Cisco ASA 5500

 

 

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ASA

La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 (Adaptive Security Appliance) assure en profondeur la protection des réseaux des petites, moyennes et grandes entreprises tout en réduisant les frais de déploiement et d’exploitation. Le Cisco ASA succède au célèbre PIX, le boîtier firewall et VPN le plus vendu au monde et réunit sur une même plateforme une combinaison de technologies éprouvées. Pour suivre l’évolution des menaces, il offre plus de puissance et des services de sécurité de nouvelle génération comme la Prévention d’Intrusion (IPS), le Filtrage de Contenu (AntiX – technologie en provenance de Trend Micro) ou le VPN SSL. 

L’ASA est administré à l’aide d’un puissant logiciel graphique d’utilisation facile et conviviale, ASDM (Adaptive Security Device Manager). ASDM permet d’accélérer la création de politiques de sécurité, de réduire la charge d’administration et les erreurs de configuration grâce à des assistants graphiques d’installation, des outils de débogage, et de surveillance.



Description de la gamme Cisco ASA Description de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Les serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco® ASA 5500 s’appuient sur une plate-forme modulaire capable de fournir des services de sécurité et de VPN de prochaine génération à tous les environnements, depuis les petits bureaux, les bureaux à domicile et les PME/PMI jusqu’aux grandes entreprises. La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 met à la disposition de l’entreprise une gamme complète de services personnalisés au travers de ses diverses éditions spécifiquement conçues pour le pare-feu, la prévention des intrusions, la protection des contenus et les VPN. Ces éditions offrent une protection de haute qualité en fournissant les services adaptés à chaque site. Chaque édition associe un ensemble spécialisé de services Cisco ASA qui répondent très exactement aux besoins des environnements spécifiques du réseau de l’entreprise. En satisfaisant aux besoins de sécurité de chaque domaine du réseau, c’est la sécurité de l’ensemble du réseau qui se trouve renforcée. La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 permet la normalisation sur une unique plate-forme afin de réduire les frais opérationnels associés à la sécurité. L’environnement commun de configuration simplifie la gestion et réduit les coûts de formation du personnel tandis que la plate-forme matérielle commune de la gamme permet de réaliser des économies sur les pièces de rechange. Chaque édition répond aux besoins spécifiques d’un environnement du réseau de l’entreprise : • Firewall Edition : grâce à cette édition pare-feu, l’entreprise peut déployer ses applications et ses réseaux vitaux de manière fiable et sécurisée. La conception modulaire unique du Cisco ASA 5500 garantit une remarquable protection de l’investissement et des frais d’exploitation réduits. • IPS Edition : dotée d’un ensemble de services de pare-feu, de sécurité applicative et de prévention des intrusions, cette édition protège les serveurs et l’infrastructure essentiels de l’entreprise contre les vers, les pirates et les autres menaces. • Content Security Edition : avec son ensemble complet de services de sécurité, cette édition protège les utilisateurs des petits sites et des sites distants. Les services de parefeu et de VPN de qualité entreprise assurent une connectivité sécurisée vers le réseau du siège social. A la pointe de la technologie actuelle, les services de protection des contenus de Trend Micro mettent le système client à l’abri des sites Web malveillants et des autres menaces à base de contenus comme les virus, les logiciels espions et le phishing. • SSL/IPsec VPN Edition : cette édition protège l’accès des utilisateurs distants vers les systèmes et les équipements du réseau interne et supporte la mise en grappe des VPN pour les déploiements de grande taille en entreprise. Les technologies d’accès VPN à distance protégées par les normes SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) et IPSec (IP Security) sont renforcées par des technologies de réduction des menaces, comme Cisco Secure Desktop, et des services de pare-feu et de prévention des intrusions qui garantissent que le trafic VPN ne fera pas courir de risques au réseau de l’entreprise. Cinq raisons d’acheter les serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 1. .. Technologie de pare 1. Technologie de pare Technologie de pare----feu sécurisé et de protection feu sécurisé et de protection des VPN contre les menaces des VPN contre les menaces Développée autour de la même technologie éprouvée qui a fait le succès du serveur de sécurité Cisco PIX et de la gamme des concentrateurs Cisco VPN 3000, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 est la première solution à proposer des services VPN SSL et IPSec protégés par la première technologie de pare-feu du marché. 2. .. Services de protection des contenus à la pointe de 2. Services de protection des contenus à la pointe de l’industrie l’industrie Réunit la maîtrise de Trend Micro en matière de protection contre les menaces et de contrôle des contenus à la périphérie Internet et les solutions éprouvées de Cisco pour fournir des services anti-X complets – protection contre les virus, les logiciels espions, le courrier indésirable et le phishing, ainsi que le blocage de fichiers, le blocage et le filtrage des URL et le filtrage des contenus. 3. .. Services 3. Services Services évolués de prévention des intrusions évolués de prévention des intrusions évolués de prévention des intrusions Les services proactifs de prévention des intrusions offrent toutes les fonctionnalités qui permettent de bloquer un large éventail de menaces – vers, attaques sur la couche applicative ou au niveau du système d'exploitation, rootkits, logiciels espions, partages de fichiers en « peer-to-peer » et messagerie instantanée. 4. .. Services multifonctions de gestion et de surveillance 4. Services multifonctions de gestion et de surveillance Services multifonctions de gestion et de surveillance Sur une même plate-forme, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 fournit des services de gestion et de surveillance utilisables de manière intuitive grâce au gestionnaire Cisco ASDM (Adaptive Security Device Manager) ainsi que des services de gestion de catégorie entreprise avec Cisco Security Management Suite. 5. .. Réduction des frais de déploiement et d’exploitati 5. Réduction des frais de déploiement et d’exploitati Réduction des frais de déploiement et d’exploitationononon Développée autour d’un concept et d’une interface analogues à ceux des solutions de sécurité existantes de Cisco, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 permet de réduire considérablement le coût d’acquisition que ce soit dans le cadre d’un premier déploiement d’une solution de sécurité ou d’une gestion au jour le jour. Serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUEACRONYMES ACRONYMES SSC : Security Services Card, SSM SSC SSM :::: Security Services Module, AIP----SSM :::: Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module, CSC----SSM :::: Content Security and Control Security Services Module, 4GE----SSM :::: Module de services de sécurité à 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit Modèles et licences de la gamme Cisco ASA Modèles et licences de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Cisco ASA 5505 Base / Security Plus Cisco ASA 5510 Base / Security Plus Cisco ASA 5520 Cisco ASA 5520 Cisco ASA 5550 Cisco ASA 5550 Cisco ASA 5540 Cisco ASA 5540 Utilisateur type Petit bureau / bureau à domicile ROBO / MSSP / Télétravailleur d’entreprise PME / Petite société Petite société Entreprise de taille moyenne Grande entreprise Résumé des performances Résumé des performances Débit maximal du pare-feu (Mbits/s) 150 300 450 650 1200 Débit maximal des VPN 3DES ou AES (Mbits/s) 100 170 225 325 425 Nombre maximal connexions VPN à distance et de site à site 10 / 25 250 750 5000 5000 Nombre maximal de connexions VPN SSL 1 25 250 750 2500 5000 Nombre maximal de connexions 10 000 / 25 000 50 000 / 130 000 280 000 400 000 650 000 Nombre maximal de connexions / seconde 3000 6000 9000 20 000 28 000 Paquets par seconde (64 octets) 85 000 190 000 320 000 500 000 600 000 Récapitulatif technique Récapitulatif technique Mémoire (Mo) 256 256 512 1024 4096 Mémoire Flash système (Mo) 64 64 64 64 64 Ports intégrés Commutateur 10/100 8 ports avec 2 ports à alimentation en ligne (PoE) 5-10/100 4-10/100/1000,1-10/100 4-10/100/1000,1-10/100 8-10/100/1000,1-10/100 Nombre maximal d’interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 3 (ligne réseau désactivée) / 20 (ligne réseau activée) 50 /100 150 200 250 Emplacement d’extension SSC ou SSM Emplacement d’extension SSC ou SSM Oui (SSC) Oui (SSC) Oui (SSC) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Oui (SSM) Nononon Capacités SSC/SSM Modules SSC/SSM supportés Ultérieurement, SSC CSC-SSM, AIP-SSM,4GESSM CSC-SSM, AIP-SSM,4GESSM CSC-SSM, AIP-SSM, 4GESSM Non Prévention des intrusions Non disponible Oui avec AIP-SSM Oui avec AIP-SSM Oui avec AIP-SSM Non Débit des services simultanés de limitation des risques (pare-feu et services IPS) (Mbits/s) Non disponible 150 (avec AIP-SSM-10) 300 (avec AIP-SSM-20) 225 (avec AIP-SSM-10) 375 (avec AIP-SSM-20) 450 avec AIP-SSM-20 Non disponible Protection des contenus (antivirus, anti-logiciel espion, blocage de fichiers, anti-courrier indésirable, anti-phishing, et filtrage des URL) Non disponible Oui avec CSC-SSM Oui avec CSC-SSM Oui avec CSC-SSM Non disponible Nombre maximal d’utilisateurs antivirus, anti-logiciel espion, blocage de fichiers (CSC-SSM seulement) Non disponible 500 (avec CSC-SSM-10) 1000 (avec CSC-SSM-20) 500 (avec CSC-SSM-10) 1000 (avec CSC-SSM-20) 500 (avec CSC-SSM-10) 1000 (avec CSC-SSM-20) Non disponible Fonctionnalités de la licence CSC SSM Plus Non disponible Anti-spam, anti-phishing, filtrage des URL Anti-spam, anti-phishing, filtrage des URL Anti-spam, anti-phishing, filtrage des URL Non disponible Caractéristiques Caractéristiques Protection de la couche applicative Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Pare-feu de couche 2 transparent Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Contextes de sécurité (intégrés / maximum) 2 0/0 0/0 / 2/5 2/20 2/50 2/50 Inspection GTP/GPRS 2 Non disponible Non disponible Oui Oui Oui Haute disponibilité 3 Non disponible / A/V à inspection d’état Non disponible / A/A et A/V A/A et A/V A/A et A/V A/A et A/V équilibrage de charge et mise en grappe des VPN Non disponible Non disponible / Oui Oui Oui Oui 1 A partir de la version v7.1 du logiciel Cisco ASA, la fonctionnalité VPN SSL (WebVPN) nécessite une licence. Les systèmes autorisent par défaut 2 utilisateurs VPN SSL pour évaluation et gestion à distance 2 Fonctionnalités sous licence 3 A/V= Actif/Veille ; A/A = Actif/Actif Copyright © 2007, Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés. Cisco, Cisco IOS, Cisco Systems et le logo Cisco Systèmes sont des marques déposées de Cisco Systems, Inc. ou de ses filiales aux Etats-Unis et dans certains autres pays. C45-345380-04 6/07 Serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 1/24 Description des Serveurs de Sécurité Adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Les Serveurs de Sécurité Adaptatifs Cisco® ASA 5500 combinent les meilleurs services de VPN et de sécurité, et l’architecture évolutive AIM (Adaptive Identification and Mitigation), pour constituer une solution de sécurité spécifique. Conçue comme l’élément principal de la solution Self-Defending Network de Cisco (le réseau qui se défend tout seul), la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 permet de mettre en place une défense proactive face aux menaces et de bloquer les attaques avant qu’elles ne se diffusent à travers le réseau, de contrôler l’activité du réseau et le trafic applicatif et d’offrir une connectivité VPN flexible. Le résultat est une gamme de puissants serveurs de sécurité réseau multifonctions capables d’assurer en profondeur la protection élargie des réseaux des PME/PMI et des grandes entreprises tout en réduisant l’ensemble des frais de déploiement et d’exploitation et en simplifiant les tâches généralement associées à un tel niveau de sécurité. Réunissant sur une même plate-forme une combinaison puissante de nombreuses technologies éprouvées, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 vous donne les moyens opérationnels et économiques de déployer des services de sécurité complets vers un plus grand nombre de sites. La gamme complète des services disponibles avec la famille Cisco ASA 5500 permet de répondre aux besoins spécifiques de chaque site grâce à des éditions produits conçues pour les PME comme pour les grandes entreprises. Ces différentes éditions offrent une protection de qualité supérieure en apportant à chaque installation les services dont elle a besoin. Chaque édition de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 regroupe un ensemble spécialisé de services – firewall, VPN SSL et IPSec, protection contre les intrusions, services Anti-X, etc. – qui répondent exactement aux besoins des différents environnements du réseau d’entreprise. Et lorsque les besoins de sécurité de chaque site sont correctement assurés, c’est l’ensemble de la sécurité du réseau qui en bénéficie. Figure 1. Les serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Fiche Technique © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 2/24 La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 aide les entreprises à protéger plus efficacement leurs réseaux tout en garantissant une exceptionnelle protection de leurs investissements grâce notamment, aux éléments clés suivants : • Des fonctionnalités éprouvées de sécurité et de connectivité VPN. Le système de prévention des intrusions (IPS) et de firewall multifonctions, ainsi que les technologies anti-X et VPN IPSec ou SSL (IP Security/Secure Sockets Layer) garantissent la robustesse de la sécurité des applications, le contrôle d’accès par utilisateur et par application, la protection contre les vers, les virus et les logiciels malveillants, le filtrage des contenus ainsi qu’une connectivité à distance par site ou par utilisateur. • L’architecture évolutive des services AIM (Adaptive Identification and Mitigation). Exploitant un cadre modulaire de traitement et de politique de services, l’architecture AIM de Cisco ASA 5500 autorise l’application, par flux de trafic, de services spécifiques de sécurité ou de réseau qui permettent des contrôles de politiques d’une très grande précision ainsi que la protection anti-X tout en accélérant le traitement du trafic. Les avantages en termes de performances et d’économies offerts par l’architecture AIM de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500, ainsi que l’évolutivité logicielle et matérielle garantie par les modules SSM (Security Service Module), permettent de faire évoluer les services existants et d’en déployer de nouveaux, sans remplacer la plate-forme et sans réduire les performances. Fondement architectural de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500, AIM permet l’application de politiques de sécurité hautement personnalisables ainsi qu’une évolutivité de service sans précédent qui renforce la protection des entreprises contre l’environnement toujours plus dangereux qui les menace. • La réduction des frais de déploiement et d’exploitation. La solution multifonctions Cisco ASA 5500 permet la normalisation de la plate-forme, de la configuration et de la gestion, contribuant à réduire les frais de déploiement et d’exploitation récurrents. PRÉSENTATION DE LA GAMME CISCO ASA 5500 La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 inclut les boîtiers de sécurité adaptatifs Cisco ASA 5505, 5510, 5520 et 5540. Il s’agit de quatre serveurs de sécurité ultra-performants issus de l’expertise de Cisco Systems® en matière de développement de solutions de sécurité et VPN reconnues et leaders sur leur marché. Cette gamme utilise les dernières technologies des serveurs de sécurité Cisco PIX® 500, des capteurs Cisco IPS 4200 et des concentrateurs Cisco VPN 3000. . Conçue comme l’élément principal de la solution Self-Defending Network de Cisco (réseau qui se défend tout seul), la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 permet de mettre en © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 3/24 place une défense proactive face aux menaces et de bloquer les attaques avant qu’elles ne se diffusent à travers le réseau, de contrôler l’activité du réseau et le trafic applicatif et d’offrir une connectivité VPN flexible. Le résultat est une gamme de puissants serveurs de sécurité réseau multifonctions capables d’assurer en profondeur la protection élargie des réseaux des PME/PMI et des grandes entreprises tout en réduisant l’ensemble des frais de déploiement et d’exploitation et en simplifiant les tâches généralement associées à un tel niveau de sécurité. L’architecture extensible de services AIM de Cisco et la conception multiprocesseurs flexible de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 offrent aux Serveurs de Sécurité Adaptatifs des performances sans précédent pour de multiples services de sécurité simultanés, tout en offrant une protection exceptionnelle des investissements. Les serveurs de sécurité adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 associent plusieurs processeurs ultra-performants qui travaillent de concert pour fournir des services de firewall évolués. L’entreprise peut également installer les modules de services de sécurité de Cisco ASA 5500 : le module AIP-SSM (Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module) pour les services de prévention des intrusions ou le module CSC-SSM (Content Security and Control Security Services Module) pour les services anti-X évolués. Grâce à cette conception flexible, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 est la seule capable de s’adapter pour protéger les réseaux face à des menaces évoluant sans cesse. Elle offre également une protection des investissements exceptionnelle grâce à du matériel programmable rendant la plate-forme évolutive à long terme. Ces fonctionnalités de sécurité et VPN ultra-performantes et éprouvées, se combinent à la connectivité Gigabit Ethernet intégrée et à une architecture sans disque dur local et à mémoire flash. Ainsi, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 représente le choix idéal pour les entreprises qui recherchent la meilleure solution de sécurité haute performance, flexible, fiable et protégeant les investissements. .Chaque serveur de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 accepte, sur le système de base, le nombre maximal d’utilisateurs de VPN IPSec. L’achat et l’octroi de licences des services VPN SSL se font séparément. En faisant converger les services VPN IPSec et SSL VPN avec les technologies complètes de défense contre les menaces, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 fournit un accès réseau personnalisable adapté aux besoins de différents environnements de déploiement. Et cela en proposant un VPN totalement sécurisé avec une sécurité complète au niveau du réseau et du point d’extrémité. SERVEUR DE SÉCURITÉ ADAPTATIF CISCO ASA 5505 Le Cisco ASA 5505 est un Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif complet de prochaine génération destiné aux petites entreprises, aux agences d’entreprise et aux environnements de télétravail. De conception modulaire et utilisable dès l’installation (« plug and pay »),il offre des services haute performance de firewall, de VPN SSL et IPSec ainsi que des services de © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 4/24 réseau multifonctions. Son gestionnaire Web intégré, Cisco Adaptive Security Device Manager, permet de déployer rapidement et de gérer en toute simplicité le Cisco ASA 5505, contribuant ainsi à réduire les frais d’exploitation de l’entreprise. Le Cisco ASA 5505 est doté d’un commutateur Fast Ethernet à 8 ports qui peuvent être groupés dynamiquement afin de créer jusqu’à trois VLAN distincts pour l’utilisation domestique, les besoins professionnels et le trafic Internet – une répartition qui améliore la segmentation du trafic et la sécurité du réseau. Le Cisco ASA 5505 dispose également de deux ports à alimentation en ligne PoE (Power over Ethernet) pour simplifier le déploiement de téléphones IP Cisco avec leurs fonctionnalités VoIP automatiques sécurisées, et celui de points d’accès extérieurs sans fil pour apporter la mobilité au réseau. Particulièrement évolutif, comme les autres modèles de la gamme, le Cisco ASA 5505 protège les investissements grâce à sa conception modulaire et dispose d’un emplacement d’extension et de plusieurs ports USB en prévision de futurs services. A mesure que les besoins de l’entreprise augmenteront, vous pourrez installer une licence Security Plus complémentaire qui permettra au Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5505 d’évoluer pour supporter des capacités plus importantes de connexion et un plus grand nombre d’utilisateurs VPN IPSec, le support d’une zone démilitarisée (DMZ) et l’intégration aux environnements de réseau commuté avec le support des lignes réseaux VLAN. Plus encore, cette licence de mise à niveau maximise la continuité de l’entreprise en offrant un support pour les connexions redondantes vers les fournisseurs d’accès Internet et des services de haute disponibilité à inspection d’état Actif/Veille. Grâce à cette combinaison de services de sécurité et VPN à la pointe de l’industrie, de fonctionnalités réseaux évoluées, de gestion à distance et d’extensibilité, le Cisco ASA 5505 constitue la solution idéale de sécurité haut de gamme pour les petites entreprises, les agences et les télétravailleurs. Le Tableau 1 décrit les caractéristiques du Cisco ASA 5505. Tableau 1 : Fonctionnalités et capacités du Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5505 Fonction Description Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s Débit du VPN Jusqu’à 100 Mbits/s Connexions 10 000 ; 25 000* Homologues VPN IPSec 10 ; 25 * Niveaux de licence des homologues VPN SSL** 10, ou 25 Interfaces Commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports avec groupage dynamique des ports (dont 2 ports PoE) © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 5/24 Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 3 (sans support de l’aggrégation de VLAN)/20 (avec support de l’aggrégation de VLAN) * Haute disponibilité Non prise en charge ; mode actif/veille à inspection d’état et support ISP redondant * * Mise à niveau disponible avec la licence Security Plus de Cisco ASA 5505 ** Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; licence pour 2 homologues incluse dans le système de base SERVEUR DE SÉCURITÉ ADAPTATIF CISCO ASA 5510 Le Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5510 propose des services évolués de réseau et de sécurité aux PME et aux filiales et agences des grandes entreprises, sous la forme d’une solution économique et facile à déployer. L’application Web Adaptive Security Device Manager de Cisco, intégrée à la solution, permet de gérer et de surveiller facilement ces services. Les coûts de déploiement et d’exploitation liés à un tel niveau de sécurité sont ainsi réduits. Le serveur de sécurité adaptatif Cisco ASA 5510 fournit des services ultraperformants de firewall et VPN, trois interfaces 10/100 Fast Ethernet intégrées, des services optionnels de lutte contre les vers et de prévention des intrusions via le module AIP-SSM ou des services complets de protection contre les programmes nuisibles via le module CSCSSM. La combinaison exceptionnelle de ces services sur une plate-forme unique fait de Cisco ASA 5510 un choix idéal pour les entreprises cherchant une solution de sécurité économique et extensible avec DMZ. Pour répondre à la multiplication des besoins des entreprises, le serveur Cisco ASA 5510 peut évoluer vers une densité d’interfaces supérieure et s’intégrer dans des environnements de réseau commuté via la prise en charge VLAN, grâce à l’installation d’une licence de mise à niveau Security Plus. Cette licence de mise à niveau optimise également la continuité des activités grâce aux services de haute disponibilité de type actif/veille. Le tableau 2 dresse la liste des fonctionnalités du Cisco ASA 5510. Tableau 2 : Fonctionnalités et capacité de la plate-forme Cisco ASA 5510 Fonction Description Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 300 Mbits/s Débit de protection simultanée contre les menaces (firewall + services IPS) Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-10 Débit du VPN Jusqu’à 170 Mbits/s © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 6/24 Connexions 50 000 ; 130 000* Homologues VPN IPSec 250 Niveaux de licence des homologues VPN SSL** 10, 25, 50, 100 ou 250 Contextes de sécurité Jusqu’à 5 *** Interfaces 3 ports Fast Ethernet + 1 port de gestion ; 5 ports Fast Ethernet* Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 0 ; 25 * Haute disponibilité Non prise en charge ; mode actif/veille* * Mise à niveau disponible avec la licence Security Plus de Cisco ASA 5510 ** Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; licence pour deux homologues incluse dans le système de base *** Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; deux niveaux inclus avec la licence Cisco ASA 5010 Security Plus SERVEUR DE SÉCURITÉ ADAPTATIF CISCO ASA 5520 Le Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5520 fournit des services de sécurité à haute disponibilité de type actif/actif et une connectivité Gigabit Ethernet pour les réseaux des PME, dans une solution modulaire ultra-performante. Les quatre interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et la prise en charge de 100 VLAN permettent aux entreprises de déployer facilement le Cisco ASA 5520 dans plusieurs zones au sein de leur réseau. Ce serveur évolue avec l’entreprise, au rythme de ses besoins de sécurité réseau, et offre une solide protection des investissements. Les entreprises peuvent étendre leur capacité VPN IPSec et SSL pour gérer un plus grand nombre de travailleurs nomades, de sites distants et de partenaires commerciaux. Les fonctionnalités intégrées d’équilibrage de charge et de mise en grappe des VPN offertes par le Cisco ASA 5520 permettent d’augmenter la capacité des VPN. Il est également possible de mettre à niveau la capacité VPN SSL de chaque plate-forme via l’installation des licences de mise à niveau, au fur et à mesure de l’évolution des besoins de l’entreprise. Pour étendre les fonctions évoluées de sécurité de la couche applicative et de défenses anti-X offertes par ce serveur, il convient de déployer les fonctionnalités ultra-performantes de lutte contre les vers et de prévention des intrusions du module AIP-SSM ou la protection complète contre les programmes nuisibles du module CSC-SSM. Grâce aux fonctionnalités optionnelles de contexte de sécurité du Cisco ASA 5520, les entreprises peuvent déployer jusqu’à 10 firewall virtuels dans un serveur afin d’activer le contrôle compartimenté des règles de sécurité au niveau de leurs services. Cette virtualisation permet de renforcer la sécurité et de réduire les frais d’administration et d’assistance technique, en regroupant les multiples solutions de sécurité dans un seul serveur. © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 7/24 Le tableau 3 dresse la liste des fonctionnalités du Cisco ASA 5520. Tableau 3 : Fonctionnalités et capacité de la plate-forme Cisco ASA 5520 Fonction Description Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 450 Mbits/s Débit de protection simultanée contre les menaces (firewall + services IPS) Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-10 Jusqu’à 375 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-20 Débit du VPN Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s Connexions 280 000 Homologues VPN IPSec 750 Niveaux de licence des homologues VPN SSL* 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 ou 750 Contextes de sécurité Jusqu’à 20 * Interfaces 4 ports Gigabit Ethernet et 1 port Fast Ethernet Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 100 Évolutivité Équilibrage de charge et mise en grappe des VPN Haute disponibilité Actif/actif, actif/veille *Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; licences pour 2 homologues incluse dans le système de base SERVEUR DE SÉCURITÉ ADAPTATIF CISCO ASA 5540 Le serveur de sécurité adaptatif Cisco ASA 5540 fournit des services de sécurité haute performance et haute densité, avec une haute disponibilité de type actif/actif et une connectivité Gigabit Ethernet. Il est destiné aux réseaux des grandes et moyennes entreprises et des fournisseurs d’accès, dans une solution modulaire et fiable. Grâce à quatre interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et à la prise en charge de 200 VLAN, le Cisco ASA 5540 permet aux entreprises de segmenter leur réseau en plusieurs zones, pour une plus grande sécurité. Ce serveur évolue avec l’entreprise, au rythme de ses besoins de sécurité, offrant une protection des investissements et une évolutivité des services exceptionnelles. Pour étendre les fonctions évoluées de sécurité au niveau de la couche applicative et du réseau, et de défenses anti-X offertes par le serveur, il convient de déployer le module AIP-SSM pour les fonctions ultra-performantes de prévention des intrusions et de lutte contre les vers. Les entreprises peuvent dimensionner leur capacité VPN IPSec et SSL de différentes façons pour gérer un plus grand nombre de travailleurs nomades, de sites distants et de partenaires commerciaux. Les fonctionnalités intégrées d’équilibrage de charge et de mise en grappe des VPN offertes par le Cisco ASA 5540 permettent d’augmenter la résistance et la capacité des VPN. Il prend en charge jusqu’à 10 serveurs par grappe, pour un maximum de 50 000 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 8/24 homologues VPN IPSec par grappe. Les entreprises peuvent aller jusqu’à 2 500 homologues VPN SSL sur chaque Cisco ASA 5540, en installant une licence de mise à niveau VPN SSL. La plate-forme de base peut prendre en charge 5 000 homologues VPN IPSec. Grâce aux fonctionnalités optionnelles de contexte de sécurité du Cisco ASA 5540, les entreprises peuvent déployer jusqu’à 50 firewall virtuels dans un serveur afin d’activer le contrôle compartimenté des règles de sécurité par service ou par client et générer une réduction des coûts de gestion et d’assistance technique. Le tableau 4 dresse la liste des fonctionnalités du Cisco ASA 5540. Tableau 4 : Fonctionnalités et capacité de la plate-forme Cisco ASA 5540 Fonction Description Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 650 Mbits/s Débit de protection simultanée contre les menaces (firewall + services IPS) Jusqu’à 450 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-20 Débit du VPN Jusqu’à 325 Mbits/s Connexions 400 000 Homologues VPN IPSec 5 000 Niveaux de licence des homologues VPN SSL* 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 et 2500 Contextes de sécurité Jusqu’à 50* Interfaces 4 ports Gigabit Ethernet et 1 port Fast Ethernet Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 200 Évolutivité Équilibrage des charges et mise en grappe des VPN Haute disponibilité Actif/actif, actif/veille *Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; licence pour 2 homologues incluse dans le système de base SERVEUR DE SÉCURITÉ ADAPTATIF CISCO ASA 5550 De format compact (1 RU), le Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5550 fournit de manière fiable des services de sécurité de classe Gigabit avec haute disponibilité actif/actif et une connectivité fibre et Ethernet Gigabit pour les réseaux des grandes entreprises et des fournisseurs de services. Grâce à ses huit interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, ses quatre interfaces fibres SFP (Small Form-Factor Pluggable) et sa capacité à supporter jusqu’à 200 VLAN, il donne à l’entreprise les moyens de segmenter son réseau en un grand nombre de zones haute performance pour plus de sécurité. © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 9/24 A mesure que les besoins de sécurité de l’entreprise augmentent, le Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5550 évolue avec eux pour garantir une exceptionnelle protection de l’investissement et des niveaux de