoiceOver reads only what’s visible. If there are more contents than can fit in the window, scroll bars appear at the bottom or right side of the window so that you can scroll to the rest of the content. For example, a large document may have many pages, but only part of one page is visible on the screen. You use scroll bars to make more of the document visible so that you can read it. You can use other VoiceOver commands to read all the contents of scroll areas and other content areas without having to scroll. The next section describes these techniques. Reading Text Reading the contents of a window is very useful, but sometimes it isn’t enough. You’ll need to be able to read individual words, sentences, and characters as well. You can use the following VoiceOver commands for more control when you read text:  Control-Option-C to read the last character in the VoiceOver cursor.  Control-Option-W to read the last word in the VoiceOver cursor.  Control-Option-S to read the sentence where the VoiceOver cursor is located.  Control-Option-L to read the line where the VoiceOver cursor is located.  Control-Option-P to read the paragraph where the VoiceOver cursor is located. In addition, you can hear words or characters spelled phonetically to help you figure out something that is difficult to hear. To do this, you use the same commands for reading by character or reading by word, but you press the commands two or three times to hear progressively more detail. For example, if you hear the word “tab” but aren’t sure you heard it right, you can press Control-Option-W to hear the word spoken. Press Control-Option-W again to hear the word spelled. If you’re still not sure what was read, press Control-Option-W a third time to hear each letter’s phonetic name (“tango alpha bravo”). Changing Rate, Pitch, and Volume Temporarily While you’re working, you may want to change the rate, pitch, or volume temporarily without changing your permanent settings. You can use a VoiceOver command to do this quickly. To change settings temporarily: 1 Press Control-Option-Command-Right Arrow. Each time you press this command, you hear VoiceOver cycle through rate, pitch, and volume. If you stopped at “rate” the last time you used the command, the next time you press the command you hear “pitch.”26 Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 2 After you hear the setting you want to change, press Control-Option-Command-Up Arrow or Down Arrow. The Up Arrow increases the setting and the Down Arrow decreases the setting. 3 Release the keys to return to navigation. These settings remain in effect until you change them, log out of your user account, turn off your computer, or turn off VoiceOver. To set your preferences for these, see “Customizing Voices” on page 54. Interacting With Content Areas To be successful using VoiceOver, you must understand the VoiceOver concept of interaction. When navigating the contents of windows, menus, and the desktop, VoiceOver groups related items in order to present a cleaner overall picture of the contents of the screen. So for example, moving once to the right will move the VoiceOver cursor from one button to another, not just from one word or character to the next. This allows you to quickly survey all that is available to you by navigating through the major elements of a window or application. When you find an item of interest, you then interact with it to read, add, control, or modify its contents. Windows, documents, and webpages often have areas that contain text, files, or other content. When the VoiceOver cursor reaches one of these areas, it identifies the content area. Depending on the application or window, VoiceOver may identify these areas as:  A scroll area  HTML content  A list  A text area  An outline  A group  A table When you reach a content area, you can navigate past it to something else, or you can interact with the content area to investigate, read, or modify something it contains. For example, a Finder window has a sidebar that contains folders. You can skip over the sidebar to the view browser, or interact with the sidebar to select one of its folders.Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 27 First you use a command to let VoiceOver know that you want to interact with the items it contains. Then you use the VoiceOver navigation commands to navigate within the content area. The VoiceOver cursor stays within the boundaries of the object you're interacting with, so when you navigate left, right, up, and down, you'll navigate only to the objects within that area. If you find another object of interest, and it contains objects, you can interact with it as well. Interaction allows you to navigate the larger elements of an application quickly to locate what interests you, and also provides the control you need to investigate the smallest details. When you’re done, a VoiceOver command stops the interaction, returning the VoiceOver cursor to the previous object or area. You can repeat the VoiceOver command to interact or stop interacting as many times as necessary. When there's nothing more to interact with, or stop interacting with, you'll hear a “beep” sound. To interact with a content area:  Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to begin interacting.  Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the content area. To practice interacting with content areas, see the exercises at the end of this chapter. You can use a VoiceOver command to read everything in the VoiceOver cursor, including content not visible on the screen. This is a quick way to find out what’s in a content area. When you use this command on an area that has scroll bars, the contents become visible as VoiceOver reads them. To read everything in the VoiceOver cursor: m Press Control-Option-A when the VoiceOver cursor is on a content area. If you want to navigate or interact with the items in a content area, you have to first let VoiceOver know that you want to interact with the items it contains. Then you can use all the regular VoiceOver commands inside the content area. Using Buttons and Controls You can use VoiceOver commands to press a button, select checkboxes, choose an item in a list or menu, and move sliders. For example, when instructions ask you to “click Save” or “click Cancel,” move the VoiceOver cursor to the button and use a VoiceOver command to perform the button’s action. You can use the same VoiceOver command to select a checkbox or radio button. To click a button or select a checkbox or radio button: m Press Control-Option-Space bar. You use this same powerful command to select just about anything on the screen, from items in menus and lists to folders and files that you want to move or copy.28 Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics A slider control, such as the control for your computer’s volume, is usually identified as an incrementor or simply a slider. To move it, you have to first let VoiceOver know that you want to interact with the slider, just as you do for content areas. Then you use the arrow keys to change the value. To interact with a slider or incrementor: 1 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to start interacting. 2 Press Control and Option with an appropriate arrow key (Up, Down, Left, or Right, depending on whether the control is horizontal or vertical). 3 When you reach the value you want, press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the control. Learning More About an Item VoiceOver provides several ways to find out about an item that is in the VoiceOver cursor. If you aren’t sure what it is or how to use it, try any of the following discovery techniques:  To hear a description of the item, press Control-Option-F3.  To hear how to use the item, press Control-Option-H to hear the help tag. Help tags are often provided for controls so that you know what the control is used for.  To hear a list of VoiceOver commands that can be used for the item, press ControlOption-H a second time to open the Commands menu. The Commands menu gives you every command you can use for the item. Navigating Menus Menus are vertical lists of commands and options that perform actions when you choose them. Some menu items have submenus that contain additional choices. You can think of menus and submenus as a hierarchical outline. The menu bar at the top of the screen is separated into three main areas: the Apple and application menus, status menus, and the Spotlight menu. You can use the same VoiceOver command to access each of these areas. To navigate the menu bar: 1 Press Control-Option-M to go to the first menu in the menu bar. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move along the menu bar. You hear a “bonk” sound when you reach the last menu. 3 Press Control-Option-M again to move to the first status menu in the menu bar and Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to the last status menu. 4 Press Control-Option-M again to go to the Spotlight menu.Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 29 The Control-Option-M command cycles through the three areas. If you leave the menu bar, the next time you press the command, you start at the Apple menu. Whether you’re in a Finder menu, application menu, pop-up menu, or VoiceOver menu, you use the same navigation techniques. To navigate in a menu:  Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down a menu.  Press Control-Option-Up Arrow to move up a menu.  Press Control-Option-Space bar to choose a menu item.  Press Escape to leave a menu without making a selection.  Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to the submenu and Control-Option-Left Arrow to move out of the submenu and back to the main menu. You can use the exercises at the end of this chapter to practice navigating the menu bar and menus. Navigating Quickly in a Menu In Mac OS X, you can type the first letters of a word or phrase to move quickly to the item in the menu that most closely resembles what you typed. For example, if you know the menu contains a submenu for font selection, type “f” or “fo” to go to the first item in the menu that starts with these letters. The more letters you type, the greater the chance that the item you want will be found first. In VoiceOver menus, the menu contracts to show only the items that contain the word, letters, or phrase you typed. If more than one item contains the letters you typed, you can use the arrow keys to locate the one you want. You can try this out in the Item Chooser menu exercise later in this chapter. Using Pop-up Menus Many windows and webpages use pop-up menus, described by VoiceOver as pop-up menu buttons, to present options and choices. Press Control-Option-Space bar to show the menu, then navigate the menu the same way you would any other menu. Using Contextual Menus Contextual menus give you quick access to often-used commands for the selected item. Contextual menus are convenient because you don’t have to navigate to the menu bar to perform an action. In Mac OS X, you press the Control key while you click the item with your mouse to see a contextual menu. You can perform the same action with a VoiceOver command. To open a contextual menu for an item: m Press Control-Option-Shift-M. Contextual menus are also available for items in the Dock.30 Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics Understanding Duplicate Menu Items Some menu items have an ellipsis (three dots) after the name. An ellipsis after an item in a menu lets you know that a dialog will appear when you choose that menu item. You’ll need to take some type of action to dismiss the dialog and continue, such as typing a password or making a choice. When VoiceOver is turned on, you will see or hear menu items that appear to be duplicates. The first menu item includes an ellipsis in the name and the second one doesn’t. When VoiceOver is off, only the menu item with the ellipsis appears in the menu, and you would have to press Control when you choose the menu item to bypass the dialog and take action directly. When VoiceOver is on, you can choose either menu item. For example, when VoiceOver is off, “Restart...” appears in the Apple menu, indicating that a dialog will appear when you choose this command. You can hold down the Option key when you choose this command and your computer restarts without displaying a dialog. When VoiceOver is on, you hear both “restart ellipsis” and “restart” in the menu. Working With the VoiceOver Menu The VoiceOver menu, shown below, appears as a shaded rectangle on the screen for sighted users. The VoiceOver menu contains all the VoiceOver commands you can use for the item in the VoiceOver cursor followed by their command key equivalent. VoiceOver menus do not show the Control and Option keys for the commands, but you still must press Control and Option with the keys shown. Sometimes VoiceOver commands require multiple key presses. For example, in the VoiceOver menu shown above, you press Control-Option-H two times to go directly to the Commands menu. In the VoiceOver menu, this is indicated by “H H.”Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 31 To open the VoiceOver menu: m Press Control-Option-F7. Sighted users can change the size of the font in the VoiceOver menu to make it easier to read. The font will stay the same size until you log out or restart your computer. To change the size of the font: m Press Control-Option-Right brace ( } ) to increase the font size and Control-Option-Left brace ( { ) to decrease it. Note: The right and left brace keys are the shifted keys to the right of the P on your keyboard. You can use the exercises at the end of this chapter to practice using the VoiceOver menu. Using the Commands Menu The Commands menu, shown below, is invaluable when you are learning VoiceOver. The Commands menu shows a list of all the VoiceOver commands you can use for the item in the VoiceOver cursor. To open the Commands menu: m Press Control-Option-H twice. The first time you press the command, you hear the contents of the item’s help tag, if there is one. The second time, the Commands menu opens.32 Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics Chapter 4 Exercises The exercises that follow will help you practice moving the VoiceOver cursor, interacting with scroll areas, and navigating menus. Exercise 4.1: Moving the VoiceOver Cursor In this exercise, you will practice moving the VoiceOver cursor and listening to the audible cues and descriptions. 1 Press Command-F5 to turn on VoiceOver. 2 Press and hold the Control and Option keys while you press the Up, Down, Left, and Right arrow keys. 3 Listen to the descriptions of items and practice moving around the screen. 4 Listen to the sound effects that indicate wrapping to the next or previous line or column. Exercise 4.2: Interacting With a Content Area In this exercise, you’ll move the VoiceOver cursor to a content area and interact with it. 1 Press Command-F5 to turn on VoiceOver. 2 Press Command-N to open a new Finder window. (Make sure the Finder is the active application.) 3 Press and hold the Control and Option keys while you press the Right Arrow keys. Listen to the descriptions of items and stop when you hear “sidebar list.” 4 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow and listen to VoiceOver say “Interact with sidebar list Network folder.” If you have something other than a Network folder at the top of the list, or if an item is selected, you’ll hear that instead. 5 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the list. Notice the tone that indicates you’ve reached the end of the list. 6 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the list. Listen to VoiceOver say “Stop interacting with sidebar list.” Exercise 4.3: Navigating the Menu Bar In this exercise, you will use VoiceOver commands to access the different parts of the menu bar. The VoiceOver command Control-Option-M moves the VoiceOver cursor to the next section of the menu bar each time you press it. 1 Make sure the Finder is the active application by either clicking the desktop or pressing Control-Option-Shift-D to move the VoiceOver cursor to the desktop. 2 Press Control-Option-M to go to the menu bar, then press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move along the menu bar. Listen to the names of the different menus. When you get to the last menu, you hear a sound effect. 3 Press Control-Option-M again. You hear the first status menu, which may be “volume” if you haven’t turned on any applications that have status menus.Chapter 4 VoiceOver Basics 33 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to all the status menus. You hear a sound to indicate the end of the status menus. 5 Press Control-Option-M again to access the Spotlight menu. You can type a search word or term here to find items on your computer. 6 Press Escape to close the menu without making a selection. Exercise 4.4: Navigating in a Menu and Submenu In this exercise, you will go to the menu bar and use a submenu to find any applications, documents, and servers you used recently. 1 Press Control-Option-M to go to the Apple menu, which is the first menu in the menu bar. 2 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to open the Apple menu. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear “Recent Items submenu.” 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the submenu. 5 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow and Control-Option-Up Arrow to move up and down the menu to hear the applications, documents, and servers you used recently. 6 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow to return to Recent Items in the Apple menu. 7 Press Escape to leave the menu without making a selection. Exercise 4.5: Using the VoiceOver Menu In this exercise, you will open the VoiceOver menu and use VoiceOver commands to increase the font size, navigate the menu, and select an item in the menu. 1 Press Control-Option-F7. 2 Press Control-Option-right brace ( } ) several times to make the font bigger. 3 Press Control-Option-left brace ( { ) until the font size is back to its original size or any size you wish. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear “Commands menu H H,” then press Control-Option-Right Arrow. 5 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to enter the Commands menu, then use the Up and Down arrow keys to read the items in the menu. 6 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow to return to the VoiceOver menu. 7 Press Control-Option-Up Arrow until you hear “Help question mark,” then press ControlOption-Space bar to select it. The VoiceOver menu closes and the command you chose is performed. In this case, the VoiceOver menu closes and VoiceOver Help opens.5 34 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X You can use VoiceOver to read text, navigate your computer, and perform your daily tasks. When you know the basics of Mac OS X and VoiceOver navigation (covered in earlier chapters), you can begin to use VoiceOver to access files, read documents, and manage your computer. This chapter teaches you how to apply what you know about VoiceOver to these everyday tasks. Using the Dock As you learned in Chapter 2, “Introduction to Mac OS X,” the Dock contains icons for applications and documents that you access frequently, or that you are currently working with. When you hear the name of the application or document you want to use, click it to open it on the desktop. To open an item from the Dock: 1 Press Control-Option-D to move the VoiceOver cursor to the Dock. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move across the Dock if it is on the bottom of the screen and Control-Option-Down Arrow if it is located on one side. 3 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open an item in the Dock. The Dock can be positioned on the bottom, left, or right side of the screen. You don’t need to know where the Dock is located to navigate it. The Down and Right arrow keys move toward the bottom or right of the Dock, and the Up and Left arrow keys move up or to the left. The arrow keys work the same, regardless of the location of the Dock. If it will help you to know the location of the Dock, you can find out by checking the Dock menu. To find out where the Dock is positioned on the screen: 1 Press Control-Option-M to go to the Apple menu. 2 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the menu until you hear “Dock menu,” then press Control-Option-Right Arrow.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 35 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the Dock menu until you hear the location of the Dock. For example, “Position on bottom checked.” Setting Dock Preferences You can also use the Dock submenu to set some preferences for the Dock and quickly access the Dock preferences pane of System Preferences. When hiding is turned on in the Dock submenu, the Dock disappears from the desktop. Dragging the mouse pointer to where the Dock appears when it’s visible causes it to pop up and remain visible as you move the mouse along it. With VoiceOver, you just have to press the VoiceOver command for the Dock to make the Dock visible. Working With Contextual Menus for Dock Items Every item in the Dock has a contextual menu. For example, you can remove an icon from the Dock or permanently add one for an application whose icon would normally appear in the Dock only when that application was open. The items in the contextual menu vary, depending on the type of item. To open a contextual menu for an item in the Dock: m Press Control-Option-Shift-M when the VoiceOver cursor is on the item. Use the standard menu navigation techniques to navigate and select items from a contextual menu. If you want to close the menu without making a selection, press the Escape key. You can practice using the Dock in the exercise at the end of this chapter. Switching Between Applications and Windows Most people have more than one application open at a time and often one or more windows open for each application. You can use a standard Mac OS X keyboard to quickly switch between open applications. To switch between open applications: 1 Press and hold down the Command and Tab keys. 2 Continue to hold down the Command key while you press and release the Tab key. Each time you press the Tab key, you hear the next application. 3 When you hear the application you want to switch to, release both keys. You can use the Application Chooser menu and the Window Chooser menu in VoiceOver to switch quickly to the application and window you want to use.36 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X The Application Chooser menu, shown below, lets you choose both an application and an open window for the selected application. To use the Application Chooser menu: 1 Press Control-Option-F1. You hear the name of the active application and the number of open applications. 2 Press Control-Option-F1 a second time to open the Application Chooser menu. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the list of open applications. 4 When you hear the application you want to switch to, press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the submenu for that application. 5 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you reach the window you want. If any applications have a dialog open, they also appear in the menu. 6 Press Control-Option-Space bar to move the VoiceOver cursor to the window or dialog that you want. If you just want to switch to the application without going to a specific window, choose the first item in the submenu. If no windows are open for the application, this will be the only choice in the menu. The Window Chooser menu, shown below, works the same way as the Application Chooser menu. However, the Window Chooser menu identifies only the open windows for the active application.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 37 To use the Window Chooser menu: 1 Press Control-Option-F2. You hear the name of the window that is active. 2 Press Control-Option-F2 a second time to open the menu. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the list of open windows for the active application. If the application has a dialog open, it also appears in the menu. 4 When you hear the window or dialog you want, press Control-Option-Space bar to move the VoiceOver cursor there. Navigating Finder Windows When you open a Finder window, the VoiceOver cursor is in the toolbar, focused on the Back button. You can find a detailed description of the Finder window in “The Finder” on page 12. When you use the Finder window to locate and open a file or folder, you first find the top level folder in the sidebar. When a folder is selected in the sidebar, its contents are displayed on the right side of the Finder window in the view browser. Finder windows can display items in the view browser in icon, list, or column view. Use the navigation method described here to navigate to the view browser. Then use the method under the view descriptions to navigate a particular view. To navigate the Finder window: 1 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move the VoiceOver cursor across the toolbar. When you pass over the view buttons, listen to see which view button is selected. If you know which view you want to use, press Control-Option-Space bar to select it. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “sidebar.” 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the sidebar. 4 Press control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the list of items in the sidebar. When you find the folder you want, press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting. 5 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to the right column, the view browser. When you reach the view browser, you use different techniques to navigate its contents, depending on which view is being used. Below are the descriptions of each view and the navigation techniques for each. You will quickly discover the ones that work best for you.38 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X Using Icon View In icon view, shown below, each item in the view browser is represented by an icon. Icons are usually organized alphabetically in rows. You can use the arrow keys to navigate along the rows, or type the beginning letters of a file to jump to an item quickly. To open a file in icon view: 1 If the view browser is not in icon view, you can press the Finder keyboard shortcut Command-1 to change it now. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the browser contents. 3 Type the first few letters of the name of the item you want to locate. The VoiceOver cursor moves to the first file that starts with the letters you typed. You may have to use the arrow keys to move from there to the exact file you want to open. 4 Press Command-O to open the file. Using List View In list view, shown below, items are listed alphabetically and information about each item appears next to it on the same row.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 39 A disclosure triangle appears to the left of folders. When you click a disclosure triangle, you see the contents of the folder below it, indented as they would appear in an outline. To open a file in list view: 1 If the view browser is not in list view, you can press the Finder keyboard shortcut Command-2 to change it. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the browser contents. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the line of contents. You hear the name of the item and all the information in the row. 4 Press Command-O to open the item selected. Sorting Items in List View Because list view is also a table, you can press Control-Option-Right Arrow or Left Arrow to navigate to individual cells in the table. Then you can sort the information by column. For example, you can arrange the items by the date they were modified. To sort items by column in list view: 1 Move the VoiceOver cursor to the first row of information and press Control-OptionRight Arrow to move to the column you want to sort by. 2 Press Control-Option-Vertical line (|) to sort the column. The vertical line is the shifted character on the right edge of the keyboard above the Return key. 3 To change the order of the sort, press Control-Option-Vertical line (|) again. For example, you could sort the Date Modified column to show the most recent changes at the top or at the bottom of the column. Using Column View In column view, shown below, items are shown in a series of columns like a horizontal outline.40 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X Column view is very useful for browsing nested folders. When you select a folder, its contents are shown in the column on the right. You keep moving right until you reach the file you want to open. Your browsing is confined to one window so that you can easily retrace your path if you need to. To open a file in column view: 1 If the view browser is not in column view, you can press the Finder keyboard shortcut Command-3 to change it. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the browser contents. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move to the item you want to open. If it’s a single file, press Command-O to open it. If it’s a folder, continue with the next step. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to the contents of the next folder. Accessing Finder Window Buttons You use the three round buttons in the upper-left corner of a Finder window to close the window, put the window in the Dock, or resize the window to its former size. You can press these buttons with a mouse, or use these Finder shortcuts:  Command-W to close the window  Command-M to minimize the window, placing it in the Dock for convenient access later To resize the window, you can either press Control-Option-M to access the menu bar and then choose Window > Zoom, or use the VoiceOver commands for window resizing described in “Moving and Resizing Windows” on page 43. Selecting Files and Folders In the Finder and in other applications, you must first select a file or folder that you want to use before you can open it or copy it. There are different ways to select files and folders, depending on whether cursor tracking is turned on or off. Cursor tracking is described in more detail in Chapter 9. When cursor tracking is on, moving the VoiceOver cursor to a file or folder automatically selects it. If you haven’t changed cursor tracking settings in VoiceOver Utility, cursor tracking is already turned on. If you’re not sure what is selected, you can use a VoiceOver command to find out. This is important information to know before you perform an action such as copying or deleting a file. To hear what is selected: m Press Control-Option-F6.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 41 If nothing is selected, you hear “no selection available.” If text is selected, you hear the text as it is read. If you have cursor tracking turned off, the keyboard focus and VoiceOver cursor will probably be in different locations. This means that the item in the VoiceOver cursor is not selected automatically. You must use a VoiceOver command to select it. To select an item when cursor tracking is turned off: m Press Control-Option-Command-F4. You can select more than one item at a time. This is useful when you want to perform the same action for all of the selected items. For example, you may want to delete several documents with one command. Selecting multiple items works only when cursor tracking is turned off. To select multiple items: 1 Press Control-Option-Shift-F3 to turn off cursor tracking. Note: You can press this command again to turn cursor tracking back on when you’re finished selecting. 2 Press the Escape key to deselect anything that is already selected. 3 Move the VoiceOver cursor to the first item you want to select and press ControlOption-Command-Space bar. 4 Move to the next item and press Control-Option-Command-Space bar. Continue until all the items you want are selected. If you want to deselect an item you selected, return to it and press Control-OptionCommand Space bar. You use different techniques to select text. For more information about selecting text, see “Selecting Text” on page 74. Copying and Moving Files If you can use a mouse, you can drag files to move them, and even hold down the Option key while you drag to create a copy of the original file in another location. If you cannot use a mouse, you can still use VoiceOver to copy a file and paste it in a new location. You can delete the original if you want to. To copy and move files using VoiceOver: 1 Navigate to the file you want to copy. 2 Press Command-C to copy the file. 3 Navigate to the location where you want to place the copy. 4 Press Command-V to paste it in the new location.42 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X Note: If you have cursor tracking turned off, press Control-Option-Command-F4 to select the item so you can copy it. The Item Chooser Menu Using the arrow keys to move across every item in a window can be very tedious, especially if you have an idea of what you are looking for and want to get to it quickly. A convenient alternative is to use the Item Chooser menu, shown below. The Item Chooser menu displays these types of items and more:  Controls  Text in table cells  Static text  Buttons In a Mail window, for example, you see all the buttons in the Mail window, names of message senders, column headers, message subjects, and more. To open the Item Chooser menu: m Press Control-Option-I. You can type some letters to quickly reduce the number of items in the menu and use all the other menu navigation and selection techniques you’ve learned.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 43 Interacting With Windows As you work, you will probably have multiple application windows open on the desktop. You can drag these windows to different locations or resize them by dragging the bottom-right corner of the window. VoiceOver users who can’t see the screen or use a mouse can do this too. Moving and Resizing Windows You can use the accent and tilde keys to move or resize a window with VoiceOver. The accent key is directly above the Tab key, and the tilde is the accent key shifted. To move a window: 1 Press Control-Option-accent (‘) to begin moving a window. 2 Use the arrow keys to move the window up, down, left, and right. 3 Press Escape to stop interacting with the window. You hear a “bonk” sound when you can’t move a window any farther in one direction. You can use the Shift key to move a window in smaller increments. To resize a window: 1 Press Control-Option-tilde (~) to begin resizing a window. 2 Use the arrow keys to make the window taller, shorter, wider, or narrower. 3 Press Escape to stop interacting with the window. While you’re moving or resizing a window, you can’t use VoiceOver to perform any other actions. Pressing Escape lets VoiceOver know you’re done. Moving a Scroll Bar Previous chapters discussed how to read the content in scroll areas so that all the contents are read and the window scrolls automatically. There may be times when you want to scroll manually as well. To move a scroll bar: 1 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to begin interacting with the scroll area. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-S to begin scrolling. 3 Press Control and Option with the arrow keys to scroll up and down, or left and right. When the window can’t be scrolled any farther in a particular direction, you hear a “bonk” sound. 4 Press the Escape key to leave the scrolling mode.44 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X Using Spotlight The fastest and easiest way to find something on your computer is to type a search term in the Spotlight menu and then click the item you want in the search results. It takes just seconds and will save you a lot of time. There is almost no limit to the type of information you can find with Spotlight. In Spotlight preferences, you can specify categories of information you want Spotlight to search. For example, you can limit searches to just applications, documents, folders, and Mail messages. Or you can expand your search options to include bookmarks in Safari, image files, and more. You can use Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts or the VoiceOver menu command to start a Spotlight search. Using the Spotlight Menu To find an item on your computer, open the Spotlight search field, and type your search term. You can open the Spotlight menu in two ways:  Press Command-Space bar.  Press Control-Option-M three times. As soon as you type the first letters, the search results appear below the search field and begins to display the results. When the search is finished, you hear VoiceOver announce the number of items found.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 45 To navigate the Spotlight menu: 1 Press Command-Space bar or Control-Option-M three times to open the Spotlight menu. 2 Type the word or term you want to use for your search. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the list of search results. Results are categorized by type. 4 Press Control-Option-Space bar when you hear the item you want to open. The item you selected opens immediately and the VoiceOver cursor leaves the Spotlight menu and goes to the item you opened. If you don’t see the item you want, you can go back to the top of the list and select Show All to open the Spotlight window. Using the Spotlight Window The Spotlight window, shown below, provides additional information about each item and contains a sidebar on the right where you can sort items in each group. You can open the Spotlight window in two ways:  Press Command-Option-Space bar.  Click Show All at the top of the Spotlight search results window.46 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X When you interact with the scroll area that contains the search results, the VoiceOver cursor starts on the first column, which contains the disclosure triangles for each group. The way you interact with disclosure triangles in the Spotlight window is different than how you interact with disclosure triangles in some other windows. To open or close disclosure triangles in the Spotlight window: m Press Control-Option-Space bar. As you navigate the search results, press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down a column. Spotlight displays the first five results in each group. If there are more than five results, you can click the link at the bottom of the group that tells you how many more items it found. Changing the Sort Criteria The body of the Spotlight window contains a sidebar: a scroll area within a scroll area, which you use to sort results. You can sort groups by kind, date, or people, or you can show a flat list. Within groups, you can sort by name, date, kind, or people. You can also choose different ways to sort by date and location. To change the sorting criteria: 1 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “scroll area.” This is the area that contains the search results. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move across the first row in the table until you hear “scroll area” again. This is the sorting sidebar. Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with it. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear the criteria you want to use. For example, you can sort groups by kind, date, people, or flat list. 5 Press Control-Option-Command-F5 to move the mouse pointer to the VoiceOver cursor. 6 Press Control-Option-Shift-Space bar to click the mouse. The search results on the left immediately change to reflect your choice. Chapter 5 Exercises The exercises that follow will help you practice using the Dock and the Item Chooser menu, and copying and pasting a folder in different Finder views. Exercise 5.1: Using the Dock In this exercise, you will open a contextual menu for an item in the Dock and move an icon to a different location in the Dock. Rearranging icons in the Dock lets you place frequently used applications where it’s easiest for you to access them. 1 Press Control-Option-D to open the Dock.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 47 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow and then Control-Option-Left Arrow to move along the Dock in either direction. Try using the Up and Down arrows too. Stop when you reach an icon you would like to use for this exercise. Notice that VoiceOver identifies open applications by announcing the name of the application and then “running.” 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-M to open the contextual menu for the icon. 4 Press Control-Option-Up Arrow or Down Arrow to navigate the menu. Notice the types of commands you can access from the contextual menu. 5 Press Escape to close the menu without making a selection. 6 Press Control-Option-D again to move the VoiceOver cursor to the Dock, then move the VoiceOver cursor to an icon you want to move. 7 Press Option with an arrow key to move the icon. Each time you press the arrow key, the icon moves in the direction of the arrow. 8 Press Control and Option with the arrow keys to hear the new location of the icon. Try this exercise again and listen to the contextual menu for an application that is running. If you have windows or documents open for the application, you can access them from the contextual menu. Exercise 5.2: Using the Item Chooser Menu In this exercise, you will open a window, use the Item Chooser menu, and find an item in the menu. 1 Click the desktop to make the Finder active, or press Control-Option-Shift-D to go to the desktop. 2 Press Command-N to open a new Finder window. 3 Press Control-Option-I to open the Item Chooser menu. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the menu and hear the type of items it contains. 5 Type documents or just doc to go to the Documents Folder. The Item Chooser menu is filtered to show only those items that contain the letters or word you typed. 6 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear Documents Folder, then press Control-Option-Space bar to select it. The Item Chooser menu closes and the VoiceOver cursor moves to the Documents Folder in the Finder window. Exercise 5.3: Copying and Pasting a File In this exercise, you will navigate the Finder window to locate a file, then copy and paste it to a new location. After you copy a file or folder, you can move the copy to any location on your computer and paste it there.48 Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X This exercise is presented three times, one for each of the different Finder views. All of the Finder exercises begin with a new Finder window. To open a Finder window, you can do one of the following:  Go to the Dock and navigate to the Finder icon. Then press Control-Option-Space bar to go to a Finder window.  Press Command-N when the Finder is the active application.  Press Control-Option-F1 twice to open the Application Chooser menu. Choose “Finder menu” and then “Go to Finder.” The view browser changes automatically to icon view, list view, and column view, depending on the item you select in the sidebar. You can use the Finder keyboard shortcuts provided in each exercise to switch to the view you want to use. Exercise 5.3.a: Copying and Pasting in Icon View 1 Open a Finder window. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “sidebar list.” 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the sidebar. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear your home folder. The title of your home folder includes your user name. 5 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the sidebar. 6 Press control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “icon view scroll area.” The contents of the right frame may be in a different view, depending on what you select in the sidebar. You can press Command-1 to switch to icon view. 7 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents. 8 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Sites selected folder.” 9 Press Command-C, the Finder keyboard shortcut for copying. 10 Press Command-V, the Finder keyboard shortcut for pasting. 11 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Sites copy selected folder.” This is the copy you just made and pasted to the same folder. 12 Press Command-Delete, the Finder keyboard shortcut for deleting, to delete the copy you just made. If you want to verify that the correct folder is selected before you delete it, press Control-Option-F6 to hear the selected item. Exercise 5.3.b: Copying and Pasting in List View 1 Open a Finder window. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “sidebar list.” 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the sidebar. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear your home folder. The title of your home folder includes your user name.Chapter 5 Using VoiceOver With Mac OS X 49 5 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the sidebar. 6 Press control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “outline.” The contents of the right frame may be in a different view, depending on what you select in the sidebar. You can press Command-2 to switch to list view. 7 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents. 8 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear “Sites selected folder.” 9 Press Command-C, the Finder keyboard shortcut for copying. 10 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow, then press Command-V, the Finder keyboard shortcut for pasting. In list view, you need to move away from the folder you just copied or you will suddenly find yourself using Spotlight to search your computer for documents. 11 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow or Left Arrow until you hear “Sites copy selected folder.” This is the copy you just made and pasted to the same folder. 12 Press Command-Delete, the Finder keyboard shortcut for deleting, to delete the copy you just made. If you want to verify that the correct folder is selected before you delete it, press Control-Option-F6 to hear the selected item. Exercise 5.3.c: Copying and Pasting in Column View 1 Open a Finder window. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “sidebar list.” 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the sidebar. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear the name of your home folder. The title of your home folder includes your user name. 5 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the sidebar. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “column view browser.” The contents of the right frame may be in a different view, depending on what you select in the sidebar. You can press Command-3 to switch to column view. 7 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the scroll area. 8 Press Control-Option-Shift-Right Arrow until you hear “Sites selected folder.” 9 Press Command-C, the Finder keyboard shortcut for copying. 10 Press Command-V, the Finder keyboard shortcut for pasting. 11 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Sites copy selected folder.” This is the copy you just made and pasted to the same folder. 12 Press Command-Delete, the Finder keyboard shortcut for deleting, to delete the copy you just made. If you want to verify that the correct folder is selected before you delete it, press Control-Option-F6 to hear the selected item.6 50 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences This chapter provides information about the many ways you can customize VoiceOver for your needs. It also introduces VoiceOver Utility, the application you use to customize your VoiceOver settings. VoiceOver Utility is located in Applications/Utilities. You can open it by clicking the VoiceOver Utility button in Universal Access preferences, or by using the VoiceOver command Control-Option-F8. Important: When you press the Reset button in VoiceOver Utility, all the settings on all the panes except Pronunciation are restored to the way they were the first time you turned on VoiceOver. You can’t reset only the settings on a single pane. Saving VoiceOver Settings When you have your VoiceOver settings just the way you want them in VoiceOver Utility, you might want to save them so that you can use those same settings when you use another computer or so that you can share them with a friend. If you have a removable storage device or a server where you can store your settings file, sharing your settings is easy to do. To save your VoiceOver settings to a file: 1 Press Control-Option-F8 to open VoiceOver Utility. 2 Choose File > Export Configuration or press Shift-Command-E. 3 In the Save dialog that opens, type a name for the file and choose where you want to save it, then click Save. You can use the same process to import the saved file. Choose File > Import Configuration or press Shift-Command-I. Then choose your saved configuration file and click Save. You don’t have to restart VoiceOver or your computer, the changes take effect immediately.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 51 Setting the Amount of Spoken Detail When you start using VoiceOver, you may want to hear as much detail as possible to help you learn about your computer and applications. As you become more familiar with these, you may not need to hear as much detail. You can choose these and other settings on the Verbosity pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below. Adjusting Punctuation Settings Punctuation includes the common punctuation marks as well as symbols. You can adjust what you want to hear when punctuation occurs in documents. VoiceOver includes these levels:  None speaks text as you would normally read it, pausing for commas and periods.  Some speaks keyboard symbols and many math symbols, such as the plus sign (+).  Most speaks all special symbols but doesn’t speak common punctuation, such as the comma and period.  All speaks all special symbols and punctuation except for spaces. So, you might hear a sentence spoken like this: “She stopped and turned comma before speaking period.” Some documents, websites, and email messages may have repeated punctuation characters used as emphasis or design elements. You can decide whether or not you hear such punctuation. Of course, if you set your punctuation to None, you won’t hear any. The Repeated Punctuation options are:  Always Spoken means that you hear all punctuation exactly as it occurs unless you’ve set a punctuation level that skips certain punctuation or symbols.  First Three Times means that you hear only the first three instances of a punctuation symbol.52 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences  Spoken With Count means that you hear the number of instances of the punctuation and then the name of the symbol. For example, the sentence “I am overjoyed!!!!!!!!!” might be read as “I am overjoyed eight exclamation mark” when Punctuation is set to All. Adjusting Text Attribute Settings Writers and designers of documentation and websites use punctuation size and style to convey meaning or to separate elements. VoiceOver can let you know when text changes occur, which can greatly improve your comprehension of the material. You can set whether and how you want VoiceOver to alert you to text changes by choosing one of these settings for the “When text attributes change” pop-up menu:  Do Nothing sets VoiceOver to ignore changes in text attributes when reading text.  Play Tone sounds a light tone when you encounter text in a different font or style than what VoiceOver was just reading.  Speak Attributes speaks the text attributes at the beginning of the text with different attributes. For example, “bold 15 point” or “12 point Helvetica.” You hear only the differences from the previous text, so if both sentences use the same font, you hear only the size or style difference. Setting Navigation Options The Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below, provides settings for how the VoiceOver cursor navigates websites and for using the VoiceOver cursor in conjunction with the keyboard and mouse, together or separately.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 53 Setting Website Navigation Options The VoiceOver cursor typically moves linearly across webpages, from upper left to lower right. Depending on how a webpage was designed, the VoiceOver cursor may seem to move randomly when you navigate in this way. VoiceOver provides some options for improving the navigation experience. “Group items in web pages” organizes a webpage into related groups of information. For example, all the song titles in a list of hot tunes, or an image with an excerpt of a news article. When you choose this option, VoiceOver identifies these as a group. You can skim quickly through groups until you hear one that interests you. Each group of information is treated as a content area, so you use the VoiceOver command ControlOption-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents. When you click a link on a webpage, a new webpage opens and the VoiceOver cursor goes to the top of the HTML content area. You don’t have to interact with it to read the contents. However, when you type an address in the address field and press Return, the VoiceOver cursor stays in the address field of the newly loaded page. If you want it to start in the HTML content area on a new webpage, select the “VoiceOver cursor moves to newly loaded web page” checkbox. Images with no descriptions can slow down navigation and aren’t helpful if you can’t see them. You can choose options in VoiceOver to skip images, or to skip images without a description. You should be aware, though, that sometimes images are actually links, so if you avoid them completely, you could be missing something important on a webpage. For more information about using VoiceOver with Safari to surf the Internet, see “Using the Safari Web Browser” on page 68. Setting VoiceOver Cursor Options When you use the mouse, you click an item to select it. You can also use the Tab key to move keyboard focus to some items to select them, including items in the view browser of the Finder window. VoiceOver links the keyboard focus and the VoiceOver cursor together to simplify navigation for VoiceOver users. This is called cursor tracking. You can customize how you use the VoiceOver cursor in conjunction with the keyboard and the mouse. You might find it convenient to keep them together as a single unit, or use them separately. Either way, VoiceOver Utility provides options you can set to fit with your specific working style.54 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences You can choose any combination of tracking options shown on the Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility. The text selection tracking settings apply when you are interacting with text in a document. When you edit or create documents or enter text in a text box, you are interacting with text. Experiment to see which combination works best for you. For more information about using the VoiceOver cursor, mouse, and keyboard independently, see “Advanced Cursor Tracking” on page 79. Customizing Voices VoiceOver includes a variety of voices so that you can choose the ones that work best for you. Several companies also offer additional voices, available separately, that work with VoiceOver. You can use the Voices pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below, to set your preferences for voices, rate of speech, pitch, and volume. Using Different Voices VoiceOver automatically uses a single default voice to speak what it reads. However, you can choose different voices to speak different types of information. If only the Default Voice appears in the Voices pane, click the disclosure triangle to reveal additional options. The triangle is called the “Show Additional Voices” or “Hide Additional Voices button” depending on its state. Whenever you see a collapsed disclosure triangle, you can click it to reveal more information. You can set different voices for these types of information:  Default Voice: This voice is used for everything spoken in VoiceOver except any of the options you set.  Content: This voice speaks text in content areas. These can include scroll areas, lists, HTML content areas, and documents.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 55  Status: This voice lets you know the current state of buttons and other controls. For example, the status of a checkbox is either “checked” or “unchecked.”  Type: This voice identifies the type of item. Some examples are button, slider, scroll area, and HTML content area.  Attributes: This voice speaks the text attributes at the beginning of text with different attributes than the preceding text. For example, “bold 15 point” or “12 point Helvetica.”  VoiceOver Menu: This voice reads the commands in the VoiceOver menu. Click the pop-up menu next to each type of information and select the voice you want to use. If you don’t make a choice, the default voice you chose will speak the information. You can practice using your VoiceOver skills to change voice settings in the exercise at the end of this chapter. Changing Rate, Pitch, and Volume Next to each voice pop-up menu are controls to adjust the rate, pitch, and volume of each voice. Type a new value in the text field or use the incrementors to change the value. Adjust the volume to a level that suits you. You can also use the volume controls to add emphasis or tune out information. For example, you may find it useful to set the volume higher for content and lower for other information. If there’s information you’d rather not hear, set the volume to 1, which is the lowest value. If you want to return all the settings to their default state, click the Reset button. But remember, this changes almost all of the settings in VoiceOver Utility, not just the pane you’re in. The only settings that won’t change are entries in the Pronunciation pane. You can practice using VoiceOver to change the rate, pitch, and volume in the exercise at the end of this chapter. For information about changing these values temporarily as you work, see “Changing Rate, Pitch, and Volume Temporarily” on page 25. Setting Visual Options It can be difficult for a person not accustomed to using VoiceOver to follow along when someone else is using it. To help them, VoiceOver provides visual feedback on the screen. 56 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences The VoiceOver cursor and the caption panel are two visual aids for sighted users. You can turn these visuals off or on and set preferences for them in the Display pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below. Magnifying the VoiceOver Cursor You can magnify the item in the VoiceOver cursor to enhance visibility, or to help you isolate it from the rest of the screen contents. The image below shows the Documents folder magnified in the VoiceOver cursor. You can use the VoiceOver cursor slider in VoiceOver Utility to adjust the magnification setting. This setting is retained when you restart your computer or log in again to your user account. You can also use a VoiceOver command to temporarily increase or decrease the magnification as you’re working. These temporary settings are in effect until you log out or restart your computer.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 57 VoiceOver uses the brace keys for this command. The left and right braces are the shifted keys to the right of the P key. To increase or decrease the VoiceOver cursor magnification: m Press control-Option-Right brace ( } ) to increase and Left brace ( { ) to decrease the magnification. Using the Caption Panel The caption panel displays what VoiceOver is speaking so that a sighted person can read what VoiceOver is saying, and more easily follow along. The caption panel is shown below. You can use the options in the Display pane of VoiceOver Utility to change how many lines of text to display and how big the caption panel is. The larger the caption panel, the more space it takes up on the screen. If your caption panel is very large, you may want to increase its transparency so that you can see what is on the screen behind it. Moving and Resizing the Caption Panel If you can use a mouse, you can drag the caption panel to a part of the screen that works best for you. You can also use VoiceOver commands to resize and move the caption panel. The same command works for both actions, similar to the verbosity settings described previously in “Setting Visual Options” on page 55. To move or resize the caption panel: 1 Press Control-Option-Shift-F10. You hear either “resizing caption panel” or “moving caption panel.” Each time you press the command, you switch to the other setting. 2 Press Control and Option with the arrow keys to make the changes you want. If you are resizing the caption panel, the Up Arrow makes the window larger and the Down Arrow makes it smaller. If you are moving the caption panel, the arrow keys move the window in the direction of the arrow. You can press the Shift key with the arrow keys to move in smaller increments. 3 Press Escape to stop interacting with the caption panel. Changing the Caption Panel Font Size You used the brace keys to increase or decrease the magnification of items in the VoiceOver cursor. You use the brace keys to increase or decrease the font size in the caption panel. The left and right brackets are the unshifted keys to the right of the P key.58 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences To increase the font size of the caption panel: m Press Control-Option-Command-Right bracket ( ] ). To decrease the font size of the caption panel: m Press Control-Option-Command-Left bracket ( [ ). The exercises at the end of this chapter will help you practice working with the caption panel and magnifying the VoiceOver cursor. Tiling Visuals For maximum visual impact, you can dim the screen so that the contents of the VoiceOver cursor stand out brightly. This is called tiling visuals. You can see the results in the image below. The screen is dim except for the magnified item in the VoiceOver cursor, which is centered on the screen. To dim the screen behind the VoiceOver cursor: m Press Control-Option-F10. When you want to return the screen to normal, press Control-Option-F10 again. If the caption panel is turned on, it is centered at the top or bottom of the screen and displayed brightly with the VoiceOver cursor while the rest of the screen is dimmed. Hiding Visuals Even when the VoiceOver cursor or caption panel are visible, there may be times when you want to temporarily hide them. You can use a VoiceOver command to hide them and then make them visible again.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 59 To turn the VoiceOver cursor and caption panel on or off: m Press Control-Option-F11. On a portable computer you may need to press Fn-ControlOption-F11. Setting Text Pronunciation You can create word substitutions so that when certain text or symbols appear, you hear a preferred word or pronunciation spoken for the text or symbol. You make these adjustments in the Pronunciation pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below. VoiceOver comes with some standard pronunciations. You can click the Add button at the bottom of the table to add your own. The Reset button does not change the entries in the pronunciation list, but it does restore all other VoiceOver Utility settings to their original settings. If you want to remove items from the pronunciation list, use the Delete button at the bottom of the Pronunciation pane. The exercises at the end of this chapter will help you practice adding pronunciations to the list. Chapter 6 Exercises The following exercises will help you practice changing voice settings, magnifying the VoiceOver cursor and tiling visuals; moving and resizing the caption panel; and adding a pronunciation to the pronunciation list. Exercise 6.1: Using VoiceOver to Change Voice Settings In this exercise, you will use VoiceOver to navigate the Voices pane of VoiceOver Utility and change voice settings. Make sure cursor tracking is turned on before you begin.60 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 1 Press Control-Option-F8 to open VoiceOver Utility. If you’re using a portable computer and have not changed the default behavior of the function keys, press Fn-ControlOption-F8. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Voices tab three of five.” 3 Press Control-Option-Space bar to press the Tab button. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to hear the remaining tab buttons and the headers for the columns (Voices, Rate, Pitch, and Volume). Stop when you hear “Show Additional Voice Options button.” 5 Press Control-Option-Space bar to press the button and reveal the other information types. You won’t hear them until you navigate to them. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move across the Default Voice row. Stop when you hear “Fred. Default Voice pop-up button.” 7 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open the pop-up menu, then use the arrow keys to move up and down the list of voices. 8 Press the Return key to hear the voice you selected read a line of text. Keep sampling voices in this way until you find one you like. 9 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to navigate to the remaining information types and make selections for these. Exercise 6.2: Using VoiceOver to Change Rate, Pitch, and Volume In this exercise, you will use VoiceOver to change the rate, pitch, and volume of the voices. Make sure cursor tracking is turned on before you begin. If you did the preceding exercise to choose voices, you can skip to step 5. 1 Press Control-Option-F8 to open VoiceOver Utility. If you’re using a portable computer and have not changed the default behavior of the function keys, press Control-OptionFn-F8. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Voices tab three of five.” 3 Press Control-Option-Space bar to press the tab button. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to hear the remaining tab buttons and the headers for the columns (Voices, Rate, Pitch, and Volume). Stop when you hear “Show Additional Voice Options button.” 5 Press Control-Option-Space bar to press the button and reveal the other information types. You won’t hear them until you navigate to them. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move across the Default Voice row. Stop when you hear “thirty-five rate edit text.” If this setting has been changed, you may hear a number other than 35. 7 Type a new value. Since the cursors are tracking each other, the value is already selected. When you start typing, the numbers you type replace what was there.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 61 8 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “pitch fifty incrementor.” Again, you may hear a different value if this setting was changed. 9 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to begin interacting with the incrementor. 10 Press Control-Option-Up Arrow or Control-Option-Down Arrow to change the value. When you stop, you hear the voice speak at the selected pitch. 11 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the incrementor. 12 Press Control-Option-Shift-Right Arrow to move to the Volume column. Use either method to change the value. Exercise 6.3: Adjusting the Caption Panel In this exercise, you will turn on the caption panel and then change its transparency, font size, and location. 1 Press Control-Option-F8 to open VoiceOver Utility. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Display tab, then press ControlOption-Space bar to open the Display pane. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Show Caption Panel checkbox. If it’s unchecked, press Control-Option-Space bar to check it. The caption panel immediately appears at the bottom of the screen. 4 Press Control-Option-Shift-Right Arrow until you reach the Caption Panel Transparency slider. 5 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to begin interacting with the slider. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to make the caption panel more transparent, so you can see the window behind it. 7 When the transparency is at a level you like, press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the slider. Notice the caption panel doesn’t block as much of the screen. 8 To position the caption panel somewhere other than the center of the desktop, press Control-Option-Shift-F10 until you hear “moving caption panel.” Then press ControlOption-Down Arrow to move the caption panel toward the bottom of the screen.62 Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 9 When you’re finished moving the caption panel, press the Escape key. Note: You can also use this exercise to practice resizing the caption panel. Press Control-Option-Shift-F10 until you hear “resizing caption panel.” The Up and Down arrows add height and the Left and Right arrows add width to the caption panel. Exercise 6.4: Magnifying the VoiceOver Cursor and Tiling VoiceOver Visuals In this exercise, you will practice using VoiceOver commands to magnify the VoiceOver cursor and isolate the VoiceOver cursor in the center of the screen. The brace keys you use for this command are the shifted keys to the right of the P key. Note: You can use the VoiceOver Menu Magnification slider in the Display pane of VoiceOver Utility to set this level permanently. Using VoiceOver commands as you work maintains the setting only until you log out of your user account or shut down your computer. 1 With VoiceOver turned on, press Control-Option-Shift-Right brace ( } ) to increase the magnification. Each time you press the command, the magnification increases. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Left brace ( { ) to decrease the magnification. Stop when the magnification is at a comfortable level. 3 Press Control-Option-F10 to dim the screen and show the contents of the VoiceOver cursor in the center of the screen. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to navigate around the screen. Notice that the contents of the VoiceOver cursor are always in the center of the screen, regardless of where the VoiceOver cursor is actually located. 5 Press Control-Option-F10 again to return the screen to normal. 6 Press Control-Option-Shift-Left brace ( { ) until the magnification returns to one, the normal setting. Exercise 6.5: Adding Pronunciation to the VoiceOver Dictionary In this exercise, you will add a word to the VoiceOver pronunciation dictionary so that it is spoken the way you prefer. Think of a word or term that you would like to use as an example. If your name has a unique pronunciation, you may want to use it instead of the word provided in the exercise. 1 Press Control-Option-F8 to open VoiceOver Utility. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Pronunciation tab five of five.” 3 Press Control-Option-Space bar to click the tab button and open the Pronunciation pane. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Add button, then press ControlOption-Space bar to click the button. A new dialog opens for you to enter the new pronunciation.Chapter 6 VoiceOver Utility and Preferences 63 5 The first line of the dialog has a text field. Press Control-Option-Right Arrow once to reach the text field, then type the word you chose. If you don’t have a word to add, type ASCII with all capital letters. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Pronunciation text box, then type a phonetic spelling for your word. For example, if you are using ASCII, you could type askee. 7 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the next line, where you choose applications in which you want to use this pronunciation. The default setting is to use the new pronunciation for all applications. If this is what you want, you don’t need to do anything else here. If you want to use the new pronunciation only for a specific application, click the Applications pop-up menu and choose it from the menu. Only open applications are listed in the menu. 8 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the Ignore Case checkbox. This checkbox is selected. If you want to use the new pronunciation only for case-specific instances, click the checkbox to deselect it. 9 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Save button, then click it. Your pronunciation is now included in the list of terms in the Pronunciation pane of VoiceOver Utility. You can interact with the contents of the list to hear the items it contains.7 64 7 Web Browsing and Email Mac OS X comes with an email application and web browser that you can use with VoiceOver. You can use the Mail and Safari applications to send and receive your email and surf the Internet. This chapter gives you information to help you connect to the Internet and to help you use VoiceOver with Mail and Safari. Connecting to the Internet When you set up your new computer, Setup Assistant asks you questions about your Internet Service Provider. If you already have Internet access set up, you can start using Mail and Safari right away. If you skipped the Setup Assistant process or didn’t start with a new computer, you can enter the necessary information in Network preferences. To open Network preferences: 1 Press Control-Option-D to go to the Dock. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “System Preferences,” then press Control-Option-Space bar. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Network” or press Control-Option-I to open the Item menu and locate it. 4 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open Network preferences.Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email 65 The Network preferences window, shown below, has two pop-up menus at the top. In the Location pop-up menu, you choose the configuration you’re setting up. If you always use your computer in the same location and connect the same way, you can just leave the location set to Automatic. If you want to create different connection settings for different locations, choose New Location or Edit Locations and use the dialog that opens to make the necessary changes. In the Show pop-up menu, you can choose the type of information you want to view in the table below it. Network Status is on by default, and the table shows the status of your network connection if you have one, your modem if you have one, and any other connection information. Choose your connection method from the pop-up menu to set up your connection. Before you close the window or quit System Preferences, click the Apply Now button at the bottom of the window. If you don’t, a dialog appears, asking if you want to save your changes. If you need more help getting set up, go to the bottom of the Network preferences window, below the table, and click the “Assist me” button for guided setup assistance.66 Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email Using Mac OS X Mail With the Mail application in Mac OS X, you can conveniently organize, read, and send email. The toolbar at the top of the Mail window includes a search field so that you can quickly locate email messages by subject, words in the text, sender or recipient, and date sent or received. The Mail window is organized like a Finder window, with your inbox and any other mailboxes you create in the left column. VoiceOver calls this the “mailboxes outline.” The contents of the folder selected in the mailboxes outline appear in a messages table in the top half of the right column. When you select one of these messages, its contents are displayed in the lower part of the right frame, called a “message content scroll area.” The first time you open Mail, the Mail Setup Assistant appears to help you set up your email account. You should know the name of the incoming and outgoing mail servers that your Internet Service Provider uses, whether your email account is POP or IMAP, and your email user name and password. If you need help learning how to set up or use Mail, choose Help > Mail Help from the menu bar. The Mail Toolbar The toolbar at the top of the Mail window contains buttons to help you manage your email. You can use these buttons to delete selected messages, label a message as junk, start a new message, reply to a message, get mail, and search. Opening Collapsed Folders in the Mailboxes Outline The mailboxes outline on the left side of the Mail window is a lot like the sidebar in the Finder. It contains an Inbox folder that lists your email accounts, separate folders for mail you sent, and any folders you set up to help you manage your email. Just like in the Finder, you select a mailbox in the mailboxes outline, its contents are displayed in the messages column on the right. Some folders in the mailboxes outline have a triangle next to them so that you can collapse or expand them. You can also use a VoiceOver command to expand a folder and access its contents. The folder contents are shown indented below the folder, just like the Finder’s list view. To expand or contract a disclosure triangle: m Press Control-Option-Backslash (\).Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email 67 Reading Email Because the Mail window is similar to a Finder window, you can use the same skills discussed in “Navigating Finder Windows” on page 37. You interact with the contents of the mailboxes outline, select a mailbox, and stop interacting. Then you do the same in the messages table to select the message you want to read. To speed up the process, VoiceOver provides a command to jump the VoiceOver cursor from the messages list to the message contents and back again. If you need more explicit instructions, review “Using List View” on page 38. To open an email message: 1 Open the Mail application by clicking the Mail icon in the Dock. 2 Navigate to the mailboxes outline and select a mailbox or folder. Use Control-OptionShift-Down Arrow and Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to begin interacting and stop interacting with the contents. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move to the messages table. Remember you need to interact with the contents to read the messages in the table. 4 Press Control and Option with the arrow keys to move across or up and down each row of messages. For example, if you want to view messages by sender, move to the From column and press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move down the column. Note: You can also press Control-Option-R to read the entire row. 5 When you locate an email message you want to read, press Control-Option-J. The VoiceOver cursor jumps to the message content scroll area and begins to read the message. 6 When you’re finished reading, press Control-Option-J to jump back to the message list. Note: You can also use regular VoiceOver window navigation to move to the contents of the email message in the message content scroll area, and you can double-click an email in the message list with the mouse to open the message in a separate window. Controlling Speech As VoiceOver reads the text of the message, you can pause the speaking or repeat what was spoken. To pause VoiceOver speaking: m Press the Control key. Press the Control key again to resume. If you haven’t moved the VoiceOver cursor, or used another VoiceOver command, VoiceOver will continue reading where it left off. To hear what was last spoken repeated: m Press Control-Option-Z. After VoiceOver repeats the previous spoken text, it continues reading where it left off.68 Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email Addressing a Message Names in your address book appear in the To, CC, and Bcc fields as menu buttons in the Mac OS X Mail application. The address menu buttons function like pop-up menus or contextual menus. In addition to listing all the addresses for an individual or organization, they also list actions you can perform for the address, such as editing it, removing it from the list, opening it in Address Book, creating a Smart Mailbox, and more. To address a Mail message: 1 Open the Mail application and press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “New button.” 2 Press Control-Option-Space bar. A new mail message opens in a separate window. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “blank To edit text.” 4 Type the first few letters of the recipient’s name. You hear the name and email address of the first name that matches what you typed. If more than one address is available for the recipient, you hear “Mail has new window” and a list of addresses for that person appears. Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to find the one you want. 5 Press the comma (,) key to enter the address and add another address. You can add as many addresses in the field as you want. If you need to delete an address you just entered, press the Delete key once to highlight the address and a second time to delete it. 6 Press Return to move to the next text field. Note: If you start typing an email address that is already in your address book, pressing Return adds the entire address to the To field. Press Return again to move to the next text field. Using the Safari Web Browser Mac OS X includes Safari, a web browser. The Safari window has navigation buttons across the toolbar at the top, a text field where you can type an Internet address, and a Google search field. Below the toolbar are buttons you click to see all your bookmarks and those you use often. Navigating Websites With VoiceOver VoiceOver provides three ways to navigate websites:  You can move the VoiceOver cursor in a linear way, progressing across or down the website by moving from item to item on the page. This method provides excellent control but may slow down navigation if the page contains many items.Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email 69  You can select a preference in the Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility to navigate by group. The VoiceOver cursor moves from one group of information to the next, and you interact with the group if you want to read its contents. This method speeds up navigation and allows you to quickly survey the contents of a page.  You can use the Link Chooser menu. The Link Chooser menu lists all the links on a page, which lets you quickly jump to the link you want. You can choose website navigation options in the Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below. For more information about these options, see “Setting Website Navigation Options” on page 53. Websites often contain a mix of links, graphics, and sometimes moving images. Every website is different, so you’ll need to explore each website to learn how it’s arranged. Very often, websites are laid out in a table to help with alignment of text and graphics. Depending on the way content was created or designed, all elements on a website might not be accessible. Some webpages organize information in frames. Frames are often used to separate different sections of the page. Sometimes one frame has links in it that update the contents of other frames. For example, you might click a link in one frame to display information in another frame. VoiceOver provides commands to let you move between frames so that you can access this type of webpage. To navigate from one frame to another: m Press Control-Option-Command-M to move to the next frame, and Control-OptionCommand-Shift-M to move back to the previous frame. Using the Link Chooser Menu The Link Chooser menu does for webpages what the Item Chooser menu does for windows. By listing all the links on a webpage, you can quickly find the one you’re looking for and select it. If you don’t know the exact name of the link, just type a keyword to find links that contain the word. For example, if you suspect there’s a link on the page for customer support or technical support, type support to find likely links. To open the Link Chooser menu: m Press Control-Option-U.70 Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email When you select a link in the Link Chooser menu, the VoiceOver cursor goes to the link on the webpage but doesn’t activate the link. This gives you a chance to determine whether you really want to go there before you actually switch to a new webpage. You can use the Link Chooser menu in any document or file that contains HTML links, including Mac Help and VoiceOver Help. To practice using the Link Chooser menu, see the exercise at the end of this chapter. Navigating Website Images Websites may contain many images. If a website contains “alt tags,” or text that describes each image on the page, you may find it useful to navigate to these images. If a website has unidentified images, you may want to ignore them. You can set your preferences for navigating images in the Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility. Note: Some images contain links, so you may miss some links on a page if you choose not to navigate images. Chapter 7 Exercises The exercises that follow will help you practice reading email and navigating websites with Mail and Safari. Exercise 7.1: Opening and Reading an Email Message In this exercise, you will open the Mail application in the Dock, navigate the Mail window to the message list, and go to the message text to read it. You must already have Mail set up with an email account before you begin this exercise. 1 Press Control-Option-D to open the Dock, then press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Mail icon. 2 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open the Mail window. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “mailboxes outline.” This area is similar to the sidebar in a Finder window. Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the contents of the mailboxes area. 4 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to move through the folders and mailboxes in this area. The contents vary depending on how many email accounts you have and any special folders you set up to manage your email messages. 5 When you reach your email account in the Inbox, press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the mailboxes outline. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to reach the messages table and press ControlOption-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with it.Chapter 7 Web Browsing and Email 71 7 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to move across the first row in the message table. Depending on the preferences you set for Mail, you may have columns for the status of the menu, who the sender is, the subject, and date and time information. You can also move down a column, so if you want to read mail from a particular sender, navigate to the From column and then use the Up and Down arrows instead of the Left and Right arrows. 8 After you locate a message to read, press Control-Option-J to move to the message contents below the message table. Notice that VoiceOver begins reading the text automatically. 9 Press Control to pause the speech and Control again to resume. 10 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow and notice that VoiceOver stops reading the text automatically, and you are now interacting with the text. You can use the text commands described in “Reading Text” on page 25 or in “Reading a Document” on page 72 to read a line or sentence at a time. For this exercise, you will return to reading the message contents as a whole. 11 Press Control-Option-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the text, then press ControlOption-A to start reading the message contents from the start again. 12 When you’re finished reading the email message, press Control-Option-J to return to the messages table. Exercise 7.2: Using the Link Chooser Menu In this exercise, you will open a page in Safari or VoiceOver Help, open the Link Chooser menu, and find a link. 1 Press Control-Option-D to open the Dock, or press Control-Option-Question mark (?) to open VoiceOver Help. 2 If you are using Safari, press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “Safari,” then press Control-Option-Space bar to open a webpage in Safari. 3 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow to move to the HTML content area. Note: This is a shortcut to bypass all the toolbars and tabs that may be at the top of a browser window. Technically, the VoiceOver cursor is actually navigating backward. 4 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the HTML content area. 5 Press Control-Option-U to open the Link Chooser menu. 6 Type a word that you’re likely to find in a link on the webpage. In Safari, if your start page is set to an Apple website, try Mac. If you’re in VoiceOver Help, type commands. 7 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow to find the link you want, then press Control-OptionSpace bar. The Link Chooser menu closes and the VoiceOver cursor moves to the link on the page that you selected. 8 Press Control-Option-Space bar to activate the link and open the linked page.8 72 8 Reading and Editing Text This chapter provides information about reading, typing, and editing text. Text is found in many places on your computer: in windows and dialogs, in content areas like webpages and help files, and in documents. You can use the navigation skills covered earlier to navigate to text areas and interact with them. This chapter teaches you how to use the VoiceOver text commands effectively. Reading a Document When you open a document, it opens in the application that created it or in another compatible application. When the document opens, you often have to navigate through the application’s toolbar and text rulers that appear. A tip for quickly accessing the content is to press Control-Option-Left Arrow to navigate backward to the last item on the page, which is typically the text area. Note: If while navigating, you find yourself stuck in a text ruler full of tab markers, it’s easy to get out. Press Control-Option-End (or Control-Option-Fn-Right Arrow on a portable computer) to go to the last visible item on the page, which is usually the text area. When you reach the text area in a document, press Control-Option-A to begin reading the text. You don’t have to interact with the text to read it. Press Control to pause the reading, and press it again to continue where VoiceOver left off. If you need to hear the last phrase repeated, press Control-Option-Z. VoiceOver repeats the last sentence or phrase and continues reading the rest of the text. When you press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the text area, Control-Option-A reads from where the VoiceOver cursor is located to the bottom of the text area. Use the VoiceOver commands in “Working With Text” below for even greater control of the VoiceOver cursor.Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text 73 Working With Text When you’re writing and editing in the text area, you are most likely working word-byword or in small chunks of text. You can use the following commands to read the next or previous character, word, line, sentence, or paragraph:  Word: Control-Option-Right Arrow or Left Arrow  Character: Control-Option-Shift-Right Arrow or Left Arrow  Line: Control-Option-Down Arrow or Up Arrow  Sentence: Control-Option-Page Down or Page Up  Paragraph: Control-Option-Shift-Page Down or Page Up Locating the Insertion Point When you work with text, the keyboard focus is represented by a blinking vertical line, also known as an insertion point. This shows you where the next character you type is going to appear. As you type, the insertion point is always to the right of the character you just typed. VoiceOver extends this experience to how VoiceOver speaks characters and words. VoiceOver speaks the character or word as it passes over it. If you’ve used another screen reader, you may be accustomed to a different experience. With a little practice, it doesn’t take long to get familiar with this new orientation. To figure out where the insertion point is in relation to a word or character, remember that it always rests on the other side of what VoiceOver just spoke. This is important to remember, because if you move backward over a character or word, the VoiceOver cursor and the insertion point are focused before the character or word. Try the exercise at the end of this chapter to practice working with text. Navigating in a Document In addition to navigating within the text itself, you can use VoiceOver commands to navigate to the beginning or end of the document. Remember that if there is more content than can be shown in the window, the window will have scroll bars. If you use the first two commands below, the VoiceOver cursor moves only to the top or bottom of what’s visible in the scroll area. Use the second two commands to reach the top or bottom of all the contents of the scroll area. To move the VoiceOver cursor to the first visible word: m Press Control-Option-Home on a desktop computer or Fn-Control-Option-Left Arrow on a portable computer. To move the VoiceOver cursor to the last visible word: m Press Control-Option-End on a desktop computer or Fn-Control-Option-Right Arrow on a portable computer. To move the VoiceOver cursor to the first word, scrolling if necessary: m Press Control-Option-Shift-Home on a desktop computer and Fn-Control-Option-ShiftLeft Arrow on a portable computer.74 Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text To move the VoiceOver cursor to the last word, scrolling if necessary: m Press Control-Option-Shift-End on a desktop computer and Fn-Control-Option-ShiftRight Arrow on a portable computer. Bookmarking a Document You can place a bookmark in a text document so that you can quickly return to a particular place. You can place only one bookmark, so the second time you set a bookmark, it replaces the first one. Bookmarks are useful for quickly returning to a particular location in a long document. To use bookmarks: m Position the VoiceOver cursor where you want to place a bookmark, then press ControlOption-Shift-1. m Press Control-Option-1 to move the VoiceOver cursor to a bookmark. Bookmarks are only temporary. If you close the document where you’ve placed a bookmark, or if you quit the application, the bookmark is not saved. Cursor Tracking in Text Areas VoiceOver Utility has unique cursor tracking options for working with text. If you want the VoiceOver cursor and insertion point to track each other while you’re working with text, select both of the text selection tracking options in the Navigation pane of VoiceOver Utility, shown below. With these options selected, anything you select with the keyboard will also be in the VoiceOver cursor. Selecting Text To copy, paste, or delete text, you need to select the text first. You use standard Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts to select text. To select one character at a time: m Press Shift-Right Arrow or Shift-Left Arrow to select the character to the right or left of the insertion point. To select one word at a time: m Press Shift-Option-Right or Left Arrow.Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text 75 To select the text from the keyboard cursor to the end or beginning of the line: m Press Shift-Command-Right or Left Arrow. You can use the VoiceOver command Control-Option-F6 to verify exactly what is selected. Important: When text is selected, you can easily delete it by pressing any key on the keyboard. This is useful if you want to replace the selected text with the words you type. If you accidentally delete the text, use the keyboard shortcut Command-Z to undo your mistake. This correction works only if it occurs immediately after the mistake. This shortcut works in many applications and in many situations. It’s always worth trying it to see if it can correct a mistake. Hearing Text Attributes The font, size, and style of text adds meaning to a formatted document. “Adjusting Text Attribute Settings” on page 52 discussed how to set the way VoiceOver announces changes in text attributes as text is being read. When you’re working with text, you can use a VoiceOver command to hear text attributes for selected text. To hear the attributes of selected text: m Press Control-Option-T. You won’t hear the attributes if the text is not selected. Use one of the previously discussed text selection commands in “Selecting Text” above. Using TextEdit With VoiceOver TextEdit is the powerful word processing application built in to Mac OS X. TextEdit is fully accessible with VoiceOver, and you can use it to open, read, and edit many documents created by other word processing applications, including Microsoft Word. You use all the standard VoiceOver commands to navigate the TextEdit window and interact with toolbars, menus, and text. You can also use TextEdit Help to learn how to use the many powerful features and keyboard shortcuts in TextEdit. A few tips are provided here to get you started. Checking Spelling in TextEdit TextEdit has a preference you can set that underlines misspelled words. If you can’t see the underlining, you can still use TextEdit’s spell check feature to check spelling at any time. A combination of TextEdit keyboard shortcuts and VoiceOver commands makes this a simple task. To check spelling in a document: 1 Move the VoiceOver cursor to an edit text area.76 Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text 2 Press Command-semicolon (;) to hear the first misspelled word. Sometimes words are underlined that the computer doesn’t recognize, but they’re not actually misspelled. Continue pressing this command until you hear a word that needs to be corrected. 3 Press Control-Option-Shift-M to open a contextual menu for the misspelled word. At the top of the menu are suggested spellings or alternate words. Below those are other options, including a dictionary so you can find the definition of the word. 4 Navigate to the menu choice that you want and press Control-Option-W-W to hear its spelling, or Control-Option-W-W-W to hear it spelled phonetically. 5 Press Control-Option-Space bar to select it. If you choose a corrected spelling from the menu, the new spelling replaces the old one. If you don’t hear an acceptable correction, press Escape to close the menu. Then press Control-Option-Shift-F4 to move the VoiceOver cursor to the misspelled word and edit the word manually. Changing Tab Stops in TextEdit At the far right end of the toolbar are tab stop buttons you can press to add a new tab stop. You can click these buttons or you can add a tab stop at any point when the VoiceOver cursor is in the ruler. If you deselected the Show Ruler checkbox in TextEdit Preferences, you won’t find these buttons or the ruler. To add or change a tab stop: 1 Press Control-Option-Space bar when the VoiceOver cursor is on a tab stop button or in the ruler. In either case, a dialog appears. 2 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the pop-up menu labeled Right Tab Stop. 3 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open the pop-up menu list and choose the type of tab stop you want to add. 4 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the edit text field for the ruler marker value. 5 Type the measurement for where you want to place the tab stop. For example, 6.25 indicates six and one quarter inches on the ruler. 6 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Ok button and click it. You can also drag existing tab stop markers along the ruler. To drag an existing tab stop marker to another location: 1 Navigate to the ruler and locate the tab stop marker you want to move. 2 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow to interact with the marker. 3 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow or Right Arrow until the marker is where you want it. 4 Press Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow to stop interacting with the marker.Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text 77 Chapter 8 Exercises The exercises that follow will help you practice locating the insertion point, selecting text, and saving a document. The first exercise tells you how to open a new document in TextEdit. You can use the same document for all the exercises. Exercise 8.1: Following the Insertion Point In this exercise, you will use Spotlight to find the TextEdit application, create a new document in TextEdit, and practice locating the insertion point. 1 Press Control-Option-M three times to open the Spotlight menu. 2 Type text. 3 Press Control-Option-Down Arrow until you hear “TextEdit top hit.” 4 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open the TextEdit application. A new TextEdit window opens. 5 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow to go backward to the text area and skip all the items in the toolbar and text ruler. 6 Press Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow so you can type in the text area. 7 Type leaf. The VoiceOver cursor and insertion point are focused to the right of the f. 8 Press Control-Option-Shift-Left Arrow to move back one character and you hear “f” again because now the VoiceOver cursor moved over the f, reading as it went. The insertion point is now blinking on the left of the f. 9 Press Control-Option-Shift-Left Arrow again to move back one character and you hear “a” and the insertion point is now to the left of the a. 10 Continue moving forward and back using Control-Option-Shift-Left Arrow and ControlOption-Shift-Right Arrow to move a character at a time. As you move back and forth, you will understand how VoiceOver communicates the location of the insertion point. Exercise 8.2: Cutting and Pasting Text In this exercise, you will use a Text Edit document to select text and place a bookmark in the text. You can use the same document you created in the previous exercise. 1 Type some text in the document. Make sure you include this sentence: The sun shone hot on the pavement. 2 Press Control-Option-Page Down or Page Up to navigate the text by sentence until you hear “the sun shone hot on the pavement.” If you have a portable computer, remember to press Fn-Control-Option-Up Arrow or Down Arrow. 3 The insertion point is at the beginning of the sentence, so press Shift-Option-Right Arrow until every word in the sentence is selected.78 Chapter 8 Reading and Editing Text If you make a mistake, press Control-Option-Right Arrow to deselect the text, then try again. 4 With the sentence selected, press Command-X to cut the text. The text disappears from the document and is stored on the computer’s clipboard, which is not visible on the screen. 5 Navigate to the end of the text using any of the navigation methods you learned in this chapter. For example, pressing Control-Option-Shift-End on a desktop computer or FnControl-Option-Shift-Right Arrow on a portable computer takes the VoiceOver cursor to the last word in the text area. 6 Press Command-V to paste the sentence you cut. 7 Press Control-Option-S to hear the sentence to verify that it was pasted correctly. Exercise 8.3: Saving a Document In this exercise, you will save the document you created in the previous exercises. Mac OS X uses the same Save dialog for all of its applications, so learning how to navigate this dialog is important. 1 Press Command-S to use the keyboard shortcut for saving a document. The Save command is in the File menu in the menu bar. The first time you save a document, the Save dialog appears. If you are saving changes to a document that has already been saved, the changes are saved, but a dialog doesn’t appear. 2 Create a name for the document. Press Control-Option-Right Arrow to go to the edit text field and type the name you want to use. A suggested name is in the text field and is highlighted. When you start typing, you erase the suggested name and replace it with your own. 3 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the pop-up menu next to Where. 4 Press Control-Option-Space bar to open the pop-up menu so you can choose where you want to save the document. Choose a folder from the list. This pop-up menu shows folders that you use frequently. If you don’t find the location you want, you can press the disclosure button again to open a navigation window. For this exercise, any folder in the pop-up menu will do. 5 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you reach the Save button and press ControlOption-Space bar to click it.9 79 9 Advanced Navigation Skills This chapter explains how to navigate using the VoiceOver cursor, keyboard cursor, and mouse pointer—separately and together. Using the keyboard, mouse pointer, and VoiceOver cursor independently can give you more flexibility as you work. You’ve already been introduced to cursor tracking, but this chapter provides detailed information. This chapter also provides information about making the mouse more accessible. Full Keyboard Navigation and VoiceOver Mac OS X has built-in keyboard navigation separate from VoiceOver. Users who don’t use VoiceOver can still use their keyboards to navigate menus, select checkboxes and radio buttons, press buttons, and enter text in text fields. Full keyboard access and VoiceOver work together seamlessly, so you can take advantage of all the built-in keyboard shortcuts along with the powerful commands in VoiceOver. Try the exercise at the end of this chapter to practice using full keyboard navigation to switch between applications. You can find more information about using full keyboard access in Mac Help and in the Keyboard & Mouse preferences pane in System Preferences. Advanced Cursor Tracking When you use the keyboard to move to a control, the keyboard is “focused” there. The item is highlighted, or a blinking i-beam cursor appears in a text document to show where the next keyboard action will occur. The mouse pointer and the keyboard focus are closely linked; for example, when you use the mouse to select a file, the keyboard focus also moves to the file.80 Chapter 9 Advanced Navigation Skills VoiceOver preferences are set so that the keyboard focus and the VoiceOver cursor track each other. This is called cursor tracking. Wherever you move the keyboard focus with the Tab or Arrow keys using full keyboard navigation, the VoiceOver cursor follows. When you move the VoiceOver cursor, the keyboard focus follows if it can. The keyboard can’t move to every item on the screen the way VoiceOver can. You can also work with cursor tracking turned off. When you turn off cursor tracking, you can leave your keyboard focus in one place and move the VoiceOver cursor around to read a dialog that just appeared, check email, or perform other tasks while your keyboard focus stays where you left it. With a simple command, you quickly bring them back together. You can do the same for the mouse. For example, you could use the mouse or Mouse Keys to locate something on the screen, and then use a command to move the VoiceOver cursor to where the mouse pointer is located. Using the Cursor Control Keys You can use the mouse, keyboard, and VoiceOver cursor to navigate to text and objects that appear on your screen. VoiceOver uses three function keys to describe the keyboard, VoiceOver cursor, and mouse pointer. Note: If you use a portable computer and have not changed the default settings for the function keys in Keyboard & Mouse preferences, you must press the Fn key to use these keys for VoiceOver commands. See “Using Function Keys on Portable Computers” on page 18. F3—The VoiceOver Cursor Key  Press Control-Option-F3 to hear a description of the item in the VoiceOver cursor. This could be a control, text in a document, an HTML content area, and more. The description includes the current state of the item. For example, you might hear that the checkbox is selected, or hear the value settings of a slider. F4—The Keyboard Key  Press Control-Option-F4 to hear a description of the item on which the keyboard is focused. The description includes the current state of the item, and, if it applies, whether it is enabled or disabled.  Press Control-Option-Shift-F4 to move the VoiceOver cursor to where the keyboard is focused. When you move the keyboard focus, the VoiceOver cursor remains where you moved it. Use this command when cursor tracking is turned off.  Press Control-Option-Command-F4 to move the keyboard focus to the VoiceOver cursor. When you move the keyboard focus again, the VoiceOver cursor does not move with it. Use this command when cursor tracking is turned off.Chapter 9 Advanced Navigation Skills 81 F5—The Mouse Key  Press Control-Option-F5 to hear a description of what is under the mouse pointer.  Press Control-Option-F5 a second time to hear the location of the mouse pointer as x and y coordinates. The origin point is the top-left corner of the main display, where the Apple menu is located.  Press Control-Option-Shift-F5 to move the VoiceOver cursor to where the mouse pointer is located. When you move the mouse, the VoiceOver cursor remains where you moved it. Use this command when cursor tracking is turned off, or if you don’t have mouse tracking options turned on in VoiceOver Utility.  Press Control-Option-Command-F5 to move the mouse pointer to the VoiceOver cursor. When you move the mouse again, the VoiceOver cursor does not move with it. Use this command when cursor tracking is turned off, or if you don’t have mouse tracking options turned on in VoiceOver Utility. Try the exercise at the end of this chapter to practice moving the cursors independently. Using the Mouse With VoiceOver VoiceOver and Mac OS X provide several options to help you use the mouse. Mouse Settings in VoiceOver Utility The Verbosity pane of VoiceOver Utility includes two very useful settings for using your mouse with VoiceOver: Select the “Speak text under mouse after delay” checkbox so that you can hear the text under the mouse pointer. If you have some vision but have trouble reading text, this is one way to use the mouse selectively to read. VoiceOver follows your punctuation settings when it reads text under the mouse. So, if you want to hear text attributes, you also hear them for the text under the mouse pointer. You can move the slider next to the checkbox to set the amount of time you want VoiceOver to wait before speaking. Move the slider left to shorten the delay and to the right for a longer delay. The “Announce when mouse cursor enters a window” checkbox sets VoiceOver to announce the name of the window the mouse enters. This can be useful if you have little or no vision but want to use the mouse to locate items on the screen. When you move the mouse to a new window, VoiceOver says “entering” and the name of the window.82 Chapter 9 Advanced Navigation Skills Making the Mouse Pointer More Visible In Mac OS X, you can increase the size of the mouse pointer so that you can locate it more easily on the screen. When the pointer changes to an insertion point, crosshair, or any other shape, these shapes are also magnified. To increase the size of the mouse pointer: 1 Click the System Preferences icon in the Dock or choose Apple menu > System Preferences to open System Preferences. 2 Click the Mouse button. On a portable computer, click Mouse & Trackpad. 3 Move the Cursor Size slider to the right to make it larger. If you need to make the mouse pointer very large, you might need to practice placing the pointer correctly to activate controls. Using the Numeric Keypad to Control the Mouse If you are able to see the mouse pointer but have difficulty using the mouse, you can turn on Mouse Keys in Universal Access preferences. Mouse Keys lets you use the numeric keypad to move the pointer and click items on the screen. When Mouse Keys is turned on, you use the numeric keypad keys to move the mouse pointer. If you are using the built-in keyboard on a portable computer, press the Fn key to use the U, I, O, J, K, L, and M keys as a numeric keypad. If you have difficulty finding these keys, use the VoiceOver Keyboard Practice feature described in Chapter 3. To turn on Mouse Keys: 1 Open System Preferences and click Universal Access. 2 Click the Mouse button. On a portable computer, click the Trackpad & Mouse button instead. 3 Select the On button for Mouse Keys. The table below shows you the keys to press for a standard keyboard and a portable computer keyboard. To use the numeric keypad to control the mouse: Action Shortcuts Portable Computer Shortcuts Move up 8 8 Move down 2 K Move left 4 U Move right 6 O Move diagonally 1, 3, 7, 9 J, L, 7, 9 Click the mouse button 5 IChapter 9 Advanced Navigation Skills 83 For more information about this and other accessibility features, see Mac Help. Quickly Navigating to Content Areas VoiceOver treats the items in a window as a continuous loop, so if you are at the top of a window and press Control-Option-Left Arrow, you go to the last item in the window. You hear audible cues when you wrap to the next line, or wrap from top to bottom or bottom to top. If the VoiceOver cursor is in a webpage or a text document, the application may have a lot of controls at the top of the window, such as buttons, links, tab markers, or bookmarks. If you just want to get to the main body of the content quickly without having to key through all these items, you can avoid them by moving backward one or two places. For websites and other windows, this often places the VoiceOver cursor on the HTML content area or the text area. To move to the bottom quickly: m Press Control-Option-Left Arrow. You can also use a VoiceOver command to move to the last item on the page, which is often an HTML content area or a text area. To move to the last item on the page: m Press Control-Option-Shift-End, or Fn-Control-Option-Right Arrow on a portable computer. Chapter 9 Exercises The following exercises will help you practice using cursor navigation and full keyboard navigation. Exercise 9.1: Using Command-Tab to Switch Applications In this exercise, you’ll use a keyboard command to hear which applications are open and switch to one of them. For a better experience, you should have several applications open. 1 Press and hold the Command key. 2 Press the Tab key to hear the open applications. Each time you press Tab, you hear the next open application. Hold down the mouse button 0 M Release the mouse button Period (.) Period (.) Action Shortcuts Portable Computer Shortcuts84 Chapter 9 Advanced Navigation Skills 3 Release the keys when you hear the application you want to switch to. If the application has an open window, the window becomes active and the VoiceOver cursor moves there. If no window is open, the application becomes active and you can begin using its menu to perform actions. Exercise 9.2: Moving Cursors Independently In this exercise, you’ll move the VoiceOver cursor to a text field and start typing. Next, you’ll turn off cursor tracking and try the same thing. Notice the different experience. 1 Press Command-F5 to turn on VoiceOver. 2 Make sure the Finder is the active application. Then press Command-N to open a new Finder window. 3 Press and hold the Control and Option keys while you press the Right Arrow keys. Listen to the descriptions of items and stop when you hear “search text field.” 4 Type some text in the field. 5 Notice that you could type in the field because the keyboard and VoiceOver cursor were in the same location. Now see what happens when you turn off cursor tracking. 6 Press Control-Option-Left Arrow until you hear “list view switcher radio button.” 7 Press Control-Option-Shift-F3. You hear “disable cursor tracking.” 8 Press Control-Option-Right Arrow until you hear “search text field.” Notice that the List View Switcher button is highlighted and the search field is in the VoiceOver cursor. 9 Press the Return key. The keyboard presses the List View Switcher button and the Finder window view changes. 10 Type some text and notice that no keys register. This is because the keyboard is still on the List View Switcher button. 11 Press Control-Option-Command-F4 and start typing. Notice that the keyboard focus moves to the search text field so that you can type. 85 Appendix VoiceOver Commands You use the Control and Option keys with other keys to control VoiceOver. If you have an iBook or PowerBook computer, you may need to press the Fn key when you press a function key. Action Commands General Lock and unlock the Control and Option keys Control-Option-Semicolon (;) Turn VoiceOver on and off Command-F5 Open the VoiceOver menu Control-Option-F7 Open VoiceOver Help Control-Option-Question mark (?) Get help for an item Control-Option-H Open the Commands menu for an item Control-Option-H two times Open VoiceOver Utility Control-Option-F8 Start keyboard practice Control-Option-K Close a menu, stop an action, or exit a mode Control-Option-Escape (Esc) Tell VoiceOver to ignore the next key combination you press Control-Option-Tab Change the speech, rate, pitch, and volume Control-Option-Command-Right Arrow or Control-Option-Command-Left Arrow to move to the next or previous setting (rate, then pitch, then volume). Then press Control-OptionCommand-Up Arrow to increase and ControlOption-Command-Down Arrow to decrease. Change the amount of detail (verbosity) you hear for typing echo, punctuation, and text attributes Control-Option-V Then press the Left or Right Arrow key to choose the setting: typing echo, punctuation, or text attributes. Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to change the level for the setting. Press the Escape key to leave this mode. Magnify the item in the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Right brace ( } )86 Appendix VoiceOver Commands Shrink the item in the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Left brace ( { ) Temporarily hide or show the VoiceOver cursor and caption panel Control-Option-F11 Dim the screen, highlight the caption panel, and show the item in the VoiceOver cursor in the center of the screen (tile visuals) Control-Option-F10 Press again to return to the normal view. Resize or move the caption panel Control-Option-Shift-F10 Press again to cycle through these actions. Then use the arrow keys to resize the caption panel or move it. Press the Shift key with the arrow keys to move in smaller increments. Increase the font size in the caption panel Control-Option-Command-right bracket (]) Decrease the font size in the caption panel Control-Option-Command-left bracket ([) Turn the screen black (screen curtain) Control-Option-Shift-F11 Orientation Application summary Control-Option-F1 Application Chooser menu Control-Option-F1 two times Window summary Control-Option-F2 Window Chooser menu for the active application Control-Option-F2 two times Describe the item in the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-F3 Describe the item that has keyboard focus Control-Option-F4 Describe the item under the mouse pointer Control-Option-F5 Describe the location of the mouse in x, y coordinates (from top-left corner of screen) Control-Option-F5 two times Click the item under the mouse pointer Control-Option-Shift-Space bar Press once for a single mouse click and two times to double-click. Describe the selected item Control-Option-F6 Read everything in the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-A Read everything visible in the window Control-Option-Shift-W Repeat the last spoken phrase Control-Option-Z Save the last spoken phrase and the crash log to a file on the desktop for troubleshooting Control-Option-Shift-Z Navigation Move up Control-Option-Up Arrow Move down Control-Option-Down Arrow Move to previous Control-Option-Left Arrow Move to next Control-Option-Right Arrow Action CommandsAppendix VoiceOver Commands 87 Move to the top of the visible area, such as the window or text area, where the VoiceOver cursor is located Control-Option-Home On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Left Arrow. Move to the bottom of the visible area, such as the window or text area, where the VoiceOver cursor is located Control-Option-End On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Left Arrow. Move to the top of the area, such as the window or text area, where the VoiceOver cursor is located, scrolling if necessary Control-Option-Shift-Home On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Shift-Left Arrow. Move to the bottom of the area, such as the window or text area, where the VoiceOver cursor is located, scrolling if necessary Control-Option-Shift-End On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Shift-Right Arrow. Move to the top of the window Control-Option-Command-Home On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Command-Left Arrow. Move to the bottom-right corner of the window Control-Option-Command-End On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Command-Right Arrow. Move to the front the window where the VoiceOver cursor is located and make it active Control-Option-Shift-F2 Close the window where the VoiceOver cursor is located Control-Option-Command-F2 List the links on a page Control-Option-U List the items in a window Control-Option-I Move to the Dock Control-Option-D Move to the Desktop Control-Option-Shift-D Move to the menu bar Control-Option-M Move to the first status menu in the menu bar Control-Option-M two times Open the Spotlight menu Control-Option-M three times Open a contextual menu Control-Option-Shift-M Jump to a linked item (for example, from a Mail message in the Inbox to its message text) Control-Option-J Move to the next frame in an HTML content area (such as a webpage) Control-Option-Command-M Move to the previous frame in an HTML content area (such as a webpage) Control-Option-Command-Shift-M Move back, retracing the movements of the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Left bracket ([) Move forward, retracing the movements of the VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Right bracket (]) Turn cursor tracking on or off temporarily Control-Option-Shift-F3 Action Commands88 Appendix VoiceOver Commands Move VoiceOver cursor to keyboard focus Control-Option-Shift-F4 Move keyboard focus to VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Command-F4 Move VoiceOver cursor to mouse Control-Option-Shift-F5 Move mouse to VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-Command-F5 Text Read all text If you are interacting with the text, this command reads from the VoiceOver cursor to the end of the text. Control-Option-A Get text attributes Control-Option-T Add a bookmark in text Control-Option-Shift-1 Jump to a bookmark in text Control-Option-1 Read paragraph in VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-P Read next paragraph Control-Option-Shift-Page Down Read previous paragraph Control-Option-Shift-Page Up Read sentence in VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-S Read next sentence Control-Option-Page Down Read previous sentence Control-Option-Page Up Read line in VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-L Read next line Control-Option-Down Arrow Read previous line Control-Option-Up Arrow Read word in VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-W Press twice to hear the word spelled; press a third time to hear the word spelled phonetically. Read next word Control-Option-Right Arrow Read previous word Control-Option-Left Arrow Read character in VoiceOver cursor Control-Option-C Press twice to hear the phonetic character. Read next character Control-Option-Shift-Right Arrow Read previous character Control-Option-Shift-Left Arrow Move to first visible word Control-Option-Home On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Left Arrow. Move to last visible word Control-Option-End On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Right Arrow. Action CommandsAppendix VoiceOver Commands 89 Move to beginning of text, scrolling if necessary Control-Option-Shift-Home On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Shift-Left Arrow. Move to end of text, scrolling if necessary Control-Option-Shift-End On a portable computer, press Fn-ControlOption-Shift-Left Arrow. Add new tab stop (in TextEdit) Control-Option-Space bar Delete the current tab stop (in TextEdit) Control-Option-Delete Interact with tab stop (in TextEdit) Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow Then use the Left and Right arrow keys to move the stop. Interaction Interact with an item Control-Option-Shift-Down Arrow Stop interacting with an item Control-Option-Shift-Up Arrow Perform the default action for a selected item Control-Option-Space bar Select a menu or list item Control-Option-Return Select multiple items Control-Option-Command-Space bar Turn off cursor tracking to use this command. Click the item under the mouse pointer Control-Option-Shift-Space bar Press once for a single mouse click and two times to double-click. Open or close a disclosure triangle Control-Option-Backslash (\) Read a row in a table or outline Control-Option-R Read the column header in a table or outline Control-Option-Shift-C Sort a column Control-Option-Vertical line (|) Interact with scroll bars Control-Option-Shift-S Then use the arrow keys to scroll up or down or side to side. Use Page Up and Page Down to scroll vertically one page at a time. Use ShiftPage Up and Shift-Page Down to scroll horizontally one page at a time. Resize a window Control-Option-Tilde (~) Then use the arrow keys to make the window taller, shorter, wider, or narrower. Use Shift with the arrow keys to resize in smaller increments. Move or drag a window Control-Option-Accent (`) Then use the arrow keys to move the window. Use Shift with the arrow keys to move in smaller increments. Stop scrolling, resizing, or dragging Control-Option-Escape (Esc) Action Commandswww.apple.com/accessibility/voiceover © 2005 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, iPod, Mac, Macintosh, and Mac OS are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder, Safari, and Spotlight are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. 019-0517 Velkommen. Du ser Apple TV. Denne håndbog indeholder alle de oplysninger, du skal bruge, så du kan gå direkte fra indstilling til sofa.Indholdsfortegnelse 1. Tilslut 2. Konfigurer 7 Hvad er der i kassen? 8 Hvad du behøver 10 Kast et blik på Apple TV 12 Indstille Apple TV 18 Netværkskonfiguration 19 Oprette forbindelse til iTunes3. Klar, parat, se 4. Problemer? Ingen problemer 22 Bruge Apple Remote 23 Fjernbetjeningens funktioner i grundtræk 23 Parre Apple TV med en fjernbetjening 24 Ophæve pardannelsen mellem Apple TV og en fjernbetjening 25 Udskifte batteriet i fjernbetjeningen 26 Leje film 28 Fejlfinding 33 Indikatorlampe 34 Service og support 34 Serienummer 35 Vedligeholdelse og rengøring1 1 Tilslut www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv6 Kapitel 1 Tilslut Med Apple TV kan du leje film i høj opløsning eller købe tv-udsendelser, musik og musikvideoer fra iTunes Store samt se podcasts og YouTube-videoer – alt sammen uden at forlade sofaen. Du kan nyde digitale fotografier i høj opløsning fra dit .Macwebgalleri, Flickr, din Mac eller pc. Og du kan altid nyde yndlingsindholdet fra din Mac eller pc. Læs oplysningerne i dette kapitel for at komme i gang. Hvis du vil have oplysninger om Se Hvad du har brug for “Hvad du behøver” på side 8 Opstilling “Indstille Apple TV” på side 12 Indstilling af netværksforbindelsen “Konfigurer” på side 17 Brug af Apple Remote “Klar, parat, se” på side 21 Fejlfinding til Apple TV “Problemer? Ingen problemer” på side 27 Sikkerhed og garanti til Apple TV Vejledning med vigtige produktoplysninger til Apple TVKapitel 1 Tilslut 7 Hvad er der i kassen? Bemærk: Netledningen ser måske anderledes ud end den, der vises på billedet. Netledning Apple Remote MENU8 Kapitel 1 Tilslut Hvad du behøver Før du kan begynde at bruge Apple TV, skal du have følgende: Et fjernsyn med bred skærm Et fjernsyn med bred skærm og forbedret opløsning eller HD (high-definition), som kan arbejde med mindst en af følgende opløsninger:  1080p  1080i  720p  576p  480p Kabler  Et HDMI-kabel eller  Component videokabler med analoge lydkabler eller et optisk lydkabelKapitel 1 Tilslut 9 Netværk  Et kabelbaseret eller trådløst netværk  En bredbåndsforbindelse til Internet (DSL, kabel, LAN)  En adgangskode til det trådløse netværk (hvis du bruger en) Computer og software Computeren skal opfylde følgende systemkrav, før du kan afspille indhold fra en Mac eller pc på Apple TV:  En Mac med Mac OS X v10.3.9 eller v10.4.7 eller en nyere version  En pc med Windows XP Home eller Professional (SP2) eller en 32 bit version af Windows Vista  iTunes 7.6 eller en nyere version  En iTunes Store-konto10 Kapitel 1 Tilslut Kast et blik på Apple TV optical audio £ d G audio video R L IR-modtager Indikatorlampe £ d Port til strømforsyning HDMIport Component videoporte Analoge lydporte USBport Optisk digital lydport G EthernetportKapitel 1 Tilslut 11 IR-modtager Bruges sammen med den medfølgende Apple Remote til betjening af Apple TV. Indikatorlampe Indikatorlampen blinker orange, når Apple TV starter. Når Apple TV er tændt, lyser statusindikatoren hvidt. Der findes flere oplysninger om indikatorlampen i “Indikatorlampe” på side 33. d USB-port Til service og diagnosticering. ≤ Netstik Sæt den medfølgende netledning i Apple TV. G Ethernet-port Hvis du opretter forbindelse til netværket vha. Ethernet, skal du tilslutte et Ethernet-kabel. £ HDMI-port Slut Apple TV til et fjernsyn med bred skærm via en HDMI-port vha. et HDMIkabel eller via en DVI-port vha. et HDMI-til-DVI-kabel. Component videoporte Slut Apple TV til et fjernsyn med bred skærm via component videoporte (Y, Pb og Pr) vha. et component videokabel med et grønt, blåt og rødt stik. Analoge lydporte Slut Apple TV til et fjernsyn med bred skærm eller en hjemmebiografmodtager via analoge lydporte (rød og hvid) vha. et analogt lydkabel. Optisk digital lydport Slut Apple TV til en hjemmebiografmodtager med en optisk digital lydport vha. et optisk digitalt lydkabel (kaldes også et S/PDIF- eller TOSLINK-kabel). Z Indbygget trådløst Wi-Fi-/AirPort-netværk Slut Apple TV til det trådløse netværk.12 Kapitel 1 Tilslut Indstille Apple TV Apple TV tilsluttes fjernsynet via en HDMI-port, som både leverer lyd og video til fjernsynet, eller via component video- og lydporte. Før du tilslutter udstyret, skal du kontrollere, om du har de korrekte kabler til portene på bagsiden af fjernsynet. Du kommer i gang på følgende måde:  Sæt lyd- og videokablerne i Apple TV og dit fjernsyn med bred skærm  Slut Apple TV til det trådløse netværk eller Ethernet-netværket  Installer den nyeste version af iTunes på computeren, hvis du vil afspille indhold fra computeren via Apple TV Du kan slutte Apple TV til et bredt fjernsyn, der har:  En HDMI-port – brug et HDMI-kabel til både video og lyd  Component videoporte (Y, Pb og Pr) – brug et component videokabel med et grønt, blåt og rødt stik og et lydkabel Du kan også slutte Apple TV til en hjemmebiografmodtager eller et fjernsyn, som har en DVI-port, vha. et HDMI-til-DVI-kabel til video og et lydkabel. Vigtigt: Før du slutter Apple TV til en stikkontakt, skal du læse alle instruktionerne til installering nedenfor og sikkerhedsoplysningerne i den medfølgende Vejledning med vigtige produktoplysninger.Kapitel 1 Tilslut 13 Trin 1: Tilslutte kablerne Vælg den opstilling, der passer til portene på fjernsynet eller modtageren. Du tilslutter et fjernsyn med bred skærm via en HDMI-port på følgende måde: 1 Sæt den ene ende af et HDMI-kabel i porten på bagsiden af fjernsynet. 2 Sæt den anden ende i porten på bagsiden af Apple TV. Hvis fjernsynets HDMI-port bruges af en anden enhed, eller hvis fjernsynet ikke har en HDMI-port, kan du tilslutte Apple TV vha. component video- og lydkabler. optical audio G £ d audio video R L Apple TV Fjernsyn HDMI-port HDMI-port HDMI-kabel14 Kapitel 1 Tilslut Du tilslutter et fjernsyn med bred skærm via en component video- og analog lydport på følgende måde: 1 Sæt det grønne, blå og røde stik i den ene ende af et component videokabel i Y-, Pb- og Pr-portene på fjernsynet, og sæt stikkene i den anden ende af kablet i portene på Apple TV. 2 Sæt den ene ende af et analogt lydkabel med røde og hvide stik i Apple TV, og sæt den anden ende i fjernsynet. Bemærk: Den indbyggede 802.11 Wi-Fi-funktion forbinder Apple TV med det trådløse netværk. Hvis dit netværk er Ethernet-baseret, skal du slutte Apple TV til netværket via et Ethernet-kabel (sælges separat). optical audio G £ d audio video R L Component videokabel Analogt lydkabel Apple TV Fjernsyn Lyd, venstre (hvid) Videoindgang (Y, Pb, Pr) Lyd, højre (rød)Kapitel 1 Tilslut 15 Trin 2: Tilslut netledningen Sæt den ene ende af netledningen i stikket på bagsiden af Apple TV, og den anden ende i en stikkontakt. Vigtigt: Anbring ingen genstande oven på Apple TV. Genstande, der anbringes oven på enheden, kan forårsage forstyrrelse af det trådløse signal. Trin 3: Tænd fjernsynet, og vælg indgang Første gang du bruger Apple TV, bliver du ført gennem en række trin, inklusive valg af sprog, valg af netværk, konfiguration af Apple TV til netværket og oprettelse af forbindelse til iTunes. Se Kapitel 2, “Konfigurer,” på side 17. Bemærk: Hvis du kun ser en sort skærm, første gang du bruger Apple TV, skal du kontrollere, at kablerne er tilsluttet den indgang, der er valgt på fjernsynet eller modtageren. Hvis det er den rigtige indgang, skal du måske vælge en skærmopløsning, som fjernsynet understøtter. Der findes oplysninger om fjernsynets indgang i “Problemer? Ingen problemer” på side 27 og i den dokumentation, der fulgte med fjernsynet. Port til strømforsyning optical audio £ d G audio video R L2 2 Konfigurer www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv18 Kapitel 2 Konfigurer Apple TV hjælper dig med at vælge og konfigurere din trådløse netværksforbindelse og med at oprette forbindelse til iTunes på computeren, hvis du vil se eller høre indholdet i dit iTunes-bibliotek. Netværkskonfiguration Du skal have adgangskoden til netværket (hvis du bruger en) og Apple Remote ved hånden for at konfigurere Apple TV. Sørg for, at der ikke er nogen forhindringer mellem fjernbetjeningen og Apple TV. Der findes oplysninger om brug af fjernbetjeningen i “Klar, parat, se” på side 21. Hvis du:  Bruger et Ethernet-netværk, finder Apple TV automatisk netværket.  Bruger et trådløst netværk, hjælper Apple TV dig med at vælge og konfigurere netværksforbindelsen. Oprette forbindelse til det trådløse netværk Apple TV hjælper dig med at oprette forbindelse til det trådløse netværk. Hvis du bruger en adgangskode til netværket, skal du have den parat. Brug Apple Remote til at:  Vælge netværket på listen, eller skriv navnet på netværket, hvis netværket er skjult  Indtaste din adgangskode (hvis du har en)  Indtaste din IP-adresse, subnetmaske, router- og DNS-adresse (hvis du konfigurerer netværket manuelt) Hvis du opretter forbindelse vha. DHCP, skal du måske skrive IP-adressen, subnetmasken samt router- og DNS-adressen. Du færdiggør indstilling af netværksforbindelsen ved at følge instruktionerne på skærmen.Kapitel 2 Konfigurer 19 Oprette forbindelse til iTunes Før du kan få adgang til indholdet i dit iTunes-bibliotek med Apple TV, skal iTunes 7.6 eller en nyere version være installeret på computeren. Der findes en komplet liste over systemkrav i “Computer og software” på side 9. Opdatere iTunes-software Du kan hente den nyeste version af iTunes fra www.apple.com/dk/itunes/download. På en Mac kan du også bruge Softwareopdatering til at opdatere til den nyeste version af iTunes. For at bruge Softwareopdatering skal du vælge Apple () > Softwareopdatering. Før du kan bruge iTunes 7.6 på en Mac, skal du opdatere System-software til Mac OS v10.3.9 eller v10.4.7 eller en nyere version og opdatere til QuickTime 7.4 eller en nyere version. På en Windows-computer kan du også hente den nyeste version af iTunes via iTuneshjælp. Åbn iTunes, og vælg Hjælp > Søg efter opdateringer. Før du kan bruge iTunes 7.6 på en Windows-computer, skal du have Windows XP eller en nyere version.20 Kapitel 2 Konfigurer Oprette par med iTunes Når du har indstillet netværksforbindelsen, vises der på fjernsynet en adgangskode på fem tegn, som du skal skrive i iTunes for at synkronisere eller streame indhold fra computeren til Apple TV. Du indstiller Apple TV til dit iTunes-bibliotek på følgende måde: 1 Åbn iTunes på computeren. 2 Vælg på listen Enheder symbolet for Apple TV, hvor der ved siden af står “Klik for at indstille”. 3 Skriv adgangskoden på 5 tegn fra fjernsynet. Når du skriver adgangskoden, kan du give Apple TV et navn og indstille iTunes til at administrere indholdet. Du kan få flere oplysninger om iTunes, hvis du åbner iTunes og vælger Hjælp > iTunes-hjælp.3 3 Klar, parat, se www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv22 Kapitel 3 Klar, parat, se Læs videre, hvis du vil vide, hvordan du parrer og bruger fjernbetjeningen med Apple TV. Bruge Apple Remote Brug Apple Remote til at justere Apple TV-indstillinger og navigere gennem dit indhold. Sørg for, at der ikke er nogen forhindringer mellem fjernbetjeningen og Apple TV. Næste/spol frem Vælg/afspil/pause Batterirum Flyt op på menu/ rul IR-vindue Flyt ned på menu/ rul Forrige/spol tilbage Menu MENUKapitel 3 Klar, parat, se 23 Fjernbetjeningens funktioner i grundtræk Apple Remote har de grundlæggende funktioner, som beskrives nedenfor. Bemærk: ∂ og D på Apple Remote justerer ikke lydstyrken på fjernsynet eller modtageren. Brug den fjernbetjening, der fulgte med fjernsynet eller modtageren, til at ændre lydstyrken. Parre Apple TV med en fjernbetjening Apple Remote arbejder vha. den indbyggede IR-modtager på Apple TV. Du kan indstille Apple TV til kun at arbejde med den medfølgende fjernbetjening ved at parre Apple TV og fjernbetjeningen. Du parrer Apple TV med den medfølgende fjernbetjening på følgende måde: 1 Vælg Indstillinger på hovedmenuen på Apple TV. Hvis du vil... Skal du gøre følgende: Blade gennem kommandoer på menuer Tryk på ∂ eller D Vælge en kommando på en menu Tryk på ’ Tilbage til forrige menu Tryk på » Tilbage til hovedmenuen Tryk på og hold » nede Sætte Apple TV på standby Tryk på og hold ’ nede i omkring 6 sekunder Nulstille Apple TV Tryk på og hold » og D nede i omkring 6 sekunder Parre Apple TV og en fjernbetjening Tryk på og hold » og ‘ nede i omkring 6 sekunder24 Kapitel 3 Klar, parat, se 2 Vælg Par med fjernbetjening. Du kan også trykke på og holde » og ‘ nede i 6 sekunder for at parre Apple TV og fjernbetjeningen. Når du har dannet et par med Apple Remote, viser Apple TV et kædesymbol ( ) over et billede af en fjernbetjening. Apple TV kan nu kun arbejde med den fjernbetjening, du har oprettet et par med. Ophæve pardannelsen mellem Apple TV og en fjernbetjening Hvis du mister den Apple Remote, som er parret med Apple TV, kan du vha. en hvilken som helst Apple Remote annullere pardannelsen mellem Apple TV og den mistede fjernbetjening ved at trykke på og holde » og ] nede i 6 sekunder. Du kan også følge disse trin. Du ophæver pardannelsen mellem Apple TV og en fjernbetjening på følgende måde: 1 Vælg Indstillinger på hovedmenuen på Apple TV. 2 Vælg Annuller pardannelse. Når du har ophævet pardannelsen med den fjernbetjening, du har mistet, viser Apple TV et brudt kædesymbol ( ) over et billede af en fjernbetjening. Nu kan du parre Apple TV med en ny Apple Remote.Kapitel 3 Klar, parat, se 25 Udskifte batteriet i fjernbetjeningen Når spændingen på batteriet i Apple Remote bliver lav, viser Apple TV et billede af en fjernbetjening og et advarselssymbol (·). Udskift batteriet med et CR2032-batteri. Du indsætter batteriet igen på følgende måde: 1 Åbn batterirummet ved at trykke på knappen med en lille genstand, indtil batterirummet skubbes delvist ud. 2 Træk batterirummet ud, og fjern batteriet. 3 Sæt det nye batteri i med den positive side (∂) opad. 4 Sæt batterirummet i fjernbetjeningen igen. 5 Sørg for, at det brugte batteri bliver genbrugt eller destrueret i henhold til gældende regler. Tryk på denne knap med en lille genstand. Positiv (+) side opad. Træk batterirummet helt ud. MENU26 Kapitel 3 Klar, parat, se Leje film Du kan leje film i SD-format (Standard Definition) med stereolyd og HD-film (High Definition) med Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound direkte fra Apple TV. Når du lejer en film, kan du vente 30 dage, før du begynder at se den. Men når du har trykket på Afspil, har du 24 timer til at se den, før lejeperioden udløber. Menuen Lejede film viser, hvornår lejeperioden for filmen udløber. Når lejeperioden udløber, slettes filmen, så der spares lagringsplads på Apple TV. Bemærk: Det er ikke i alle områder, at man kan leje film. 4 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv28 Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer De fleste problemer med Apple TV kan hurtigt løses ved at følge instruktionerne i dette kapitel. Der findes flere gode råd og oplysninger om fejlfinding på siden om support til Apple TV på www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv. Fejlfinding Når der opstår et problem med Apple TV, er der som regel en hurtig og nem løsning. Først skal du sikre dig, at:  Lyd- og videokablerne mellem Apple TV og fjernsynet er tilsluttet korrekt.  Netledningen til Apple TV og fjernsynet er sluttet korrekt til en stikkontakt.  Fjernsynet er tændt og indstillet til den korrekte indgang.  Apple TV er tilsluttet netværket. Gå til menuen Indstillinger på Apple TV, vælg Netværk, og se efter, om Apple TV har en IP-adresse.  Netværks- og Internetforbindelsen er slået til og fungerer korrekt. Hvis der stadig er problemer, kan du prøve at nulstille udstyret ved at afmontere netledningen til Apple TV, fjernsynet, det trådløse netværksudstyr eller AirPort-basen og routeren. Vent 30 sekunder, og tilslut derefter alle enhederne igen.Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer 29 Hvis fjernbetjeningen ikke virker:  Hvis du har parret Apple TV med en Apple Remote, skal du huske at bruge den rigtige fjernbetjening.  Hvis du bruger den rigtige fjernbetjening, og statusindikatoren på Apple TV blinker hvidt, når du trykker på knapperne på fjernbetjeningen, skyldes problemet ikke fjernbetjeningen. Se “Hvis du kan se et billede, men Apple TV ikke svarer” på side 30.  Hvis du bruger en forkert fjernbetjening, blinker indikatorlampen på Apple TV orange.  Hvis du har parret Apple TV og en Apple Remote og ikke kan finde den rigtige fjernbetjening, kan du indstille Apple TV til at arbejde med alle Apple Remotefjernbetjeninger ved at trykke på og holde » og ] nede i 6 sekunder.  Peg direkte på Apple TV med fjernbetjeningen.  Sørg for, at IR-modtageren på forsiden af Apple TV ikke er dækket.  Hvis Apple TV viser et billede af en fjernbetjening og et advarselssymbol (·), skal du udskifte batteriet i fjernbetjeningen. Se “Udskifte batteriet i fjernbetjeningen” på side 25. Hvis Apple TV ikke kan få adgang til netværket  Se, hvilken IP-adresse Apple TV bruger. Hvis den begynder med 169.x.x.x, er routeren eller basen måske ikke konfigureret korrekt. Se efter, om det er muligt at bruge DHCP-adgang, eller konfigurer Apple TV med en manuel IP-adresse.  Se efter evt. forhindringer, og flyt basen eller Apple TV.  Hvis netværkssikkerhed er slået til, kan du prøve at slå den midlertidigt fra på basen og derefter prøve at oprette forbindelse igen.30 Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer  Apple TV kan ikke oprette forbindelse til et trådløst netværk, hvis netværkets navn eller adgangskode indeholder udvidede ASCII-tegn eller tegn med to byte (Unicode), f.eks. japansk, koreansk eller kinesisk.  Hvis sikkerhed er slået til på netværket, skal du sikre dig, at du har indtastet den korrekte adgangskode. Hvis billedet på fjernsynsskærmen er uskarpt eller sort  Kontroller, at du bruger de korrekte videokabler, og at de sidder korrekt i Apple TV og fjernsynet.  Sørg for, at videokablerne er sluttet til den indgang, der er valgt på fjernsynet. Der findes flere oplysninger i den dokumentation, der fulgte med fjernsynet. Hvis billedet på fjernsynsskærmen stadig er uskarpt eller sort, skal du måske vælge en videofunktion, som fjernsynet understøtter. Du vælger en videofunktion på følgende måde: 1 Tryk på og hold » og ∂ på Apple Remote nede i omkring 6 sekunder. 2 Tryk på ∂ eller D på Apple Remote for at blade gennem skærmopløsningerne. 3 Når Apple TV viser en acceptabel skærmopløsning, og meddelelsen “Klik på OK, hvis du kan se Apple-logoet” vises på fjernsynet, skal du trykke på ’ . Hvis du kan se et billede, men Apple TV ikke svarer  Prøv at holde » nede på Apple Remote for at vende tilbage til hovedmenuen på Apple TV.  Sørg for, at fjernsynet er tilsluttet og virker korrekt. Der findes flere oplysninger i den dokumentation, der fulgte med fjernsynet.Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer 31  Hvis du har parret en Apple Remote med Apple TV, skal du huske at bruge den rigtige fjernbetjening. Se “Parre Apple TV med en fjernbetjening” på side 23.  Nulstil Apple TV ved at afmontere netledningen, og vent omkring 5 sekunder, før du tilslutter den igen. Du kan også trykke på og holde » og D på Apple Remote nede i omkring 6 sekunder for at nulstille Apple TV. Film og andet indhold bevares på Apple TV. Hvis Apple TV stadig ikke svarer, kan du prøve at gendanne de originale fabriksindstillinger ved at nulstille enheden  Tryk på og hold » og D på Apple Remote nede i 6 sekunder, eller indtil indikatorlampen blinker orange.  Vælg sprog.  Vælg Nulstil enhed. Under gendannelse af fabriksindstillingerne roterer statusindikatoren (et tandhjul) et stykke tid. Hav tålmodighed.  Hvis netværket ikke bruger DHCP, skal du vælge Konfigurer TCP/IP og anføre TCP/IP-konfigurationen.  Hvis Apple TV stadig ikke vises på kildelisten i iTunes, kan du finde flere oplysninger på siden om support til Apple TV: www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv Hvis du ikke kan høre lyden  Hvis Apple TV er sluttet til en A/V-modtager, skal du sørge for, at modtageren er tændt.  Sørg for, at lydkablerne er sluttet til den indgang, der er valgt på modtageren. Der findes flere oplysninger i den dokumentation, der fulgte med modtageren.32 Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer  Sørg for, at der er skruet op for lyden på fjernsynet eller modtageren, og at lyden ikke er slået fra.  Sørg for, at du bruger det korrekte lydkabel (se side 13), og at det sidder korrekt i Apple TV og fjernsynet.  Hvis du bruger HDMI-porten på fjernsynet og Apple TV, skal du sikre dig, at fjernsynet understøtter lyd via HDMI-porten. HDMI-portene på nogle ældre fjernsyn understøtter kun video. Hvis Apple TV ikke vises i iTunes  Sørg for, at Apple TV er tændt og sluttet til netværket. Gå til menuen Indstillinger på Apple TV, vælg Netværk, og se efter, om Apple TV har en IP-adresse.  Vælg Indstillinger i iTunes, klik på Apple TV, og sørg for, at “Søg efter Apple TVenheder” er valgt.  Hvis Firewall er slået til (i vinduet Deling i Systemindstillinger), skal du sørge for, at “Apple TV-deling” er valgt, så indholdet kan passere firewallen. Hvis andre Apple TV-enheder af og til vises på listen Enheder i iTunes  Det betyder, at iTunes har fundet andre Apple TV-enheder på netværket. Du kan forhindre dette ved at vælge Indstillinger i iTunes, klikke på Apple TV og sørge for, at “Søg efter Apple TV-enheder” ikke er valgt. Hvis Apple TV ikke afspiller fotoalbum eller lysbilledshow  Sørg for, at fotografierne ligger i fotobiblioteket eller i en mappe på computeren.Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer 33 Indikatorlampe Apple TV har en indikatorlampe på forsiden, så du kan se, hvad der sker. Apple TV Indikatorlampen Tændt Lyser hvidt Slukket eller på standby Slukket Starter Blinker orange Modtager en kommando fra fjernbetjeningen Blinker hvidt en gang Afviser en kommando fra fjernbetjeningen (du har parret en fjernbetjening med Apple TV, men bruger ikke den rigtige fjernbetjening) Blinker orange en gang Har problemer Skifter mellem hvid og orange34 Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer Service og support Der findes flere oplysninger om brug af Apple TV i hjælpen på skærmen og på Internet. Den følgende tabel beskriver, hvor du kan få software og serviceoplysninger. Serienummer Serienummeret er trykt i bunden af Apple TV. Du kan også se serienummeret på menuen Indstillinger på Apple TV. Vælg Indstillinger > Om på Apple TV. Hvis du vil læse om Skal du gøre følgende: Service og support, diskussioner, øvelser og Apple-softwareoverførsler Gå til: www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv Brug af iTunes Åbn iTunes, og vælg Hjælp > iTunes-hjælp. Du kan finde en iTunes-øvelse på Internet (findes kun i nogle lande) på adressen: www.apple.com/dk/support/itunes Brug af iPhoto (med Mac OS X) Åbn iPhoto, og vælg Hjælp > iPhoto-hjælp. Sidste nyt om Apple TV Gå til: www.apple.com/dk/support/appletv Oplysninger om sikkerhed og overholdelse af regler Se Vejledning med vigtige produktoplysninger, der følger med Apple TV. Service i henhold til garanti Følg først rådene i hæftet Vejledning med vigtige produktoplysninger, hjælpen på skærmen og ressourcerne på Internet. Hvis enheden ikke fungerer, kan du på www.apple.com/dk/ support/appletv få oplysninger om, hvordan du får service i henhold til garantien. Registrering af Apple TV Gå til: www.apple.com/dk/registerKapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer 35 Vedligeholdelse og rengøring Bruge stik og porte Tving aldrig et stik ind i en port. Se efter evt. forhindringer i porten. Hvis stikket ikke kan sættes i porten uden besvær, passer de sandsynligvis ikke sammen. Sørg for, at du bruger det rigtige stik, og hold stikket korrekt i forhold til porten. Holde Apple TV inden for acceptable temperaturer Brug kun Apple TV på steder, hvor temperaturen er mellem 0º og 40º C. BEMÆRK: Hvis du ikke følger disse instruktioner til vedligeholdelse og rengøring, risikerer du at beskadige Apple TV eller andre genstande.36 Kapitel 4 Problemer? Ingen problemer Rengøre det ydre af Apple TV Når du vil rengøre Apple TV , skal du afmontere netledningen og alle kabler. Brug derefter en blød, fnugfri klud. Sørg for, at der ikke kommer fugt i nogen åbninger. Brug ikke vinduesrens, rengøringsmidler, aerosolspraydåser, opløsningsmidler, alkohol, ammoniak eller slibemidler til rengøring af Apple TV. Bortskaffe Apple TV Der findes oplysninger om korrekt bortskaffelse af Apple TV og andre vigtige oplysninger om godkendelser i Vejledning med vigtige produktoplysninger.K Apple Inc. © 2008 Apple Inc. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. I henhold til loven om ophavsret må dele af eller hele dette materiale ikke kopieres uden skriftlig tilladelse fra Apple. Apple-logoet er et varemærke tilhørende Apple Inc. og registreret i USA og andre lande. Brugen af Apple-logoet på tastaturet til kommercielle formål uden skriftlig tilladelse fra Apple Computer kan krænke varemærkerettighederne samt være konkurrenceforvridende og i strid med dansk lovgivning. Alle oplysningerne i denne håndbog var korrekte på udgivelsestidspunktet. Apple påtager sig intet ansvar for evt. oversættelses- eller trykfejl. Apple 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014-2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, Apple-logoet, AirPort, Apple TV, iLife, iPhoto, iTunes, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS og QuickTime er varemærker tilhørende Apple Inc. og registreret i USA og andre lande. Apple Store og .Mac er servicemærker tilhørende Apple Inc. og registreret i USA og andre lande. iTunes Store er et servicemærke tilhørende Apple Inc. Fremstillet iht. licens fra Dolby Laboratories. “Dolby”, “Pro Logic” og det dobbelte D-symbol er varemærker tilhørende Dolby Laboratories. Fortroligt, ikke publiceret materiale, © 1992-1997 Dolby Laboratories, Inc. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. Det produkt, der beskrives i denne håndbog, indeholder teknologi til beskyttelse af ophavsret, og denne teknologi er beskyttet af metodekrav i visse amerikanske patenter og immaterielle rettigheder ejet af Macrovision Corporation og andre rettighedsindehavere. Brug af denne teknologi til beskyttelse af ophavsret skal godkendes af Macrovision Corporation og er kun beregnet til hjemmebrug og andre begrænsede formål, medmindre andet er godkendt af Macrovision Corporation. Det er forbudt at foretage strukturelle ændringer og dekompilering. Apparaturkrav i henhold til de amerikanske patentnumre 4.631.603, 4.577.216, 4.819.098 og 4.907.093 gives kun i licens til begrænset fremvisning. Andre firma- og produktnavne kan være varemærker tilhørende deres respektive ejere. Omtale af tredjeparters produkter har kun oplysende karakter og skal ikke opfattes som en anbefaling. Apple påtager sig ikke noget ansvar for produkternes funktionsdygtighed. DK034-4570-B iPod classic Features Guide2 2 Contents Chapter 1 4 iPod classic Basics 5 iPod classic at a Glance 5 Using iPod classic Controls 8 Disabling iPod classic Controls 9 Using iPod classic Menus 10 Connecting and Disconnecting iPod classic 14 About the iPod classic Battery Chapter 2 17 Music Features 17 About iTunes 18 Importing Music into Your iTunes Library 22 Organizing Your Music 22 Adding Music and Podcasts to iPod classic 26 Playing Music 31 Watching and Listening to Podcasts 32 Listening to Audiobooks 32 Listening to FM Radio Chapter 3 33 Video Features 33 Purchasing or Renting Videos and Downloading Video Podcasts 34 Converting Your Own Videos to Work with iPod classic 35 Adding Videos to iPod classic 37 Viewing and Listening to Videos Chapter 4 40 Photo Features 40 Importing Photos 43 Viewing Photos Chapter 5 46 Extra Features and Accessories 46 Using iPod classic as an External Disk 47 Using Extra Settings 51 Syncing Contacts, Calendars, and To-Do Lists 53 Storing and Reading NotesContents 3 54 Recording Voice Memos 54 Learning About iPod classic Accessories Chapter 6 56 Tips and Troubleshooting 56 General Suggestions 61 Updating and Restoring iPod Software Chapter 7 62 Safety and Cleaning 62 Important Safety Information 64 Important Handling Information Chapter 8 65 Learning More, Service, and Support Index 681 4 1 iPod classic Basics Congratulations on purchasing iPod classic. Read this chapter to learn about the features of iPod classic, how to use its controls, and more. To use iPod classic, you put music, videos, photos, and other files on your computer and then add them to iPod classic. iPod classic is a music player and much more. Use iPod classic to:  Sync songs, videos, and digital photos for listening and viewing on the go  Listen to podcasts, downloadable audio and video shows delivered over the Internet  View video on iPod classic, or on a TV using an optional cable  View photos as a slideshow with music on iPod classic, or on a TV using an optional cable  Listen to audiobooks purchased from the iTunes Store or audible.com  Store or back up files and other data, using iPod classic as an external disk  Sync contact, calendar, and to-do list information from your computer  Play games, store text notes, set an alarm, and moreChapter 1 iPod classic Basics 5 iPod classic at a Glance Get to know the controls on iPod classic: Using iPod classic Controls The controls on iPod classic are easy to find and use. Press any button to turn on iPod classic. The main menu appears. Use the Click Wheel and Center button to navigate through onscreen menus, play songs, change settings, and view information. Move your thumb lightly around the Click Wheel to select a menu item. To choose the item, press the Center button. To go back to the previous menu, press Menu on the Click Wheel. Hold switch Menu Previous/Rewind Play/Pause Dock connector Headphones port Click Wheel Next/Fast-forward Center button6 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics Here’s what else you can do with iPod classic controls. To Do this Turn on iPod classic Press any button. Turn off iPod classic Press and hold Play/Pause (’). Turn on the backlight Press any button or use the Click Wheel. Disable the iPod classic controls (so nothing happens if you press them accidentally) Slide the Hold switch to HOLD (an orange bar appears). Reset iPod classic (if it isn’t responding) Slide the Hold switch to HOLD and back again. Press the Menu and Center buttons at the same time for about 6 seconds, until the Apple logo appears. Choose a menu item Scroll to the item and press the Center button. Go back to the previous menu Press Menu. Go directly to the main menu Press and hold Menu. Browse for a song From the main menu, choose Music. Browse for a video From the main menu, choose Videos. Play a song or video Select the song or video and press the Center or Play/Pause (’) button. iPod classic has to be ejected from your computer to play songs and videos. Pause a song or video Press Play/Pause (’) or unplug your headphones. Change the volume From the Now Playing screen, use the Click Wheel. Play all the songs in a playlist or album Select the playlist or album and press Play/Pause (’). Play all songs in random order From the main menu, choose Shuffle Songs. You can also shuffle songs from the Now Playing screen. Skip to any point in a song or video From the Now Playing screen, press the Center button to show the scrubber bar (a diamond icon on the bar shows the current location), and then scroll to any point in the song or video. Skip to the next song or chapter in an audiobook or podcast Press Next/Fast-forward (‘). Start a song or video over Press Previous/Rewind (]). Play the previous song or chapter in an audiobook or podcast Press Previous/Rewind (]) twice. Fast-forward or rewind a song Press and hold Next/Fast-forward (‘) or Previous/Rewind (]). Add a song to the On-The-Go playlist Select a song in a playlist, and then press and hold the Center button until the song title flashes. Find the iPod classic serial number From the main menu, choose Settings > About and press the Center button until you get to the serial number, or look on the back of iPod classic.Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics 7 Browsing Music Using Cover Flow You can browse your music collection using Cover Flow, a visual way to flip through your library. To use Cover Flow: 1 From the Music menu, choose Cover Flow. 2 Use the Click Wheel to move through your album art or press the Next/Fast-forward and Previous/Rewind buttons. 3 Select an album and press the Center button. 4 Use the Click Wheel to select a song and press the Center button to play it. Scrolling Quickly Through Long Lists If you have more than 100 songs, videos, or other items, you can scroll quickly through a long list by moving your thumb quickly on the Click Wheel. Note: Not all languages are supported. To scroll quickly: 1 Move your thumb quickly on the Click Wheel, to display a letter of the alphabet on the screen. 2 Use the Click Wheel to navigate the alphabet until you find the first letter of the item you’re looking for. This takes you to the first item in the list beginning with that letter. Items beginning with a symbol or number appear before the letter “A.” 3 Lift your thumb momentarily to return to normal scrolling. 4 Use the Click Wheel to finish navigating to the item you want. Searching Music You can search iPod classic for songs, playlists, album titles, artist names, audio podcasts, and audiobooks. The search feature doesn’t search videos, notes, calendar items, contacts, or lyrics. Note: Not all languages are supported. To search iPod classic: 1 From the Music menu, choose Search. 2 Enter a search string by using the Click Wheel to navigate the alphabet and pressing the Center button to enter each character. iPod classic starts searching as soon as you enter the first character, displaying the results on the search screen. For example, if you enter “b,” then iPod classic displays all music items containing the letter “b.” If you enter “ab,” iPod classic displays all items containing that sequence of letters. To enter a space, press the Next/Fast-forward button.8 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics To delete the previous character, press the Previous/Rewind button. 3 Press Menu to display the results list, which you can now navigate. Items appear in the results list with icons identifying their type: song, video, artist, album, audiobook, or podcast. To return to Search (if Search is highlighted in the menu), press the Center button. Turning off the Click Wheel Sound When you scroll through menu items, you can hear a clicking sound through the iPod classic internal speaker. If you like, you can turn the Click Wheel sound off. To turn off the Click Wheel sound: m Choose Settings and set Clicker to Off. To turn the Click Wheel sound on again, set Clicker to On. Disabling iPod classic Controls If you don’t want to turn iPod classic on or activate controls accidentally, you can make them inactive using the Hold switch. m Slide the Hold switch to HOLD (so you can see the orange bar).Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics 9 Using iPod classic Menus When you turn on iPod classic, you see the main menu. Choose menu items to perform functions or go to other menus. Icons along the top of the screen show iPod classic status. Adding or Removing Items from the Main Menu You might want to add often-used items to the iPod classic main menu. For example, you can add a Songs item to the main menu, so you don’t have to choose Music before you choose Songs. To add or remove items from the main menu: 1 Choose Settings > Main Menu. 2 Choose each item you want to appear in the main menu. A checkmark indicates which items have been added. Setting the Backlight Timer You can set the backlight to turn on and illuminate the screen for a certain amount of time when you press a button or use the Click Wheel. The default is 10 seconds. m Choose Settings > Backlight Timer, and then choose the time you want. Choose “Always On” to prevent the backlight from turning off. Display item Function Menu title Displays the title of the current menu. Lock icon The Lock icon appears when the Hold switch (on top of iPod classic) is set to HOLD. This indicates that the iPod classic controls are disabled. Play status The Play (“) icon appears when a song, video, or other item is playing. The Pause (1) icon appears when the item is paused. Battery status The Battery icon shows the approximate remaining battery charge. Menu items Use the Click Wheel to scroll through menu items. Press the Center button to choose an item. An arrow next to a menu item indicates that choosing it leads to another menu or screen. Menu title Menu items Battery status Play status Lock icon10 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics Setting the Screen Brightness You can adjust the brightness of the iPod classic screen by moving a slider. m Choose Settings > Brightness, and then use the Click Wheel to move the slider. Moving it to the left dims the screen; moving it to the right increases the screen brightness. You can also set the brightness during a slideshow or video. Press the Center button to bring up or dismiss the brightness slider. Setting the Language iPod classic can be set to use different languages. m Choose Settings > Language, and then choose a language from the list. Getting Information About iPod classic You can get details about your iPod classic, such as how much space is available, how many songs, videos, photos, and other items you have, and the serial number, model, and software version. To get information about iPod classic: m Choose Settings > About, and press the Center button to cycle through the screens of information. Resetting All Settings You can reset all the items on the Settings menu to their default setting. m Choose Settings > Reset Settings, and then choose Reset. Connecting and Disconnecting iPod classic You connect iPod classic to your computer to add music, videos, photos, and files, and to charge the battery. Disconnect iPod classic when you’re done. Connecting iPod classic To connect iPod classic to your computer: m Plug the included iPod Dock Connector to USB 2.0 cable into a high-powered USB 2.0 port on your computer, and then connect the other end to iPod classic. If you have an iPod Dock, you can connect the cable to a USB 2.0 port on your computer, connect the other end to the Dock, and then put iPod classic in the Dock.Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics 11 Note: The USB port on most keyboards doesn’t provide enough power. You must connect iPod classic to a USB 2.0 port on your computer, unless your keyboard has a high-powered USB 2.0 port. By default, iTunes syncs songs on iPod classic automatically when you connect it to your computer. When iTunes is finished, you can disconnect iPod classic. Note: You can sync songs while your battery is charging. If you connect iPod classic to a different computer and it’s set to sync music automatically, iTunes prompts you before syncing any music. If you click Yes, the songs and other audio files already on iPod classic will be erased and replaced with songs and other audio files on the computer iPod classic is connected to. For more information about adding music to iPod classic and using iPod classic with more than one computer, see Chapter 2, “Music Features,” on page 17.12 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics Disconnecting iPod classic It’s important not to disconnect iPod classic from your computer while music is being synced. You can easily see if it’s OK to disconnect iPod classic by looking at the iPod classic screen. Important: Don’t disconnect iPod classic if you see the “Connected” or “Sync in Progress” messages. You could damage files on iPod classic. If you see one of these messages, you must eject iPod classic before disconnecting it. If you set iPod classic to manage songs manually (see “Managing iPod classic Manually” on page 24) or enable iPod classic for disk use (see “Using iPod classic as an External Disk” on page 46), you must always eject iPod classic before disconnecting it. If you see the main menu or a large battery icon, you can disconnect iPod classic. Important: If you see one of these messages, you must eject iPod classic before disconnecting it.Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics 13 To eject iPod classic: m Click the Eject (C) button next to iPod classic in the list of devices in the iTunes source list. If you’re using a Mac, you can also eject iPod classic by dragging the iPod classic icon on the desktop to the Trash. If you’re using a Windows PC, you can also eject iPod classic in My Computer or by clicking the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the Windows system tray and selecting iPod classic. To disconnect iPod classic: m Disconnect the cable from iPod classic. If iPod classic is in the Dock, simply remove it. If your Dock connector is larger than the one shown, squeeze both sides of the connector while removing. You can safely disconnect iPod classic while either of these messages is displayed.14 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics About the iPod classic Battery iPod classic has an internal, non-user-replaceable battery. For best results, the first time you use iPod classic, let it charge for about four hours or until the battery icon in the status area of the display shows that the battery is fully charged. If iPod classic isn’t used for a while, the battery might need to be charged. The iPod classic battery is 80-percent charged in about two hours and fully charged in about four hours. If you charge iPod classic while adding files, playing music, viewing videos, or viewing a slideshow, it might take longer. Charging the iPod classic Battery You can charge the iPod classic battery in two ways:  Connect iPod classic to your computer.  Use the Apple USB Power Adapter, available separately. To charge the battery using your computer: m Connect iPod classic to a USB 2.0 port on your computer. The computer must be turned on and not in sleep mode (some Mac models can charge iPod classic while in sleep mode). If the battery icon on the iPod classic screen shows the Charging screen, the battery is charging. If it shows the Charged screen, the battery is fully charged. If you don’t see the charging screen, iPod classic might not be connected to a high-power USB port. Try another USB port on your computer. Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics 15 Important: If a “Charging, Please Wait” or “Connect to Power” message appears on the iPod classic screen, the battery needs to be charged before iPod classic can communicate with your computer. See “If iPod classic displays a “Connect to Power” message” on page 58. If you want to charge iPod classic when you’re away from your computer, you can purchase the Apple USB Power Adapter. To charge the battery using the Apple USB Power Adapter: 1 Connect the AC plug adapter to the power adapter (they might already be connected). 2 Connect the iPod Dock Connector to USB 2.0 cable to the power adapter, and plug the other end of the cable into iPod classic. 3 Plug the power adapter into a working electrical outlet. WARNING: Make sure the power adapter is fully assembled before plugging it into an electrical outlet. AC plug adapter (The plug on your Power Adapter may look different.) USB Power Adapter iPod Dock Connector to USB 2.0 Cable16 Chapter 1 iPod classic Basics Understanding Battery States When iPod classic isn’t connected to a power source, a battery icon in the top-right corner of the iPod classic screen shows approximately how much charge is left. If iPod classic is connected to a power source, the battery icon changes to show that the battery is charging or fully charged. You can disconnect and use iPod classic before it’s fully charged. Note: Rechargeable batteries have a limited number of charge cycles and might eventually need to be replaced. Battery life and number of charge cycles vary by use and settings. For more information, go to www.apple.com/batteries. Battery less than 20% charged Battery about halfway charged Battery fully charged Battery charging (lightning bolt) Battery fully charged (plug)2 17 2 Music Features With iPod classic, you can take your music and audio collection with you wherever you go. Read this chapter to learn about adding music and listening to iPod classic. You use iPod classic by importing songs, audiobooks, movies, TV shows, music videos, and podcasts into your computer and then adding them to iPod classic. Read on to learn more about the steps in this process, including:  Getting music from your CD collection, hard disk, or the iTunes Store (part of iTunes and available in some countries only) into the iTunes application on your computer  Organizing your music and other audio into playlists, if you want  Adding playlists, songs, audiobooks, videos, and podcasts to iPod classic  Listening to music or other audio on the go About iTunes iTunes is the software application you use with iPod classic. iTunes can sync music, audiobooks, podcasts, and more with iPod classic. When you connect iPod classic to your computer, iTunes opens automatically. This guide explains how to use iTunes to download songs and other audio and video to your computer, create personal compilations of your favorite songs (called playlists), add them to iPod classic, and adjust iPod classic settings. iTunes also has many other features. You can make your own CDs that play in standard CD players (if your computer has a CD-recordable drive); listen to streaming Internet radio; watch videos and TV shows; rate songs according to preference; and much more. For information about using these iTunes features, open iTunes and choose Help > iTunes Help.18 Chapter 2 Music Features Importing Music into Your iTunes Library To listen to music on iPod classic, you first need to get that music into iTunes on your computer. There are three ways of getting music and other audio into iTunes:  Purchase music, audiobooks, and videos, or download podcasts online from the iTunes Store.  Import music and other audio from audio CDs.  Add music and other audio that’s already on your computer to your iTunes library. Purchasing Songs and Downloading Podcasts Using the iTunes Store If you have an Internet connection, you can easily purchase and download songs, albums, audiobooks, and videos online using the iTunes Store. You can also subscribe to and download podcasts. To purchase music online using the iTunes Store, you set up an Apple account in iTunes, find the songs you want, and then buy them. If you already have an Apple account, or if you have an America Online (AOL) account (available in some countries only), you can use that account to sign in to the iTunes Store and buy songs. Note: You don’t need an iTunes Store account to download or subscribe to podcasts. To sign in to the iTunes Store: m Open iTunes and then:  If you already have an iTunes account, choose Store > Sign In.  If you don’t already have an iTunes account, choose Store > Create Account and follow the onscreen instructions to set up an Apple account or enter your existing Apple account or AOL account information.Chapter 2 Music Features 19 To find songs, audiobooks, videos, and podcasts: You can browse or search the iTunes Store to find the album, song, or artist you’re looking for. Open iTunes and select iTunes Store in the source list.  To browse the iTunes Store, choose a category (for example, Music) on the left side of the main page in the iTunes Store. You can choose a genre, look at new releases, click one of the featured songs, look at Top Songs and more, or click Browse under Quick Links in the main iTunes Store window.  To browse for podcasts, click the Podcasts link on the left side of the main page in the iTunes Store.  To browse for videos, click the Movies, TV Shows, or Music Videos link on the left side of the main page in the iTunes Store.  To search the iTunes Store, type the name of an album, song, artist, or composer in the search field.  To narrow your search, type something in the search field, press Return or Enter on your keyboard, and then click links in the Search Bar at the top of the results page. For example, to narrow your search to songs and albums, click the Music link.  To search for a combination of items, click Power Search in the Search Results window.  To return to the main page of the iTunes Store, click the Home button in the status line at the top of the window. To buy a song, album, movie, TV show, music video, or audiobook: 1 Select iTunes Store in the source list, and then find the item you want to buy. You can double-click a song or other item to listen to a portion of it and make sure it’s what you want. You can view movie trailers or TV show previews. (If your network connection is slower than 128 kbps, choose iTunes > Preferences, and in the Store pane, select the “Load complete preview before playing” checkbox.) 