services toujours adaptés. L’entreprise peut augmenter sa capacité VPN IPSec et SSL pour servir un nombre croissant de travailleurs mobiles, de sites distants et de partenaires : une licence de mise à niveau permet de supporter jusqu’à 5000 homologues VPN SSL sur chaque Cisco ASA 5550, tandis que la plate-forme de base accepte jusqu’à 5000 homologues VPN IPSec. Les fonctionnalités intégrées d’équilibrage de charge et de mise en grappes des VPN contribuent encore à augmenter la capacité et la robustesse VPN du Cisco ASA 5550 : jusqu’à 10 serveurs peuvent être mis en grappe pour une capacité maximale de 50 000 homologues VPN SSL et 50 000 homologues VPN IPSec par grappe. Grâce aux fonctionnalités de sécurité contextuelles en option du Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5550, l’entreprise peut déployer jusqu’à 50 firewall virtuels sur un même appareil afin de permettre le contrôle compartimenté des politiques de sécurité par service ou par client, ce qui réduit considérablement les frais de gestion et d’assistance. Note : Le système dispose de douze ports Ethernet Gigabit au total, dont huit peuvent être utilisés en même temps. Pour donner encore plus de souplesse à la connectivité de data centre, de réseau campus ou de périphérie de l’entreprise, le serveur de sécurité adaptatif Cisco ASA 5550 accepte les connectivités cuivre et fibre. Le Tableau 5 donne la liste des caractéristiques du Cisco ASA 5550 Tableau 5 : Fonctionnalités et capacité de la plate-forme Cisco ASA 5550 Fonction Description Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 1,2 Gbits/s Débit du VPN Jusqu’à 425 Mbits/s Connexions 650 000 Homologues VPN IPSec 5 000 Niveaux de licence des homologues VPN SSL* 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 2500 et 5000 Contextes de sécurité Jusqu’à 50* Interfaces 8 ports Gigabit Ethernet, 4 ports fibres SFP et 1 port Fast Ethernet Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 200 Évolutivité Équilibrage de charge et mise en grappe des VPN Haute disponibilité Actif/actif, actif/veille *Fonction fournie sous licence distincte ; licence pour 2 homologues incluse dans le système de base © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 10/24 CARACTÉRISTIQUES DES PRODUITS Le tableau 6 permet de comparer les Serveurs de Sécurité Adaptatifs Cisco ASA 5510, 5520 et 5540. Tableau 6 : Caractéristiques des Serveurs de Sécurité Adaptatifs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Cisco ASA 5505 Cisco ASA 5510 Cisco ASA 5520 Cisco ASA 5540 Cisco ASA 5550 Utilisateurs/nœ uds 10, 50 ou illimité Illimité Illimité Illimité Illimité Débit du firewall Débit de protection simultanée contre les menaces (firewall + services IPS) Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s Non disponible Jusqu’à 300 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-10 Jusqu’à 375 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM-20 Jusqu’à 450 M Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM- 10bits/s Jusqu’à 650 Jusqu’à 450 Mbits/s avec l’AIP-SSM- 20Mbits/s Jusqu’à 1,2 Gbits/s Non disponible Débit du VPN 3DES/AES Jusqu’à 100 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 170 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 325 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 425 Mbits/s Homologues VPN IPSec 10 ; 25 * 250 750 5000 5000 Homologues VPN SSL* (inclus/maximu m) 2/25 2 /250 2/750 2/2 500 2/5000 Connexions Nouvelles sessions/secon de 10 000 ; 25 000 * 3 000 50 000 ; 130 000* 6 000 280 000 9 000 400 000 20 000 650000 28 000 Ports réseau intégrés Commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports (dont deux ports PoE) 3 ports Fast Ethernet + ; 1 port de gestion ; 5 ports Fast Ethernet* 4 ports Gigabit Ethernet ; 1 port Fast Ethernet 4 ports Gigabit Ethernet ; 1 port Fast Ethernet 8 ports Gigabit Ethernet, 4 ports fibres SFP ; 1 port Fast Ethernet Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 3 (sans support de ligne réseau)/20 (avec support de lignes réseaux) * 50/100* 100 200 250 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 11/24 Contextes de sécurité (inclus/max.) 0/0 0/0 (base) ; 2/5 (Security Plus) 2/20 2/50 2/50 Haute disponibilité Non prise en charge ; mode actif/veille à inspection d’état et support ISP redondant * Non prise en charge ; mode actif/veille* Actif/actif et actif/veille Actif/actif et actif/veille Actif/actif et actif/veille Emplacement d’extension SSM 1, SSC 1, SSM 1, SSM 1, SSM 0 Emplacement accessible mémoire flash 0 1 1 1 1 Ports USB 2.0 Ports série 3 (1 à l’avant, 2 à l’arrière) 1 RJ-45 console 2 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire Ports série 1 RJ-45 console 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire 2 RJ-45, console et auxiliaire Montage sur rack Oui, avec kit de montage sur rack (disponible ultérieurement) Oui Oui Oui Oui Montage au mur Oui, avec kit de montage au mur (disponible ultérieurement) Non Non Non Non Spécifications techniques Mémoire 256 Mo 256 Mo 512 Mo 1024 Mo 4096 Mo Mémoire flash système minimum 64 Mo 64 Mo 64 Mo 64 Mo 64 Mo Bus système Architecture multi-bus Architecture multi-bus Architecture multi-bus Architecture multi-bus Architecture multi-bus Conditions de fonctionnement En fonctionnement Température 0 à 40ºC 0 à 40ºC Humidité relative 5 à 95 % sans condensation 5 à 95 % sans condensation Altitude 0 à 3000 m 0 à 3000 m Tolérance aux chocs 1/2 sinusoïdale à 1,14 m/s 1/2 sinusoïdale à 1,14 m/s Vibrations Aléatoire, 0,41 Grms2 (3 à 500 Hz) Aléatoire, 0,41 Grms2 (3 à 500 Hz) © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 12/24 Bruit acoustique 0 dBa maximum 60 dBa maximum En mode stockage Température -25 à 70ºC -25 à 70ºC Humidité relative 5 à 95 % sans condensation 5 à 95 % sans condensation Altitude 0 à 4570 m 0 à 4570 m Tolérance aux chocs 30 G 30 G Vibrations Aléatoire, 0,41 Grms2 (3 à 500 Hz) Aléatoire, 0,41 Grms2 (3 à 500 Hz) Alimentation électrique Entrée (par alimentation électrique) Plage de tension 100 à 240 V c.a. 100 à 240 V c.a. Tension normale 100 à 240 V c.a. 100 à 240 V c.a. Courant 1,8 A 3 A Fréquence 50 à 60 Hz, monophasé 47 à 63 Hz, monophasé Sortie Régime permanent 20 W 150 W Pic maximal 96 W 190 W Dissipation thermique maximale 72 BTU/h 648 BTU/h Données physiques Facteur de forme Ordinateur de bureau Montage en rack 1 U de 19 pouces Dimensions (H x L x P) 4,45 x 20,04x 17,45 cm 4,45 x 44,5 x 33,5 cm Poids (avec l’alimentation) 1,8 kg 9,07 kg Conformité à la réglementation et aux normes Sécurité UL 60950, CSA C22.2 No. 60950, EN 60950, IEC 60950, AS/NZS3260 UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No. 950, EN 60950 IEC 60950, AS/NZS3260, TS001 Compatibilité électromagnéti que Marquage CE, FCC Part 15 Classe B, AS/NZS 3548 Classe B, VCCI Classe B, Marquage CE, FCC Part 15 Classe A, AS/NZS 3548 Classe A, VCCI Classe A, © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 13/24 (EMC) EN55022 Classe B, CISPR22 Classe B, EN61000-3-2, EN61000-3-3 EN55022 Classe A, CISPR22 Classe A, EN61000-3-2, EN61000-3-3 Certifications industrielles En cours : ICSA Firewall, ICSA IPSec, Common Criteria EAL4, FIPS 140-2 Level 2 Common Criteria EAL4+ US DoD Application-Level Firewall for Medium- Robustness Environnements, FIPS 140-2 Level 2, NEBS Level 3, ICSA Firewall, ICSA IPSec, ICSA Gateway Anti-Virus (couplé à CSC SSM-10 ou CSC SSM-20). En cours: Common Criteria EAL4 for VPN, Common Criteria EAL2 for IPS on AIP SSM. *Disponible par l’intermédiaire d’une licence de mise à niveau MODULES DE SERVICES DE SÉCURITÉ La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 permet aux réseaux de franchir un nouveau palier en matière de sécurité intégrée, grâce à son architecture matérielle multi-processeurs et des services AIM exceptionnels. Cette architecture permet aux entreprises d’adapter et d’élargir le profil de services de sécurité haute performance de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500. Les clients peuvent ajouter des services de sécurité haute performance supplémentaires à l’aide des modules de services de sécurité associés à des coprocesseurs de sécurité dédiés. Ils peuvent également personnaliser les règles propres aux flux à l’aide d’une infrastructure extrêmement souple de définitions des règles. Cette architecture adaptable permet aux entreprises de déployer de nouveaux services de sécurité dès qu’elles en ont besoin. Par exemple, elles peuvent ajouter la vaste gamme de services évolués de lutte contre les vers et de prévention des intrusions fournis par le module AIP-SSM ou les services complets anti-X et de protection contre les programmes nuisibles offerts par le module CSC-SSM. D’autre part, cette architecture permet à Cisco de lancer de nouveaux services répondant à de nouvelles menaces, offrant aux entreprises une excellente protection des investissements pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500. Module adaptatif de prévention et d’inspection Le module Cisco ASA 5500 AIP-SSM est une solution réseau en ligne conçue pour identifier avec précision, classifier et bloquer le trafic malveillant, avant qu’il n’entraîne des répercussions sur votre activité. Utilisant le logiciel IPS pour Cisco ASA 5500, le module AIPSSM combine les services de prévention en ligne et des technologies innovantes. Cela permet une confiance totale vis-à-vis de la protection offerte par la solution IPS déployée, sans crainte de suppression du trafic légitime. Le module AIP-SSM propose également une protection complète du réseau grâce à sa capacité exceptionnelle à collaborer avec d’autres ressources de sécurité, offrant une approche proactive de la protection du réseau. Il utilise des technologies précises de prévention en ligne, qui permettent de prendre des mesures préventives vis-à-vis d’un panel plus vaste de menaces, sans risque de suppression du trafic légitime. Ces technologies exceptionnelles offrent une analyse intelligente, automatisée et contextuelle des données, permettant de s’assurer que les entreprises exploitent au © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 14/24 maximum leurs solutions de prévention des intrusions. Le module AIP-SSM utilise également une identification des menaces liées aux attaques multivecteurs pour protéger le réseau contre les violations de règles, l’exploitation des vulnérabilités et les activités anormales, grâce à une inspection minutieuse du trafic sur les couches 2 à 7. Le tableau 7 détaille les deux modèles AIP-SSM proposés, ainsi que leurs caractéristiques physiques et leurs performances respectives. Tableau 7 : Caractéristiques du module AIP-SSM pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Cisco ASA 5500 AIP-SSM-10 Cisco ASA 5500 AIP-SSM- 20 Débit de protection simultanée contre les menaces (firewall + services IPS) 150 Mbits/s avec le Cisco ASA 5510 225 Mbits/s avec le Cisco ASA 5520 300 Mbits/s avec le Cisco ASA 5510 375 Mbits/s avec le Cisco ASA 5520 450 Mbits/s avec le Cisco ASA 5540 Spécifications techniques Mémoire 1 Go 2 Go Mémoire flash 256 Mo 256 Mo Conditions de fonctionnement En fonctionnement Température 0 à 40ºC Humidité relative 5 à 95 % sans condensation En mode stockage Température -25 à 70ºC Consommation électrique 90 W maximum Données physiques Dimensions (H x L x P) 4,32 x 17,27 x 27,.94 cm Poids (avec l’alimentation) 1,36 kg © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 15/24 Conformité à la réglementation et aux normes Sécurité UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No. 950, EN 60950 IEC 60950, AS/NZS3260, TS001 Compatibilité électromagnétique (EMC) Marquage CE, FCC Part 15 Classe A, AS/NZS 3548 Classe A, VCCI Classe A, EN55022 Classe A, CISPR22 Classe A, EN61000- 3-2, EN61000-3-3 Module de contrôle et de sécurité du contenu Le module CSC-SSM de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 offre le meilleur service du marché en matière de contrôle du contenu et de protection contre les menaces Internet à la périphérie du réseau. Cette solution facile à administrer comporte des fonctions complètes d’antivirus, d’antilogiciels espions, de blocage de fichiers, d’antispam, d’antiphishing, de blocage et filtrage d’URL et de filtrage du contenu. Le module CSC-SSM ajoute des fonctionnalités de sécurité performantes à la gamme Cisco ASA 5500, offrant aux clients une protection supplémentaire et le contrôle du contenu de leurs communications d’entreprise. Ce module procure une souplesse et un choix supplémentaire vis-à-vis du fonctionnement et du déploiement des serveurs de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500. Les options de licence permettent aux entreprises de personnaliser les fonctionnalités conformément aux besoins de chaque groupe d’utilisateurs, grâce à des fonctions incluant des services de contenu évolués et un nombre d’utilisateurs accru. Le module CSC-SSM est livré avec un ensemble de fonctions par défaut offrant des services d’antivirus, d’antilogiciels espions et de blocage des fichiers. Une licence «Plus» est disponible pour chaque module CSC-SSM ,à un coût additionnel. Cette licence permet de bénéficier de fonctionnalités d’antispam, d’antiphishing, de blocage et de filtrage d’URL et de contrôle du contenu. Pour augmenter la capacité utilisateur du module CSC-SSM, les entreprises peuvent acheter et installer des licences utilisateurs supplémentaires. Le tableau ci-dessous contient la liste détaillée de ces options, que vous retrouverez également dans la fiche technique du module CSC-SSM. Tableau 8 : Caractéristiques du module CSC-SSM pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Cisco ASA 5500 CSC-SSM- 10 Cisco ASA 5500 CSC-SSM- 20 Plates-formes prises en charge • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5510 • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5510 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 16/24 • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5520 • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5520 • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5540 Fonctionnalités standard et optionnelles Licence utilisateur standard 50 utilisateurs 500 utilisateurs Fonctionnalités standard Antivirus, antilogiciels espions, blocage des fichiers Mises à niveau facultatives du nombre d’utilisateurs (nombre total) • 100 utilisateurs • 250 utilisateurs • 500 utilisateurs • 750 utilisateurs • 1 000 utilisateurs Fonctionnalités en option Licence Plus : permet d’ajouter l’antispam, l’antiphishing, le blocage et le filtrage d’URL et le contrôle du contenu Spécifications techniques Mémoire 1 Go 2 Go Mémoire flash système 256 Mo 256 Mo Mémoire cache 256 Ko 512 Ko Conditions de fonctionnement En fonctionnement Température 0 à 40ºC Humidité relative 10 à 90 %, sans condensation En mode stockage Température -25 à 70ºC Consommation électrique 90 W maximum Données physiques Dimensions (H x L x P) 4,32 x 17,27 x 27,.94 cm Poids (avec l’alimentation) 1,36 kg Conformité à la réglementation et aux normes Sécurité UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No. 950, EN 60950 IEC 60950, AS/NZS3260, TS001 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 17/24 Compatibilité électromagnétique (EMC) Marquage CE, FCC Part 15 Classe A, AS/NZS 3548 Classe A, VCCI Classe A, EN55022 Classe A, CISPR22 Classe A, EN61000-3-2, EN61000- 3-3 Module Gigabit Ethernet 4 ports Cisco ASA Le module de services de sécurité Gigabit Ethernet 4 ports de Cisco ASA permet aux responsables de sécurité de mieux segmenter le trafic réseau et de créer des zones de sécurité séparées, chacune étant associée à son propre ensemble de règles de sécurité personnalisées. Ces séparations peuvent aller d’Internet aux sites/services internes d’entreprise, en passant par les zones démilitarisées (DMZ). Ce module ultra-performant prend en charge les options de connexion cuivre et optique via la sélection des quatre ports RJ-45 cuivre 10/100/1000 standard ou des quatre ports compacts enfichables (SFP, Small Form-Factor Pluggable) pour le SFP optique Gigabit Ethernet. Il offre une grande flexibilité pour la connectivité des centres de données, des campus ou à la périphérie de l’entreprise. Il est possible de configurer un mélange de types de port cuivre ou optique (jusqu’à 4 ports). Ce module étend le profil d’E/S de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 à un total de cinq ports Fast Ethernet et quatre ports Gigabit Ethernet sur le Cisco ASA 5510, huit ports Gigabit Ethernet et un port Fast Ethernet sur les serveurs Cisco ASA 5520 et 5540 (Tableau 9). Tableau 9 : Caractéristiques du module SSM Ethernet Gigabit 4 ports de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Cisco ASA 5500 SSM-4GE Spécifications techniques Ports LAN intégrés Quatre 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports SFP intégrés Quatre (SFP optique Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-SX ou émetteur-récepteur LX/LH pris en charge) Conditions de fonctionnement En fonctionnement Température 0 à 40ºC Humidité relative 5 à 95 % sans condensation En mode stockage Température -25 à 70ºC Consommation électrique 25 W maximum © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 18/24 Données physiques Dimensions (H x L x P) 3,81 x 17,27 x 27,.94 cm Poids (avec l’alimentation) 0,91 kg Conformité à la réglementation et aux normes Sécurité UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No. 950, EN 60950 IEC 60950, AS/NZS3260, TS001 Compatibilité électromagnétique (EMC) Marquage CE, FCC Part 15 Classe A, AS/NZS 3548 Classe A, VCCI Classe A, EN55022 Classe A, CISPR22 Classe A, EN61000-3-2, EN61000- 3-3 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 19/24 INFORMATIONS DE COMMANDE Pour passer une commande, rendez-vous sur le site Cisco (http://www.cisco.com/web/FR/acheter/acheter_home.html). Le tableau 8 fournit des informations nécessaires à l’achat de produits de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500. Tableau 10 : Informations de commande Nom du produit Packs Cisco ASA 5500 Firewall Edition Référence produit Pack Cisco ASA 5505 10 utilisateurs avec commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES (Triple Data Encryption Standard/Advanced Encryption Standard) ASA5505-BUN-K9 Pack Cisco ASA 5505 50 utilisateurs avec commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES ASA5505-50-BUN-K9 Pack Cisco ASA 5505 nombre illimité d’utilisateurs avec commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES ASA5505-UL-BUN-K9 Pack Cisco ASA 5505 nombre illimité d’utilisateurs avec Security Plus, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 25 homologues VPN IPsec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, zone démilitarisée (DMZ), haute disponibilité actif/veille à inspection d’état, licence 3DES/AES ASA5505-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition, avec 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES ASA5510-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Security Plus Firewall Edition, avec 5 interfaces Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, haute disponibilité actif/veille, licence 3DES/AES ASA5510-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, avec 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPSec et 2 homologues VPN SSL, , haute disponibilité actif/veille et actif/actif, licence 3DES/AES ASA5520-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 Firewall Edition, avec 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 5 000 homologues VPN IPSec et 2 homologues ASA5540-BUN-K9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 20/24 VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES Cisco ASA 5550 Firewall Edition, avec 8 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 4 interfaces SFP Gigabit, 5 000 homologues VPN IPSec et 2 homologues VPN SSL, licence 3DES/AES ASA5550-BUN-K9 Packs Cisco ASA 5500 IPS Edition Cisco ASA 5510 IPS Edition, avec le module AIP-SSM-10, les services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, avec le module AIP-SSM-10, les services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, avec le module AIP-SSM-20, les services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-AIP20-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 IPS Edition, avec le module AIP-SSM-20, les services de firewall, 5 000 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-AIP20-K9 Packs Cisco ASA 5500 Anti-X Edition Cisco ASA 5510 Anti-X Edition, avec le module CSC-SSM- 10, un antivirus/antilogiciels espions pour 50 utilisateurs avec abonnement d’un an, des services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti-X Edition, avec le module CSC-SSM- 20, un antivirus/antilogiciels espions pour 500 utilisateurs avec abonnement d’un an, des services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti-X Edition, avec le module CSC-SSM- 10, un antivirus/antilogiciels espions pour 50 utilisateurs avec abonnement d’un an, des services de firewall, ASA5520-CSC10-K9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 21/24 750 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet Cisco ASA 5520 Anti-X Edition, avec le module CSC-SSM- 20, un antivirus/antilogiciels espions pour 500 utilisateurs avec abonnement d’un an, des services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPSec, 2 homologues VPN SSL, 4 interfaces Gigabit Ethernet et 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC20-K9 Packs Cisco ASA 5500 VPN Edition Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, avec 10 homologues VPN Ipsec, 10 homologues VPN SSL, 50 utilisateurs de services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports ASA5505-SSL10-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, avec 25 homologues VPN Ipsec, 25 homologues VPN SSL, 50 utilisateurs de services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, licence Security Plus ASA5505-SSL25-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 50 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL50-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec, 100 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL100-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 250 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 3 interfaces Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL250-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 500 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 4 interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-SSL500-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 1000 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 4 interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-SSL1000-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2500 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 4 interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-SSL2500-K9 Cisco ASA 5550 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues ASA5550-SSL2500-K9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 22/24 VPN IPsec et 2500 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 8 interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet Cisco ASA 5550 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 5000 homologues VPN SSL, services de firewall, 8 interfaces Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5550-SSL5000-K9 Modules de services de sécurité Cisco ASA Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module 10 ASA-SSM-AIP-10-K9= Cisco ASA Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module 20 ASA-SSM-AIP-20-K9= Cisco ASA Content Security and Control Security Services Module 10 pour 50 utilisateurs Antivirus/antilogiciels espions, abonnement d’un an ASA-SSM-CSC-10-K9= Cisco ASA Content Security and Control Security Services Module 20 pour 500 utilisateurs Antivirus/antilogiciels espions, abonnement d’un an ASA-SSM-CSC-20-K9= Cisco ASA 4-Port Gigabit Ethernet Security Services Module SSM-4GE= Logiciels de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Mise à niveau unique du logiciel Cisco ASA pour les clients non pris en charge ASA-SW-UPGRADE= Accessoires de la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Mémoire compact flash pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500, 256 Mo ASA5500-CF-256MB= Mémoire compact flash pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500, 512 Mo ASA5500-CF-512MB= Bloc d’alimentation 180 W c.a. pour la gamme Cisco ASA ASA-180W-PWR-AC= Connecteur SFP Gigabit Ethernet optique, émetteurrécepteur 1000BASE-SX à courte longueur d’onde GLC-SX-MM= Connecteur SFP Gigabit Ethernet optique, émetteurrécepteur 1000BASE-LX/LH longue distance/à grande longueur d’onde GLC-LH-SM= © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 23/24 POUR TÉLÉCHARGER LE LOGICIEL Pour télécharger le logiciel Cisco ASA, visitez le Centre de téléchargement Cisco. MAINTENANCE ET ASSISTANCE Cisco propose une large gamme de programmes de services pour accélérer la réussite de ses clients. Ces programmes de services innovants sont proposés grâce à une combinaison unique de personnes, de processus, d’outils et de partenaires pour augmenter la satisfaction de nos clients. Cisco Services vous aide à protéger votre investissement en matière de réseaux, à optimiser leur exploitation et à les préparer aux nouvelles applications afin d’en étendre l’intelligence et d’accroître le succès de votre activité. Pour plus d’informations sur Cisco Services, consultez les services d’assistance technique de Cisco ou Cisco Advanced Services. Pour les services propres aux fonctionnalités de prévention des intrusions (IPS) offertes via le module AIP-SSM, visitez le site Cisco Services for IPS. POUR PLUS D’INFORMATIONS Pour plus d’informations, consultez les sites suivants : • Serveur de Sécurité Adaptatif Cisco ASA 5500 : http://www.cisco.com/go/asa • Cisco Adaptive Security Device Manager : http://www.cisco.com/go/asdm© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés.Les mentions légales, la charte sur la vie privée et les marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. sont fournies sur cisco.com Page 24/24 Siège social Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134 1706 Etats-Unis www.cisco.com Tél. : 408 526-4000 800 553-NETS (6387) Fax : 408 526-4100 Siège Europe Cisco Systems International BV Haarlerbergpark Haarlerbergweg 13-19 1101 CH Amsterdam Pays-Bas wwweurope.cisco.com Tél. : 31 0 20 357 1000 Fax : 31 0 20 357 1100 Siège Etats-Unis Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134 1706 Etats-Unis www.cisco.com Tél. : 408 526-7660 Fax : 408 527-0883 Siège Asie Pacifi que Cisco Systems, Inc. 168 Robinson Road #28-01 Capital Tower Singapour 068912 www.cisco.com Tél. : +65 6317 7777 Fax : +65 6317 7799 Cisco has more than 200 offi ces in the following countries and regions. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices Copyright©2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés. CCSP, CCVP, le logo Cisco Square Bridge, Follow Me Browsing et StackWise sont des marques de Cisco Systems, Inc. ; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, et iQuick Study sont des marques de service de Cisco Systems, Inc. ; et Access Registrar, Aironet, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, Cisco, le logo Cisco Certifi ed Internetwork Expert, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, le logo Cisco Systems, Cisco Unity, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, FormShare, GigaDrive, GigaStack, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, IP/TV, iQ Expertise, le logo iQ, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MGX, le logo Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX, Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, ProConnect, RateMUX, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient et TransPath sont des marques déposées de Cisco Systems, Inc. et/ou de ses fi liales aux États-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Toutes les autres marques mentionnées dans ce document ou sur le site Web appartiennent à leurs propriétaires respectifs. L’emploi du mot partenaire n’implique pas nécessairement une relation de partenariat entre Cisco et une autre société. (0601R) Manuel de migration de Cisco PIX 500 vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE Réunissant sur une même plate- Réunissant sur une même plate---forme une combinaison puissante de nombreuses forme une combinaison puissante de nombreuses technologies éprouvées, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 (Adaptive Security Appliance) donne à l’entreprise les moyens opérationnels et économiques de déployer des services de sécurité complets vers un plus grand nom services de sécurité complets vers un plus grand nombre de sites. plets vers un plus grand nombre de sites. bre de sites. Faites migrer dès Faites migrer dès maintenant vos serveurs de sécurité Cisco PIX® vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 pour bénéficier, sur une même plate- bénéficier, sur une même plate---forme, de services de sécurité et de VPN convergen forme, de services de sécurité et de VPN convergents s et multifonctions. et multifonctions. Principaux avantages économiques Principaux avantages économiques avantages économiques Options souples de déploiement Options souples de déploiement Editions produits personnalisées qui s’adaptent exactement aux besoins spécifiques de l’entreprise • Firewall Edition - Firewall • IPS Edition - système de prévention d'intrusions • Anti-X Edition - protection antivirus, anti logiciels espions, etc. • SSL/IPsec VPN Edition - VPN sécurisés Frais d’exploitations réduits Frais d’exploitations réduits Gestion et surveillance unifiée des équipements pour diminuer les frais généraux d’installation et de maintenance. Plate-forme unique qui réduit la complexité et simplifie les opérations de déploiement et d’assistance technique courantes. Frais d’investissements réduits Frais d’investissements réduits La convergence et les crédits de reprise d’ancien matériel TMP (Technology Migration Plan) renforcés font dès maintenant baisser le coût total de migration. Avantage du leasing Avantage du leasing Avec Cisco Finance, bénéficiez de nos promotions en leasing pour réduire encore plus vos coûts et obtenir dès maintenant votre nouvelle solution. Principaux avantages technologiques et nouveautés d Principaux avantages technologiques et nouveautés de la gamme ASA 5500 e la gamme ASA 5500 Technologie reconnue de firewall et VPN protégé contre les menaces tre les menaces Développée autour de la même technologie éprouvée qui a fait le succès du serveur de sécurité Cisco PIX et de la gamme des concentrateurs Cisco VPN 3000, la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 est la première solution à proposer des services VPN SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) et IPSec (IP Security) protégés par la première technologie de firewall du marché. Avec le VPN SSL, l’ASA 5500 est une passerelle SSL performante qui permet l’accès distant sécurisé au réseau au travers d’un navigateur web banalisé pour les utilisateurs nomades. Service évolué de prévention des intrusions Service évolué de prévention des intrusions Les services proactifs de prévention des intrusions offrent toutes les fonctionnalités qui permettent de bloquer un large éventail de menaces – vers, attaques sur la couche applicative ou au niveau du système d'exploitation, rootkits, logiciels espions, messagerie instantanée, P2P, et bien plus encore. En combinant plusieurs méthodes d’analyse détaillée du trafic, l’IPS de l’ASA 5500 protège le réseau des violations de politique de sécurité, de l’exploitation des vulnérabilités des systèmes et du trafic anormal. L’IPS collabore avec d’autres systèmes Cisco de gestion de la sécurité pour assurer une mise à jour constante de la posture de sécurité du réseau et une réactivité totale aux nouvelles attaques ou vulnérabilités. Services Anti- Services Anti---X à la pointe de l’industrie X à la pointe de l’industrie X à la pointe de l’industrie La gamme Cisco ASA 5500 offre des services complets anti-X à la pointe de la technologie – protection contre les virus, les logiciels espions, le courrier indésirable et le phishing ainsi que le blocage de fichiers, le blocage et le filtrage des URL et le filtrage de contenu – en associant le savoir-faire de Trend Micro en matière de protection informatique à une solution Cisco de sécurité réseau éprouvée. Ces services anti-X embarqués dans le module d’extension hardware CSC SSM et le renouvellement des abonnements Trend Micro pour la gamme ASA sont commercialisés par