2 Click Buy Song, Buy Album, Buy Movie, Buy Episode, Buy Video, or Buy Book. Some items have other options, such as TV shows that let you buy a season pass for all episodes. The song or other item is downloaded to your computer and charged to the credit card listed on your Apple or AOL account. To download or subscribe to a podcast: 1 Select iTunes Store in the source list. 2 Click the Podcasts link on the left side of the main page in the iTunes Store. 3 Browse for the podcast you want to download.  To download a single podcast episode, click the Get Episode button next to the episode.20 Chapter 2 Music Features  To subscribe to a podcast, click the Subscribe button next to the podcast graphic. iTunes downloads the most recent episode. As new episodes become available, they are automatically downloaded to iTunes when you connect to the Internet. For more information, see “Adding Podcasts to iPod classic” on page 25 and “Watching and Listening to Podcasts” on page 31. Adding Songs Already on Your Computer to Your iTunes Library If you have songs on your computer encoded in file formats that iTunes supports, you can easily add the songs to iTunes. To add songs on your computer to your iTunes library: m Drag the folder or disk containing the audio files to Library in the iTunes source list (or choose File > Add to Library and select the folder or disk). If iTunes supports the song file format, the songs are automatically added to your iTunes library. You can also drag individual song files to iTunes. Note: Using iTunes for Windows, you can convert nonprotected WMA files to AAC or MP3 format. This can be useful if you have a library of music encoded in WMA format. For more information, open iTunes and choose Help > iTunes Help. Importing Music From Your Audio CDs Into iTunes Follow these instructions to get music from your CDs into iTunes. To import music from an audio CD into iTunes: 1 Insert a CD into your computer and open iTunes. If you have an Internet connection, iTunes gets the names of the songs on the CD from the Internet (if available) and lists them in the window. If you don’t have an Internet connection, you can import your CDs and, later, when you’re connected to the Internet, choose Advanced > Get CD Track Names. iTunes will bring in the track names for the imported CDs. If the CD track names aren’t available online, you can enter the names of the songs manually. For more information, see “Entering Song Names and Other Details” on page 21. With song information entered, you can browse for songs in iTunes or on iPod by title, artist, album, and more. 2 Click to remove the checkmark next to any song you don’t want to import. 3 Click the Import button. The display area at the top of the iTunes window shows how much time it will take to import each song. Note: By default, iTunes plays songs as they are imported. If you’re importing a lot of songs, you might want to stop the songs from playing to improve performance.Chapter 2 Music Features 21 4 To eject the CD, click the Eject (C) button. You cannot eject a CD until the import is done. 5 Repeat these steps for any other CDs with songs you want to import. Entering Song Names and Other Details To enter CD song names and other information manually: 1 Select the first song on the CD and choose File > Get Info. 2 Click Info. 3 Enter the song information. 4 Click Next to enter information for the next song. 5 Click OK when you finish. Adding Lyrics You can enter song lyrics in plain text format into iTunes so that you can view the song lyrics on iPod classic while the song is playing. To enter lyrics into iTunes: 1 Select a song and choose File > Get Info. 2 Click Lyrics. 3 Enter song lyrics in the text box. 4 Click Next to enter lyrics for the next song. 5 Click OK when you finish. For more information, see “Viewing Lyrics on iPod classic” on page 30. Adding Album Artwork Music you purchase from the iTunes Store includes album artwork, which your iPod classic can display. You can add album artwork for music you’ve imported from CDs, if you have the album art on your computer. To add album artwork to iTunes: 1 Select a song and choose File > Get Info. 2 Click Artwork. 3 Click Add, navigate to the artwork file, and click Choose. 4 Use the slider to adjust the size of the artwork. 5 Click Next to add artwork for the next song or album. 6 Click OK when you finish. For more information, see “Viewing Album Artwork on iPod classic” on page 31.22 Chapter 2 Music Features Organizing Your Music Using iTunes, you can organize songs and other items into lists, called playlists, in any way you want. For example, you can make playlists with songs to listen to while exercising, or playlists with songs for a particular mood. You can also make Smart Playlists that update automatically based on rules you define. When you add songs to iTunes that match the rules, they automatically get added to the Smart Playlist. You can make as many playlists as you like using any of the songs in your iTunes library. Adding a song to a playlist or later removing it doesn’t remove it from your library. To make a playlist in iTunes: 1 Click the Add (+) button or choose File > New Playlist. 2 Type a name for the playlist. 3 Click Music in the Library list, and then drag a song or other item to the playlist. To select multiple songs, hold down the Shift key or the Command (x) key on a Mac, or the Shift key or the Control key on a Windows PC, as you click each song. To make a Smart Playlist: m Choose File > New Smart Playlist and define the rules for your playlist. Note: To make playlists on iPod classicwhen iPod classic isn’t connected to your computer, see “Making On-The-Go Playlists on iPod classic” on page 27. Adding Music and Podcasts to iPod classic After your music is imported and organized in iTunes, you can easily add it to iPod classic. To set how music is added from your computer to iPod classic, you connect iPod classic to your computer, and then use iTunes preferences to choose iPod classic settings.Chapter 2 Music Features 23 You can set iTunes to add music to iPod classic in three ways:  Sync all songs and playlists: When you connect iPod classic, it’s automatically updated to match the songs and other items in your iTunes library. Any other songs on iPod classic are deleted.  Sync selected playlists: When you connect iPod classic, it’s automatically updated to match the songs in playlists you select in iTunes.  Manually add music to iPod classic: When you connect iPod classic, you can drag songs and playlists individually to iPod classic, and delete songs and playlists individually from iPod classic. Using this option, you can add songs from more than one computer without erasing songs from iPod classic. When you manage music yourself, you must always eject iPod classic from iTunes before you can disconnect it. Syncing Music Automatically By default, iPod classic is set to sync all songs and playlists when you connect it to your computer. This is the simplest way to add music to iPod classic. You just connect iPod classic to your computer, let it add songs, audiobooks, videos, and other items automatically, and then disconnect it and go. If you added any songs to iTunes since the last time you connected iPod classic, they are synced with iPod classic. If you deleted songs from iTunes, they are removed from iPod classic. To sync music with iPod classic: m Simply connect iPod classic to your computer. If iPod classic is set to sync automatically, the update begins. Important: The first time you connect iPod classic to a computer, a message asks if you want to sync songs automatically. If you accept, all songs, audiobooks, and videos are erased from iPod classic and replaced with the songs and other items from that computer. If you don’t accept, you can still add songs to iPod classic manually without erasing any of the songs already on iPod classic. While music is being synced from your computer onto iPod classic, the iTunes status window shows progress, and you see a sync icon next to the iPod classic icon in the source list. When the update is done, a message in iTunes says “iPod update is complete.” Syncing Music From Selected Playlists onto iPod classic Setting iTunes to sync selected playlists to iPod classic is useful if the music in your iTunes library doesn’t all fit on iPod classic. Only the music in the playlists you select is synced to iPod classic. To set iTunes to sync music from selected playlists onto iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Music tab. 2 Select “Sync music” and then choose “Selected playlists.”24 Chapter 2 Music Features 3 Select the playlists you want. 4 To include music videos and display album artwork, select those options. 5 Click Apply. Note: If “Sync only checked songs and videos” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked. Managing iPod classic Manually Setting iTunes to let you manage iPod classic manually gives you the most flexibility for managing music and video on iPod classic. You can add and remove individual songs (including music videos) and videos (movies and TV shows). Also, you can add music and videos from multiple computers to iPod classic without erasing items already on iPod classic. Note: Setting iPod classic to manually manage music and video turns off the automatic sync options in the Music, Movies, and TV Shows panes. You cannot manually manage one and automatically sync another at the same time. To set iTunes to let you manage music and video on iPod classic manually: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Summary tab. 2 In the Options section, select “Manually manage music and video.” 3 Click Apply. Note: When you manage songs and video yourself, you must always eject iPod classic from iTunes before you disconnect it. To add a song, video, or other item to iPod classic: 1 Click Music or another Library item in the iTunes source list. 2 Drag a song or other item to the iPod classic icon in the source list. To remove a song, video, or other item from iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list. 2 Select a song or other item on iPod classic and press the Delete or Backspace key on your keyboard. If you manually remove a song or other item from iPod classic, it isn’t deleted from your iTunes library. To make a new playlist on iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list, and then click the Add (+) button or choose File > New Playlist. 2 Type a name for the playlist. 3 Click an item, such as Music, in the Library list, and then drag songs or other items to the playlist.Chapter 2 Music Features 25 To add songs to or remove songs from a playlist on iPod classic: m Drag a song to a playlist on iPod classic to add the song. Select a song in a playlist and press the Delete key on your keyboard to delete the song. If you set iTunes to manage music manually, you can reset it later to sync automatically. To reset iTunes to sync all music automatically on iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Music tab. 2 Select “Sync music” and then choose “All songs and playlists.” 3 Click Apply. The update begins automatically. Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your Music and other libraries. Adding Podcasts to iPod classic The settings for adding podcasts to iPod classic are unrelated to the settings for adding songs. Podcast update settings don’t affect song update settings, and vice versa. You can set iTunes to automatically sync all or selected podcasts, or you can add podcasts to iPod classic manually. To set iTunes to update the podcasts on iPod classic automatically: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Podcasts tab. 2 In the Podcasts pane, select “Sync … episodes” and choose the number of episodes you want in the pop-up menu. 3 Click “All podcasts” or “Selected podcasts.” If you click “Selected podcasts,” also select the podcasts in the list that you want to sync. 4 Click Apply. When you set iTunes to sync iPod classic podcasts automatically, iPod classic is updated each time you connect it to your computer. Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your Podcasts and other libraries. To manually manage podcasts: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Summary tab. 2 Select “Manually manage music and videos” and click Apply. 3 Select the Podcasts library in the source list and drag the podcasts you want to iPod classic.26 Chapter 2 Music Features Playing Music After you add music and other audio to iPod classic, you can listen to it. Use the Click Wheel and Center button to browse for a song, audiobook, video, or podcast. To browse for and play a song: m Choose Music, browse for a song, and press the Play/Pause button. Note: When you browse for music videos in the Music menu, you only hear the music. When you browse for them in the Videos menu, you also see the video. When a song is playing, the Now Playing screen appears. The following table describes the elements on the Now Playing screen of iPod classic. When you see the Now Playing screen, you can use the Click Wheel to change the volume. You can press the Center button multiple times from the Now Playing screen to get to other information and options, such as the scrubber bar, rating bullets, shuffle settings, lyrics, podcast information, and more. The scrubber bar displays a diamond to show where you are in the track, along with elapsed and remaining times. Press the Menu button to return to the previous screen. Now Playing screen item Function Shuffle (¡) icon Appears if iPod classic is set to shuffle songs or albums. Repeat (⁄) icon Appears if iPod classic is set to repeat all songs. The Repeat Once (!) icon appears if iPod classic is set to repeat one song. Album art Shows the album art, if it’s available. Song information Displays the song title, artist, and album title. Rating Displays stars if you rate the song. Song number Shows the number of the song that’s playing within the current sequence of songs. Song time progress bar Shows the elapsed and remaining times for the song that’s playing. Shuffle icon Repeat icon Song time Song information, rating, and sequence number Album artChapter 2 Music Features 27 Setting iPod classic to Shuffle Songs You can set iPod classic to play songs, albums, or your entire library in random order. To set iPod classic to shuffle and play all your songs: m Choose Shuffle Songs from the iPod classic main menu. iPod classic begins playing songs from your entire music library in random order, skipping audiobooks and podcasts. To set iPod classic to always shuffle songs or albums: 1 Choose Settings from the iPod classic main menu. 2 Set Shuffle to either Songs or Albums. When you set iPod classic to shuffle songs by choosing Settings > Shuffle, iPod classic shuffles songs within the list (for example, album or playlist) you choose to play. When you set iPod classic to shuffle albums, it plays all the songs on an album in order, and then randomly selects another album in the list and plays through it in order. To set shuffle options from the Now Playing screen: m Press the Center button until you see the shuffle icon. Choose Songs, Albums, or Off. Setting iPod classic to Repeat Songs You can set iPod classic to repeat a song over and over, or repeat songs within the list you choose to play. To set iPod classic to repeat songs: m Choose Settings from the iPod classic main menu.  To repeat all songs in the list, set Repeat to All.  To repeat one song over and over, set Repeat to One. Customizing the Music Menu You can add items to or remove them from the Music menu, just as you do with the main menu. For example, you can add a Compilations item to the Music menu, so you can easily choose compilations that are put together from various sources. To add or remove items from the Music menu: 1 Choose Settings > Music Menu. 2 Choose each item you want to appear in the main menu. A checkmark indicates which items have been added. To revert to the original Music menu settings, choose Reset Menu. Making On-The-Go Playlists on iPod classic You can make playlists on iPod classic, called On-The-Go Playlists, when iPod classic isn’t connected to your computer.28 Chapter 2 Music Features To make an On-The-Go playlist: 1 Select a song, and then press and hold the Center button until the song title flashes. 2 Choose other songs you want to add. 3 Choose Music > Playlists > On-The-Go to view and play your list of songs. You can also add a list of songs. For example, to add an album, highlight the album title and press and hold the Center button until the album title flashes. To play songs in the On-The-Go playlist: m Choose Music > Playlists > On-The-Go and choose a song. To remove a song from the On-The-Go playlist: m Select a song in the playlist, and hold down the Center button until the song title flashes. To clear the entire On-The-Go playlist: m Choose Music > Playlists > On-The-Go > Clear Playlist and then click Clear. To save the On-The-Go playlists on iPod classic: m Choose Music > Playlists > On-The-Go > Save Playlist. The first playlist is saved as “New Playlist 1” in the Playlists menu. The On-The-Go playlist is cleared. You can save as many playlists as you like. After you save a playlist, you can no longer remove songs from it. To copy the On-The-Go playlists to your computer: m If iPod classic is set to update songs automatically (see “Syncing Music Automatically” on page 23), and you make an On-The-Go playlist, the playlist is automatically copied to iTunes when you connect iPod classic. You see the new On-The-Go playlist in the list of playlists in iTunes. You can rename, edit, or delete the new playlist, just as you would any playlist in iTunes. Rating Songs You can assign a rating to a song (from 1 to 5 stars) to indicate how much you like it. You can use song ratings to help you create Smart Playlists automatically in iTunes. To rate a song: 1 Start playing the song. 2 From the Now Playing screen, press the Center button until the five Rating bullets appear. 3 Use the Click Wheel to choose a rating (represented by stars). Note: You cannot assign ratings to video podcasts.Chapter 2 Music Features 29 Setting the Maximum Volume Limit You can choose to set a limit for the maximum volume on iPod classic and assign a combination to prevent the setting from being changed. To set the maximum volume limit for iPod classic: 1 Choose Settings > Volume Limit. The volume control shows the current volume. 2 Use the Click Wheel to select the maximum volume limit. You can press Play to hear the currently selected song play while you select the maximum volume limit. 3 Press Play/Pause to set the maximum volume limit. A triangle on the volume bar indicates the maximum volume limit. 4 Press the Menu button to accept the maximum volume limit without requiring a combination to change it. Or, on the Enter Combination screen, set a combination to require that the combination be entered to change the maximum volume limit. 5 To enter a combination:  Use the Click Wheel to select a number for the first position. Press the Center button to confirm your choice and move to the next position.  Use the same method to set the remaining numbers of the combination. You can use the Next/Fast-forward button to move to the next position and the Previous/Rewind button to move to the previous position. Press the Center button in the final position to confirm the entire combination. Note: The volume of songs and other audio may vary depending on how the audio was recorded or encoded. See “Setting Songs to Play at the Same Volume Level” on page 30 for information about how to set a relative volume level in iTunes and on iPod classic. Volume level may also vary if you use different earphones or headphones. With the exception of the iPod Radio Remote, accessories that connect through the iPod Dock Connector don’t support volume limits. If you set a combination, you must enter it before you can change or remove the maximum volume limit. To change the maximum volume limit: 1 Choose Settings > Volume Limit. 2 If you set a combination, enter it by using the Click Wheel to select the numbers and pressing the Center button to confirm them. 3 Use the Click Wheel to change the maximum volume limit. 4 Press the Play/Pause button to accept the change.30 Chapter 2 Music Features To remove the maximum volume limit: 1 If you’re currently listening to iPod classic, press Pause. 2 Choose Settings > Volume Limit. 3 If you set a combination, enter it by using the Click Wheel to select the numbers and pressing the Center button to confirm them. 4 Use the Click Wheel to move the volume limit to the maximum level on the volume bar. This removes any restriction on volume. 5 Press the Play/Pause button to accept the change. Note: If you forget the combination, you can restore iPod classic. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61 for more information. Setting Songs to Play at the Same Volume Level iTunes can automatically adjust the volume of songs, so they play at the same relative volume level. You can set iPod classic to use the iTunes volume settings. To set iTunes to play songs at the same sound level: 1 In iTunes, choose iTunes > Preferences if you’re using a Mac, or choose Edit > Preferences if you’re using a Windows PC. 2 Click Playback and select Sound Check, and then click OK. To set iPod classic to use the iTunes volume settings: m Choose Settings and set Sound Check to On. If you haven’t activated Sound Check in iTunes, setting it on iPod classic has no effect. Using the Equalizer You can use equalizer presets to change the sound on iPod classic to suit a particular music genre or style. For example, to make rock music sound better, set the equalizer to Rock. To use the equalizer to change the sound on iPod classic: m Choose Settings > EQ and choose an equalizer preset. If you assigned an equalizer preset to a song in iTunes and the iPod classic equalizer is set to Off, the song plays using the iTunes setting. See iTunes Help for more information. Viewing Lyrics on iPod classic If you enter lyrics for a song in iTunes (see “Adding Lyrics” on page 21) and then add the song to iPod classic, you can view the lyrics on iPod classic. To view lyrics on iPod classic while a song is playing: m On the Now Playing screen, press the Center button until you see the lyrics. The screen displays the lyrics, which you can scroll through as the song plays.Chapter 2 Music Features 31 Viewing Album Artwork on iPod classic By default, iTunes is set to allow you to view album artwork on iPod classic. If the artwork is available, you’ll see it on iPod classic in the album list and when you play music from the album. To set iTunes to display album artwork on iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Music tab. 2 Choose “Display album artwork on your iPod.” To see album artwork on iPod classic: m Play a song that has album artwork. For more information about album artwork, open iTunes and choose Help > iTunes Help. Watching and Listening to Podcasts Podcasts are downloadable audio or video shows you get at the iTunes Store. You can listen to audio podcasts and watch video podcasts. Podcasts are organized by shows, episodes within shows, and chapters within episodes. If you stop watching or listening to a podcast and go back to it later, the podcast begins playing from where you left off. To watch or listen to a podcast: 1 From the main menu, choose Podcasts, and then choose a show. Shows appear in reverse chronological order so that you can watch or listen to the most recent one first. You see a blue dot next to shows and episodes you haven’t watched or listened to yet. 2 Choose an episode to play it. The Now Playing screen displays the show, episode, and date information, along with elapsed and remaining time. Press the Center button to see more information about the podcast. If the podcast includes artwork, you also see a picture. Podcast artwork can change during an episode, so you might see several pictures during the podcast. If the podcast you’re watching or listening to has chapters, you can press the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/Rewind button to skip to the next chapter or the beginning of the current chapter in the podcast. For more information about podcasts, open iTunes and choose Help > iTunes Help. Then search for “podcasts.”32 Chapter 2 Music Features Listening to Audiobooks You can purchase and download audiobooks from the iTunes Store or from audible.com and listen to them on iPod classic. You can use iTunes to add audiobooks to iPod classic the same way you add songs. If you stop listening to an audiobook on iPod classic and go back to it later, the audiobook begins playing from where you left off. iPod classic skips audiobooks when set to shuffle. If the audiobook you’re listening to has chapters, you can press the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/Rewind button to skip to the next chapter or the beginning of the current chapter in the audiobook. You can play audiobooks at speeds faster or slower than normal. To set audiobook play speed: m Choose Settings > Audiobooks and choose a speed. Setting the play speed only affects audiobooks purchased from the iTunes Store or audible.com. Listening to FM Radio You can listen to radio using the optional iPod Radio Remote accessory for iPod classic. iPod Radio Remote attaches to iPod classic using the Dock connector cable. When you’re using iPod Radio Remote, you see a Radio menu item on the iPod classic main menu. For more information, see the iPod Radio Remote documentation.3 33 3 Video Features You can purchase movies, TV shows, and music videos, rent movies, and download video podcasts at the iTunes Store, and then add them to your iPod classic. You can watch videos on iPod classic or on a TV connected to iPod classic. Read this chapter to learn about downloading and viewing videos. Purchasing or Renting Videos and Downloading Video Podcasts To purchase videos—movies, TV shows, and music videos—or rent movies online from the iTunes Store (part of iTunes and available in some countries only), you set up an Apple account in iTunes, find the videos you want, and then buy or rent them. If you already have an Apple account, or if you have an America Online (AOL) account (available in some countries only), you can use that account to sign in to the iTunes Store and buy videos or rent movies. To sign in to the iTunes Store: m Open iTunes and then:  If you already have an iTunes account, choose Store > Sign In.  If you don’t already have an iTunes account, choose Store > Create Account and follow the onscreen instructions to set up an Apple account or enter your existing Apple account or AOL account information.34 Chapter 3 Video Features To browse videos in the iTunes Store: 1 In iTunes, select iTunes Store in the source list. 2 Click an item (Movies, TV Shows, or Music Videos) in the iTunes Store list on the left. You can also find some music videos as part of an album or other offer. Videos in iTunes and in the iTunes Store have a display ( ) icon next to them. To buy or rent a video: 1 Select iTunes Store in the source list, and then find the item you want to buy or rent. 2 Click Buy Video, Buy Episode, Buy Season, Buy Movie, or Rent Movie. Purchased videos appear when you select Movies (under Library) or Purchased (under Store) in the source list. Rented videos appear when you select Rented Movies (under Library). To download a video podcast: Video podcasts appear alongside other podcasts in the iTunes Store. You can subscribe to them and download them just as you would other podcasts. You don’t need an iTunes Store account to download podcasts. See “Purchasing Songs and Downloading Podcasts Using the iTunes Store” on page 18 for instructions. Converting Your Own Videos to Work with iPod classic You can view other video files on iPod classic, such as videos you create in iMovie on a Mac or videos you download from the Internet. Import the video into iTunes, convert it for use with iPod classic, if necessary, and then add it to iPod classic. iTunes supports all the video formats that QuickTime supports. For more information, choose Help > QuickTime Player Help from the QuickTime Player menu bar. To import a video into iTunes: m Drag the video file to your iTunes library. Some videos may be ready for use with iPod classic after you import them to iTunes. If you try to add a video to iPod classic (see “Syncing Videos Automatically” on page 35 for instructions), and a message says the video can’t play on iPod classic, then you must convert the video for use with iPod classic. To convert a video for use with iPod classic: 1 Select the video in your iTunes library. 2 Choose Advanced > “Convert Selection to iPod.” Depending on the length and content of a video, converting it for use with iPod classic can take several minutes to several hours. Note: When you convert a video for use with iPod classic, the original video remains in your iTunes library. Chapter 3 Video Features 35 For more information about converting video for iPod classic, go to www.info.apple.com/kbnum/n302758. Adding Videos to iPod classic You add movies and TV shows to iPod classic much the same way you add songs. You can set iTunes to sync all movies and TV shows to iPod classic automatically when you connect iPod classic, or you can set iTunes to sync only selected playlists. Alternatively, you can manage movies and TV shows manually. Using this option, you can add videos from more than one computer without erasing videos already on iPod classic. Note: Music videos are managed with songs, under the Music tab in iTunes. See “Adding Music and Podcasts to iPod classic” on page 22. Important: If you rent a movie from the iTunes Store and add it to iPod classic, you will only be able to view it on iPod classic. Once you add a rented movie to iPod classic, it can’t be transferred again. Syncing Videos Automatically By default, iPod classic is set to sync all videos when you connect it to your computer. This is the simplest way to add videos to iPod classic. You just connect iPod classic to your computer, let it add videos and other items automatically, and then disconnect it and go. If you added any videos to iTunes since the last time you connected iPod classic, they are added to iPod classic. If you deleted videos from iTunes, they are removed from iPod classic. You can set iPod classic to sync videos automatically when you connect it to your computer. To sync videos to iPod classic: m Simply connect iPod classic to your computer. If iPod classic is set to sync automatically, the syncing begins.36 Chapter 3 Video Features Important: The first time you connect iPod classic to a different computer and have the automatic sync option set, a message asks if you want to sync songs and videos automatically. If you accept, all songs, videos, and other items are deleted from iPod classic and replaced with the songs, videos, and other items in the iTunes library on that computer. If you don’t accept, you can still add videos to iPod classic manually without deleting any of the videos already on iPod classic. iTunes includes a feature to sync purchased items from iPod classic to another computer. For more information, see iTunes Help. While videos are being synced from your computer to iPod classic, the iTunes status window shows progress and the iPod classic icon in the source list flashes red. When the update is done, a message in iTunes says “iPod update is complete.” Syncing Selected Videos to iPod classic Setting iTunes to sync selected videos to iPod classic is useful if you have more videos in your iTunes library than will fit on iPod classic. Only the videos you specify are synced with iPod classic. You can sync selected videos or selected playlists that contain videos. To set iTunes to sync unwatched or selected movies to iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Movies tab. 2 Select “Sync movies.” 3 Select the movies or playlists you want. Unwatched movies: Select “… unwatched movies” and choose the number you want from the pop-up menu. Selected movies or playlists: Click “Selected …,” choose “movies” or “playlists” from the pop-up menu, and then select the movies or playlists you want. 4 Click Apply. Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your Movies and other libraries. To set iTunes to sync most recent episodes or selected TV shows to iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the TV Shows tab. 2 Select “Sync … episodes” and choose the number of episodes you want from the popup menu. 3 Click “Selected …” and choose “TV shows” or “playlists” from the pop-up menu. 4 Select the movies or playlists you want to sync. 5 Click Apply.Chapter 3 Video Features 37 Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your TV Shows and other libraries. Managing Videos Manually Setting iTunes to let you manage iPod classic manually gives you the most flexibility for managing videos on iPod classic. You can add and remove movies, TV shows, and other items individually. You can also add videos from multiple computers to iPod classic without removing videos already on iPod classic. See “Managing iPod classic Manually” on page 24. Adding Video Podcasts to iPod classic You add video podcasts to iPod classic the same way you add other podcasts (see page 25). If a podcast has a video component, the video plays when you choose it from Podcasts. If you set iTunes to manage movies and TV shows manually, you can reset iTunes later to sync them automatically. If you set iTunes to sync automatically after you’ve been manually managing iPod classic, you lose any items on iPod classic that aren’t part of your iTunes library. To reset iTunes to sync all movies automatically on iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Movies tab. 2 Select “Sync movies” and then select “All movies.” 3 Click Apply. Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your Movies and other libraries. To reset iTunes to sync all TV shows automatically on iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the TV Shows tab. 2 Select “Sync … episodes” and choose “all” from the pop-up menu. 3 Select “All TV shows.” 4 Click Apply. Note: If “Only sync checked items” is selected in the Summary pane, iTunes syncs only items that are checked in your TV Shows and other libraries. Viewing and Listening to Videos You can view and listen to videos on iPod classic. If you have an AV cable from Apple (available separately at www.apple.com/ipodstore), you can watch videos from iPod classic on TV.38 Chapter 3 Video Features Viewing and Listening to Videos on iPod classic Videos you add to iPod classic appear in the Videos menus. Music videos also appear in Music menus. To view a video on iPod classic: m Choose Videos and browse for a video. When you play the video, you see and hear it. To listen to a music video’s sound or a video podcast’s sound without playing the video: m Choose Music and browse for a music video or a video podcast. When you play the video, you hear it but don’t see the video. Watching Videos on a TV Connected to iPod classic If you have an AV cable from Apple, you can watch videos on a TV connected to your iPod classic. First you set iPod classic to display videos on a TV, then connect iPod classic to your TV, and then play a video. Note: Use the Apple Component AV Cable, the Apple Composite AV Cable, or the Apple AV Connection Kit. Other similar RCA-type cables might not work. You can purchase the cables at www.apple.com/ipodstore. To set iPod classic to display videos on a TV: m Choose Videos > Settings, and then set TV Out to Ask or On. If you set TV Out to Ask, iPod classic gives you the option of displaying videos on TV or on iPod classic every time you play a video. You can also set video to display full screen or widescreen, and set video to display on PAL or NTSC devices. To set TV settings: m Choose Videos > Settings, and then follow the instructions below. To set Do this Video to display on PAL or NTSC TVs Set TV Signal to PAL or NTSC. PAL and NTSC refer to TV broadcast standards. Your TV might use either of these, depending on the region where it was purchased. If you aren’t sure which your TV uses, check the documentation that came with your TV. The format of your external TV Set TV Screen to Widescreen for 16:9 format or Standard for 4:3 format. Video to fit to your screen Set “Fit to Screen” to On. If you set “Fit to Screen” to Off, widescreen videos display in letterbox format on iPod classic or a standard (4:3) TV screen. Captions to display Set Captions to On.Chapter 3 Video Features 39 To use the Apple Component AV Cable to connect iPod classic to your TV: 1 Plug the red, green, and blue video connectors into the component video input (Y, Pb, and Pr) ports on your TV. You can also use the Apple Composite AV cable. If you do, plug in the yellow video connector into the video input port on your TV. Your TV must have RCA video and audio ports. 2 Plug the white and red audio connectors into the left and right analog audio input ports, respectively, on your TV. 3 Plug the iPod Dock Connector into your iPod classic or Universal Dock. 4 Plug the USB connector into your USB Power Adapter or your computer to keep your iPod classic charged. 5 Turn on iPod classic and your TV or receiver to start playing. Make sure you set TV Out on your iPod classic to On. Note: The ports on your TV or receiver may differ from the ports in the illustration. To view a video on your TV: 1 Connect iPod classic to your TV (see above). 2 Turn on your TV and set it to display from the input ports connected to iPod classic. See the documentation that came with your TV for more information. 3 On iPod classic, choose Videos and browse for a video. USB Power Adapter iPod Left audio (white) Dock Connector USB connector Television Video in (Y, Pb, Pr) Right audio (red)4 40 4 Photo Features You can import digital photos to your computer and add them to iPod classic. You can view your photos on iPod classic or as a slideshow on your TV. Read this chapter to learn about importing and viewing photos. Importing Photos You can import digital photos from a digital camera to your computer, and then add them to iPod classic for viewing. You can connect iPod classic to a TV and view photos as a slideshow with music. Importing Photos from a Camera to Your Computer You can import photos from a digital camera or a photo card reader. To import photos to a Mac using iPhoto: 1 Connect the camera or photo card reader to your computer. Open iPhoto (located in the Applications folder) if it doesn’t open automatically. 2 Click Import. Images from the camera are imported into iPhoto. You can import other digital images into iPhoto, such as images you download from the web. For more information about importing and working with photos and other images, open iPhoto and choose Help > iPhoto Help.Chapter 4 Photo Features 41 iPhoto is available for purchase as part of the iLife suite of applications at www.apple.com/ilife. iPhoto might already be installed on your Mac, in the Applications folder. If you don’t have iPhoto, you can import photos using Image Capture. To import photos to a Mac using Image Capture: 1 Connect the camera or photo card reader to your computer. 2 Open Image Capture (located in the Applications folder) if it doesn’t open automatically. 3 To choose specific items to import, click Download Some. Or to download all items, click Download All. To import photos to a Windows PC: m Follow the instructions that came with your digital camera or photo application. Adding Photos From Your Computer to iPod classic You can add photos to iPod classic from a folder on your hard disk. If you have a Mac and iPhoto 4.0.3 or later, you can sync iPhoto albums automatically. If you have a Windows PC and Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 or later, or Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 or later, you can sync photo collections automatically. Adding photos to iPod classic the first time might take some time, depending on how many photos are in your photo library. To sync photos from a Mac or Windows PC to iPod classic using a photo application: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Photos tab. 2 Select “Sync photos from: …”  On a Mac, choose iPhoto from the pop-up menu.  On a Windows PC, choose Photoshop Album or Photoshop Elements from the pop-up menu. Note: Some versions of Photoshop Album and Photoshop Elements don’t support collections. You can still use them to add all your photos.42 Chapter 4 Photo Features 3 If you want to add all your photos, select “All photos and albums.” If you want to keep your photos organized by event, select “… events” and choose an option from the popup menu. If you want to add photos from only certain albums, select “Selected albums” and select the albums you want. 4 Click Apply. Each time you connect iPod classic to your computer, photos are synced automatically. To add photos from a folder on your hard disk to iPod classic: 1 Drag the images you want into a folder on your computer. If you want images to appear in separate photo albums on iPod classic, create folders inside the main image folder, and drag images into the new folders. 2 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Photos tab. 3 Select “Sync photos from:…” 4 Choose “Choose Folder” from the pop-up menu and select your image folder. 5 Click Apply. When you add photos to iPod classic, iTunes optimizes the photos for viewing. Full-resolution image files aren’t transferred by default. Adding full-resolution image files is useful, for example if you want to move them from one computer to another, but isn’t necessary for viewing the images at full quality on iPod classic. To add full-resolution image files to iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Photos tab. 2 Select “Include full-resolution photos.” 3 Click Apply. iTunes copies the full-resolution versions of the photos to the Photos folder on iPod classic. To delete photos from iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Photos tab. 2 Select “Sync photos from: …”  On a Mac, choose iPhoto from the pop-up menu.  On a Windows PC, choose Photoshop Album or Photoshop Elements from the pop-up menu. 3 Choose “Selected albums” and deselect the albums you no longer want on iPod classic. 4 Click Apply.Chapter 4 Photo Features 43 Adding Photos from iPod classic to a Computer If you add full-resolution photos from your computer to iPod classic using the previous steps, they’re stored in a Photos folder on iPod classic. You can connect iPod classic to a computer and put these photos onto the computer. iPod classic must be enabled for disk use (see “Using iPod classic as an External Disk” on page 46). To add photos from iPod classic to a computer: 1 Connect iPod classic to the computer. 2 Drag image files from the Photos folder or DCIM folder on iPod classic to the desktop or to a photo editing application on the computer. Note: You can also use a photo editing application, such as iPhoto, to add photos stored in the Photos folder. See the documentation that came with the application for more information. To delete photos from the Photos folder on iPod classic: 1 Connect iPod classic to the computer. 2 Navigate to the Photos folder on iPod classic and delete the photos you no longer want. Viewing Photos You can view photos on iPod classic manually or as a slideshow. If you have an optional AV cable from Apple (for example, Apple Component AV Cable), you can connect iPod classic to a TV and view photos as a slideshow with music. Viewing Photos on iPod classic To view photos on iPod classic: 1 On iPod classic, choose Photos > All Photos. Or choose Photos and a photo album to see only the photos in the album. Thumbnail views of the photos might take a moment to appear. 2 Select the photo you want and press the Center button to view a full-screen version.44 Chapter 4 Photo Features From any photo-viewing screen, use the Click Wheel to scroll through photos. Press the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/Rewind button to skip to the next or previous screen of photos. Press and hold the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/Rewind button to skip to the last or first photo in the library or album. Viewing Slideshows You can view a slideshow, with music and transitions if you choose, on iPod classic. If you have an optional AV cable from Apple, you can view the slideshow on a TV. To set slideshow settings: m Choose Photos > Settings, and then follow these instructions: To set Do this Slideshows to display on iPod classic Set TV Out to Ask or Off. Slideshows to display on TV Set TV Out to Ask or On. If you set TV Out to Ask, iPod classic gives you the option of showing slideshows on TV or on iPod classic every time you start a slideshow. How long each slide is shown Choose Time Per Slide and pick a time. The music that plays during slideshows Choose Music and choose a playlist. If you’re using iPhoto, you can choose From iPhoto to copy the iPhoto music setting. Only the songs that you’ve added to iPod classic play. Slides to repeat Set Repeat to On. Slides to display in random order Set Shuffle Photos to On. Slides to display with transitions Choose Transitions and choose a transition type. Slides to show on PAL or NTSC TVs Set TV Signal to PAL or NTSC. PAL and NTSC refer to TV broadcast standards. Your TV might use either of these, depending on the region where it was purchased. If you aren’t sure which your TV uses, check the documentation that came with your TV.Chapter 4 Photo Features 45 To view a slideshow on iPod classic: m Select any photo, album, or roll, and press the Play/Pause button. Or select any full-screen photo and press the Center button. To pause, press the Play/Pause button. To skip to the next or previous photo, press the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/Rewind button. To connect iPod classic to a TV: 1 Connect the optional Apple Component or Composite AV cable to iPod classic. Note: Use the Apple Component AV Cable, Apple Composite AV Cable, or Apple AV Connection Kit. Other similar RCA-type cables won’t work. You can purchase the cables at www.apple.com/ipodstore. 2 Connect the video and audio connectors to the ports on your TV (for an illustration, see page 39). Your TV must have RCA video and audio ports. To view a slideshow on a TV: 1 Connect iPod classic to a TV (see above). 2 Turn on your TV and set it to display from the input ports connected to iPod classic. See the documentation that came with your TV for more information. 3 On iPod classic, select any photo or album and press the Play/Pause button. Or select any full-screen photo and press the Center button. To pause, press the Play/Pause button. To skip to the next or previous photo, press the Next/Fast-forward or Previous/ Rewind button. If you selected a playlist in Photos > Settings > Music, the playlist plays automatically when you start the slideshow. The photos display on your TV and advance automatically according to settings in the Slideshow > Settings menu.5 46 5 Extra Features and Accessories iPod classic can do a lot more than play songs. And you can do a lot more with it than listen to music. Read this chapter to find out more about the extra features of iPod classic, including how to use it as an external disk, alarm, or sleep timer; show the time of day in other parts of the world; display notes; and sync contacts, calendars, and to-do lists. Learn about how to use iPod classic as a stopwatch and to lock the screen, and about the accessories available for iPod classic. Using iPod classic as an External Disk You can use iPod classic as an external disk to store data files. Note: To add music and other audio or video files to iPod classic, you must use iTunes. For example, you won’t see songs you add using iTunes in the Mac Finder or in Windows Explorer. Likewise, if you copy music files to iPod classic in the Mac Finder or Windows Explorer, you won’t be able to play them on iPod classic. To enable iPod classic as an external disk: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Summary tab. 2 In the Options section, select “Enable disk use.” 3 Click Apply. When you use iPod classic as an external disk, the iPod classic disk icon appears on the desktop on Mac, or as the next available drive letter in Windows Explorer on a Windows PC. Note: Clicking Summary and selecting “Manually manage music and videos” in the Options section also enables iPod classic to be used as an external disk. Drag files to and from iPod classic to copy them. If you use iPod classic primarily as a disk, you might want to keep iTunes from opening automatically when you connect iPod classic to your computer.Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories 47 To prevent iTunes from opening automatically when you connect iPod classic to your computer: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Summary tab. 2 In the Options section, deselect “Open iTunes when this iPod is connected.” 3 Click Apply. Using Extra Settings You can set the date and time, clocks in different time zones, and alarm and sleep features on iPod classic. You can use iPod classic as a stopwatch or to play games, and you can lock the iPod classic screen. Setting and Viewing the Date and Time The date and time are set automatically from your computer’s clock when you connect iPod classic, but you can change the settings. To set date and time options: 1 Choose Settings > Date & Time. 2 Choose one or more of the following options: Adding Clocks for Other Time Zones To add clocks for other time zones: 1 Choose Extras > Clocks. 2 On the Clocks screen, click the Center button and choose Add. 3 Choose a region and then choose a city. The clocks you add appear in a list. The last clock you added appears last. To Do this Set the date Choose Date. Use the Click Wheel to change the selected value. Press the Center button to move to the next value. Set the time Choose Time. Use the Click Wheel to change the selected value. Press the Center button to move to the next value. Specify the time zone Choose Time Zone and use the Click Wheel to select a city in another time zone. Specify the status of Daylight Savings Time (DST) Choose DST and press the Center button to turn DST on or off. Display the time in 24-hour format Choose 24 Hour Clock and press the Center button to turn the 24-hour format on or off. Display the time in the title bar Choose Time in Title and press the Center button to turn the option on or off. 48 Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories To delete a clock: 1 Choose Extras > Clocks. 1 Choose the clock. 2 Choose Delete. Setting the Alarm You can set an alarm for any clock on iPod classic. To use iPod classic as an alarm clock: 1 Choose Extras > Alarms. 2 Choose Create Alarm and set one or more of the following options: To delete an alarm: 1 Choose Extras > Alarms. 2 Choose the alarm and then choose Delete. Setting the Sleep Timer You can set iPod classic to turn off automatically after playing or other content for a specific period of time. To set the sleep timer: 1 Choose Extras > Alarms. 2 Choose Sleep Timer and choose how long you want iPod classic to play. Using the Stopwatch You can use the stopwatch as you exercise to track your overall time and, if you’re running on a track, your lap times. You can play music while you use the stopwatch. To Do this Turn the alarm on Choose Alarm and choose On. Set the time Choose Time. Use the Click Wheel to change the selected value. Press the Center button to move to the next value. Set the date Choose Date. Use the Click Wheel to change the selected value. Press the Center button to move to the next value. Choose a sound Choose Tones or a playlist. If you choose Tones, select Beep to hear the alarm through the internal speaker. If you choose a playlist, you’ll need to connect iPod classic to speakers or headphones to hear the alarm. Set a repeat option Choose Repeat and choose an option (for example, “weekdays”). Name the alarm Choose Label and choose an option (for example, “Wake up”).Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories 49 To use the stopwatch: 1 Choose Extras > Stopwatch. 2 Press the Play/Pause button to start the timer. 3 Press the Center button to record lap times. Up to three lap times show beneath the overall time. 4 Press the Play/Pause button to stop the overall timer, or choose Resume to start the timer again. 5 Choose New Timer to start a new stopwatch session. Note: After you start the stopwatch, iPod classic stays on as long as you display the Timer screen and the timer continues to run. If you start the stopwatch and then go to another menu, and iPod classic isn’t playing music or a video, the stopwatch timer stops and iPod classic turns off automatically after a few minutes. To review or delete a logged stopwatch session: 1 Choose Extras > Stopwatch. The current log and a list of saved sessions appear. 2 Choose a log to view session information. iPod classic stores stopwatch sessions with dates, times, and lap statistics. You see the date and time the session started; the total time of the session; the shortest, longest, and average lap times; and the last several lap times. 3 Press the Center button and choose Delete Log to delete the chosen log, or Clear Logs to delete all current logs. Playing Games iPod classic comes with three games: iQuiz, Klondike, and Vortex. To play a game: m Choose Extras > Games and choose a game. You can purchase additional games from the iTunes Store (in some countries) to play on iPod classic. After purchasing games in iTunes, you can add them to iPod classic by syncing them automatically or by managing them manually. To buy a game: 1 In iTunes, select iTunes Store in the source list. 2 Choose iPod Games from the iTunes Store list. 3 Select the game you want and click Buy Game.50 Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories To sync games automatically to iPod classic: 1 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Games tab. 2 Select “Sync games.” 3 Click “All games” or “Selected games.” If you click “Selected games,” also select the games you want to sync. 4 Click Apply. Locking the iPod classic Screen You can set a combination to prevent iPod classic from being used by someone without your permission. When you lock an iPod classic that isn’t connected to a computer, you must enter a combination to unlock and use it. Note: This is different from the Hold button in that the Hold button prevents iPod classic buttons from being pressed accidentally. The combination prevents another person from using iPod classic. To set a combination for iPod classic: 1 Choose Extras > Screen Lock. 2 On the New Combination screen, enter a combination:  Use the Click Wheel to select a number for the first position. Press the Center button to confirm your choice and move to the next position.  Use the same method to set the remaining numbers of the combination. You can use the Next/Fast-forward button to move to the next position and the Previous/Rewind button to move to the previous position. Press the Center button in the final position. 3 On the Confirm Combination screen, enter the combination to confirm it, or press Menu to exit without locking the screen. When you finish, you return to the Screen Lock screen, where you can lock the screen or reset the combination. Press the Menu button to exit without locking the screen. To lock the iPod classic screen: m Choose Extras > Screen Lock > Lock. If you just finished setting your combination, Lock will already be selected on the screen. Just press the Center button to lock iPod. When the screen is locked, you see a picture of a lock. Note: You might want to add the Screen Lock menu item to the main menu so that you can quickly lock the iPod classic screen. See “Adding or Removing Items from the Main Menu” on page 9.Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories 51 When you see the lock on the screen, you can unlock the iPod classic screen in two ways:  Press the Center button to enter the combination on iPod classic. Use the Click Wheel to select the numbers and press the Center button to confirm them. If you enter the wrong combination, the lock remains. Try again.  Connect iPod classic to the primary computer you use it with, and iPod classic automatically unlocks. Note: If you try these methods and you still can’t unlock iPod classic, you can restore iPod classic. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61. To change a combination you’ve already set: 1 Choose Extras > Screen Lock > Reset. 2 On the Enter Combination screen, enter the current combination. 3 On the New Combination screen, enter and confirm a new combination. Note: If you can’t remember the current combination, the only way to clear it and enter a new one is to restore the iPod classic software. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61. Syncing Contacts, Calendars, and To-Do Lists iPod classic can store contacts, calendar events, and to-do lists for viewing on the go. If you’re using Mac OS X v10.4 or later, you can use iTunes to sync the contact and calendar information on iPod classic with Address Book and iCal. If you’re using any version of Mac OS X earlier than 10.4, you can use iSync to sync your information. Syncing information using iSync requires iSync 1.1 or later, and iCal 1.0.1 or later. If you’re using Windows 2000 or Windows XP, and you use Windows Address Book or Microsoft Outlook 2003 or later to store your contact information, you can use iTunes to sync the address book information on iPod classic. If you use Microsoft Outlook 2003 or later to keep a calendar, you can also sync calendar information. To sync contacts or calendar information using Mac OS X v10.4 or later: 1 Connect iPod classic to your computer. 2 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Contacts tab. 3 Do one of the following:  To sync contacts, in the Contacts section, select “Sync Address Book contacts,” and select an option:  To sync all contacts automatically, select “All contacts.”  To sync selected groups of contacts automatically, select “Selected groups” and select the groups you want to sync.52 Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories  To copy contacts’ photos to iPod classic, when available, select “Include contacts’ photos.” When you click Apply, iTunes updates iPod classic with the Address Book contact information you specified.  To sync calendars, in the Calendars section, select “Sync iCal calendars,” and choose an option:  To sync all calendars automatically, choose “All calendars.”  To sync selected calendars automatically, choose “Selected calendars” and select the calendars you want to sync. When you click Apply, iTunes updates iPod classic with the calendar information you specified. To sync contacts and calendars with a Mac and iSync using a version of Mac OS X earlier than v10.4: 1 Connect iPod classic to your computer. 2 Open iSync and choose Devices > Add Device. You need to do this step only the first time you use iSync with iPod classic. 3 Select iPod classic and click Sync Now. iSync puts information from iCal and Mac Address Book onto iPod classic. The next time you want to sync iPod classic, you can simply open iSync and click Sync Now. You can also choose to have iPod classic sync automatically when you connect it. Note: iSync syncs information from your computer with iPod classic. You can’t use iSync to sync information from iPod classic to your computer. To sync contacts or calendars using Windows Address Book or Microsoft Outlook for Windows: 1 Connect iPod classic to your computer. 2 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Contacts tab. 3 Do one of the following:  To sync contacts, in the Contacts section, select “Sync contacts from” and choose Windows Address Book or Microsoft Outlook from the pop-up menu. Then select which contact information you want to sync.  To sync calendars from Microsoft Outlook, in the Calendars section, select “Sync calendars from Microsoft Outlook.” 4 Click Apply. You can also add contact and calendar information to iPod classic manually. iPod classic must be enabled as an external disk (see “Using iPod classic as an External Disk” on page 46).Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories 53 To add contact information manually: 1 Connect iPod classic and open your favorite email or contacts application. You can add contacts using Palm Desktop, Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Entourage, and Eudora, among others. 2 Drag contacts from the application’s address book to the Contacts folder on iPod classic. In some cases, you might need to export contacts and then drag the exported file or files to the Contacts folder. See the documentation for your email or contacts application. To add appointments and other calendar events manually: 1 Export calendar events from any calendar application that uses the standard iCal format (filenames end in .ics) or vCal format (filenames end in .vcs). 2 Drag the files to the Calendars folder on iPod classic. Note: To add to-do lists to iPod classic manually, save them in a calendar file with a .ics or .vcs extension. To view contacts on iPod classic: m Choose Extras > Contacts. To sort contacts by first or last name: m Choose Settings > Sort By, and press the Center button to choose First or Last. To view calendar events: m Choose Extras > Calendars. To view to-do lists: m Choose Extras > Calendars > To Do’s. Storing and Reading Notes You can store and read text notes on iPod classic if it’s enabled as an external disk (see page 46). 1 Save a document in any word-processing application as a text (.txt) file. 2 Place the file in the Notes folder on iPod classic. To view notes: m Choose Extras > Notes.54 Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories Recording Voice Memos You can record voice memos using an optional iPod classic-compatible microphone (available for purchase at www.apple.com/ipodstore). You can store voice memos on iPod classic and sync them with your computer. You can set iPod classic to record at low-quality mono (22.05 kHz) to save space, or high-quality stereo (44.1 kHz) for better sound. Note: Voice memos cannot be longer than two hours. If you record for more than two hours, iPod classic automatically starts a new voice memo to continue your recording. To record a voice memo: 1 Connect a microphone to the Dock connector port on iPod classic. 2 Set Quality to Low or High. 3 To begin recording, choose Record. 4 Hold the microphone a few inches from your mouth and speak. To pause recording, choose Pause. 5 When you finish, choose Stop and Save. Your saved recording is listed by date and time. To play a recording: m Choose Extras > Voice Memos and select the recording. Note: You won’t see a Voice Memos menu item if you’ve never connected a microphone to iPod classic. To sync voice memos with your computer: Voice memos are saved in a Recordings folder on iPod in the WAV file format. If you enable iPod classic for disk use, you can drag voice memos from the folder to copy them. If iPod classic is set to sync songs automatically (see “Syncing Music Automatically” on page 23) and you record voice memos, the voice memos are automatically synced to a playlist in iTunes (and removed from iPod classic) when you connect iPod classic. You see the new Voice Memos playlist in the source list. Learning About iPod classic Accessories iPod classic comes with some accessories, and many other accessories are available at www.apple.com/ipodstore. To purchase iPod classic accessories, go to www.apple.com/ipodstore. Chapter 5 Extra Features and Accessories 55 Available accessories include:  iPod Radio Remote  Apple Universal Dock  Apple Component AV Cable  Apple Composite AV Cable  Apple AV Connection Kit  Apple USB Power Adapter  iPod In-Ear Headphones  World Travel Adapter Kit  Leather Case for iPod classic  iPod Socks  iPod Earphones  Third-party accessories—such as speakers, headsets, cases, car stereo adapters, power adapters, and more To use the earphones: m Plug the earphones into the Headphones port. Then place the earbuds in your ears as shown. WARNING: Permanent hearing loss may occur if earbuds or headphones are used at high volume. You can adapt over time to a higher volume of sound that may sound normal but can be damaging to your hearing. If you experience ringing in your ears or muffled speech, stop listening and have your hearing checked. The louder the volume, the less time is required before your hearing could be affected. Hearing experts suggest that to protect your hearing:  Limit the amount of time you use earbuds or headphones at high volume.  Avoid turning up the volume to block out noisy surroundings.  Turn the volume down if you can’t hear people speaking near you. For information about setting a maximum volume limit on iPod, see “Setting the Maximum Volume Limit” on page 29. The earphones cord is adjustable.6 56 6 Tips and Troubleshooting Most problems with iPod classic can be solved quickly by following the advice in this chapter. General Suggestions Most problems with iPod classic can be solved by resetting it. First, make sure iPod classic is charged. To reset iPod classic: 1 Toggle the Hold switch on and off (slide it to HOLD and then back again). 2 Press and hold the Menu and Center buttons for at least 6 seconds, until the Apple logo appears. If iPod classic won’t turn on or respond  Make sure the Hold switch isn’t set to HOLD.  The iPod classic battery might need to be recharged. Connect iPod classic to your computer or to an Apple USB Power Adapter and let the battery recharge. Look for the lightning bolt icon on the iPod classic screen to verify that iPod classic is receiving a charge. The 5 Rs: Reset, Retry, Restart, Reinstall, Restore Remember these five basic suggestions if you have a problem with iPod classic. Try these steps one at a time until your issue is resolved. If one of the following doesn’t help, read on for solutions to specific problems.  Reset iPod classic. See “General Suggestions,” below.  Retry with a different USB port if you cannot see iPod classic in iTunes.  Restart your computer, and make sure you have the latest software updates installed.  Reinstall iTunes software from the latest version on the web.  Restore iPod classic. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61.Chapter 6 Tips and Troubleshooting 57 To charge the battery, connect iPod classic to a USB 2.0 on your computer. Connecting iPod classic to a USB port on your keyboard won’t charge the battery, unless your keyboard has a high-powered USB 2.0 port.  Try the 5 Rs, one by one, until iPod classic responds. If you want to disconnect iPod classic, but you see the message “Connected” or “Sync in Progress”  If iPod classic is syncing music, wait for it to complete.  Select iPod classic in the iTunes source list and click the Eject (C) button.  If iPod classic disappears from the list of devices in the iTunes source list, but you still see the “Connected” or “Sync in Progress” message on the iPod classic screen, disconnect iPod classic.  If iPod classic doesn’t disappear from the list of devices in the iTunes source list, drag the iPod classic icon from the desktop to the Trash (if you’re using a Mac) or, if you’re using a Windows PC, eject the device in My Computer or click the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the system tray and select iPod classic. If you still see the “Connected” or “Sync in Progress” message, restart your computer and eject iPod classic again. If iPod classic isn’t playing music  Make sure the Hold switch isn’t set to HOLD.  Make sure the headphone connector is pushed in all the way.  Make sure the volume is adjusted properly. A maximum volume limit might have been set. You can change or remove it by using Settings > Volume Limit. See “Setting the Maximum Volume Limit” on page 29.  iPod classic might be paused. Try pressing the Play/Pause button.  Make sure you’re using iTunes 7.4 or later (go to www.apple.com/ipod/start). Songs purchased from the iTunes Store using earlier versions of iTunes won’t play on iPod classic until you upgrade iTunes.  If you’re using the iPod Universal Dock, make sure the iPod classic is seated firmly in the Dock and make sure all cables are connected properly. If you connect iPod classic to your computer and nothing happens  Make sure you have installed the latest iTunes software from www.apple.com/ipod/start.  Try connecting to a different USB port on your computer. Note: A USB 2.0 port is recommended to connect iPod classic. USB 1.1 is significantly slower than USB 2.0. If you have a Windows PC that doesn’t have a USB 2.0 port, in some cases you can purchase and install a USB 2.0 card. For more information, go to www.apple.com/ipod.  iPod classic might need to be reset (see page 56). 58 Chapter 6 Tips and Troubleshooting  If you’re connecting iPod classic to a portable or laptop computer using the iPod Dock Connector to USB 2.0 Cable, connect the computer to a power outlet before connecting iPod classic.  Make sure you have the required computer and software. See “If you want to doublecheck the system requirements” on page 60.  Check the cable connections. Unplug the cable at both ends and make sure no foreign objects are in the USB ports. Then plug the cable back in securely. Make sure the connectors on the cables are oriented correctly. They can be inserted only one way.  Try restarting your computer.  If none of the previous suggestions solves your problems, you might need to restore iPod classic software. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61. If iPod classic displays a “Connect to Power” message This message may appear if iPod classic is exceptionally low on power and the battery needs to be charged before iPod classic can communicate with your computer. To charge the battery, connect iPod classic to a USB 2.0 port on your computer. Leave iPod classic connected to your computer until the message disappears and iPod classic appears in iTunes or the Finder. Depending on how depleted the battery is, you may need to charge iPod classic for up to 30 minutes before it will start up. To charge iPod classic more quickly, use the optional Apple USB Power Adapter. Note: Connecting iPod classic to a USB port on your keyboard won’t charge the battery, unless your keyboard has a high-powered USB 2.0 port. If iPod classic displays a “Use iTunes to restore” message  Make sure you have the latest version of iTunes on your computer (download it from www.apple.com/ipod/start).  Connect iPod classic to your computer. When iTunes opens, follow the onscreen prompts to restore iPod classic.  If restoring iPod classic doesn’t solve the problem, iPod classic may need to be repaired. You can arrange for service at the iPod Service & Support website: www.apple.com/support/ipod If songs or data sync more slowly over USB 2.0  If you sync a large number of songs or amount of data using USB 2.0 and the iPod classic battery is low, iPod classic syncs the information at a reduced speed in order to conserve battery power.  If you want to sync at higher speeds, you can stop syncing and keep the iPod classic connected so that it can recharge, or connect it to the optional iPod USB 2.0 Power Adapter. Let iPod classic charge for about an hour, and then resume syncing your music or data.Chapter 6 Tips and Troubleshooting 59 If you can’t add a song or other item to iPod classic The song may have been encoded in a format that iPod classic doesn’t support. The following audio file formats are supported by iPod classic. These include formats for audiobooks and podcasting:  AAC (M4A, M4B, M4P, up to 320 Kbps)  Apple Lossless (a high-quality compressed format)  MP3 (up to 320 Kbps)  MP3 Variable Bit Rate (VBR)  WAV  AA (audible.com spoken word, formats 2, 3, and 4)  AIFF A song encoded using Apple Lossless format has full CD-quality sound, but takes up only about half as much space as a song encoded using AIFF or WAV format. The same song encoded in AAC or MP3 format takes up even less space. When you import music from a CD using iTunes, it’s converted to AAC format by default. Using iTunes for Windows, you can convert nonprotected WMA files to AAC or MP3 format. This can be useful if you have a library of music encoded in WMA format. iPod classic doesn’t support WMA, MPEG Layer 1, MPEG Layer 2 audio files, or audible.com format 1. If you have a song in iTunes that isn’t supported by iPod classic, you can convert it to a format iPod classic supports. For more information, see iTunes Help. If you accidentally set iPod classic to use a language you don’t understand You can reset the language. 1 Press and hold Menu until the main menu appears. 2 Choose the sixth menu item (Settings). 3 Choose the last menu item (Reset Settings). 4 Choose the left item (Reset) and select a language. Other iPod classic settings, such as song repeat, are also reset. Note: If you added or removed items from the iPod classic main menu (see “Adding or Removing Items from the Main Menu” on page 9) the Settings menu item may be in a different place. If you can’t find the Reset Settings menu item, you can restore iPod classic to its original state and choose a language you understand. See “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61. If you can’t see videos or photos on your TV  You must use RCA-type cables made specifically for iPod classic, such as the Apple Component or Apple Composite AV cables, to connect iPod classic to your TV. Other similar RCA-type cables won’t work.60 Chapter 6 Tips and Troubleshooting  Make sure your TV is set to display images from the correct input source (see the documentation that came with your TV for more information).  Make sure all cables are connected correctly (see “Watching Videos on a TV Connected to iPod classic” on page 38).  Make sure the yellow end of the Apple Composite AV Cable is connected to the video port on your TV.  If you’re trying to watch a video, go to Videos > Settings and set TV Out to On, and then try again. If you’re trying to view a slideshow, go to Photos > Slideshow Settings and set TV Out to On, and then try again.  If that doesn’t work, go to Videos > Settings (for video) or Photos > Settings (for a slideshow) and set TV Signal to PAL or NTSC, depending on which type of TV you have. Try both settings. If you want to double-check the system requirements To use iPod classic, you must have:  One of the following computer configurations:  A Mac with a USB 2.0 port  A Windows PC with a USB 2.0 or a USB 2.0 card installed  One of the following operating systems:  Mac OS X v10.4.9 or later  Windows Vista  Windows XP Home or Professional with Service Pack 2 or later  iTunes 7.6 or later (iTunes can be downloaded from www.apple.com/ipod/start) If your Windows PC doesn’t have a USB 2.0 port, you can purchase and install a USB 2.0 card. For more information on cables and compatible USB cards, go to www.apple.com/ipod. On the Mac, iPhoto 4.0.3 or later is recommended for adding photos and albums to iPod classic. This software is optional. iPhoto might already be installed on your Mac. Check the Applications folder. If you have iPhoto 4 you can update it by choosing Apple () > Software Update. On a Windows PC, iPod classic can sync photo collections automatically from Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 or later, and Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 or later, available at www.adobe.com. This software is optional. On both Mac and Windows PC, iPod classic can sync digital photos from folders on your computer’s hard disk.Chapter 6 Tips and Troubleshooting 61 If you want to use iPod classic with a Mac and a Windows PC If you’re using iPod classic with a Mac and you want to use it with a Windows PC, you must restore the iPod software for use with the PC (see “Updating and Restoring iPod Software” on page 61). Restoring the iPod software erases all data from iPod classic, including all songs. You cannot switch from using iPod classic with a Mac to using it with a Windows PC without erasing all data on iPod classic. If you lock the iPod classic screen and can’t unlock it Normally, if you can connect iPod classic to the computer it’s authorized to work with, iPod classic automatically unlocks. If the computer authorized to work with iPod classic is unavailable, you can connect iPod classic to another computer and use iTunes to restore iPod software. See the next section for more information. If you want to change the screen lock combination and you can’t remember the current combination, you must restore the iPod software and then set a new combination. Updating and Restoring iPod Software You can use iTunes to update or restore iPod software. It’s recommended that you update iPod classic to use the latest software. You can also restore the software, which puts iPod classic back to its original state.  If you choose to update, the software is updated, but your settings and songs aren’t affected.  If you choose to restore, all data is erased from iPod classic, including songs, videos, files, contacts, photos, calendar information, and any other data. All iPod classic settings are restored to their original state. To update or restore iPod classic: 1 Make sure you have an Internet connection and have installed the latest version of iTunes from www.apple.com/ipod/start. 2 Connect iPod classic to your computer. 3 In iTunes, select iPod classic in the source list and click the Summary tab. The Version section tells you whether iPod classic is up to date or needs a newer version of the software. 4 Click Update to install the latest version of the software. 5 If necessary, click Restore to restore iPod classic to its original settings (this erases all data from iPod classic). Follow the onscreen instructions to complete the restore process.7 62 7 Safety and Cleaning Read the following important safety and handling information for Apple iPods. Keep the iPod Safety Guide and the features guide for your iPod handy for future reference. Important Safety Information Handling iPod Do not bend, drop, crush, puncture, incinerate, or open iPod. Avoiding water and wet locations Do not use iPod in rain, or near washbasins or other wet locations. Take care not to spill any food or liquid into iPod. In case iPod gets wet, unplug all cables, turn iPod off, and slide the Hold switch (if available) to HOLD before cleaning, and allow it to dry thoroughly before turning it on again. Repairing iPod Never attempt to repair iPod yourself. iPod does not contain any userserviceable parts. For service information, choose iPod Help from the Help menu in iTunes or go to www.apple.com/support/ipod. The rechargeable battery in iPod should be replaced only by an Apple Authorized Service Provider. For more information about batteries, go to www.apple.com/batteries. ± Read all safety information below and operating instructions before using iPod to avoid injury. WARNING: Failure to follow these safety instructions could result in fire, electric shock, or other injury or damage.Chapter 7 Safety and Cleaning 63 Using the Apple USB Power Adapter (available separately) If you use the Apple USB Power Adapter (sold separately at www.apple.com/ipodstore) to charge iPod, make sure that the power adapter is fully assembled before you plug it into a power outlet. Then insert the Apple USB Power Adapter firmly into the power outlet. Do not connect or disconnect the Apple USB Power Adapter with wet hands. Do not use any power adapter other than an Apple iPod power adapter to charge your iPod. The iPod USB Power Adapter may become warm during normal use. Always allow adequate ventilation around the iPod USB Power Adapter and use care when handling. Unplug the iPod USB Power Adapter if any of the following conditions exist:  The power cord or plug has become frayed or damaged.  The adapter is exposed to rain, liquids, or excessive moisture.  The adapter case has become damaged.  You suspect the adapter needs service or repair.  You want to clean the adapter. Avoiding hearing damage Permanent hearing loss may occur if earbuds or headphones are used at high volume. Set the volume to a safe level. You can adapt over time to a higher volume of sound that may sound normal but can be damaging to your hearing. If you experience ringing in your ears or muffled speech, stop listening and have your hearing checked. The louder the volume, the less time is required before your hearing could be affected. Hearing experts suggest that to protect your hearing:  Limit the amount of time you use earbuds or headphones at high volume.  Avoid turning up the volume to block out noisy surroundings.  Turn the volume down if you can’t hear people speaking near you. For information about how to set a maximum volume limit on iPod, see “Setting the Maximum Volume Limit” on page 29. Using headphones safely Use of headphones while operating a vehicle is not recommended and is illegal in some areas. Be careful and attentive while driving. Stop using iPod if you find it disruptive or distracting while operating any type of vehicle or performing any other activity that requires your full attention. Avoiding seizures, blackouts, and eye strain If you have experienced seizures or blackouts, or if you have a family history of such occurrences, please consult a physician before playing video games on iPod (if available). Discontinue use and consult a physician if you experience: convulsion, eye or muscle twitching, loss of awareness, involuntary movements, or disorientation. When watching videos or playing games on iPod (if available), avoid prolonged use and take breaks to prevent eye strain.64 Chapter 7 Safety and Cleaning Important Handling Information Carrying iPod iPod contains sensitive components, including, in some cases, a hard drive. Do not bend, drop, or crush iPod. If you are concerned about scratching iPod, you can use one of the many cases sold separately. Using connectors and ports Never force a connector into a port. Check for obstructions on the port. If the connector and port don’t join with reasonable ease, they probably don’t match. Make sure that the connector matches the port and that you have positioned the connector correctly in relation to the port. Keeping iPod within acceptable temperatures Operate iPod in a place where the temperature is always between 0º and 35º C (32º to 95º F). iPod play time might temporarily shorten in low-temperature conditions. Store iPod in a place where the temperature is always between -20º and 45º C (-4º to 113º F). Don’t leave iPod in your car, because temperatures in parked cars can exceed this range. When you’re using iPod or charging the battery, it is normal for iPod to get warm. The exterior of iPod functions as a cooling surface that transfers heat from inside the unit to the cooler air outside. Keeping the outside of iPod clean To clean iPod, unplug all cables, turn iPod off, and slide the Hold switch (if available) to HOLD. Then use a soft, slightly damp, lint-free cloth. Avoid getting moisture in openings. Don’t use window cleaners, household cleaners, aerosol sprays, solvents, alcohol, ammonia, or abrasives to clean iPod. Disposing of iPod properly For information about the proper disposal of iPod, including other important regulatory compliance information, see “Regulatory Compliance Information” on page 66. NOTICE: Failure to follow these handling instructions could result in damage to iPod or other property.8 65 8 Learning More, Service, and Support You can find more information about using iPod classic in onscreen help and on the web. The following table describes where to get more iPod-related software and service information. To learn about Do this Service and support, discussions, tutorials, and Apple software downloads Go to: www.apple.com/support/ipod Using iTunes Open iTunes and choose Help > iTunes Help. For an online iTunes tutorial (available in some areas only), go to: www.apple.com/support/itunes Using iPhoto (on Mac OS X) Open iPhoto and choose Help > iPhoto Help. Using iSync (on Mac OS X) Open iSync and choose Help > iSync Help. Using iCal (on Mac OS X) Open iCal and choose Help > iCal Help. The latest information on iPod classic Go to: www.apple.com/ipod Registering iPod classic To register iPod classic, install iTunes on your computer and connect iPod classic. Finding the iPod classic serial number Look at the back of iPod classic or choose Settings > About and press the Center button. In iTunes (with iPod classic connected to your computer), select iPod classic in the source list and click the Settings tab. Obtaining warranty service First follow the advice in this booklet, the onscreen help, and online resources. Then go to: www.apple.com/support/ipod/ service66 Regulatory Compliance Information FCC Compliance Statement This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. See instructions if interference to radio or TV reception is suspected. Radio and TV Interference This computer equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy. If it is not installed and used properly—that is, in strict accordance with Apple’s instructions—it may cause interference with radio and TV reception. This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. These specifications are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. You can determine whether your computer system is causing interference by turning it off. If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or one of the peripheral devices. If your computer system does cause interference to radio or TV reception, try to correct the interference by using one or more of the following measures:  Turn the TV or radio antenna until the interference stops.  Move the computer to one side or the other of the TV or radio.  Move the computer farther away from the TV or radio.  Plug the computer in to an outlet that is on a different circuit from the TV or radio. (That is, make certain the computer and the TV or radio are on circuits controlled by different circuit breakers or fuses.) If necessary, consult an Apple Authorized Service Provider or Apple. See the service and support information that came with your Apple product. Or, consult an experienced radio/TV technician for additional suggestions. Important: Changes or modifications to this product not authorized by Apple Inc. could void the EMC compliance and negate your authority to operate the product. This product was tested for EMC compliance under conditions that included the use of Apple peripheral devices and Apple shielded cables and connectors between system components. It is important that you use Apple peripheral devices and shielded cables and connectors between system components to reduce the possibility of causing interference to radios, TV sets, and other electronic devices. You can obtain Apple peripheral devices and the proper shielded cables and connectors through an Apple Authorized Reseller. For non-Apple peripheral devices, contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance. Responsible party (contact for FCC matters only): Apple Inc. Product Compliance, 1 Infinite Loop M/S 26-A, Cupertino, CA 95014-2084, 408-974-2000. Industry Canada Statement This Class B device meets all requirements of the Canadian interference-causing equipment regulations. Cet appareil numérique de la classe B respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur du Canada. VCCI Class B Statement Korea Class B Statement (૶ ૺૺဧ ઠધබ 67 Russia European Community Disposal and Recycling Information Your iPod must be disposed of properly according to local laws and regulations. Because this product contains a battery, the product must be disposed of separately from household waste. When your iPod reaches its end of life, contact Apple or your local authorities to learn about recycling options. For information about Apple’s recycling program, go to: www.apple.com/environment/recycling Deutschland: Dieses Gerät enthält Batterien. Bitte nicht in den Hausmüll werfen. Entsorgen Sie dieses Gerätes am Ende seines Lebenszyklus entsprechend der maßgeblichen gesetzlichen Regelungen. Nederlands: Gebruikte batterijen kunnen worden ingeleverd bij de chemokar of in een speciale batterijcontainer voor klein chemisch afval (kca) worden gedeponeerd. China: Taiwan: European Union—Disposal Information: This symbol means that according to local laws and regulations your product should be disposed of separately from household waste. When this product reaches its end of life, take it to a collection point designated by local authorities. Some collection points accept products for free. The separate collection and recycling of your product at the time of disposal will help conserve natural resources and ensure that it is recycled in a manner that protects human health and the environment. Apple and the Environment At Apple, we recognize our responsibility to minimize the environmental impacts of our operations and products. For more information, go to: www.apple.com/environment © 2008 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, FireWire, iCal, iLife, iPhoto, iPod, iPod Socks, iTunes, Mac, Macintosh, and Mac OS are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder, the FireWire logo, and Shuffle are trademarks of Apple Inc. iTunes Store is a service mark of Apple Inc. Other company and product names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. All understandings, agreements, or warranties, if any, take place directly between the vendors and the prospective users. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. The product described in this manual incorporates copyright protection technology that is protected by method claims of certain U.S. patents and other intellectual property rights owned by Macrovision Corporation and other rights owners. Use of this copyright protection technology must be authorized by Macrovision Corporation and is intended for home and other limited viewing uses only unless otherwise authorized by Macrovision Corporation. Reverse engineering or disassembly is prohibited. Apparatus Claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 4,631,603, 4,577,216, 4,819,098 and 4,907,093 licensed for limited viewing uses only. 019-1148/01-2008Index 68 Index A accessories for iPod 54 adding album artwork 21 adding menu items 9, 27 adding music disconnecting iPod 12 from more than one computer 23, 35 manually 24 methods 22 On-The-Go playlists 28 tutorial 65 adding photos about 40 all or selected photos 41, 42 automatically 41 from computer to iPod 41 from iPod to computer 43 full-resolution image 42 address book, syncing 51 Adobe Photoshop Album 60 Adobe Photoshop Elements 60 alarms deleting 48 setting 48 album artwork adding 21 viewing 31 albums, purchasing 19 audiobooks purchasing 19 setting play speed 32 AV cables 38, 39, 45 B backlight setting timer 9 turning on 6, 9 battery charge states when disconnected 16 charging 14 rechargeable 16 replacing 16 very low 15, 58 viewing charge status 14 brightness setting 10 browsing iTunes Store 19 podcasts 19 quickly 7 songs 6, 26 videos 6, 19 with Cover Flow 7 buttons Center 5 disabling with Hold switch 6 Eject 13 buying. See purchasing C calendar events, syncing 51 Center button, using 5, 26 Charging, Please Wait message 15, 58 charging the battery about 14 using the iPod USB Power Adapter 15 using your computer 14 when battery very low 15, 58 cleaning iPod 64 Click Wheel browsing songs 26 turning off the Click Wheel sound 8 using 5 clocks adding for other time zones 47 settings 47 close captions 38 compilations 27 component AV cable 38, 39, 45 composite AV cable 38, 39, 45 computer adding photos to iPod 41 charging the battery 14 connecting iPod 10 getting photos from iPod 43 importing photos from camera 40Index 69 problems connecting iPod 57 requirements 60 connecting iPod about 10 charging the battery 14 to a TV 39, 45 Connect to Power message 15 contacts sorting 53 syncing 51 controls disabling with Hold switch 8 using 5 converting unprotected WMA files 59 converting videos for use with iPod 34 Cover Flow 7 customizing the Music menu 27 D data files, storing on iPod 46 date and time setting 47 viewing 47 determining battery charge 16 diamond icon on scrubber bar 6 digital photos. See photos disconnecting iPod about 10 during music update 12 ejecting first 12 instructions 13 troubleshooting 57 disk, using iPod as 46 displaying time in title bar 47 downloading podcasts 19 video podcasts 34 See also adding; syncing E Eject button 13 ejecting before disconnecting 12 external disk, using iPod as 46 F fast-forwarding a song or video 6 features of iPod 4 file formats, supported 59 finding your iPod serial number 6 fit video to screen 38 full-resolution images 42 G games 49 getting help 65 getting information about your iPod 10 getting started with iPod 60 H handling information 62 hearing loss warning 55 help, getting 65 Hold switch 6, 8 I iCal, getting help 65 Image Capture, importing photos to a Mac 41 images. See photos importing contacts, calendars, and to-do lists. See syncing importing photos from camera to computer 40 See also adding photos importing videos 34 iPhoto getting help 40, 65 importing photos from camera 40 recommended version 60 iPod Dock 10 iPod Dock Connector 10 iPod Updater application 61 iPod USB power adapter 14 iSync, getting help 65 iTunes ejecting iPod 13 getting help 65 setting not to open automatically 46 Sound Check 30 Store 19 iTunes Library, adding songs 20 iTunes Store browsing 19 browsing videos 34 searching 19 signing in 18, 33 L language resetting 59 specifying 10 letterbox 38 library, adding songs 20 lightning bolt on battery icon 14 locating your iPod serial number 6 locking iPod screen 50 lyrics adding 21 viewing on iPod 3070 Index M Mac OS X operating system 60 main menu adding or removing items 9 opening 5 settings 9, 27 main menu, returning to 6 managing iPod manually 24 manually adding 24 maximum volume limit, setting 29 memos, recording 54 menu items adding or removing 9, 27 choosing 6 returning to main menu 6 returning to previous menu 6 modifying playlists 24 movies syncing 37 syncing selected 36 See also videos music iPod not playing 57 purchasing 19 rating 28 setting for slideshows 44 tutorial 65 See also adding music; songs Music menu, customizing 27 music videos syncing 24 See also videos N navigating quickly 7 notes, storing and reading 53 Now Playing screen moving to any point in a song or video 6 scrubber bar 6 shuffling songs or albums 27 NTSC TV 38, 44 O On-The-Go playlists copying to computer 28 making 27 rating songs 28 saving 28 operating system requirements 60 overview of iPod features 4 P PAL TV 38, 44 pausing a song 6 a video 6 phone numbers, syncing 51 photo collections, adding automatically 41 photo library 41 photos adding and viewing 40 deleting 42, 43 full-resolution 42 importing to Windows PC 41 importing using Image Capture 41 syncing 41, 42 viewing on iPod 43 playing games 49 songs 6 videos 6 playlists adding songs 6, 24 making on iPod 27 modifying 24 On-The-Go 27 setting for slideshows 45 plug on battery icon 14 podcasting 31 podcasts browsing 19 downloading 19 downloading video podcasts 34 listening 31 subscribing 19 updating 25 ports RCA video and audio 39, 45 USB 60 power adapter safety 63 Power Search in iTunes Store 19 previous menu, returning to 6 problems. See troubleshooting purchasing songs, albums, audiobooks 19 purchasing videos 34 Q quick navigation 7 R radio accessory 32 random play 6 rating songs 28 RCA video and audio ports 39, 45 rechargeable batteries 16 recording voice memos 54 registering iPod 65 relative volume, playing songs at 30 removing menu items 9, 27 repairing iPod 62Index 71 replacing battery 16 replaying a song or video 6 requirements computer 60 operating system 60 reset all settings 10 resetting iPod 6, 56 resetting the language 59 restore message 58 restoring iPod software 61 rewinding a song or video 6 S Safely Remove Hardware icon 13 safety considerations setting up iPod 62 safety information 62 saving On-The-Go playlists 28 screen lock 50 scrolling quickly 7 scrubber bar 6 searching iPod 7 iTunes Store 19 Select button. See Center button serial number 6, 10 serial number, locating 65 service and support 65 sets of songs. See playlists setting combination for iPod 50 settings about your iPod 10 alarm 48 audiobook play speed 32 backlight timer 9 brightness 10 Click Wheel sound 8 date and time 47 language 10 main menu 9, 27 PAL or NTSC TV 38, 44 playing songs at relative volume 30 repeating songs 27 reset all 10 shuffle songs 27 sleep timer 48 slideshow 44 TV 38 volume limit 29 shuffling songs on iPod 6, 27 sleep mode and charging the battery 14 sleep timer, setting 48 slideshows background music 44 random order 44 setting playlist 45 settings 44 viewing on iPod 45 software getting help 65 iPhoto 60 iPod Updater 61 support versions 60 updating 61 songs adding to On-The-Go playlists 6 browsing 6 browsing and playing 26 entering names 21 fast-forwarding 6 pausing 6 playing 6 playing at relative volume 30 purchasing 19 rating 28 repeating 27 replaying 6 rewinding 6 shuffling 6, 27 skipping ahead 6 viewing lyrics 21 See also music sorting contacts 53 Sound Check 30 standard TV 38 stopwatch 48, 49 storing data files on iPod 46 notes on iPod 53 subscribing to podcasts 19 supported operating systems 60 suppressing iTunes from opening 46 syncing address book 51 movies 37 music 22 music videos 24 photos 41, 42 selected movies 36 selected videos 36 to-do lists 51 TV shows 37 videos 35 See also adding T third-party accessories 55 time, displaying in title bar 47 timer, setting for backlight 9 time zones, clocks for 4772 Index title bar, displaying time 47 to-do lists, syncing 51 transitions for slides 44 troubleshooting connecting iPod to computer 57 cross-platform use 61 disconnecting iPod 57 iPod not playing music 57 iPod won’t respond 56 resetting iPod 56 restore message 58 safety considerations 62 setting incorrect language 59 slow syncing of music or data 58 software update and restore 61 TV slideshows 59 unlocking iPod screen 61 turning iPod on and off 6 tutorial 65 TV connecting to iPod 39, 45 PAL or NTSC 38, 44 settings 38 viewing slideshows 39, 45 TV shows syncing 37 See also videos U unlocking iPod screen 51, 61 unresponsive iPod 56 unsupported audio file formats 59 updating and restoring software 61 USB 2.0 port recommendation 60 slow syncing of music or data 58 USB port on keyboard 11, 57 Use iTunes to restore message in display 58 V video captions 38 video podcasts downloading 33, 34 viewing on a TV 38 videos adding to iPod 35 browsing 6 browsing in iTunes Store 19, 34 converting 34 fast-forwarding 6 importing into iTunes 34 pausing 6 playing 6 purchasing 33, 34 replaying 6 rewinding 6 skipping ahead 6 syncing 35 viewing on a TV 38 viewing on iPod 38 viewing album artwork 31 viewing lyrics 30 viewing music videos 38 viewing photos 43 viewing slideshows on a TV 39, 45 on iPod 45 settings 44 troubleshooting 59 voice memos recording 54 syncing with your computer 54 volume changing 6 setting maximum limit 29 W warranty service 65 widescreen TV 38 Windows importing photos 41 supported operating systems 60 troubleshooting 61 WMA files, converting 59 Mac OS X Server Server Administration For Version 10.5 LeopardK Apple Inc. © 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the written consent of Apple. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Apple 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014-2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, the Apple logo, AirPort, AppleTalk, Final Cut Pro, FireWire, iCal, iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iPod, iTunes, Mac, Macintosh, the Mac logo, Mac OS, PowerBook, QuickTime and SuperDrive are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder, the FireWire logo and Safari are trademarks of Apple Inc. AppleCare and Apple Store are service marks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. .Mac is a service mark of Apple Inc. PowerPC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation, used under license therefrom. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. The product described in this manual incorporates copyright protection technology that is protected by method claims of certain U.S. patents and other intellectual property rights owned by Macrovision Corporation and other rights owners. Use of this copyright protection technology must be authorized by Macrovision Corporation and is intended for home and other limited viewing uses only unless otherwise authorized by Macrovision Corporation. Reverse engineering or disassembly is prohibited. Apparatus Claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 4,631,603, 4,577,216, 4,819,098 and 4,907,093 licensed for limited viewing uses only. Simultaneously published in the United States and Canada. 019-0932/2007-09-01 3 1 Contents Preface 11 About This Guide 11 What’s New in Server Admin 12 What’s in This Guide 12 Using Onscreen Help 13 Mac OS X Server Administration Guides 14 Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen 14 Printing PDF Guides 15 Getting Documentation Updates 15 Getting Additional Information Chapter 1 17 System Overview and Supported Standards 17 System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server 18 Understanding Server Configurations 19 Advanced Configuration in Action 20 Mac OS X Server Leopard Enhancements 21 Supported Standards 23 Mac OS X Server’s UNIX Heritage Chapter 2 25 Planning 25 Planning 26 Planning for Upgrading or Migrating to Mac OS X Server v10.5 26 Setting Up a Planning Team 27 Identifying the Servers You’ll Need to Set Up 27 Determining Services to Host on Each Server 28 Defining a Migration Strategy 28 Upgrading and Migrating from an Earlier Version of Mac OS X Server 29 Migrating from Windows NT 29 Defining an Integration Strategy 30 Defining Physical Infrastructure Requirements 30 Defining Server Setup Infrastructure Requirements 31 Making Sure Required Server Hardware Is Available 31 Minimizing the Need to Relocate Servers After Setup 32 Defining Backup and Restore Policies4 Contents 32 Understanding Backup and Restore Policies 34 Understanding Backup Types 34 Understanding Backup Scheduling 35 Understanding Restores 36 Other Backup Policy Considerations 37 Command-Line Backup and Restoration Tools Chapter 3 39 Administration Tools 39 Server Admin 40 Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin 40 Server Admin Interface 41 Customizing the Server Admin Environment 42 Server Assistant 42 Workgroup Manager 43 Workgroup Manager Interface 44 Customizing the Workgroup Manager Environment 44 Directory 45 Directory Interface 46 Directory Utility 46 Server Monitor 48 System Image Management 49 Media Streaming Management 49 Command-Line Tools 50 Xgrid Admin 51 Apple Remote Desktop Chapter 4 53 Security 53 About Physical Security 54 About Network Security 54 Firewalls and Packet Filters 54 Network DMZ 55 VLANs 55 MAC Filtering 56 Transport Encryption 56 Payload Encryption 57 About File Security 57 File and Folder Permissions 57 About File Encryption 58 Secure Delete 58 About Authentication and Authorization 60 Single Sign-On 60 About Certificates, SSL, and Public Key Infrastructure 61 Public and Private KeysContents 5 61 Certificates 62 Certificate Authorities (CAs) 62 Identities 62 Self-Signed Certificates 62 Certificate Manager in Server Admin 64 Readying Certificates 64 Requesting a Certificate From a Certificate Authority 65 Creating a Self-Signed Certificate 65 Creating a Certificate Authority 67 Using a CA to Create a Certificate for Someone Else 68 Importing a Certificate 68 Managing Certificates 68 Editing a Certificate 69 Distributing a CA Public Certificate to Clients 69 Deleting a Certificate 70 Renewing an Expired Certificate 70 Using Certificates 70 SSH and SSH Keys 71 Key-Based SSH Login 71 Generating a Key Pair for SSH 73 Administration Level Security 73 Setting Administration Level Privileges 73 Service Level Security 74 Setting SACL Permissions 74 Security Best Practices 76 Password Guidelines 76 Creating Complex Passwords Chapter 5 77 Installation and Deployment 77 Installation Overview 79 System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server 79 Hardware-Specific Instructions for Installing Mac OS X Server 79 Gathering the Information You Need 80 Preparing an Administrator Computer 80 About The Server Installation Disc 81 Setting Up Network Services 81 Connecting to the Directory During Installation 81 Installing Server Software on a Networked Computer 81 About Starting Up for Installation 82 Before Starting Up 82 Remotely Accessing the Install DVD 84 Starting Up from the Install DVD 84 Starting Up from an Alternate Partition6 Contents 88 Starting Up from a NetBoot Environment 89 Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server 96 Identifying Remote Servers When Installing Mac OS X Server 97 Installing Server Software Interactively 97 Installing Locally from the Installation Disc 99 Installing Remotely with Server Assistant 100 Installing Remotely with VNC 101 Using the installer Command-Line Tool to Install Server Software 103 Installing Multiple Servers 104 Upgrading a Computer from Mac OS X to Mac OS X Server 104 How to Keep Current Chapter 6 105 Initial Server Setup 105 Information You Need 105 Postponing Server Setup Following Installation 106 Connecting to the Network During Initial Server Setup 106 Configuring Servers with Multiple Ethernet Ports 107 About Settings Established During Initial Server Setup 107 Specifying Initial Open Directory Usage 109 Not Changing Directory Usage When Upgrading 109 Setting Up a Server as a Standalone Server 109 Setting Up a Server to Connect to a Directory System 110 Using Interactive Server Setup 111 Setting Up a Local Server Interactively 112 Setting Up a Remote Server Interactively 113 Setting Up Multiple Remote Servers Interactively in a Batch 115 Using Automatic Server Setup 116 Creating and Saving Setup Data 117 Setup Data Saved in a File 118 Setup Data Saved in a Directory 119 Keeping Backup Copies of Saved Setup Data 120 Providing Setup Data Files to Servers 121 How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data 122 Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a File 125 Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a Directory 128 Determining the Status of Setups 128 Using the Destination Pane for Setup Status Information 128 Handling Setup Failures 128 Handling Setup Warnings 129 Getting Upgrade Installation Status Information 129 Setting Up Services 129 Adding Services to the Server View 130 Setting Up Open DirectoryContents 7 130 Setting Up User Management 130 Setting Up File Services 131 Setting Up Print Service 132 Setting Up Web Service 132 Setting Up Mail Service 133 Setting Up Network Services 133 Setting Up System Image and Software Update Services 133 Setting Up Media Streaming and Broadcasting 133 Setting Up Podcast Producer 134 Setting Up WebObjects Service 134 Setting Up iChat Service 134 Setting Up iCal Service Chapter 7 135 Management 136 Ports Used for Administration 136 Ports Open By Default 136 Computers You Can Use to Administer a Server 137 Setting Up an Administrator Computer 137 Using a Non-Mac OS X Computer for Administration 138 Using the Administration Tools 138 Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin 139 Adding and Removing Servers in Server Admin 140 Grouping Servers Manually 140 Grouping Servers Using Smart Groups 141 Working With Settings for a Specific Server 143 Changing the IP Address of a Server 144 Changing the Server’s Host Name After Setup 144 Changing Server Configuration Type 145 Administering Services 145 Adding and Removing Services in Server Admin 146 Importing and Exporting Service Settings 146 Controlling Access to Services 147 Using SSL for Remote Server Administration 148 Managing Sharing 149 Tiered Administration Permissions 149 Defining Administrative Permissions 150 Workgroup Manager Basics 151 Opening and Authenticating in Workgroup Manager 151 Administering Accounts 151 Working with Users and Groups 152 Defining Managed Preferences 154 Working with Directory Data 154 Customizing the Workgroup Manager Environment8 Contents 155 Working With Pre-Version 10.5 Computers From Version 10.5 Servers 155 Service Configuration Assistants 155 Critical Configuration and Data Files 159 Improving Service Availability 159 Eliminating Single Points of Failure 160 Using Xserve for High Availability 160 Using Backup Power 161 Setting Up Your Server for Automatic Reboot 162 Ensuring Proper Operational Conditions 162 Providing Open Directory Replication 163 Link Aggregation 164 The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) 164 Link Aggregation Scenarios 166 Setting Up Link Aggregation in Mac OS X Server 167 Monitoring Link Aggregation Status 168 Load Balancing 169 Daemon Overview 169 Viewing Running Daemons 169 Daemon Control Chapter 8 171 Monitoring 171 Planning a Monitoring Policy 172 Planning Monitoring Response 172 Server Status Widget 172 Server Monitor 173 RAID Admin 173 Console 173 Disk Monitoring Tools 174 Network Monitoring Tools 175 Notification in Server Admin 176 Monitoring Server Status Overviews Using Server Admin 177 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 178 Enabling SNMP reporting 178 Configuring snmpd 180 Notification and Event Monitoring Daemons 182 Logging 182 Syslog 183 Directory Service Debug Logging 183 Open Directory Logging 184 AFP Logging 184 Additional Monitoring AidsContents 9 Chapter 9 185 Sample Setup 185 A Single Mac OS X Server in a Small Business 186 How to Set Up the Server Appendix 195 Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet Glossary 207 Index 22510 Contents 11 Preface About This Guide This guide provides a starting point for administering Mac OS X Leopard Server in advanced configuration mode. It contains information about planning, practices, tools, installation, deployment, and more by using Server Admin. Server Administration is not the only guide you need when administering advanced mode server, but it gives you a basic overview of planning, installing, and maintaining Mac OS X Server using Server Admin. What’s New in Server Admin Included with Mac OS X Server v10.5 is Server Admin, Apple’s powerful, flexible, fullfeatured server administration tool. Server Admin is reinforced with improvements in standards support and reliability. Server Admin also delivers a number of enhancements:  Newly refined and streamlined interface  Share Point management (functionality moved from Workgroup Manager)  Event notification  Tiered administration (delegated administrative permissions)  Ability to hide and show services as needed  Easy and detailed server status overviews for one or many servers  Groups of servers  Smart Groups of servers  Ability to save and restore service configurations easily  Ability to save and restore Server Admin preferences easily12 Preface About This Guide What’s in This Guide This guide includes the following chapters:  Chapter 1, “System Overview and Supported Standards,” provides a brief overview of Mac OS X Server systems and standards.  Chapter 2, “Planning,” helps you plan for using Mac OS X Server.  Chapter 3, “Administration Tools,” is a reference to the tools used to administer servers.  Chapter 4, “Security,” is a brief guide to security policies and practices.  Chapter 5, “Installation and Deployment,” is an installation guide for Mac OS X Server.  Chapter 6, “Initial Server Setup,” provides a guide to setting up your server after installation.  Chapter 7, “Management,” explains how to work with Mac OS X Server and services.  Chapter 8, “Monitoring,” shows you how to monitor and log into Mac OS X Server. Note: Because Apple periodically releases new versions and updates to its software, images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen. Using Onscreen Help You can get task instructions onscreen in Help Viewer while you’re managing Leopard Server. You can view help on a server or an administrator computer. (An administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer with Leopard Server administration software installed on it.) To get help for an advanced configuration of Mac OS X Leopard Server: m Open Server Admin or Workgroup Manager and then:  Use the Help menu to search for a task you want to perform.  Choose Help > Server Admin Help or Help > Workgroup Manager Help to browse and search the help topics. The onscreen help contains instructions taken from Server Administration and other advanced administration guides described in “Mac OS X Server Administration Guides,” next. To see the most recent server help topics: m Make sure the server or administrator computer is connected to the Internet while you’re getting help. Help Viewer automatically retrieves and caches the most recent server help topics from the Internet. When not connected to the Internet, Help Viewer displays cached help topics.Preface About This Guide 13 Mac OS X Server Administration Guides Getting Started covers installation and setup for standard and workgroup configurations of Mac OS X Server. For advanced configurations, Server Administration covers planning, installation, setup, and general server administration. A suite of additional guides, listed below, covers advanced planning, setup, and management of individual services. You can get these guides in PDF format from the Mac OS X Server documentation website: www.apple.com/server/documentation This guide... tells you how to: Getting Started and Installation & Setup Worksheet Install Mac OS X Server and set it up for the first time. Command-Line Administration Install, set up, and manage Mac OS X Server using UNIX commandline tools and configuration files. File Services Administration Share selected server volumes or folders among server clients using the AFP, NFS, FTP, and SMB protocols. iCal Service Administration Set up and manage iCal shared calendar service. iChat Service Administration Set up and manage iChat instant messaging service. Mac OS X Security Configuration Make Mac OS X computers (clients) more secure, as required by enterprise and government customers. Mac OS X Server Security Configuration Make Mac OS X Server and the computer it’s installed on more secure, as required by enterprise and government customers. Mail Service Administration Set up and manage IMAP, POP, and SMTP mail services on the server. Network Services Administration Set up, configure, and administer DHCP, DNS, VPN, NTP, IP firewall, NAT, and RADIUS services on the server. Open Directory Administration Set up and manage directory and authentication services, and configure clients to access directory services. Podcast Producer Administration Set up and manage Podcast Producer service to record, process, and distribute podcasts. Print Service Administration Host shared printers and manage their associated queues and print jobs. QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting Administration Capture and encode QuickTime content. Set up and manage QuickTime streaming service to deliver media streams live or on demand. Server Administration Perform advanced installation and setup of server software, and manage options that apply to multiple services or to the server as a whole. System Imaging and Software Update Administration Use NetBoot, NetInstall, and Software Update to automate the management of operating system and other software used by client computers. Upgrading and Migrating Use data and service settings from an earlier version of Mac OS X Server or Windows NT.14 Preface About This Guide Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen While reading the PDF version of a guide onscreen:  Show bookmarks to see the guide’s outline, and click a bookmark to jump to the corresponding section.  Search for a word or phrase to see a list of places where it appears in the document. Click a listed place to see the page where it occurs.  Click a cross-reference to jump to the referenced section. Click a web link to visit the website in your browser. Printing PDF Guides If you want to print a guide, you can take these steps to save paper and ink:  Save ink or toner by not printing the cover page.  Save color ink on a color printer by looking in the panes of the Print dialog for an option to print in grays or black and white.  Reduce the bulk of the printed document and save paper by printing more than one page per sheet of paper. In the Print dialog, change Scale to 115% (155% for Getting Started). Then choose Layout from the untitled pop-up menu. If your printer supports two-sided (duplex) printing, select one of the Two-Sided options. Otherwise, choose 2 from the Pages per Sheet pop-up menu, and optionally choose Single Hairline from the Border menu. (If you’re using Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, the Scale setting is in the Page Setup dialog and the Layout settings are in the Print dialog.) You may want to enlarge the printed pages even if you don’t print double sided, because the PDF page size is smaller than standard printer paper. In the Print dialog or Page Setup dialog, try changing Scale to 115% (155% for Getting Started, which has CD-size pages). User Management Create and manage user accounts, groups, and computers. Set up managed preferences for Mac OS X clients. Web Technologies Administration Set up and manage web technologies, including web, blog, webmail, wiki, MySQL, PHP, Ruby on Rails, and WebDAV. Xgrid Administration and High Performance Computing Set up and manage computational clusters of Xserve systems and Mac computers. Mac OS X Server Glossary Learn about terms used for server and storage products. This guide... tells you how to:Preface About This Guide 15 Getting Documentation Updates Periodically, Apple posts revised help pages and new editions of guides. Some revised help pages update the latest editions of the guides.  To view new onscreen help topics for a server application, make sure your server or administrator computer is connected to the Internet and click “Latest help topics” or “Staying current” in the main help page for the application.  To download the latest guides in PDF format, go to the Mac OS X Server documentation website: www.apple.com/server/documentation Getting Additional Information For more information, consult these resources:  Read Me documents—important updates and special information. Look for them on the server discs.  Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/server/macosx)—gateway to extensive product and technology information.  Mac OS X Server Support website (www.apple.com/support/macosxserver)—access to hundreds of articles from Apple’s support organization.  Apple Discussions website (discussions.apple.com)—a way to share questions, knowledge, and advice with other administrators.  Apple Mailing Lists website (www.lists.apple.com)—subscribe to mailing lists so you can communicate with other administrators using email.16 Preface About This Guide 1 17 1 System Overview and Supported Standards Mac OS X Server gives you everything you need to provide standards-based workgroup and Internet services — delivering a world-class UNIX-based server solution that’s easy to deploy and easy to manage. This chapter contains information you need to make decisions about where and how you deploy Mac OS X Server. It contains general information about configuration options, standard protocols used, it’s UNIX roots, and network and firewall configurations necessary for Mac OS X Server administration. System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server The Macintosh desktop computer or server onto which you install Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard must have:  An Intel or PowerPC G4 or G5 processor, 867 MHz or faster  Built-in FireWire  At least 1 gigabyte (GB) of random access memory (RAM)  At least 10 gigabytes (GB) of available disk space  A new serial number for Mac OS X Server10.5 The serial number used with any previous version of Mac OS X Server will not allow registration in v10.5. A built-in DVD drive is convenient but not required. A display and keyboard are optional. You can install server software on a computer that has no display and keyboard by using an administrator computer. For more information, see “Setting Up an Administrator Computer” on page 137. 18 Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards Understanding Server Configurations Mac OS X Server can operate in three different configurations: advanced, workgroup, and standard. Servers in advanced configurations are the most flexible, and require the most skill to administer. They can be customized for a variety of purposes and needs. An advanced configuration of Mac OS X Server gives the experienced system administrator complete control of service configuration to accommodate a wide variety of business needs. After performing initial setup with Setup Assistant, you use powerful administration applications such as Server Admin and Workgroup Manager, or command-line tools, to configure advanced settings for services the server must provide. The other two configurations are subsets of the possible services and capabilities of an advanced configuration. They have a simplified administration application, named Server Preferences, and are targeted at more specific roles in an organization. The workgroup configuration of Mac OS X Server is used for a workgroup in an organization with an existing directory server. A workgroup configuration connects to an existing directory server in your organization and uses the users and groups from the organization’s directory in a workgroup server directory. The standard configuration of Mac OS X Server features automated setup and simplified administration for an independent server in a small organization. The following table highlights the features and capabilities of each configuration. Feature Advanced Workgroup Standard Service settings changed with... Server Admin Server Preferences Server Preferences Service settings are... Unconfigured Preset to a few common defaults Preset to common defaults Users and groups managed with... Workgroup Manager Server Preferences Server Preferences User service settings automatically provisioned No Yes Yes Usable as a standalone server Yes No Yes Usable as an Open Directory Master Yes No Yes Usable as an Open Directory Replica Yes Yes No Usable as a dedicated network Gateway Yes No YesChapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards 19 For more information about the Standard and Workgroup configurations and what services are enabled by default for them, see Getting Started. Advanced Configuration in Action The following illustration depicts several advanced configurations of Mac OS X Server that serve a large organization. Each server is set up to provide some of the services. For example, one server provides iCal, iChat, and mail service for the organization. Another provides QuickTime media streaming and Podcast Producer. To ensure high availability of home folders and share points, a master file server and a backup file server have IP failover configured so that if the master fails, the backup transparently takes over. The master and backup file servers use an Xsan storage area network to access the same RAID storage without corrupting it. Usable as an Active Directory Replica Yes No No Monitored and backed up using... Whatever method implemented by the system administrator Server Preferences Server Preferences Dependant on an existing service infrastructure No Yes No Dependant on an existing well-formed DNS system Yes Yes No Feature Advanced Workgroup Standard The Internet AirPort Extreme DCHP, DNS, RADIUS, VPN Open Directory replica File sharing Home folders System imaging and software update QuickTime streaming iCal, iChat, and mail Open Directory master Web with wiki and blog20 Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards For high availability of directory services, Open Directory replicas provide directory service if the Open Directory master goes offline. The Open Directory domain has user, group, individual computer, and computer group accounts. This allows Mac OS X user preferences to be managed at the group and computer group level. The web service hosts a website on the Internet for the organization. It also provides wiki websites on the intranet for groups in the organization. Mac OS X Server Leopard Enhancements Mac OS X Server includes more than 250 new features, making it the biggest improvement to the server operating system since Mac OS X Server was launched. Here are a few enhancements:  Xgrid 2 service: Xgrid 2 service lets you achieve supercomputer performance levels by distributing computations over collections of dedicated or shared Mac OS X computers. Xgrid 2 features GridAnywhere, allowing Xgrid-enabled software to run where you choose, even if you haven’t set up a controller or agents; and Scoreboard for prioritizing which agents are used for each job. Cluster controller provides centralized access to the distributed computing pool, referred to as a computational cluster.  File services: Improved file services includes improved performance and security for each network file service, notably enhanced SMB support and secure NFS v3 using Kerberos authentication and AutoFS.  iChat Server 2: iChat Server 2 can federate its community of users with communities of other Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) messaging systems, such as Google Talk, allowing members of the iChat server community to chat with members of the federated communities.  Mail service: Mail service has added support for mail store clustering when used with Xsan. It also has integrated vacation message functionality. It features improved performance with 64-bit mail services with SMTP, IMAP, and POP.  Open Directory 4: This new version of Open Directory includes new LDAP proxy capability, cross-domain authorization, cascading replication, and replica sets.  RADIUS authentication: RADIUS allows authentication for clients connecting to the network via AirPort Base Stations.  QuickTime Streaming Server 6: Enhanced QuickTime Streaming Server supports 3GPP Release 6 bit-rate adaptation for smooth streaming to mobile phones regardless of network congestion. It integrates with Open Directory on your server when authenticating content delivery, and features improved performance with 64-bit service.Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards 21  Web services: Web server administrators now have Apache 2.2 (for clean and service upgrade installations) or 1.3 (for system upgraded servers). MySQL 5, PHP, and Apache are integrated. Ruby on Rails with Mongrel has been included for simplified development of web-based applications. Supported Standards Mac OS X Server provides standards-based workgroup and Internet services. Instead of developing proprietary server technologies, Apple has built on the best open source projects: Samba 3, OpenLDAP, Kerberos, Postfix, Apache, Jabber, SpamAssassin, and more. Mac OS X Server integrates these robust technologies and enhances them with a unified, consistent management interface. Because it is built on open standards, Mac OS X Server is compatible with existing network and computing infrastructures. It uses native protocols to deliver directory services, file, printer sharing, and secure network access to Mac, Windows, and Linux clients. A standards-based directory services architecture offers centralized management of network resources using any LDAP server—even proprietary servers such as Microsoft Active Directory. The open source UNIX-based foundation makes it easy to port and deploy existing tools to Mac OS X Server. The following are some of the standards-based technologies that power Mac OS X Server:  Kerberos: Mac OS X Server integrates an authentication authority based on MIT’s Kerberos technology (RFC 1964) to provide users with single sign-on access to secure network resources. Using strong Kerberos authentication, single sign-on maximizes the security of network resources while providing users with easier access to a broad range of Kerberos-enabled network services. For services that have not yet been Kerberized, the integrated SASL service negotiates the strongest possible authentication protocol.  OpenLDAP: Mac OS X Server includes a robust LDAP directory server and a secure Kerberos password server to provide directory and authentication services to Mac, Windows, and Linux clients. Apple has built the Open Directory server around OpenLDAP, the most widely deployed open source LDAP server, so it can deliver directory services for both Mac-only and mixed-platform environments. LDAP provides a common language for directory access, enabling administrators to consolidate information from different platforms and define one namespace for all network resources. This means a single directory for all Mac, Windows, and Linux systems on the network.22 Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards  RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is an authentication, authorization and accounting protocol used by the 802.1x security standard for controlling network access by clients in mobile or fixed configurations. Mac OS X Server uses RADIUS to integrate with AirPort Base Stations serving as a central MAC address filter database. By configuring RADIUS and Open Directory you can control who has access to your wireless network. Mac OS X Server uses the FreeRADIUS Server Project. FreeRADIUS supports the requirements of a RADIUS server, shipping with support for LDAP, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle databases, EAP, EAP-MD5, EAP-SIM, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-PEAP, and Cisco LEAP subtypes. Mac OS X Server supports proxying, with failover and load balancing.  Mail Service: Mac OS X Server uses robust technologies from the open source community to deliver comprehensive, easy-to-use mail server solutions. Full support for Internet mail protocols—Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Post Office Protocol (POP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)—ensures compatibility with standards-based mail clients on Mac, Windows, and Linux systems.  Web Technologies: Mac OS X Server web technologies are based on the open source Apache web server, the most widely used HTTP servers on the Internet. With performance optimized for Mac OS X Server, Apache provides fast, reliable web hosting and an extensible architecture for delivering dynamic content and sophisticated web services. Because web service in Mac OS X Server is based on Apache, you can add advanced features with plug-in modules. Mac OS X Server includes everything professional web masters need to deploy sophisticated web services: integrated tools for collaborative publishing, inline scripting, Apache modules, custom CGIs, and JavaServer Pages and Java Servlets. Database-driven sites can be linked to the included MySQL database. ODBC and JDBC connectivity to other database solutions is also supported. Web service also includes support for Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning, known as WebDAV.  File Services: You can configure Mac OS X Server file services to allow clients to access shared files, applications, and other resources over a network. Mac OS X Server supports most major service protocols for maximum compatibility including:  Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), to share resources with clients who use Macintosh computers.  Server Message Block (SMB), protocol to share resources with clients who use Windows computers. This protocol is provided by the Samba open source project.  Network File System (NFS), to share files and folders with UNIX clients.  File Transfer Protocol (FTP), to share files with anyone using FTP client software.Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards 23  IPv6: IPv6 is short for “Internet Protocol Version 6 (RFC 2460). IPv6 is the Internet’s next-generation protocol designed to replace the current Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 (IPv4, or just IP). IPv6 improves routing and network autoconfiguration. It increases the number of network addresses to over 3 x1038 , and eliminates the need for NAT. IPv6 is expected to gradually replace IPv4 over a number of years, with the two coexisting during the transition. Mac OS X Server’s network services are fully IPv6 capable and ready to transition to the next generation addressing as well as being fully able to operate with IPv4.  SNMP: The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used to monitor network–attached devices’ operational status. It is a set of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)–designed standards for network management, including an Application Layer protocol, a database schema, and a set of data objects. Mac OS X Server uses the open source net-snmp suite to provide SNMPv3 (i.e. RFCs 3411-3418) service. Mac OS X Server’s UNIX Heritage Mac OS X Server has a UNIX-based foundation built around the Mach microkernel and the latest advances from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) open source community. This foundation provides Mac OS X Server with a stable, high-performance, 64-bit computing platform for deploying server-based applications and services. Mac OS X Server is built on an open source operating system called Darwin, which is part of the BSD family of UNIX-like systems. BSD is a family of UNIX variants descended from Berkeley’s version of UNIX. Also, Mac OS X Server incorporates more than 100 open source projects in addition to proprietary enhancements and extended functionality created by Apple. The BSD portion of the Mac OS X kernel is derived primarily from FreeBSD, a version of 4.4BSD that offers advanced networking, performance, security, and compatibility features. In general, BSD variants are derived (sometimes indirectly) from 4.4BSD-Lite Release 2 from the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at the University of California at Berkeley. Although the BSD portion of Mac OS X is primarily derived from FreeBSD, some changes have been made. To find out more about the low-level changes made see Apple’s Developer documentation for Darwin.24 Chapter 1 System Overview and Supported Standards 2 25 2 Planning Before installing and setting up Mac OS X Server do a little planning and become familiar with your options. The major goals of the planning phase are to make sure that:  Server user and administrator needs are addressed by the servers you deploy  Server and service prerequisites that affect installation and initial setup are identified Installation planning is especially important if you’re integrating Mac OS X Server into an existing network, migrating from earlier versions of Mac OS X Server, or preparing to set up multiple servers. But even single-server environments can benefit from a brief assessment of the needs you want a server to address. Use this chapter to stimulate your thinking. It doesn’t present a rigorous planning guide, nor does it provide the details you need to determine whether to implement a particular service and assess its resource requirements. Instead, view this chapter as an opportunity to think about how to maximize the benefits of Mac OS X Server in your environment. Planning, like design, isn’t necessarily a linear process. The sections in this chapter don’t require you to follow a mandatory sequence. Different sections in this chapter present suggestions that could be implemented simultaneously or iteratively. Planning During the planning stage, determine how you want to use Mac OS X Server and identify whether there’s anything you need to accomplish before setting it up. For example, you might want to convert an existing server to v10.5 and continue hosting directory, file, and mail services for clients on your network. Before you install server software, you might need to prepare data to migrate to your new server, and perhaps consider whether it’s a good time to implement a different directory services solution. 26 Chapter 2 Planning During the planning stage, you’ll also decide which installation and server setup options best suit your needs. For example, Getting Started contains an example that illustrates server installation and initial setup in a small business scenario with the server in standard configuration mode. Planning for Upgrading or Migrating to Mac OS X Server v10.5 If you’re using a previous version of Mac OS X Server and you want to reuse data and settings, you can upgrade or migrate to v10.5. You can upgrade to Leopard Server if you’re using Mac OS X Server v10.4 Tiger or v10.3 Panther and you don’t need to replace server hardware. Upgrading is simple because it preserves existing settings and data. You can perform an upgrade using any of the installation methods described in this chapter or the advanced methods described in this guide. If you can’t perform an upgrade, for example when you need to reformat the startup disk or replace your server hardware, you can migrate data and settings to a computer that you’ve installed Leopard Server on. Migration is supported from the latest version of Mac OS X Server v10.4 Tiger, Mac OS X Server v10.3.9 Panther, Mac OS X Server v10.2.8 Jaguar, and Windows NT 4 or later. For complete information about migrating data and settings to a different Mac or Xserve, see Upgrading and Migrating. The upgrading and migrating guide provides complete instructions for reusing data and settings in both these scenarios. Setting Up a Planning Team Involve individuals in the installation planning process who represent various points of view, and who can help answer the following questions:  What day-to-day user requirements must be met by a server? What activities will server users and workgroups depend on the server for? If the server is used in a classroom, make sure the instructor who manages its services and administers it daily provides input.  What user management requirements must be met? Will user computers be diskless and therefore need to be started up using NetBoot? Will Macintosh client management and network home folders be required? Individuals with server administration experience should work with server users who might not have a technical background, so they’ll understand how certain services might benefit them.Chapter 2 Planning 27  What existing non-Apple services, such as Active Directory, will the server need to integrate with? If you’ve been planning to replace a Windows NT computer, consider using Mac OS X Server with its extensive built-in support for Windows clients. Make sure that administrators familiar with these other systems are part of the planning process.  What are the characteristics of the network into which the server will be installed? Do you need to upgrade power supplies, switches, or other network components? Is it time to streamline the layout of facilities that house your servers? An individual with systems and networking knowledge can help with these details as well as completing the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet in the appendix. Identifying the Servers You’ll Need to Set Up Conduct a server inventory:  How many servers do you have?  How are they used?  How can you streamline the use of servers you want to keep?  Are there existing servers that need to be retired? Which ones can Mac OS X Server replace?  Which non-Apple servers will Mac OS X Server need to be integrated with? Why?  Do you have Mac OS X Server computers that need to be upgraded to version 10.5?  How many new Mac OS X Server computers will you need to set up? Determining Services to Host on Each Server Identify which services you want to host on each Mac OS X Server and non-Apple server you decide to use. Distributing services among servers requires an understanding of both users and services. Here are a few examples of how service options and hardware and software requirements can influence what you put on individual servers:  Directory services implementations can range from using directories and Kerberos authentication hosted by non-Apple servers to setting up Open Directory directories on servers distributed throughout the world. Directory services require thoughtful analysis and planning. Open Directory Administration can help you understand the options and opportunities.  Home folders for network users can be consolidated onto one server or distributed among various servers. Although you can move home folders, you might need to change a large number of user and share point records, so devise a strategy that will persist for a reasonable amount of time. For information about home folders, see User Management.28 Chapter 2 Planning  Some services offer ways to control the amount of disk space used by individual users. For example, you can set up home folder and mail quotas for users. Consider whether using quotas will offer a way to maximize the disk usage on a server that stores home folders and mail databases. User Management describes home folder and user mail quotas, and Mail Service Administration describes service-wide mail quotas.  Disk space requirements are also affected by the type of files a server hosts. Creative environments need high-capacity storage to accommodate large media files, but elementary school classrooms have more modest file storage needs. File Services Administration describes file sharing.  If you’re setting up a streaming media server, allocate enough disk space to accommodate a certain number of hours of streamed video or audio. For hardware and software requirements and for a setup example, see QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting Administration.  The number of NetBoot client computers you can connect to a server depends on the server’s Ethernet connections, the number of users, the amount of available RAM and disk space, and other factors. DHCP service needs to be available. For NetBoot capacity planning guidelines, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration.  Mac OS X Server offers extensive support for Windows users. You can consolidate Windows user support on servers that provide PDC services, or you can distribute services for Windows users among different servers. The Open Directory Administration and File Services Administration describe the options available to you.  If you want to use software RAID to stripe or mirror disks, you’ll need two or more drives (they can’t be FireWire drives) on a server. For more information, see online Disk Utility Help. Before finalizing decisions about which servers will host particular services, familiarize yourself with information in the administration guides for services you want to deploy. Defining a Migration Strategy If you’re using Mac OS X Server v10.2–10.4 or a Windows NT server, examine the opportunities for moving data and settings to Mac OS X Server v10.5. Upgrading and Migrating from an Earlier Version of Mac OS X Server If you’re using computers with Mac OS X Server versions 10.2, 10.3, or 10.4, consider upgrading or migrating them to an advanced configuration of Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard. If you’re using Mac OS X Server v10.4 or v10.3 and you don’t need to move to different computer hardware, you can perform an upgrade installation. Upgrading is simple because it preserves your existing settings and data.Chapter 2 Planning 29 When you can’t use the upgrade approach, you can migrate data and settings. You’ll need to migrate, not upgrade, when:  A version 10.3 or 10.4 server’s hard disk needs reformatting or the server doesn’t meet the minimum Leopard Server system requirements. For more information, see “Understanding System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 66.  You want to move data and settings you’ve been using on a v10.3 or 10.4 server to different server hardware.  You want to move data and settings you’ve been using on a v10.2 server. Migration is supported from the latest versions of Mac OS X Server v10.4, v10.3, and v10.2. When you migrate, you install and set up an advanced configuration of Leopard Server, restore files onto it from the earlier server, and make manual adjustments as required. For complete information, read Upgrading and Migrating. Migrating from Windows NT An advanced configuration of Leopard Server can provide a variety of services to users of Microsoft Windows 95, 98, ME, XP, NT 4, and 2000 computers. By providing these services, Leopard Server can replace Windows NT servers in small workgroups. For information about migrating users, groups, files, and more from a Windows NT server to Mac OS X Server, see Upgrading and Migrating. Defining an Integration Strategy Integrating Mac OS X Server into a heterogeneous environment has two aspects:  Configuring Mac OS X Server to take advantage of existing services  Configuring non-Apple computers to use Mac OS X Server The first aspect primarily involves directory services integration. Identify which Mac OS X Server computers will use existing directories (such as Active Directory, LDAPv3, and NIS directories) and existing authentication setups (such as Kerberos). For options and instructions, see Open Directory Administration. Integration can be as easy as enabling a Directory Utility option, or it might involve adjusting existing services and Mac OS X Server settings. The second aspect is largely a matter of determining the support you want Mac OS X Server to provide to Windows computer users. File Services Administration and Open Directory Administration tell you what’s available. 30 Chapter 2 Planning Defining Physical Infrastructure Requirements Determine whether you need to make site or network topology adjustments before installing and setting up servers.  Who will administer the server, and what kind of server access will administrators need? Classroom servers might need to be conveniently accessible for instructors, while servers that host network-wide directory information should be secured with restricted access in a district office building or centralized computer facility. Because Mac OS X Server administration tools offer complete remote server administration support, there are few times when an administrator should need physical access to a server.  Are there air conditioning or power requirements that must be met? For this kind of information, see the documentation that comes with server hardware.  Are you considering upgrading elements such as cables, switches, and power supplies? Now may be a good time to do it.  Is your TCP/IP network and its subnets configured to support the services and servers you want to deploy? Defining Server Setup Infrastructure Requirements The server setup infrastructure consists of the services and servers you must set up in advance because other services or servers depend on them. For example, If you’ll use Mac OS X Server to provide DHCP, network time, or BootP services to other servers, you should set up the server or servers that provide these services and initiate the services before you set up servers that depend on those services. Or if you want to automate server setup by using setup data stored in a directory, you should set DHCP and directory servers. The amount of setup infrastructure you require depends on the complexity of your site and what you want to accomplish. In general, DHCP, DNS, and directory services are desirable or required for medium-sized and larger server networks:  The most fundamental infrastructure layer comprises network services like DHCP and DNS. All services run better if DNS is on the network, and many services require DNS to work properly. If you’re not hosting DNS, work with the administrator responsible for the DNS server you’ll use when you set up your own servers. DNS requirements for individual services are published in the service-specific administration guides. Setting up DHCP will reflect the physical network topology you’ll be using.Chapter 2 Planning 31  Another crucial infrastructure component is directory services, required for sharing data among services, servers, and user computers. The most common data you need to share is for users and groups, but configuration information such as mount records and other directory data is also shared. A directory services infrastructure is necessary when you want to host cross-platform authentication and when you want different services to share the same names and passwords. Here’s an example of the sequence in which you might set up a server infrastructure that includes DNS, DHCP, and directory services. The services can be set up on the same server or on different servers: 1 Set up the DNS server. 2 Set up DHCP. 3 Configure DHCP to specify the DNS server address so it can be served to DHCP clients. 4 Set up a directory server, including Windows PDC service if required. 5 Populate the directory with data, such as users, groups, and home folder data. This process can involve importing users and groups, setting up share points, setting up managed preferences, and so forth. 6 Configure DHCP to specify the address of the directory server so it can be served to DHCP clients. Your particular needs may affect this sequence. For example, if you want to use VPN, NAT, or IP firewall services, you would factor their setup into the DNS and DHCP setups. Making Sure Required Server Hardware Is Available You might want to postpone setting up a server until all its hardware is in place. For example, you might not want to set up a server whose data you want to mirror until all the disk drives that you need to set up for mirroring are available. You might also want to wait until a RAID subsystem is set up before setting up a home folder server or other server that will use it. Minimizing the Need to Relocate Servers After Setup Try to place a server in its final network location (IP subnet) before setting it up for the first time. If you’re concerned about preventing unauthorized or premature access during setup, you can set up a firewall to protect the server while finalizing its configuration.32 Chapter 2 Planning If you can’t avoid moving a server after initial setup, you must change settings that are sensitive to network location before it can be used. For example, the server’s IP address and host name, stored in both directories and configuration files on the server, must be updated. When you move a server, follow these guidelines:  Minimize the time the server is in its temporary location so the amount of information you need to change is limited.  Postpone configuring services that depend on network settings until the server is in its final location. Such services include Open Directory replication, Apache settings (such as virtual domains), DHCP, and other network infrastructure settings that other computers depend on.  Wait to import final user accounts. Limit accounts to test accounts so you minimize the user-specific network information (such as home folder location) that must change after the move.  After you move the server, you can change its IP address in the Network pane of System Preferences (or use the networksetup tool). Within a few minutes after you change the server’s IP address or name, Mac OS X Server automatically uses the changeip command-line tool to update the name, address, other data stored in the Open Directory domain, local directory domain, and service configuration files on the server. You may need to manually adjust network configurations such as the server’s DNS entries its DHCP static mapping. For information about the changeip tool, see its man page and Command-Line Administration.  Reconfigure the search policy of computers (such as user computers and DHCP servers) that have been configured to use the server in its original location. Defining Backup and Restore Policies All storage systems will fail eventually. Either through equipment wear and tear, accident, or disaster, your data and configuration settings are vulnerable to loss. Before installing any data system, you should have a plan in place to prevent or minimize your data loss. Understanding Backup and Restore Policies There are many reasons to have a backup and restore policy. Your data is subject to material failure through wear, natural or man-made disasters, or just data corruption. Some data loss is beyond your control to prevent, but with a backup and restore plan, you’ll have your data again.Chapter 2 Planning 33 These backup and restore policies must be customized to your situation, your needs, and your own determination of what data needs to be saved, how often, and how much time and effort is used to restore it. Backups are an investment of time, money, administration effort, and often performance. However, there is a clear return on investment in the form of data integrity. You can avoid substantial financial, legal, and organizational costs with a wellplanned and executed backup and restore policy. These policies specify the procedures and practices that fulfill your restoration needs. There are essentially three kinds of restoration needs:  Restoring a deleted or corrupt file  Recovering from disk failure (or catastrophic file deletion)  Archiving data for some organization need (financial, legal, and so forth) Each restoration need determines what type, frequency, and method you use to back up your data. You may want to keep daily backups of all files. This allows for quick restoration of individual overwritten or deleted files. In such a case you have file-level granularity every day: any single file can be restored the following day. There are other levels of granularity as well. For example, you may need to restore and entire day’s data at once. This is a daily snapshot-level granularity: you could restore the entire set of your organization’s data as it was on a given day. These daily snapshots may not be practical to maintain for every day for the life of the organization, so you might choose to keep a set of rolling snapshots that give you daily snapshot-level granularity for only the preceding month. Other levels of restoration you might want or need could be quarter-yearly, semi-annually, or so forth. You may also need archival storage, which is data stored only to be accessed in uncommon circumstances. Archival storage can be in a permanent state, meaning the data is kept for the foreseeable future. Your organization must determine:  What needs to be backed up?  How granular are the restoration needs?  How often is the data backed up?  How accessible is the data (how much time will it take to restore it?  What processes are in place to recover from a disaster during a backup or restore procedure? The answers to these questions are an integral part of your backup and restore policy.34 Chapter 2 Planning Understanding Backup Types There are many different types of backup files (explained below), and within each type there are many different formats and methods. Each backup type serves a different purpose and has different considerations.  Full Images: Full images are byte-level copies of data. They capture the entire state of the hard disk down to the most basic storage unit. These backups also keep copies of the disk filesystem and the unused or erased portion of the disk in question.They can be used for forensic study of the source disk medium. Such fidelity often makes individual file restoration more unwieldy. They are often compressed and are only decompressed to restore the entire file set.  Full File-level Copies: Full file-level copies are backup files that are kept as duplicates. They do not capture the finest detail of unused portions of the source disk, but they do provide a full record of the files as they existed at the time of backup. If a single file changes, the next full file-level backup will make a copy of the whole data set in addition to the file that changed.  Incremental Backups: Incremental backups start with file-level copies, but they only copy changed files since the last backup. This has the benefit of saving storage space, and capturing all applicable changes as they happen.  Snapshots: Snapshots are a copy of data as it was in the past. Snapshots can be made from collections of files, or more often made from links to other files within a backup file set. Snapshots are useful for making backups of volatile data (data that changes quickly, like databases in use or mail servers sending and receiving mail). These backup types are not mutually exclusive; they only exemplify different approaches to copying data for backup purposes. For example, Mac OS X’s Time Machine uses a full file-level copy as a base backup; then it uses incremental backups to create snapshots of a computer’s data on any given day. Understanding Backup Scheduling Backing up files requires time and resources. Before deciding on a backup plan, consider some of the following questions:  How much data will be backed up?  How much time will the backup take?  When does the backup need to happen?  What else is the computer doing during that time?  What sort of resource allocation will be necessary? For example, how much network bandwidth will be necessary to accommodate the load? How much space on backup drives, or how many backup tapes will be required? What sort of drain on computing resources will occur during backup? What personnel will be necessary for the backup?Chapter 2 Planning 35 You will find that different kinds of backup require different answers to these questions. For example, an incremental file copy might take less time and copy less data than a full file copy (because only a fraction of any given data set will have changed since the last backup). Therefore an incremental backup might be scheduled during a normal use period because the impact to users and systems may be very low. However, a full image backup might have a very strong impact for users and systems, if done during the normal use period. Choosing a Backup Rotation Scheme A backup rotation scheme determines the most efficient way to back up data over a specific period of time. An example of a rotation scheme is the grandfather-father-son rotation scheme. In this scheme, you perform incremental daily backups (son), and full weekly (father) and monthly (grandfather) backups. In the grandfather-father-son rotation scheme, the number of media sets you use for backup determines how much backup history you have. For example, if you use eight backup sets for daily backups, you have eight days of daily backup history because you’ll recycle media sets every eight days. Understanding Restores No backup policy or solution is complete without having accompanying plans for data restoration. Depending on what is being restored, you may have different practices and procedures. For example, your organization may have specific tolerances for how long critical systems can be out of use while the data is restored. You may want to consider the following questions:  How long will it take to restore data at each level of granularity? For example, how long will a deleted file or email take to restore? How long will a full hard disk image take to restore? How long would it take to return the whole network to its state three days ago?  What process is most effective for each type of restore? For example, why would we roll back the entire server for a single lost file?  How much administrator action is necessary for each type of restore? How much automation must be developed to best use administrators’ time?  Under what circumstances are the restores initiated? Who and what can start a restore and for what reasons? Restore practices and procedures must be tested regularly. A backup data set that has not been proven to restore correctly cannot be considered a trustworthy backup. Backup integrity is measured by restore fidelity.36 Chapter 2 Planning Defining a Backup Verification Mechanism A backup is no good if you can’t use it to restore lost data. You should have a strategy for regularly conducting test restorations. Some third-party software providers support this functionality. However, if you’re using your own backup solutions, you need to develop the necessary test procedures. Other Backup Policy Considerations Consider the following additional items for your backup policy:  Should file compression be used? If so, what kind?  Are there onsite and offsite backups and archives?  Are there any special considerations for the type of data being stored? For example, for Mac OS X files, can the backup utility preserve file metadata, resource forks, and Access Control List (ACL) privileges? Choosing Backup Media Type Several factors help you determine what type of media to choose:  Cost. Use cost per GB to determine what media to choose. For example, if your storage needs are limited, you can justify higher cost per GB, but if you need a large amount of storage, cost becomes a big factor in your decision. One of the most cost-effective storage solutions is a hard drive RAID. Not only does it provide you with a low cost per GB, but it doesn’t require the special handling needed by other cost-effective storage types, such as tape drives.  Capacity. If you back up only a small amount of data, low-capacity storage media can do the job. But if you need to back up large amounts of data, use high-capacity devices, such as a RAID.  Speed. When your goal is to keep your server available most of the time, restoration speed becomes a big factor in deciding which type of media to choose. Tape backup systems can be very cost-effective, but they are much slower than a RAID.  Reliability. Successful restoration is the goal of a good backup strategy. If you can’t restore lost data, all the effort and cost you spent in backing up data is wasted and the availability of your services compromised. Therefore, it’s important that you choose highly reliable media to prevent data loss. For example, tapes are more reliable than hard disks because they don’t contain moving parts.  Archive life. You never know when you’ll need your backed up data. Therefore, choose media that is designed to last for a long time. Dust, humidity, and other factors can damage storage media and result in data loss.Chapter 2 Planning 37 Command-Line Backup and Restoration Tools Mac OS X Server provides several command-line tools for data backup and restoration:  rsync. Use this command to keep a backup copy of your data in sync with the original. The tool rsync only copies the files that have changed.  ditto. Use this command to perform full backups.  asr. Use this command to back up and restore an entire volume. For more information about these commands, see Command-Line Administration. Leopard’s Time Machine feature is not recommended for server file and system backup of advanced configuration servers. Note: You can use the launchdctl command to automate data backup using the aforementioned commands. For more information about using launchd, see Command-Line Administration.38 Chapter 2 Planning 3 39 3 Administration Tools Manage Mac OS X Server using graphical applications or command-line tools. Mac OS X Server tools offer diverse approaches to server administration:  You can administer servers locally (directly on the server you’re using) or remotely, from another server, a Mac OS X computer, or a UNIX workstation.  Graphical applications, such as Server Admin and Workgroup Manager, offer easy-touse server administration and secure communications for remote server management. You can use these applications on Mac OS X Server (they’re in /Applications/Server/) or on a Mac OS X computer where you’ve installed them, as described in “Setting Up an Administrator Computer” on page 137.  Command-line tools are available for administrators who prefer to use commanddriven server administration. For remote server management, you can submit commands in a Secure Shell (SSH) session. You can type commands on Mac OS X Server computers and Mac OS X computers using the Terminal application, located in /Applications/Utilities/. You can also submit commands from a non-Macintosh computer that’s been set up as described in “Using a Non-Mac OS X Computer for Administration” on page 137. Server Admin You use Server Admin to administer services on one or more Mac OS X Server computers. Server Admin also lets you specify settings that support multiple services, such as creating and managing SSL certificates, manage file sharing, and specifying which users and groups can access services. Information about using Server Admin to manage services appears in the individual administration guides and in onscreen information accessible by using the Help menu in Server Admin.40 Chapter 3 Administration Tools Information about using Server Admin to manage services appears in the individual administration guides and in the following sections. Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin Server Admin is installed in /Applications/Server/, from which you can open it in the Finder. Or you can open Server Admin by clicking the Server Admin icon in the Dock or clicking the Server Admin button on the Workgroup Manager toolbar. To select a server to work with, enter its IP address or DNS name in the login dialog box, or click Available Servers to choose from a list of servers. Specify the user name and password for a server administrator, then click Connect. Server Admin Interface The Server Admin interface is shown here, with each element explained in the following table. A B C D O K L M N E G F H I JChapter 3 Administration Tools 41 Customizing the Server Admin Environment To control the Server Admin environment, you have the following options.  To control the list of services to administer, see “Adding and Removing Services in Server Admin” on page 145.  To control the appearance of Server Admin lists, refresh rates, and other behaviors, choose Server Admin > Preferences. A Server List: Shows servers, groups, smart groups, and if desired, the administered services for each server You select a group to view a status summary for all grouped computers. You select a computer for its overview and server settings. You select a server’s service to control and configure the service. B Context Buttons: Shows available information and configuration panes. C Tool Bar: Shows available context buttons. If a button is greyed out or can’t be clicked, you do not have the administrative permissions to access it. D Main Work Area: Shows status and configuration options. This looks different for each service and for each context button selected. E Available servers: Lists the local-network scanner, which you can use to discover servers to add to your server list. F All Servers: Shows all computers that have been added to Server Admin, regardless of status. G Server: Shows the hostname of the managed server. Select to show a hardware, operating system, active service, and system status summary. H Service: Shows an administered service for a given server. Select to get service status, logs, and configuration options. I Group: Shows an administrator created group of servers. Select to view a status summary for all grouped computers For more information, see “Grouping Servers Manually” on page 140. J Smart Group: Shows an automatic group, populated with servers that meet a predetermined criteria. For more information, see “Grouping Servers Using Smart Groups” on page 140. K Add button: Shows a pop-up menu of items to add to the Server list: servers, groups, and smart groups. L Action button: Shows a pop-up menu of actions possible for a selected service, or server, including disconnect server, share the server’s screen, and so forth. M Refresh button: Allows you to send a status request to all computers visible in the Server list. N Service Start/Stop button: When a service is selected, this button allows you to start or stop the service, as appropriate. O Action bar: Shows buttons and pop-up menus with commands to act on selected servers or services in the Server list. Click this to save or revert setting changes you’ve made. this contains the Add button, Action button, service start and stop buttons, and save and revert buttons.42 Chapter 3 Administration Tools Server Assistant Server Assistant is used for:  Remote server installations  Initial setup of a local server  Initial setup of remote servers  Preparing data for automated setup of an advanced configuration The Server Assistant initla page is shown here. Server Assistant is located in /Applications/Server/. For information about using Server Assistant, use its Help buttons, or see Chapter 6, “Initial Server Setup,” on page 105. Workgroup Manager Mac OS X Server includes Workgroup Manager, a user management tool you can use to create and manage user, group, computer, and computer group accounts. You also use it to access the Inspector, an advanced feature that lets you do raw editing of Open Directory entries. Workgroup Manager is installed in /Applications/Server/, from which you can open it in the Finder. Or you can open Workgroup Manager by clicking View > Workgroup Manager in the Server Admin menu bar.Chapter 3 Administration Tools 43 Workgroup Manager works closely with a directory domain. Directory domains are like databases, and are geared towards storing account information and handling authentication. Information about using Workgroup Manager appears in several documents:  User Management explains how to use Workgroup Manager for account and preference management. This guide also explains how to how to import and export accounts.  Open Directory Administration describes how to use the Inspector. After opening Workgroup Manager, you can open a Workgroup Manager window by choosing Server > New Workgroup Manager Window. Important: When connecting to a server or authenticating in Workgroup Manager, make sure the capitalization of the name you enter matches the name of a server administrator or domain administrator account. Workgroup Manager Interface The Workgroup Manager interface is shown here, with each element explained in the following table. A B C E D F G H I J44 Chapter 3 Administration Tools Customizing the Workgroup Manager Environment There are several ways to tailor the Workgroup Manager environment:  To open Workgroup Manager Preferences, choose Workgroup Manager > Preferences. You can configure options such as if DNS names are resolved, if the Inspector is enabled, if you need to enter a search query to list records, and what the maximum number of displayed records is.  To customize the toolbar, choose View > Customize Toolbar.  To include predefined users and groups in the user and group lists, choose View > Show System Users and Groups.  To open Server Admin, click the Server Admin toolbar button. Directory Directory gives users access to shared information about people, groups, locations, and resources within the organization. They can use Directory to share contacts, set up group services, and manage their own contact information. When users look up information for other people, they’ll see more than just contact information. If the person provides a picture, the user will see what he or she looks like. The user can view the person’s supervisor and direct reports. The user can see the public groups the person belongs to. The user can also print a map with the person’s location pinpointed on it. A Server Admin: Click to launch the Server Admin application. B Settings Buttons: Click Accounts to view or edit account settings, or click Preferences to view or edit preference settings. C Tool Bar: Click the icons to accomplish the various commands. The toolbar is customizable. D Directory path: Use to view the directory you are editing. Click the globe icon to select a directory domain. Click the lock to authenticate. E Record Type tabs: Use to view records for users, groups, computers, and all records. If the Inspector is enabled, this also contains the Inspector tab. F Text filters: Use to enter text to filter record names. G Record list display: Use to view all record names for a selected record type. H Selection bar: Use to view the number of records found and selected. I Main Work Area: Use to work with account, preference, and configuration options. This looks different for each user, group, or preference type. J Action zone: Use to save and revert changes, and to make and apply preset configurations to selected records.Chapter 3 Administration Tools 45 Directory takes advantage of several Mac OS X applications. Users can create shared contacts from Address Book entries, click mail addresses to send mail using Mail, or load group web services in Safari. Directory Interface The Directory interface is shown here, with each element explained in the following table. A Search field: Use to search record types. Numbers appear to the left of the Record Type buttons to indicate the number of matching records. B Record Type buttons: Click to show the type of directory records desired. C Results list: Use to view the results of the record search. D Record view: USe to view the record selected in the Results list. E Add button: Use to add a person, group, location, or resource record. F Edit button: Click to edit the selected record. A B C E D F46 Chapter 3 Administration Tools Directory Utility Directory Utility is the primary application for setting up a Mac OS X computer’s connections to Open Directory, Active Directory, and other directory domains, and for defining the computer’s search policy and service discovery protocols. The Directory Utility interface is below here with advanced configuration options. Directory Utility is installed on both Mac OS X Server computers and Mac OS X computers in /Applications/Utilities/. For information about how to use Directory Utility, see Open Directory Administration or Directory Utility Help. Server Monitor You use Server Monitor to monitor local or remote Xserve hardware and trigger mail notifications when circumstances warrant attention. Server Monitor provides information about the installed operating system, drives, power supply, enclosure and processor temperature, cooling blowers, security, and network.Chapter 3 Administration Tools 47 The Server Monitor interface is shown below. Server Monitor is installed in /Applications/Server/ when you install your server or set up an administrator computer. To open Server Monitor, click the Server Monitor icon in the Dock or double-click the Server Monitor icon in /Applications/Server/. From within Server Admin, choose View > Server Monitor. To identify the Xserve server to monitor, click Add Server, identify the server, and enter user name and password information for an administrator of the server. To specify how often you want to refresh data, use the “Update every” pop-up menu in the Info pane. To manage different lists of Xserve servers you want to monitor, choose File > Export or File > Import. To consolidate lists into one, choose File > Merge. The system identifier lights on the front and back of an Xserve server light when service is required. Use Server Monitor to understand why the lights are on. You can also turn the lights on to identify a particular Xserve server in a rack of servers by selecting the server and clicking “System identifier light” in the Info pane. To set up Server Monitor to notify you by mail when an Xserve server’s status changes, click Edit Notifications. For each server, you set up the conditions for which you want notification. The mail message can come from Server Monitor or from the server. Server Monitor keeps logs of Server Monitor activity for each Xserve server. To view a log, click Show Log. The log shows, for example, Server Monitor attempts to contact the server and whether a connection was successful. The log also shows server status changes. (The logs don’t include system activity on the server.)48 Chapter 3 Administration Tools For additional information, see Server Monitor Help. System Image Management You can use the following Mac OS X Server applications to set up and manage NetBoot and NetInstall images:  System Image Utility creates Mac OS X disk images. It’s installed with Mac OS X Server software in the /Applications/Server/ folder.  