Cisco au travers de ses partenaires agréés. Migration transparente pour l’utilisateur Migration transparente pour l’utilisateur Les utilisateurs actuels des serveurs de sécurité Cisco PIX n’auront aucune difficulté à s’adapter aux solutions Cisco ASA 5500. Les fichiers de configuration des Cisco PIX sont transposables sur les serveurs ASA 5500. Le logiciel d’administration graphique Cisco Adaptive Security Device Manager (ASDM) livré avec la gamme ASA est un logiciel puissant et facile à utiliser Il accélère la création de politiques de sécurité, et réduit la charge de travail et les erreurs humaines, grâce à des assistants graphiques, des outils de débogage et de surveillance. ASDM permet de gérer aussi bien des serveurs Cisco PIX que des serveurs ASA 5500, facilitant la migration vers la dernière génération de matériel et ses nouvelles fonctions. Manuel de migration de Cisco PIX 500 vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE Chemins de migration Chemins de migration Firewall IPS Anti-X VPN Modèle de serveur de sécurité Cisco PIX sécurité Cisco PIX Référence de la gamme Cisco ASA Cisco ASA 5500 Description du Cisco ASA Description du Cisco ASA 5500 ASA5505-K8 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition 10 utilisateurs, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, DES ASA5505-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition 10 utilisateurs, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5505-50-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition 50 utilisateurs, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES Cisco PIX 501 pour 10 utilisateurs 10 utilisateurs ASA5505-SSL10-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 10 SSL, services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports ASA5505-50-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition 50 utilisateurs, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5505-UL-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition nombre d’utilisateurs illimité, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES Cisco PIX 501 pour 50 utilisateurs 50 utilisateurs ASA5505-SSL10-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 10 SSL, services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports ASA5505-UL-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition nombre d’utilisateurs illimité, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5505-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition nombre d’utilisateurs illimité Security Plus, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 25 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL,DMZ, haute disponibilité Actif / Veille à inspection d’état, 3DES/AES Cisco PIX 501 pour un nombre d’utilisateurs illimité illimité ASA5505-SSL10-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 10 homologues VPN IPsec et 10 SSL, services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports ASA5505-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall Edition nombre d’utilisateurs illimité Security Plus, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, 25 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL,DMZ, haute disponibilité Actif / Veille à inspection d’état, 3DES/AES ASA5505-SSL25-K9 Cisco ASA 5505 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 25 homologues VPN IPsec et 25 SSL, services de firewall, commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports, licence Security Plus ASA5510-K8 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition, 3 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, DES ASA5510-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition, 3 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5510-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL50-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 50 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL100-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 100 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 506E Cisco PIX 506E ASA5510-SSL250-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 250 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-K8 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition, 3 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, DES ASA5510-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition, 3 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5510-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition Security Plus, 5 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Veille, 3DES/AES ASA5510-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 515E R/DMZ ASA5510-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, Manuel de migration de Cisco PIX 500 vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL50-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 50 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL100-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 100 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL250-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 250 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SEC-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall Edition Security Plus, 5 ports Fast Ethernet, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Veille, 3DES/AES ASA5510-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL50-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 50 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5510-SSL100-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 100 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 515E UR/FO/FO AA UR/FO/FO AA ASA5510-SSL250-K9 Cisco ASA 5510 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 250 homologues VPN IPsec et 250 SSL, services de firewall, 3 ports Fast Ethernet ASA5520-K8 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, DES ASA5520-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, 3DES/AES ASA5520-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-AIP20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 20, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 520 (Fin de vie – ve ––– juin 2006) juin 2006) juin 2006) ASA5520-SSL500-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 500 SSL, services de firewall, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-K8 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, DES ASA5520-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, 3DES/AES ASA5520-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-AIP20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 20, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 525R Cisco PIX 525R ASA5520-SSL500-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 500 SSL, services de firewall, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-K8 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, DES Cisco PIX 525 UR/FO/FO AA UR/FO/FO AA ASA5520-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, haute disponibilité Actif / Actif et Actif / Veille, 3DES/AES Manuel de migration de Cisco PIX 500 vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE ASA5520-AIP10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 10, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-AIP20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 20, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC10-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 10, 50 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-CSC20-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 Anti X Edition, module CSC SSM 20, 500 utilisateurs antivirus / anti logiciels espions avec un an d’abonnement, services de firewall, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5520-SSL500-K9 Cisco ASA 5520 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 750 homologues VPN IPsec et 500 SSL, services de firewall, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-K8 Cisco ASA 5540 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, DES ASA5540-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 Firewall Edition, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5540-AIP20-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 IPS Edition, module AIP SSM 20, services de firewall, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-SSL1000-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 1000 SSL, services de firewall, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5540-SSL2500-K9 Cisco ASA 5540 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2500 SSL, services de firewall, 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet ASA5550-K8 Cisco ASA 5550 Firewall Edition, 8 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 4 ports SFP Gigabit, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, DES ASA5550-BUN-K9 Cisco ASA 5550 Firewall Edition, 8 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet, 4 ports SFP Gigabit, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2 SSL, 3DES/AES ASA5550-SSL2500-K9 Cisco ASA 5550 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 2500 SSL, services de firewall, 8 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet Cisco PIX 535 Cisco PIX 535 ASA5550-SSL5000-K9 Cisco ASA 5550 SSL/IPsec VPN Edition, 5000 homologues VPN IPsec et 5000 SSL, services de firewall, 8 ports Ethernet Gigabit, 1 interface Fast Ethernet Caractéristiques techniques Caractéristiques techniques Cisco ASA 5505 Cisco ASA 5505 Cisco ASA 5510 Cisco ASA 5510 Cisco ASA 5520 Cisco ASA 5520 Cisco ASA 5540 Cisco ASA 5540 Cisco ASA 5550 Cisco ASA 5550 Utilisateurs et nœuds Utilisateurs et nœuds 10, 50 ou illimité Illimité Illimité Illimité Illimité Débit du firewall Débit du firewall Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 300 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 450 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 650 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 1,2 Gbits/s Débit des services simultanés de limitation des risques (firewall et services IPS) Non disponible Jusqu’à 150 Mbits/s avec le module AIP SSM (Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module) 10 (référence AIP SSM 10) pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 – Jusqu’à 300 Mbits/s avec le module AIP SSM 20 (référence AIP SSM 20) pour la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s avec le module AIP SSM 10 – Jusqu’à 375 225 Mbits/s avec le module AIP SSM 20 Jusqu‘à 450 Mbits/s, avec le module AIP-SSM20 Non disponible Débit des VPN 3DES ou AES ou Jusqu’à 100 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 170 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 225 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 325 Mbits/s Jusqu’à 360 Mbits/s Homologues VPN IPSecec 10 ; 25* 250 750 5000 5000 Homologues VPN 2/25 2/250 2/750 2/2500 2/5000 Homologues VPN Manuel de migration de Cisco PIX 500 vers la gamme Cisco ASA 5500 PRESENTATION SYNOPTIQUE SSL * (inclus/maximum) (inclus/maximum) Sessions simultanées 10 000 ; 25 000* 50 000 ; 130 Sessions simultanées 000* 280 000 400 000 650 000 Nouvelles sessions par seconde par seconde 3 000 6 000 9 000 20 000 28 000 Port s réseaux Port s réseaux intégrés intégrés Commutateur Fast Ethernet 8 ports (dont 2 ports PoE) 5 ports Fast Ethernet 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 port Fast Ethernet 4 ports Ethernet Gigabit + 1 port Fast Ethernet 8 ports Ethernet Gigabit, fibre SFP et 1 port Fast Ethernet Interfaces virtuelles Interfaces virtuelles (VLAN) 3 (ligne réseau désactivée) / 20* (ligne réseau activée) 50/100 * 150 200 250 Contextes de sécurité (intégrés / maximum) (intégrés / maximum) 0/0 0/0 (Base) ; 2/5 (Security Plus) 2/20 2/50 2/50 Haute disponibilité Haute disponibilité Non supportée / Actif/Veille* à inspection d’état Non supportée / Actif/Actif et Actif/Veille* Actif/Actif et Actif/Veille Actif/Actif et Actif/Veille Actif/Actif et Actif/Veille Emplacement d'extension d'extension 1, SSC 1, SSM 1, SSM 1, SSM 0 * Exige une licence de mise à niveau. Copyright © 2007, Cisco Systems, Inc. Tous droits réservés. Cisco, Cisco IOS, Cisco Systems et le logo Cisco Systèmes sont des marques déposées de Cisco Systems, Inc. ou de ses filiales aux Etats-Unis et dans certains autres pays. C45 364598 01 01/07 Americas Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA http://www.cisco.com Tel: 408 526-4000 800 553-NETS (6387) Fax: 408 527-0883 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide For the Cisco ASA 5500 Series and Cisco PIX 500 Series Software Version 7.2 Customer Order Number: N/A, Online only Text Part Number: OL-10088-02THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS. THE SOFTWARE LICENSE AND LIMITED WARRANTY FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PRODUCT ARE SET FORTH IN THE INFORMATION PACKET THAT SHIPPED WITH THE PRODUCT AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN BY THIS REFERENCE. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE OR LIMITED WARRANTY, CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY. The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCB’s public domain version of the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1981, Regents of the University of California. NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER WARRANTY HEREIN, ALL DOCUMENT FILES AND SOFTWARE OF THESE SUPPLIERS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH ALL FAULTS. CISCO AND THE ABOVE-NAMED SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE. 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All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0903R) Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses. Any examples, command display output, and figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental. Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide Copyright © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.iii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 C O N T E N T S About This Guide xxxv Document Objectives xxxv Audience xxxv Related Documentation xxxvi Document Organization xxxvi Document Conventions xxxix Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request xxxix 1-xl P A R T 1 Getting Started and General Information C H A P T E R 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance 1-1 Firewall Functional Overview 1-1 Security Policy Overview 1-2 Permitting or Denying Traffic with Access Lists 1-2 Applying NAT 1-2 Using AAA for Through Traffic 1-2 Applying HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP Filtering 1-3 Applying Application Inspection 1-3 Sending Traffic to the Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module 1-3 Sending Traffic to the Content Security and Control Security Services Module 1-3 Applying QoS Policies 1-3 Applying Connection Limits and TCP Normalization 1-3 Firewall Mode Overview 1-3 Stateful Inspection Overview 1-4 VPN Functional Overview 1-5 Intrusion Prevention Services Functional Overview 1-5 Security Context Overview 1-6 C H A P T E R 2 Getting Started 2-1 Getting Started with Your Platform Model 2-1 Factory Default Configurations 2-1 Restoring the Factory Default Configuration 2-2Contents iv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 ASA 5505 Default Configuration 2-2 ASA 5510 and Higher Default Configuration 2-3 PIX 515/515E Default Configuration 2-4 Accessing the Command-Line Interface 2-4 Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode 2-5 Working with the Configuration 2-6 Saving Configuration Changes 2-6 Saving Configuration Changes in Single Context Mode 2-7 Saving Configuration Changes in Multiple Context Mode 2-7 Copying the Startup Configuration to the Running Configuration 2-8 Viewing the Configuration 2-8 Clearing and Removing Configuration Settings 2-9 Creating Text Configuration Files Offline 2-9 C H A P T E R 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode 3-1 Security Context Overview 3-1 Common Uses for Security Contexts 3-1 Unsupported Features 3-2 Context Configuration Files 3-2 Context Configurations 3-2 System Configuration 3-2 Admin Context Configuration 3-2 How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets 3-3 Valid Classifier Criteria 3-3 Invalid Classifier Criteria 3-4 Classification Examples 3-5 Cascading Security Contexts 3-8 Management Access to Security Contexts 3-9 System Administrator Access 3-9 Context Administrator Access 3-10 Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context Mode 3-10 Backing Up the Single Mode Configuration 3-10 Enabling Multiple Context Mode 3-10 Restoring Single Context Mode 3-11 C H A P T E R 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance 4-1 Interface Overview 4-1 Understanding ASA 5505 Ports and Interfaces 4-2Contents v Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Maximum Active VLAN Interfaces for Your License 4-2 Default Interface Configuration 4-4 VLAN MAC Addresses 4-4 Power Over Ethernet 4-4 Monitoring Traffic Using SPAN 4-4 Security Level Overview 4-5 Configuring VLAN Interfaces 4-5 Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports 4-9 Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port 4-11 Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level 4-13 C H A P T E R 5 Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces 5-1 Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces 5-1 Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces 5-3 Configuring and Enabling VLAN Subinterfaces and 802.1Q Trunking 5-3 C H A P T E R 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts 6-1 Configuring Resource Management 6-1 Classes and Class Members Overview 6-1 Resource Limits 6-2 Default Class 6-3 Class Members 6-4 Configuring a Class 6-4 Configuring a Security Context 6-7 Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces 6-11 Changing Between Contexts and the System Execution Space 6-11 Managing Security Contexts 6-12 Removing a Security Context 6-12 Changing the Admin Context 6-13 Changing the Security Context URL 6-13 Reloading a Security Context 6-14 Reloading by Clearing the Configuration 6-14 Reloading by Removing and Re-adding the Context 6-15 Monitoring Security Contexts 6-15 Viewing Context Information 6-15 Viewing Resource Allocation 6-16 Viewing Resource Usage 6-19 Monitoring SYN Attacks in Contexts 6-20Contents vi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 C H A P T E R 7 Configuring Interface Parameters 7-1 Security Level Overview 7-1 Configuring the Interface 7-2 Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level 7-6 C H A P T E R 8 Configuring Basic Settings 8-1 Changing the Login Password 8-1 Changing the Enable Password 8-1 Setting the Hostname 8-2 Setting the Domain Name 8-2 Setting the Date and Time 8-2 Setting the Time Zone and Daylight Saving Time Date Range 8-3 Setting the Date and Time Using an NTP Server 8-4 Setting the Date and Time Manually 8-5 Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall 8-5 C H A P T E R 9 Configuring IP Routing 9-1 How Routing Behaves Within the ASA Security Appliance 9-1 Egress Interface Selection Process 9-1 Next Hop Selection Process 9-2 Configuring Static and Default Routes 9-2 Configuring a Static Route 9-3 Configuring a Default Route 9-4 Configuring Static Route Tracking 9-5 Defining Route Maps 9-7 Configuring OSPF 9-8 OSPF Overview 9-9 Enabling OSPF 9-10 Redistributing Routes Into OSPF 9-10 Configuring OSPF Interface Parameters 9-11 Configuring OSPF Area Parameters 9-13 Configuring OSPF NSSA 9-14 Configuring Route Summarization Between OSPF Areas 9-15 Configuring Route Summarization When Redistributing Routes into OSPF 9-16 Defining Static OSPF Neighbors 9-16 Generating a Default Route 9-17 Configuring Route Calculation Timers 9-17 Logging Neighbors Going Up or Down 9-18Contents vii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Displaying OSPF Update Packet Pacing 9-19 Monitoring OSPF 9-19 Restarting the OSPF Process 9-20 Configuring RIP 9-20 Enabling and Configuring RIP 9-20 Redistributing Routes into the RIP Routing Process 9-22 Configuring RIP Send/Receive Version on an Interface 9-22 Enabling RIP Authentication 9-23 Monitoring RIP 9-23 The Routing Table 9-24 Displaying the Routing Table 9-24 How the Routing Table is Populated 9-24 Backup Routes 9-26 How Forwarding Decisions are Made 9-26 Dynamic Routing and Failover 9-26 C H A P T E R 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services 10-1 Configuring a DHCP Server 10-1 Enabling the DHCP Server 10-2 Configuring DHCP Options 10-3 Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server 10-4 Configuring DHCP Relay Services 10-5 Configuring Dynamic DNS 10-6 Example 1: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs for Static IP Addresses 10-7 Example 2: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs; DHCP Server Honors Client Update Request; FQDN Provided Through Configuration 10-7 Example 3: Client Includes FQDN Option Instructing Server Not to Update Either RR; Server Overrides Client and Updates Both RRs. 10-8 Example 4: Client Asks Server To Perform Both Updates; Server Configured to Update PTR RR Only; Honors Client Request and Updates Both A and PTR RR 10-8 Example 5: Client Updates A RR; Server Updates PTR RR 10-9 Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP 10-9 WCCP Feature Support 10-9 WCCP Interaction With Other Features 10-10 Enabling WCCP Redirection 10-10 C H A P T E R 11 Configuring Multicast Routing 11-13 Multicast Routing Overview 11-13 Enabling Multicast Routing 11-14Contents viii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring IGMP Features 11-14 Disabling IGMP on an Interface 11-15 Configuring Group Membership 11-15 Configuring a Statically Joined Group 11-15 Controlling Access to Multicast Groups 11-15 Limiting the Number of IGMP States on an Interface 11-16 Modifying the Query Interval and Query Timeout 11-16 Changing the Query Response Time 11-17 Changing the IGMP Version 11-17 Configuring Stub Multicast Routing 11-17 Configuring a Static Multicast Route 11-17 Configuring PIM Features 11-18 Disabling PIM on an Interface 11-18 Configuring a Static Rendezvous Point Address 11-19 Configuring the Designated Router Priority 11-19 Filtering PIM Register Messages 11-19 Configuring PIM Message Intervals 11-20 Configuring a Multicast Boundary 11-20 Filtering PIM Neighbors 11-20 Supporting Mixed Bidirectional/Sparse-Mode PIM Networks 11-21 For More Information about Multicast Routing 11-22 C H A P T E R 12 Configuring IPv6 12-1 IPv6-enabled Commands 12-1 Configuring IPv6 12-2 Configuring IPv6 on an Interface 12-3 Configuring a Dual IP Stack on an Interface 12-4 Enforcing the Use of Modified EUI-64 Interface IDs in IPv6 Addresses 12-4 Configuring IPv6 Duplicate Address Detection 12-4 Configuring IPv6 Default and Static Routes 12-5 Configuring IPv6 Access Lists 12-6 Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 12-7 Configuring Neighbor Solicitation Messages 12-7 Configuring Router Advertisement Messages 12-9 Multicast Listener Discovery Support 12-11 Configuring a Static IPv6 Neighbor 12-11 Verifying the IPv6 Configuration 12-11 The show ipv6 interface Command 12-12 The show ipv6 route Command 12-12Contents ix Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 The show ipv6 mld traffic Command 12-13 C H A P T E R 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database 13-1 AAA Overview 13-1 About Authentication 13-1 About Authorization 13-2 About Accounting 13-2 AAA Server and Local Database Support 13-2 Summary of Support 13-3 RADIUS Server Support 13-3 Authentication Methods 13-4 Attribute Support 13-4 RADIUS Authorization Functions 13-4 TACACS+ Server Support 13-4 SDI Server Support 13-4 SDI Version Support 13-5 Two-step Authentication Process 13-5 SDI Primary and Replica Servers 13-5 NT Server Support 13-5 Kerberos Server Support 13-5 LDAP Server Support 13-6 Authentication with LDAP 13-6 Authorization with LDAP for VPN 13-7 LDAP Attribute Mapping 13-8 SSO Support for WebVPN with HTTP Forms 13-9 Local Database Support 13-9 User Profiles 13-10 Fallback Support 13-10 Configuring the Local Database 13-10 Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers 13-12 Using Certificates and User Login Credentials 13-15 Using User Login Credentials 13-15 Using certificates 13-16 Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server 13-16 Overview of Integrity Server and Security Appliance Interaction 13-17 Configuring Integrity Server Support 13-17 C H A P T E R 14 Configuring Failover 14-1 Understanding Failover 14-1Contents x Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Failover System Requirements 14-2 Hardware Requirements 14-2 Software Requirements 14-2 License Requirements 14-2 The Failover and Stateful Failover Links 14-3 Failover Link 14-3 Stateful Failover Link 14-5 Active/Active and Active/Standby Failover 14-6 Active/Standby Failover 14-6 Active/Active Failover 14-10 Determining Which Type of Failover to Use 14-15 Regular and Stateful Failover 14-15 Regular Failover 14-16 Stateful Failover 14-16 Failover Health Monitoring 14-16 Unit Health Monitoring 14-17 Interface Monitoring 14-17 Failover Feature/Platform Matrix 14-18 Failover Times by Platform 14-18 Configuring Failover 14-19 Failover Configuration Limitations 14-19 Configuring Active/Standby Failover 14-19 Prerequisites 14-20 Configuring Cable-Based Active/Standby Failover (PIX Security Appliance Only) 14-20 Configuring LAN-Based Active/Standby Failover 14-21 Configuring Optional Active/Standby Failover Settings 14-25 Configuring Active/Active Failover 14-27 Prerequisites 14-27 Configuring Cable-Based Active/Active Failover (PIX security appliance) 14-27 Configuring LAN-Based Active/Active Failover 14-29 Configuring Optional Active/Active Failover Settings 14-33 Configuring Unit Health Monitoring 14-39 Configuring Failover Communication Authentication/Encryption 14-39 Verifying the Failover Configuration 14-40 Using the show failover Command 14-40 Viewing Monitored Interfaces 14-48 Displaying the Failover Commands in the Running Configuration 14-48 Testing the Failover Functionality 14-49 Controlling and Monitoring Failover 14-49 Forcing Failover 14-49Contents xi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Disabling Failover 14-50 Restoring a Failed Unit or Failover Group 14-50 Monitoring Failover 14-50 Failover System Messages 14-51 Debug Messages 14-51 SNMP 14-51 P A R T 2 Configuring the Firewall C H A P T E R 15 Firewall Mode Overview 15-1 Routed Mode Overview 15-1 IP Routing Support 15-1 Network Address Translation 15-2 How Data Moves Through the Security Appliance in Routed Firewall Mode 15-3 An Inside User Visits a Web Server 15-3 An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ 15-4 An Inside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ 15-6 An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host 15-7 A DMZ User Attempts to Access an Inside Host 15-8 Transparent Mode Overview 15-8 Transparent Firewall Network 15-9 Allowing Layer 3 Traffic 15-9 Allowed MAC Addresses 15-9 Passing Traffic Not Allowed in Routed Mode 15-9 MAC Address Lookups 15-10 Using the Transparent Firewall in Your Network 15-10 Transparent Firewall Guidelines 15-10 Unsupported Features in Transparent Mode 15-11 How Data Moves Through the Transparent Firewall 15-13 An Inside User Visits a Web Server 15-14 An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the Inside Network 15-15 An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host 15-16 C H A P T E R 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists 16-1 Access List Overview 16-1 Access List Types 16-2 Access Control Entry Order 16-2 Access Control Implicit Deny 16-3 IP Addresses Used for Access Lists When You Use NAT 16-3Contents xii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Adding an Extended Access List 16-5 Extended Access List Overview 16-5 Allowing Broadcast and Multicast Traffic through the Transparent Firewall 16-6 Adding an Extended ACE 16-6 Adding an EtherType Access List 16-8 EtherType Access List Overview 16-8 Supported EtherTypes 16-8 Implicit Permit of IP and ARPs Only 16-9 Implicit and Explicit Deny ACE at the End of an Access List 16-9 IPv6 Unsupported 16-9 Using Extended and EtherType Access Lists on the Same Interface 16-9 Allowing MPLS 16-9 Adding an EtherType ACE 16-10 Adding a Standard Access List 16-11 Adding a Webtype Access List 16-11 Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping 16-11 How Object Grouping Works 16-12 Adding Object Groups 16-12 Adding a Protocol Object Group 16-13 Adding a Network Object Group 16-13 Adding a Service Object Group 16-14 Adding an ICMP Type Object Group 16-15 Nesting Object Groups 16-15 Using Object Groups with an Access List 16-16 Displaying Object Groups 16-17 Removing Object Groups 16-17 Adding Remarks to Access Lists 16-18 Scheduling Extended Access List Activation 16-18 Adding a Time Range 16-18 Applying the Time Range to an ACE 16-19 Logging Access List Activity 16-20 Access List Logging Overview 16-20 Configuring Logging for an Access Control Entry 16-21 Managing Deny Flows 16-22 C H A P T E R 17 Applying NAT 17-1 NAT Overview 17-1 Introduction to NAT 17-2 NAT Control 17-3Contents xiii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 NAT Types 17-5 Dynamic NAT 17-5 PAT 17-7 Static NAT 17-7 Static PAT 17-8 Bypassing NAT When NAT Control is Enabled 17-9 Policy NAT 17-9 NAT and Same Security Level Interfaces 17-13 Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Real Addresses 17-14 Mapped Address Guidelines 17-14 DNS and NAT 17-14 Configuring NAT Control 17-16 Using Dynamic NAT and PAT 17-17 Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation 17-17 Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT 17-23 Using Static NAT 17-26 Using Static PAT 17-27 Bypassing NAT 17-29 Configuring Identity NAT 17-30 Configuring Static Identity NAT 17-30 Configuring NAT Exemption 17-32 NAT Examples 17-33 Overlapping Networks 17-34 Redirecting Ports 17-35 C H A P T E R 18 Permitting or Denying Network Access 18-1 Inbound and Outbound Access List Overview 18-1 Applying an Access List to an Interface 18-2 C H A P T E R 19 Applying AAA for Network Access 19-1 AAA Performance 19-1 Configuring Authentication for Network Access 19-1 Authentication Overview 19-2 One-Time Authentication 19-2 Applications Required to Receive an Authentication Challenge 19-2 Security Appliance Authentication Prompts 19-2 Static PAT and HTTP 19-3 Enabling Network Access Authentication 19-3Contents xiv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Enabling Secure Authentication of Web Clients 19-5 Authenticating Directly with the Security Appliance 19-6 Enabling Direct Authentication Using HTTP and HTTPS 19-6 Enabling Direct Authentication Using Telnet 19-6 Configuring Authorization for Network Access 19-6 Configuring TACACS+ Authorization 19-7 Configuring RADIUS Authorization 19-8 Configuring a RADIUS Server to Send Downloadable Access Control Lists 19-9 Configuring a RADIUS Server to Download Per-User Access Control List Names 19-12 Configuring Accounting for Network Access 19-13 Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and Authorization 19-14 C H A P T E R 20 Applying Filtering Services 20-1 Filtering Overview 20-1 Filtering ActiveX Objects 20-2 ActiveX Filtering Overview 20-2 Enabling ActiveX Filtering 20-2 Filtering Java Applets 20-3 Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server 20-4 URL Filtering Overview 20-4 Identifying the Filtering Server 20-4 Buffering the Content Server Response 20-6 Caching Server Addresses 20-6 Filtering HTTP URLs 20-7 Configuring HTTP Filtering 20-7 Enabling Filtering of Long HTTP URLs 20-7 Truncating Long HTTP URLs 20-7 Exempting Traffic from Filtering 20-8 Filtering HTTPS URLs 20-8 Filtering FTP Requests 20-9 Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration 20-9 Viewing Filtering Server Statistics 20-10 Viewing Buffer Configuration and Statistics 20-11 Viewing Caching Statistics 20-11 Viewing Filtering Performance Statistics 20-11 Viewing Filtering Configuration 20-12Contents xv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 C H A P T E R 21 Using Modular Policy Framework 21-1 Modular Policy Framework Overview 21-1 Modular Policy Framework Features 21-1 Modular Policy Framework Configuration Overview 21-2 Default Global Policy 21-3 Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map) 21-4 Default Class Maps 21-4 Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Through Traffic 21-5 Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Management Traffic 21-7 Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) 21-7 Inspection Policy Map Overview 21-8 Defining Actions in an Inspection Policy Map 21-8 Identifying Traffic in an Inspection Class Map 21-11 Creating a Regular Expression 21-12 Creating a Regular Expression Class Map 21-14 Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) 21-15 Layer 3/4 Policy Map Overview 21-15 Policy Map Guidelines 21-16 Supported Feature Types 21-16 Hierarchical Policy Maps 21-16 Feature Directionality 21-17 Feature Matching Guidelines within a Policy Map 21-17 Feature Matching Guidelines for multiple Policy Maps 21-18 Order in Which Multiple Feature Actions are Applied 21-18 Default Layer 3/4 Policy Map 21-18 Adding a Layer 3/4 Policy Map 21-19 Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy) 21-21 Modular Policy Framework Examples 21-21 Applying Inspection and QoS Policing to HTTP Traffic 21-22 Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic Globally 21-22 Applying Inspection and Connection Limits to HTTP Traffic to Specific Servers 21-23 Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic with NAT 21-24 C H A P T E R 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM 22-1 Managing the AIP SSM 22-1 About the AIP SSM 22-1 Getting Started with the AIP SSM 22-2 Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM 22-2 Sessioning to the AIP SSM and Running Setup 22-4Contents xvi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Managing the CSC SSM 22-5 About the CSC SSM 22-5 Getting Started with the CSC SSM 22-7 Determining What Traffic to Scan 22-9 Limiting Connections Through the CSC SSM 22-11 Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM 22-11 Checking SSM Status 22-13 Transferring an Image onto an SSM 22-14 C H A P T E R 23 Preventing Network Attacks 23-1 Configuring TCP Normalization 23-1 TCP Normalization Overview 23-1 Enabling the TCP Normalizer 23-2 Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts 23-6 Connection Limit Overview 23-7 TCP Intercept Overview 23-7 Disabling TCP Intercept for Management Packets for Clientless SSL Compatibility 23-7 Dead Connection Detection (DCD) Overview 23-7 TCP Sequence Randomization Overview 23-8 Enabling Connection Limits and Timeouts 23-8 Preventing IP Spoofing 23-10 Configuring the Fragment Size 23-11 Blocking Unwanted Connections 23-11 Configuring IP Audit for Basic IPS Support 23-12 C H A P T E R 24 Configuring QoS 24-1 QoS Overview 24-1 Supported QoS Features 24-2 What is a Token Bucket? 