Server Admin enables and configures NetBoot service and supporting services. It’s installed with Mac OS X Server software in the /Applications/Server/ folder.  PackageMaker creates package files that you use to add software to disk images. Access PackageMaker from Xcode Tools. An installer for Xcode Tools is on the server Install DVD in the Other Installs folder.  Property List Editor edits property lists such as NBImageInfo.plist. Access Property List Editor from Xcode Tools. The System Image Utility interface is shown below. System Imaging and Software Update Administration provides instructions for using all these applications.Chapter 3 Administration Tools 49 Media Streaming Management QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting Administration provides instructions for administering QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) using Server Admin. QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting Administration also describes QTSS Publisher, an easy-to-use application for managing media and preparing it for streaming or progressive download. Command-Line Tools If you’re an administrator who prefers to work in a command-line environment, you can do so with Mac OS X Server. From the Terminal application in Mac OS X, you can use the built-in UNIX shells (sh, csh, tsh, zsh, bash) to use tools for installing and setting up server software and for configuring and monitoring services. You can also submit commands from a nonMac OS X computer. When managing remote servers, you conduct secure administration by working in a Secure Shell (SSH) session. Command-Line Administration describes Terminal, SSH, server administration commands, and configuration files.50 Chapter 3 Administration Tools Xgrid Admin You can use Xgrid Admin to monitor local or remote Xgrid controllers, grids, and jobs. You can add controllers and agents to monitor and specify agents that have not yet joined a grid. You also use Xgrid Admin to pause, stop, or restart jobs. The System Image Utility interface is shown here. Xgrid Admin is installed in /Applications/Server/ when you install your server or set up an administrator computer. To open Xgrid Admin, double-click the Xgrid Admin icon in /Applications/Server/. For additional information, see Xgrid Admin help.Chapter 3 Administration Tools 51 Apple Remote Desktop Apple Remote Desktop (ARD), which you can optionally purchase, is an easy-to-use network-computer management application. It simplifies the setup, monitoring, and maintenance of remote computers and lets you interact with users. The Apple Remote Desktop interface is shown here. You can use ARD to control and observe computer screens. You can configure computers and install software. You can conduct one-to-one or one-to-many user interactions to provide help or tutoring. You can perform basic network troubleshooting. And you can generate reports that audit computer hardware characteristics and installed software. You can also use ARD to control installation on a computer that you start up from an installation disc for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, because ARD includes VNC viewer capability. For more information about Apple Remote Desktop, go to www.apple.com/remotedesktop/.52 Chapter 3 Administration Tools 4 53 4 Security Vigilant security policies and practices can minimize the threat to system integrity and data privacy. Mac OS X Server is built on a robust UNIX foundation that contains many security features in its core architecture. State-of-the-art, standards-based technologies protect your server, network, and data. These technologies include a built-in firewall with stateful packet analysis, strong encryption and authentication services, data security architectures, and support for access control lists (ACLs). Use this chapter to stimulate your thinking. It doesn’t present a rigorous planning outline, nor does it provide the details you need to determine whether to implement a particular security policy and assess its resource requirements. Instead, view this chapter as an opportunity to plan and institute the security policies necessary for your environment. More information can be found in Mac OS X Server Security Configuration and Mac OS X Security Configuration. About Physical Security The physical security of a server is an often overlooked aspect of computer security. Remember that anyone with physical access to a computer (for example, to open the case, or plug in a keyboard, and so forth) has almost full control over the computer and the data on it. For example, someone with physical access to a computer can:  Restart the computer from another external disc, bypassing any existing login mechanism.  Remove hard disks and use forensic data recovery techniques to retrieve data.  Install hardware-based key-loggers on the local administration keyboard.54 Chapter 4 Security In your own organization and environment, you must decide which precautions are necessary, effective, and cost-effective to protect the value of your data and network. For example, in an organization where floor-to-ceiling barriers might be appropriate to protect a server room, securing the air ducts leading to the room might also need to be considered. Other organizations may merely choose a locked server rack or an Open Firmware password. About Network Security Network security is as important to data integrity as physical security. Although someone might immediately see the need to lock down an expensive server, he or she might not immediately see the need to restrict access to the data on that same server. The following sections provide considerations, techniques, and technologies to assist you in securing your network. Firewalls and Packet Filters Much like a physical firewall that acts as a physical barrier to provide heat and heat damage protection in a building or for a vehicle, a network firewall acts as a barrier for your network assets, preventing data tampering from external sources. Mac OS X Server’s Firewall service is software that protects the network applications running on your Mac OS X Server. Turning on firewall service is similar to erecting a wall to limit access. Firewall service scans incoming IP packets and rejects or accepts these packets based on the set of rules you create. You can restrict access to any IP service running on the server, and you can customize rules for all incoming clients or for a range of client IP addresses. Services such as Web and FTP are identified on your server by a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number. When a computer tries to connect to a service, firewall service scans the rule list for a matching port number. When a rule matches the packet transmission in the connection, the action specified in the rule (such as allow or deny) is taken. Then, depending on the action, additional rules may be checked. Network DMZ In computer network security, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a network area (a subnetwork) that is between an organization’s internal network and an external network like the Internet.Chapter 4 Security 55 Connections from the internal and the external network to the DMZ are permitted, but connections from the DMZ are not permitted to the internal network—they are limited to the external network. This allows an organization to provide services to the external network while protecting the internal network from case compromise by a host in the DMZ. If someone compromises a DMZ host, he or she cannot connect to the internal network. The DMZ is often used to connect servers that need to be accessible from the external network or Internet, such as mail, web, and DNS servers. Connections from the external network to the DMZ are often controlled using firewalls and address translation. A DMZ can be created through firewall configuration: each network is connected to a different port on the firewall, called a three-legged firewall setup. This has the benefit of simplicity but the weakness of a single point of failure. Another approach is to use two firewalls, with DMZ in the middle and connected to both firewalls, and with one firewall connected to the internal network and the other to the external network. This has the added benefit of preventing accidental misconfiguration, allowing access from the external network to the internal network. This type of setup is called a screened-subnet firewall. VLANs Mac OS X Server provides 802.1q Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) support on the Ethernet ports and secondary PCI gigabit Ethernet cards available or included with Xserves. VLAN allows multiple computers on different physical LANs to communicate with each other as if they were on the same LAN. Benefits include more efficient network bandwidth utilization and greater security, because broadcast or multicast traffic is only sent to computers on the common network segment. Xserve G5 VLAN support conforms to the IEEE standard 802.1q. MAC Filtering MAC Filtering (or layer 2 address filtering) refers to a security access control where a network interface’s MAC address, or Ethernet Address (the 42-bit address assigned to each network interface), is used to determine access to the network. MAC addresses are unique to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits and denies network access to specific devices, rather than to specific users or network traffic types. Individual users are not identified by a MAC address, only a device, so an authorized person must have an allowed list of devices that he or she would use to access the network.56 Chapter 4 Security In theory, MAC filtering allows a network administrator to permit or deny network access to hosts and devices associated with the MAC address, though in practice there are methods to avoid this form of access control through address modification (spoofing) or the physical exchange of network cards between hosts. Transport Encryption Transferring data securely across a network involves encrypting the packet contents sent between two computers. Mac OS X Server can provide Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) as the cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, mail, and other data transfers. These encryption protocols allow client and server applications to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery. TLS provides endpoint authentication and communications privacy over the Internet using cryptography. These encrypted connections authenticate the server (that its identity is ensured) but the client remains unauthenticated. To have mutual authentication (where each side of the connection is assured of the identity of the other), you must use a public key infrastructure (PKI) on the connecting clients. Mac OS X Server makes use of OpenSSL and has integrated transport encryption into the following tools and services:  SSH  VPN  Web Service  Mail Service  Directory Services  iChat Server Payload Encryption Rather than encrypting the transfer of a file across the network, you can encrypt the contents of the file instead. Files with strong encryption might be captured in transit, but would still be unreadable. Most transport encryption requires the participation of both parties in the transaction. Some services (such as SMTP mail service) can’t reliably use such techniques, so encrypting the file itself is the only method of reliably securing the file content. To learn more about file encryption, see “About File Encryption” on page 57.Chapter 4 Security 57 About File Security By default, files and folders are owned by the user who creates them. After they’re created, items keep their privileges (a combination of ownership and permissions) even when moved, unless the privileges are explicitly changed by their owners or an administrator. Therefore, new files and folders you create are not accessible by client users if they are created in a folder that the users don’t have privileges for. When setting up share points, make sure that items allow appropriate access privileges for the users you want to share them with. File and Folder Permissions Mac OS X Server supports two kinds of file and folder permissions:  Standard Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) permissions  Access Control Lists (ACLs) POSIX permissions let you control access to files and folders based on three categories of users: Owner, Group, and Everyone. Although these permissions give you adequate control over who can access a file or a folder, they lack the flexibility and granularity that many organizations require to deal with elaborate user environments. ACL permissions provide an extended set of permissions for a file or folder and allow you to set multiple users and groups as owners. In addition, ACLs are compatible with Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, giving you added flexibility in a multiplatform environment. For more information about file permissions, see File Services Administration and Mac OS X Server Security Configuration. About File Encryption Mac OS X has a number of technologies that can perform file encryption, including:  FileVault: FileVault performs on-the-fly encryption on each user’s home folder. This encrypts the entire directory in one virtual volume, which is mounted and the data is unencrypted as needed.  Secure VM: Secure VM performs encryption of system virtual memory (memory data temporarily written to the hard disk for storage). As such it isn’t used for encrypting user’s files, but it does give your system more security by keeping virtual memory files from being read and exploited.  Disk Utility: Disk Utility can create disk images whose contents are encrypted and password protected. Disk images act like removable media such as external hard drives or USB memory sticks, but they exist only as a file on the computer. After you create the encrypted disk image, you double-click it to mount it on your system. All files you drag onto the mounted image are encrypted and stored on the disk image. You can send this disk image to other Mac OS X users. With the unlocking password, they can retrieve the files you locked in the disk image.58 Chapter 4 Security For additional information, the following methods of encrypting files can be found in the Mac OS X Server Security Configuration Guide:  Creating a New Encrypted Disk Image  Creating an Encrypted Disk Image from Existing Data Secure Delete When a file is put in the Trash and the Trash is emptied, or when a file is removed using the UNIX tool “rm,” the files themselves are not removed from the hard disk. Instead, they are removed from the list of files the operating system (OS) tracks of and does not write over. Any space on your hard disk that is free space (places the OS can put a file) most likely contains previously deleted files. Such files can be retrieved using undelete utilities and forensic analysis. To truly remove the data from disk, you must use a more secure delete method. Security experts advise writing over deleted files and free space multiple times with random data. Mac OS X Server provides the following tools to allow you to securely delete files:  Secure Empty Trash (a command in the Finder menu to use instead of “Empty Trash”  srm (a UNIX utility that securely deletes files, used in place of “rm”) About Authentication and Authorization Authentication is verifying a person’s identity, but authorization is verifying that an authenticated person has the authority to perform a certain action. Authentication is necessary for authorization. In a computing context, when you provide a login name and password, you are authenticated to the computer because it assumes only one person (you) knows both the login name and the password. After you are authenticated, the operating system checks lists of people who are permitted to access certain files, and if you are authorized to access them, you are permitted to. Because authorization can’t occur without authentication, authorization is sometimes used to mean the combination of authentication and authorization. In Mac OS X Server, users trying to use various services (like logging in to a directoryaware workstation, or trying to mount a remote volume) must authenticate by providing a login name and password before any privileges for the users can be determined.Chapter 4 Security 59 You have several options for authenticating users:  Open Directory authentication. Based on the standard Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) protocol, Open Directory authentication supports many authentication methods, including CRAM-MD5, APOP, WebDAV, SHA-1, LAN Manager, NTLMv1, and NTLMv2. It’s the preferred way to authenticate Windows users. Authentication methods can be selectively disabled to make password storage on the server more secure. For example, if no clients will use Windows services, you can disable the NTLMv1 and LAN Manager authentication methods to prevent storing passwords on the server using these methods. Then someone who somehow gains access to your password database can’t exploit weaknesses in these authentication methods to crack passwords. Open Directory authentication lets you set up password policies for individual users or for all users whose records are stored in a particular directory, with exceptions if required. Open Directory authentication also lets you specify password policies for individual directory replicas. For example, you can specify a minimum password length or require a user to change the password the next time he or she logs in. You can also disable login for inactive accounts or after a specified number of failed login attempts.  Kerberos v5 authentication. Using Kerberos authentication allows integration into existing Kerberos environments. The Key Distribution Center (KDC) on Mac OS X Server offers full support for password policies you set up on the server. Using Kerberos also provides a feature known as single sign-on, described in the next section. The following services on Mac OS X Server support Kerberos authentication: Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), mail, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Secure Shell (SSH), login window, LDAPv3, Virtual Private Network (VPN), iChat Server, screen saver, and Apache (via the SPNEGO Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism protocol).  Storing passwords in user accounts. This approach might be useful when migrating user accounts from earlier server versions. However, this approach may not support clients that require certain network-secure authentication protocols, such as APOP.  Non-Apple LDAPv3 authentication. This approach is available for environments that have an LDAPv3 server set up to authenticate users.  RADIUS (an authentication protocol for controlling network access by clients in mobile or fixed configurations). For more information about RADIUS in Mac OS X Server, see Network Services Administration.60 Chapter 4 Security Single Sign-On Mac OS X Server uses Kerberos for single sign-on authentication, which relieves users from entering a user name and password separately for every service. With single sign- on, a user always enters a user name and password in the login window. Thereafter, the user does not have to enter a name and password for Apple file service, mail service, or other services that use Kerberos authentication. To use the single sign-on feature, users and services must be Kerberized—configured for Kerberos authentication—and must use the same Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) server. User accounts that reside in an LDAP directory of Mac OS X Server and have a password type of Open Directory use the server’s built-in KDC. These user accounts are automatically configured for Kerberos and single sign-on. This server’s Kerberized services also use the server’s built-in KDC and are automatically configured for single sign-on. This Mac OS X Server KDC can also authenticate users for services provided by other servers. Having additional servers with Mac OS X Server use the Mac OS X Server KDC requires only minimal configuration. Kerberos was developed at MIT to provide secure authentication and communication over open networks like the Internet. Kerberos provides proof of identity for two parties. It enables you to prove who you are to network services you want to use. It also proves to your applications that network services are genuine, not spoofed. Like other authentication systems, Kerberos does not provide authorization. Each network service determines for itself what it will allow you to do based on your proven identity. Kerberos allows a client and a server to unambiguously identify each other much more securely than the typical challenge-response password authentication methods traditionally deployed. Kerberos also provides a single sign-on environment where users must authenticate only once a day, week, or other period of time, easing authentication loads for users. Mac OS X Server and Mac OS X versions 10.3 through10.5 support Kerberos version 5. About Certificates, SSL, and Public Key Infrastructure Mac OS X Server supports many services that use SSL (Secure Socket Layer) to ensure encrypted data transfer. It uses a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) system to generate and maintain certificates of identity for use with SSL-enabled services. PKI systems allow the two parties in a data transaction to be authenticated to each other, and to use encryption keys and other information in identity certificates to encrypt and decrypt messages traveling between them.Chapter 4 Security 61 PKI enables multiple communicating parties to establish confidentiality, message integrity and message source authentication without exchanging secret information in advance. SSL technology relies on a PKI system for secure data transmission and user authentication. It creates an initial secure communication channel to negotiate a faster, secret key transmission. Mac OS X Server uses SSL to provide data encrypted data transmission for mail, web, and directory services. The following sections contain more background information about key aspects of PKI:  “Public and Private Keys” on page 61  “Certificates” on page 61  “Certificate Authorities (CAs)” on page 62  “Identities” on page 62 Public and Private Keys Within a PKI, two digital keys are created: the public key and the private key. The private key isn’t distributed to anyone and is often encrypted by a passphrase. The public key is distributed to other communicating parties. Basic key capabilities can be summed up as: Web, mail, and directory services use the public key with SSL to negotiate a shared key for the duration of the connection. For example, a mail server will send its public key to a connecting client and initiate negotiation for a secure connection. The connecting client uses the public key to encrypt a response to the negotiation. The mail server, because it has the private key, can decrypt the response. The negotiation continues until both the mail server and the client have a shared secret to encrypt traffic between the two computers. Certificates Public keys are often contained in certificates. A user can digitally sign messages using his or her private key, and another user can verify the signature using the public key contained in signer’s certificate that was issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) within the PKI. Key type Capabilities Public  Can encrypt messages that can only by decrypted by the holder of the corresponding Private key.  Can verify the signature on a message originating as coming from a Private key. Private  Can digitally sign a message or certificate, claiming authenticity.  Can decrypt messages that were encrypted with the Public key.  Can encrypt messages that can only be decrypted by the Private key itself.62 Chapter 4 Security A public key certificate (sometimes called an identity certificate) is a file in a specified format (Mac OS X Server uses the x.509 format) that contains:  The public key half of a public-private key pair  The key user’s identity information, such as a person’s name and contact information  A validity period (how long the certificate can be trusted to be accurate)  The URL of someone with the power to revoke the certificate (its revocation center)  The digital signature of a CA, or the key user Certificate Authorities (CAs) A Certificate Authority (CA) is an entity and its accompanying certificate that signs and issues digital identity certificates claiming trust of the identified party. In this sense, it’s a trusted third party between two transactions. In x.509 systems, CAs are hierarchical in nature, with CAs being certified by CAs, until you reach a root authority. A root authority is a CA that’s trusted by enough or all of the interested parties, so it doesn’t need to be authenticated by yet another trusted third party. The hierarchy of certificates is always a top-down, with a root authority’s certificate at the top. A CA can be a company that, for a fee, signs and issues a public key certificate which states that the CA attests that the public key in the certificate belongs to its owner, as recorded in the certificate. In a sense, CA is a digital notary public. One applies to the CA for a certificate by providing identity and contact information, as well as the public key. A CA must check an applicant’s identity so that users can trust certificates issued by that CA to belong to the identified applicant. Identities Identities, in the context of the Mac OS X Server Certificate Manager, are the combination of a signed certificate for both keys of a PKI key pair. The identities are used by the system keychain, and are available for use by various services that support SSL. Self-Signed Certificates Self-signed certificates are certificates that are digitally signed by the private key of the keypair included in the certificate. This is done in place of a CA signing the certificate. By self-signing a certificate, you’re attesting that you are who you say you are. No trusted third party is involved. Certificate Manager in Server Admin Mac OS X Server’s Certificate Manager is integrated into Server Admin to help you create, use, and maintain identities for SSL-enabled services.Chapter 4 Security 63 The Server Admin interface is shown below, with the Certificate Manager selected. Certificate Manager provides integrated management of SSL certificates in Mac OS X Server for all services that allow the use of SSL certificates. Certificate Manager allows the creation of self-signed certificates, and certificatesigning requests (CSRs) to obtain a certificate signed by a CA. The certificates, either self-signed or signed by a CA, are accessible by the services that support SSL. Identities that were previously created and stored in OpenSSL files can also be imported into Certificate Manager, and are then accessible to all services that support SSL. Certificate Manager in Server Admin doesn’t allow you to sign and issue certificates as a CA, nor does it allow you to sign and issue certificates as a root authority. If you need these functions, you can use Apple’s CA Assistant in /Applications/Utilities/. It allows these functions, and others. Self-signed and CA-issued certificates created in Apple’s CA Assistant can be used in Certificate Manager by importing the certificate. Certificate Manager displays the following for each certificate:  The domain name that the certificate was issued for  The dates of validity  The signing authority (such as the CA entity, or if the certificate is self-signed, it reads “Self-Signed”)64 Chapter 4 Security Readying Certificates Before you can use SSL in Mac OS X Server’s services, the certificates must be created or imported. You can create your own self-signed certificate, generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) to send to a CA, or import a certificate previously created with OpenSSL. Select a CA to sign your certificate request. If you don’t have a CA to sign your request, consider becoming your own CA, and then import your CA certificates into the root trust database of all your managed machines. If you’re using a self-signed certificate, consider using a self-signed CA to sign a CSR for your service usage, then import the public certificate of your CA into the System keychain on all client computers. These two options assume you have control of the client computers. Requesting a Certificate From a Certificate Authority Certificate Manager helps you create a certificate signing request (CSR) to send to your designated CA. To request a signed certificate: 1 In Server Admin, select the server that has services that support SSL. 2 Click Certificates. 3 Click the Add (+) button below the Certificates list. 4 Fill out identity information. The common name is the fully qualified domain name of the server that will use SSLenabled services. 5 Enter starting and ending validity dates. 6 Select a private key size (the default is1024 bits). 7 Enter a passphrase for the private key. This passphrase should be more secure than a normal password. It is recommended you use at least 20 characters, include mixed case, numbers and/or punctuation, have no characters repeat, and having no dictionary terms. 8 Click the Gear button and choose “Generate Certificate Signing Request” 9 Follow the onscreen directions for requesting a signed certificate from your chosen CA. For example, you may need to do it online or enter the email address. 10 Click Send Request. 11 Click Done to save the identity information. When the CA replies to the email, it will include it in the text of an email. 12 Make sure the Certificate is selected in the Certificates field again.Chapter 4 Security 65 13 Click the Gear button, then choose Add Signed or Renewal Certificate from Certificate Authority. 14 Copy the characters from “==Begin CSR==” to “==End CSR==” into the text box. 15 Click OK. 16 Click Save. Creating a Self-Signed Certificate When you create an identity in Certificate Manager, you’re creating a self-signed certificate. Certificate Manager creates a private–public key pair in the system keychain with the key size specified (512 - 2048 bits). It then creates the corresponding selfsigned certificate in the system keychain. A Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is also generated at the same time that the selfsigned certificate is created. This isn’t stored in the keychain but is written to disk at /etc/certificates/cert.common.name.tld.csr, where “common.name.tld” is the Common Name of the certificate that was issued. To create a self-signed certificate: 1 In Server Admin, select the server that has services that support SSL. 2 Click Certificates. 3 Click the Add (+) button. 4 Fill out identity information. The common name is the fully qualified domain name of the server that will use SSLenabled services. 5 Enter starting and ending validity dates. 6 Select a private key size (1024 bits is the default). 7 Enter a passphrase for the private key. This passphrase should be more secure than a normal password. It is recommended you use at least 20 characters, include mixed case, numbers and punctuation, have no characters repeat, and having no dictionary terms. 8 Click Done to save the identity information. 9 Click Save. Creating a Certificate Authority If you want to be able to sign another’s certificate, you must create a Certificate Authority (CA). Sometimes this is referred to as a root certificate. By using the root certificate, you will then become the trusted third party in that certificate’s transactions, vouching for the identity of the certificate holder.66 Chapter 4 Security If you are a large organization, you may decide to issue or sign certificates for people in your organization in order to use the security benefits of certificates with your own computing services. However, external organizations may not trust or recognize your signing authority. To create a CA: 1 Start Keychain Access. Keychain Access is a utility found in the /Applications/Utilities/ directory. 2 In the Keychain Access menu, select Certificate Assistant > Create a Certificate Authority. The Certificate Assistant will start. It will guide you through the process of making the CA. 3 Choose to create a Self Signed Root CA. 4 Provide the Certificate Assistant with the requested information and click Continue. You will need the following information to create a CA:  An email address  The name of the issuing authority (you or your organization) You also need to decide if you want to override the defaults, and you will decide whether to make this CA the organization’s default CA. If you do not have a default CA for the organization, allow the Certificate Assistant to make this one the default for you. In most circumstances, you do not want to override the defaults. If you do not override the defaults, skip to step 16. 5 If you chose to override the defaults, provide the following information in the next few screens:  A unique serial number for the root certificate  The number of days that the certificate authority will function before expiring  The type of user certificate that this CA is signing  Whether you want to create a CA website for users to access for CA certificate distribution 6 Click Continue. 7 Provide the Certificate Assistant with the requested information and click Continue. You need the following information to create a CA:  An email address of the responsible party for certificates  The name of the issuing authority (you or your organization)  The organization name  The organization unit name  The location of the issuing authorityChapter 4 Security 67 8 Select a key size and an encryption algorithm for the CA certificate and then click Continue. A larger key size is more computationally intensive to use, but much more secure. The algorithm chosen depends more on your organizational needs than any technical consideration. Both DSA and RSA are strong encryption algorithms. DSA is a United States Federal Government standard for digital signatures. RSA is a more recent advance in algorithms. 9 Select a key size and an encryption algorithm for the certificates to be signed and then click Continue. 10 Select the Key Usage Extensions you need for the CA certificate and then click Continue. At a minimum, you must select Signature and Certificate Signing. 11 Select the Key Usage Extensions you need for the certificates to be signed and then click Continue. Default key use selections are based on the type of key selected earlier in the Assistant. 12 Specify other extensions to add the CA certificate and click Continue. You must select “Include Basic Constraints” and “Use this certificate as a certificate authority” 13 Specify other extensions to add the CA certificate as desired and then click Continue. None are required. 14 Select the keychain “System” to store the CA certificate. 15 Choose to trust certificates on this computer signed by the created CA. 16 Click continue and authenticate as an administrator to create the certificate and key pair. 17 Read and follow the instructions on the last page of the Certificate Assistant. You can now issue certificates to trusted parties and sign certificate signing requests. Using a CA to Create a Certificate for Someone Else You can use your CA certificate to issue a certificate to someone else. This is sometimes referred to as signing a Certificate Signing Request (CSR). By doing so you are stating you are a trusted party and can verify the identity of the certificate holder. Before you can create a certificate for someone, that person must first generate a CSR. The user can use the Certificate Assistant to generate the CSR and email the request to you. You then use the CSR’s text to make the certificate. To create a certificate for someone else: 1 Start Keychain Access. Keychain Access is a utility found in the /Applications/Utilities/ directory.68 Chapter 4 Security 2 In the Keychain Access menu, select Certificate Assistant > Create a Certificate for Someone Else as a Certificate Signing Authority. The Certificate Assistant starts, and guides you through the process of making the CA. 3 Drag and drop the CSRt on the target area. 4 Choose the CA that is the issuer and sign the request. Also, you can also choose to override the reqest defaults. 5 Click Continue. If youoverride the request defaults, provide the Certificate Assistant with the requested information and click Continue. The Certificate is now signed. The default mail application launches with the signed certificate as an attachment. Importing a Certificate You can import a previously generated OpenSSL certificate and private key into Certificate Manager. The items are stored as available in the list of identities and are available to SSL-enabled services. To import an existing OpenSSL style certificate: 1 In Server Admin, select the server that has services that support SSL. 2 Click Certificates. 3 Click the Import button. 4 Enter the existing certificate’s file name and path. Alternately, browse for its location. 5 Enter the existing private key file’s name and path. Alternately, browse for its location. 6 Enter the private key passphrase. 7 Click Import. Managing Certificates After a certificate is created and signed, you shouldn’t have to do much more with it. Certificates are editable only in Server Admin, and cannot be changed after a CA signs them. Self-signed certificates can be changed. You should delete certificates if the information they possess (contact information and so forth) is no longer accurate or if you believe the keypair has been compromised. Editing a Certificate After a certificate signature of a CA is added, it can’t be edited. Chapter 4 Security 69 However, a self-signed certificate can be edited. All fields of the certificate (including domain name and private key passphrase, private key size, and so forth) can be modified. If the identity was exported to disk from the system keychain, it must be reexported. To edit a certificate: 1 In Server Admin, select the server that has services that support SSL. 2 Click Certificates. 3 Select the Certificate Identity to edit. It must be a self-signed certificate. 4 Click the Edit (/) button. 5 Click Edit. Distributing a CA Public Certificate to Clients If you’re using self-signed certificates, a warning pops up in most user applications saying that the certificate authority is not recognized. Other software, such as the LDAP client, simply refuses to use SSL if the server’s CA is unknown. Mac OS X Server ships only with certificates from well-known commercial CAs. To prevent this warning, your CA certificate must be exported to every client computer that connects to the secure server. To distribute the self-signed CA certificate: 1 Copy the self-signed CA certificate (the file named ca.crt) onto each client computer. This is preferably distributed using nonrewritable media, such as a CD-R. Using nonrewritable media prevents the certificate from being corrupted. 2 Open the Keychain Access tool, by double-clicking the ca.crt icon where the certificate was copied onto the client computer. 3 Add the certificate to the Systems keychain using Keychain Access. Alternatively, use the certtool command in Terminal: sudo certtool i ca.crt k=/System/Library/Keychains/Systems Now, any client application that checks against the System keychain (such as Safari and Mail) recognizes any certificate signed by your CA. Deleting a Certificate When a certificate has expired or been compromised, you must delete it. To delete a certificate: 1 In Server Admin, select the server that has services that support SSL. 2 Click Certificates.70 Chapter 4 Security 3 Select the Certificate Identity to delete. 4 Click the Remove (-) button, and select Delete. 5 Click Save. Renewing an Expired Certificate All certificates have an expiration date, so you must update certificates when they expire. To renew an expired certificate: 1 Request a new certificate from the CA. If you are your own CA, create a new one using your own root certificate. 2 In Server Admin in the Server list, select the server that has the expiring certificate. 3 Click Certificates. 4 Select the Certificate Identity to edit. 5 Click the action button and select “Add signed or renewed certificate from certificate authority.” 6 Paste the renewed certificate into the text field and click OK. 7 Click the Edit button to make the certificate editable. 8 Adjust the dates for the certificate. 9 Click Save. Using Certificates In Server Admin, the various services like Web, Mail, VPN, and so on will display a popup list of certificates that the administrator can choose from. The services vary in appearance and therefore the pop-up list location varies. Consult the administration guide for the service you’re trying to use with a certificate. SSH and SSH Keys SSH is a network protocol that establishes a secure channel between your computer and a remote computer. It uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer. It also provides traffic encryption and data integrity exchanged between the two computers. SSH is frequently used to log in to a remote machine to execute commands but it can also create a secure data tunnel, forwarding through an arbitrary TCP port. Additionally, it can transfer files using the associated SFTP and SCP protocols. By default, an SSH server listens on the standard TCP port 22. Mac OS X Server uses OpenSSH as the basis for its SSH tools.Chapter 4 Security 71 Key-Based SSH Login Key-based authentication is helpful for tasks such as automating file transfers and backups and for creating failover scripts because it allows computers to communicate without a user needing to enter a password. It is not secure to copy the private key of one computer to another computer. Important: Key-based authentication has risks. If the private key you generate becomes compromised, unauthorized users can access your computers. You must determine whether the advantages of key-based authentication are worth the risk. Generating a Key Pair for SSH This section outlines the process of setting up key-based SSH login on Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server. To set up key-based SSH, you must generate the keys the two computers will use to establish and validate the identity of each other. To do this, run the following commands in Terminal: 1 Check to see whether a .ssh folder exists in your home folder by entering the command: ls -ld ~/.ssh. If .ssh is listed in the output, move to step 2. If .ssh is not listed in the output, run mkdir ~/.ssh and continue to step 2. 2 Change directories in the shell to the hidden ssh by entering the following command: cd ~/.ssh 3 Generate the public and private keys by entering the following command: ssh-keygen -b 1024 -t dsa -f id_dsa -P '' The -b flag sets the length of the keys to 1,024-bits, -t indicates to use the DSA hashing algorithm, -f sets the file name as id_dsa, and -P followed by two single-quote marks sets the private key password to be null. The null private key password allows for automated SSH connections. 4 Create an empty authorized key file by entering the following command: touch authorized_keys2 5 Copy the public key into the authorized key file by entering the following command: cat id_dsa.pub >> authorized_keys2 6 Change the psermissions of the private key by entering the following command: chmod 400 id_dsa The permissions on the private key must be set so the file is not world-readable. 7 Copy the public key and the authorized key lists to the specified user’s home folder on the remote computer by entering the following command: scp authorized_keys2 username@remotemachine:~/.ssh/72 Chapter 4 Security If you need to establish two-way communication between servers, repeat the above process on the second computer. This process must be repeated for each user that needs to be able to open a key-based SSH session. The root user is not excluded from this requirement. The home folder for the root user on Mac OS X Server is located at /var/root/. Key-Based SSH with Scripting Sample A cluster of servers is an ideal environment for using key-based SSH. The following Perl script is a trivial scripting example that should not be implemented. It demonstrates connecting over an SSH tunnel to all servers defined in the variable serverList, running softwareupdate, installing available updates, and restarting the computer if necessary. The script assumes that key-based SSH has been properly set up for the root user on all servers to be updated. #!/usr/bin/perl # \@ is the escape sequence for the "@" symbol. my @serverList = ('root\@exampleserver1.example.com', 'root\@exampleserver2.example.com'); foreach $server (@serverList) { open SBUFF, "ssh $server -x -o batchmode=yes 'softwareupdate -i -a' |"; while() { my $flag = 0; chop($_); #check for restart text in $_ my $match = "Please restart immediately"; $count = @{[$_ =~ /$match/g]}; if($count > 0) { $flag = 1; } } close SBUFF; if($flag == 1) { `ssh $server -x -o batchmode=yes shutdown -r now` } }Chapter 4 Security 73 Administration Level Security Mac OS X Server can use another level of access control for added security. Administrators can be assigned to services they can configure. These limitations are enacted on a server-by-server basis. This method can be used by an administrator with no restrictions to assign administrative duties to other admin group users. This results in a tiered administration model, where some administrators have more privileges than others for assigned services. This results in a method of access control for individual server features and services. For example, Alice (the lead administrator) has control over all services on a given server and can limit the ability of other admin group users (like Bob and Cathy) to change settings on the server. She can assign DNS and firewall service administration to Bob, while leaving mail service administration to Cathy. In this scenario, Cathy can’t change the firewall or any service other than mail. Likewise, Bob can’t change any services outside of his assigned services. Tiered administration controls are effective in Server Admin and the serveradmin command-line tool. They are not effective against modifying the various UNIX configuration files throughout the system. The UNIX configuration files must be protected with POSIX-type permissions or ACLs. Setting Administration Level Privileges You can determine which services other admin group users can modify. To do this, the administrator making the determination must have full, unmodified access. The process for setting administration level privileges is found in “Tiered Administration Permissions” on page 149. Service Level Security You use a Service Access Control List (SACL) to enforce who can use a given service. It is not a means authentication; it is a list of who has the appropriate access rights to use a given service. SACLs allow you to add another layer of access control on top of standard and ACL permissions. Only users and groups listed in a SACL have access to its corresponding service. For example, to prevent users from accessing AFP share points on a server, including home folders, remove the users from the AFP service’s SACL. Server Admin in Mac OS X Server allows you to configure SACLs. Open Directory authenticates user accounts and SACLs authorize use of services. If Open Directory authenticates you, the SACL for login window determines whether you can log in, the SACL for AFP service determines whether you can connect for Apple file service, and so on.74 Chapter 4 Security Setting SACL Permissions SACLs (Service access control lists) allow you to specify which users and groups have access to Mac OS X Server services, including AFP, FTP, and Windows file services. To set SACL permissions for a service: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select the server from the Servers list. 3 Click Settings. 4 Click Access. 5 To restrict access to all services or deselect this option to set access permissions per service, select “For all services”. 6 If you have deselected “For all services,” select a service from the Service list. 7 To provide unrestricted access to services, click “Allow all users and groups” . If you want to restrict access to certain users and groups: a Select “Allow only users and groups below.” b Click the Add (+) button to open the Users & Groups drawer. c Drag users and groups from the Users & Groups drawer to the list. 8 Click Save. Security Best Practices Server administrators are responsible for making sure that reasonable security measures are taken to protect a server from an attack. A compromised server risks the resources and data on the server and also risks the resources and data on other connected systems. A compromised system can be used as a base to launch an attack on other systems within or outside your network. Maintaining the security of servers requires a balance of the cost of implementing security measures versus the likelihood of a successful attack and the impact of the attack. It is not be possible to eliminate all security risks to a server on a network, but it is possible to reduce the chances of a breach and more efficiently deal with realized attacks. Best Practices for server system administration include, but are not limited to:  Updating your systems with critical security patches and updates.  Checking for updates regularly.  Installing appropriate antivirus tools and use them regularly and updating virus definition files and software regularly. Although viruses are far less prevalent on the Mac platform than on Windows, viruses still pose a risk.Chapter 4 Security 75  Restricting physical access to the server. Because local access generally allows an intruder to bypass most system security, secure the server room, server racks, and network junctures. Use security locks. Locking your systems is a prudent thing to do.  Making sure there is adequate protection against physical damage to servers and ensuring the functioning of the climate control of the server room.  Taking all additional precautions to secure servers. For example, enable Open firmware passwords, encrypt passwords where possible, and secure backup media.  Securing logical access to the server. For example, remove or disable unnecessary accounts. Accounts for outside parties should be disabled when not in use.  Configuring SACLS as needed. Use SACLS to specify who can access services.  Configuring ACLs as needed. Use ACLs to control who can access share points and their contents.  Protecting any account with root or system administrator privileges by following recommended password practices using strong passwords. For more specific information about passwords, see “Password Guidelines” on page 76 .  Not using administrator (UNIX “admin” group) accounts for daily use. Restrict the use of administration privileges by keeping the admin login and password separate from daily use.  Backing up critical data on the system regularly, with a copy stored at a secure offsite location. Backup media is of little use in recovery if it is destroyed along with the computer during a machine room fire. Backup/Recovery contingency plans should be tested to ensure that recovery actually works.  Reviewing system audit logs regularly and questioning any unusual traffic patterns.  Disabling services that are not required on your system. A vulnerability that occurs in any service on your system can compromise the entire system. In some cases, the default configuration (out of the box) of a system leads to exploitable vulnerabilities in services that were enabled implicitly and with poor default options. Turning on a service opens up a port from which users can access your system. Although enabling firewall service helps fend off unauthorized access, an inactive service port remains a vulnerability that an attacker might be able to exploit.  Enabling firewall service on servers, especially at the network frontier.76 Chapter 4 Security Your server’s firewall is the first line of defense against unauthorized access. For more information, see the chapter on setting up firewall service in Network Services Administration. Consider also a third-party hardware firewall as an additional line of defense if your server is highly prone to attack.  If needed, installing a local firewall on critical or sensitive servers. Implementing a local firewall protects the system from an attack that might originate from within the organization’s network or from the Internet.  For additional protection, implementing a local Virtual Private Network (VPN) that provides a secure encrypted tunnel for all communication between a client computer and your server application. Some network devices provide a combination of functions: firewall, intrusion detection, and VPN.  Administering servers remotely. Manage your servers remotely using applications like Server Admin, Server Monitor, RAID Admin, and Apple Remote Desktop. Minimizing physical access to the systems reduces the possibility of mischief. Password Guidelines Many applications and services require that you create passwords to authenticate. Mac OS X includes applications that help create complex passwords (using Password Assistant), and securely store your passwords (using Keychain Access). Creating Complex Passwords Use the following tips to create complex passwords:  Use a mix of alphabetic (upper and lower case), numeric, and special characters (such as ! and @).  Don’t use words or combinations of words found in a dictionary of any language.  Don’t append a number to an alphabetic word (for example, “wacky2”) to fulfill the constraint of having a number.  Don’t substitute “look alike” numbers or symbols for letters (for example, “GR33N” instead of “GREEN”).  Don’t use proper names.  Don’t use dates.  Create a password of at least 12 characters. Longer passwords are generally more secure than shorter passwords.  Use passwords that can’t be guessed even by someone who knows you and your interests well.  Create as random a password as possible. You can use Password Assistant (located in /System/Library/CoreServices/ to verify the complexity of your password.5 77 5 Installation and Deployment Whether you install Mac OS X Server on a single server or a cluster of servers, there are tools and processes to help the installation and deployment succeed. Some computers come with Mac OS X Server software already installed. Other computers need to have the server software installed. For example, installing Leopard Server on a computer with Mac OS X makes the computer a server with Mac OS X Server. Installing Leopard Server on an existing server with an Mac OS X Server v10.2–10.4 upgrades the server software to v10.5. If Leopard Server is already installed, installing it again refreshes the server environment. This chapter includes instructions for a fresh installation of Leopard Server using a variety of methods. Installation Overview You’ve already planned and decided how many and what kind of servers you are going to install. Step 1: Confirm you meet the requirements Make sure your target server meets the minimum system requirements. For more information see:  “System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 79  “Hardware-Specific Instructions for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 79 Step 2: Gather your information Gather all the information you need before you begin. This not only helps to make sure the installation goes smoothly, but it can help you make certain planning decisions. For further information, see:  Chapter 2, “Planning,” on page 25  Appendix , “Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet,” on page 19578 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment  “About The Server Installation Disc” on page 80 Step 3: Set up the environment If you are not in complete control of the network environment (DNS servers, DHCP server, firewall, and so forth) you need to coordinate with your network administrator before installing. A functioning DNS system, with full reverse lookups, and a firewall to allow configuration constitute a bare minimum for the setup environment. If you are planning on connecting the server to an existing directory system, you also need to coordinate efforts with the directory administrator. See the following:  “Connecting to the Directory During Installation” on page 81  “Installing Server Software on a Networked Computer” on page 81 If you are administering the server from another computer, you must create an administration computer. For more information, see “Preparing an Administrator Computer” on page 80. Step 4: Start up the computer from an installation disk You can’t install onto the disk the computer is booted from, but you can upgrade. For clean installations and upgrades, you must start up the server from an installation disk, not from the target disk. See the following:  “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81  “Remotely Accessing the Install DVD” on page 82  “Starting Up from the Install DVD” on page 84  “Starting Up from an Alternate Partition” on page 84  “Starting Up from a NetBoot Environment” on page 88 Step 5: Prepare the target disk If you are doing a clean installation, you must prepare the target disk by making sure it has the right format and partition scheme. See the following:  “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 89  “Choosing a File System” on page 89  “Partitioning a Hard Disk” on page 91  “Creating a RAID Set” on page 92  “Erasing a Disk or Partition” on page 95 Step 6: Start the installer The installer application takes software from the startup disk and server software packages and installs them on the target disk. See the following:  “Identifying Remote Servers When Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 96  “Installing Server Software Interactively” on page 97  “Installing Locally from the Installation Disc” on page 97  “Installing Remotely with Server Assistant” on page 99 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 79  “Installing Remotely with VNC” on page 100  “Using the installer Command-Line Tool to Install Server Software” on page 101 Step 7: Set Up Services Restart from the target disk to proceed to setup. For more information about server setup, see “Initial Server Setup” on page 105. System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server The Macintosh desktop computer or server where you install Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard must have:  An Intel or PowerPC G4 or G5 processor, 867 MHz or faster  Built-in FireWire  At least 1 gigabyte (GB) of random access memory (RAM)  At least 10 gigabytes (GB) of disk space available  A new serial number for Mac OS X Server 10.5. The serial number used with any previous version of Mac OS X Server will not allow registration in v10.5. A built-in DVD drive is convenient but not required. A display and keyboard are optional. You can install server software on a computer that has no display and keyboard by using an administrator computer. For more information, see “Preparing an Administrator Computer” on page 80. If you’re using an installation disc for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, you can control installation from another computer using VNC viewer software. Open source VNC viewer software is available. Apple Remote Desktop, described on page 51, includes VNC viewer capability. Hardware-Specific Instructions for Installing Mac OS X Server When you install server software on Xserve systems, the procedure you use when starting the computer for installation is specific to the kind of Xserve hardware you have. You may need to refer to the Xserve User’s Guide or Quick Start that came with your Xserve, where these procedures are documented. Gathering the Information You Need Use the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet to record information for each server you want to install. The information below provides supplemental explanations for items on the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet. The Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet is located in the appendix on page 195.80 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Preparing an Administrator Computer You can use an administrator computer to install, set up, and administer Mac OS X Server on another computer. An administrator computer is a computer with Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard or Mac OS X Server Leopard that you use to manage remote servers. When you install and set up Mac OS X Server on a computer that has a display and keyboard, it’s already an administrator computer. To make a computer with Mac OS X into an administrator computer, you must install additional software. Important: If you have administrative applications and tools from Mac OS X Server v10.4 Tiger or earlier, do not use them with Leopard Server. To enable remote administration of Mac OS X Server from a Mac OS X computer: 1 Make sure the Mac OS X computer has Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard installed. 2 Make sure the computer has at least 1 GB of RAM and 1 GB of unused disk space. 3 Insert the Administration Tools CD. 4 Open the Installers folder. 5 Open ServerAdministrationSoftware.mpkg to start the Installer, and then follow the onscreen instructions. About The Server Installation Disc You can install the server software using the Mac OS X Server Install Disc. This installation disc contains everything you must install Mac OS X Server. It also contains an Other Installs folder, which has installers for upgrading a Mac OS X computer to Mac OS X Server and for separately installing server administration software, the Directory application, the Podcast Capture application, X11 software, and Xcode developer tools. In addition to the installation disc, Mac OS X Server includes the Administration Tools CD. You use this disc to set up an administrator computer. This disc also contains installers for the Directory application, the Podcast Capture application, and the QTSS Publisher application. For advanced administrators, this disc contains installers for PackageMaker and Property List Editor.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 81 Setting Up Network Services Before you can install, you must set up or have the following settings for your network service:  DNS: You must have a fully qualified domain name for each server’s IP addess in the DNS system. The DNS zone must have the reverse-lookup lookup record for the name and address pair. Not having a stable, functioning DNS system with reverse lookup leads to service failures and unexpected behaviors.  DHCP: It is not recommended to assign dynamic IP addresses to servers. If your server gets its IP address through DHCP, set up a static mapping in the DHCP server, so your server gets (via its Ethernet address) the same IP address every time.  Firewall or routing: In addition to any firewall running on your server, the subnet router may have certain network traffic restrictions in place. Make sure you server’s IP address is available for the traffic you are planning to handle and the services you are planning to run. Connecting to the Directory During Installation If you want to use a server as an Open Directory master, make sure it has an active Ethernet connection to a secure network before installation and initial setup. Installing Server Software on a Networked Computer When you start up a computer from a server installation disc, SSH starts so that remote installations can be performed. Important: Before you install or reinstall Mac OS X Server, make sure the network is secure because SSH gives others access to the computer over the network. For example, design the network topology so you can make the server computer’s subnet accessible only to trusted users. About Starting Up for Installation The computer can’t install to its own startup volume, so you must start up in some other way, such as:  Optical Media, DVDs  Alternate volumes (second partitions on the hard disk, or external FireWire disks)  Netboot The computer must install from the same disk or image that started up the computer. Mounting another share point with an installer won’t work. The installer uses some of the files currently active in the booted system partition for the new installation.82 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Before Starting Up If you’re performing a clean installation rather than upgrading an existing server, back up any user data that’s on the disk or partition where you’ll install the server software. If you’re upgrading an existing server, make sure that saved setup data won’t be inadvertently detected and used to automatically set up an advanced configuration. Server Assistant looks for saved setup data on all mounted disks and in all directories the server is configured to access. The saved setup data will overwrite the server’s existing settings. For more information about automatic server setup, see “Using Automatic Server Setup” on page 115. Remotely Accessing the Install DVD When used as the startup disc, the Install DVD provides some services for remote access. After you start up from the DVD, both SSH and VNC are available for use. VNC enables you to use a VNC viewer (like Apple Remote Desktop) to view the user interface as if you were using the remote computer’s keyboard, mouse, and monitor. All the things you could do at the computer using the keyboard and mouse are available remotely, as well as locally. This excludes hard resets, other hardware manipulation, or holding down keys during startup. SSH enables you to have command-line access to the computer with administrator privileges. To access the computer with VNC: 1 Start the target computer from the Install DVD for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later. The procedure you use depends on the target server hardware. To learn more about startup disk options, see “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81. 2 Use your VNC viewer software to open a connection to the target server. 3 Identify the target server. If the VNC viewer includes the target server in a list of available servers, select it in the list. Otherwise, enter an IP address in IPv4 format (000.000.000.000). If you don’t know the IP address and the remote server is on the local subnet, you can use the sa_srchr command to identify computers on the local subnetwhere you can install server software. Enter the following from an existing computer with Mac OS X Server Tools installed: /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 83 This command returns the IP address and the EthernetID (in addition to other information) of servers on the local subnet that started up from the installation disk. 4 When prompted for a password, enter the first eight digits of the server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find a server’s serial number, look for a label on the server. If you’re installing on an older computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 for the password. If you’re using Apple Remote Desktop as a VNC viewer, enter the password but don’t specify a user name. To access the computer with SSH: 1 Start the target computer from the Install DVD for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later. The procedure you use depends on the target server hardware. To learn more about startup disk options, see “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81. 2 Use the Terminal to open a secure shell connection to the target server. The user name is root and the password is the first eight digits of the server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find a server’s serial number, look for a label on the server. If you’re installing on an older computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 for the password. If you don’t know the IP address and the remote server is on the local subnet, you can use the sa_srchr command to identify computers on the local subnet where you can install server software. Enter the following from an existing computer with Mac OS X Server Tools installed: /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1 This command will return the IP address, and the EthernetID (in addition to other information) of servers on the local subnet which have started up from the installation disk.84 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Starting Up from the Install DVD This is the simplest method of starting the computer, if you have physical access the server, and it has an optical drive. If the target server is an Xserve with a built-in DVD drive, start the server using the Install DVD by following the instructions in the Xserve User’s Guide for starting from a system disc. If the target server has no built-in DVD drive, you can use an external FireWire DVD drive. You can also install server software on an Xserve system that lacks a DVD drive by moving its drive module to another Xserve system that has a DVD drive. To start up the computer with the installation disc. 1 Turn on the computer and insert the Mac OS X Server installation disc into the DVD drive. 2 If you’re using a built-in DVD drive, restart the computer while holding down the C key. You can release the C key when you see the Apple logo. Alternatively, you can restart the computer by holding down the Option key, selecting the icon representing the installation disc, and then clicking the right arrow. You must use this method if you are starting up from an external DVD drive. 3 If you’re installing on an Xserve, the procedure for starting up from a DVD may be different. For more information, see the User’s Guide or Quick Start that came with your Xserve. 4 After the computer restarts, choose the language you want to use during installation and then click the arrow button. The Installer is now running. Starting Up from an Alternate Partition For a single server installation, preparing to start up from an alternate partition can be more time-consuming than simply using the Install DVD. The time required to image, scan, and restore the image to a startup partition may exceed the time taken to install once from the DVD. However, if you are reinstalling regularly, or if you are creating an external Firewire drive-based installation to take to various computers, or if you need some other kind mass distribution (such as clustered Xserves without DVD drives installed), this method can be very efficient. Installer application or installer tool in Terminal applicationChapter 5 Installation and Deployment 85 This method is well suited to installing on computers that you may not have easy physical access to. With sufficient preparation, this method can be modified for easy mass deployment of appropriately licensed copies of Mac OS X Server. To use this method, you must have an existing installation of some kind on the computer in order to use this method. It is intended for environments where a certain level of existing infrastructure of Mac OS X Server is present, and may be unsuitable for a first server installation. To start from an alternate partition, there are four basic steps. Step 1: Prepare the disks and partitions on the target computer Before you proceed, you must have at least two partitions on the target computer. The first is going to be the initial and the final startup partition; the second is the temporary installer partition. You can use a single disk with multiple partitions, or you can use multiple disks. You use Disk Utility to prepare the disks. For more information about preparing and partitioning a hard disk, see the Disk Utility help. Step 2: Create a restorable image of the Install DVD This step doesn’t need to be done on the target computer. It can be done on an administrator computer, but there must be enough free space to image the entire Install DVD. To create an image of the Install DVD: 1 Insert the Install DVD. 2 Launch Disk Utility. 3 Select the first session icon under the optical drive icon. This is in the list of devices on the left side of the window. 4 Select File > New > Disk Image from . 5 Give the image a name, select Read-only, Read/Write, or Compressed as the image type, and then click Save. 6 After the image is complete, select the image from list on the left. 7 In the menu, select Images > Scan Images for Restore. 8 Provide an administrator login and password as needed. The installer disk image can now be restored to your extra partition. ∏ Tip: If you prefer to use the command-line, you can use hdiutil to create the disk image, and asr to scan the image for restore. All commands must be done with superuser or root privileges.86 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment For example, this command creates a disk image “Installer.dmg” from the device at disk1s1: hdiutil create -srcdevice disk1s1 Installer.dmg This command scans the image “Installer.dmg” and readies it for restore: asr imagescan --source Installer.dmg Step 3: Restore the image to the alternate partition You can restore the disk image to a partition within the computer or to an external hard disk. When complete, the newly restored partition functions like the Install DVD. Make sure the alternate partition is at least the size of the disk image. Restoring the disk image to the partition will erase all existing data on the partition. To restore the image: 1 Start up the target computer. 2 Make sure the image does not reside on the partition that is to be erased. 3 Launch Disk Utility. 4 In the list of devices on the left side of the window, select the installer DVD image. 5 Click Restore. 6 Drag the installer image from the left side of the window to the Source field. 7 Drag the alternate partition from the list of devices on the left side of the window to the Destination field. 8 Select Erase Destination. 9 Click Restore. If you prefer to use the command-line, you use the asr tool to restore the image to the partition. Using asr requires the use of superuser or root privileges. The basic syntax is: sudo asr restore -s -t --erase For example, restoring an image called “Installer.dmg” to the partition “ExtraHD” would be: asr restore -s Installer.dmg -t ExtraHD --erase For more information about asr and its capabilities, see the tool’s man page. ∏ Tip: You can use asr to restore a disk over a network, multicasting the blocks to client computers. Using the multicast server feature of asr, you could put a copy of the installer image on a partition of all computers that can receive the multicast packets. To successfully configure this, you’ll need the information in the tool’s man page.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 87 The asr tool can also fetch the target image from an HTTP server using http or https URLs as its source, so the image doesn’t need to reside on the target computer computer. Step 4: Select the alternate partition as the startup disk. After the partition is restored, it’s a startup and installer disk for your server. You now need to start up the computer from that partition. After the computer is up and running, it is a Mac OS X Server installer, exactly as if you had started the computer from the DVD. To start up the computer with the installation disc: 1 Turn on the computer and hold down the Option key. 2 Select the icon representing the installation partition and then click the right arrow. You must use this method if you are starting up from an external DVD drive. If you’re installing on an Xserve, the procedure for starting up from a DVD may be different. For more information, see the Xserve User’s Guide or Quick Start that came with your Xserve. 3 After the computer restarts, choose the language you want to use during installation, and click the arrow button. The Installer is now running. If you prefer to do this with the command-line, you can set the startup volume using the systemsetup tool. In version of Mac OS X Server since v10.4 or later, the systemsetup tool is at /usr/sbin/systemsetup. If you are currently using the Mac OS X client during this process, the tool is at /System/ Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Support/ systemsetup. You’ll need to use the -liststartupdisks, and -setstartupdisk command options to find the newly restored installer volume, and select it as the startup disk. All commands issued with systemsetup must be run with superuser or root privileges. The following is an example command to select the startup disk: systemsetup -setstartupdisk “/Volumes/Mac OS X Server Install Disk” Then issue the shutdown -r command to restart. For more information about systemsetup, see Command-Line Administration and the tool’s man page.88 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Starting Up from a NetBoot Environment If you have an existing NetBoot infrastructure, this is the easiest way to perform mass installation and deployment. This method can be used for clusters that have no optical drive or existing system software, as shown in the following illustration: It can also be used in environments where carrying large numbers of servers must be deployed in an efficient manner. This section won’t tell you how to create the necessary NetBoot infrastructure. If you want to set up NetBoot and NetInstall options for your network, servers, and client computers, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration. This section has instructions to create a NetInstall image from the Mac OS X Server Install Disk, and start a server from it. There is no need to make preparations to the hard disk. Step 1: Create a NetInstall image from the Install DVD This step doesn’t need to be done on the target computer. It can be done on an administrator computer that has enough free space to image the entire Install DVD. 1 Launch System Image Utility, in /Applications/Server/. 2 Select the Install DVD on the left, and choose NetInstall image on the right. 3 Click Continue. 4 Enter a name for the image, and a description. This information is seen by clients selecting it a startup disk. 5 Click Create and then choose a save location for the disk image. Upon completion, this image can be used with an existing NetBoot server to start up a server for installation. Target servers NetBoot target servers Mac OS X Server Initiate server installation Administrator computer DestinationChapter 5 Installation and Deployment 89 For more information about NetInstall images and System Image Utility, including customization options, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration. Step 2: Start up the computer from the NetBoot server There are four ways of doing this, depending on your environment.  In the target computer GUI, select the NetInstall disk from the Startup Disk pane of the System Preferences.  Restart the computer, holding down the “n” key. The first NetBoot server to respond to the computer will start up the computer with its default image.  Restart the computer, holding down the Option key. The computer will show you the available startup disks, locally on the computer and remotely from NetBoot and NetInstall servers. Select a disk and continue the startup.  Use the command-line locally or remotely to specify the NetBoot server that the computer will start up from: sudo bless --netboot --server bsdp://server.example.com Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server Before performing a clean installation of Mac OS X Server, you can partition the server computer’s hard disk into multiple volumes, create a RAID set, or erase the target disk or partition. If you’re using an installation disc for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, you can perform these tasks from another networked computer using VNC viewer software, such as Apple Remote Desktop, before beginning a clean installation. Choosing a File System A file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain on a storage device such as a hard disk. Mac OS X Server supports several kinds of file systems to be used for hard disk storage. Each file system has its own strengths. You must decide which system fits your organization’s needs. For more information, see the following: developer.apple.com/technotes/tn/tn1150.html The following systems are available for use: WARNING: Before partitioning a disk, creating a RAID set, or erasing a disk or partition on an existing server, preserve any user data you want to save by copying it to another disk or partition.90 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Mac OS Extended (Journaled) aka HFS+J An HFS+J volume is the default file system for Mac OS X Server. An HFS+J volume has an optional journal to speed recovery when mounting a volume that was not unmounted safely (for example, as the result of a power outage or crash). The journal makes it quick and easy to restore the volume structures to a consistent state, without having to scan all of the structures. The journal is used only for the volume structures and metadata; it does not protect the contents of a fork. In other words, this journal protects the integrity of the underlying disk structures, but not any data that is corrupted due to a write failure or catastrophic power loss. More information about HFS+J can be found in Apple’s Developer Documentation at: developer.apple.com/documentation/MacOSX/Conceptual/BPFileSystem/Articles/ Comparisons.html Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Case-Sensitive) aka HFSX HFSX is an extension to HFS Plus and allows volumes to have case-sensitive file and directory names. Case-sensitive names means that you can have two objects whose names differ only by the case of the letters, in the same directory at the same time. For example, you could have Bob, BOB, and bob in the same directory as uniquely named files. A case-sensitive volume is supported as a boot volume format. An HFSX file system for Mac OS X Server must be specifically selected when erasing a volume and preparing for initial installation. HFSX is an available format for the “erase and install” option for local installs. HFSX is not an available format for remotely controlled installations. If you are planning to use NFS, you should use case-sensitive HFSX. An HFSX volume can be either case-sensitive or case-insensitive. Case sensitivity (or lack thereof) is global to the volume; the setting applies to all file and directory names on the volume. To determine whether an HFSX volume is case-sensitive, use the keyCompareType field of the B-tree header of the catalog file. A value of kHFSBinaryCompare means the volume is case-sensitive. A value of kHFSCaseFolding means the volume is case-insensitive. Note: Do not assume that an HFSX volume is case-sensitive. Always use the keyCompareType to determine case sensitivity or case insensitivity. Additionally, don’t assume your third-party software solutions work correctly with case sensitivity. Important: Case-sensitive names do not ignore Unicode ignorable characters. This means that a single directory can have several names that would be considered equivalent using Unicode comparison rules, but they are considered distinct on a casesensitive HFSX volume.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 91 Partitioning a Hard Disk Partitioning the hard disk creates a volume for server system software and one or more additional volumes for data and other software. Partitioning erases previous contents of the disk. The minimum recommended size for an installation partition is 20 GB. A larger volume is recommended for a standard or workgroup configuration because they keep shared folders and group websites on the startup volume together with the server software. Erasing a disk is another way of saying that you have given a disk a single volume partition and erased that volume. Consider dedicating a hard disk or a volume of a partitioned hard disk to the server software. Put additional software, share points, websites, and so forth on other disks or volumes. With this approach, you can upgrade or reinstall the server software without affecting your other software or user data. If you must store additional software or data on the system volume, consider mirroring it to another drive. ∏ Tip: Having an extra, empty partition or two on the target installation disk can give you additional flexibility in installation and deployment. For example, additional space can give you a place to temporarily mirror your current installation before performing an in-place update, or it can give you a fast installer disk. Partitioning a Disk Using Disk Utility You can use the Installer to open the Disk Utility application and then use Disk Utility to erase the installation target volume or another volume. You can erase the target volume using the Mac OS Extended format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format, Mac OS Extended format (Case-Sensitive) format, and Mac OS Extended (Journaled, CaseSensitive) format. You cannot partition the active startup disk or erase the active startup volume. 1 Launch Disk Utility. If you are in the Installer, Disk Utility is available from the Utilities menu. Otherwise, launch the application from /Applications/Utilities/Disk Utility. 2 Select the disk to be partitioned. You can’t select your current startup disk. Selecting a volume on the disk will allow you to erase the volume but will not create a different partition scheme. 3 Click Partition. 4 Choose your partition scheme and follow the instructions in the window to set all necessary parameters. 5 Click Apply.92 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment You can find instructions for partitioning the hard disk into multiple volumes, creating a RAID set, and erasing the target disk or partition by viewing Disk Utility Help. To view Disk Utility Help, open Disk Utility on another Macintosh computer with Mac OS X v10.5 and choose Help > Disk Utility Help. Partitioning a Disk Using the Command-line You can use the diskutil command-line tool to partition and erase a hard disk. Normally, you would use a remote shell (SSH) to log in to the newly-started computer to use this method. The tool to partition disks is diskutil. Just like using Disk Utility, you can erase the target volume using the Mac OS Extended format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format, Mac OS Extended format (Case-Sensitive) format, and Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Case-Sensitive) format.  