24-2 Policing Overview 24-3 Priority Queueing Overview 24-3 Traffic Shaping Overview 24-4 How QoS Features Interact 24-4 DSCP and DiffServ Preservation 24-5 Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface 24-5 Determining the Queue and TX Ring Limits 24-6 Configuring the Priority Queue 24-7 Identifying Traffic for QoS Using Class Maps 24-8Contents xvii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Creating a QoS Class Map 24-8 QoS Class Map Examples 24-8 Creating a Policy for Standard Priority Queueing and/or Policing 24-9 Creating a Policy for Traffic Shaping and Hierarchical Priority Queueing 24-11 Viewing QoS Statistics 24-13 Viewing QoS Police Statistics 24-13 Viewing QoS Standard Priority Statistics 24-14 Viewing QoS Shaping Statistics 24-14 Viewing QoS Standard Priority Queue Statistics 24-15 C H A P T E R 25 Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection 25-1 Inspection Engine Overview 25-2 When to Use Application Protocol Inspection 25-2 Inspection Limitations 25-2 Default Inspection Policy 25-3 Configuring Application Inspection 25-5 CTIQBE Inspection 25-9 CTIQBE Inspection Overview 25-9 Limitations and Restrictions 25-10 Verifying and Monitoring CTIQBE Inspection 25-10 DCERPC Inspection 25-11 DCERPC Overview 25-11 Configuring a DCERPC Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-12 DNS Inspection 25-13 How DNS Application Inspection Works 25-13 How DNS Rewrite Works 25-14 Configuring DNS Rewrite 25-15 Using the Static Command for DNS Rewrite 25-15 Using the Alias Command for DNS Rewrite 25-16 Configuring DNS Rewrite with Two NAT Zones 25-16 DNS Rewrite with Three NAT Zones 25-17 Configuring DNS Rewrite with Three NAT Zones 25-19 Verifying and Monitoring DNS Inspection 25-20 Configuring a DNS Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-20 ESMTP Inspection 25-23 Configuring an ESMTP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-24 FTP Inspection 25-26 FTP Inspection Overview 25-27Contents xviii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Using the strict Option 25-27 Configuring an FTP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-28 Verifying and Monitoring FTP Inspection 25-31 GTP Inspection 25-32 GTP Inspection Overview 25-32 Configuring a GTP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-33 Verifying and Monitoring GTP Inspection 25-37 H.323 Inspection 25-38 H.323 Inspection Overview 25-38 How H.323 Works 25-38 Limitations and Restrictions 25-39 Configuring an H.323 Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-40 Configuring H.323 and H.225 Timeout Values 25-42 Verifying and Monitoring H.323 Inspection 25-43 Monitoring H.225 Sessions 25-43 Monitoring H.245 Sessions 25-43 Monitoring H.323 RAS Sessions 25-44 HTTP Inspection 25-44 HTTP Inspection Overview 25-44 Configuring an HTTP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-45 Instant Messaging Inspection 25-49 IM Inspection Overview 25-49 Configuring an Instant Messaging Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-49 ICMP Inspection 25-52 ICMP Error Inspection 25-52 ILS Inspection 25-53 IPSec Pass Through Inspection 25-54 IPSec Pass Through Inspection Overview 25-54 Configuring an IPSec Pass Through Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-54 MGCP Inspection 25-56 MGCP Inspection Overview 25-56 Configuring an MGCP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-58 Configuring MGCP Timeout Values 25-59 Verifying and Monitoring MGCP Inspection 25-59 NetBIOS Inspection 25-60 Configuring a NetBIOS Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-60 PPTP Inspection 25-62 RADIUS Accounting Inspection 25-62Contents xix Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring a RADIUS Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-63 RSH Inspection 25-63 RTSP Inspection 25-63 RTSP Inspection Overview 25-63 Using RealPlayer 25-64 Restrictions and Limitations 25-64 SIP Inspection 25-65 SIP Inspection Overview 25-65 SIP Instant Messaging 25-65 Configuring a SIP Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-66 Configuring SIP Timeout Values 25-70 Verifying and Monitoring SIP Inspection 25-70 Skinny (SCCP) Inspection 25-71 SCCP Inspection Overview 25-71 Supporting Cisco IP Phones 25-71 Restrictions and Limitations 25-72 Verifying and Monitoring SCCP Inspection 25-72 Configuring a Skinny (SCCP) Inspection Policy Map for Additional Inspection Control 25-73 SMTP and Extended SMTP Inspection 25-74 SNMP Inspection 25-76 SQL*Net Inspection 25-76 Sun RPC Inspection 25-77 Sun RPC Inspection Overview 25-77 Managing Sun RPC Services 25-77 Verifying and Monitoring Sun RPC Inspection 25-78 TFTP Inspection 25-79 XDMCP Inspection 25-80 C H A P T E R 26 Configuring ARP Inspection and Bridging Parameters 26-1 Configuring ARP Inspection 26-1 ARP Inspection Overview 26-1 Adding a Static ARP Entry 26-2 Enabling ARP Inspection 26-2 Customizing the MAC Address Table 26-3 MAC Address Table Overview 26-3 Adding a Static MAC Address 26-3 Setting the MAC Address Timeout 26-4 Disabling MAC Address Learning 26-4Contents xx Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Viewing the MAC Address Table 26-4 P A R T 3 Configuring VPN C H A P T E R 27 Configuring IPsec and ISAKMP 27-1 Tunneling Overview 27-1 IPsec Overview 27-2 Configuring ISAKMP 27-2 ISAKMP Overview 27-2 Configuring ISAKMP Policies 27-5 Enabling ISAKMP on the Outside Interface 27-6 Disabling ISAKMP in Aggressive Mode 27-6 Determining an ID Method for ISAKMP Peers 27-6 Enabling IPsec over NAT-T 27-7 Using NAT-T 27-7 Enabling IPsec over TCP 27-8 Waiting for Active Sessions to Terminate Before Rebooting 27-9 Alerting Peers Before Disconnecting 27-9 Configuring Certificate Group Matching 27-9 Creating a Certificate Group Matching Rule and Policy 27-10 Using the Tunnel-group-map default-group Command 27-11 Configuring IPsec 27-11 Understanding IPsec Tunnels 27-11 Understanding Transform Sets 27-12 Defining Crypto Maps 27-12 Applying Crypto Maps to Interfaces 27-20 Using Interface Access Lists 27-20 Changing IPsec SA Lifetimes 27-22 Creating a Basic IPsec Configuration 27-22 Using Dynamic Crypto Maps 27-24 Providing Site-to-Site Redundancy 27-26 Viewing an IPsec Configuration 27-26 Clearing Security Associations 27-27 Clearing Crypto Map Configurations 27-27 Supporting the Nokia VPN Client 27-28 C H A P T E R 28 Configuring L2TP over IPSec 28-1 L2TP Overview 28-1Contents xxi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 IPSec Transport and Tunnel Modes 28-2 Configuring L2TP over IPSec Connections 28-2 Tunnel Group Switching 28-5 Viewing L2TP over IPSec Connection Information 28-5 Using L2TP Debug Commands 28-7 Enabling IPSec Debug 28-7 Getting Additional Information 28-8 C H A P T E R 29 Setting General IPSec VPN Parameters 29-1 Configuring VPNs in Single, Routed Mode 29-1 Configuring IPSec to Bypass ACLs 29-1 Permitting Intra-Interface Traffic 29-2 NAT Considerations for Intra-Interface Traffic 29-3 Setting Maximum Active IPSec VPN Sessions 29-3 Using Client Update to Ensure Acceptable Client Revision Levels 29-3 Understanding Load Balancing 29-5 Implementing Load Balancing 29-6 Prerequisites 29-6 Eligible Platforms 29-7 Eligible Clients 29-7 VPN Load-Balancing Cluster Configurations 29-7 Some Typical Mixed Cluster Scenarios 29-8 Scenario 1: Mixed Cluster with No WebVPN Connections 29-8 Scenario 2: Mixed Cluster Handling WebVPN Connections 29-8 Configuring Load Balancing 29-9 Configuring the Public and Private Interfaces for Load Balancing 29-9 Configuring the Load Balancing Cluster Attributes 29-10 Configuring VPN Session Limits 29-11 C H A P T E R 30 Configuring Tunnel Groups, Group Policies, and Users 30-1 Overview of Tunnel Groups, Group Policies, and Users 30-1 Tunnel Groups 30-2 General Tunnel-Group Connection Parameters 30-2 IPSec Tunnel-Group Connection Parameters 30-3 WebVPN Tunnel-Group Connection Parameters 30-4 Configuring Tunnel Groups 30-5 Maximum Tunnel Groups 30-5 Default IPSec Remote Access Tunnel Group Configuration 30-5Contents xxii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring IPSec Tunnel-Group General Attributes 30-6 Configuring IPSec Remote-Access Tunnel Groups 30-6 Specifying a Name and Type for the IPSec Remote Access Tunnel Group 30-6 Configuring IPSec Remote-Access Tunnel Group General Attributes 30-7 Configuring IPSec Remote-Access Tunnel Group IPSec Attributes 30-10 Configuring IPSec Remote-Access Tunnel Group PPP Attributes 30-12 Configuring LAN-to-LAN Tunnel Groups 30-13 Default LAN-to-LAN Tunnel Group Configuration 30-13 Specifying a Name and Type for a LAN-to-LAN Tunnel Group 30-14 Configuring LAN-to-LAN Tunnel Group General Attributes 30-14 Configuring LAN-to-LAN IPSec Attributes 30-15 Configuring WebVPN Tunnel Groups 30-17 Specifying a Name and Type for a WebVPN Tunnel Group 30-17 Configuring WebVPN Tunnel-Group General Attributes 30-17 Configuring WebVPN Tunnel-Group WebVPN Attributes 30-20 Customizing Login Windows for WebVPN Users 30-23 Configuring Microsoft Active Directory Settings for Password Management 30-24 Using Active Directory to Force the User to Change Password at Next Logon 30-25 Using Active Directory to Specify Maximum Password Age 30-27 Using Active Directory to Override an Account Disabled AAA Indicator 30-28 Using Active Directory to Enforce Minimum Password Length 30-29 Using Active Directory to Enforce Password Complexity 30-30 Group Policies 30-31 Default Group Policy 30-32 Configuring Group Policies 30-34 Configuring an External Group Policy 30-34 Configuring an Internal Group Policy 30-35 Configuring Group Policy Attributes 30-35 Configuring WINS and DNS Servers 30-35 Configuring VPN-Specific Attributes 30-36 Configuring Security Attributes 30-39 Configuring the Banner Message 30-41 Configuring IPSec-UDP Attributes 30-41 Configuring Split-Tunneling Attributes 30-42 Configuring Domain Attributes for Tunneling 30-43 Configuring Attributes for VPN Hardware Clients 30-45 Configuring Backup Server Attributes 30-48 Configuring Microsoft Internet Explorer Client Parameters 30-49 Configuring Network Admission Control Parameters 30-51 Configuring Address Pools 30-54Contents xxiii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring Firewall Policies 30-55 Configuring Client Access Rules 30-58 Configuring Group-Policy WebVPN Attributes 30-59 Configuring User Attributes 30-70 Viewing the Username Configuration 30-71 Configuring Attributes for Specific Users 30-71 Setting a User Password and Privilege Level 30-71 Configuring User Attributes 30-72 Configuring VPN User Attributes 30-72 Configuring WebVPN for Specific Users 30-76 C H A P T E R 31 Configuring IP Addresses for VPNs 31-1 Configuring an IP Address Assignment Method 31-1 Configuring Local IP Address Pools 31-2 Configuring AAA Addressing 31-2 Configuring DHCP Addressing 31-3 C H A P T E R 32 Configuring Remote Access IPSec VPNs 32-1 Summary of the Configuration 32-1 Configuring Interfaces 32-2 Configuring ISAKMP Policy and Enabling ISAKMP on the Outside Interface 32-3 Configuring an Address Pool 32-4 Adding a User 32-4 Creating a Transform Set 32-4 Defining a Tunnel Group 32-5 Creating a Dynamic Crypto Map 32-6 Creating a Crypto Map Entry to Use the Dynamic Crypto Map 32-7 C H A P T E R 33 Configuring Network Admission Control 33-1 Uses, Requirements, and Limitations 33-1 Configuring Basic Settings 33-1 Specifying the Access Control Server Group 33-2 Enabling NAC 33-2 Configuring the Default ACL for NAC 33-3 Configuring Exemptions from NAC 33-4 Changing Advanced Settings 33-5 Changing Clientless Authentication Settings 33-5 Enabling and Disabling Clientless Authentication 33-5Contents xxiv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Changing the Login Credentials Used for Clientless Authentication 33-6 Configuring NAC Session Attributes 33-7 Setting the Query-for-Posture-Changes Timer 33-8 Setting the Revalidation Timer 33-9 C H A P T E R 34 Configuring Easy VPN Services on the ASA 5505 34-1 Specifying the Client/Server Role of the Cisco ASA 5505 34-1 Specifying the Primary and Secondary Servers 34-2 Specifying the Mode 34-3 NEM with Multiple Interfaces 34-3 Configuring Automatic Xauth Authentication 34-4 Configuring IPSec Over TCP 34-4 Comparing Tunneling Options 34-5 Specifying the Tunnel Group or Trustpoint 34-6 Specifying the Tunnel Group 34-6 Specifying the Trustpoint 34-7 Configuring Split Tunneling 34-7 Configuring Device Pass-Through 34-8 Configuring Remote Management 34-8 Guidelines for Configuring the Easy VPN Server 34-9 Group Policy and User Attributes Pushed to the Client 34-9 Authentication Options 34-11 C H A P T E R 35 Configuring the PPPoE Client 35-1 PPPoE Client Overview 35-1 Configuring the PPPoE Client Username and Password 35-2 Enabling PPPoE 35-3 Using PPPoE with a Fixed IP Address 35-3 Monitoring and Debugging the PPPoE Client 35-4 Clearing the Configuration 35-5 Using Related Commands 35-5 C H A P T E R 36 Configuring LAN-to-LAN IPsec VPNs 36-1 Summary of the Configuration 36-1 Configuring Interfaces 36-2 Configuring ISAKMP Policy and Enabling ISAKMP on the Outside Interface 36-2 Creating a Transform Set 36-4Contents xxv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring an ACL 36-4 Defining a Tunnel Group 36-5 Creating a Crypto Map and Applying It To an Interface 36-6 Applying Crypto Maps to Interfaces 36-7 C H A P T E R 37 Configuring WebVPN 37-1 Getting Started with WebVPN 37-1 Observing WebVPN Security Precautions 37-2 Understanding Features Not Supported for WebVPN 37-2 Using SSL to Access the Central Site 37-3 Using HTTPS for WebVPN Sessions 37-3 Configuring WebVPN and ASDM on the Same Interface 37-3 Setting WebVPN HTTP/HTTPS Proxy 37-4 Configuring SSL/TLS Encryption Protocols 37-4 Authenticating with Digital Certificates 37-5 Enabling Cookies on Browsers for WebVPN 37-5 Managing Passwords 37-5 Using Single Sign-on with WebVPN 37-6 Configuring SSO with HTTP Basic or NTLM Authentication 37-6 Configuring SSO Authentication Using SiteMinder 37-7 Configuring SSO with the HTTP Form Protocol 37-9 Authenticating with Digital Certificates 37-15 Creating and Applying WebVPN Policies 37-15 Creating Port Forwarding, URL, and Access Lists in Global Configuration Mode 37-16 Assigning Lists to Group Policies and Users in Group-Policy or User Mode 37-16 Enabling Features for Group Policies and Users 37-16 Assigning Users to Group Policies 37-16 Using the Security Appliance Authentication Server 37-16 Using a RADIUS Server 37-16 Configuring WebVPN Tunnel Group Attributes 37-17 Configuring WebVPN Group Policy and User Attributes 37-17 Configuring Application Access 37-18 Downloading the Port-Forwarding Applet Automatically 37-18 Closing Application Access to Prevent hosts File Errors 37-18 Recovering from hosts File Errors When Using Application Access 37-18 Understanding the hosts File 37-19 Stopping Application Access Improperly 37-19 Reconfiguring a hosts File 37-20 Configuring File Access 37-22Contents xxvi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Configuring Access to Citrix MetaFrame Services 37-24 Using WebVPN with PDAs 37-25 Using E-Mail over WebVPN 37-26 Configuring E-mail Proxies 37-26 E-mail Proxy Certificate Authentication 37-27 Configuring MAPI 37-27 Configuring Web E-mail: MS Outlook Web Access 37-27 Optimizing WebVPN Performance 37-28 Configuring Caching 37-28 Configuring Content Transformation 37-28 Configuring a Certificate for Signing Rewritten Java Content 37-29 Disabling Content Rewrite 37-29 Using Proxy Bypass 37-29 Configuring Application Profile Customization Framework 37-30 APCF Syntax 37-30 APCF Example 37-32 WebVPN End User Setup 37-32 Defining the End User Interface 37-32 Viewing the WebVPN Home Page 37-33 Viewing the WebVPN Application Access Panel 37-33 Viewing the Floating Toolbar 37-34 Customizing WebVPN Pages 37-35 Using Cascading Style Sheet Parameters 37-35 Customizing the WebVPN Login Page 37-36 Customizing the WebVPN Logout Page 37-37 Customizing the WebVPN Home Page 37-38 Customizing the Application Access Window 37-40 Customizing the Prompt Dialogs 37-41 Applying Customizations to Tunnel Groups, Groups and Users 37-42 Requiring Usernames and Passwords 37-43 Communicating Security Tips 37-44 Configuring Remote Systems to Use WebVPN Features 37-44 Capturing WebVPN Data 37-50 Creating a Capture File 37-51 Using a Browser to Display Capture Data 37-51 C H A P T E R 38 Configuring SSL VPN Client 38-1 Installing SVC 38-1 Platform Requirements 38-1Contents xxvii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Installing the SVC Software 38-2 Enabling SVC 38-3 Enabling Permanent SVC Installation 38-4 Enabling Rekey 38-5 Enabling and Adjusting Dead Peer Detection 38-5 Enabling Keepalive 38-6 Using SVC Compression 38-6 Viewing SVC Sessions 38-7 Logging Off SVC Sessions 38-8 Updating SVCs 38-8 C H A P T E R 39 Configuring Certificates 39-1 Public Key Cryptography 39-1 About Public Key Cryptography 39-1 Certificate Scalability 39-2 About Key Pairs 39-2 About Trustpoints 39-3 About Revocation Checking 39-3 About CRLs 39-3 About OCSP 39-4 Supported CA Servers 39-5 Certificate Configuration 39-5 Preparing for Certificates 39-5 Configuring Key Pairs 39-6 Generating Key Pairs 39-6 Removing Key Pairs 39-7 Configuring Trustpoints 39-7 Obtaining Certificates 39-9 Obtaining Certificates with SCEP 39-9 Obtaining Certificates Manually 39-11 Configuring CRLs for a Trustpoint 39-13 Exporting and Importing Trustpoints 39-14 Exporting a Trustpoint Configuration 39-15 Importing a Trustpoint Configuration 39-15 Configuring CA Certificate Map Rules 39-15 P A R T 4 System AdministrationContents xxviii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 C H A P T E R 40 Managing System Access 40-1 Allowing Telnet Access 40-1 Allowing SSH Access 40-2 Configuring SSH Access 40-2 Using an SSH Client 40-3 Allowing HTTPS Access for ASDM 40-3 Configuring ASDM and WebVPN on the Same Interface 40-4 Configuring AAA for System Administrators 40-5 Configuring Authentication for CLI Access 40-5 Configuring Authentication To Access Privileged EXEC Mode 40-6 Configuring Authentication for the Enable Command 40-6 Authenticating Users Using the Login Command 40-6 Configuring Command Authorization 40-7 Command Authorization Overview 40-7 Configuring Local Command Authorization 40-8 Configuring TACACS+ Command Authorization 40-11 Configuring Command Accounting 40-14 Viewing the Current Logged-In User 40-14 Recovering from a Lockout 40-15 Configuring a Login Banner 40-16 C H A P T E R 41 Managing Software, Licenses, and Configurations 41-1 Managing Licenses 41-1 Obtaining an Activation Key 41-1 Entering a New Activation Key 41-2 Viewing Files in Flash Memory 41-2 Retrieving Files from Flash Memory 41-3 Downloading Software or Configuration Files to Flash Memory 41-3 Downloading a File to a Specific Location 41-4 Downloading a File to the Startup or Running Configuration 41-4 Configuring the Application Image and ASDM Image to Boot 41-5 Configuring the File to Boot as the Startup Configuration 41-6 Performing Zero Downtime Upgrades for Failover Pairs 41-6 Upgrading an Active/Standby Failover Configuration 41-7 Upgrading and Active/Active Failover Configuration 41-8 Backing Up Configuration Files 41-8 Backing up the Single Mode Configuration or Multiple Mode System Configuration 41-9 Backing Up a Context Configuration in Flash Memory 41-9Contents xxix Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Backing Up a Context Configuration within a Context 41-9 Copying the Configuration from the Terminal Display 41-10 Configuring Auto Update Support 41-10 Configuring Communication with an Auto Update Server 41-10 Configuring Client Updates as an Auto Update Server 41-12 Viewing Auto Update Status 41-13 C H A P T E R 42 Monitoring the Security Appliance 42-1 Using SNMP 42-1 SNMP Overview 42-1 Enabling SNMP 42-3 Configuring and Managing Logs 42-5 Logging Overview 42-5 Logging in Multiple Context Mode 42-5 Enabling and Disabling Logging 42-6 Enabling Logging to All Configured Output Destinations 42-6 Disabling Logging to All Configured Output Destinations 42-6 Viewing the Log Configuration 42-6 Configuring Log Output Destinations 42-7 Sending System Log Messages to a Syslog Server 42-7 Sending System Log Messages to the Console Port 42-8 Sending System Log Messages to an E-mail Address 42-9 Sending System Log Messages to ASDM 42-10 Sending System Log Messages to a Telnet or SSH Session 42-11 Sending System Log Messages to the Log Buffer 42-12 Filtering System Log Messages 42-14 Message Filtering Overview 42-15 Filtering System Log Messages by Class 42-15 Filtering System Log Messages with Custom Message Lists 42-17 Customizing the Log Configuration 42-18 Customizing the Log Configuration 42-18 Configuring the Logging Queue 42-19 Including the Date and Time in System Log Messages 42-19 Including the Device ID in System Log Messages 42-19 Generating System Log Messages in EMBLEM Format 42-20 Disabling a System Log Message 42-20 Changing the Severity Level of a System Log Message 42-21 Changing the Amount of Internal Flash Memory Available for Logs 42-22 Understanding System Log Messages 42-23Contents xxx Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 System Log Message Format 42-23 Severity Levels 42-23 C H A P T E R 43 Troubleshooting the Security Appliance 43-1 Testing Your Configuration 43-1 Enabling ICMP Debug Messages and System Messages 43-1 Pinging Security Appliance Interfaces 43-2 Pinging Through the Security Appliance 43-4 Disabling the Test Configuration 43-5 Traceroute 43-6 Packet Tracer 43-6 Reloading the Security Appliance 43-6 Performing Password Recovery 43-7 Performing Password Recovery for the ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance 43-7 Password Recovery for the PIX 500 Series Security Appliance 43-8 Disabling Password Recovery 43-9 Resetting the Password on the SSM Hardware Module 43-10 Other Troubleshooting Tools 43-10 Viewing Debug Messages 43-11 Capturing Packets 43-11 Viewing the Crash Dump 43-11 Common Problems 43-11 P A R T 2 Reference Supported Platforms and Feature Licenses A-1 Security Services Module Support A-9 VPN Specifications A-10 Cisco VPN Client Support A-11 Cisco Secure Desktop Support A-11 Site-to-Site VPN Compatibility A-11 Cryptographic Standards A-12 Example 1: Multiple Mode Firewall With Outside Access B-1 Example 1: System Configuration B-2 Example 1: Admin Context Configuration B-4 Example 1: Customer A Context Configuration B-4 Example 1: Customer B Context Configuration B-4 Example 1: Customer C Context Configuration B-5 Example 2: Single Mode Firewall Using Same Security Level B-6Contents xxxi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Example 3: Shared Resources for Multiple Contexts B-8 Example 3: System Configuration B-9 Example 3: Admin Context Configuration B-9 Example 3: Department 1 Context Configuration B-10 Example 3: Department 2 Context Configuration B-11 Example 4: Multiple Mode, Transparent Firewall with Outside Access B-12 Example 4: System Configuration B-13 Example 4: Admin Context Configuration B-14 Example 4: Customer A Context Configuration B-15 Example 4: Customer B Context Configuration B-15 Example 4: Customer C Context Configuration B-16 Example 5: WebVPN Configuration B-16 Example 6: IPv6 Configuration B-18 Example 7: Cable-Based Active/Standby Failover (Routed Mode) B-20 Example 8: LAN-Based Active/Standby Failover (Routed Mode) B-21 Example 8: Primary Unit Configuration B-21 Example 8: Secondary Unit Configuration B-22 Example 9: LAN-Based Active/Active Failover (Routed Mode) B-22 Example 9: Primary Unit Configuration B-23 Example 9: Primary System Configuration B-23 Example 9: Primary admin Context Configuration B-24 Example 9: Primary ctx1 Context Configuration B-25 Example 9: Secondary Unit Configuration B-25 Example 10: Cable-Based Active/Standby Failover (Transparent Mode) B-26 Example 11: LAN-Based Active/Standby Failover (Transparent Mode) B-27 Example 11: Primary Unit Configuration B-27 Example 11: Secondary Unit Configuration B-28 Example 12: LAN-Based Active/Active Failover (Transparent Mode) B-28 Example 12: Primary Unit Configuration B-29 Example 12: Primary System Configuration B-29 Example 12: Primary admin Context Configuration B-30 Example 12: Primary ctx1 Context Configuration B-31 Example 12: Secondary Unit Configuration B-31 Example 13: Dual ISP Support Using Static Route Tracking B-31 Example 14: ASA 5505 Base License B-33 Example 15: ASA 5505 Security Plus License with Failover and Dual-ISP Backup B-35 Example 15: Primary Unit Configuration B-35 Example 15: Secondary Unit Configuration B-37Contents xxxii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Example 16: Network Traffic Diversion B-37 Inspecting All Traffic with the AIP SSM B-43 Inspecting Specific Traffic with the AIP SSM B-44 Verifying the Recording of Alert Events B-45 Troubleshooting the Configuration B-47 Firewall Mode and Security Context Mode C-1 Command Modes and Prompts C-2 Syntax Formatting C-3 Abbreviating Commands C-3 Command-Line Editing C-3 Command Completion C-4 Command Help C-4 Filtering show Command Output C-4 Command Output Paging C-5 Adding Comments C-6 Text Configuration Files C-6 How Commands Correspond with Lines in the Text File C-6 Command-Specific Configuration Mode Commands C-6 Automatic Text Entries C-7 Line Order C-7 Commands Not Included in the Text Configuration C-7 Passwords C-7 Multiple Security Context Files C-7 IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks D-1 Classes D-1 Private Networks D-2 Subnet Masks D-2 Determining the Subnet Mask D-3 Determining the Address to Use with the Subnet Mask D-3 IPv6 Addresses D-5 IPv6 Address Format D-5 IPv6 Address Types D-6 Unicast Addresses D-6 Multicast Address D-8 Anycast Address D-9 Required Addresses D-10 IPv6 Address Prefixes D-10 Protocols and Applications D-11Contents xxxiii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 TCP and UDP Ports D-11 Local Ports and Protocols D-14 ICMP Types D-15 Selecting LDAP, RADIUS, or Local Authentication and Authorization E-1 Understanding Policy Enforcement of Permissions and Attributes E-2 Configuring an External LDAP Server E-2 Reviewing the LDAP Directory Structure and Configuration Procedure E-3 Organizing the Security Appliance LDAP Schema E-3 Searching the Hierarchy E-4 Binding the Security Appliance to the LDAP Server E-5 Defining the Security Appliance LDAP Schema E-5 Cisco -AV-Pair Attribute Syntax E-14 Example Security Appliance Authorization Schema E-15 Loading the Schema in the LDAP Server E-18 Defining User Permissions E-18 Example User File E-18 Reviewing Examples of Active Directory Configurations E-19 Example 1: Configuring LDAP Authorization with Microsoft Active Directory (ASA/PIX) E-19 Example 2: Configuring LDAP Authentication with Microsoft Active Directory E-20 Example 3: LDAP Authentication and LDAP Authorization with Microsoft Active Directory E-22 Configuring an External RADIUS Server E-24 Reviewing the RADIUS Configuration Procedure E-24 Security Appliance RADIUS Authorization Attributes E-25 Security Appliance TACACS+ Attributes E-32 GL O S S A R Y I N D E XContents xxxiv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02xxxv Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide This preface introduce the Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide, and includes the following sections: • Document Objectives, page xxxv • Audience, page xxxv • Related Documentation, page xxxvi • Document Organization, page xxxvi • Document Conventions, page xxxix • , page xxxix Document Objectives The purpose of this guide is to help you configure the security appliance using the command-line interface. This guide does not cover every feature, but describes only the most common configuration scenarios. You can also configure and monitor the security appliance by using ASDM, a web-based GUI application. ASDM includes configuration wizards to guide you through some common configuration scenarios, and online Help for less common scenarios. For more information, see: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/netsec/secmgmt/asdm/index.htm This guide applies to the Cisco PIX 500 series security appliances (PIX 515E, PIX 525, and PIX 535) and the Cisco ASA 5500 series security appliances (ASA 5505, ASA 5510, ASA 5520, ASA 5540, and ASA 5550). Throughout this guide, the term “security appliance” applies generically to all supported models, unless specified otherwise. The PIX 501, PIX 506E, and PIX 520 security appliances are not supported. Audience This guide is for network managers who perform any of the following tasks: • Manage network security • Install and configure firewalls/security appliances • Configure VPNs • Configure intrusion detection softwarexxxvi Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide Related Documentation For more information, refer to the following documentation: • Cisco PIX Security Appliance Release Notes • Cisco ASDM Release Notes • Cisco PIX 515E Quick Start Guide • Guide for Cisco PIX 6.2 and 6.3 Users Upgrading to Cisco PIX Software Version 7.0 • Migrating to ASA for VPN 3000 Series Concentrator Administrators • Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference • Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance Getting Started Guide • Cisco ASA 5500 Series Release Notes • Cisco Security Appliance Logging Configuration and System Log Messages • Cisco Secure Desktop Configuration Guide for Cisco ASA 5500 Series Administrators Document Organization This guide includes the chapters and appendixes described in Table 1. Table 1 Document Organization Chapter/Appendix Definition Part 1: Getting Started and General Information Chapter 1, “Introduction to the Security Appliance” Provides a high-level overview of the security appliance. Chapter 2, “Getting Started” Describes how to access the command-line interface, configure the firewall mode, and work with the configuration. Chapter 3, “Enabling Multiple Context Mode” Describes how to use security contexts and enable multiple context mode. Chapter 4, “Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance” Describes how to configure switch ports and VLAN interfaces for the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. Chapter 5, “Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces” Describes how to configure Ethernet settings for physical interfaces and add subinterfaces. Chapter 6, “Adding and Managing Security Contexts” Describes how to configure multiple security contexts on the security appliance. Chapter 7, “Configuring Interface Parameters” Describes how to configure each interface and subinterface for a name, security, level, and IP address. Chapter 8, “Configuring Basic Settings” Describes how to configure basic settings that are typically required for a functioning configuration. Chapter 9, “Configuring IP Routing” Describes how to configure IP routing.xxxvii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide Chapter 10, “Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services” Describes how to configure the DHCP server and DHCP relay. Chapter 11, “Configuring Multicast Routing” Describes how to configure multicast routing. Chapter 12, “Configuring IPv6” Describes how to enable and configure IPv6. Chapter 13, “Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database” Describes how to configure AAA servers and the local database. Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover” Describes the failover feature, which lets you configure two security appliances so that one will take over operation if the other one fails. Part 2: Configuring the Firewall Chapter 15, “Firewall Mode Overview” Describes in detail the two operation modes of the security appliance, routed and transparent mode, and how data is handled differently with each mode. Chapter 16, “Identifying Traffic with Access Lists” Describes how to identify traffic with access lists. Chapter 17, “Applying NAT” Describes how address translation is performed. Chapter 18, “Permitting or Denying Network Access” Describes how to control network access through the security appliance using access lists. Chapter 19, “Applying AAA for Network Access” Describes how to enable AAA for network access. Chapter 20, “Applying Filtering Services” Describes ways to filter web traffic to reduce security risks or prevent inappropriate use. Chapter 21, “Using Modular Policy Framework” Describes how to use the Modular Policy Framework to create security policies for TCP, general connection settings, inspection, and QoS. Chapter 22, “Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM” Describes how to configure the security appliance to send traffic to an AIP SSM or a CSC SSM, how to check the status of an SSM, and how to update the software image on an intelligent SSM. Chapter 23, “Preventing Network Attacks” Describes how to configure protection features to intercept and respond to network attacks. Chapter 24, “Configuring QoS” Describes how to configure the network to provide better service to selected network traffic over various technologies, including Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Ethernet and 802.1 networks, SONET, and IP routed networks. Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection” Describes how to use and configure application inspection. Chapter 26, “Configuring ARP Inspection and Bridging Parameters” Describes how to enable ARP inspection and how to customize bridging operations. Part 3: Configuring VPN Chapter 27, “Configuring IPsec and ISAKMP” Describes how to configure ISAKMP and IPSec tunneling to build and manage VPN “tunnels,” or secure connections between remote users and a private corporate network. Table 1 Document Organization (continued) Chapter/Appendix Definitionxxxviii Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide Chapter 28, “Configuring L2TP over IPSec” Describes how to configure IPSec over L2TP on the security appliance. Chapter 29, “Setting General IPSec VPN Parameters” Describes miscellaneous VPN configuration procedures. Chapter 30, “Configuring Tunnel Groups, Group Policies, and Users” Describes how to configure VPN tunnel groups, group policies, and users. Chapter 31, “Configuring IP Addresses for VPNs” Describes how to configure IP addresses in your private network addressing scheme, which let the client function as a tunnel endpoint. Chapter 32, “Configuring Remote Access IPSec VPNs” Describes how to configure a remote access VPN connection. Chapter 33, “Configuring Network Admission Control” Describes how to configure Network Admission Control (NAC). Chapter 34, “Configuring Easy VPN Services on the ASA 5505” Describes how to configure Easy VPN on the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. Chapter 35, “Configuring the PPPoE Client” Describes how to configure the PPPoE client provided with the security appliance. Chapter 36, “Configuring LAN-to-LAN IPsec VPNs” Describes how to build a LAN-to-LAN VPN connection. Chapter 37, “Configuring WebVPN” Describes how to establish a secure, remote-access VPN tunnel to a security appliance using a web browser. Chapter 38, “Configuring SSL VPN Client” Describes how to install and configure the SSL VPN Client. Chapter 39, “Configuring Certificates” Describes how to configure a digital certificates, which contains information that identifies a user or device. Such information can include a name, serial number, company, department, or IP address. A digital certificate also contains a copy of the public key for the user or device. Part 4: System Administration Chapter 40, “Managing System Access” Describes how to access the security appliance for system management through Telnet, SSH, and HTTPS. Chapter 41, “Managing Software, Licenses, and Configurations” Describes how to enter license keys and download software and configurations files. Chapter 42, “Monitoring the Security Appliance” Describes how to monitor the security appliance. Chapter 43, “Troubleshooting the Security Appliance” Describes how to troubleshoot the security appliance. Part 4: Reference Appendix A, “Feature Licenses and Specifications” Describes the feature licenses and specifications. Appendix B, “Sample Configurations” Describes a number of common ways to implement the security appliance. Table 1 Document Organization (continued) Chapter/Appendix Definitionxxxix Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide Document Conventions Command descriptions use these conventions: • Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. • Square brackets ([ ]) indicate optional elements. • Vertical bars ( | ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. • Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. • Italics indicate arguments for which you supply values. Examples use these conventions: • Examples depict screen displays and the command line in screen font. • Information you need to enter in examples is shown in boldface screen font. • Variables for which you must supply a value are shown in italic screen font. Note Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the manual. Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request For information on obtaining documentation, submitting a service request, and gathering additional information, see the monthly What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation, which also lists all new and revised Cisco technical documentation, at: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html Subscribe to the What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed and set content to be delivered directly to your desktop using a reader application. The RSS feeds are a free service and Cisco currently supports RSS Version 2.0. Appendix C, “Using the Command-Line Interface” Describes how to use the CLI to configure the the security appliance. Appendix D, “Addresses, Protocols, and Ports” Provides a quick reference for IP addresses, protocols, and applications. Appendix E, “Configuring an External Server for Authorization and Authentication” Provides information about configuring LDAP and RADIUS authorization servers. “Glossary” Provides a handy reference for commonly-used terms and acronyms. “Index” Provides an index for the guide. Table 1 Document Organization (continued) Chapter/Appendix Definitionxl Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 About This Guide P A R T 1 Getting Started and General InformationC H A P T E R 1-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance The security appliance combines advanced stateful firewall and VPN concentrator functionality in one device, and for some models, an integrated intrusion prevention module called the AIP SSM or an integrated content security and control module called the CSC SSM. The security appliance includes many advanced features, such as multiple security contexts (similar to virtualized firewalls), transparent (Layer 2) firewall or routed (Layer 3) firewall operation, advanced inspection engines, IPSec and WebVPN support, and many more features. See Appendix A, “Feature Licenses and Specifications,” for a list of supported platforms and features. For a list of new features, see the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Release Notes or the Cisco PIX Security Appliance Release Notes. Note The Cisco PIX 501 and PIX 506E security appliances are not supported. This chapter includes the following sections: • Firewall Functional Overview, page 1-1 • VPN Functional Overview, page 1-5 • Intrusion Prevention Services Functional Overview, page 1-5 • Security Context Overview, page 1-6 Firewall Functional Overview Firewalls protect inside networks from unauthorized access by users on an outside network. A firewall can also protect inside networks from each other, for example, by keeping a human resources network separate from a user network. If you have network resources that need to be available to an outside user, such as a web or FTP server, you can place these resources on a separate network behind the firewall, called a demilitarized zone (DMZ). The firewall allows limited access to the DMZ, but because the DMZ only includes the public servers, an attack there only affects the servers and does not affect the other inside networks. You can also control when inside users access outside networks (for example, access to the Internet), by allowing only certain addresses out, by requiring authentication or authorization, or by coordinating with an external URL filtering server. When discussing networks connected to a firewall, the outside network is in front of the firewall, the inside network is protected and behind the firewall, and a DMZ, while behind the firewall, allows limited access to outside users. Because the security appliance lets you configure many interfaces with varied security policies, including many inside interfaces, many DMZs, and even many outside interfaces if desired, these terms are used in a general sense only.1-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance Firewall Functional Overview This section includes the following topics: • Security Policy Overview, page 1-2 • Firewall Mode Overview, page 1-3 • Stateful Inspection Overview, page 1-4 Security Policy Overview A security policy determines which traffic is allowed to pass through the firewall to access another network. By default, the security appliance allows traffic to flow freely from an inside network (higher security level) to an outside network (lower security level). You can apply actions to traffic to customize the security policy. This section includes the following topics: • Permitting or Denying Traffic with Access Lists, page 1-2 • Applying NAT, page 1-2 • Using AAA for Through Traffic, page 1-2 • Applying HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP Filtering, page 1-3 • Applying Application Inspection, page 1-3 • Sending Traffic to the Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module, page 1-3 • Sending Traffic to the Content Security and Control Security Services Module, page 1-3 • Applying QoS Policies, page 1-3 • Applying Connection Limits and TCP Normalization, page 1-3 Permitting or Denying Traffic with Access Lists You can apply an access list to limit traffic from inside to outside, or allow traffic from outside to inside. For transparent firewall mode, you can also apply an EtherType access list to allow non-IP traffic. Applying NAT Some of the benefits of NAT include the following: • You can use private addresses on your inside networks. Private addresses are not routable on the Internet. • NAT hides the local addresses from other networks, so attackers cannot learn the real address of a host. • NAT can resolve IP routing problems by supporting overlapping IP addresses. Using AAA for Through Traffic You can require authentication and/or authorization for certain types of traffic, for example, for HTTP. The security appliance also sends accounting information to a RADIUS or TACACS+ server.1-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance Firewall Functional Overview Applying HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP Filtering Although you can use access lists to prevent outbound access to specific websites or FTP servers, configuring and managing web usage this way is not practical because of the size and dynamic nature of the Internet. We recommend that you use the security appliance in conjunction with a separate server running one of the following Internet filtering products: • Websense Enterprise • Secure Computing SmartFilter Applying Application Inspection Inspection engines are required for services that embed IP addressing information in the user data packet or that open secondary channels on dynamically assigned ports. These protocols require the security appliance to do a deep packet inspection. Sending Traffic to the Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Services Module If your model supports the AIP SSM for intrusion prevention, then you can send traffic to the AIP SSM for inspection. Sending Traffic to the Content Security and Control Security Services Module If your model supports it, the CSC SSM provides protection against viruses, spyware, spam, and other unwanted traffic. It accomplishes this by scanning the FTP, HTTP, POP3, and SMTP traffic that you configure the adaptive security appliance to send to it. Applying QoS Policies Some network traffic, such as voice and streaming video, cannot tolerate long latency times. QoS is a network feature that lets you give priority to these types of traffic. QoS refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic. Applying Connection Limits and TCP Normalization You can limit TCP and UDP connections and embryonic connections. Limiting the number of connections and embryonic connections protects you from a DoS attack. The security appliance uses the embryonic limit to trigger TCP Intercept, which protects inside systems from a DoS attack perpetrated by flooding an interface with TCP SYN packets. An embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake between source and destination. TCP normalization is a feature consisting of advanced TCP connection settings designed to drop packets that do not appear normal. Firewall Mode Overview The security appliance runs in two different firewall modes: • Routed • Transparent 1-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance Firewall Functional Overview In routed mode, the security appliance is considered to be a router hop in the network. In transparent mode, the security appliance acts like a “bump in the wire,” or a “stealth firewall,” and is not considered a router hop. The security appliance connects to the same network on its inside and outside interfaces. You might use a transparent firewall to simplify your network configuration. Transparent mode is also useful if you want the firewall to be invisible to attackers. You can also use a transparent firewall for traffic that would otherwise be blocked in routed mode. For example, a transparent firewall can allow multicast streams using an EtherType access list. Stateful Inspection Overview All traffic that goes through the security appliance is inspected using the Adaptive Security Algorithm and either allowed through or dropped. A simple packet filter can check for the correct source address, destination address, and ports, but it does not check that the packet sequence or flags are correct. A filter also checks every packet against the filter, which can be a slow process. A stateful firewall like the security appliance, however, takes into consideration the state of a packet: • Is this a new connection? If it is a new connection, the security appliance has to check the packet against access lists and perform other tasks to determine if the packet is allowed or denied. To perform this check, the first packet of the session goes through the “session management path,” and depending on the type of traffic, it might also pass through the “control plane path.” The session management path is responsible for the following tasks: – Performing the access list checks – Performing route lookups – Allocating NAT translations (xlates) – Establishing sessions in the “fast path” Note The session management path and the fast path make up the “accelerated security path.” Some packets that require Layer 7 inspection (the packet payload must be inspected or altered) are passed on to the control plane path. Layer 7 inspection engines are required for protocols that have two or more channels: a data channel, which uses well-known port numbers, and a control channel, which uses different port numbers for each session. These protocols include FTP, H.323, and SNMP. • Is this an established connection? If the connection is already established, the security appliance does not need to re-check packets; most matching packets can go through the fast path in both directions. The fast path is responsible for the following tasks: – IP checksum verification – Session lookup – TCP sequence number check – NAT translations based on existing sessions – Layer 3 and Layer 4 header adjustments1-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance VPN Functional Overview For UDP or other connectionless protocols, the security appliance creates connection state information so that it can also use the fast path. Data packets for protocols that require Layer 7 inspection can also go through the fast path. Some established session packets must continue to go through the session management path or the control plane path. Packets that go through the session management path include HTTP packets that require inspection or content filtering. Packets that go through the control plane path include the control packets for protocols that require Layer 7 inspection. VPN Functional Overview A VPN is a secure connection across a TCP/IP network (such as the Internet) that appears as a private connection. This secure connection is called a tunnel. The security appliance uses tunneling protocols to negotiate security parameters, create and manage tunnels, encapsulate packets, transmit or receive them through the tunnel, and unencapsulate them. The security appliance functions as a bidirectional tunnel endpoint: it can receive plain packets, encapsulate them, and send them to the other end of the tunnel where they are unencapsulated and sent to their final destination. It can also receive encapsulated packets, unencapsulate them, and send them to their final destination. The security appliance invokes various standard protocols to accomplish these functions. The security appliance performs the following functions: • Establishes tunnels • Negotiates tunnel parameters • Authenticates users • Assigns user addresses • Encrypts and decrypts data • Manages security keys • Manages data transfer across the tunnel • Manages data transfer inbound and outbound as a tunnel endpoint or router The security appliance invokes various standard protocols to accomplish these functions. Intrusion Prevention Services Functional Overview The Cisco ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance supports the AIP SSM, an intrusion prevention services module that monitors and performs real-time analysis of network traffic by looking for anomalies and misuse based on an extensive, embedded signature library. When the system detects unauthorized activity, it can terminate the specific connection, permanently block the attacking host, log the incident, and send an alert to the device manager. Other legitimate connections continue to operate independently without interruption. For more information, see Configuring the Cisco Intrusion Prevention System Sensor Using the Command Line Interface.1-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Security Appliance Security Context Overview Security Context Overview You can partition a single security appliance into multiple virtual devices, known as security contexts. Each context is an independent device, with its own security policy, interfaces, and administrators. Multiple contexts are similar to having multiple standalone devices. Many features are supported in multiple context mode, including routing tables, firewall features, IPS, and management. Some features are not supported, including VPN and dynamic routing protocols. In multiple context mode, the security appliance includes a configuration for each context that identifies the security policy, interfaces, and almost all the options you can configure on a standalone device. The system administrator adds and manages contexts by configuring them in the system configuration, which, like a single mode configuration, is the startup configuration. The system configuration identifies basic settings for the security appliance. The system configuration does not include any network interfaces or network settings for itself; rather, when the system needs to access network resources (such as downloading the contexts from the server), it uses one of the contexts that is designated as the admin context. The admin context is just like any other context, except that when a user logs into the admin context, then that user has system administrator rights and can access the system and all other contexts. Note You can run all your contexts in routed mode or transparent mode; you cannot run some contexts in one mode and others in another. Multiple context mode supports static routing only.C H A P T E R 2-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 2 Getting Started This chapter describes how to access the command-line interface, configure the firewall mode, and work with the configuration. This chapter includes the following sections: • Getting Started with Your Platform Model, page 2-1 • Factory Default Configurations, page 2-1 • Accessing the Command-Line Interface, page 2-4 • Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode, page 2-5 • Working with the Configuration, page 2-6 Getting Started with Your Platform Model This guide applies to multiple security appliance platforms and models: the PIX 500 series security appliances and the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliances. There are some hardware differences between the PIX and the ASA security appliance. Moreover, the ASA 5505 includes a built-in switch, and requires some special configuration. For these hardware-based differences, the platforms or models supported are noted directly in each section. Some models do not support all features covered in this guide. For example, the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance does not support security contexts. This guide might not list each supported model when discussing a feature. To determine the features that are supported for your model before you start your configuration, see the “Supported Platforms and Feature Licenses” section on page A-1 for a detailed list of the features supported for each model. Factory Default Configurations The factory default configuration is the configuration applied by Cisco to new security appliances. The factory default configuration is supported on all models except for the PIX 525 and PIX 535 security appliances. For the PIX 515/515E and the ASA 5510 and higher security appliances, the factory default configuration configures an interface for management so you can connect to it using ASDM, with which you can then complete your configuration. For the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the factory default configuration configures interfaces and NAT so that the security appliance is ready to use in your network immediately.2-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Factory Default Configurations The factory default configuration is available only for routed firewall mode and single context mode. See Chapter 3, “Enabling Multiple Context Mode,” for more information about multiple context mode. See the “Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode” section on page 2-5 for more information about routed and transparent firewall mode. This section includes the following topics: • Restoring the Factory Default Configuration, page 2-2 • ASA 5505 Default Configuration, page 2-2 • ASA 5510 and Higher Default Configuration, page 2-3 • PIX 515/515E Default Configuration, page 2-4 Restoring the Factory Default Configuration To restore the factory default configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config)# configure factory-default [ip_address [mask]] If you specify the ip_address, then you set the inside or management interface IP address, depending on your model, instead of using the default IP address of 192.168.1.1. The http command uses the subnet you specify. Similarly, the dhcpd address command range consists of addresses within the subnet that you specify. After you restore the factory default configuration, save it to internal Flash memory using the write memory command. The write memory command saves the running configuration to the default location for the startup configuration, even if you previously configured the boot config command to set a different location; when the configuration was cleared, this path was also cleared. Note This command also clears the boot system command, if present, along with the rest of the configuration. The boot system command lets you boot from a specific image, including an image on the external Flash memory card. The next time you reload the security appliance after restoring the factory configuration, it boots from the first image in internal Flash memory; if you do not have an image in internal Flash memory, the security appliance does not boot. To configure additional settings that are useful for a full configuration, see the setup command. ASA 5505 Default Configuration The default factory configuration for the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance configures the following: • An inside VLAN 1 interface that includes the Ethernet 0/1 through 0/7 switch ports. If you did not set the IP address in the configure factory-default command, then the VLAN 1 IP address and mask are 192.168.1.1 and 255.255.255.0. • An outside VLAN 2 interface that includes the Ethernet 0/0 switch port. VLAN 2 derives its IP address using DHCP. • The default route is also derived from DHCP. • All inside IP addresses are translated when accessing the outside using interface PAT. • By default, inside users can access the outside with an access list, and outside users are prevented from accessing the inside.2-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Factory Default Configurations • The DHCP server is enabled on the security appliance, so a PC connecting to the VLAN 1 interface receives an address between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254. • The HTTP server is enabled for ASDM and is accessible to users on the 192.168.1.0 network. The configuration consists of the following commands: interface Ethernet 0/0 switchport access vlan 2 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/1 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/2 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/3 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/4 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/5 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/6 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface Ethernet 0/7 switchport access vlan 1 no shutdown interface vlan2 nameif outside no shutdown ip address dhcp setroute interface vlan1 nameif inside ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 security-level 100 no shutdown global (outside) 1 interface nat (inside) 1 0 0 http server enable http 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 inside dhcpd address 192.168.1.2-192.168.1.254 inside dhcpd auto_config outside dhcpd enable inside logging asdm informational ASA 5510 and Higher Default Configuration The default factory configuration for the ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliance configures the following: • The management interface, Management 0/0. If you did not set the IP address in the configure factory-default command, then the IP address and mask are 192.168.1.1 and 255.255.255.0. • The DHCP server is enabled on the security appliance, so a PC connecting to the interface receives an address between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254. • The HTTP server is enabled for ASDM and is accessible to users on the 192.168.1.0 network.2-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Accessing the Command-Line Interface The configuration consists of the following commands: interface management 0/0 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 nameif management security-level 100 no shutdown asdm logging informational 100 asdm history enable http server enable http 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 management dhcpd address 192.168.1.2-192.168.1.254 management dhcpd lease 3600 dhcpd ping_timeout 750 dhcpd enable management PIX 515/515E Default Configuration The default factory configuration for the PIX 515/515E security appliance configures the following: • The inside Ethernet1 interface. If you did not set the IP address in the configure factory-default command, then the IP address and mask are 192.168.1.1 and 255.255.255.0. • The DHCP server is enabled on the security appliance, so a PC connecting to the interface receives an address between 192.168.1.2 and 192.168.1.254. • The HTTP server is enabled for ASDM and is accessible to users on the 192.168.1.0 network. The configuration consists of the following commands: interface ethernet 1 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 nameif management security-level 100 no shutdown asdm logging informational 100 asdm history enable http server enable http 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 management dhcpd address 192.168.1.2-192.168.1.254 management dhcpd lease 3600 dhcpd ping_timeout 750 dhcpd enable management Accessing the Command-Line Interface For initial configuration, access the command-line interface directly from the console port. Later, you can configure remote access using Telnet or SSH according to Chapter 40, “Managing System Access.” If your system is already in multiple context mode, then accessing the console port places you in the system execution space. See Chapter 3, “Enabling Multiple Context Mode,” for more information about multiple context mode. Note If you want to use ASDM to configure the security appliance instead of the command-line interface, you can connect to the default management address of 192.168.1.1 (if your security appliance includes a factory default configuration. See the “Factory Default Configurations” section on page 2-1.). On the 2-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliances, the interface to which you connect with ASDM is Management 0/0. For the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the switch port to which you connect with ASDM is any port, except for Ethernet 0/0. For the PIX 515/515E security appliance, the interface to which you connect with ASDM is Ethernet 1. If you do not have a factory default configuration, follow the steps in this section to access the command-line interface. You can then configure the minimum parameters to access ASDM by entering the setup command. To access the command-line interface, perform the following steps: Step 1 Connect a PC to the console port using the provided console cable, and connect to the console using a terminal emulator set for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flow control. See the hardware guide that came with your security appliance for more information about the console cable. Step 2 Press the Enter key to see the following prompt: hostname> This prompt indicates that you are in user EXEC mode. Step 3 To access privileged EXEC mode, enter the following command: hostname> enable The following prompt appears: Password: Step 4 Enter the enable password at the prompt. By default, the password is blank, and you can press the Enter key to continue. See the “Changing the Enable Password” section on page 8-1 to change the enable password. The prompt changes to: hostname# To exit privileged mode, enter the disable, exit, or quit command. Step 5 To access global configuration mode, enter the following command: hostname# configure terminal The prompt changes to the following: hostname(config)# To exit global configuration mode, enter the exit, quit, or end command. Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode You can set the security appliance to run in routed firewall mode (the default) or transparent firewall mode. For multiple context mode, you can use only one firewall mode for all contexts. You must set the mode in the system execution space.2-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Working with the Configuration When you change modes, the security appliance clears the configuration because many commands are not supported for both modes. If you already have a populated configuration, be sure to back up your configuration before changing the mode; you can use this backup for reference when creating your new configuration. See the “Backing Up Configuration Files” section on page 41-8. For multiple context mode, the system configuration is erased. This action removes any contexts from running. If you then re-add a context that has an existing configuration that was created for the wrong mode, the context configuration will not work correctly. Be sure to recreate your context configurations for the correct mode before you re-add them, or add new contexts with new paths for the new configurations. If you download a text configuration to the security appliance that changes the mode with the firewall transparent command, be sure to put the command at the top of the configuration; the security appliance changes the mode as soon as it reads the command and then continues reading the configuration you downloaded. If the command is later in the configuration, the security appliance clears all the preceding lines in the configuration. See the “Downloading Software or Configuration Files to Flash Memory” section on page 41-3 for information about downloading text files. • To set the mode to transparent, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# firewall transparent This command also appears in each context configuration for informational purposes only; you cannot enter this command in a context. • To set the mode to routed, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# no firewall transparent Working with the Configuration This section describes how to work with the configuration. The security appliance loads the configuration from a text file, called the startup configuration. This file resides by default as a hidden file in internal Flash memory. You can, however, specify a different path for the startup configuration. (For more information, see Chapter 41, “Managing Software, Licenses, and Configurations.”) When you enter a command, the change is made only to the running configuration in memory. You must manually save the running configuration to the startup configuration for your changes to remain after a reboot. The information in this section applies to both single and multiple security contexts, except where noted. Additional information about contexts is in Chapter 3, “Enabling Multiple Context Mode.” This section includes the following topics: • Saving Configuration Changes, page 2-6 • Copying the Startup Configuration to the Running Configuration, page 2-8 • Viewing the Configuration, page 2-8 • Clearing and Removing Configuration Settings, page 2-9 • Creating Text Configuration Files Offline, page 2-9 Saving Configuration Changes This section describes how to save your configuration, and includes the following topics: • Saving Configuration Changes in Single Context Mode, page 2-72-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Working with the Configuration • Saving Configuration Changes in Multiple Context Mode, page 2-7 Saving Configuration Changes in Single Context Mode To save the running configuration to the startup configuration, enter the following command: hostname# write memory Note The copy running-config startup-config command is equivalent to the write memory command. Saving Configuration Changes in Multiple Context Mode You can save each context (and system) configuration separately, or you can save all context configurations at the same time. This section includes the following topics: • Saving Each Context and System Separately, page 2-7 • Saving All Context Configurations at the Same Time, page 2-7 Saving Each Context and System Separately To save the system or context configuration, enter the following command within the system or context: hostname# write memory Note The copy running-config startup-config command is equivalent to the write memory command. For multiple context mode, context startup configurations can reside on external servers. In this case, the security appliance saves the configuration back to the server you identified in the context URL, except for an HTTP or HTTPS URL, which do not let you save the configuration to the server. Saving All Context Configurations at the Same Time To save all context configurations at the same time, as well as the system configuration, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname# write memory all [/noconfirm] If you do not enter the /noconfirm keyword, you see the following prompt: Are you sure [Y/N]: After you enter Y, the security appliance saves the system configuration and each context. Context startup configurations can reside on external servers. In this case, the security appliance saves the configuration back to the server you identified in the context URL, except for an HTTP or HTTPS URL, which do not let you save the configuration to the server. After the security appliance saves each context, the following message appears: ‘Saving context ‘b’ ... ( 1/3 contexts saved ) ’ Sometimes, a context is not saved because of an error. See the following information for errors: • For contexts that are not saved because of low memory, the following message appears: The context 'context a' could not be saved due to Unavailability of resources2-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Working with the Configuration • For contexts that are not saved because the remote destination is unreachable, the following message appears: The context 'context a' could not be saved due to non-reachability of destination • For contexts that are not saved because the context is locked, the following message appears: Unable to save the configuration for the following contexts as these contexts are locked. context ‘a’ , context ‘x’ , context ‘z’ . A context is only locked if another user is already saving the configuration or in the process of deleting the context. • For contexts that are not saved because the startup configuration is read-only (for example, on an HTTP server), the following message report is printed at the end of all other messages: Unable to save the configuration for the following contexts as these contexts have read-only config-urls: context ‘a’ , context ‘b’ , context ‘c’ . • For contexts that are not saved because of bad sectors in the Flash memory, the following message appears: The context 'context a' could not be saved due to Unknown errors Copying the Startup Configuration to the Running Configuration Copy a new startup configuration to the running configuration using one of these options: • To merge the startup configuration with the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config)# copy startup-config running-config A merge adds any new commands from the new configuration to the running configuration. If the configurations are the same, no changes occur. If commands conflict or if commands affect the running of the context, then the effect of the merge depends on the command. You might get errors, or you might have unexpected results. • To load the startup configuration and discard the running configuration, restart the security appliance by entering the following command: hostname# reload Alternatively, you can use the following commands to load the startup configuration and discard the running configuration without requiring a reboot: hostname/contexta(config)# clear configure all hostname/contexta(config)# copy startup-config running-config Viewing the Configuration The following commands let you view the running and startup configurations. • To view the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname# show running-config2-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Working with the Configuration • To view the running configuration of a specific command, enter the following command: hostname# show running-config command • To view the startup configuration, enter the following command: hostname# show startup-config Clearing and Removing Configuration Settings To erase settings, enter one of the following commands. • To clear all the configuration for a specified command, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear configure configurationcommand [level2configurationcommand] This command clears all the current configuration for the specified configuration command. If you only want to clear the configuration for a specific version of the command, you can enter a value for level2configurationcommand. For example, to clear the configuration for all aaa commands, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear configure aaa To clear the configuration for only aaa authentication commands, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear configure aaa authentication • To disable the specific parameters or options of a command, enter the following command: hostname(config)# no configurationcommand [level2configurationcommand] qualifier In this case, you use the no command to remove the specific configuration identified by qualifier. For example, to remove a specific nat command, enter enough of the command to identify it uniquely as follows: hostname(config)# no nat (inside) 1 • To erase the startup configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config)# write erase • To erase the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear configure all Note In multiple context mode, if you enter clear configure all from the system configuration, you also remove all contexts and stop them from running. Creating Text Configuration Files Offline This guide describes how to use the CLI to configure the security appliance; when you save commands, the changes are written to a text file. Instead of using the CLI, however, you can edit a text file directly on your PC and paste a configuration at the configuration mode command-line prompt in its entirety, or line by line. Alternatively, you can download a text file to the security appliance internal Flash memory. See Chapter 41, “Managing Software, Licenses, and Configurations,” for information on downloading the configuration file to the security appliance.2-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 2 Getting Started Working with the Configuration In most cases, commands described in this guide are preceded by a CLI prompt. The prompt in the following example is “hostname(config)#”: hostname(config)# context a In the text configuration file you are not prompted to enter commands, so the prompt is omitted as follows: context a For additional information about formatting the file, see Appendix C, “Using the Command-Line Interface.”C H A P T E R 3-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode This chapter describes how to use security contexts and enable multiple context mode. This chapter includes the following sections: • Security Context Overview, page 3-1 • Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context Mode, page 3-10 Security Context Overview You can partition a single security appliance into multiple virtual devices, known as security contexts. Each context is an independent device, with its own security policy, interfaces, and administrators. Multiple contexts are similar to having multiple standalone devices. Many features are supported in multiple context mode, including routing tables, firewall features, IPS, and management. Some features are not supported, including VPN and dynamic routing protocols. This section provides an overview of security contexts, and includes the following topics: • Common Uses for Security Contexts, page 3-1 • Unsupported Features, page 3-2 • Context Configuration Files, page 3-2 • How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets, page 3-3 • Cascading Security Contexts, page 3-8 • Management Access to Security Contexts, page 3-9 Common Uses for Security Contexts You might want to use multiple security contexts in the following situations: • You are a service provider and want to sell security services to many customers. By enabling multiple security contexts on the security appliance, you can implement a cost-effective, space-saving solution that keeps all customer traffic separate and secure, and also eases configuration. • You are a large enterprise or a college campus and want to keep departments completely separate. • You are an enterprise that wants to provide distinct security policies to different departments. • You have any network that requires more than one security appliance.3-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview Unsupported Features Multiple context mode does not support the following features: • Dynamic routing protocols Security contexts support only static routes. You cannot enable OSPF or RIP in multiple context mode. • VPN • Multicast Context Configuration Files This section describes how the security appliance implements multiple context mode configurations and includes the following sections: • Context Configurations, page 3-2 • System Configuration, page 3-2 • Admin Context Configuration, page 3-2 Context Configurations The security appliance includes a configuration for each context that identifies the security policy, interfaces, and almost all the options you can configure on a standalone device. You can store context configurations on the internal Flash memory or the external Flash memory card, or you can download them from a TFTP, FTP, or HTTP(S) server. System Configuration The system administrator adds and manages contexts by configuring each context configuration location, allocated interfaces, and other context operating parameters in the system configuration, which, like a single mode configuration, is the startup configuration. The system configuration identifies basic settings for the security appliance. The system configuration does not include any network interfaces or network settings for itself; rather, when the system needs to access network resources (such as downloading the contexts from the server), it uses one of the contexts that is designated as the admin context. The system configuration does include a specialized failover interface for failover traffic only. Admin Context Configuration The admin context is just like any other context, except that when a user logs in to the admin context, then that user has system administrator rights and can access the system and all other contexts. The admin context is not restricted in any way, and can be used as a regular context. However, because logging into the admin context grants you administrator privileges over all contexts, you might need to restrict access to the admin context to appropriate users. The admin context must reside on Flash memory, and not remotely. If your system is already in multiple context mode, or if you convert from single mode, the admin context is created automatically as a file on the internal Flash memory called admin.cfg. This context is named “admin.” If you do not want to use admin.cfg as the admin context, you can change the admin context.3-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets Each packet that enters the security appliance must be classified, so that the security appliance can determine to which context to send a packet. This section includes the following topics: • Valid Classifier Criteria, page 3-3 • Invalid Classifier Criteria, page 3-4 • Classification Examples, page 3-5 Note If the destination MAC address is a multicast or broadcast MAC address, the packet is duplicated and delivered to each context. Valid Classifier Criteria This section describes the criteria used by the classifier, and includes the following topics: • Unique Interfaces, page 3-3 • Unique MAC Addresses, page 3-3 • NAT Configuration, page 3-3 Unique Interfaces If only one context is associated with the ingress interface, the security appliance classifies the packet into that context. In transparent firewall mode, unique interfaces for contexts are required, so this method is used to classify packets at all times. Unique MAC Addresses If multiple contexts share an interface, then the classifier uses the interface MAC address. The security appliance lets you assign a different MAC address in each context to the same shared interface, whether it is a shared physical interface or a shared subinterface. By default, shared interfaces do not have unique MAC addresses; the interface uses the physical interface burned-in MAC address in every context. An upstream router cannot route directly to a context without unique MAC addresses. You can set the MAC addresses manually when you configure each interface (see the “Configuring the Interface” section on page 7-2), or you can automatically generate MAC addresses (see the “Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces” section on page 6-11). NAT Configuration If you do not have unique MAC addresses, then the classifier intercepts the packet and performs a destination IP address lookup. All other fields are ignored; only the destination IP address is used. To use the destination address for classification, the classifier must have knowledge about the subnets located behind each security context. The classifier relies on the NAT configuration to determine the subnets in each context. The classifier matches the destination IP address to either a static command or a global command. In the case of the global command, the classifier does not need a matching nat command or an active NAT session to classify the packet. Whether the packet can communicate with the destination IP address after classification depends on how you configure NAT and NAT control. For example, the classifier gains knowledge about subnets 10.10.10.0, 10.20.10.0 and 10.30.10.0 when the context administrators configure static commands in each context: • Context A:3-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview static (inside,shared) 10.10.10.0 10.10.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 • Context B: static (inside,shared) 10.20.10.0 10.20.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 • Context C: static (inside,shared) 10.30.10.0 10.30.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 Note For management traffic destined for an interface, the interface IP address is used for classification. Invalid Classifier Criteria The following configurations are not used for packet classification: • NAT exemption—The classifier does not use a NAT exemption configuration for classification purposes because NAT exemption does not identify a mapped interface. • Routing table—If a context includes a static route that points to an external router as the next-hop to a subnet, and a different context includes a static command for the same subnet, then the classifier uses the static command to classify packets destined for that subnet and ignores the static route.3-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview Classification Examples Figure 3-2 shows multiple contexts sharing an outside interface. The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because Context B includes the MAC address to which the router sends the packet. Figure 3-1 Packet Classification with a Shared Interface using MAC Addresses Classifier Context A Context B MAC 000C.F142.4CDA MAC 000C.F142.4CDB MAC 000C.F142.4CDC GE 0/1.2 GE 0/1.3 GE 0/0.1 (Shared Interface) Admin Context GE 0/1.1 Host 209.165.201.1 Host 209.165.200.225 Host 209.165.202.129 Packet Destination: 209.165.201.1 via MAC 000C.F142.4CDC Internet Inside Customer A Inside Customer B Admin Network 1533673-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview Figure 3-2 shows multiple contexts sharing an outside interface without MAC addresses assigned. The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because Context B includes the address translation that matches the destination address. Figure 3-2 Packet Classification with a Shared Interface using NAT Note that all new incoming traffic must be classified, even from inside networks. Figure 3-3 shows a host on the Context B inside network accessing the Internet. The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because the ingress interface is Gigabit Ethernet 0/1.3, which is assigned to Context B. Note If you share an inside interface and do not use unique MAC addresses, the classifier imposes some major restrictions. The classifier relies on the address translation configuration to classify the packet within a context, and you must translate the destination addresses of the traffic. Because you do not usually perform NAT on outside addresses, sending packets from inside to outside on a shared interface is not always possible; the outside network is large, (the Web, for example), and addresses are not predictable for an outside NAT configuration. If you share an inside interface, we suggest you use unique MAC addresses. Classifier Context A Context B GE 0/1.2 GE 0/1.3 GE 0/0.1 (Shared Interface) Admin Context GE 0/1.1 Host 10.1.1.13 Host 10.1.1.13 Host 10.1.1.13 Dest Addr Translation 209.165.201.3 Packet Destination: 209.165.201.3 10.1.1.13 Internet Inside Customer A Inside Customer B Admin Network 923993-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview Figure 3-3 Incoming Traffic from Inside Networks Host 10.1.1.13 Host 10.1.1.13 Host 10.1.1.13 Classifier Context A Context B GE 0/1.2 GE 0/1.3 GE 0/0.1 Admin Context GE 0/1.1 Inside Customer A Inside Customer B Internet Admin Network 923953-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview For transparent firewalls, you must use unique interfaces. Figure 3-4 shows a host on the Context B inside network accessing the Internet. The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because the ingress interface is Gigabit Ethernet 1/0.3, which is assigned to Context B. Figure 3-4 Transparent Firewall Contexts Cascading Security Contexts Placing a context directly in front of another context is called cascading contexts; the outside interface of one context is the same interface as the inside interface of another context. You might want to cascade contexts if you want to simplify the configuration of some contexts by configuring shared parameters in the top context. Note Cascading contexts requires that you configure unique MAC addresses for each context interface. Because of the limitations of classifying packets on shared interfaces without MAC addresses, we do not recommend using cascading contexts without unique MAC addresses. Host 10.1.3.13 Host 10.1.2.13 Host 10.1.1.13 Context A Context B GE 1/0.2 GE 1/0.3 Admin Context GE 1/0.1 GE 0/0.1 GE 0/0.3 GE 0/0.2 Classifier Inside Customer A Inside Customer B Internet Admin Network 924013-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Security Context Overview Figure 3-5 shows a gateway context with two contexts behind the gateway. Figure 3-5 Cascading Contexts Management Access to Security Contexts The security appliance provides system administrator access in multiple context mode as well as access for individual context administrators. The following sections describe logging in as a system administrator or as a a context administrator: • System Administrator Access, page 3-9 • Context Administrator Access, page 3-10 System Administrator Access You can access the security appliance as a system administrator in two ways: • Access the security appliance console. From the console, you access the system execution space. • Access the admin context using Telnet, SSH, or ASDM. See Chapter 40, “Managing System Access,” to enable Telnet, SSH, and SDM access. As the system administrator, you can access all contexts. When you change to a context from admin or the system, your username changes to the default “enable_15” username. If you configured command authorization in that context, you need to either configure authorization privileges for the “enable_15” user, or you can log in as a different name for which you provide sufficient privileges in the command authorization configuration for the context. To log in with a username, enter the login command. For example, you log in to the admin context with the Admin Context Context A Gateway Context GE 1/1.43 GE 0/0.2 Outside GE 1/1.8 GE 0/0.1 (Shared Interface) Internet Inside Inside Outside Inside Outside 1533663-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context Mode username “admin.” The admin context does not have any command authorization configuration, but all other contexts include command authorization. For convenience, each context configuration includes a user “admin” with maximum privileges. When you change from the admin context to context A, your username is altered, so you must log in again as “admin” by entering the login command. When you change to context B, you must again enter the login command to log in as “admin.” The system execution space does not support any AAA commands, but you can configure its own enable password, as well as usernames in the local database to provide individual logins. Context Administrator Access You can access a context using Telnet, SSH, or ASDM. If you log in to a non-admin context, you can only access the configuration for that context. You can provide individual logins to the context. See See Chapter 40, “Managing System Access,” to enable Telnet, SSH, and SDM access and to configure management authentication. Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context Mode Your security appliance might already be configured for multiple security contexts depending on how you ordered it from Cisco. If you are upgrading, however, you might need to convert from single mode to multiple mode by following the procedures in this section. ASDM does not support changing modes, so you need to change modes using the CLI. This section includes the following topics: • Backing Up the Single Mode Configuration, page 3-10 • Enabling Multiple Context Mode, page 3-10 • Restoring Single Context Mode, page 3-11 Backing Up the Single Mode Configuration When you convert from single mode to multiple mode, the security appliance converts the running configuration into two files. The original startup configuration is not saved, so if it differs from the running configuration, you should back it up before proceeding. Enabling Multiple Context Mode The context mode (single or multiple) is not stored in the configuration file, even though it does endure reboots. If you need to copy your configuration to another device, set the mode on the new device to match using the mode command. When you convert from single mode to multiple mode, the security appliance converts the running configuration into two files: a new startup configuration that comprises the system configuration, and admin.cfg that comprises the admin context (in the root directory of the internal Flash memory). The original running configuration is saved as old_running.cfg (in the root directory of the internal Flash memory). The original startup configuration is not saved. The security appliance automatically adds an entry for the admin context to the system configuration with the name “admin.” To enable multiple mode, enter the following command: hostname(config)# mode multiple3-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context Mode You are prompted to reboot the security appliance. Restoring Single Context Mode If you convert from multiple mode to single mode, you might want to first copy a full startup configuration (if available) to the security appliance; the system configuration inherited from multiple mode is not a complete functioning configuration for a single mode device. Because the system configuration does not have any network interfaces as part of its configuration, you must access the security appliance from the console to perform the copy. To copy the old running configuration to the startup configuration and to change the mode to single mode, perform the following steps in the system execution space: Step 1 To copy the backup version of your original running configuration to the current startup configuration, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# copy flash:old_running.cfg startup-config Step 2 To set the mode to single mode, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# mode single The security appliance reboots.3-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 3 Enabling Multiple Context Mode Enabling or Disabling Multiple Context ModeC H A P T E R 4-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance This chapter describes how to configure the switch ports and VLAN interfaces of the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. Note To configure interfaces of other models, see Chapter 5, “Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces,” and Chapter 7, “Configuring Interface Parameters.” This chapter includes the following sections: • Interface Overview, page 4-1 • Configuring VLAN Interfaces, page 4-5 • Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports, page 4-9 • Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port, page 4-11 • Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level, page 4-13 Interface Overview This section describes the ports and interfaces of the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, and includes the following topics: • Understanding ASA 5505 Ports and Interfaces, page 4-2 • Maximum Active VLAN Interfaces for Your License, page 4-2 • Default Interface Configuration, page 4-4 • VLAN MAC Addresses, page 4-4 • Power Over Ethernet, page 4-4 • Security Level Overview, page 4-54-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Interface Overview Understanding ASA 5505 Ports and Interfaces The ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance supports a built-in switch. There are two kinds of ports and interfaces that you need to configure: • Physical switch ports—The adaptive security appliance has eight Fast Ethernet switch ports that forward traffic at Layer 2, using the switching function in hardware. Two of these ports are PoE ports. See the “Power Over Ethernet” section on page 4-4 for more information. You can connect these interfaces directly to user equipment such as PCs, IP phones, or a DSL modem. Or you can connect to another switch. • Logical VLAN interfaces—In routed mode, these interfaces forward traffic between VLAN networks at Layer 3, using the configured security policy to apply firewall and VPN services. In transparent mode, these interfaces forward traffic between the VLANs on the same network at Layer 2, using the configured security policy to apply firewall services. See the “Maximum Active VLAN Interfaces for Your License” section for more information about the maximum VLAN interfaces. VLAN interfaces let you divide your equipment into separate VLANs, for example, home, business, and Internet VLANs. To segregate the switch ports into separate VLANs, you assign each switch port to a VLAN interface. Switch ports on the same VLAN can communicate with each other using hardware switching. But when a switch port on VLAN 1 wants to communicate with a switch port on VLAN 2, then the adaptive security appliance applies the security policy to the traffic and routes or bridges between the two VLANs. Note Subinterfaces are not available for