You cannot partition the active startup disk or erase the active startup volume.  All potentially destructive diskutil operations must be done with superuser or root privileges. Additional information about diskutil and other uses can be found in Command-Line Administration. For complete command syntax for diskutil, consult the tool’s man page. The specific command issued depends on your disk format needs and the hardware in use. Take care to use command-line arguments that apply to your specific needs. The following command is a sample, which partitions a computer’s only 120 GB hard disk into two equal 60 GB journaled HFS+ volumes (“BootDisk” and “DataStore”), which can start up a PowerPC-based Macintosh computer. The basic syntax is: diskutil partitionDisk device numberOfPartitions APMFormat So the command is: diskutil partitionDisk disk0 2 APMFormat JournaledHFS+ BootDisk 50% JournaledHFS+ DataStore 50% Creating a RAID Set If you’re installing Mac OS X Server on a computer with multiple internal hard disk drives, you can create a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) set to optimize storage capacity, improve performance, and increase reliability in case of a disk failure. For example, a mirrored RAID set increases reliability by writing your data to two or more disks at once. If one disk fails, your server automatically starts using one of the other disks in the RAID set. Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 93 You can use Disk Utility to set up a RAID set. There are two types of RAID sets and one additional disk option available in Disk Utility:  A striped RAID set (RAID 0) splits files across the disks in the set. A striped RAID set improves the performance of your software because it can read and write on all disks in the set at the same time. You might use a striped RAID set if you are working with large files, such as digital video.  A mirrored RAID set (RAID 1) duplicates files across the disks in the set. Because this scheme maintains two or more copies of the files, it provides a continuous backup of them. In addition, it can help keep data available if a disk in the set fails. Mirroring is recommended if you have shared files or applications that must be accessed frequently. You can set up RAID mirroring after installing Mac OS X Server if you install on a disk that isn’t partitioned. To prevent data loss, you should set up RAID mirroring as soon as possible.  A concatenated disk set lets you use several disks as a single volume. This is not a true RAID set and offers no redundancy or performance increase. You can combine different RAID sets to combine their benefits. For example, you can create a RAID set that combines the fast disk access of a striped RAID set and the data protection of a mirrored RAID set. To do this, create two RAID sets of one type and then create a RAID set of another type, using the first two RAID sets as the disks. The RAID sets you combine must all be created with Disk Utility or diskutil in Mac OS X v10.4 or later. The method of partitioning used on the disks cannot be mixed (PPC platform is APMFormat, Intel platform is GPTFormat) in a RAID set. Mac Pro desktop computers and Intel-based Xserves can boot from a software RAID volume. Some Intel-based Macs do not support booting from software RAID volumes. If you try to start these Intel-based Macs from a software RAID volume, the computer may start up to a flashing question mark. The following computers do not support booting from software RAID volumes:  iMac (Early 2006)  Mac mini (Early 2006) No PPC-based Macs support booting from software RAID volumes. If you need more sophisticated RAID support, consider a hardware RAID. It has specially dedicated RAID hardware and can contain over 5 terabytes of storage.94 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment Creating a RAID Set Using Disk Utility You can use the Installer to open the Disk Utility application and then use Disk Utility to create the RAID set from available disks. It isn’t necessary to erase the disks before creating the set. Creating a RAID set erases the previous contents of the disks involved. The RAID set volumes can be Mac OS Extended format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format, Mac OS Extended format (Case-Sensitive) format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Case-Sensitive) format, and MS-DOS FAT format. For more information about volume formats, see “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 89. You cannot create a RAID set from the active startup disk. 1 Launch Disk Utility. If you are in the Installer, Disk Utility is Available from the Utilities menu; otherwise, launch the application from /Applications/Utilities/Disk Utility. 2 Select the disk to be part of the RAID set. You can’t select your current startup disk. When creating RAID sets or adding disks, it is recommended to specify the entire disk instead of a partition on that disk. 3 Click RAID. 4 Choose your RAID set type. 5 Drag the disks to the window. 6 Follow the instructions in the window to set all necessary parameters. 7 Click Create. You can find instructions for partitioning the hard disk into multiple volumes, creating a RAID set, and erasing the target disk or partition by viewing Disk Utility Help. To view Disk Utility Help, open Disk Utility on another Macintosh computer with Mac OS X v10.5 and choose Help > Disk Utility Help. Creating a RAID Set Using the Command-line You can use the diskutil command-line tool to create a RAID set. Normally, you would use a remote shell (SSH) to log in to the newly-started computer to use this method. The tool to create a RAID set is diskutil. Just like using Disk Utility, with diskutil you can create a RAID volume that is Mac OS Extended format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format, Mac OS Extended format (CaseSensitive) format, Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Case-Sensitive) format, or MS-DOS FAT format. However keep in mind the following:  You cannot create a RAID from the active startup disk.  When creating RAID sets or adding disks, specify the entire disk instead of a partition on that disk.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 95  All potentially destructive diskutil operations must be done with superuser or root privileges. Additional information about diskutil and other uses can be found in Command-Line Administration. For complete command syntax for diskutil, consult the tool’s man page. The specific command issued depends on your RAID needs. Use command-line arguments that apply to your specific needs. The following command is a sample, which creates a single mirrored RAID set (RAID 1) from the first two disks installed in the computer (disk0 and disk1), with the resulting RAID volume called MirrorData. The basic syntax is: diskutil createRAID mirror setName format device device ... So the command is: diskutil createRAID mirror MirrorData JournaledHFS+ disk0 disk1 Erasing a Disk or Partition You have several options for erasing as disk, depending on your preferred tools and your computing environment:  Erasing a Disk Using the Installer: You can erase a disk or partition while using the Mac OS X Server Installer. When you select the target volume in the Installer, you can also select an option to have the target disk or partition erased during installation using the Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format. This is the most recommended format for a Mac OS X Server startup volume.  Erasing a Disk Using Disk Utility: You can use the Installer to open the Disk Utility application and then use it to erase the target volume or another volume. You can erase the target volume using the Mac OS Extended format or Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format. You can erase other volumes using either of those formats, Mac OS Extended format (Case-Sensitive) format, or Mac OS Extended (Journaled, Case-Sensitive) format. You can erase but not partition a disk or partition while using the Mac OS X Server Installer. When you select the target volume in the Installer, you can also select an option to have the target disk or partition erased during installation using the Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format. This is the recommended format for a Mac OS X Server startup volume. You can find instructions for partitioning the hard disk into multiple volumes, creating a RAID set, and erasing the target disk or partition by viewing Disk Utility Help. To view Disk Utility Help, open Disk Utility on another Macintosh computer with Mac OS X v10.5 and choose Help > Disk Utility Help.  Erasing a Disk Using the Command-line: Finally you can use the command-line to erase disks using the tool diskutil. Erasing a disk using diskutil results in losing all of the volume partitions. The command to erase a complete disk is:96 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment diskutil eraseDisk format name [OS9Drivers | APMFormat | MBRFormat | GPTFormat] device For example: diskutil eraseDisk JournaledHFS+ MacProHD GPTFormat disk0 There is also an option to securely delete data by overwriting the disk with random data multiple times. For more details, see diskutil’s man page. To erase a single volume on a disk, a slightly different command is used: diskutil eraseVolume format name device For example: diskutil eraseVolume JournaledHFS+ UntitledPartition /Volumes/ OriginalPartition Additional information about diskutil and other uses can be found in Command-Line Administration. For complete command syntax for diskutil, consult the tool’s man page. Identifying Remote Servers When Installing Mac OS X Server For remote server installations, you need to know this information about the target server:  The identity of the target server: When using Server Assistant, you must be able to recognize the target server in a list of servers on your local subnet or you must enter the IP address of the server (in IPv4 format: 000.000.000.000) if it resides on a different subnet. Information provided for servers in the list includes IP address, host name, and Media Access Control (MAC) address (also called hardware or Ethernet address). If you use VNC viewer software to remotely control installation of Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, it may let you select the target server from a list of available VNC servers. If not, you must enter the IP address of the server (in IPv4 format: 000.000.000.000). The target server’s IP address is assigned by a DHCP server on the network. If no DHCP server exists, the target server uses a 169.xxx.xxx.xxx address unique among servers on the local subnet. Later, when you set up the server, you can change the IP address. If you don’t know the IP address and the remote server is on the local subnet, you can use the sa_srchr command to identify computers on the local subnet where you can install server software. Enter the following from an existing computer with Mac OS X Server Tools installed: /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1 This command will return the IP address, and the EthernetID (in addition to other information) of servers on the local subnet which have started up from the installation disk.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 97  The preset password for the target server: The password consists of the first eight digits of the server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find a server’s serial number, look for a label on the server. Older computers have no built-in hardware serial numbers; for these systems, use 12345678. Installing Server Software Interactively You can use the installation disc to install server software interactively on a local server, on a remote server, or on a computer with Mac OS X pre-installed. Installing Locally from the Installation Disc You can install Mac OS X Server directly onto a computer with a display, a keyboard, and an optical drive attached, as shown in the following illustration: If you have an Install DVD, the optical drive must be able to read DVD discs. You can also install directly onto a computer that lacks a display, keyboard, and optical drive capable of reading your installation disc. In this case, you start the target computer in target disk mode and connect it to an administrator computer using a FireWire cable. You use the administrator computer to install the server software on the target computer’s disk or partition, which appears as a disk icon on the administrator computer. These instructions assume you have started up the computer using the Install DVD, installer partition, or NetInstall disk. If you have not, see the relevant instructions beginning at “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81. To install server software locally: 1 After the computer starts, choose the language you want the server to use and click Continue. 2 When the Installer opens, if you want to perform a clean installation, optionally use the Utilities menu to open Disk Utility to prepare the target disk or partition before proceeding. If you have not previously prepared your disk for installation, you can do so now with DIsk Utility. For more instructions on preparing your disk for installation, see “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 89. Installer application or installer tool in Terminal application98 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 3 Proceed through the Installer’s panes by following the onscreen instructions. 4 When the Select a Destination pane appears, select a target disk or volume (partition) and make sure it’s in the expected state. If you’re doing a clean installation, you can click Options to format the destination disk or volume in Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format. Select Erase to format the disk in Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format; then click OK. If the volume you selected contains Mac OS X Server v10.3.9 or 10.2.8 and you want to upgrade, click Options, select “Don’t erase,” and then click OK. Important: When you perform an upgrade, make sure that saved setup data won’t be inadvertently detected and used by the server. If saved setup data is used, the server settings are not compatible with the saved settings and can cause unintended consequences. For more information, see “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121. 5 Proceed through the Installer’s panes by following the onscreen instructions. After installation is complete, the computer restarts and you can perform initial server setup. 6 If you’re using an administrator computer to install onto a server that’s in target disk mode and connected using a FireWire cable: a Quit Server Assistant when it starts automatically on the administrator computer. b Shut down the administrator computer and the server. c Start up the administrator computer and the server normally (not in target disk mode). Now you can use Server Assistant from the administrator computer to remotely set up the server. Chapter 6, “Initial Server Setup,” on page 105 describes how to set up a server locally or remotely. Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 99 Installing Remotely with Server Assistant To install Mac OS X Server on a remote server from the server Install DVD, installation partition, or NetInstall disk, you need an administrator computer from which to use Server Assistant to manage the installation, as shown in the following illustration: After the computer has started up, you can control and manage any number of servers from an administration computer. Important: If you have administrative applications and tools from Mac OS X Server v10.4 Tiger or earlier, do not use them with Leopard Server. If you want to use the Installer user interface, you can use VNC to view and interact with the remote installer. For more information, see “Installing Remotely with VNC” on page 100. These instructions assume you have successfully started up the computer using the Install DVD, installer partition, or NetInstall disk. If you have not, see the relevant instructions beginning at “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81. To install on a remote server by using Server Assistant: 1 After the target computer has started from the server Install DVD, installation partition, or NetInstall disk, launch Server Assistant in the /Applications/Server/ folder on the administrator computer. You don’t need to be an administrator on the local computer to use Server Assistant. 2 Select “Install software on a remote server.” Administrator computer Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Welcome >installer >installer100 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 3 For every intended target server, identify the target server and add it to the list. If it’s on the local subnet, select it in the list; otherwise, click the Add (+) button and enter an IP address in IPv4 format (000.000.000.000). If you already have a saved server list, load it now by selecting File > Load Server List. 4 When prompted for a password, enter the first eight digits of the server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find a server’s serial number, look for a label on the server. If you’re installing on an older computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 for the password. 5 After you finish adding all servers to the list, save this list for future use by selecting File > Save Server List. 6 Proceed by following the onscreen instructions. 7 When the Volumes pane appears, select a target disk or volume (partition), make sure it’s in the expected state, and click Continue. If the volume you selected contains Mac OS X Server v10.4.10 or 10.3.9 and you want to upgrade, select “Don’t erase.” Otherwise, you can select Erase to format the disk in Mac OS Extended (Journaled) format. Click OK. 8 Proceed by following the onscreen instructions. While installation proceeds, you can open another Server Assistant window to install server software on other computers. Choose File > New Window to do so. After installation is complete, the target server restarts and you can perform initial server setup. Chapter 6, “Initial Server Setup,” on page 105 describes how. Installing Remotely with VNC If you’re using an installation disc for Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later, you can control installation from another computer using open source VNC viewer software or Apple Remote Desktop. This allows you to remotely control preparation of the target disk or partition before beginning installation. You can partition the hard disk into multiple volumes, create a RAID set, or erase the target disk or partition. WARNING: When you perform an upgrade, make sure that saved setup data won’t be inadvertently detected and used by the server. If saved setup data is used, the server settings are not compatible with the saved settings and can cause unintended consequences. For more information, see “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 101 The process for remotely installing with VNC is the same as installing locally at the keyboard and monitor, except that you must first connect to the VNC server on the target computer with a VNC client, like Apple Remote Desktop. For information about connecting to a computer running from an Install DVD, see “Remotely Accessing the Install DVD” on page 82. For information about running the installer locally, see “Installing Locally from the Installation Disc” on page 97. Using the installer Command-Line Tool to Install Server Software You use the installer tool to install server software on a local or remote computer from the command-line. For information about installer:  See Command-Line Administration.  Open the Terminal application and type installer, installer -help, or man installer. These instructions assume you have started up the computer using the Install DVD, installer partition, or NetInstall disk. If you have not, see the relevant instructions beginning at “About Starting Up for Installation” on page 81. To use installer to install server software: 1 Start a command-line session with the target server by choosing from the following:  Installing a local server: When the Installer opens choose Utilities > Open Terminal to open the Terminal application.  Installing a remote server: From Terminal on an administrator computer or from a UNIX workstation, establish an SSH session as the root user with the target server, substituting the target server’s actual IP address for : ssh root@ ∏ If you don’t know the IP address and the remote server is on the local subnet, you can use the sa_srchr command to identify computers on the local subnet where you can install server software: /System/Library/Serversetup/sa_srchr 224.0.0.1 mycomputer.example.com#PowerMac4,4###Mac OS X Server 10.5#RDY4PkgInstall#2.0#512 You can also use Server Assistant to generate information for computers on the local subnet. Open Server Assistant, select “Install software on a remote computer,” and click Continue to access the Destination pane and generate a list of servers awaiting installation.102 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 2 When prompted for a password, enter the first eight digits of the server’s built-in hardware serial number. To find a server’s serial number, look for a label on the server. If the target computer had been set up as a server, you’ll also find the hardware serial number in /System/ Library/Serversetup/SerialNumber. If you’re installing on an older computer that has no built-in hardware serial number, use 12345678 for the password. 3 Identify the target-server volume where you want to install the server software. To list the volumes available for server software installation from the installation disc, type this command: /usr/sbin/installer -volinfo -pkg /System/Installation/Packages/ OSInstall.mpkg You can also identify a NetInstall image you’ve created and mounted: /usr/sbin/installer -volinfo -pkg /Volumes/ServerNetworkImage10.5/ System/Installation/Packages/OSInstall.mpkg The list displayed reflects your particular environment, but here’s an example showing three available volumes: /Volumes/Mount 01 /Volumes/Mount1 /Volumes/Mount02 4 If you haven’t already done so, prepare the disks for installation. For more information about preparing the disks for installation, see “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 89. If the target volume has Mac OS X Server v10.4.10 or 10.3.9 installed, when you run installer it will upgrade the server to v10.5 and preserve user files. If you’re not upgrading but performing a clean installation, back up the user files you want to preserve, then use diskutil to erase the volume and format it to enable journaling: /usr/sbin/diskutil eraseVolume HFS+ "Mount 01" "/Volumes/Mount 01" /usr/sbin/diskutil enableJournal "/Volumes/Mount 01" You can also use diskutil to partition the volume and to set up mirroring. For more information about the command, see the diskutil man page. Important: Don’t store data on the hard disk or hard disk partition where the operating system is installed. With this approach, you won’t risk losing data if you need to reinstall or upgrade system software. If you must store additional software or data on the system partition, consider mirroring the drive.Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment 103 5 Install the operating system on a volume from the list generated in step 3. For example, to use Mount 01 in the example in step 4 to install from a server installation disc, enter: /usr/sbin/installer -verboseR -lang en -pkg /System/Installation/ Packages/OSInstall.mpkg -target "/Volumes/Mount 01" If you’re using a NetInstall image, the command identifies them as step 3 shows. When you enter the -lang parameter, use one of the following values: en (for English), de (for German), fr (for French), or ja (for Japanese). During installation, progress information is displayed. While installation proceeds, you can open another Terminal window to install server software on another computer. 6 When installation from the disc is complete, restart the server by entering: /sbin/reboot or /sbin/shutdown -r Server Assistant opens when installation is complete. You can now proceed to set up the server. For more information, see “Initial Server Setup” on page 105. Installing Multiple Servers You can use Server Assistant, VNC viewer software, or the installer tool to initiate multiple server software installations. After using Server Assistant to initiate server software installation on more than one remote computer, you can choose File > New Window to install the software on another batch of computers. When running Server Assistant from an administration computer to install on multiple machines, group the same hardware configurations together. For example, choose all Intel Xserve machines or all G4 Mac minis. After using a VNC viewer to control installation of Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later on one remote computer, you can use the VNC viewer to open a connection to another remote computer and control installation on it. Because this involves interacting with each server individually, it is a less efficient method of installing on multiple servers. The most efficient method of installation would be completely automated. Opening the Terminal application and using the installer tool to initiate each server software installation doesn’t accomplish this efficiently. However, scripting the command-line tool (using known values for server IP addresses, for example) to automate multiple simultaneous installations can be very efficient. To completely automate server installation, you must script the installer tool and have a high measure of control over the network infrastructure.104 Chapter 5 Installation and Deployment For example, to have known IP addresses and the appropriate hardware serial numbers included in your script, you cannot rely on the randomly assigned IP addresses. You can use DHCP assigned static addresses to remove that uncertainty and ease your scripting considerations. The methods, scripting languages, and possibilities are too many to list in this guide. Upgrading a Computer from Mac OS X to Mac OS X Server You can use the Install DVD for Mac OS X Server v10.5 to upgrade a desktop computer that has the following characteristics:  Has Mac OS X v10.5 or later installed  Has an Intel processor  Was introduced in summer 2006 or later  Meets the system requirements in “System Requirements for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 79 To upgrade a computer from Mac OS X to Mac OS X Server: 1 Start up the computer from the hard disk, as you would for normal use. Do not use an installation disc. 2 Insert the Install DVD, open the Other Installs folder, and double-click MacOSXServerInstall.mpkg to run the Installer. When the Installer finishes, your computer restarts automatic[ally and Server Assistant opens to let you set up the server. 3 After the server restarts, use Software Update to install server software updates. How to Keep Current After you’ve set up your server, you’ll want to update it when Apple releases server software updates. There are several ways to access update releases of Mac OS X Server:  In Server Admin, select a server in the Servers list, then click the Server Updates button.  Use the Software Update pane of System Preferences.  Use the softwareupdate command-line tool.  Use the server’s software update service.  Download a disk image of the software update from: www.apple.com/support/downloads6 105 6 Initial Server Setup Basic characteristics of your Mac OS X Server are established during server setup. The server can operate in three different configurations: advanced, standard, and workgroup. These instructions assume you have chosen the advanced configuration. After installing server software, the next task is to set up the server. There are several ways to set up a server:  Set up one or more servers interactively.  Automate the setup by using setup data you’ve saved in a file or in a directory the servers are configured to access. Information You Need To understand and record information for each server you want to set up, see the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet in the appendix on page 195. The following information provides supplemental explanations for some items on the worksheet. When you’re upgrading from Mac OS X Server v10.4.10 or v10.3.9, Server Assistant displays the existing server settings, but you can change them. Use the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet to record settings you want the v10.5 server to use. Postponing Server Setup Following Installation Server Assistant opens automatically on a server that hasn’t been set up, and waits for you to begin the setup process. To set up the server later, you can postpone the setup process by using the server’s keyboard, mouse, and display. 106 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup To postpone setting up Mac OS X Server: m In Server Assistant, press Command-Q on the server’s keyboard, and then click Shut Down. When you restart the server, Server Assistant opens again. If you’re setting up a server without a keyboard or display, you can enter commands in the Terminal application to shut down the server remotely. For information about using the command-line to connect to a remote computer and shut it down, see CommandLine Administration. Connecting to the Network During Initial Server Setup Try to place a server in its final network location (subnet) before setting it up for the first time. If you’re concerned about preventing unauthorized or premature access during setup, you can set up a firewall to protect the server while you’re finalizing its configuration. If you can’t avoid moving a server after initial setup, you must change settings that are sensitive to network location before it can be used. For example, the server’s IP address and host name, stored in directories and configuration files on the server, must be updated. For more information, see “Changing the Server’s Host Name After Setup” on page 144. Configuring Servers with Multiple Ethernet Ports Your server has a built-in Ethernet port and may have additional Ethernet ports built in or added on. When you’re using Server Assistant to interactively set up one or more servers, all of a server’s available Ethernet ports are listed and you select one or more to activate and configure. When you work in Server Assistant’s offline mode, you click an Add button to manually create a list of ports to configure. If you enable more than one port, you specify the order in which the ports should be used by the server when routing traffic to the network. Although the server receives network traffic on any active port, network traffic initiated by the server is routed through the first active port. For a description of port configuration attributes, see the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet located in the appendix. Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 107 About Settings Established During Initial Server Setup During server setup, the following basic server settings are established:  The language to use for server administration and the computer keyboard layout is defined.  The server software serial number is set.  A server administrator user is defined and the user’s home folder is created.  Default AFP and FTP share points, such as Shared Items, Users, and Groups, are defined.  Basic Open Directory information is set up. At a minimum, a local directory domain is created. You can also set up an LDAP directory for other computers to use or configure the server to obtain directory information from other servers.  The server’s host name, computer name, and local hostname are set. You can specify the computer name and local hostname, but Server Assistant sets the host name to AUTOMATIC in /etc/hostconfig. This setting causes the server’s host name to be the first name that’s true in this list:  The name provided by the DHCP or BootP server for the primary IP address  The first name returned by a reverse DNS (address-to-name) query for the primary IP address  The local hostname  The name “localhost”  Network interfaces (ports) are configured. TCP/IP and Ethernet settings are defined for each port you want to activate.  Network time service can be set up. If you’re upgrading, the current basic settings are displayed during the setup process, but you can change them. Other settings, such as share points you’ve defined and services you’ve configured, are preserved. For a complete description of what’s upgraded and actions, see Upgrading and Migrating. You can perform initial server setup only once without reinstalling a server. To change settings established during setup, you have alternative means to do so. For example, you can use Server Admin or Directory Utility to manage Open Directory settings. Specifying Initial Open Directory Usage During setup of an advanced configuration, you specify how the server initially stores and accesses user accounts and other directory information. You choose whether the server connects to a directory system or works as a standalone server. 108 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup After setup, you can create or change a connection to a directory system by using Directory Utility, or you can make the server an Open Directory master or replica by using Server Admin to change the server’s Open Directory service settings. For information about changing directory services, see Open Directory Administration. When you set up a server initially, you specify its directory services configuration. Choices are:  No change, available only when upgrading from Mac OS X Server v10.4.10 or 10.3.9.  Standalone Server, used to set up only a local directory domain on the server.  Connected to a Directory System, used to set up the server to obtain directory information from a shared directory domain that’s already been set up on another server. In all these cases, Open Directory authentication is set up on the server and used by default for any new users added to domains that reside on the server. If you’re setting up multiple servers and one or more of them will host a shared directory, set up those servers before setting up servers that will use those shared directories. Note: If you connect Mac OS X Server v10.5 to a directory domain of Mac OS X Server v10.2 or earlier, users defined in the older directory domain cannot be authenticated with the MS-CHAPv2 method. This method may be required to securely authenticate users for the VPN service of Mac OS X Server v10.5. Open Directory in Mac OS X Server v10.5 supports MSCHAPv2 authentication, but Password Server in Mac OS X Server v10.2 doesn’t support MSCHAPv2. After setup, use the Directory Utility or Server Admin applications to refine the server’s directory configuration, if necessary. Directory Utility lets you set up connections to multiple directories, including Active Directory and other non-Apple directory systems, and specify a search policy (the order in which the server should search through the domains). Server Admin lets you set up replicas of an Open Directory master and manage other aspects of a server’s directory service configuration. Open Directory Administration can help you decide which directory usage setup option is right for you. If you’re upgrading, the best choice is usually “No change.” If you’re setting up a new server, the simplest choice is “Standalone Server.” After initial server setup, you can use Directory Utility or Server Admin to adjust and finalize the directory setup.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 109 Not Changing Directory Usage When Upgrading When setting up a server that you’re upgrading to v10.5 from v10.3.9 or 10.2.8, and you want the server to use the same directory setup it’s been using, choose “No change” in the Directory Usage pane in Server Assistant. Even when you want to change the server’s directory setup, selecting “No change” is the safest option, especially if you’re considering changing a server’s shared directory configuration. Changing from hosting a directory to using another server’s shared directory or vice versa, or migrating a shared NetInfo domain to LDAP are examples of directory usage changes you should make after server setup in order to preserve access to directory information about your network. For information about all the directory usage options available to you and how to use Directory Utility and Server Admin to make directory changes, see Open Directory Administration. For information about how to continue using existing directory data when you change directory service settings, see Upgrading and Migrating. If you choose the “No change” option and the server wasn’t using a Password Server, Open Directory authentication is set up. When you add users to any Apple directory domain residing on the server, their passwords are validated by default using Open Directory authentication. Setting Up a Server as a Standalone Server A standalone server stores and accesses account information in its local directory domain. The standalone server uses its local directory domain to authenticate clients for its file, mail, and other services. Other servers and client computers can’t access the standalone server’s local directory domain. Open Directory authentication is also set up on the server. By default, Open Directory authentication is used when a user is added to the local domain. When a user attempts to log in to the server or use one of its services that require authentication, the server authenticates the user by consulting the local database. If the user has an account on the system and supplies the appropriate password, authentication succeeds. Setting Up a Server to Connect to a Directory System If it’s connected to another directory system, your server stores and accesses account information in another server’s shared directory and can use the other directory system to authenticate clients for file, mail, and other services. Your server can also use its local directory domain for accounts and authentication.110 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup You can integrate your server with a variety of directory systems by choosing one of the following options during setup:  Open Directory Server: Your server can store and access directory information about an Open Directory server using LDAP. With this option, you need to know the DNS name or IP address of the Open Directory server.  As Specified by DHCP Server: Your server will obtain information for connecting to a directory system from a DHCP server. The DHCP server must be set up to provide the address and search base of an LDAP server (DHCP option 95). The directory service and DHCP service are independent. They don’t need to be provided by the same server.  Other Directory Server: If you need to integrate the server with another kind of directory system or with multiple directory systems, choose this option and set up the connections later using the Directory Utility application. This option lets you integrate your server into almost any existing directory service, including Microsoft Active Directory, Novell eDirectory, another non-Apple directory, or an NIS domain. For information about using Directory Utility, see Open Directory Administration or open Directory Utility and then use the Help menu. If you set up your server to connect to an Open Directory server that has Mac OS X Server v10.3 or earlier, you may not be able to take advantage of some features:  VPN service requires MS-CHAP2 authentication, which isn’t available in v10.2 or earlier.  Replication isn’t supported by v10.2 or earlier.  Kerberos configuration is much more complex in v10.2. In addition, automatic synchronization of Kerberos and Password Server requires v10.3 or later.  In v10.3 and earlier, trusted directory binding, support for LDAP subdomains, and Directory Utility controls aren’t available. Using Interactive Server Setup The simplest way to set up a small number of servers is to use Server Assistant’s guided interview process after establishing a connection with each server in turn. You provide server setup data interactively, then initiate setup immediately. If you have only a few servers to set up, the interactive approach is useful. You can use the interactive approach to set up a local server, a remote server, or several remote servers. To use this approach, open Server Assistant, connect to one or more target servers, supply setup data, and then initiate the setup immediately. This is the technique you use to set up a local server, as “Setting Up a Local Server Interactively” on page 111 describes. You can also use this interactive approach to set up a remote server from an administrator computer. For instructions, see “Setting Up a Remote Server Interactively” on page 112.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 111 When multiple remote servers can use the same setup data, you can supply the data and then initiate setup of all the servers at once, using a batch approach. When running Server Assistant from an administration computer to set up multiple servers, group the same hardware configurations together. For example, choose all Intel Xserve machines or all G4 Mac minis. This technique, shown on the left side of the following illustration, requires that network identifiers for all target servers be set using DHCP or BootP. For instructions, see “Setting Up Multiple Remote Servers Interactively in a Batch” on page 113. To customize the setup of individual servers, you can manage each setup individually from a different Server Assistant window. This approach is shown on the right side of the illustration above. For instructions, see “Setting Up a Remote Server Interactively” on page 112. Although the previous illustration shows target servers on the same subnet as the administrator computer in one scenario and target servers on a different subnet in the other scenario, both setup scenarios can be used to set up servers on the same and different subnets. If a target server is on a different subnet, you must supply its IP address. Servers on the same subnet are listed by Server Assistant, so you select one or more servers in the list. Setting Up a Local Server Interactively After server software is installed on a server, you can use the interactive approach to set it up locally if you have physical access to the computer. This setup assumes you are using the Advanced server configuration mode. Don’t try to use these instructions with Standard or Workgroup modes. Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Welcome Welcome Welcome112 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup To set up a local server interactively: 1 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet located in the appendix. Supplemental information appears in “Information You Need” on page 105. When the server restarts, Server Assistant opens. 2 Enter the setup data you’ve recorded on the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet as you move through the Assistant’s panes, following the onscreen instructions. Make sure that any DHCP or DNS servers you specify for the server you’re setting up to use are running. After all setup data is entered, Server Assistant displays a summary of the data. 3 Review the setup data you entered and if necessary click Go Back to change it. 4 To save the setup data as a text file or in a form you can use for automatic server setup (a saved setup file or saved directory record), click Save As. To encrypt a configuration file or directory record, select “Save in Encrypted Format” and then enter and verify a passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be used by a target server. 5 To initiate setup of the local server, click Apply. 6 When server setup is complete, click Restart Now. Now you can log in as the server administrator user created during setup to configure services. Setting Up a Remote Server Interactively After server software is installed on a server, you can use the interactive approach to set it up remotely from an administrator computer that can connect to the target server. To set up a remote server interactively: 1 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet located in the appendix. Supplemental information appears in “Information You Need” on page 105. 2 Make sure the target server is running. 3 On an administrator computer, open Server Assistant in /Applications/Server/. You don’t need to be an administrator on the administrator computer to use Server Assistant. 4 In the Welcome pane, select “Set up a remote server” and click Continue. 5 In the Destination pane, put a check in the Apply column for the remote server you want to set up, enter its preset password in the Password field, and click Continue to connect to the server. If you don’t see the target server on the list, click Add to add it or Refresh to determine whether it’s available. Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 113 6 Select the server configuration type “Advanced.” 7 In the Language pane, specify the language you want to use to administer the target server. 8 If you are using saved setup data, do the following: In the Language pane, choose File > Open Configuration File or File > Open Directory Record to load the saved setup data you want to use. If the saved setup data is encrypted, enter the passphrase when prompted. Optionally choose View > Jump to Review to review the setup data, then use Go Back as necessary to change it. 9 If you are entering setup data, do the following: Click Continue and enter the setup data as you move through the Assistant’s panes, following the onscreen instructions, and click Continue. Make sure that any DHCP or DNS servers you specify for the server you’re setting up to use are running. 10 After all setup data is specified, review the summary displayed by Server Assistant and optionally click Go Back to change data. 11 To save the setup data as a text file or in a form you can use for automatic server setup (as a saved setup file or saved directory record), click Save As. To encrypt a configuration file or directory record, select “Save in Encrypted Format” and then enter and verify a passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be used by a target server. 12 To initiate setup of the remote target server, click Apply. 13 When server setup is complete, click Continue Now. The target server restarts and you can log in as the server administrator user created during setup to configure services. Setting Up Multiple Remote Servers Interactively in a Batch You can use the interactive approach to set up multiple servers as a batch if:  All the servers are accessible from an administrator computer  All the servers use the same chip platform (for example, Intel-based or PowerPCbased)  All the servers use the same setup data except for server software serial numbers and network identities (host name, computer name, and local hostname)  Network identities are provided by a DHCP or BootP server114 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup When running Server Assistant from an administration computer to set up multiple servers, group the same hardware configurations together. For example, choose all Intel Xserve machines or all G4 Mac minis. If you have several servers with different configuration files, you can open a new Server Assistant window for each batch of servers. This way you can group servers by platform, settings, subnet, or any other criteria you choose. To set up multiple remote servers interactively in a batch: 1 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet with settings you want to use for all servers you want to set up. The Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet is located on the Mac OS X Server installation disc in the Documentation folder. Supplemental information appears in “Information You Need” on page 105. The Preface tells you where else you can find the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet. 2 Make sure the target servers and any DHCP or DNS servers you want them to use are running. 3 On an administrator computer that can connect to all the target servers, open Server Assistant. It’s located in /Applications/Server/. You don’t have to be an administrator on the administrator computer to use Server Assistant. 4 In the Welcome pane, select “Set up a remote server” and click Continue. 5 In the Destination pane, put a check in the Apply column for each remote server you want to set up. Then enter the preset password in the Password field for each server, and click Continue to connect to the servers. If you don’t see a target server you want to set up on the list, click Add to add it. 6 In the Language pane, specify the language you want to use to administer the target servers. 7 If you are using saved setup data, do the following: In the Language pane, choose File > Open Configuration File or File > Open Directory Record to load the saved setup data you want to use. If the saved setup data is encrypted, enter the passphrase when prompted. Optionally choose View > Jump to Review to review the setup data, then use Go Back as necessary to change it. 8 If you are entering setup data, do the following: Click Continue and enter the setup data as you move through the Assistant’s panes, following the onscreen instructions, and click Continue. Make sure that any DHCP or DNS servers you specify for the server you’re setting up to use are running.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 115 9 After all setup data is specified, review the summary displayed by Server Assistant and optionally click Go Back to change data. 10 To save the setup data as a text file or in a form you can use for automatic server setup (as a saved setup file or saved directory record), click Save As. To encrypt a configuration file or directory record, select “Save in Encrypted Format” and then enter and verify a passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be used by a target server. 11 To initiate server setup, click Apply. 12 To initiate setup of the remote target server, click Apply. 13 When server setup is complete, click Continue Now. The target servers restart and you can log in as the server administrator user created during setup to configure their services. Using Automatic Server Setup When you have more than a few servers to set up, consider using automatic server setup. This approach also provides a way to preserve setup data so it can be reused if you need to reinstall server software. The automatic approach is useful when you:  Have more than a few servers to set up  Want to prepare for setting up servers that aren’t yet available  Want to save setup data for backup purposes  Need to reinstall servers frequently To use automatic server setup, you use Server Assistant to specify setup data for each computer or batch of computers; then you save the data in a file or in a directory to create setup data, as shown in the following illustration: Finally, you provide that setup data to the target servers. You can provide the data using a variety of methods, like storing files on the hard disk, removable storage, or saving it in directory entries. By default, saved setup data is encrypted for extra security. Administrator computer Setup data in a directory Setup data in a file116 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup When a server starts up for the first time, it searches for automatic setup data to configure itself before it starts the interactive Setup Assistant. Automatic server setup requires two main steps: Step 1: Create the setup data files The following sections can help you create setup data files.  “Setup Data Saved in a File” on page 117  “Setup Data Saved in a Directory” on page 118  “Creating and Saving Setup Data” on page 116  “Keeping Backup Copies of Saved Setup Data” on page 119 Step 2: Make the setup data files available to a freshly installed server The following sections can help you make the data available to the servers:  “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121  “Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a File” on page 122  “Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a Directory” on page 125 Creating and Saving Setup Data When you want to work with saved setup data, determine a strategy for naming, encrypting, storing, and serving the data. One way to create setup data is to use Server Assistant’s offline mode, which lets you work with setup data without connecting to specific servers. You specify setup data, then save it in a file or directory accessible from target servers, as the next two sections describe. Target servers where Mac OS X Server v10.5 software has been installed automatically detect the presence of the saved setup information and use it to set themselves up. You can define generic setup data that can be used to set up any server. For example, you might want to define generic setup data for a server that’s on order, or to configure 50 Xserve computers you want to be identically configured. Alternatively, you can save setup data that’s specifically tailored for a particular server. Important: When you perform an upgrade installation, make sure that saved setup data won’t be inadvertently detected and used by the server. If saved setup data is used, existing server settings will be overwritten by the saved settings. For more information, see “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 117 Setup Data Saved in a File When you save setup data in a file, a target server detects and uses the file if:  Setup data the target server recognizes isn’t found in a directory the server is configured to use. For information about how a server detects and uses directory data to set itself up, see “Setup Data Saved in a Directory” on page 118.  The setup file is on a volume mounted locally in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes. A target server searches through volumes alphabetically by device name. The device that is mounted as a file system can be the server’s hard disk or an iPod, DVD, CD, FireWire drive, USB drive, or other device plugged in to the server (for example, /Volumes/AdminiPod/Auto Server Setup/myserver.example.com.plist).  The setup file name is one of the following, when searching for setup files, target servers search for names in the order listed. .plist (include leading zeros but omit colons. for example, 0030654dbcef.plist). .plist (for example, 10.0.0.4.plist). .plist (for example, myserver.plist). .plist (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.plist). .plist (for example, myserver.example.com.plist). .plist (for example, 10.0.plist matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.plist (a file that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values). If the serial number specified in the file isn’t site licensed, after setup you need to manually set it. Use Server Admin or the following command in the Terminal application: serversetup -setServerSerialNumber.  The correct passphrase is provided to the server when setup data is encrypted. You can use Server Assistant to supply a passphrase interactively, or you can supply the passphrase in a text file. Place the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target server in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/. The passphrase file can have one of these names. Target servers search for names in the order listed. .pass (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.0.4.pass). .pass (for example, myserver.pass). .pass (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.pass.118 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup .pass (for example, myserver.example.com.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.pass matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.pass (a file that any server will recognize). If the server software serial number isn’t site licensed, after setup you need to manually set it. Use Server Admin or the following command in Terminal: serversetup -setServerSerialNumber. If you want to reuse saved setup data after reinstalling a server, you can store the server’s setup files in a small local partition that isn’t erased when you reinstall the server. The setup files are detected and reused after each reinstallation. Setup Data Saved in a Directory Using this approach offers the most unattended way to set up multiple servers but it requires that you have a DHCP and directory infrastructure in place. Using Server Assistant, you save setup data to an existing directory that the computer you’re using is configured to access and that you want newly installed servers to retrieve setup data from. The schema of the directory must support stored setup data. Open Directory has built-in support for stored setup data. If you want to store setup data in a non-Apple directory, you first must extend its schema as Open Directory Administration describes. When you save setup data in a directory, a target server detects and uses the setup data if:  The target server receives its network names (host name, computer name, and local hostname) and its port configuration from a DHCP server.  The DHCP server is configured to identify the IP address of the directory server where the setup data resides. For DHCP server configuration instructions, see Network Services Administration.  The directory and DHCP servers are running.  The setup data is stored in the directory in a path named /AutoServerSetup/ and a record having one of the following names. Target servers search for names in the order listed. (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef). (for example, 10.0.0.4). (for example, myserver). (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234). (for example, myserver.example.com).Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 119 (for example, 10.0 matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic (a record that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values). If the serial number specified in the file isn’t site licensed, after setup you need to manually set it. Use Server Admin or the following command in the Terminal application: serversetup -setServerSerialNumber.  The correct passphrase is provided to the server (setup data stored in a directory should always be encrypted). You can use Server Assistant to supply a passphrase interactively or you can supply the passphrase in a text file. Place the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target server in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes. A target server searches through volumes alphabetically by device name. The passphrase file can have one of the following names. Target servers search for names in the order listed. .pass (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.0.4.pass). .pass. (for example, myserver.pass). .pass (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.pass). .pass (for example, myserver.example.com.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.pass matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.pass (a file that any server will recognize). If the server software serial number isn’t site licensed, after setup you need to manually set it. Use Server Admin or the following command in Terminal: serversetup -setServerSerialNumber. Keeping Backup Copies of Saved Setup Data Saved setup data isn’t only useful for automating the setup of multiple servers. It also provides a way to set up servers again if you need to reinstall server software on them. You can keep backup copies of setup data files on a network file server. Alternatively, you can store setup data files in a local partition that won’t be erased when you reinstall server software. Using Encryption with Setup Data Files By default, saved setup data is encrypted for extra security. Before server sets itself up using encrypted data, it must have access to the passphrase used when the data was encrypted. 120 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup The passphrase can be provided either interactively (using Server Assistant) or in a file on a local volume of the target server. For example, you can store the file with the passphrase on an iPod, then plug the iPod into each server that needs the passphrase. A server with the IP address 10.0.0.4 would use /Volumes/MyIPod/Auto Server Setup/ 10.0.0.4.pass. Providing Setup Data Files to Servers Using Files in the File System When you place a setup file on a volume (CD, DVD, iPod, USB solid-state drive, disk partition) mounted locally on a server you’ve installed but not set up, the server detects the file and uses it to set itself up. For example, you could store multiple setup files on an iPod and then plug the iPod into the first server that a setup file exists for, as shown in the following illustration: Then you could plug the iPod into the next server: Each target server recognizes its own file, because it’s been named using one of its identifiers and resides in a known location. For example, a server with WXYZ1234 as the first eight characters of its built-in serial number would use this setup file to set itself up: /Volumes/MyIPod/Auto Server Setup/ WXYZ1234.plist. A server’s IP address can also be used as an identifier. A server with the IP address of 10.0.0.4 would use the following file: /Volumes/MyIPod/Auto Server Setup/10.0.0.4.plist. iPod iPodChapter 6 Initial Server Setup 121 You could also use a single file, which you’d name “generic.plist”, to set up multiple servers if the setup data does not need to be unique and the servers’ network identities are provided using DHCP. For more information about setup file naming and use, see “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121. Using Settings in the Directory A target server can set itself up using setup data you’ve stored in a directory the server is configured to access. Although storing setup data in a directory is the most automated way to set up multiple servers, this approach requires that you set up an infrastructure first so that target servers can locate the setup data stored in the directory. The most critical components of the infrastructure are DHCP and Open Directory, as the following picture illustrates: The Open Directory server in this example hosts an LDAP directory in which setup data has been saved. The address of the Open Directory server is registered with DHCP service, running on another server in this example. The DHCP service provides the Open Directory server address to the target servers when it assigns IP addresses to those servers. The target servers detect setup data that has been stored for them in the LDAP directory and use it to set themselves up. You can save setup data in an Apple OpenLDAP directory or in another directory that supports Apple’s schema extensions for saved setup data, documented in Open Directory Administration. For more information about setup file naming and use, see “How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data” on page 121. How a Server Searches for Saved Setup Data A freshly installed server sets itself up using saved setup data it finds while using the following search sequence. When the server finds saved setup data that matches the criteria described, it stops searching and uses the data to set itself up. Open Directory server DHCP server122 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 1 The server searches through locally mounted volumes for setup files in /Volumes/*/ Auto Server Setup/, where * is a file system (device) name. It searches through volumes alphabetically by device name, looking for a file with the extension “.plist” that’s named using its MAC address, its IP address, its partial DNS name, its built-in hardware serial number, its fully qualified DNS name, its partial IP address, or generic.plist, in that order. 2 Next, the server looks in a directory it’s configured to use for a setup record in a path named “AutoServerSetup”. It searches for records named using its MAC address, its IP address, its partial DNS name (myserver), its built-in hardware serial number, its fully qualified DNS name (myserver.example.com), its partial IP address, or “generic,” in that order. If the setup data is encrypted, the server needs the correct passphrase before setting itself up. You can use Server Assistant to supply the passphrase interactively, or you can supply the passphrase in a text file in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/. The target server searches through volumes alphabetically by file system name, looking for a file with the extension “.pass” that’s named using its MAC address, its IP address, its partial DNS name, its built-in hardware serial number, its fully qualified DNS name, its partial IP address, or generic, in that order. Important: When you perform an upgrade, make sure that saved setup data won’t be inadvertently detected and used by the server you’re upgrading. If saved setup data is used, existing server settings are overwritten by the saved settings. The next two sections provide more details about how to use saved setup data. Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a File After server software has been installed on a server, you can set it up automatically using data saved in a file. To save and apply setup data from a file: 1 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet for each server you want to set up. The Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet is located in the appendix. 2 On an administrator computer, open Server Assistant in /Applications/Server/. You don’t need to be an administrator on the administrator computer to use Server Assistant. 3 In the Welcome pane, select “Save advanced setup information in a file or directory record” to work in offline mode, which doesn’t require a server connection. 4 In the Language pane, specify the language you want to use to administer the target servers.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 123 5 If you want to create a setup file, go to step 6; if you want to work with an existing setup file, go to 7. If you intend to create a generic setup file because you want to use the file to set up more than one server, don’t specify network names (computer name and local hostname) and make sure that each network interface (port) is set to be configured Using DHCP or Using BootP. 6 Click Continue and enter the setup data as you move through the Assistant’s panes, following the onscreen instructions. 7 In the Language pane, choose File > Open Configuration File or File > Open Directory Record to load the saved setup data you want to work with. If the saved setup data is encrypted, enter the passphrase when prompted. Optionally choose View > Jump to Review to review the setup data, then use Go Back as necessary to change it. 8 In the Network Interfaces pane, click Add to specify network interfaces. 9 After the setup data is specified, review the summary displayed by Server Assistant and optionally click Go Back to change data. 10 Click Save As, then select Configuration File. 11 To encrypt the file, select Save in Encrypted Format, and then enter and verify a passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted setup file can be used by a target server. 12 Click OK, navigate to the location where you want to save the file, name the file using one of the following options, and click Save. When searching for setup files, target servers search for names in the order listed. .plist (include leading zeros but omit colons. for example, 0030654dbcef.plist). .plist (for example, 10.0.0.4.plist). .plist (for example, myserver.plist). .plist (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.plist). .plist (for example, myserver.example.com.plist). .plist (for example, 10.0.plist matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.plist (a file that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values). 124 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 13 Place the file in a location where target servers can detect it. A server can detect a setup file if it resides on a volume mounted locally in /Volumes/*/ Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes. The device can be the server’s hard disk or an iPod, DVD, CD, FireWire drive, USB drive, or other device plugged into the server. For example, if you have an iPod named AdminiPod, the path used would be /Volumes/ AdminiPod/Auto Server Setup/. 14 If the setup data is encrypted, make the passphrase available to the target servers. You can supply the passphrase interactively using Server Assistant, or you can provide it in a text file. To provide the passphrase in a file, use step 15. To provide it interactively, use step 16. 15 To provide a passphrase in a file, create a text file and enter the passphrase for the saved setup file on the first line, and then save the file using one of the following names; target servers search for names in the order listed. .pass (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.0.4.pass). .pass. (for example, myserver.pass). .pass (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.pass). .pass (for example, myserver.example.com.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.pass matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.pass (a file that any server will recognize). Save the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target server in /Volumes/ */Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under / Volumes. 16 To provide a passphrase interactively, use Server Assistant on an administrator computer that can connect with the target server. a In the Welcome or Destination pane, choose File > Supply Passphrase. b In the dialog box, enter the target server’s IP address, password, and the passphrase. c Click Send. 17 If you’re using a generic setup file, and the serial number isn’t site licensed, after setup you must specify the server’s serial number by using Server Admin or the commandline.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 125 In Server Admin, select the server, click Settings, and click General. Alternatively, in the Terminal application, use ssh to connect with the server and enter the serversetup - setServerSerialNumber command. For a description of the layout of a saved setup file and more information about the serversetup command, see Command-Line Administration. Setting Up Servers Automatically Using Data Saved in a Directory After server software is installed on a server, you can set it up automatically using data saved in a directory. This method requires a preexisting directory and DHCP infrastructure, as the procedure below describes. To save and apply setup data in a directory record: 1 Make sure the directory where you want to save setup data exists, that its schema supports stored setup data, and that it’s accessible from the administrator computer you’re using. Open Directory Administration describes how to set up and access directories. It also describes the schema for stored setup data. Stored setup data support is built into Apple OpenLDAP directories, but the schema of other directories needs to be extended to support stored setup data. 2 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet for each server you want to set up. The Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet is located in the appendix. 3 On an administrator computer, open Server Assistant in /Applications/Server/. You don’t need to be an administrator on the administrator computer to use Server Assistant. 4 In the Welcome pane, select “Save advanced setup information in a file or directory record” to work in offline mode, which doesn’t require a server connection. 5 In the Language pane, specify the language you want to use to administer the target servers. 6 If you want to create a new setup, use step 7. If you want to work with a setup that exists, use step 8. If you’re creating generic setup data, don’t specify network names (computer name and local hostname) and make sure that each network interface (port) is set to be configured Using DHCP or Using BootP. 7 Click Continue and enter the setup data as you move through the Assistant’s panes, following the onscreen instructions.126 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 8 In the Language pane, choose File > Open Configuration File or File > Open Directory Record to load the saved setup data you want to work with. If the saved setup data is encrypted, enter the passphrase when prompted. Optionally choose View > Jump to Review to review the setup data, then use Go Back as necessary to change it. 9 In the Network Interfaces pane, click Add to specify network interfaces. 10 After all setup data is specified, review the summary displayed by Server Assistant and optionally click Go Back to change data. 11 Click Save As, then select Directory Record. 12 To encrypt the file, select Save in Encrypted Format, and then enter and verify a passphrase. You must supply the passphrase before an encrypted directory record can be used by a target server. 13 Specify the directory where you want to save the setup, name the setup record, and click OK; when prompted, enter information required to authenticate yourself as a directory domain administrator. Settings are saved in the directory in AutoServerSetup. Target servers search for record names in the following order: (include leading zeros but omit colons. for example, 0030654dbcef). (for example, 10.0.0.4). (for example, myserver). (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234). (for example, myserver.example.com). (for example, 10.0 matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic (a record that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values). 14 Make sure the proper infrastructure is in place so servers that you want to use the stored setup record for can find it. The directory server storing the setup record must be running. DHCP must be configured to identify the directory server to the target servers using Option 95. In addition, you may need to have DNS configured if your directory data includes DNS names. For some additional infrastructure information, see “Defining Server Setup Infrastructure Requirements” on page 30. Open Directory Administration and Network Services Administration provide instructions for setting up directories and DHCP.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 127 15 If the setup data is encrypted, make the passphrase available to the target serverrs. You can supply the passphrase interactively, using Server Assistant, or you provide it in a text file. To provide the passphrase in a file, use step 16. To provide it interactively, use step 17. 16 To provide a passphrase in a file, create a text file and enter the passphrase for the saved setup file on the first line, and then save the file using one of the following names: Target servers search for names in the order listed. .pass (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.0.4.pass). .pass. (for example, myserver.pass). .pass (first 8 characters only, for example, ABCD1234.pass). .pass (for example, myserver.example.com.pass). .pass (for example, 10.0.pass matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2). generic.pass (a file that any server will recognize). Put the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target server in /Volumes/ */Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device that is mounted under the directory /Volumes. 17 To provide a passphrase interactively, use Server Assistant on an administrator computer that can connect with the target server. a In the Welcome or Destination pane, choose File > Supply Passphrase. b In the dialog box, enter the target server’s IP address, password, and the passphrase. c Click Send. 18 If you’re using a generic setup record and the server serial number isn’t site licensed, you must specify the server’s serial number by using Server Admin or the commandline after setup. In Server Admin, select the server, click Settings, and click General. To use the command-line, in the Terminal application use ssh to connect with the server and enter the serversetup -setServerSerialNumber command. For a description of the schema of setup data saved in a directory, see Open Directory Administration. For information about serversetup, see Command-Line Administration.128 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup Determining the Status of Setups Normally, when setup is complete, the server restarts, and it starts up to the login window. If setup isn’t successful, there are several methods by which you’re notified. Using the Destination Pane for Setup Status Information Server Assistant displays error information in its Destination pane. To access this pane, on the Welcome pane select “Set up a remote server” and click Continue. If the server isn’t listed, click Add to list it. Select the server and review the information displayed. You can save a list of servers you’re interested in monitoring in the Destination pane using File > Save Server List. When you want to monitor the status of those servers, choose File > Load Server List. Handling Setup Failures When a server’s setup fails, an error log is created as /System/Library/ServerSetup/ Configured/POR.err on the target server. The contents of this log can be displayed and the log file deleted on a remote administrator computer. Double-click the error icon for a server on Server Assistant’s Destination pane. If prompted, supply the preset password and click Send. The log contents are displayed, and you can click Delete to delete the log file. Setup can’t be reinitiated until this file has been deleted. If setup fails because a passphrase file can’t be found when using setup data saved in a file or directory record, you can:  Use Server Assistant to supply a passphrase interactively. On the Destination pane, choose File > Supply Passphrase.  Supply the passphrase in a text file. Place the passphrase file on a volume mounted locally on the target server in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes/. A target server searches through volumes alphabetically by device name. If a remote server setup fails for any other reason, reinstall the server software and repeat initial setup. If a local server setup fails, restart the computer, rerun Server Assistant, and reinitiate setup, or reinstall the server software. Handling Setup Warnings When setup completes but a condition that warrants your attention exists, a warning log is created as /Library/Logs/ServerAssistant.POR.status on the target server. Click the target server’s desktop link named ServerAssistant.status to open this file.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 129 Here are some messages you may encounter in the log:  The server software serial number is invalid. Open Server Admin, select the server in the Servers list, click Settings, and click General. Enter the correct serial number, and click Save.  Because this server was set up using a generic file or directory record and the serial number isn’t site licensed, you must enter the server software serial number using Server Admin. Open Server Admin, select the server in the Servers list, click Settings, and click General. Enter the correct serial number, and click Save.  The server administrator user defined in the setup data already exists on the server you’ve upgraded. Getting Upgrade Installation Status Information When you perform an upgrade, log files may be placed on the target server. For information about upgrade logs, see the information about upgrading in Upgrading and Migrating. Setting Up Services After setting up an advanced configuration, you must configure services using Server Admin and add users and groups using Workgroup Manager. The following sections survey initial setup of individual services and tell you where to find instructions for tailoring services to support your needs. Adding Services to the Server View Before you can set up services, you must add the service to the server view in Server Admin. For example, by default, no services can be seen for your server. As you select services to administer, the appropriate configuration panes become accessible in a list underneath your computer name. The first time you launch Server Admin and connect to a newly installed server, you are prompted to select the services you want to set up and configure on that server. When you select the desired services in the list, those services appear underneath the server hostname in the server list. Before you can enable or configure and service, it must be added to the administered service list. To change services to administer: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for each service you want to turn on. 130 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup Setting Up Open Directory Unless your server must be integrated with another vendor’s directory system or the directory architecture of a server you’re upgrading needs changing immediately, you can begin using the directories you configured during server setup. Open Directory Administration provides instructions for all aspects of Open Directory domain and authentication setup, including:  Setting up client computer access to shared directory data  Replicating LDAP directories and authentication information of Open Directory masters  Integrating with Active Directory and other non-Apple directories  Configuring single sign-on  Using Kerberos and other authentication techniques Setting Up User Management Unless you’re using a server exclusively to host Internet content (such as web pages) or perform computational clustering, you probably want to set up user accounts in addition to the administrator accounts created during server setup. User Management tells you how to use Workgroup Manager to connect to the directory, define user settings, set up group accounts and computer lists, define managed preferences, and import accounts. To set up a user account: 1 Open Workgroup Manager. 2 Authenticate to the directory as the directory administrator. 3 At the top of the application window, click the Accounts button to select the directory you want to add users to. 4 Click the New User button. 5 Specify user settings in the panes that appear. You can set up user accounts by using Workgroup Manager to import settings from a file. Setting Up File Services When you turn on file sharing services, users can share items in selected folders. You enable and configure File Services and share points using Server Admin. In versions of Mac OS X Server before to Leopard server, share points were created using Workgroup Manager. This functionality has now migrated to Server Admin. File Services Administration provides instructions for creating, configuring, and managing share points for file sharing using all the protocols.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 131 To set up file sharing: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the appropriate checkbox for each file service you want to turn on. To share with Macintosh computers, turn on Apple file service (AFP service). To share with Windows computers, turn on SMB service. To provide File Transfer Protocol (FTP) access, turn on FTP service. To share with UNIX computers, turn on NFS service. 4 Select File Sharing in the toolbar. 5 Select a volume or folder you want to share. 6 Select “Share this item” for each folder or volume you want to share. 7 Click the other tabs to specify attributes for the share point. Setting Up Print Service When you turn on print service, server users can share network PostScript printers or Postscript and non-Postscript printers connected directly to the server. A queue is set up automatically for any USB printer connected to the server. No printer queues are set up automatically for network printers, but they’re easy to add. To set up a shared printer queue: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for Print service. 4 In the list beneath the server, select Print service. If it isn’t running, click the Start Print button. 5 Click Queues. 6 Click the Add (+) button. 7 Choose a connection protocol, identify a printer, then click OK. Users of Mac OS X computers can now add the printer using Printer Setup Utility. For more information about setting up print services, see Print Service Administration.132 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup Setting Up Web Service You can use the Apache HTTP Server that comes with Mac OS X Server to host server and user websites. If you turned on web service in Server Assistant, your server can begin serving HTML pages from server and user folders.  To view the main server site, open a web browser on any computer with access to the server and enter the server’s IP address or domain name.  To view a user site, add a slash (/), a tilde (~), and the user’s short name after the server address. For example, enter http://192.268.2.1/~someuser To turn on web service if it’s not running: 1 If you have the HTML files for your main site, copy them into the Documents folder in the /Library/WebServer/ directory. If the files that make up your site are organized in folders, copy the entire folder structure to the Documents folder. For a user site, the files go into the Sites folder in the user’s home folder. Make sure the web content files and folders have the required permissions and ownership. For normal web access, and for WebDAV Read-Only access, the files must be readable by user www, and the folders (including all ancestral folders) must be readable and searchable by user www. In addition, for WebDAV Read/Write access, the files must be writable by user named “www,” and the immediately enclosing folder must be writable by user named “www.” If you don’t have your own HTML files yet, you can still turn on web service to see how it works using the default start pages provided with Mac OS X Server. 2 Open Server Admin. 3 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 4 Select the checkbox for Web service. 5 In the list beneath the server, click the button for web service. 6 If it isn’t running, click the Start Service button in the toolbar. Web Technologies Administration describes the many features of web service, including how to set up SSL for a site, enable WebMail, and use WebDAV for file sharing. Setting Up Mail Service Providing full mail service for your users requires additional configuration beyond what can be described here. Mail Service Administration provides instructions for setting up and managing a mail server.Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup 133 Setting Up Network Services If you want a server to host any of the following network services, see Network Services Administration for setup instructions:  DHCP service  DNS  Firewall service  Network Address Translation (NAT)  RADIUS  VPN  Network time service Setting Up System Image and Software Update Services For details on using NetBoot and NetInstall to simplify the management and installation of client operating systems and other software, see System Imaging and Software Update Administration. It tells you how to create disk images and set up Mac OS X Server so other Macintosh computers can start up from, or install, those images over the network. The same guide describes how to set up software update service, which lets you customize updates of Apple software on client computers. To enable NetBoot and NetInstall service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for NetBoot service. Setting Up Media Streaming and Broadcasting For information about how to manage a streaming server that delivers media streams live or on demand to client computers, see QuickTime Streaming and Broadcasting Administration. To enable QuickTime Streaming Service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for QuickTime Streaming service. Setting Up Podcast Producer For information about how to manage a a podcast production server that delivers syndicated media to client computers, see Podcast Producer Administration.134 Chapter 6 Initial Server Setup To enable Podcast Producer service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for Podcast Producer service. Setting Up WebObjects Service If you want to develop WebObjects applications, see the WebObjects Reference Library, available at developer.apple.com/referencelibrary/WebObjects/. If you want to set up a WebObjects application server, see the Deployment section of the WebObjects Reference Library. More information about WebObject service can be found in Web Technologies Administration. To enable WebObject service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for WebObject service Setting Up iChat Service In addition to services already discussed that help users stay in touch (for example, mail and file services and group accounts and preferences), you can set up an iChat server. How you use Server Admin to set up iChat service is described in iChat Service Administration. To enable iChat service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for iChat service. Setting Up iCal Service When you turn on iCal Service, you can share and edit calendars for individuals and groups. Using a CalDAV enabled calendar application, you can share, view, and edit calendars with others. To use Server Admin to set up iCal service, see iCal Service Administration. To enable iCal service for administration: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. 3 Select the checkbox for iCal service.7 135 7 Management This chapter shows you how to complete ongoing management for your systems, including setting up administrator computers, designating administrators, and maintaining service uptime. Sections include:  “Ports Used for Administration” on page 136  “Ports Open By Default” on page 136  “Computers You Can Use to Administer a Server” on page 136  “Using the Administration Tools” on page 138  “Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin” on page 138  “Adding and Removing Servers in Server Admin” on page 139  “Grouping Servers Manually” on page 140  “Grouping Servers Using Smart Groups” on page 140  “Working With Settings for a Specific Server” on page 141  “Administering Services” on page 145  “Tiered Administration Permissions” on page 149  “Workgroup Manager Basics” on page 150  “Administering Accounts” on page 151  “Working With Pre-Version 10.5 Computers From Version 10.5 Servers” on page 155  “Service Configuration Assistants” on page 155  “Critical Configuration and Data Files” on page 155  “Improving Service Availability” on page 159  “Setting Up Your Server for Automatic Reboot” on page 161  “Load Balancing” on page 168  “Daemon Overview” on page 169136 Chapter 7 Management Ports Used for Administration For Apple’s administration applications to function, the following ports must be enabled. In addition, other ports must be enabled for each service you want to run on your server. For a port reference guide, see Network Services Administration and the manual for the appropriate service. Ports Open By Default After Setup, the firewall is off by default in Advanced Server mode, and therefore all ports are open. When the firewall is turned on, all ports are blocked except the following for all originating IP addresses: Computers You Can Use to Administer a Server To administer a server locally using the graphical administration applications (in / Applications/Server/) log in to the server as a server administrator and open them. To administer a remote server, open the applications on an administrator computer. An administrator computer is any Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X v10.5 or later computer where the administration tools have been installed from the Mac OS X Server Admin Tools CD. See “Setting Up an Administrator Computer” on page 137. Port number and type Tool used 22 TCP SSH command-line shell 311 TCP Server Admin (with SSL) 625 TCP Workgroup Manager 389, 686 TCP Directory 80 TCP QuickTime Streaming Management 4111 TCP Xgrid Admin Port number and type Service 22 TCP SSH command-line shell 311 TCP Server Admin (with SSL) 626 UDP Serial number support 625 TCP Remote Directory Access ICMP incoming and outgoing standard ping 53 UDP DNS name resolutionChapter 7 Management 137 You can run command-line tools from the Terminal Application (in /Applications/ Utilities/) on any Mac OS X Server or Mac OS X computer. You can also run commandline tools from a UNIX workstation. Setting Up an Administrator Computer An administrator computer is a computer with Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server v10.5 or later that you use to manage remote servers. In the following illustration, the arrows originate from administrator computers and point to servers the administrator computers might be used to manage. When you’ve installed and set up a Mac OS X Server that has a display, keyboard, and optical drive, it’s already an administrator computer. To make a computer with Mac OS X into an administrator computer, you must install additional software. To enable remote administration of Mac OS X Server from a Mac OS X computer: 1 Make sure the Mac OS X computer has Mac OS X v10.5 or later installed., and in addition, make sure the computer has at least 512 MB of RAM and 1 GB of unused disk space. 2 Insert the Mac OS X Server Admin Tools CD. 3 Open the Installer folder. 4 Start the installer (ServerAdministrationSoftware.mpkg) and follow the onscreen instructions. Using a Non-Mac OS X Computer for Administration You can use a non-Mac OS X computer that offers SSH support, such as a UNIX workstation, to administer Mac OS X Server using command-line tools. For more information, see Command-Line Administration. You can also use any computer which can run a VNC viewer to administer Mac OS X Server. Administering the server via VNC is the same as using the server’s keyboard, mouse, and monitor locally. Mac OS X Servers Mac OS X administrator computer138 Chapter 7 Management You enable a VNC server on the Mac OS X Server by enabling Screen Sharing in the Sharing pane of System Preferences. Using the Administration Tools Information about administration tools can be found on the pages indicated in the following table. You use Server Admin to administer services on one or more Mac OS X Server computers. Server Admin also lets you specify settings that support multiple services, such as creating and managing SSL certificates and specifying which users and groups can access services. Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin Server Admin is installed in /Applications/Server/. You can open it in the Finder, or you can open it by clicking the Server Admin icon in the Dock, or by clicking the Admin button on the Workgroup Manager toolbar. Use this application or tool To See Installer Install server software or upgrade it from v10.2 or 10.3. page 77 Server Assistant Set up a v10.5 server. page 110 Workgroup Manager Administer accounts and their managed preferences.. page 150 Server Admin Configure and monitor services and administrator access, and configure share points. Set up and manage QuickTime media streaming. page 141 page 39 System image tools Manage NetBoot and NetInstall disk images. page 48 Server Monitor Monitor Xserve hardware. page 172 QTSS Publisher Manage media and prepare it for streaming or progressive download. page 49 Apple Remote Desktop (optional) Monitor and control other Macintosh computers. page 49 Command-line tools Administer a server using a UNIX command shell. page 49 Xgrid Admin Monitor local or remote Xgrid controllers, grids, and jobs. page 50Chapter 7 Management 139 To select a server to work with, enter its IP address or DNS name in the login dialog box, or click Browse to choose from a list of servers. Specify the user name and password for a server administrator, then click Connect. Adding and Removing Servers in Server Admin The servers you can administer using Server Admin appear in the Servers list on the left side of the application window. You can add a server to the Servers list and log in to it in two ways:  Click the Add (+) button in the bottom action bar and choose Add Server.  Choose Server > Add Server from the menu bar. The next time you open Server Admin, any server you’ve added is displayed in the list. To change the order of servers in the list, drag a server to the new location in the list. You can remove a server from the Servers list in a similar fashion. First you select the server to remove, then you do one of the following:  Click the Perform Action button in the bottom action bar and choose Disconnect then Remove Server.  Choose Server > Disconnect, and then choose Server > Remove Server from the menu bar.140 Chapter 7 Management If a server in the Servers list appears gray, double-click the server or click the Connect button in the toolbar to log in again. Select the “Remember this password in my keychain” option while you log in to enable auto-reconnect the next time you open Server Admin. Grouping Servers Manually Server Admin displays computers in groups in the Server List section of the application’s window. The default server list is called the All Servers list. This is a list of all possible administered computers that you have added and authenticated to. You can create other groups to organize the computers on your network in any way you wish. Server groups have the following capabilities:  You can create as many lists as you want.  Servers can appear in more than one list.  Groups can be made in any organization scheme you can imagine: geographic, functional, hardware configuration, even color.  You can click a group name to see a status overview of all servers in the group. You can make more specific, targeted groups of servers from your All Servers list. First, you can create blank lists and then add servers to them later from the All Servers list. To create a server group: 1 Click the Add (+) button under the Server list at the bottom of the Server Admin window. 2 Select Add Group, and name the group. You can rename groups by clicking the group and letting the mouse hover over the name for a few seconds. the name should become editable. 3 Drag the servers from the All Servers group to the newly created group. Grouping Servers Using Smart Groups Server Admin displays computers in groups in the Server List section of the application’s window. The default server list is called the All Servers list. This is a list of all possible administered computers that you have added and authenticated to.You can create a server list that automatically populates based on custom criteria. After you create a smart group, any server added to the All Server list (or other specified list) that matches the criteria is dynamically added to the smart group. You can match any or all of the following criteria:  Visible services  Running servicesChapter 7 Management 141  Network throughput  CPU utilization  IP address  OS version To create a server smart group: 1 Click the Add (+) button under the Server list at the bottom of the Server Admin window. 2 Select Add Smart Group. 3 Name the smart group. 4 Define the criteria by which servers will appear in the list, and click OK. The group will appear in the Server list. Working With Settings for a Specific Server To work with general server settings, select a server in the Servers list. You then have a number of buttons in the toolbar that show configuration options or tabs of configuration options. The following shows the Settings pane for a server:142 Chapter 7 Management The following table contains a summary of what you find for each button: When you click Settings, you have access to the following panes:  General pane: Click General to work with the server serial number or to enable SNMP, NTP, SSH, Remote Management, and server side mobile home sync feature support. SNMP is the abbreviation for Simple Network Management Protocol, a standard that facilitates computer monitoring and management. The server uses the open source net-snmp project for its SNMP implementation. Although none of the server administration tools use or require SNMP, enabling it lets the server be monitored and managed from third-party SNMP software such as HP OpenView. Use the NTP (Network Time Protocol) checkbox to enable NTP service. For information about NTP, see Network Services Administration. SSH is the abbreviation for Secure Shell. The server uses the open source OpenSSH project for its SSH implementation. When you enable SSH, you can use commandline tools to remotely administer the server. SSH is also used for other remote server administration tasks, such as initial server setup, Sharing management, and displaying file system paths and the contents of folders in the server administration tools. SSH must be enabled while creating an Open Directory replica, but it can be disabled afterwards. Remote Management allows the server to be administered by Apple Remote Desktop. You enable and disable Apple Remote Desktop administration in this pane instead of the Sharing pane of System Preferences. Server side file tracking for mobile home sync is a feature of mobile home folders. See User Management for information about when to enable this feature.  Network pane: Click Network to view or change the server’s computer name or local hostname, or see a list of network interfaces for this server and their addressing information. The computer name is what a user sees when browsing the network (/Network). The local hostname is usually derived from the computer name, but can be changed. Toolbar button Shows Overview Information about the server’s hardware, software, services, and status Logs The system log and security systems log Graphs A pictorial history of server activity Sharing Configuration options for defining file sharing folders, share points, and automounts Server Updates Software updates available from Apple to update the server’s software Certificates The server’s security certificates Settings The server’s network settings, server software serial number, service access controls, and other information.Chapter 7 Management 143 The network interfaces table shows the name of the interface, the type of addressing (IPv4, or IPv6), the IP address, and the DNS name found by reverse lookup for the address.  Date & Time pane: Click Date & Time to set the server’s date and time, NTP source preference, and time zone. More information about NTP can be found in Network Services Administration.  Notifications pane: Click Notifications to configure Mac OS X Server’s automatic event notifications. You set the email address and notification trigger in this pane. More detailed information about notifications, see “Notification in Server Admin” on page 175.  Access pane: Click Access to control user access to some services and to designate administration privileges for users. When you select the Services tab, you set up access to services to users and groups (service ACLs). You can set up the same access to all services, or you can select a service and customize its access settings. Access controls are simple. Choose between letting all users and groups use services or letting only selected users and groups use services. When you select the Administrators tab, you designate users to have administration or monitoring privileges for the services on the server. For more detailed information about these settings, see “Defining Administrative Permissions” on page 149.  Services pane: Click Services to show or hide services in Server Admin for this server. Changing the IP Address of a Server You can change the IP address of a server using the Network pane of System Preferences or the networksetup tool. When a network address change is detected, no matter how the change happened, changeip is invoked. The tool changeip goes through all configuration files and places where the Server’s IP address is stored, and changes the address to conform to the new address. The server’s IP address can be changed without changeip being invoked from the command-line.144 Chapter 7 Management Changing the Server’s Host Name After Setup When you perform an initial server setup for new installations, Server Assistant sets the host name value by assigning AUTOMATIC to the hostname parameter in /etc/ hostname. This setting causes the server’s host name to be the first name that’s true in this list:  The name provided by the DHCP or BootP server for the primary IP address  The first name returned by a reverse DNS (address-to-name) query for the primary IP address  The local hostname  The name “localhost” After initial setup, if you want to change the host name, don’t use the System Preferences Sharing pane to modify the server’s computer name; use the changeip command-line tool. For details, see Command-Line Administration or the man page for changeip. Changing Server Configuration Type If you have previously installed a standard or workgroup configuration server, you can change the server type to an advanced configuration server. All of the settings previously set with System Preferences are retained in the new configuration. No automatic provisioning of user’s services will occur again. The Server Preferences firewall is separate from the Server Admin firewall, and converting to advanced configuration server will disable the Server Preferences firewall. You will need to enable and configure the firewall accessed through Server Admin. From the time of the conversion, you use Server Admin and the other related tools to administer your server. System Preferences cannot be used; this is a one-way, one-time conversion. To change your server configuration: 1 Set up an administration computer, which has Server Admin, Workgroup Manager, and other administrative tools installed. For specific instructions, see “Setting Up an Administrator Computer” on page 137. 2 Launch Server Admin and log in to the switching server. For detailed instructions on logging in, see “Opening and Authenticating in Server Admin” on page 138. A dialog sheet will appear, asking if you intend to convert the server configuration mode to Advanced. 3 Click “Convert to Advanced.” The server is now no longer in standard or workgroup configuration mode.Chapter 7 Management 145 Administering Services To work with a particular service on a server selected in the Servers list of Server Admin, click the service in the list under the server. You can view information about a service (logs, graphs, and so forth) and manage its settings. The following is a sample service configuration pane in Server Admin. To start or stop a service, select it and then click Start or Stop in the bottom action bar. Adding and Removing Services in Server Admin Server Admin can only show you the services you are administering, hiding all other service configuration panes until needed. Before you can administer a service, it must be enabled for the specific server; then that service appears under the server name in the main Server list. To add or remove a service in Server Admin: 1 Select the server that will host the desired service. 2 Click the Settings button in the toolbar. 3 Click Services. 4 Select the desired service, and click Save. The service now appears in the list, ready for configuration.146 Chapter 7 Management Importing and Exporting Service Settings To copy service settings from one server to another or to save service settings in a property-list file for reuse later, use the Export Service Settings command in Server Admin. To export settings: 1 Select the desired server. 2 Choose Server > Export > Service Settings from the menu bar. 3 Select the services whose settings you want to copy. 4 Click Save. The file that was created contains all service configuration information as a plist XML document. To import settings: 1 Select the target server to receive the settings. 2 Choose Server > Import > Service Settings from the menu bar. 3 Find and select the saved service file. The only file you can use with this function is a properly formatted XML-based plist file, like the one generated from the settings export. 4 Click Open. Controlling Access to Services You can use Server Admin to configure which users and groups can use services hosted by a server. You set up access to services to users and groups (SACLs). You can set up the same access to all services, or you can select a service and customize its access settings. Access controls are simple. Choose between allowing all users and groups use services or allowing only selected users and groups use services.Chapter 7 Management 147 The following shows the Service Access Control List pane in Server Admin: Select a server in the Servers list, click Settings, click Access, then click Services. You can separately specify access controls for individual services, or you can define one set of controls that applies for all services that the server hosts. Using SSL for Remote Server Administration You can control the level of security of communications between Server Admin and remote servers by choosing Server Admin > Preferences. By default, Server Admin treats all communications with remote servers as encrypted using SSL. This uses a self-signed 128-bit certificate installed in /etc/servermgrd/ssl.crt when you install the server. Communications use HTTPS (port 311). If this option isn’t possible, HTTP (port 687) is used and clear text is sent between Server Admin and the remote server. If you want a greater level of security, also select “Require valid digital signature (SSL).” By default, “Require valid digital signature (SSL)” is disabled. This option uses an SSL certificate installed on a remote server to ensure that the remote server is a valid server. 148 Chapter 7 Management Before enabling this option, use the instructions in “Requesting a Certificate From a Certificate Authority” for generating a Certificate Signing Request (CSR), obtaining an SSL certificate from an issuing authority, and installing the certificate on each remote server. Instead of placing files in /etc/httpd/, place them in /etc/servermgrd/. You can also generate a self-signed certificate and install it on the remote server. You can use Server Admin to set up and manage self-signed or -issued SSL certificates used by mail, web, Open Directory, and other services that support them. “Certificate Manager in Server Admin” on page 62 provides instructions for using Server Admin to create, organize, and use security certificates for SSL-enabled services. Individual service administration guides describe how to configure specific services to use SSL. If you’re interested in higher levels of SSL authentication, see the information at www.modssl.org. Managing Sharing To work with share points and access control lists, click the File Sharing icon in the Server Admin toolbar. Learn more in File Services Administration. The following is the File Sharing configuration pane in Server Admin.Chapter 7 Management 149 Tiered Administration Permissions In previous releases of Mac OS X Server, there were two classes of users: admin and everyone else. Admin users could make any change to the settings of any service or change any directory data as well as passwords and password policies. In Mac OS X Server v10.5, you can now grant individuals and groups certain administrative permissions, without adding them to the UNIX “admin” group (in other words, you can make them administrator users). There are two levels of permissions:  Administer: This level of permission is analogous to being in the UNIX admin group. You can change any setting on the server for the designated server and service only.  Monitor: This level of permission allows you to view Overview panes, Log panes, and other information panes in Server Admin, as well as general server status data in server status lists. You do not have access to any saved service settings. Any user or group can be given these permissions for either all services or for only selected services. The permissions are stored on a per-server basis. The only users that can change the tiered administration access list are users that are truly in the UNIX admin group. The Server Admin application will update to reflect what operations are possible for a user’s permissions. For example, some services are hidden or the Settings pane is dimmed when you can only monitor that service. Because the feature is enforced on the server side, the permissions also impact the usage of serveradmin, dscl, dsimport, and pwpolicy command-line tools because all of these tools are limited to the permissions configured for the administrator in use. Defining Administrative Permissions You can decide if a user or group can monitor or administer a server or service without giving them the full power of a UNIX administrative user. Assigning effective permissions to users creates a tiered administration, where some but not all administrative duties can be carried out by designated individuals. To assign permissions: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Access tab. 3 Click the Administrators tab. 4 Select whether to define administrative permissions for all services on the server or for select services.150 Chapter 7 Management 5 If you choose to define permissions by service, select the appropriate checkbox for each service you want to turn on. If you define permissions by service, be sure to assign administrators to all the active services on the server. 6 Click the Add (+) button to add a user or group from the users and group window. To remove administrative permissions, select a user or group and click the Remove (-) button. 7 For each user or group, select the permissions level next to the user or group name. You can choose Monitor or Administer. The capabilities of Server Admin to administer the server are limited by this setting, when the server is added to the Server list. Workgroup Manager Basics You use Workgroup Manager to administer the following accounts: user accounts, group accounts, and computer lists. You also use it to set preferences for Mac OS X user accounts, group accounts, computers, and access the Inspector, an advanced feature that lets you do raw editing of Open Directory entries. The following topics describe general Workgroup Manager usage. Instructions for conducting specific administration tasks are available in Workgroup Manager help and in several guides:  User Management tells you how to use Workgroup Manager for managing user accounts, group accounts, computer lists, preferences, and how to import and export accounts.  File Services Administration explains how to use Sharing in Workgroup Manager to manage share points.  Open Directory Administration provides information about using the Inspector.Chapter 7 Management 151 Opening and Authenticating in Workgroup Manager Workgroup Manager is installed in /Applications/Server/, you can open it in the Finder, the Dock, or you can open Workgroup Manager by selcting View > Workgroup Manager in the menu bar of Server Admin:  When you open Workgroup Manager on the server you’re using without authenticating, you have read-only access to information displayed in the local domain. To make changes, click the lock icon to authenticate as a server administrator. This approach is most useful when you’re administering various servers and working with several directory domains.  To authenticate as an administrator for a server, local or remote, enter the server’s IP address or DNS name in the login dialog box, or click the directory path area of the Workgroup Manager window to choose another directory server. Specify the user name and password for an administrator of the server, then click Connect. Use this approach when you’ll be working most of the time with a particular server. After opening Workgroup Manager, you can open a Workgroup Manager window for a different computer by clicking New Window in the toolbar or choosing Server > Connect. Important: When you connect to a server in Workgroup Manager, make sure the long or short user name you specify matches the capitalization in the user account. Administering Accounts User accounts and group memberships are not administered in Server Admin. You need to use Workgroup Manager to add and remove users and groups. For information about account administration, see User Management. What follows is a brief synopsis of account administration using Workgroup Manager. Do not use this section as your only source of information about accounts. Working with Users and Groups After you log in to Workgroup Manager, the account window appears, showing a list of user accounts. Initially, accounts listed are those stored in the last directory node of the server’s search path. When you use other Workgroup Manager windows, such as Preferences, click Accounts in the toolbar to return to the account window.152 Chapter 7 Management The following is a sample user record configuration pane in Workgroup Manager: To specify the directories that store accounts you want to work with, click the small globe icon. To work with different accounts in different Workgroup Manager windows, click New Window in the toolbar. To administer the accounts listed, click the Users, Groups, or Computers, or Computer Groups button on the left side of the window. You can filter the accounts listed by using the pop-up search list above the accounts list. To refresh the accounts list, click the Refresh button in the toolbar. To simplify defining an account’s initial attributes when you create the account, use presets. A preset is an account template. To create a preset, select an account, set up all the values the way you want them, then choose Save Preset from the Presets pop-up menu at the bottom of the window. To work with only accounts that meet specific criteria, click Search in the toolbar. The Search features include the option for batch editing selected accounts. To import or export accounts, select the accounts, then choose Server > Import or Server > Export, respectively. Defining Managed Preferences To work with managed preferences for user accounts, group accounts, or computer lists, click the Preferences icon in the Workgroup Manager toolbar.Chapter 7 Management 153 The following is the User Preference Management Overview pane in Workgroup Manager: Click Details to use the preference editor to work with preference manifests. The following is a sample of the preference editor sheet in Workgroup Manager:154 Chapter 7 Management Working with Directory Data To work with raw directory data, use Workgroup Manager’s Inspector. The following is the record Inspector pane in Workgroup Manager: To display the inspector: 1 Choose Workgroup Manager > Preferences. 2 Enable “Show “All Records” tab and inspector” and click OK. 3 Select the “All records” button (which looks like a bull’s-eye) to access the Inspector. 4 Use the pop-up menu above the Name list to select the records of interest. For example, you can work with users, groups, computers, share points, and many other directory objects. Customizing the Workgroup Manager Environment There are several ways to tailor the Workgroup Manager environment:  You can control the way Workgroup Manager lists accounts and other behaviors by choosing Workgroup Manager > Preferences.  To customize the toolbar, choose View > Customize Toolbar.  To include predefined users and groups in the user and group lists, choose View > Show System Users and Groups.  To open Server Admin so you can monitor and work with services on particular servers, click the Server Admin icon in the toolbar. Chapter 7 Management 155 Working With Pre-Version 10.5 Computers From Version 10.5 Servers Mac OS X Server v10.4 servers can be administered using v10.5 server administration tools. Workgroup Manager on a v10.5 server can be used to manage Mac OS X clients running Mac OS X v10.3 or later. After you edit a user record using Workgroup Manager on v10.5, it can be accessed only by using Workgroup Manager on v10.5. Preferences of Mac OS 9 clients can be managed from a v10.5 server using Macintosh Manager only when you perform an upgrade of v10.5. You can use an upgrade to install v10.5 on a v10.3.9 or 10.2.8 server. Service Configuration Assistants Server Admin has configuration assistants to guide you through setting up services that require more setup than a single configuration pane. The assistants present you with all configuration panes necessary to fully enable a service. Assistants are available for the following services:  Gateway Setup: This assistant helps you set up your server as a network gateway. Launch the assistant using a button in the lower right side of NAT service’s Overview page.  Mail: This assistant helps you set up both incoming and outgoing email service. Launch the assistant using a button in the lower right side of Mail service’s Overview page.  RADIUS: This assistant helps you set up RADIUS authentication for Apple Airport wireless access points. Launch the assistant using a button in the lower right side of RADIUS service’s Overview page.  Xgrid: This assistant helps you set up Xgrid controllers. Launch the assistant using a button in the lower right side of Xgrid service’s Overview page. Critical Configuration and Data Files When backing up system settings and data, take special care to make sure all your critical configuration files are backed up. The nature and frequency of your backups depend on your organization’s backup, archive and restore policies. For more information about creating a backup and restore policy, see “Defining Backup and Restore Policies” on page 32. The following is a list of configuration and data files for services available on Mac OS X Server.156 Chapter 7 Management General iCal Service iChat Server Notifications QuickTime Streaming Server Firewall Service File type Location Service states /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/* SSH configuration files and host’s public / private keys /etc/ssh/* System keychain /Library/Keychains/System.keychain File type Location Configuration files /etc/caldavd/caldavd.plist Data /Library/CalendarServer/Documents/ File type Location Configuration files /etc/jabberd/* Data mysqldump jabberd2 > jabberd2.backup.sql File type Location Configuration files /etc/emond.d/ /etc/emond.d/rules/ /Library/Keychains/System.keychain File type Location Configuration files /Library/QuickTimeStreamingServer/Config/* /Library/QuickTimeStreamingServer/Playlists/* /Library/Application Support/Apple/QTSS Publisher/* Data: (default locations) /Library/QuickTimeStreamingServer/Movies/* ~user/Sites/Streaming/* File type Location Configuration files /etc/ipfilter/*Chapter 7 Management 157 NAT Service Mail Services The following are the configuration files and data stores for mail services. Mail—SMTP Server Postfix Mail—POP/IMAP Server Cyrus Custom locations are defined in /etc/impad.conf using the following keys with default values: Mail—Amavisd Mail—Clam AV File type Location Configuration files /etc/nat/* File type Location Configuration files /etc/postfix/ Data: (default locations) /var/spool/postfix/ File type Location Configuration files /etc/imapd.conf /etc/cyrus.conf Data: (mail database default location) /var/imap (mail data store) /var/spool/imap Custom locations Key: Value pair Mail database location configdirectory: /var/imap Mail data store location partition-default: /var/spool/imap Additional data store partitions (no default value) partition-xxx: /var/spool/mail_xxx There can be multiple additional data store partitions File type Location Configuration files /etc/amavisd.conf Data: (default locations) /var/amavis/ File type Location Configuration files /etc/clamav.conf /etc/freshclam.conf158 Chapter 7 Management Mail—Mailman Mail—SpamAssassin MySQL Service PHP Web Service Data: (default locations) /var/clamav/ /var/virusmails/ File type Location File type Location Configuration files /var/mailman/ Data: (default locations) /var/mailman/ File type Location Configuration files /etc/mail/spamassassin/local.cf Data: (default locations) /etc/mail/spamassassin/ File type Location Configuration files There is no config file for MySQL, but the administrator can create one, which should be backed up if present: /etc/my.cnf Data: (default locations) /var/mysql/ mysqldump --all-databases > all.sql File type Location Configuration files There is no config file for PHP, but the administrator can create one (copying /etc/php.ini.default to /etc/php.ini and modifying it), which should be backed up if present: /etc/php.ini Data: (default locations) as designated by administrator File type Location Configuration files /etc/httpd/* (for Apache 1.3) /etc/apache2/* (for Apache 2.2) /etc/webperfcache/* /Library/Keychains/System.keychain Data: (default locations) /Library/WebServer/Documents/Chapter 7 Management 159 The default location for web content is configurable and is most likely modified and extended to include multiple virtual host content and WebDAV directories. Note: Log files for web service are a critical source of revenue for some sites and should be considered for backup. The location is configurable and can be determined using Server Admin. Wiki and Blog Server Improving Service Availability Eliminating single points of failure and using Xserve and hardware RAID are some of the things that can boost your server availability. Other things you can do range from simple solutions like using power backup, automatic reboot, and ensuring proper operational conditions (for example, adequate temperature and humidity levels) to more advanced solutions involving link aggregation, load balancing, Open Directory replication, and data backup. Eliminating Single Points of Failure To improve the availability of your server, reduce or eliminate single points of failure. A single point of failure is any component in your server environment that, if it fails, causes your server to fail. Some single points of failure include:  Computer system  Hard disk  Power supply /Library/Logs/WebServer/* /Library/Logs/Migration/webconfigmigrator.log (Apache config migration log) File type Location File type Location Configuration files /etc/wikid/* /Library/Application Support/Apple/WikiServer (wiki themes and template files) Data: (default locations) /Library/Collaboration/ Log files: (default location) /Library/Logs/wikid/*160 Chapter 7 Management Although it is almost impossible to eliminate all single points of failure, you should minimize them as much as possible. For example, using a backup system and the IP failover in Mac OS X Server eliminates the computer as a single point of failure. Although both the master and backup computers can fail at once or one after the other, the possibility of such an event happening is negligible. Another way to prevent a computer from failing is to use a backup power source and take advantage of hardware RAID to mirror the hard disk. With hardware RAID, if the main disk fails, the system can still access the same data on the mirror drive, as is the case with Xserve. Using Xserve for High Availability Xserve is designed for extra reliability and hence, high availability. Although you can use desktop systems like the Power Mac G5 or Mac Pro to provide Mac OS X Server services very reliably, Xserve has the following additional features that make it ideal for high availability situations.  Xserve has eight fans. In the case of a single fan failure, the other fans speed up to compensate, allowing your server to keep running.  An independent drive architecture isolates the drives electrically, preventing a single drive failure from causing unavailability or performance degradation of the surviving drives—a common problem with multidrive SCSI implementations.  Xserve uses Error Correction Code (ECC) logic to protect the system from corrupt data and transmission errors. Each DIMM has an extra memory module that stores checksum data for every transaction. The system controller uses this ECC data to identify single-bit errors and corrects them on the fly, preventing unplanned system shutdowns. In the rare event of multiple-bit errors, the system controller detects the error and triggers a system notification to prevent bad data from corrupting further operations. You can set the Server Monitor software to alert you if error rates exceed the defined threshold.  Xserve has built-in hardware RAID mirroring, which protects your server from failing if the main drive fails. For more information about Xserve, visit www.apple.com/xserve/. Using Backup Power In the architecture of a server solution, power is a single point of failure. If power goes out, your servers go down without warning. To prevent a sudden disruption in services, consider adding a backup source of power.Chapter 7 Management 161 Depending on your application, you might choose to use a standby electrical generator or Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) devices to gain enough time to notify users of an impending shutdown of services. Using UPS with Xserve Xserve does not provide serial port connectivity to UPS, but it can monitor UPS power through the network if the UPS unit has a management network card. For more information, check with UPS vendors. The following illustration is an example of an Xserve connected to a UPS via a network: Setting Up Your Server for Automatic Reboot You can set up Energy Saver options on your Mac OS X Server computer to automatically restart if it goes down due to a power failure or system freeze. The following is the Energy Saver panel of System Preferences: Xserve UPS device Power source Backup power connection Local network162 Chapter 7 Management The automatic reboot options are:  Restart automatically after a power failure. The power management unit automatically starts up the server after a power failure.  Restart automatically if the computer freezes. The power management unit automatically starts up the server after the server stops responding, has a kernel panic, or freezes. When you select the option to restart after a freeze, Mac OS X Server spawns the wdticklerd daemon, which every 30 seconds commands your computer to reboot after 5 minutes. Each time the command is sent, the restart timer is reset. Thus, the timer won’t reach 5 minutes as long as the server is running. If the computer does freeze, the power management unit will restart it after 5 minutes. To enable automatic reboot: 1 Log in to the server as an administrator. 2 Open System Preferences and click Energy Saver. 3 Click Options. 4 Under Other Options, select restart options. 5 Close System Preferences. Ensuring Proper Operational Conditions One factor that can cause your servers to malfunction is overheating. This is especially a problem when you cluster computers in a small space. Other factors such as humidity and power surges can also adversely impact your server. To protect your servers, make sure you house them in a place where you can control these factors and provide ideal operating conditions. Check the electrical and environmental requirements for your systems to find what these conditions are. In addition, make sure the facility you deploy your server has a fire alarm, and prepare a contingency plan to deal with this risk. Providing Open Directory Replication If you plan to provide Open Directory services, consider creating replicas of your Open Directory master. If the master server fails, client computers can access the replica. For more information, see the section on setting up Open Directory replicas in Open Directory Administration.Chapter 7 Management 163 Link Aggregation Although not common, the failure of a switch, cable, or network interface card can cause your server to become unavailable. To eliminate these single points of failure, you can use link aggregation or trunking. This technology, also known as IEEE 802.3ad, is built into Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server. Link aggregation allows you to aggregate or combine multiple physical links connecting your Mac to a link aggregation device (a switch or another Mac) into a single logical link. The result is a fault-tolerant link with a bandwidth equal to the sum of the bandwidths of the physical links. For example, you can set up an Xserve with four 1-Gbit/s ports (en1, en2, en3, and en4) and use the Network pane of System Preferences to create a link aggregate port configuration (bond0) that combines en1, en2, en3, and en4 into one logical link. The resulting logical link will have a bandwidth of 4 Gbit/s. This link will also provide fault tolerance. If one or more physical links fail, your Xserve’s bandwidth will shrink, but the Xserve can still service requests as long as not all physical links fail at once. The following illustration shows four Ethernet ports aggregated as a single interface: Link aggregation also allows you to take advantage of existing or inexpensive hardware to increase the bandwidth of your server. For example, you can form a link aggregate from a combination of multiple 100-Mbit/s links or 1-Gbit/s links. server1.example.com 400 Mbit/s 4 x 100 Mbit/s bond0 en1 en2 en3 en4 Switch164 Chapter 7 Management The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation defines a protocol called Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) that is used by Mac OS X Server to aggregate (combine) multiple ports into a link aggregate (a virtual port) that can be used for TCP and UDP connections. When your define a link aggregate, the nodes on each side of the aggregate (for example, a computer and a switch) use LACP over each physical link to:  Determine whether the link can be aggregated  Maintain and monitor the aggregation If a node doesn’t receive LACP packets from its peer (the other node in the aggregate) regularly, it assumes that the peer is no longer active and removes the port from the aggregate. In addition to LACP, Mac OS X Server uses a frame distribution algorithm to map a conversation to a particular port. This algorithm sends packets to the system on the other end of the aggregate only if it has packet reception enabled. In other words, the algorithm won’t send packets if the other system isn’t listening. Mapping a conversation to a particular port guarantees that packet reordering will not occur. Link Aggregation Scenarios Following are three common aggregation scenarios that you can set up:  Computer-to-computer  Computer-to-switch  Computer-to-switch-pair These scenarios are described in the following sections. Computer-to-Computer In this scenario, you connect the two servers directly (as shown in the following illustration) using the physical links of the link aggregate. This allows the two servers to communicate at a higher speed without the need for a switch. This configuration is ideal for ensuring back-end redundancy. 4 x 100 Mbit/sChapter 7 Management 165 Computer-to-Switch In this scenario shown in the following illustration, you connect your server to a switch configured for 802.3ad link aggregation. The switch should have a bandwidth for handling incoming traffic equal to or greater than that of the link aggregate (logical link) you define on your server. For example, if you create an aggregate of four 1-Gbit/s links, you should use a switch that can handle incoming traffic (from clients) at 4 Gbit/s or more. Otherwise, the increased bandwidth advantage in the link aggregate won’t be fully realized. Note: For information about how to configure your switch for 802.3ad link aggregation, see the documentation provided by the switch manufacturer. Computer-to-Switch-Pair In this scenario shown in the following illustration, you improve on the computer-toswitch scenario by using two switches to eliminate the switch as a single point to failure: server1.example.com Clients 4 x 1 Gbit/s 10 Gbit/s server1.example.com 3 x 1 Gbit/s 2 x 1 Gbit/s166 Chapter 7 Management For example, you can connect two links of the link aggregate to the master switch and the remaining links to the backup switch. As long as the master switch is active, the backup switch remains inactive. If the master switch fails, the backup switch takes over transparently to the user. Although this scenario adds redundancy that protects the server from becoming unavailable if the switch fails, it results in decreased bandwidth. Setting Up Link Aggregation in Mac OS X Server To set up your Mac OS X Server for link aggregation, you need a Mac with two or more IEEE 802.3ad-compliant Ethernet ports. In addition, you need at least one IEEE 802.3adcompliant switch or another Mac OS X Server computer with the same number of ports. You create a link aggregate on your computer in the Network pane of System Preferences (as shown in the following example): To create a link aggregate: 1 Log in to the server as an administrative user. 2 Open System Preferences. 3 Click Network. 4 Click the Gear button and choose Manage Virtual Interfaces in the pop-up menu. 5 Click the Add (+) button, and select New Link Aggregate in the pop-up menu. Note: You’ll only see this option if you have two or more Ethernet interfaces on your system. 6 Enter the name of the link aggregate in the Name field.Chapter 7 Management 167 7 Select the ports to aggregate from the list. 8 Click Create. 9 Click Done. By default the system gives the link aggregate the interface name bond, where is a number indicating precedence. For example, the first link aggregate is named bond0, the second bond1, and the third bond2. The interface name bond assigned by the system is different from the name you give to the link aggregate port configuration. The interface name is for use in the command-line, but the port configuration name is for use in the Network pane of System Preferences. For example, if you enter the command ifconfig -a, the output refers to the link aggregate using the interface name and not the port configuration name: … bond0: flags=8843 mtu 1500 inet6 fe80::2e0:edff:fe08:3ea6 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0xc inet 10.0.0.12 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.0.0.255 ether 00:e0:ed:08:3e:a6 media: autoselect (100baseTX ) status: active supported media: autoselect bond interfaces: en1 en2 en3 en4 You do not delete or remove a link bond from the Network Pane of System Preferences. You remove the bond through the Manage Viritual Interfaces sheet used to create the bond. Monitoring Link Aggregation Status You can monitor the status of a link aggregate in Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server using the Status pane of the Network pane of System Preferences. To monitor the status of a link aggregate: 1 Open System Preferences. 2 Click Network. 3 From the list of network interfaces on the left, choose the link aggregate port virtual interface. 4 Click Advanced in the lower right side of thre window. 5 Select the Bond Status tab. The Status pane displays a list containing a row for each physical link in the link aggregate. For each link, you can view the name of the network interface, its speed, its duplex setting, the status indicators for incoming and outgoing traffic, and an overall assessment of the status.168 Chapter 7 Management Note: The Sending and Receiving status indicators are color-coded. Green means the link is active (turned on) and connected. Yellow means the link is active but not connected. Red means the link can’t send or receive traffic. 6 To view more information about a link, click the corresponding entry in the list. Load Balancing One factor that can cause services to become unavailable is server overload. A server has limited resources and can service a limited number of requests simultaneously. If the server gets overloaded, it slows down and can eventually crash. One way to overcome this problem is to distribute the load among a group of servers (a server farm) using a third-party load-balancing device. Clients send requests to the device, which then forwards the request to the first available server based on a predefined algorithm. The clients see only a single virtual address, that of the loadbalancing device. Many load-balancing devices also function as switches (as shown in the following illustration), providing two functions in one, which reduces the amount of hardware you need to use. Note: A load-balancing device must be able to handle the aggregate (combined) traffic of the servers connected to it. Otherwise, the device becomes a bottleneck, which reduces the availability of your servers. Server farm Clients Server loadbalancing switchChapter 7 Management 169 Load balancing provides several advantages:  High availability. Distributing the load among multiple servers helps you reduce the chances that a server will fail due to server overload.  Fault tolerance. If a server fails, traffic is transparently redirected to other servers. There might be a brief disruption of service if, for example, a server fails while a user is downloading a file from shared storage, but the user can reconnect and restart the file download process.  Scalability. If demand for your services increases, you can transparently add more servers to your farm to keep up with the demand.  Better performance. By sending requests to the least-busy servers, you can respond faster to user requests. Daemon Overview By the time a user logs in to a Mac OS X system, a number of processes are already running. Many of these processes are known as daemons. A daemon is a background process that provides a service to users of the system. For example, the cupsd daemon coordinates printing requests, and the httpd daemon responds to requests for web pages. Viewing Running Daemons If you want to see the daemons running on your system, use the Activity Monitor application (in /Applications/Utilities/). This application lets you view information about all processes, including their resource usage. You will see the following daemons, regardless of what services are enabled:  launchd (timed job and watchdog process)  servermgrd (administration tool interface process)  serialnumberd (license compliance process)  mDNSresponder (local network service discovery process) Daemon Control Although some UNIX-like systems use other tools, Mac OS X Server uses a daemon called launchd to control process initialization and timed jobs. launchd The launchd daemon is an alternative to the following common UNIX tools: init, rc, the init.d and rc.d scripts, SystemStarter, inetd and xinetd, atd, crond and watchdogd. All of these services should be considered deprecated and administrators are strongly encouraged to move process management duties to launchd. There are two utilities in the launchd system: launchd daemon and launchctl utility.170 Chapter 7 Management The launchd daemon also has replaced init as the first process spawned in Mac OS X and is therefore responsible for starting the system at startup. The launchd daemon manages the daemons at both a system and user level. It can:  Start daemons on demand  Monitor daemons to make sure they keep running Configuration files are used by launchd to define the parameters of services and daemons run. The configuration files are property list files stored in the LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons subdirectories of the Library folders. For more information about creating the launchd configuration files, see the following Developer Documentation page: developer.apple.com/documentation/MacOSX/Conceptual/BPSystemStartup/Articles/ LaunchOnDemandDaemons.html The launchctl utility is the command-line tool used to:  Load and unload daemons  Start and stop launchd controlled jobs  Get system utilization statistics for launchd and its child processes  Set environment settings8 171 8 Monitoring Effective monitoring allows you to detect potential problems before they occur and gives you early warning when they occur. Detecting potential problems allows you to take steps to resolve them before they impact the availability of your servers. In addition, getting early warning when a problem occurs allows you to take corrective action quickly and minimize disruption to your services. This chapter briefly describes planning a monitoring policy, how to use monitoring tools, and how to find more information. Planning a Monitoring Policy Gathering data about your systems is a basic function of good administration. Different types of data gathering are used for different purposes.  Historical data collection: Historical data is gathered for analysis. This could be used for IT planning, budgeting, and getting a baseline for normal server conditions and operations. What kinds of data do you need for these purposes? How long does it need to be kept? How often does it need to be updated? How far in the past does it need to be collected?  Real-time monitoring: Real-time monitoring is for alerts and detecting problems as they happen. What are you monitoring? How often? Does that data tell you what you need to know? Are some of these real-time collections actually for historical purposes?172 Chapter 8 Monitoring Planning Monitoring Response The response to your monitoring is as important as the data collection. In the same way a backup policy is pointless without a restore strategy, a monitoring policy makes little sense without a response policy. Several factors can be considered for a monitoring response:  What are appropriate response methods? In other words, how will the response take place?  What is the time to response? What is an acceptable interval between failure and response?  What are the scaling considerations? Can the response plan work with all expected (and even unexpected) frequencies of failure?  Are there testing monitoring systems in place? How do you know the monitoring policy is catching the data you need, and how do you know the responses are timely and appropriate? Have you tested the monitoring system recently? Server Status Widget The Server Status Dashboard widget is provided for quick access and information about a single system. The Server Status widget lets you monitor Mac OS X Server v10.5 activity from any computer with Leopard or Leopard Server. Server Status shows you graphs of processor activity, network load, disk usage, polled hourly, daily, or weekly. You can also see up to six running services and their status reports. By clicking on the service, you can open Server Admin to the appropriate service overview panel. To configure the Server Status widget: 1 Add the widget to the Dashboard like any other widget. 2 Enter the server IP address or domain name. 3 Supply an administrative or monitoring login name and password. 4 Click Done. To change the server address, login name, or password, click the information button (i) at the top of the widget and change the settings. Server Monitor The Server Monitor application can issue alerts via mail, cell phone, or pager notification as soon as it detects critical problems. Built-in sensors detect and report essential operating factors like power, temperature, and the condition of several key components. Chapter 8 Monitoring 173 The Server Monitor interface allows you to quickly detect problems. In the main window, Server Monitor lists each server on a separate line, with temperature information and the status of each of its components, including fans, disk drives, memory modules, power supplies, and Ethernet connections. A green status indicator shows the component is OK, a yellow status indicator notes a warning, and a red status indicator notes an error. Server Monitor works for Xserves only. For more information about Server Monitor, choose Server Monitor Help from Server Monitor’s Help menu. RAID Admin Like Server Monitor, you can configure RAID Admin to send an email or page when a component is in trouble. For every unit, RAID Admin displays the status of the unit and each of its components, including disk drives, fibre channel, and network connections. RAID Admin uses green, yellow, or red status indicators. You can also configure it to send you an email or page when a component is in trouble. In addition, RAID Admin provides you with an overview of the status of the Xserve RAID units that appear in the main window. For more information about RAID Admin, choose RAID Admin Help from RAID Admin’s Help menu. Console Use Console to monitor relevant log files for potential problems that might cause your server to fail. For example, you can monitor your web server’s /var/log/httpd/access_log file for signs of denial of service attacks. If you detect these signs, you can immediately implement a planned response to prevent your web server from becoming unavailable. To improve your log monitoring efficiency, consider automating the monitoring process using AppleScript or Terminal commands like grep and cron. For more information about using grep and cron, see Command-Line Administration Disk Monitoring Tools Running out of disk space can cause your server to become unreliable and probably fail. To prevent this from happening, you must constantly monitor disk space usage on your servers and delete or back up files to clear disk space.174 Chapter 8 Monitoring Mac OS X Server ships with a number of command-line tools that you can use to monitor disk space on your computer:  df. This command tells you how much space is used and how much is available on every mounted volume. For example, the following command lists local volumes and displays disk usage: df -Hl Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/disk0s9 40G 38G 2.1G 95% / In this example, the hard disk is almost full with only 2.1 GB left. This tells you that you should act immediately to free space on your hard disk before it fills up and causes problems for your users.  du. This command tells you how much space is used by specific folders or files. For example, the following command tells you how much space is used by each user’s home folder: sudo du -sh /Users/* 3.2M /Users/Shared 9.3M /Users/omar 8.8M /Users/jay 1.6M /Users/lili … Knowing who’s using most of the space on the hard disk lets you contact users and have them delete unused files. Note: With Workgroup Manager, you can set disk quotas for users and generate disk usage reports. For more information, see User Management.  diskspacemonitor. This command lets you automate the process of monitoring disk space usage. When the amount of free disk space drops below the level you specify, diskspacemonitor executes shell scripts that send you a notification. This command defines two action levels:  Alert—Sends you a warning message when disk space usage reaches 75%.  Recover—Archives rarely used files and deletes unneeded files when disk space usage reaches 85%. For more information about these commands, see the corresponding man page or Command-Line Administration. Network Monitoring Tools Degradation in network performance or other network problems can adversely affect the availability of your services. The following network monitoring tools can alert you to possible problems early, so you can take corrective action to avoid or minimize down time.Chapter 8 Monitoring 175  To monitor network activity, use the tcpdump utility in Mac OS X Server. This utility prints out the headers of incoming and outgoing packets on a network interface that match the specified parameters. Using tcpdump to monitor network traffic is especially useful when trying to detect denial of service attacks. For example, the following command monitors all incoming traffic on port 80 on your computer: sudo tcpdump -i en0 dst port 80 If you detect an unusual number of requests coming from the same source, you can use the firewall service to block traffic from that source. For more information about tcpdump, see the corresponding man page or CommandLine Administration.  Consider using Ruby, Perl, shell scripts, or AppleScripts to automate the monitoring process. For example, using tcpdump to monitor traffic can be time-consuming, so automation is necessary.  Consider using Ethereal, an X11 open source packet sniffing tool that you can run in the X11 environment on Mac OS X Server. This tool, unlike tcpdump, has a graphical user interface and a set of powerful network analysis tools. For more information about Ethereal, visit www.ethereal.com/.  You can use other third-party tools that automatically analyze network traffic and alert you to problems. Notification in Server Admin Server Admin has an easy to use notification system that can keep you informed of your server’s hard disk or software status. Server Admin will send an email to any address (local or not) when:  There is less than a certain percentage of free space left on any system hard disk.  There are Software Update packages are available from Apple. To use the email functionality, the server will start the SMTP (outgoing mail) process on the server. Make sure the firewall allows SMTP traffic from the server. To set a notification: 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Notifications tab. 3 Click the Add (+) button below the “Addresses to notify” field and add an address. 4 Repeat as needed, then click Save.176 Chapter 8 Monitoring Monitoring Server Status Overviews Using Server Admin Server Admin has several ways to see a status overview, from detailed information for a single server to a simplified overview for many servers at once. To see a status overview for one server: m Select a server in the Server list. The following shows a sample Overview pane for a single server. This overview shows basic hardware, operating system versions, active services, and graphs of CPU history, network throughput history, and disk space. To see status overview of many servers at once: m Select a server group, smartgroup, All Servers group, or Available Servers group.Chapter 8 Monitoring 177 The following shows a sample Overview pane for a group of servers. This overview shows the:  Hostname  OS version  Current CPU usage graph (a mouseover reveals more specific numbers)  Current network throughput  Disk space used (a mouseover reveals more specific numbers)  Uptime  Number of connected file services users You can sort the list by column. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a common protocol for monitoring the status of network equipment (for example, routers and smart switches), computers, and other networkable devices like Uninterruptable Power Supplies. Mac OS X Server uses Net-SNMP to implement SNMP v1, SNMP v2c, and SNMP v3 using both IPv4 and IPv6. SNMPv2 is the default access protocol and the default read-only community string is “public.”178 Chapter 8 Monitoring Enabling SNMP reporting SNMP access isn’t enabled by default on Mac OS X Server. To use SNMP tools to poll your Mac OS X Server for data you must configure and then enable the service. To enable SNMP 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the General tab. 3 Select Network Management Server (SNMP). 4 Click Save. When SNMP is active, anyone with a route to the SNMP host can collect SNMP data from it. 5 Configure the basic SNMP parameters from the command-line. The SNMP process will not start unless /etc/snmpd.conf has been configured for the current site. To configure, see “Configuring snmpd” on page 178. Note: The default configuration of snmpd uses privileged port 161. For this reason and others, it must be executed by root or using setuid. You should only use setuid as root if you understand the ramifications. If you do not, seek assistance or additional information. Flags available for snmpd will change the uid and gid of the process after it starts. For more information, see the snmpd man page. Configuring snmpd The configuration (.conf) file for snmpd is typically at /etc/snmpd.conf. If you have an environment variable SNMPCONF, snmpd will read any files named snmpd.conf and snmpd.local.conf in these directories. The snmpd process can be started with a -c flag to indicate other conf files. For more information about which conf files can be used, see the snmpd man page. Configuration files can be created and installed more elegantly using the included script /usr/bin/snmpconf. As root, use this script with the -i flag to install the file at /usr/share/snmp/. Otherwise the default location for the file to be written is the user’s home folder (~/). Only root has write permission for /usr/share/snmp/. Because snmpd reads its configuration files at startup, changes to configuration files require that the process be stopped and restarted. You can stop snmpd with ProcessViewer or at the command-line (kill -HUP ). To enable and configure SNMP: m Use the /usr/bin/snmpconf command, which takes you through a basic text-based setup assistant for configuring the community name and saves the info in the configuration file. The snmp config file is located in /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.conf.Chapter 8 Monitoring 179 SNMP Configuration Example Step 1: Customize data 1 To customize the data provided by snmpd, add an snmpd.conf file using /usr/bin/ snmpconf as root or using sudo, by executing this command: /usr/bin/snmpconf -i If there are existing configuration files, you can reading them into the asistant and incorporate their contents with the output of the assistant. 2 Choose to read in the file by indicating the file at /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf. You will then see a series of text menus. 3 Make these choices in this order: a Select File: 1 (snmpd.conf) b Select section: 5 (System Information Setup) c Select section: 1 (The [typically physical] location of the system.) d The location of the system: type text string here — such as “server_room” e Select section: f (finish) f Select section: f (finish) g Select File: q (quit) You have created an snmpd.conf file with a creation date of today. Verify its creation by entering ls -l /usr/share/snmpd.conf. Step 2: Restart snmpd to take changes 1 Open Server Admin. 2 Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the General tab. 3 Deselect Network Management Server (SNMP). 4 Click Save. You can also do this via the command-line by killing and restarting the smnpd process as root: /usr/sbin/snmpd180 Chapter 8 Monitoring Step 3: Collect SNMP information from the host m To get the SNMP-available information you just added, execute this command from a host that has SNMP tools installed: /usr/bin/snmpget -c public system.sysLocation.0 Replace “” with the actual name of the target host. You should see location you provided. In this example, you would see: SNMPv2_MIB::system.sysLocation.0 = STRING:\”server_room\” The other options in the menu you were working in are: /usr/bin/snmpget -c public system.sysContact.0 /usr/bin/snmpget -c public system.sysServices.0 The final .0 indicates you are looking for the index object. The word public is the name of the snmp community that you did not alter. If you need information about either of these or if you need explanations of snmp syntax, tutorials are available at net-snmp.sourceforge.net. Tools to Use with SNMP Other than snmpget, there are other snmp based tools installed, and third-party suites (both free and commercial) are available with varying complexity and reporting. Additional Information Additional information about SNMP can be had from the following sources. Man pages Entering man -k snmp in the Terminal will provide a list of the known man pages. Web sites The Net SNMP-Project:  www.net-snmp.org  net-snmp.sourceforge.net Books Essential SNMP by Douglas Mauro, Kevin Schmidt Publisher: O’Reilly (Second Edition Sept 2005) ISBN: 0-596-00840-6, 460 pages Notification and Event Monitoring Daemons To monitor and log system events, the operating system runs several daemons that intercept application messages and log them or act on them. Chapter 8 Monitoring 181 There are two main notification daemons: syslogd and emond.  syslogd: The syslogd daemon is a standard UNIX method of monitoring systems. It logs messages in accordance with the settings found in /etc/syslog.conf. You can examine the output files specified in that configuration by using a file printing or editing utility because they are plain text files. Administrators can edit these settings to fine-tune what is being monitored. Many administrators will tail or scrape the log file, meaning they will have scripts parse the log files and perform some action if a designated bit of information is present in the log. These home-grown notifications vary in quality and usefulness and are tailored to the script-writer’s specific needs. The syslogd deamon can be configured to send and recieve log file information to or from a remote server (by editing the /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ com.apple.syslogd.plist). This is not recommended because syslogd does not use secure means to send log messages across the net.  emond: The daemon emond is the event monitoring system for Mac OS X Server v10.5. It is a unified process that handles events passed from other processes, acts on the events as designiated in defined rule set, and then notifies the administrator. Currently, emond is the engine used for Server Admin’s email notification system. It is not used for Server Monitor’s notifications. The high-level service receives events from the registered client, analyzes whether the event requires handing based on rules provided by the service at the time it registered and, if handling is required, the action related to that event is performed. To accomplish this the daemon emond has three main parts: the rules engine, the events it can respond to, and the actions it can take. The emond rules engine works in the following manner. It:  Reads the config info from /etc/emond.d/emond.conf.  Reads in the rules from plist files in the /etc/emond.d/rules/ directory.  Processes the startup event.  Accepts events until terminated.  Processes the rules associated with the event, triggering as needed.  Performs actions specified by the rules that were triggered.  Runs as the least privileged possible (nobody). WARNING: The file formats and settings in emond.conf and rules plists are not documented for customer use. Tampering could result in an unusable notification system and is unsupported.182 Chapter 8 Monitoring Logging Mac OS X Server maintains standard UNIX log files and Apple-specific process logs. Logs for the OS can be found in:  /var/log  /Library/Logs  ~/Library/Logs Each process is responsible for its own logs, the log level, and verbosity. Each process or application can write its own log file or use a system standard log, like syslog. You can use the Console application (in /Applications/Utilities) to read these and other plaintext log files regardless of location. Most services in Mac OS X Server have a logging pane in Server Admin. You can use these panes to set logging levels and view the logs for any particular service. Syslog The system log, syslog, is a consolidated catch-all location for process log messages. syslog has serveral levels of available log detail. If low detail logging is selected, detailed messages are not saved, but high detail logging results in large and possibly unhelpfully large log files. The level of logging you use for syslog can be tuned by process and should be appropriate to the level necessary for successful notification and debugging. Syslog log levels (in ascending order from least to most detail) Syslog Configuration File The configuration file can be found at /etc/syslog.conf. Each line has the following format: . Level name Level indicator in syslog.conf Amount of detail None .none None Emergency .emerg Least Alert .alert Error .err Warning .warn Notice .notice Info .info Debug .debug MostChapter 8 Monitoring 183 Facility is the process name writing to the log, and the path is the standard POSIX path to the log file. Asterisks (*) can be used as wildcards. For example, the setting for the kernel is: kern.* /var/log/system.log This shows that all messages to the log of all levels from the kernel are to be written in the file /var/log/system.log. Likewise, the following setting is an example of all emergency messages from all processes being sent to a custom emergencies log file: *.emerg /var/log/emergencies.log Directory Service Debug Logging If you are using Open Directory and you want debugging information from Directory Services processes, you must use a different logging method than systemlog. You must enable debug logging on the process manually. When enabled, this debug logging writes messages to the log file at: /Library/Logs/DirectoryService/DirectoryService.debug.log The following commands must be performed with superuser permissions (sudo or root): To manually turn on/off debug logging for Directory Services: killall -USR1 DirectoryService To start debugging at startup: touch /Library/Preferences/DirectoryService/.DSLogAPIAtStart Note: The debug log is not self-documented and is not intended for normal logging. It is very verbose and very opaque. It shows API calls, plugin queries, and responses. Open Directory Logging The configuration file can be found at /etc/openldap and the logs are found in /var/log/slapd.log. Each directory transaction generates a separate transaction log in the OpenLDAP databse. The database and transaction logs can be found at /var/db/openldap/openldap-data. The slapd process, which governs Open Directory usage, has an additional parameter for extra logging. The following command enables the additional logging: slapconfig -enablesslapdlog184 Chapter 8 Monitoring To run slapd in debugging mode: 1 Stop and remove slapd from launchd’s watch list: launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/org.openldap.plist 2 Restart slapd in debug mode: sudo /usr/libexec/slapd -d 99 AFP Logging The server side of Apple File Service Protocol (AFP) keeps track of access and errors, but it does not have much debugging information. However, you can add client-side logging to AFP clients to help monitor and troubleshoot AFP connections. To enable client-side logging: Perform all these actions on the AFP client computer. 1 Set the client debug level (levels 0-8): defaults write com.apple.AppleShareClientCore -dict-add afp_debug_level 4 2 Set the client log message recipient (in this case, syslog): defaults write com.apple.AppleShareClientCore -dict-add afp_debug_syslog 1 3 Enable syslog to catch the debugging messages from the client: You do this by adding *.debug /var/log/debug.log to the syslogd.conf file. 4 Restart the syslog process. Additional Monitoring Aids You can use additional aids for monitoring Mac OS X Server. There are a number of third-party server monitoring packages, as well as an additional Apple monitoring tool. The inclusion of third-party tools in the following list does not constitute an endorsement of or support for these products. They are listed for informational purposes only.  Apple Remote Desktop: This software package contains many features that allow you to to interact with, get reports on, and track computers running Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server. It has several powerful administration features and excellent reporting capabilities.  Nagios (third-party): This tool is an open source computer system and network monitoring application.  Growl (third-party): This tool is a centralized, extensible notification service that supports local and remote notification.9 185 9 Sample Setup The setup example in this chapter illustrates one way to set up the directory and network infrastructure of Mac OS X Server in a small business scenario. A Single Mac OS X Server in a Small Business In this example, Mac OS X Server provides directory, network, and productivity services to employees in a small business: The small business has been using an office LAN to share files and a printer. Acquiring Mac OS X Server made it possible to implement an intranet that uses an ISP’s DNS and digital subscriber line (DSL) services. Mac OS X Server (example.com) DSL The Internet Shared printer Windows clients Mac OS X clients Switch ISP’s DNS server Mac OS X client 192.168.0.1 VPN 186 Chapter 9 Sample Setup Here’s a summary of the scenario’s characteristics:  An Open Directory master LDAP directory on the server centralizes user management, including authentication of Mac OS X and Windows users.  The ISP’s DNS service provides a DNS domain name for the company (example.com).  A DNS server running on Mac OS X Server provides name services for the server, the printer, and any other intranet device that has a static IP address.  A firewall between the server and the Internet protects the intranet from unauthorized access.  NAT service lets intranet users share the ISP’s IP address for Internet access, while VPN lets employees access the intranet securely over the Internet when employees work away from the office.  DHCP service on Mac OS X Server provides dynamic IP addresses to intranet client computers. The server and printer have static addresses, but client computers have dynamic addresses. How to Set Up the Server The following steps summarize how to set up Mac OS X Server in this hypothetical small business. For complete information about setting up directory services, see Open Directory Administration. For details about network service setup (IP firewall, DHCP, and so forth), see Network Services Administration. Step 1: Set up the network 1 Make sure the server has two Ethernet interfaces (ports): one for the intranet (LAN) connection and one for the DSL modem connection. Use the faster interface for the server connection. A 10-Mbit connection is more than sufficient for the DSL connection. 2 Connect the server to the LAN using the faster interface. In this example, the server is plugged in to a switch used to connect client computers and shared printer. We’ll refer to this interface as the internal interface. Intranet devices should be connected to a hub or switch using good-quality CAT-5 Ethernet cables. A high-speed 10/100/1000 megabit switch can support advanced server features such as NetBoot that work best over a fast connection. 3 Connect the server to the DSL modem using the other Ethernet interface. We’ll refer to this interface as the external interface.Chapter 9 Sample Setup 187 Step 2: Contact the ISP to set up external DNS The ISP’s Name Servers should be serving the company zone example.com containing all public IPs of all servers and services available to the Internet (for example, the company web server and the VPN gateway). This means that the zone handled by the ISP contains only the public IP addresses and the ISP’s name server provides the necessary redundancy. The ISP should also provide Forward and Reverse DNS lookup for the zone’s domain for any external IP Address being used. Step 3: Set up an administration computer 1 Install the server administration tools from the Server Tools DVD. Choose a computer running Mac OS X Leopard to install the tools on. Make sure the network communication between the administrator computer and the target server is functioning. For more instructions, see “Preparing an Administrator Computer” on page 80. 2 Fill out the Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet in the appendix on page 195. You’ll need the information as you move through the Assistant’s panes. Step 4: Set up the server and the master directory 1 Start the server from the Install DVD. The procedure you use depends on the server hardware. In this example, assume the computer has a keyboard and a DVD drive. Turn on the computer, insert the Install DVD into the optical drive, and restart the computer while holding down the C key on the keyboard. Chapter 5, “Installation and Deployment,” on page 77 has instructions for other installation methods, such as installing on a server without an optical drive and installing from a NetInstall environment. 2 Start up Setup Assistant on the administrator computer. 3 When the Setup Assistant opens, choose “Install Mac OS X Server on a remote computer.” WARNING: This example assumes that the ISP is providing Forward and Reverse DNS resolution for the public IP address and machine name of the server. If this is not the case (for example, if your ISP’s setup is not done yet or you plan to run your own name server on the server itself), choose Standalone Server in Step 4 and promote it to an Open Directory Master or Replica only after there is a working DNS setup.188 Chapter 9 Sample Setup 4 Proceed by following the onscreen instructions. If you need to format the target disk, see “Preparing Disks for Installing Mac OS X Server” on page 89 for instructions on preparing disks for installing Mac OS X Server. When installation is complete, the server restarts. 5 After restarting, use Server Assistant again and choose “Set up a remote computer.” 6 Use the Language and Keyboard panes to reflect the server’s administration language. 7 In the Administrator Account pane, enter the server administrator’s names and password, and then click Continue. 8 In the Network Names pane, if you don’t see the newly installed server, click the Add (+) button, enter the IP address, and enter the default administrator name and password, and click Continue. For more information, see “Connecting to the Network During Initial Server Setup” on page 106. 9 Proceed by following the onscreen instructions. 10 Make sure the Network Interfaces pane lists external and internal Ethernet interfaces. 11 Make sure the external interface is the first one listed in the Network Interfaces pane. The first interface listed is the primary, or default, interface. Network traffic initiated by the server is routed through the primary interface. VPN uses it as the Public network, treating all others listed as Private. 12 Click Continue. The TCP/IP Connection pane appears for each Ethernet interface. 13 For the external interface, choose Manually from the Configure IPv4 pop-up list, then enter the IP address, subnet mask, and DNS server IP address or addresses provided to you by the ISP. With a dual interface setup like the one in this example, all DNS requests are routed to the primary interface. So when running DNS on your server, enter the gateway’s public IP in the Name Servers field as well. In a manual configuration, make it appear first in the list so it is consulted before your ISP’s servers, then click Continue. 14 If you’ll be using Gateway Setup Assistant (from the NAT service section of Server Admin) to configure network settings, you don’t need to set up an internal interface. Otherwise, enter these values for the internal interface then click Continue:  Configure IPv4: Manually  IP Address: 192.168.0.1 (192.168 values are reserved for internal LANs)  Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0  Router: 192.168.0.1  DNS servers: 192.168.0.1Chapter 9 Sample Setup 189 15 In the Directory Usage Pane, choose Open Directory Master to set up a shared LDAP directory on the server; then Select Enable Windows Primary Domain Controller and enter a Domain/Workgroup name. These settings will set up a Windows PDC so that employees who use Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP workstations can log in to the PDC, change passwords during login, and have roaming user profiles and network home folders on the server. With one user account, a user can log in from a Windows workstation or a Mac OS X computer and access the same network home folder. 16 Click Continue. 17 Proceed through the remaining Assistant panes, then click Apply to initiate server setup. When setup is complete, the server restarts. 18 Log in to the server as the administrator you defined when using Server Assistant. 19 Configure the server’s network settings. The simplest way to do this is to use the Gateway Setup Assistant, as Step 4 describes. Alternatively, you can individually configure each network service using Server Admin, as Steps 5 through 8 describe. Step 5: Use Gateway Setup Assistant to automate the server’s network configuration 1 Open Server Admin on the administrator computer. 2 If you have not already done so, connect and authenticate to the server as the administrator you defined when using Server Assistant. 3 Select the server and add the services you are going to use. For this step, select NAT service and Firewall service. 4 In the Overview pane of the server you’re setting up, click on the NAT service. 5 Open Gateway Setup Assistant by clicking the button on the NAT overview pane. 6 Proceed through the panes, specifying information when prompted. On the WAN Port pane, select the port you configured during initial setup as the external interface. On the VPN settings pane, enable VPN and specify a shared secret for client connections to use. On the LAN Ports pane, select the port you want to use as the internal interface. 7 When Gateway Setup Assistant has completed network setup and you’ve quit the application, go to Step 9.190 Chapter 9 Sample Setup Step 6: Set up the firewall 1 Open Server Admin on the administrator computer. 2 If you have not already done so, connect and authenticate to the server as the administrator you defined when using Server Assistant. 3 In the service list, click Firewall. 4 Click Start Firewall in the bottom action bar. 5 Click Settings and select Services. 6 Choose Edit Services for the address group named “192.168-net.” 7 Select “Allow” for services you want employees working at the office to be able to access. At a minimum, select Domain Name Service, DHCP, and NetBoot. 8 Choose to Edit Services for the address group named “any.” 9 Click Services and select Allow for services you want external clients to be able to access behind the firewall. At a minimum, select L2TP VPN, IKE, and DHCP. 10 Click Save. Step 7: Set up DNS service The DNS of Leopard Server handles zone information (for example, all fully qualified host names for the local site like “site1.example.com”), mapping this private zone to private, local IPs. This avoids the need to add public servers to the local DNS. Additionally, a DNS forwarder zone is set up to query the ISP’s DNS records for anything not found in the local DNS zone (for example, the IP addresses of other organization’s web servers like www.apple.com). Note: As noted in Step 2 this example assumes that your ISP is providing Forward and Reverse DNS for your company’s zone , including resolution of the server’s public IP. As a result, the inhouse name server uses an internal zone like , which holds the private IP addresses of the server and all other devices on the LAN. 1 In Server Admin, select DNS in the service list. 2 Click Zones, click the Add button (+) under the Zones list, and select Add Primary Zone. 3 Select the default zone, and customize it to fit your organization. In this case, settings are:  Primary Zone Name: example.com  Nameservers Address: 192.168.0.1  Administrator email: admin@example.comChapter 9 Sample Setup 191 4 Add a machine record to the zone, by selecting the zone, clicking “Add Record,” and selecting “Add Machine (A)” from the pop-up button. 5 Using the following settings, select the machine record which is under the zone name to edit the record, and clicking Save when finished.  Machine name: myserver  IP Address: 192.168.0.1 6 Using the following settings, continue to add machines to the zone. For example, to add a printer, click the Add button, specify values for the printer, then click OK:  IP address: 192.168.100.2  Name: laserprinter_2000 7 Set the server to look outside the server for any domain name it doesn’t control, by clicking Settings. 8 In the Forwarder IP Addresses list, click the Add (+) button to add the DNS addresses provided by the ISP. 9 Click Save, then click Start DNS. Step 8: Set up DHCP service This step sets up a DHCP server that provides employee computers with dynamic IP addresses as well as the identity of the DNS, LDAP, and WINS servers they should use. When a client computer’s search policy is set to Automatic (using the Directory Utility application on the client computer), the identity of the DNS, LDAP, and WINS servers is supplied when an IP address is supplied. 1 In Server Admin, make sure DNS is running. 2 Select DHCP in the service list. 3 Click Subnets. 4 Click the Add (+) button to define the range of addresses to dynamically assign. The range should be large enough to accommodate current and future client computers. Make sure you exclude some addresses (at the start or end of the range) so they’re reserved for devices that need static IP addresses or for VPN users. Here are some sample values:  Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0  Starting IP Address: 192.168.0.2  Ending IP Address: 192.168.0.102  Network Interface: en1  Router: 192.168.0.1192 Chapter 9 Sample Setup 5 Make sure the DNS pane contains the following values:  Default Domain: example.com  Name Servers: 192.168.0.1 6 Click LDAP to configure DHCP to identify the server you’re configuring as the source of directory information for clients who are served dynamic IP addresses. The server you’re setting up should be identified in the Server Name field because you set up the server as an Open Directory master when you used Server Assistant. Other settings are optional for this example. 7 Click WINS to configure DHCP to serve Windows-specific settings to clients who are served dynamic IP addresses; then supply these values:  WINS/NBNS Primary Server: 192.168.0.1  NBT Node Type: Broadcast (b-node) 8 Click Save, enable the internal Ethernet interface, then click Start DHCP. Step 9: Set up NAT service 1 In Server Admin, select NAT in the service list. 2 Click Settings. 3 Select the external interface from the “External network interface” pop-up menu. 4 Click Save, then click Start NAT. Step 10: Set up VPN service 1 In Server Admin, select VPN in the service list. 2 Click Settings. 3 Enable L2TP over IPSec (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol, Secure Internet Protocol) for Mac OS X v10.5 computer users, Linux or UNIX workstation users, and Windows XP users. Although PPTP can also be used, L2TP provides the greatest security because it runs over IPSec. 4 Enter a starting and ending IP address to indicate the addresses the VPN server can assign to clients. Avoid addresses the DHCP server is set up to serve. Also avoid addresses you specify if you enable PPTP. 5 Specify the shared secret by entering a string in “Shared secret” that isn’t intuitive. For example, specify digits, symbols, and uppercase and lowercase characters in unusual combinations. The recommended length is 8 to 12 characters.Chapter 9 Sample Setup 193 6 Enable Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) if employees will need to access the intranet from Windows workstations other than Windows XP computers or from Mac OS X v10.2 computers when they’re away from the office. If you need to support older Windows clients that don’t have 128-bit PPTP support, select “Allow 40-bit encryption keys in addition to 128-bit.” 7 Enter a starting and ending IP address to indicate the addresses the VPN server can assign to clients. Avoid addresses the DHCP server is set up to serve. Also avoid addresses you specified when you enabled L2TP over IPSec. 8 Click Save, then click Start VPN. Step 11: Set up productivity services The infrastructure you need to set up file, print, and other productivity services is now available. Follow the instructions in the relevant administration guides, listed on page 13, to configure the services of interest. Many services, such as Apple File service, require minimal setup. Simply start them using Server Admin. Step 12: Create user accounts and home folders 1 Open Workgroup Manager. 2 If you have not already done so, connect and authenticate to the server as the administrator you defined when using Server Assistant. The Open Directory master LDAP directory is available for editing. You’ll add an account for each employee to this master directory. 3 Click the New User button. 4 Specify user settings in the panes that appear. User Management tells you how to set up all user account attributes, including home folders. It also describes how to manage users by setting up group accounts and computer lists and how to set up preference settings that customize the work environments of Macintosh clients. User Management and Open Directory Administration show how to implement support specifically for Windows workstation users.194 Chapter 9 Sample Setup Step 13: Configure client computers The information that follows applies to Mac OS X v10.5 computers. 1 If necessary, configure Mac OS X clients to retrieve information from the DHCP server. Mac OS X v10.5 computers are configured to use DHCP to obtain IP addresses and retrieve information about an LDAP directory from the DHCP server. After you configure DHCP service with information about an LDAP directory, that information is delivered to Mac OS X clients when they receive IP addresses from the DHCP server. These settings are preconfigured:  Network preferences are set to use DHCP. To access the setting, select System Preferences, open Network preferences, select the internal Ethernet interface, and select “Using DHCP with manual address” or “Using DHCP” from the Configure IPv4 pop-up menu.  The computer’s search policy is set to be defined automatically. To access this setting, open Directory Utility (in /Applications/Utilities/) and click Authentication. If the lock icon is locked, click it and authenticate as an administrator. Choose Automatic from the Search pop-up menu, then click Apply.  The use of DHCP-supplied LDAP information is enabled. To access this setting, open Directory Utility and click Services. If the lock icon is locked, click it and authenticate as an administrator. Select LDAPv3 in the list of services, then click Configure. Click “Use DHCP-supplied LDAP Server,” then click OK. 2 Configure Mac OS X clients so they can use the VPN server. 3 Open the Internet Connect application (in /Applications/) and click VPN in the toolbar. 4 Select L2TP over IPSec or PPP and click Continue. 5 From the Configurations pop-up menu., choose Edit Configurations 6 Enter the external IP address from the ISP, the user name and password for the computer user and, for L2TP over IPSec, the shared secret. 7 Click OK. 195 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet Enter settings for the server in the tables below: Server name: Item Description Your information Identity of remote server for installation and setup For interactive installation and setup of a remote server on the local subnet, one of these values for the server: - IP address in IPv4 format (000.000.000.000) - host name (someserver.example.com) - MAC address (00:03:93:71:26:52). For command-line or remote-subnet installations and setups, the target server’s IP address, in IPv4 format. Preset password (for remote installation and setup) The first eight digits of the target server’s built-in hardware serial number, printed on a label on the computer. For older computers with no such number, use 12345678 for the password. Type of installation Upgrade from the latest 10.4 version or from v10.3.9, complete installation without disk formatting, or clean installation. The target volume (partition) is erased when you do a clean installation. Target disk or partition Name of the target disk or partition (volume). Disk format (when erasing the disk is OK) A format for the target disk. In most cases, use Mac OS Extended (Journaled). You can also use Mac OS Extended or casesensitive HFS+. Disk partitioning (when erasing the disk is OK) Indicate whether you want to partition the target disk. The minimum recommended size of a target disk partition is 4 GB.196 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet RAID mirroring (when erasing the disk is OK and you have a second physical drive on the target server) Indicate whether you want to set up RAID mirroring. The second disk is used automatically if the primary disk isn’t available. If the target disk has a single partition and the second physical drive has a single partition and no data, you can set up RAID mirroring after installation. However, to prevent data loss, set up RAID mirroring as soon as possible. Using saved setup data If you want to use saved setup data to set up this server, identify the file or directory storing the data you want to use. If the data is encrypted, also identify the passphrase. If you want to save settings in a file or directory, use one of the next two rows. Saving setup data in a file Name the file using one of these options:  .plist (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef.plist).  .plist (for example, 10.0.0.4.plist).  .plist (for example, myserver.plist).  .plist (first eight characters, for example, ABCD1234.plist).  .plist (for example, myserver.example.com.plist).  .plist (for example, 10.0.plist matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2).  generic.plist (a file that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values) If you encrypt the file, you can save the passphrase in a file named using the above conventions, except use the extension .pass, not .plist. Place the files in a location where the target server or servers can detect it. A server can detect files that reside on a volume mounted locally in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes. Item Description Your informationAppendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet 197 Saving setup data in a directory Navigate to the directory where you want to save the setup, and name the setup record using one of these options:  (include leading zeros but omit colons, for example, 0030654dbcef).  (for example, 10.0.0.4).  (for example, myserver).  (first eight characters, for example, ABCD1234).  (for example, myserver.example.com).  (for example, 10.0 matches 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.1.2).  generic (a record that any server will recognize, used to set up servers that need the same setup values) If you encrypt the file, you can save the passphrase in a file named using the above conventions, except add the extension .pass. Place the passphrase file in a location where the target server or servers can detect it. A server can detect the file if it resides on a volume mounted locally in /Volumes/*/Auto Server Setup/, where * is any device mounted under /Volumes. Language The language to use for server administration (English, Japanese, French, or German). The language affects the server’s time and date formats, displayed text, and the default encoding used by the AFP server. Keyboard layout The keyboard for server administration. Item Description Your information198 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet Serial number The serial number for your copy of Mac OS X Server. You need a new serial number for Mac OS X Server v10.5. The format is xsvr-999-999-x-xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx-xxxxxx-x, where x is a letter and 9 is a digit. The first element (xsvr) and the fourth one (x) must be lower case. Unless you have a site license, you need a unique serial number for each server. You’ll find the server software serial number printed on the materials provided with the server software package. If you have a site license, you must enter the registered owner name and organization as specified by your Apple representative. If you set up a server using a generic setup file or directory record and the serial number isn’t sitelicensed, you must enter the server’s serial number using Server Admin. Administrator’s long name (sometimes called full name or real name) A long name can contain no more than 255 bytes. The number of characters ranges from 255. Roman characters to as few as 85 3-byte characters. It can include spaces. It can’t be the same as any predefined user name, such as System Administrator. This name is case sensitive in the login window, but not when accessing file servers. Administrator’s short name A short name can contain as many as 255 Roman characters, typically eight or fewer. Use only a through z, A through Z, 0 through 9, _ (underscore), or - (hyphen). Avoid short names that Apple assigns to predefined users, such as “root.” Administrator’s password This value is case sensitive and must contain at least 4 characters. It is also the password for the root user. If you record this value, be sure to keep this worksheet in a safe place. After setup, use Workgroup Manager to change the password for this account. Item Description Your informationAppendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet 199 Host name You can’t specify this name during server setup. Server Assistant sets the host name to AUTOMATIC in /etc/hostconfig. This setting causes the server’s host name to be the first name that’s true in this list: - The name provided by the DHCP or BootP server for the primary IP address - The first name returned by a reverse DNS (address-to-name) query for the primary IP address - The local hostname - The name “localhost” Computer name The AppleTalk name and the default name used for SLP/DA. Specify a name 63 characters or fewer but avoid using =, :, or @. The Network browser in the Finder uses SMB to find computers that provide Windows file sharing. Spaces are removed from a computer name for use with SMB, and the name can contain no more than 15 characters, no special characters, and no punctuation. Local hostname The name that designates a computer on a local subnet. It can contain lowercase letters, numbers, and/or hyphens (but not at the ends). The name ends with “.local” and must be unique on a local subnet. Network interface data Your server has a built-in Ethernet port and can have an additional Ethernet port built in or added on. Record information for each port you want to activate. Use the table provided later in this worksheet to record data for each port. Directory usage Select one: - Standalone Server (use only the local directory). - Connected to a Directory System (get information from another server’s shared directory). If you choose this option, use one of the next four rows in this table to indicate how the server will connect with the directory. - Open Directory Master (provide directory information to other computers). If you choose this option, use the row for “Using Open Directory Master.” - No change (for upgrades only). Using “As Specified by DHCP Server” The directory to use is identified by a DHCP server set up to provide the address and search base of an LDAP server (DHCP option 95). Item Description Your information200 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet Configuration settings for the following port appear in the table below: Using “Open Directory Server” The directory to use is an LDAP directory identified by a DHCP server or identified by specifying an IP address or domain name for the LDAP server. Using “Other Directory Server” The directories to use is configured using the Directory Utility application after you finish setting up the server. Using “Open Directory Master” Optionally indicate if you want to enable a Windows Primary Domain Controller on the server. Provide a Windows computer name and domain for the server. The computer name and domain can contain a-z, A-Z, 0-9, -, but no . or space and can’t contain only numbers. Finish setting up the directory you want to host by using Server Admin after completing server setup. Time zone Choose the time zone you want the server to use. Network time Optionally indicate a Network Time Server for the server. Apple recommends that you keep your server’s clock accurate by synchronizing it with a network time server. Item Description Your information Port Name: Built-in Ethernet Item Description Your information Device name A UNIX name for the port in the format enx, where x starts with 0. For the value of x for the port you’re describing, see your hardware manual. The value en0 always designates a built-in Ethernet port. en0 Ethernet address The Media Access Control (MAC) address of the port (00:00:00:00:00:00). This value is usually on a sticker on the server hardware, but you can run Apple System Profiler or a command-line tool such as networksetup to discover the value. TCP/IP and AppleTalk Indicate whether you want to enable the port for TCIP/IP and/or AppleTalk. You can connect a port to the Internet by enabling TCP/IP and use the same or a different port for AppleTalk. Enable no more than one port for AppleTalk. Order of ports If you enable more than one port, indicate the order in which the ports should be accessed when trying to connect to a network. All nonlocal network traffic uses the first active port.Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet 201 TCP/IP settings Use one of the next four rows in this table. “Manually” Specify these settings to manually specify TCP/IP settings: - IP address (000.000.000.000). A unique static address. - Subnet mask (000.000.000.000). Used to locate the subnet on the local area network where the server resides. This mask is used to derive the network part of the server’s address. What remains identifies the server computer on that network. - Router (000.000.000.000) that supports the subnet the server’s on. The router is the machine on the local subnet that messages are sent to the target IP address isn’t on the local subnet. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. “Using DHCP with Manual IP address” Specify these settings to use a DHCP server to assign a static IP address and optionally other settings for the port. Make sure the DHCP server is set up and DHCP service running when you initiate server setup: - IP address (000.000.000.000). A unique static address. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. Item Description Your information202 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet “Using DHCP” Specify these settings if you want to use a DHCP server to assign a dynamic IP address and optionally other settings for the port. Make sure the DHCP server is set up and DHCP service running when you initiate server setup: - DHCP client ID (optional). A string that’s useful for recognizing a port when its IP address changes. Don’t specify a DHCP client ID when using Server Assistant to set up the server remotely. Instead, after setup, use the server’s Network preferences to define a DHCP client ID. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. “Using BootP” Specify these settings if you want to use a Bootstrap Protocol server to assign an IP address for the identified port. With BootP, the same IP address is always assigned to a particular network interface. It’s used primarily for computers that start up from a NetBoot image: - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified domain names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. Item Description Your informationAppendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet 203 IPv6 To configure IPv6 addressing for the port, select Automatically or Manually. Choose Automatically if you want the server to automatically generate an IPv6 address for the port. Choose Manually to specify IPv6 settings: - IPv6 address. Generally written in the form 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000. - Router. The IPv6 address of the router on the local subnet. - Prefix length. The number of significant bits in the subnet mask that are used to identify the network. Ethernet settings To automatically configure Ethernet settings for the port, choose Automatically. Choose Manually (Advanced) to specify settings if you have specific requirements for the network the server’s connected to. Incorrect Ethernet settings can affect network performance or render a port unusable: - Speed. The maximum Ethernet speed, in number of bits per second, that can be transmitted using the port. Select one of these options: autoselect, 10baseT/UTP, 100baseTX, and 1000baseTX. - Duplex. Determine whether input and output packets are transmitted at the same time (full-duplex) or alternately (half-duplex). - Maximum Packet Transfer Unit Size (MTU). The largest packet the port will send or receive.s, expressed in bytes. Increasing the packet size improves throughput, but the devices that receive the packet (switches, routers, and so forth) must support the packet size. Select one of these options: Standard (1500), Jumbo (9000), or Custom (enter a value from 72 to 1500). Item Description Your information204 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet Configuration settings for the following port appear in the table below: Port Name: Item Description Your information Device name A UNIX name for the port in the format enx, where x starts with 0. For the value of x for the port you’re describing, see your hardware manual. The value en0 always designates a built-in Ethernet port. Ethernet address The Media Access Control (MAC) address of the port (00:00:00:00:00:00). This value is usually on a sticker on the server hardware, but you can run Apple System Profiler or a command-line tool such as networksetup to discover the value. TCP/IP and AppleTalk Indicate whether you want to enable the port for TCIP/IP and/or AppleTalk. You can connect a port to the Internet by enabling TCP/IP and use the same or a different port for AppleTalk. Enable no more than one port for AppleTalk. Order of ports If you enable more than one port, indicate the order in which the ports should be accessed when trying to connect to a network. All nonlocal network traffic uses the first active port. TCP/IP settings Use one of the next four rows in this table. “Manually” Specify these settings to manually specify TCP/IP settings: - IP address (000.000.000.000). A unique static address. - Subnet mask (000.000.000.000). Used to locate the subnet on the local area network where the server resides. This mask is used to derive the network part of the server’s address. What remains identifies the server computer on that network. - Router (000.000.000.000) that supports the subnet the server’s on. The router is the machine on the local subnet that messages are sent to the target IP address isn’t on the local subnet. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu.Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet 205 “Using DHCP with Manual IP address” Specify these settings to use a DHCP server to assign a static IP address and optionally other settings for the port. Make sure the DHCP server is set up and DHCP service running when you initiate server setup: - IP address (000.000.000.000). A unique static address. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. “Using DHCP” Specify these settings if you want to use a DHCP server to assign a dynamic IP address and optionally other settings for the port. Make sure the DHCP server is set up and DHCP service running when you initiate server setup: - DHCP client ID (optional). A string that’s useful for recognizing a port when its IP address changes. Don’t specify a DHCP client ID when using Server Assistant to set up the server remotely. Instead, after setup, use the server’s Network preferences to define a DHCP client ID. - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified DNS names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. Item Description Your information206 Appendix Mac OS X Server Advanced Worksheet “Using BootP” Specify these settings if you want to use a Bootstrap Protocol server to assign an IP address for the identified port. With BootP, the same IP address is always assigned to a particular network interface. It’s used primarily for computers that start up from a NetBoot image: - DNS servers (000.000.000.000) used to convert IP addresses to fully qualified domain names and vice versa for the port. - Search domains (optional). Names to automatically append to Internet addresses when you don’t fully qualify them. For example, if you specify campus.univ.edu as a search domain, you can enter server1 in the Finder’s Connect To Server dialog box to connect to server1.campus.univ.edu. IPv6 To configure IPv6 addressing for the port, select Automatically or Manually. Choose Automatically if you want the server to automatically generate an IPv6 address for the port. Choose Manually to specify IPv6 settings: - IPv6 address. Generally written in the form 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000. - Router. The IPv6 address of the router on the local subnet. - Prefix length. The number of significant bits in the subnet mask that are used to identify the network. Ethernet settings To automatically configure Ethernet settings for the port, choose Automatically. Choose Manually (Advanced) to specify settings if you have specific requirements for the network the server’s connected to. Incorrect Ethernet settings can affect network performance or render a port unusable: - Speed. The maximum Ethernet speed, in number of bits per second, that can be transmitted using the port. Select one of these options: autoselect, 10baseT/UTP, 100baseTX, and 1000baseTX. - Duplex. Determine whether input and output packets are transmitted at the same time (full-duplex) or alternately (half-duplex). - Maximum Packet Transfer Unit Size (MTU). The largest packet the port will send or receive.s, expressed in bytes. Increasing the packet size improves throughput, but the devices that receive the packet (switches, routers, and so forth) must support the packet size. Select one of these options: Standard (1500), Jumbo (9000), or Custom (enter a value from 72 to 1500). Item Description Your information 207 Glossary Glossary administrator A user with server or directory domain administration privileges. Administrators are always members of the predefined “admin” group. administrator computer A Mac OS X computer onto which you’ve installed the server administration applications from the Mac OS X Server Admin CD. AFP Apple Filing Protocol. A client/server protocol used by Apple file service to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP and other protocols to support communication between computers on a network. alphanumeric Containing characters that include letters, numbers, and punctuation characters (such as _ and ?). Apache An open source HTTP server integrated into Mac OS X Server. You can find detailed information about Apache at www.apache.org. application server Software that runs and manages other applications, usually web applications, that are accessed using a web browser. The managed applications reside on the same computer where the application server runs. authentication The process of proving a user’s identity, typically by validating a user name and password. Usually authentication occurs before an authorization process determines the user’s level of access to a resource. For example, file service authorizes full access to folders and files that an authenticated user owns. authorization The process by which a service determines whether it should grant a user access to a resource and how much access the service should allow the user to have. Usually authorization occurs after an authentication process proves the user’s identity. For example, file service authorizes full access to folders and files that an authenticated user owns. back up (verb) The act of creating a backup. backup (noun) A collection of data that’s stored for the purpose of recovery in case the original copy of data is lost or becomes inaccessible.208 Glossary bandwidth The capacity of a network connection, measured in bits or bytes per second, for carrying data. BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain. The program included with Mac OS X Server that implements DNS. The program is also called the name daemon, or named, when the program is running. blog A webpage that presents chronologically ordered entries. Often used as an electronic journal or newsletter. boot ROM Low-level instructions used by a computer in the first stages of starting up. BSD Berkeley Software Distribution. A version of UNIX on which Mac OS X software is based. cache A portion of memory or an area on a hard disk that stores frequently accessed data in order to speed up processing times. Read cache holds data in case it’s requested by a client; write cache holds data written by a client until it can be stored on disk. See also buffer caching, controller cache, disk cache. certificate Sometimes called an “identity certificate” or “public key certificate.” A file in a specific format (Mac OS X Server uses the X.509 format) that contains the public key half of a public-private keypair, the user’s identity information such as name and contact information, and the digital signature of either a Certificate Authority (CA) or the key user. Certificate Authority An authority that issues and manages digital certificates in order to ensure secure transmission of data on a public network. See also certificate, public key infrastructure. certification authority See Certificate Authority. cleartext Data that hasn’t been encrypted. client A computer (or a user of the computer) that requests data or services from another computer, or server. command line The text you type at a shell prompt when using a command-line interface. command-line interface A way of interacting with the computer (for example, to run programs or modify file system permissions) by entering text commands at a shell prompt. See also shell; shell prompt. computer list A set of computers that all receive the managed preference settings defined for the list, and that are all available to a particular set of users and groups. A computer can be a member of only one computer list. Computer lists are created in Mac OS X Server version 10.4 or earlier. See also computer group.Glossary 209 computer name The default name used for SLP and SMB service registrations. The Network Browser in the Finder uses SLP to find computers advertising Personal File Sharing and Windows File Sharing. It can be set to bridge subnets depending on the network router settings. When you turn on Personal File Sharing, users see the computer name in the Connect to Server dialog in the Finder. Initially it is “’s Computer” (for example, “John’s Computer”) but can be changed to anything. The computer name is used for browsing for network file servers, print queues, Bluetooth® discovery, Apple Remote Desktop clients, and any other network resource that identifies computers by computer name rather than network address. The computer name is also the basis for the default local host name. CUPS Common UNIX Printing System. A cross-platform printing facility based on the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). The Mac OS X Print Center, its underlying print system, and the Mac OS X Server print service are based on CUPS. For more information, visit www.cups.org. daemon A program that runs in the background and provides important system services, such as processing incoming email or handling requests from the network. decryption The process of retrieving encrypted data using some sort of special knowledge. See also encryption. default The automatic action performed by a program unless the user chooses otherwise. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to dynamically distribute IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds. The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer along with a lease period—the length of time the client computer may use the address. DHCP lease time See lease period. digital signature An electronic signature that can be used to verify the identity of the sender of a message. directory See folder. directory domain A specialized database that stores authoritative information about users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory. directory node See directory domain.210 Glossary directory services Services that provide system software and applications with uniform access to directory domains and other sources of information about users and resources. disc Optical storage media, such as a CD or DVD. disk A rewritable data storage device. See also disk drive, logical disk. disk drive A device that contains a disk and reads and writes data to the disk. disk image A file that, when opened, creates an icon on a Mac OS X desktop that looks and acts like an actual disk or volume. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up over the network from a server-based disk image that contains system software. Disk image files have a filename extension of either .img or .dmg. The two image formats are similar and are represented with the same icon in the Finder. The .dmg format cannot be used on computers running Mac OS 9. DNS Domain Name System. A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP addresses associated with each name. DNS domain A unique name of a computer used in the Domain Name System to translate IP addresses and names. Also called a domain name. DNS name A unique name of a computer used in the Domain Name System to translate IP addresses and names. Also called a domain name. domain Part of the domain name of a computer on the Internet. It does not include the top-level domain designator (for example, .com, .net, .us, .uk). Domain name “www.example.com” consists of the subdomain or host name “www,” the domain “example,” and the top-level domain “com.” domain name See DNS name. Domain Name System See DNS. DSL Digital subscriber line. A broadband data transmission technology that operates over telephone lines. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol See DHCP. dynamic IP address An IP address that’s assigned for a limited period of time or until the client computer no longer needs it. EFI Extensible Firmware Interface. Software that runs automatically when an Intelbased Macintosh first starts up. It determines the computers hardware configuration and starts the system software.Glossary 211 encryption The process of obscuring data, making it unreadable without special knowledge. Usually done for secrecy and confidential communications. See also decryption. Ethernet A common local area networking technology in which data is transmitted in units called packets using protocols such as TCP/IP. Ethernet ID See MAC address. everyone Any user who can log in to a file server: a registered user or guest, an anonymous FTP user, or a website visitor. export In the Network File System (NFS), a way of sharing a folder with clients on a network. failover In Xsan, the automatic process by which a standby metadata controller becomes the active metadata controller if the primary controller fails. Fast Ethernet A group of Ethernet standards in which data is transmitted at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s). file server A computer that serves files to clients. A file server may be a generalpurpose computer that’s capable of hosting additional applications or a computer capable only of serving files. file system A scheme for storing data on storage devices that allows applications to read and write files without having to deal with lower-level details. filter A screening method to control access to a server. A filter is made up of an IP address and a subnet mask, and sometimes a port number and access type. The IP address and the subnet mask determine the range of IP addresses that the filter applies to. firewall Software that protects the network applications running on your server. IP firewall service, which is part of Mac OS X Server software, scans incoming IP packets and rejects or accepts these packets based on a set of filters you create. FireWire A hardware technology for exchanging data with peripheral devices, defined by IEEE Standard 1394. format (verb) In general, to prepare a disk for use by a particular file system. forward zone The DNS zone that holds no records of its own, but forwards DNS queries to another zone.212 Glossary FTP File Transfer Protocol. A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server. gateway A network node that interfaces one network to another. Often, it refers to a computer that links a private LAN to a public WAN, with or without Network Address Translation (NAT). A router is a special kind of gateway that links related network segments. GB Gigabyte. 1,073,741,824 (2 30 ) bytes. Gigabit Ethernet A group of Ethernet standards in which data is transmitted at 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s). Abbreviated GbE. gigabyte See GB. group A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration of shared resources. group folder A folder that organizes documents and applications of special interest to group members and allows group members to pass information among themselves. guest computer A computer that doesn’t have a computer account. guest user A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password. high availability The ability of a system to perform its function continuously, without interruption. home directory See home folder. home folder A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home folder to store system preferences and managed user settings for Mac OS X users. Also known as a home directory. host Another name for a server. host name A unique name for a computer, historically referred to as the UNIX hostname. HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The set of symbols or codes inserted in a file to be displayed on a web browser page. The markup tells the web browser how to display a webpage’s words and images for the user. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The client/server protocol for the World Wide Web. HTTP provides a way for a web browser to access a web server and request hypermedia documents created using HTML.Glossary 213 Hypertext Markup Language See HTML. Hypertext Transfer Protocol See HTTP. IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. An organization responsible for allocating IP addresses, assigning protocol parameters, and managing domain names. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol. A message control and error-reporting protocol used between host servers and gateways. For example, some Internet software applications use ICMP to send a packet on a round trip between two hosts to determine round-trip times and discover problems on the network. identity certificate See certificate. IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol. An Internet protocol used by hosts and routers to send packets to lists of hosts that want to participate in a process known as multicasting. QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) uses multicast addressing, as does Service Location Protocol (SLP). image See disk image. installer package A file package with the filename extension .pkg. An installer package contains resources for installing an application, including the file archive, Read Me and licensing documents, and installer scripts. Internet A set of interconnected computer networks communicating through a common protocol (TCP/IP). The Internet is the most extensive publicly accessible system of interconnected computer networks in the world. Internet service provicer See ISP. intranet A network of computers operated by and for the benefit of an organization’s internal users. Access is commonly restricted to members of the organization. Many times, it refers to a website for the organization which is accessible only from within the organization. Intranets use the same networking technologies as the Internet (TCP/IP), and sometimes bridge legacy information systems with modern networking technologies. IP Internet Protocol. Also known as IPv4. A method used with Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to send data between computers over a local network or the Internet. IP delivers data packets and TCP keeps track of data packets. IP address A unique numeric address that identifies a computer on the Internet. IP subnet A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network segment, that shares a network address with other portions of the network and is identified by a subnet number.214 Glossary IPP Internet Printing Protocol. A client-server protocol for printing over the Internet. The Mac OS X printing infrastructure and the Mac OS X Server print service that’s built on it support IPP. IPSec A security addition to IP. A protocol that provides data transmission security for L2TP VPN connections. IPSec acts at the network layer, protecting and authenticating IP packets between participating IPSec nodes. IPv4 See IP. IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6. The next-generation communication protocol to replace IP (also known as IPv4). IPv6 allows a greater number of network addresses and can reduce routing loads across the Internet. journal data In Xsan, data about file system transactions that occur on an Xsan volume. KB Kilobyte. 1,024 (2 10 ) bytes. KDC Kerberos Key Distribution Center. A trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets. Kerberos A secure network authentication system. Kerberos uses tickets, which are issued for a specific user, service, and period of time. After a user is authenticated, it’s possible to access additional services without retyping a password (called single signon) for services that have been configured to take Kerberos tickets. Mac OS X Server uses Kerberos v5. Kerberos Key Distribution Center See KDC. Kerberos realm The authentication domain comprising the users and services that are registered with the same Kerberos server. The registered users and services trust the Kerberos server to verify each other’s identities. kilobyte See KB. L2TP Layer Two Tunnelling Protocol. A network transport protocol used for VPN connections. It’s essentially a combination of Cisco’s L2F and PPTP. L2TP itself isn’t an encryption protocol, so it uses IPSec for packet encryption. LAN Local area network. A network maintained within a facility, as opposed to a WAN (wide area network) that links geographically separated facilities. layer A mechanism for prioritizing the tracks in a movie or the overlapping of sprites. When QuickTime plays a movie, it displays the movie’s images according to their layer. Images with lower layer numbers are displayed on top; images with higher layer numbers may be obscured by images with lower layer numbers.Glossary 215 LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A standard client-server protocol for accessing a directory domain. lease period A limited period of time during which IP addresses are assigned. By using short leases, DHCP can reassign IP addresses on networks that have more computers than available IP addresses. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol See LDAP. link An active physical connection (electrical or optical) between two nodes on a network. link aggregation Configuring several physical network links as a single logical link to improve the capacity and availablility of network connections. With link aggregation, all ports are assigned the same ID. Compare to multipathing, in which each port keeps its own address. load balancing The process of distributing client computers’ requests for network services across multiple servers to optimize performance. local area network See LAN. local directory domain A directory of identification, authentication, authorization, and other administrative data that’s accessible only on the computer where it resides. The local directory domain isn’t accessible from other computers on the network. local domain A directory domain that can be accessed only by the computer it resides on. local home directory See local home folder. local home folder A home folder that resides on disk on the computer a user is logged in to. It’s accessible only by logging directly in to the computer where it resides, unless you log in to the computer using SSH. local hostname A name that designates a computer on a local subnet. It can be used without a global DNS system to resolve names to IP addresses. It consists of lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens (except as the last characters), and ends with “.local” (For example, bills-computer.local). Although the default name is derived from the computer name, a user can specify this name in the Sharing pane of System Preferences. It can be changed easily, and can be used anywhere a DNS name or fully qualified domain name is used. It can only resolve on the same subnet as the computer using it.216 Glossary log in (verb) To start a session with a computer (often by authenticating as a user with an account on the computer) in order to obtain services or access files. Note that logging in is separate from connecting, which merely entails establishing a physical link with the computer. long name The long form of a user or group name. See also user name. LPR Line Printer Remote. A standard protocol for printing over TCP/IP. MAC Media access control. See MAC address. MAC address Media access control address. A hardware address that uniquely identifies each node on a network. For AirPort devices, the MAC address is called the AirPort ID. Mac OS X The latest version of the Apple operating system. Mac OS X combines the reliability of UNIX with the ease of use of Macintosh. Mac OS X Server An industrial-strength server platform that supports Mac, Windows, UNIX, and Linux clients out of the box and provides a suite of scalable workgroup and network services plus advanced remote management tools. managed network The items managed clients are allowed to see when they click the Network icon in a Finder window. Administrators control this setting using Workgroup Manager. Also called a network view. managed preferences System or application preferences that are under administrative control. Workgroup Manager allows administrators to control settings for certain system preferences for Mac OS X managed clients. master zone The DNS zone records held by a primary DNS server. A master zone is replicated by zone transfers to slave zones on secondary DNS servers. MB Megabyte. 1,048,576 (2 20 ) bytes. media access control See MAC address. megabyte See MB. migrate To transfer existing information, such as user and group accounts and user data, from one server or network to another server or network that’s managed using different software. mirrored Refers to a disk array that uses RAID 1, or mirroring. mirroring Writing identical copies of data to two physical drives. Mirroring protects data against loss due to disk failure, and is the simplest method of achieving data redundancy.Glossary 217 mount (verb) To make a remote directory or volume available for access on a local system. In Xsan, to cause an Xsan volume to appear on a client’s desktop, just like a local disk. mount point In streaming, a string used to identify a live stream, which can be a relayed movie stream, a nonrelayed movie stream, or an MP3 stream. Mount points that describe live movie streams always end with a .sdp extension. MS-CHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. The standard Windows authentication method for VPN. This authentication method encodes passwords when they are sent over the network and stores them in a scrambled form on the server. It offers good security during network transmission. MS-CHAP is a proprietary version of CHAP. multicast DNS A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers, devices, and services on IP networks. Called Bonjour (previously Rendezvous) by Apple, this proposed Internet standard protocol is sometimes referred to as ZeroConf or multicast DNS. For more information, visit www.apple.com or www.zeroconf.org. To see how this protocol is used in Mac OS X Server, see local hostname. MySQL An open source relational database management tool frequently used by web servers. name server A server on a network that keeps a list of names and the IP addresses associated with each name. See also DNS, WINS. NAT Network address translation. A method of connecting multiple computers to the Internet (or any other IP network) using one IP address. NAT converts the IP addresses you assign to computers on your private, internal network into one legitimate IP address for Internet communications. network address translation See NAT. Network File System See NFS. Network Image Utility A utility provided with Mac OS X Server software that allows you to create disk images for NetBoot and Network Install services. Disk images can contain the Mac OS X operating system, applications, or both. network installation The process of installing systems and software on Mac OS X client computers over the network. Software installation can occur with an administrator attending the installations or completely unattended. network interface Your computer’s hardware connection to a network. This includes (but isn’t limited to) Ethernet connections, AirPort cards, and FireWire connections. network interface card See NIC.218 Glossary Network Time Protocol See NTP. NFS Network File System. A client/server protocol that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to allow remote users to access files as though they were local. NFS exports shared volumes to computers based on IP address, rather than user name and password. NTP Network Time Protocol. A network protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers across a network to some time reference clock. NTP is used to ensure that all the computers on a network are reporting the same time. offline Refers to data that isn’t immediately available, or to a device that is physically connected but not available for use. online Refers to data, devices, or network connections that are available for immediate use. Open Directory The Apple directory services architecture, which can access authoritative information about users and network resources from directory domains that use LDAP, Active Directory protocols, or BSD configuration files, and network services. Open Directory master A server that provides LDAP directory service, Kerberos authentication service, and Open Directory Password Server. open source A term for the cooperative development of software by the Internet community. The basic principle is to involve as many people as possible in writing and debugging code by publishing the source code and encouraging the formation of a large community of developers who will submit modifications and enhancements. package install image A file that you can use to install packages. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up over the network using this image to install software. Unlike block copy disk images, you can use same package install image for different hardware configurations. partition A subdivision of the capacity of a physical or logical disk. Partitions are made up of contiguous blocks on the disk. password An alphanumeric string used to authenticate the identity of a user or to authorize access to files or services. password policy A set of rules that regulate the composition and validity of a user’s password. Password Server See Open Directory Password Server. permissions Settings that define the kind of access users have to shared items in a file system. You can assign four types of permissions to a share point, folder, or file: Read & Write, Read Only, Write Only, and No Access. See also privileges.Glossary 219 PHP PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (originally Personal Home Page). A scripting language embedded in HTML that’s used to create dynamic webpages. physical disk An actual, mechanical disk. Compare with logical disk. plaintext Text that hasn’t been encrypted. Point to Point Tunneling Protocol See PPTP. point-to-point One of three physical topologies that Fibre Channel uses to interconnect nodes. The point-to-point topology consists of a single connection between two nodes. See also arbitrated loop, fabric. port A sort of virtual mail slot. A server uses port numbers to determine which application should receive data packets. Firewalls use port numbers to determine whether data packets are allowed to traverse a local network. “Port” usually refers to either a TCP or UDP port. port name A unique identifier assigned to a Fibre Channel port. POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX. A family of open system standards based on UNIX, which allows applications to be written to a single target environment in which they can run unchanged on a variety of systems. PPTP Point to Point Tunneling Protocol. A network transport protocol used for VPN connections. It’s the Windows standard VPN protocol and uses the user-provided password to produce an encryption key. private key One of two asymmetric keys used in a PKI security system. The private key is not distributed and is usually encrypted with a passphrase by the owner. It can digitally sign a message or certificate, claiming authenticity. It can decrypt messages encrypted with the corresponding public key and it can encrypt messages that can only be decrypted by the private key. privileges The right to access restricted areas of a system or perform certain tasks (such as management tasks) in the system. process A program that has started executing and has a portion of memory allocated to it. process ID See PID. protocol A set of rules that determines how data is sent back and forth between two applications.220 Glossary public key One of two asymmetric keys used in a PKI security system. The public key is distributed to other communicating parties. It can encrypt messages that can be decrypted only by the holder of the corresponding private key, and it can verify the signature on a message originating from a corresponding private key. public key certificate See certificate. public key cryptography A method of encrypting data that uses a pair of keys, one public and one private, that are obtained from a certification authority. One key is used to encrypt messages, and the other is used to decrypt them. public key infrastructure A secure method of exchanging data over an unsecure public network, such as the Internet, by using public key cryptography. QTSS Publisher An Apple application (included with Mac OS X Server) for managing QuickTime media and playlists, and preparing media for streaming and downloading. QuickTime Streaming Server See QTSS. RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. RADIUS server A computer on the network that provides a centralized database of authentication information for computers on the network. RAID Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks. A grouping of multiple physical hard disks into a disk array, which either provides high-speed access to stored data, mirrors the data so that it can be rebuilt in case of disk failure, or both. The RAID array is presented to the storage system as a single logical storage unit. See also RAID array, RAID level. RAID 0 A RAID scheme in which data is distributed evenly in stripes across an array of drives. RAID 0 increases the speed of data transfer, but provides no data protection. RAID 0+1 A combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1. This RAID scheme is created by striping data across multiple pairs of mirrored drives. RAID 1 A RAID scheme that creates a pair of mirrored drives with identical copies of the same data. It provides a high level of data availability. RAID 5 A RAID scheme that distributes both data and parity information across an array of drives one block at a time, with each drive operating independently. This enables maximum read performance when accessing large files. RAID array A group of physical disks organized and protected by a RAID scheme and presented by RAID hardware or software as a single logical disk. In Xsan, RAID arrays appear as LUNs, which are combined to form storage pools. RAID set See RAID array.Glossary 221 realm General term with multiple applications. See WebDAV realm, Kerberos realm. record type A specific category of records, such as users, computers, and mounts. For each record type, a directory domain may contain any number of records. recursion The process of fully resolving domain names into IP addresses. A nonrecursive DNS query allows referrals to other DNS servers to resolve the address. In general, user applications depend on the DNS server to perform this function, but other DNS servers do not have to perform a recursive query. root An account on a system that has no protections or restrictions. System administrators use this account to make changes to the system’s configuration. SACL Service Access Control List. Lets you specify which users and groups have access to specific services. See ACL. Samba Open source software that provides file, print, authentication, authorization, name resolution, and network service browsing to Windows clients using the SMB protocol. schema The collection of attributes and record types or classes that provide a blueprint for the information in a directory domain. search base A distinguished name that identifies where to start searching for information in an LDAP directory’s hierarchy of entries. search path See search policy. search policy A list of directory domains searched by a Mac OS X computer when it needs configuration information; also, the order in which domains are searched. Sometimes called a search path. Secure Sockets Layer See SSL. server A computer that provides services (such as file service, mail service, or web service) to other computers or network devices. Server Message Block See SMB. shared secret A value defined at each node of an L2TP VPN connection that serves as the encryption key seed to negotiate authentication and data transport connections. shell A program that runs other programs. You can use a shell to interact with the computer by typing commands at a shell prompt. See also command-line interface. short name An abbreviated name for a user. The short name is used by Mac OS X for home folders, authentication, and email addresses.222 Glossary slave zone The DNS zone records held by a secondary DNS server. A slave zone receives its data by zone transfers from the master zone on the primary DNS server. SLP DA Service Location Protocol Directory Agent. A protocol that registers services available on a network and gives users easy access to them. When a service is added to the network, the service uses SLP to register itself on the network. SLP DA uses a centralized repository for registered network services. SMB Server Message Block. A protocol that allows client computers to access files and network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the Internet, and other network protocols. SMB services use SMB to provide access to servers, printers, and other network resources. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocol used to send and transfer mail. Its ability to queue incoming messages is limited, so SMTP is usually used only to send mail, and POP or IMAP is used to receive mail. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of standard protocols used to manage and monitor multiplatform computer network devices. Spotlight A comprehensive search engine that searches across your documents, images, movies, PDF, email, calendar events, and system preferences. It can find something by its text content, filename, or information associated with it. SSL Secure Sockets Layer. An Internet protocol that allows you to send encrypted, authenticated information across the Internet. More recent versions of SSL are known as TLS (Transport Level Security). standalone server A server that provides services on a network but doesn’t get directory services from another server or provide directory services to other computers. static IP address An IP address that’s assigned to a computer or device once and is never changed. stripe (noun) A partition of a drive in a RAID array. stripe (verb) To write data to successive stripes in a RAID array or LUN. subdirectory A directory within a directory. subdomain Sometimes called the host name. Part of the domain name of a computer on the Internet. It does not include the domain or the top-level domain (TLD) designator (for example, .com, .net, .us, .uk). The domain name “www.example.com” consists of the subdomain “www,” the domain “example,” and the top-level domain “com.”Glossary 223 subnet A grouping on the same network of client computers that are organized by location (for example, different floors of a building) or by usage (for example, all eighthgrade students). The use of subnets simplifies administration. See also IP subnet. subnet mask A number used in IP networking to specify which portion of an IP address is the network number. TB Terabyte. 1,099,511,627,776 (2 40 ) bytes. TCP Transmission Control Protocol. A method used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. IP handles the actual delivery of the data, and TCP keeps track of the units of data (called packets) into which a message is divided for efficient routing through the Internet. terabyte See TB. throughput The rate at which a computer can process data. tunneling A technology that allows one network protocol to send its data using the format of another protocol. two-factor authentication A process that authenticates through a combination of two independent factors: something you know (such as a password), something you have (such as a smart card), or something you are (such as a biometric factor). This is more secure than authentication that uses only one factor, typically a password. URL Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a computer, file, or resource that can be accessed on a local network or the Internet. The URL is made up of the name of the protocol needed to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the computer. user ID See UID. user name The long name for a user, sometimes referred to as the user’s real name. See also short name. Virtual Private Network See VPN. volume A mountable allocation of storage that behaves, from the client’s perspective, like a local hard disk, hard disk partition, or network volume. In Xsan, a volume consists of one or more storage pools. See also logical disk. VPN Virtual Private Network. A network that uses encryption and other technologies to provide secure communications over a public network, typically the Internet. VPNs are generally cheaper than real private networks using private lines, but they rely on having the same encryption system at both ends. The encryption may be performed by firewall software or by routers.224 Glossary WAN Wide area network. A network maintained across geographically separated facilities, as opposed to a LAN (local area network) within a facility. Your WAN interface is usually the one connected to the Internet. WebDAV Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning. A live authoring environment that allows client users to check out webpages, make changes, and then check the pages back in to the site while the site is running. WebDAV realm A region of a website, usually a folder or directory, that’s defined to provide access for WebDAV users and groups. weblog See blog. Weblog service The Mac OS X Server service that lets users and groups securely create and use blogs. Weblog service uses Open Directory authentication to verify the identity of blog authors and readers. If accessed using a website that’s SSL enabled, Weblog service uses SSL encryption to further safeguard access to blogs. wide area network See WAN. wiki A website that allows users to collaboratively edit pages and easily access previous pages using a web browser. Windows Internet Naming Service See WINS. WINS Windows Internet Naming Service. A name resolution service used by Windows computers to match client names with IP addresses. A WINS server can be located on the local network or externally on the Internet. workgroup A set of users for whom you define preferences and privileges as a group. Any preferences you define for a group are stored in the group account. zone transfer The method by which zone data is replicated among authoritative DNS servers. Slave DNS servers request zone transfers from their master servers to acquire their data. 225 Index Index A access ACLs 57, 73 IP address restrictions 54 Keychain Access Utility 66 LDAP 21 remote installation 82 SACLs 73, 74 user 143, 146 See also permissions accounts. See user accounts; Workgroup Manager ACLs (access control lists) 57, 73 addresses. See IP addresses Administer permission level 149 administrator 73, 74, 149 administrator computer 80, 136, 137 AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) service 22, 184 Apple Remote Desktop (ARD) 51, 142, 184 archiving server data 33, 36 ARD. See Apple Remote Desktop asr tool 37, 85 authentication Kerberos 21, 59, 60, 110 key-based SSH 71, 72 keychain services 156 MS-CHAPv2 108 Open Directory 59 overview 58 passwords 59, 76, 97 RADIUS 20, 22, 59, 155 SASL 59 Server Admin 40, 63, 138 single sign-on 60 standalone server 109 and TLS 56 users 58, 60, 72, 108 Workgroup Manager 151 See also certificates authorization 58 See also authentication B backups advanced configuration 19 command-line tools 37 critical files 155 media types 36 policy considerations 32, 36 rotation scheme 35 scheduling 34 server setup data 119 types 34 validation of 36 Berkeley Software Distribution. See BSD broadcasting setup 133 BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) 23 C calendar service. See iCal service Certificate Authority (CA) creating 65 creating certificates from 67 distributing to clients 69 introduction 61 overview 62 requesting certificates from 63, 64, 65, 67 See also PKI Certificate Manager 62, 68 certificates creating 65, 67 deleting 69 editing 68 identities 62 importing 68 managing 68 overview 60, 61 preparing 64 private keys 61 public keys 61 renewing 70 requesting 64 root 65 self-signed 62, 65, 69226 Index and Server Admin 62, 147 and services 70 Certificate Signing Request. See CSR changeip tool 32 chat service. See iChat client computers and NetBoot 28 clients certificates 69 client-side logging 184 group accounts 152 and NetBoot 28 See also users command-line tools backup tools 37 daemon control 169 disk space monitoring 174 erasing disks 95 installing server software 101 partitioning disks 92 and permissions 149 restoration tools 37 server administration 49 computer lists 151, 152 computer name 107, 142 computers, administrator 80, 136, 137 computer-to-computer network 164 computer-to-switch network 165 computer-to-switch-pair network 165 concatenated RAID set 93 configuration advanced 19, 20, 110 authentication 59 automatic 115, 121, 122, 125 batch setup for multiple servers 113 connecting to network 106, 164, 165 DHCP 81, 110 directory connection 109, 110 Ethernet 106 interactive 110, 111, 112, 113 introduction 18, 105 link aggregation 166 logs 129 Open Directory 107, 108, 109, 110, 121, 125, 130 postponing 105 providing files to servers 120, 121 remote server 111, 112, 113 sample setup 185 saving setup data 116, 117, 118, 119, 122, 125 server infrastructure 30 server types 18 services 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 155 settings overview 107 SSL 147 standalone server 108 status checking 128, 129 troubleshooting 128, 129 types of 105, 144 worksheet for 195 Console 173 CSR (Certificate Signing Request) 63, 64, 65, 67 D daemons, overview 169 Darwin (core operating system) 23 Date & Time preferences 143 df tool 174 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) service 30, 81, 110 digital signature 147 directories. See directory services; domains, directory; folders Directory, overview 44, 45 directory services advanced configuration 110 and automatic setup 118, 121, 125 directory domains 21, 81, 108, 110, 154 logs 183 planning of 27 See also Open Directory Directory Utility 46 disk images encrypting 57 installing with 28, 48, 85, 88 disks command-line management of 92, 95, 174 erasing free space 95 installation preparation 89, 91, 92, 94, 95 mirroring 93 monitoring tools 173 partitions 84, 91, 92, 94, 95 quotas 28 See also RAID diskspacemonitor tool 174 Disk Utility 57, 91, 94, 95 diskutil tool 92, 94, 95 ditto tool 37 DMZ, network 54 DNS (Domain Name System) service 30, 81 documentation 13, 14, 15 Domain Name System. See DNS domains, directory 21, 81, 108, 110, 154 See also Open Directory drives. See disks du tool 174 DVDs, installation 84 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP E email. See mail service emond daemon 181 encryption 56, 57, 61, 119Index 227 See also SSL Ethereal packet sniffing tool 175 Ethernet 55, 106, 166 exporting service settings 146 F files backup 32, 36, 155 configuration 182 full file-level copies 34 security 57, 58 setup data 116, 117, 118, 122 shared secret 61 storage considerations 28 file services 20, 22, 130, 131, 184 file sharing 131, 148 file systems backing up 37 choosing 89 setup data 120 See also volumes File Transfer Protocol. See FTP FileVault 57 firewall service 54, 55, 81, 156 folders 27, 57, 142 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) service 22 full file-level copies 34 full image backup type 34 G Gateway Setup Assistant 155 group accounts 152 groups 140, 146, 149, 151 Growl application 184 H hardware requirements 17, 31, 79, 93 help, using 12 HFS+J volume 90 HFSX volume 90 historical data collection 171 home folders 27, 142 host name changing 144 local 107, 142 I iCal service 134, 156 iChat service 20, 134, 156 identity certificates. See certificates images. See disk images; NetBoot; NetInstall importing certificates 68 service settings 146 incremental backups 34 infrastructure requirements 30 Inspector 154 installation administrator computer 80 collecting information 79 command-line method 101 directory connections 81 with disk images 28, 48, 85, 88 disk preparation 89, 91, 92, 94, 95 from earlier OS versions 26, 28, 77, 80 host name changing 144 identifying servers 96 infrastructure requirements 30 integration strategy 29 interactive 97, 99, 100 multiple server 103 network services setup 81 overview 77 planning for 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 postponing setup after 105 remote access 80, 82, 96, 99 server installation disc 80 server software 81, 101 starting up for 81, 82, 84, 88 system requirements 79 updating 104 upgrading 104 installer tool 101, 103 IP addresses access restriction 54 changing server 32, 143 and firewalls 81 overview 23 remote server installation 82, 96 servers on different subnets 111 IPv6 addressing 23 J journaling, file system 90 K KDC (Kerberos Key Distribution Center). See Kerberos Kerberos 21, 59, 60, 110 key-based authentication 71, 72 Keychain Access Utility 66 keychain services 156 L LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) 164 launchctl tool 170 launchd daemon 37, 169 LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) service 21 LDAPv3 servers 59 link aggregation 163, 164, 165, 166, 167228 Index Link Aggregation Control Protocol. See LACP load balancing 168 local directory domain, standalone server 109 login, authenticating 70, 72 logs monitoring 173, 181, 182, 183, 184 troubleshooting setup 129 web services 159 M MAC (media access control) addresses 55, 96 Mac OS X administration from 137, 155 installation considerations 80 upgrading from 104 Mac OS X Server administrative tools 39 configuration 108 integration strategy 29 introduction 17, 18 supported standards 21 system requirements 17 and UNIX 23 See also configuration; installation mail service 20, 22, 132, 155, 157 managed preferences, defining 152 media, streaming. See streaming media migration 26, 28, 29 mirroring, disk 93 mobile accounts 142 Monitor permission level 149 MS-CHAPv2 authentication 108 MySQL service 158 N Nagios application 184 NAT (Network Address Translation) 157 NetBoot service 28, 48, 88 NetInstall 48, 88 Network Address Translation. See NAT Network File System. See NFS network interfaces 142 networks connection configurations 106, 164, 165 environment for installation 78 Ethernet 55, 106, 166 initial server setup connection 106 monitoring tools 174, 177, 178, 179, 180 security 54, 55, 56 network services DHCP 30, 81, 110 DNS 30, 81 installation 81 NAT 157 NTP 142, 143 planning for 30 setup 133 VLAN 55 VPN 110 See also IP addresses network time protocol. See NTP NFS (Network File System) 22 notification system 46, 143, 156, 175, 180 See also logs NTP (network time protocol) 142, 143 O Open Directory authentication 59 logs 183 overview 20 and SACLs 73 setup 107, 108, 109, 110, 121, 125, 130 Open Directory master 81 Open Directory replica 59, 110, 162 OpenLDAP 21 open source modules Kerberos 21, 59, 60, 110 OpenLDAP 21 OpenSSL 56 PHP 158 See also Open Directory OpenSSL 56 operating environment requirements 162 P PackageMaker 48 packets, data, filtering of 54 partitions, disk 84, 91, 92, 94, 95 passwords 59, 76, 97 permissions administrator 73, 149 files 57 folder 57 SACL 74 types 57 php configuration files 158 physical infrastructure requirements 30 PKI (public key infrastructure) 56, 60, 61 Podcast Producer 133 portable computers 142 Portable Operating System Interface. See POSIX ports Ethernet 106 list of 136 status of 136 TCP 70 POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) 57 preferences 152 presets 152Index 229 print service 131 private key 61, 62 privileges, administrator 73, 149 See also permissions PropertyListEditor 48 protocols file service 22, 184 network service 30, 81, 110, 142, 143 overview 22 See also specific protocols public key certificates. See certificates public key cryptography 70 public key infrastructure. See PKI Q QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) 20, 49, 156 quotas, disk space 28 R RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) 20, 22, 59, 155 RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) 28, 92, 94 RAID Admin 173 real-time monitoring 171 Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. See RADIUS remote servers accessing 82 Apple Remote Desktop 51, 142, 184 configuration 111, 112, 113 identifying 96 installing from or to 80, 82, 96, 99 replication 59, 110, 162 requirements hardware 17, 31, 79, 93 infrastructure 30 operating environment 162 software 79, 80 restart, automatic 161 restoration, data 32, 35 root certificate 65 rsync tool 37 S SACLs (service access control lists) 73, 74 SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) 59 Secure Empty Trash 58 secure SHell. See SSH Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL Secure VM 57 security administrator 73 authorization 58 best practices 74 file 57, 58 firewall service 54, 55, 81, 156 installation 81 network 54, 55, 56 overview 53 physical 53 SASL 59 service level 73, 74 settings 147 SSH 70, 71, 72, 82, 83, 142, 156 SSL 56, 60, 61, 62, 147 TLS 56 See also access; authentication; certificates; SSL self-signed certificates 62, 65, 69 serial number, server 83 Server Admin access control 146 as administration tool 138, 139 authentication 40, 63, 138 certificates 62, 147 customizing 41 notification system 175 opening 40, 63, 138 overview 11, 39, 40, 63 server status 176 service management 145 and system imaging 48 Server Assistant 42, 99, 105, 110 Server Message Block protocol. See SMB Server Monitor 46, 172 servers adding 139 administration tools 39, 49, 50, 135, 138 basic settings 107, 141 groups of 140 infrastructure requirements 30 load balancing 168 reliability tools 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167 relocation considerations 31 removing 139 sample setup 185 serial numbers for 83 setup worksheet 195 standalone 107, 108, 109 startup 81, 88 status monitoring 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 time 142, 143 troubleshooting 128, 129 See also configuration; installation; remote servers Server Status Dashboard widget 172 service access control lists. See SACLs services access control 143, 146 exporting settings 146 importing settings 146230 Index management of 155 planning for distribution of 27 security 70, 73, 74 setup 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 155 viewing 143, 145 See also specific services setup procedures. See configuration; installation shared directory domain 21, 108 shared secret files 61 share points 57, 148 Simple Network Management Protocol. See SNMP single points of failure 159 single sign-on authentication 60 slapd daemon 184 SMB (Server Message Block) protocol 22 snapshots, data 34 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) definition 23 as monitoring tool 177, 178, 179, 180 settings 142 snmpd daemon 178 Software Update service 104, 133 srm UNIX utility 58 SSH (secure SHell host) 70, 71, 72, 82, 83, 142, 156 SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) 56, 60, 61, 62, 147 standalone server 107, 108, 109 standard configuration type 18 streaming media 20, 28, 49, 133, 156 striping 93 subnets 106, 111 syslog configuration file 182 syslogd daemon 181 System Image Utility 48 system imaging service 133 T TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) 54, 70 tcpdump tool 175 Time Machine 37 time server 142, 143 TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol 56 Transmission Control Protocol. See TCP Transport Layer Security protocol. See TLS troubleshooting server operation 128, 129 U UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 54 UNIX 23 upgrading from Mac OS X 104 from previous server versions 26, 28 vs. migration 26, 29 and saved setup data 116 UPS (uninterruptible power supply) 160, 161 user accounts authentication 60 group 152 managed preferences 152 management of 151 mobile 142 passwords 59 setup 130 See also users User Datagram Protocol. See UDP users access control 143, 146 administrative access for 73 authentication 58, 60, 72, 108 certificates 62 and Directory 44 disk space quotas 28 groups 146, 149, 151 home folders 27, 142 management of 151 permissions 149 Windows 28, 59 See also clients; user accounts; Workgroup Manager V Virtual Private Network. See VPN VLAN (virtual local area network) 55 VNC (virtual network computing) 79, 82, 100, 103 volumes backing up 37 erasing 95 and partitioning 91, 92 RAID 93, 94 setup data 120 startup 82, 88 supported 90 VPN (Virtual Private Network) 110 W weblog service 159 WebObjects Application Server 134 web services 20, 21, 132, 158 web technologies 22 wikis 159 Windows NT 29 Windows users 28, 59 workgroup configuration type 18 Workgroup Manager administering accounts 151 administration overview 150 authentication 151 customizing 44, 154 opening 42, 151 overview 42, 43Index 231 X Xgrid 2 service 20, 155 Xgrid Admin 50 Xsan 19 Xserve hardware installation instructions 79 and Server Monitor 46 and server reliability 160, 161 VLAN support 55 Instructions de remplacement Respectez scrupuleusement les instructions de ce document. À défaut, vous risquez de détériorer votre matériel et d’invalider sa garantie. Remarque: Des instructions sont disponibles en ligne à l’adresse http://www.apple.com/support/doityourself/. Avertissement : Durant cette procédure, mettez les petites pièces hors de portée des enfants. Avertissement : Il existe des bords tranchants à l’intérieur de l’ordinateur. Soyez vigilant. Outils requis Le seul outil requis pour cette procédure est un tournevis cruciforme. Ouverture de l’ordinateur Avertissement : Éteignez systématiquement l’ordinateur avant de l’ouvrir afin d’éviter d’endommager ses composants internes et de vous blesser. Après extinction, les composants internes risquent d’être très chauds. Attendez qu’ils refroidissent avant de poursuivre. 1. Placez l’ordinateur sur une surface propre et plane. 2. Si vous pensez que le mode Suspension d’activité est déclenché, appuyez sur le bouton d’alimentation en façade pour réactiver l’ordinateur. 3. Éteignez l’ordinateur et patientez cinq minutes avant de poursuivre. 4. Si vous avez installé un câble antivol, retirez-le. 5. Débranchez tous les autres câbles connectés à l’ordinateur, à l’exception du cordon d’alimentation. 1 Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver 2002_Mirrored Drive Doors_FW 800) - Optical Drive F073-0624 Rev. D Lecteur Optique AppleCare6. Touchez les caches métalliques des connecteurs PCI, à l’arrière de l’ordinateur. (Figure 1) Important : Agissez toujours de même avant de toucher un élément ou d’installer un composant à l’intérieur de l’ordinateur. Pour éviter d’accumuler de l’électricité statique, ne vous déplacez pas dans la pièce avant d’avoir achevé l’installation et refermé l’ordinateur. 7. Débranchez le cordon d’alimentation. Avertissement : Ne branchez jamais le cordon d’alimentation et ne mettez jamais l’ordinateur sous tension tant que les composants internes et externes ne sont pas tous en place et que le capot est ouvert. En transgressant ces règles, vous risqueriez d’endommager l’ordinateur ou de vous blesser. Assurez-vous que le cordon d’alimentation reste débranché jusqu’à la fin de la procédure, tant que l’ordinateur n’est pas refermé. Avertissement : Le bloc d’alimentation de votre ordinateur est un composant haute tension à n’ouvrir sous aucun prétexte, même lorsque l’ordinateur est éteint. S’il nécessite une intervention, contactez votre revendeur Apple ou votre Société de maintenance agréée Apple. 8. Soulevez le loquet situé sur le panneau latéral droit. 9. Abaissez délicatement le panneau latéral jusqu’à ce qu’il repose à plat. Afin de ne pas érafler le boîtier, prévoyez un linge doux et propre. Avertissement : Si des voyants sont allumés sur la carte mère, cela signifie que l’ordinateur n’est pas éteint. Refermez le panneau d’accès latéral et éteignez l’ordinateur avant de poursuivre. F073-0624 Rev. D Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver 2002_Mirrored Drive Doors_FW 800) - Optical Drive 2 Figure 1 Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver 2002) Power Mac G4 (Mirrored Drive Doors_FW 800)Dépose du Lecteur Optique sur les modèles QuickSilver Avertissement : Manipulez le lecteur optique installé avec précaution. Tenez-le par ses deux côtés métalliques et n’exercez aucune pression sur son centre. Il ne faut jamais lever ou tenir le lecteur par le panneau avant. 1. A l’aide d’un tournevis cruciforme, enlevez les quatre vis qui fixent le berceau du lecteur au châssis. (Figure 2) 2. Tout en tenant la base du berceau, faites-le coulisser vers l’arrière et tourner de façon à pouvoir accéder aux câbles du lecteur. (Figure 3) 3 Power Mac G4 (Qui