the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. Maximum Active VLAN Interfaces for Your License In transparent firewall mode, you can configure two active VLANs in the Base license and three active VLANs in the Security Plus license, one of which must be for failover. In routed mode, you can configure up to three active VLANs with the Base license, and up to 20 active VLANs with the Security Plus license. An active VLAN is a VLAN with a nameif command configured.4-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Interface Overview With the Base license, the third VLAN can only be configured to initiate traffic to one other VLAN. See Figure 4-1 for an example network where the Home VLAN can communicate with the Internet, but cannot initiate contact with Business. Figure 4-1 ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance with Base License With the Security Plus license, you can configure 20 VLAN interfaces. You can configure trunk ports to accomodate multiple VLANs per port. Note The ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance supports Active/Standby failover, but not Stateful failover. See Figure 4-2 for an example network. Figure 4-2 ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance with Security Plus License ASA 5505 with Base License Business Internet Home 153364 ASA 5505 with Security Plus License Failover ASA 5505 Inside Backup ISP Primary ISP DMZ Failover Link 1533654-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Interface Overview Default Interface Configuration If your adaptive security appliance includes the default factory configuration, your interfaces are configured as follows: • The outside interface (security level 0) is VLAN 2. Ethernet0/0 is assigned to VLAN 2 and is enabled. The VLAN 2 IP address is obtained from the DHCP server. • The inside interface (security level 100) is VLAN 1 Ethernet 0/1 through Ethernet 0/7 are assigned to VLAN 1 and is enabled. VLAN 1 has IP address 192.168.1.1. Restore the default factory configuration using the configure factory-default command. Use the procedures in this chapter to modify the default configuration, for example, to add VLAN interfaces. If you do not have a factory default configuration, all switch ports are in VLAN 1, but no other parameters are configured. VLAN MAC Addresses In routed firewall mode, all VLAN interfaces share a MAC address. Ensure that any connected switches can support this scenario. If the connected switches require unique MAC addresses, you can manually assign MAC addresses. In transparent firewall mode, each VLAN has a unique MAC address. You can override the generated MAC addresses if desired by manually assigning MAC addresses. Power Over Ethernet Ethernet 0/6 and Ethernet 0/7 support PoE for devices such as IP phones or wireless access points. If you install a non-PoE device or do not connect to these switch ports, the adaptive security appliance does not supply power to the switch ports. If you shut down the switch port using the shutdown command, you disable power to the device. Power is restored when you enter no shutdown. See the “Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports” section on page 4-9 for more information about shutting down a switch port. To view the status of PoE switch ports, including the type of device connected (Cisco or IEEE 802.3af), use the show power inline command. Monitoring Traffic Using SPAN If you want to monitor traffic that enters or exits one or more switch ports, you can enable SPAN, also known as switch port monitoring. The port for which you enable SPAN (called the destination port) receives a copy of every packet transmitted or received on a specified source port. The SPAN feature lets you attach a sniffer to the destination port so you can monitor all traffic; without SPAN, you would have to attach a sniffer to every port you want to monitor. You can only enable SPAN for one destination port. 4-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring VLAN Interfaces See the switchport monitor command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. Security Level Overview Each VLAN interface must have a security level in the range 0 to 100 (from lowest to highest). For example, you should assign your most secure network, such as the inside business network, to level 100. The outside network connected to the Internet can be level 0. Other networks, such as a home network can be in-between. You can assign interfaces to the same security level. The level controls the following behavior: • Network access—By default, there is an implicit permit from a higher security interface to a lower security interface (outbound). Hosts on the higher security interface can access any host on a lower security interface. You can limit access by applying an access list to the interface. • If you enable communication for same security interfaces, there is an implicit permit for interfaces to access other interfaces on the same security level or lower. See the “Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level” section on page 4-13 for more information. • Inspection engines—Some application inspection engines are dependent on the security level. For same security interfaces, inspection engines apply to traffic in either direction. – NetBIOS inspection engine—Applied only for outbound connections. – SQL*Net inspection engine—If a control connection for the SQL*Net (formerly OraServ) port exists between a pair of hosts, then only an inbound data connection is permitted through the adaptive security appliance. • Filtering—HTTP(S) and FTP filtering applies only for outbound connections (from a higher level to a lower level). For same security interfaces, you can filter traffic in either direction. • NAT control—When you enable NAT control, you must configure NAT for hosts on a higher security interface (inside) when they access hosts on a lower security interface (outside). Without NAT control, or for same security interfaces, you can choose to use NAT between any interface, or you can choose not to use NAT. Keep in mind that configuring NAT for an outside interface might require a special keyword. • established command—This command allows return connections from a lower security host to a higher security host if there is already an established connection from the higher level host to the lower level host. For same security interfaces, you can configure established commands for both directions. Configuring VLAN Interfaces For each VLAN to pass traffic, you need to configure an interface name (the nameif command), and for routed mode, an IP address. You should also change the security level from the default, which is 0. If you name an interface “inside” and you do not set the security level explicitly, then the adaptive security appliance sets the security level to 100. For information about how many VLANs you can configure, see the “Maximum Active VLAN Interfaces for Your License” section on page 4-2.4-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring VLAN Interfaces Note If you are using failover, do not use this procedure to name interfaces that you are reserving for failover communications. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover,” to configure the failover link. If you change the security level of an interface, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new security information is used, you can clear the connections using the clear local-host command. To configure a VLAN interface, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the VLAN ID, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface vlan number Where the number is between 1 and 4090. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface vlan 100 To remove this VLAN interface and all associated configuration, enter the no interface vlan command. Because this interface also includes the interface name configuration, and the name is used in other commands, those commands are also removed. Step 2 (Optional) For the Base license, allow this interface to be the third VLAN by limiting it from initiating contact to one other VLAN using the following command: hostname(config-if)# no forward interface vlan number Where number specifies the VLAN ID to which this VLAN interface cannot initiate traffic. With the Base license, you can only configure a third VLAN if you use this command to limit it. For example, you have one VLAN assigned to the outside for Internet access, one VLAN assigned to an inside business network, and a third VLAN assigned to your home network. The home network does not need to access the business network, so you can use the no forward interface command on the home VLAN; the business network can access the home network, but the home network cannot access the business network. If you already have two VLAN interfaces configured with a nameif command, be sure to enter the no forward interface command before the nameif command on the third interface; the adaptive security appliance does not allow three fully functioning VLAN interfaces with the Base license on the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. Note If you upgrade to the Security Plus license, you can remove this command and achieve full functionality for this interface. If you leave this command in place, this interface continues to be limited even after upgrading. Step 3 To name the interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# nameif name The name is a text string up to 48 characters, and is not case-sensitive. You can change the name by reentering this command with a new value. Do not enter the no form, because that command causes all commands that refer to that name to be deleted. Step 4 To set the security level, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# security-level number4-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring VLAN Interfaces Where number is an integer between 0 (lowest) and 100 (highest). Step 5 (Routed mode only) To set the IP address, enter one of the following commands. Note To set an IPv6 address, see the “Configuring IPv6 on an Interface” section on page 12-3. To set the management IP address for transparent firewall mode, see the “Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall” section on page 8-5. In transparent mode, you do not set the IP address for each interface, but rather for the whole adaptive security appliance or context. For failover, you must set the IP address an standby address manually; DHCP and PPPoE are not supported. • To set the IP address manually, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ip address ip_address [mask] [standby ip_address] The standby keyword and address is used for failover. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover,” for more information. • To obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ip address dhcp [setroute] Reenter this command to reset the DHCP lease and request a new lease. If you do not enable the interface using the no shutdown command before you enter the ip address dhcp command, some DHCP requests might not be sent. • To obtain an IP address from a PPPoE server, see Chapter 35, “Configuring the PPPoE Client.” Step 6 (Optional) To assign a private MAC address to this interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# mac-address mac_address [standby mac_address] By default in routed mode, all VLANs use the same MAC address. In transparent mode, the VLANs use unique MAC addresses. You might want to set unique VLANs or change the generated VLANs if your switch requires it, or for access control purposes. Step 7 (Optional) To set an interface to management-only mode, so that it does not allow through traffic, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# management-only Step 8 By default, VLAN interfaces are enabled. To enable the interface, if it is not already enabled, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the interface, enter the shutdown command. The following example configures seven VLAN interfaces, including the failover interface which is configured separately using the failover lan command: hostname(config)# interface vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# nameif outside hostname(config-if)# security-level 0 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.04-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring VLAN Interfaces hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# nameif inside hostname(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 201 hostname(config-if)# nameif dept1 hostname(config-if)# security-level 90 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 202 hostname(config-if)# nameif dept2 hostname(config-if)# security-level 90 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.3.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# nameif dmz hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 400 hostname(config-if)# nameif backup-isp hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# failover lan faillink vlan500 hostname(config)# failover interface ip faillink 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.4.1.2 255.255.255.0 The following example configures three VLAN interfaces for the Base license. The third home interface cannot forward traffic to the business interface. hostname(config)# interface vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# nameif outside hostname(config-if)# security-level 0 hostname(config-if)# ip address dhcp hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# nameif business hostname(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# no forward interface vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# nameif home hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown4-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports By default, all switch ports are shut down. To assign a switch port to one VLAN, configure it as an access port. To create a trunk port to carry multiple VLANs, see the “Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port” section on page 4-11. By default, the speed and duplex for switch ports are set to auto-negotiate. The default auto-negotiation setting also includes the Auto-MDI/MDIX feature. Auto-MDI/MDIX eliminates the need for crossover cabling by performing an internal crossover when a straight cable is detected during the auto-negotiation phase. Either the speed or duplex must be set to auto-negotiate to enable Auto-MDI/MDIX for the interface. If you explicitly set both the speed and duplex to a fixed value, thus disabling auto-negotiation for both settings, then Auto-MDI/MDIX is also disabled. Caution The ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance does not support Spanning Tree Protocol for loop detection in the network. Therefore you must ensure that any connection with the adaptive security appliance does not end up in a network loop. To configure a switch port, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the switch port you want to configure, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface ethernet0/port Where port is 0 through 7. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface ethernet0/1 Step 2 To assign this switch port to a VLAN, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan number Where number is the VLAN ID, between 1 and 4090. Note You might assign multiple switch ports to the primary or backup VLANs if the Internet access device includes Layer 2 redundancy. Step 3 (Optional) To prevent the switch port from communicating with other protected switch ports on the same VLAN, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport protected You might want to prevent switch ports from communicating with each other if the devices on those switch ports are primarily accessed from other VLANs, you do not need to allow intra-VLAN access, and you want to isolate the devices from each other in case of infection or other security breach. For example, if you have a DMZ that hosts three web servers, you can isolate the web servers from each other if you apply the switchport protected command to each switch port. The inside and outside networks can both communicate with all three web servers, and vice versa, but the web servers cannot communicate with each other. Step 4 (Optional) To set the speed, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# speed {auto | 10 | 100}4-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports The auto setting is the default. If you set the speed to anything other than auto on PoE ports Ethernet 0/6 or 0/7, then Cisco IP phones and Cisco wireless access points that do not support IEEE 802.3af will not be detected and supplied with power. Step 5 (Optional) To set the duplex, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# duplex {auto | full | half} The auto setting is the default. If you set the duplex to anything other than auto on PoE ports Ethernet 0/6 or 0/7, then Cisco IP phones and Cisco wireless access points that do not support IEEE 802.3af will not be detected and supplied with power. Step 6 To enable the switch port, if it is not already enabled, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the switch port, enter the shutdown command. The following example configures five VLAN interfaces, including the failover interface which is configured using the failover lan command: hostname(config)# interface vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# nameif outside hostname(config-if)# security-level 0 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# nameif inside hostname(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# nameif dmz hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 400 hostname(config-if)# nameif backup-isp hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# failover lan faillink vlan500 hostname(config)# failover interface ip faillink 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.4.1.2 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# interface ethernet 0/0 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/1 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/2 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/34-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 400 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/4 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 500 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port By default, all switch ports are shut down. This procedure tells how to create a trunk port that can carry multiple VLANs using 802.1Q tagging. Trunk mode is available only with the Security Plus license. To create an access port, where an interface is assigned to only one VLAN, see the “Configuring Switch Ports as Access Ports” section on page 4-9. By default, the speed and duplex for switch ports are set to auto-negotiate. The default auto-negotiation setting also includes the Auto-MDI/MDIX feature. Auto-MDI/MDIX eliminates the need for crossover cabling by performing an internal crossover when a straight cable is detected during the auto-negotiation phase. Either the speed or duplex must be set to auto-negotiate to enable Auto-MDI/MDIX for the interface. If you explicitly set both the speed and duplex to a fixed value, thus disabling auto-negotiation for both settings, then Auto-MDI/MDIX is also disabled. To configure a trunk port, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the switch port you want to configure, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface ethernet0/port Where port is 0 through 7. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface ethernet0/1 Step 2 To assign VLANs to this trunk, enter one or more of the following commands. • To assign native VLANs, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan vlan_id where the vlan_id is a single VLAN ID between 1 and 4090. Packets on the native VLAN are not modified when sent over the trunk. For example, if a port has VLANs 2, 3 and 4 assigned to it, and VLAN 2 is the native VLAN, then packets on VLAN 2 that egress the port are not modified with an 802.1Q header. Frames which ingress (enter) this port and have no 802.1Q header are put into VLAN 2. Each port can only have one native VLAN, but every port can have either the same or a different native VLAN. • To assign VLANs, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan vlan_range where the vlan_range (with VLANs between 1 and 4090) can be identified in one of the following ways: A single number (n) A range (n-x) Separate numbers and ranges by commas, for example:4-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Configuring a Switch Port as a Trunk Port 5,7-10,13,45-100 You can enter spaces instead of commas, but the command is saved to the configuration with commas. You can include the native VLAN in this command, but it is not required; the native VLAN is passed whether it is included in this command or not. This switch port cannot pass traffic until you assign at least one VLAN to it, native or non-native. Step 3 To make this switch port a trunk port, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport mode trunk To restore this port to access mode, enter the switchport mode access command. Step 4 (Optional) To prevent the switch port from communicating with other protected switch ports on the same VLAN, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# switchport protected You might want to prevent switch ports from communicating with each other if the devices on those switch ports are primarily accessed from other VLANs, you do not need to allow intra-VLAN access, and you want to isolate the devices from each other in case of infection or other security breach. For example, if you have a DMZ that hosts three web servers, you can isolate the web servers from each other if you apply the switchport protected command to each switch port. The inside and outside networks can both communicate with all three web servers, and vice versa, but the web servers cannot communicate with each other. Step 5 (Optional) To set the speed, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# speed {auto | 10 | 100} The auto setting is the default. Step 6 (Optional) To set the duplex, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# duplex {auto | full | half} The auto setting is the default. Step 7 To enable the switch port, if it is not already enabled, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the switch port, enter the shutdown command. The following example configures seven VLAN interfaces, including the failover interface which is configured using the failover lan command. VLANs 200, 201, and 202 are trunked on Ethernet 0/1. hostname(config)# interface vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# nameif outside hostname(config-if)# security-level 0 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 200 hostname(config-if)# nameif inside hostname(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 201 hostname(config-if)# nameif dept14-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level hostname(config-if)# security-level 90 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 202 hostname(config-if)# nameif dept2 hostname(config-if)# security-level 90 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.2.3.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# nameif dmz hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface vlan 400 hostname(config-if)# nameif backup-isp hostname(config-if)# security-level 50 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# failover lan faillink vlan500 hostname(config)# failover interface ip faillink 10.4.1.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.4.1.2 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# interface ethernet 0/0 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/1 hostname(config-if)# switchport mode trunk hostname(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 200-202 hostname(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan 5 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/2 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 300 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/3 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 400 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface ethernet 0/4 hostname(config-if)# switchport access vlan 500 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level By default, interfaces on the same security level cannot communicate with each other. Allowing communication between same security interfaces lets traffic flow freely between all same security interfaces without access lists.4-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 4 Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance Allowing Communication Between VLAN Interfaces on the Same Security Level Note If you enable NAT control, you do not need to configure NAT between same security level interfaces. See the “NAT and Same Security Level Interfaces” section on page 17-13 for more information on NAT and same security level interfaces. If you enable same security interface communication, you can still configure interfaces at different security levels as usual. To enable interfaces on the same security level so that they can communicate with each other, enter the following command: hostname(config)# same-security-traffic permit inter-interface To disable this setting, use the no form of this command.C H A P T E R 5-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 5 Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces This chapter describes how to configure and enable physical Ethernet interfaces and how to add subinterfaces. If you have both fiber and copper Ethernet ports (for example, on the 4GE SSM for the ASA 5510 and higher series adaptive security appliance), this chapter describes how to configure the inteface media type. In single context mode, complete the procedures in this chapter and then continue your interface configuration in Chapter 7, “Configuring Interface Parameters.” In multiple context mode, complete the procedures in this chapter in the system execution space, then assign interfaces and subinterfaces to contexts according to Chapter 6, “Adding and Managing Security Contexts,” and finally configure the interface parameters within each context according to Chapter 7, “Configuring Interface Parameters.” Note To configure interfaces for the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, see Chapter 4, “Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance.” This chapter includes the following sections: • Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces, page 5-1 • Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces, page 5-3 • Configuring and Enabling VLAN Subinterfaces and 802.1Q Trunking, page 5-3 Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces This section describes how to configure Ethernet settings for physical interfaces, and how to enable the interface. By default, all physical interfaces are shut down. You must enable the physical interface before any traffic can pass through it or through a subinterface. For multiple context mode, if you allocate a physical interface or subinterface to a context, the interfaces are enabled by default in the context. However, before traffic can pass through the context interface, you must also enable the interface in the system configuration according to this procedure. By default, the speed and duplex for copper (RJ-45) interfaces are set to auto-negotiate. The ASA 5550 adaptive security appliance and the 4GE SSM for the ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliance includes two connector types: copper RJ-45 and fiber SFP. RJ-45 is the default. If you want to configure the security appliance to use the fiber SFP connectors, see the “Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces” section on page 5-3. For RJ-45 interfaces on the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, the default auto-negotiation setting also includes the Auto-MDI/MDIX feature. Auto-MDI/MDIX eliminates the need for crossover cabling by performing an internal crossover when a straight cable is detected during the auto-negotiation 5-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 5 Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces phase. Either the speed or duplex must be set to auto-negotiate to enable Auto-MDI/MDIX for the interface. If you explicitly set both the speed and duplex to a fixed value, thus disabling auto-negotiation for both settings, then Auto-MDI/MDIX is also disabled. For Gigabit Ethernet, when the speed and duplex are set to 1000 and full, then the interface always auto-negotiates; therefore Auto-MDI/MDIX is always enabled and you cannot disable it. To enable the interface, or to set a specific speed and duplex, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the interface you want to configure, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface physical_interface The physical_interface ID includes the type, slot, and port number as type[slot/]port. The physical interface types include the following: • ethernet • gigabitethernet For the PIX 500 series security appliance, enter the type followed by the port number, for example, ethernet0. For the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, enter the type followed by slot/port, for example, gigabitethernet0/1. Interfaces that are built into the chassis are assigned to slot 0, while interfaces on the 4GE SSM are assigned to slot 1. The ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance also includes the following type: • management The management interface is a Fast Ethernet interface designed for management traffic only, and is specified as management0/0. You can, however, use it for through traffic if desired (see the management-only command). In transparent firewall mode, you can use the management interface in addition to the two interfaces allowed for through traffic. You can also add subinterfaces to the management interface to provide management in each security context for multiple context mode. Step 2 (Optional) To set the speed, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# speed {auto | 10 | 100 | 1000 | nonegotiate} The auto setting is the default. The speed nonegotiate command disables link negotiation. Step 3 (Optional) To set the duplex, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# duplex {auto | full | half} The auto setting is the default. Step 4 To enable the interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the interface, enter the shutdown command. If you enter the shutdown command for a physical interface, you also shut down all subinterfaces. If you shut down an interface in the system execution space, then that interface is shut down in all contexts that share it.5-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 5 Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces This section describes how to configure Ethernet settings for physical interfaces, and how to enable the interface. By default, all physical interfaces are shut down. You must enable the physical interface before any traffic can pass through it or through a subinterface. For multiple context mode, if you allocate a physical interface or subinterface to a context, the interfaces are enabled by default in the context. However, before traffic can pass through the context interface, you must also enable the interface in the system configuration according to this procedure. By default, the connectors used on the 4GE SSM or for built-in interfaces in slot 1 on the ASA 5550 adaptive security appliance are the RJ-45 connectors. To use the fiber SFP connectors, you must set the media type to SFP. The fiber interface has a fixed speed and does not support duplex, but you can set the interface to negotiate link parameters (the default) or not to negotiate. To enable the interface, set the media type, or to set negotiation settings, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the interface you want to configure, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet 1/port The 4GE SSM interfaces are assigned to slot 1, as shown in the interface ID in the syntax (the interfaces built into the chassis are assigned to slot 0). Step 2 To set the media type to SFP, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# media-type sfp To restore the defaukt RJ-45, enter the media-type rj45 command. Step 3 (Optional) To disable link negotiation, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# speed nonegotiate For fiber Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the default is no speed nonegotiate, which sets the speed to 1000 Mbps and enables link negotiation for flow-control parameters and remote fault information. The speed nonegotiate command disables link negotiation. Step 4 To enable the interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the interface, enter the shutdown command. If you enter the shutdown command for a physical interface, you also shut down all subinterfaces. If you shut down an interface in the system execution space, then that interface is shut down in all contexts that share it. Configuring and Enabling VLAN Subinterfaces and 802.1Q Trunking This section describes how to configure and enable a VLAN subinterface. An interface with one or more VLAN subinterfaces is automatically configured as an 802.1Q trunk.5-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 5 Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces Configuring and Enabling VLAN Subinterfaces and 802.1Q Trunking You must enable the physical interface before any traffic can pass through an enabled subinterface (see the “Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces” section on page 5-1 or the “Configuring and Enabling Fiber Interfaces” section on page 5-3). For multiple context mode, if you allocate a subinterface to a context, the interfaces are enabled by default in the context. However, before traffic can pass through the context interface, you must also enable the interface in the system configuration with this procedure. Subinterfaces let you divide a physical interface into multiple logical interfaces that are tagged with different VLAN IDs. Because VLANs allow you to keep traffic separate on a given physical interface, you can increase the number of interfaces available to your network without adding additional physical interfaces or security appliances. This feature is particularly useful in multiple context mode so you can assign unique interfaces to each context. To determine how many subinterfaces are allowed for your platform, see Appendix A, “Feature Licenses and Specifications.” Note If you use subinterfaces, you typically do not also want the physical interface to pass traffic, because the physical interface passes untagged packets. Because the physical interface must be enabled for the subinterface to pass traffic, ensure that the physical interface does not pass traffic by leaving out the nameif command. If you want to let the physical interface pass untagged packets, you can configure the nameif command as usual. See the “Configuring Interface Parameters” section on page 7-1 for more information about completing the interface configuration. To add a subinterface and assign a VLAN to it, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the new subinterface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface physical_interface.subinterface See the “Configuring and Enabling RJ-45 Interfaces” section for a description of the physical interface ID. The subinterface ID is an integer between 1 and 4294967293. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1.100 Step 2 To specify the VLAN for the subinterface, enter the following command: hostname(config-subif)# vlan vlan_id The vlan_id is an integer between 1 and 4094. Some VLAN IDs might be reserved on connected switches, so check the switch documentation for more information. You can only assign a single VLAN to a subinterface, and not to the physical interface. Each subinterface must have a VLAN ID before it can pass traffic. To change a VLAN ID, you do not need to remove the old VLAN ID with the no option; you can enter the vlan command with a different VLAN ID, and the security appliance changes the old ID. Step 3 To enable the subinterface, enter the following command: hostname(config-subif)# no shutdown To disable the interface, enter the shutdown command. If you shut down an interface in the system execution space, then that interface is shut down in all contexts that share it.C H A P T E R 6-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts This chapter describes how to configure multiple security contexts on the security appliance, and includes the following sections: • Configuring Resource Management, page 6-1 • Configuring a Security Context, page 6-7 • Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces, page 6-11 • Changing Between Contexts and the System Execution Space, page 6-11 • Managing Security Contexts, page 6-12 For information about how contexts work and how to enable multiple context mode, see Chapter 3, “Enabling Multiple Context Mode.” Configuring Resource Management By default, all security contexts have unlimited access to the resources of the security appliance, except where maximum limits per context are enforced. However, if you find that one or more contexts use too many resources, and they cause other contexts to be denied connections, for example, then you can configure resource management to limit the use of resources per context. This section includes the following topics: • Classes and Class Members Overview, page 6-1 • Configuring a Class, page 6-4 Classes and Class Members Overview The security appliance manages resources by assigning contexts to resource classes. Each context uses the resource limits set by the class. This section includes the following topics: • Resource Limits, page 6-2 • Default Class, page 6-3 • Class Members, page 6-46-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring Resource Management Resource Limits When you create a class, the security appliance does not set aside a portion of the resources for each context assigned to the class; rather, the security appliance sets the maximum limit for a context. If you oversubscribe resources, or allow some resources to be unlimited, a few contexts can “use up” those resources, potentially affecting service to other contexts. You can set the limit for individual resources, as a percentage (if there is a hard system limit) or as an absolute value. You can oversubscribe the security appliance by assigning more than 100 percent of a resource across all contexts. For example, you can set the Bronze class to limit connections to 20 percent per context, and then assign 10 contexts to the class for a total of 200 percent. If contexts concurrently use more than the system limit, then each context gets less than the 20 percent you intended. (See Figure 6-1.) Figure 6-1 Resource Oversubscription If you assign an absolute value to a resource across all contexts that exceeds the practical limit of the security appliance, then the performance of the security appliance might be impaired. The security appliance lets you assign unlimited access to one or more resources in a class, instead of a percentage or absolute number. When a resource is unlimited, contexts can use as much of the resource as the system has available or that is practically available. For example, Context A, B, and C are in the Silver Class, which limits each class member to 1 percent of the connections, for a total of 3 percent; but the three contexts are currently only using 2 percent combined. Gold Class has unlimited access to connections. The contexts in the Gold Class can use more than the 97 percent of “unassigned” connections; they can also use the 1 percent of connections not currently in use by Context A, B, and C, even if that means that Context A, B, and C are unable to reach their 3 percent combined limit. (See Figure 6-2.) Setting unlimited access is similar to oversubscribing the security appliance, except that you have less control over how much you oversubscribe the system. Total Number of System Connections = 999,900 Maximum connections allowed. Connections denied because system limit was reached. Connections in use. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Max. 20% (199,800) 16% (159,984) 12% (119,988) 8% (79,992) 4% (39,996) Contexts in Class 1048956-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring Resource Management Figure 6-2 Unlimited Resources Default Class All contexts belong to the default class if they are not assigned to another class; you do not have to actively assign a context to the default class. If a context belongs to a class other than the default class, those class settings always override the default class settings. However, if the other class has any settings that are not defined, then the member context uses the default class for those limits. For example, if you create a class with a 2 percent limit for all concurrent connections, but no other limits, then all other limits are inherited from the default class. Conversely, if you create a class with a limit for all resources, the class uses no settings from the default class. By default, the default class provides unlimited access to resources for all contexts, except for the following limits, which are by default set to the maximum allowed per context: • Telnet sessions—5 sessions. • SSH sessions—5 sessions. • IPSec sessions—5 sessions. • MAC addresses—65,535 entries. Maximum connections allowed. Connections denied because system limit was reached. Connections in use. A B C 1 2 3 1% 2% 3% 5% 4% Contexts Silver Class Contexts Gold Class 50% 43% 1532116-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring Resource Management Figure 6-3 shows the relationship between the default class and other classes. Contexts A and C belong to classes with some limits set; other limits are inherited from the default class. Context B inherits no limits from default because all limits are set in its class, the Gold class. Context D was not assigned to a class, and is by default a member of the default class. Figure 6-3 Resource Classes Class Members To use the settings of a class, assign the context to the class when you define the context. All contexts belong to the default class if they are not assigned to another class; you do not have to actively assign a context to default. You can only assign a context to one resource class. The exception to this rule is that limits that are undefined in the member class are inherited from the default class; so in effect, a context could be a member of default plus another class. Configuring a Class To configure a class in the system configuration, perform the following steps. You can change the value of a particular resource limit by reentering the command with a new value. Step 1 To specify the class name and enter the class configuration mode, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# class name The name is a string up to 20 characters long. To set the limits for the default class, enter default for the name. Step 2 To set the resource limits, see the following options: • To set all resource limits (shown in Table 6-1) to be unlimited, enter the following command: hostname(config-resmgmt)# limit-resource all 0 Default Class Class Gold (All Limits Set) Class Silver (Some Limits Set) Class Bronze (Some Limits Set) Context A Context B Context C Context D 1046896-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring Resource Management For example, you might want to create a class that includes the admin context that has no limitations. The default class has all resources set to unlimited by default. • To set a particular resource limit, enter the following command: hostname(config-resmgmt)# limit-resource [rate] resource_name number[%] For this particular resource, the limit overrides the limit set for all. Enter the rate argument to set the rate per second for certain resources. For resources that do not have a system limit, you cannot set the percentage (%) between 1 and 100; you can only set an absolute value. See Table 6-1 for resources for which you can set the rate per second and which to not have a system limit. Table 6-1 lists the resource types and the limits. See also the show resource types command.6-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring Resource Management For example, to set the default class limit for conns to 10 percent instead of unlimited, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# class default hostname(config-class)# limit-resource conns 10% All other resources remain at unlimited. To add a class called gold, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# class gold Table 6-1 Resource Names and Limits Resource Name Rate or Concurrent Minimum and Maximum Number per Context System Limit 1 1. If this column value is N/A, then you cannot set a percentage of the resource because there is no hard system limit for the resource. Description mac-addresses Concurrent N/A 65,535 For transparent firewall mode, the number of MAC addresses allowed in the MAC address table. conns Concurrent or Rate N/A Concurrent connections: See the “Supported Platforms and Feature Licenses” section on page A-1 for the connection limit for your platform. Rate: N/A TCP or UDP connections between any two hosts, including connections between one host and multiple other hosts. inspects Rate N/A N/A Application inspections. hosts Concurrent N/A N/A Hosts that can connect through the security appliance. asdm Concurrent 1 minimum 5 maximum 32 ASDM management sessions. Note ASDM sessions use two HTTPS connections: one for monitoring that is always present, and one for making configuration changes that is present only when you make changes. For example, the system limit of 32 ASDM sessions represents a limit of 64 HTTPS sessions. ssh Concurrent 1 minimum 5 maximum 100 SSH sessions. syslogs Rate N/A N/A System log messages. telnet Concurrent 1 minimum 5 maximum 100 Telnet sessions. xlates Concurrent N/A N/A Address translations.6-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring a Security Context hostname(config-class)# limit-resource mac-addresses 10000 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource conns 15% hostname(config-class)# limit-resource rate conns 1000 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource rate inspects 500 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource hosts 9000 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource asdm 5 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource ssh 5 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource rate syslogs 5000 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource telnet 5 hostname(config-class)# limit-resource xlates 36000 Configuring a Security Context The security context definition in the system configuration identifies the context name, configuration file URL, and interfaces that a context can use. Note If you do not have an admin context (for example, if you clear the configuration) then you must first specify the admin context name by entering the following command: hostname(config)# admin-context name Although this context name does not exist yet in your configuration, you can subsequently enter the context name command to match the specified name to continue the admin context configuration. To add or change a context in the system configuration, perform the following steps: Step 1 To add or modify a context, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# context name The name is a string up to 32 characters long. This name is case sensitive, so you can have two contexts named “customerA” and “CustomerA,” for example. You can use letters, digits, or hyphens, but you cannot start or end the name with a hyphen. “System” or “Null” (in upper or lower case letters) are reserved names, and cannot be used. Step 2 (Optional) To add a description for this context, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# description text Step 3 To specify the interfaces you can use in the context, enter the command appropriate for a physical interface or for one or more subinterfaces. • To allocate a physical interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface physical_interface [map_name] [visible | invisible] • To allocate one or more subinterfaces, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface physical_interface.subinterface[-physical_interface.subinterface] [map_name[-map_name]] [visible | invisible]6-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring a Security Context You can enter these commands multiple times to specify different ranges. If you remove an allocation with the no form of this command, then any context commands that include this interface are removed from the running configuration. Transparent firewall mode allows only two interfaces to pass through traffic; however, on the ASA adaptive security appliance, you can use the dedicated management interface, Management 0/0, (either the physical interface or a subinterface) as a third interface for management traffic. Note The management interface for transparent mode does not flood a packet out the interface when that packet is not in the MAC address table. You can assign the same interfaces to multiple contexts in routed mode, if desired. Transparent mode does not allow shared interfaces. The map_name is an alphanumeric alias for the interface that can be used within the context instead of the interface ID. If you do not specify a mapped name, the interface ID is used within the context. For security purposes, you might not want the context administrator to know which interfaces are being used by the context. A mapped name must start with a letter, end with a letter or digit, and have as interior characters only letters, digits, or an underscore. For example, you can use the following names: int0 inta int_0 For subinterfaces, you can specify a range of mapped names. If you specify a range of subinterfaces, you can specify a matching range of mapped names. Follow these guidelines for ranges: • The mapped name must consist of an alphabetic portion followed by a numeric portion. The alphabetic portion of the mapped name must match for both ends of the range. For example, enter the following range: int0-int10 If you enter gigabitethernet0/1.1-gigabitethernet0/1.5 happy1-sad5, for example, the command fails. • The numeric portion of the mapped name must include the same quantity of numbers as the subinterface range. For example, both ranges include 100 interfaces: gigabitethernet0/0.100-gigabitethernet0/0.199 int1-int100 If you enter gigabitethernet0/0.100-gigabitethernet0/0.199 int1-int15, for example, the command fails. Specify visible to see physical interface properties in the show interface command even if you set a mapped name. The default invisible keyword specifies to only show the mapped name. The following example shows gigabitethernet0/1.100, gigabitethernet0/1.200, and gigabitethernet0/2.300 through gigabitethernet0/1.305 assigned to the context. The mapped names are int1 through int8. hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.100 int1 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.200 int2 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/2.300-gigabitethernet0/2.305 int3-int86-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring a Security Context Step 4 To identify the URL from which the system downloads the context configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# config-url url When you add a context URL, the system immediately loads the context so that it is running, if the configuration is available. Note Enter the allocate-interface command(s) before you enter the config-url command. The security appliance must assign interfaces to the context before it loads the context configuration; the context configuration might include commands that refer to interfaces (interface, nat, global...). If you enter the config-url command first, the security appliance loads the context configuration immediately. If the context contains any commands that refer to interfaces, those commands fail. See the following URL syntax: • disk:/[path/]filename This URL indicates the internal Flash memory. The filename does not require a file extension, although we recommend using “.cfg”. If the configuration file is not available, you see the following message: WARNING: Could not fetch the URL disk:/url INFO: Creating context with default config You can then change to the context, configure it at the CLI, and enter the write memory command to write the file to Flash memory. Note The admin context file must be stored on the internal Flash memory. • ftp://[user[:password]@]server[:port]/[path/]filename[;type=xx] The type can be one of the following keywords: – ap—ASCII passive mode – an—ASCII normal mode – ip—(Default) Binary passive mode – in—Binary normal mode The server must be accessible from the admin context. The filename does not require a file extension, although we recommend using “.cfg”. If the configuration file is not available, you see the following message: WARNING: Could not fetch the URL ftp://url INFO: Creating context with default config You can then change to the context, configure it at the CLI, and enter the write memory command to write the file to the FTP server. • http[s]://[user[:password]@]server[:port]/[path/]filename The server must be accessible from the admin context. The filename does not require a file extension, although we recommend using “.cfg”. If the configuration file is not available, you see the following message: WARNING: Could not fetch the URL http://url INFO: Creating context with default config6-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Configuring a Security Context If you change to the context and configure the context at the CLI, you cannot save changes back to HTTP or HTTPS servers using the write memory command. You can, however, use the copy tftp command to copy the running configuration to a TFTP server. • tftp://[user[:password]@]server[:port]/[path/]filename[;int=interface_name] The server must be accessible from the admin context. Specify the interface name if you want to override the route to the server address. The filename does not require a file extension, although we recommend using “.cfg”. If the configuration file is not available, you see the following message: WARNING: Could not fetch the URL tftp://url INFO: Creating context with default config You can then change to the context, configure it at the CLI, and enter the write memory command to write the file to the TFTP server. To change the URL, reenter the config-url command with a new URL. See the “Changing the Security Context URL” section on page 6-13 for more information about changing the URL. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# config-url ftp://joe:passw0rd1@10.1.1.1/configlets/test.cfg Step 5 (Optional) To assign the context to a resource class, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# member class_name If you do not specify a class, the context belongs to the default class. You can only assign a context to one resource class. For example, to assign the context to the gold class, enter the following command: hostname(config-ctx)# member gold Step 6 To view context information, see the show context command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. The following example sets the admin context to be “administrator,” creates a context called “administrator” on the internal Flash memory, and then adds two contexts from an FTP server: hostname(config)# admin-context administrator hostname(config)# context administrator hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/0.1 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 hostname(config-ctx)# config-url flash:/admin.cfg hostname(config-ctx)# context test hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/0.100 int1 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/0.102 int2 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/0.110-gigabitethernet0/0.115 int3-int8 hostname(config-ctx)# config-url ftp://user1:passw0rd@10.1.1.1/configlets/test.cfg hostname(config-ctx)# member gold hostname(config-ctx)# context sample hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.200 int1 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.212 int2 hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.230-gigabitethernet0/1.235 int3-int86-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces hostname(config-ctx)# config-url ftp://user1:passw0rd@10.1.1.1/configlets/sample.cfg hostname(config-ctx)# member silver Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces To allow contexts to share interfaces, we suggest that you assign unique MAC addresses to each context interface. The MAC address is used to classify packets within a context. If you share an interface, but do not have unique MAC addresses for the interface in each context, then the destination IP address is used to classify packets. The destination address is matched with the context NAT configuration, and this method has some limitations compared to the MAC address method. See the “How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets” section on page 3-3 for information about classifying packets. By default, the physical interface uses the burned-in MAC address, and all subinterfaces of a physical interface use the same burned-in MAC address. You can automatically assign private MAC addresses to each shared context interface by entering the following command in the system configuration: hostname(config)# mac-address auto For use with failover, the security appliance generates both an active and standby MAC address for each interface. If the active unit fails over and the standby unit becomes active, the new active unit starts using the active MAC addresses to minimize network disruption. When you assign an interface to a context, the new MAC address is generated immediately. If you enable this command after you create context interfaces, then MAC addresses are generated for all interfaces immediately after you enter the command. If you use the no mac-address auto command, the MAC address for each interface reverts to the default MAC address. For example, subinterfaces of GigabitEthernet 0/1 revert to using the MAC address of GigabitEthernet 0/1. The MAC address is generated using the following format: • Active unit MAC address: 12_slot.port_subid.contextid. • Standby unit MAC address: 02_slot.port_subid.contextid. For platforms with no interface slots, the slot is always 0. The port is the interface port. The subid is an internal ID for the subinterface, which is not viewable. The contextid is an internal ID for the context, viewable with the show context detail command. For example, the interface GigabitEthernet 0/1.200 in the context with the ID 1 has the following generated MAC addresses, where the internal ID for subinterface 200 is 31: • Active: 1200.0131.0001 • Standby: 0200.0131.0001 In the rare circumstance that the generated MAC address conflicts with another private MAC address in your network, you can manually set the MAC address for the interface within the context. See the “Configuring the Interface” section on page 7-2 to manually set the MAC address. Changing Between Contexts and the System Execution Space If you log in to the system execution space (or the admin context using Telnet or SSH), you can change between contexts and perform configuration and monitoring tasks within each context. The running configuration that you edit in a configuration mode, or that is used in the copy or write commands, 6-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts depends on your location. When you are in the system execution space, the running configuration consists only of the system configuration; when you are in a context, the running configuration consists only of that context. For example, you cannot view all running configurations (system plus all contexts) by entering the show running-config command. Only the current configuration displays. To change between the system execution space and a context, or between contexts, see the following commands: • To change to a context, enter the following command: hostname# changeto context name The prompt changes to the following: hostname/name# • To change to the system execution space, enter the following command: hostname/admin# changeto system The prompt changes to the following: hostname# Managing Security Contexts This section describes how to manage security contexts, and includes the following topics: • Removing a Security Context, page 6-12 • Changing the Admin Context, page 6-13 • Changing the Security Context URL, page 6-13 • Reloading a Security Context, page 6-14 • Monitoring Security Contexts, page 6-15 Removing a Security Context You can only remove a context by editing the system configuration. You cannot remove the current admin context, unless you remove all contexts using the clear context command. Note If you use failover, there is a delay between when you remove the context on the active unit and when the context is removed on the standby unit. You might see an error message indicating that the number of interfaces on the active and standby units are not consistent; this error is temporary and can be ignored. Use the following commands for removing contexts: • To remove a single context, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# no context name All context commands are also removed. • To remove all contexts (including the admin context), enter the following command in the system execution space:6-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts hostname(config)# clear context Changing the Admin Context The system configuration does not include any network interfaces or network settings for itself; rather, when the system needs to access network resources (such as downloading the contexts from the server), it uses one of the contexts that is designated as the admin context. The admin context is just like any other context, except that when a user logs in to the admin context, then that user has system administrator rights and can access the system and all other contexts. The admin context is not restricted in any way, and can be used as a regular context. However, because logging into the admin context grants you administrator privileges over all contexts, you might need to restrict access to the admin context to appropriate users. You can set any context to be the admin context, as long as the configuration file is stored in the internal Flash memory. To set the admin context, enter the following command in the system execution space: hostname(config)# admin-context context_name Any remote management sessions, such as Telnet, SSH, or HTTPS, that are connected to the admin context are terminated. You must reconnect to the new admin context. Note A few system commands, including ntp server, identify an interface name that belongs to the admin context. If you change the admin context, and that interface name does not exist in the new admin context, be sure to update any system commands that refer to the interface. Changing the Security Context URL You cannot change the security context URL without reloading the configuration from the new URL. The security appliance merges the new configuration with the current running configuration. Reentering the same URL also merges the saved configuration with the running configuration. A merge adds any new commands from the new configuration to the running configuration. If the configurations are the same, no changes occur. If commands conflict or if commands affect the running of the context, then the effect of the merge depends on the command. You might get errors, or you might have unexpected results. If the running configuration is blank (for example, if the server was unavailable and the configuration was never downloaded), then the new configuration is used. If you do not want to merge the configurations, you can clear the running configuration, which disrupts any communications through the context, and then reload the configuration from the new URL. To change the URL for a context, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you do not want to merge the configuration, change to the context and clear its configuration by entering the following commands. If you want to perform a merge, skip to Step 2. hostname# changeto context name hostname/name# configure terminal hostname/name(config)# clear configure all Step 2 If required, change to the system execution space by entering the following command: hostname/name(config)# changeto system6-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts Step 3 To enter the context configuration mode for the context you want to change, enter the following command: hostname(config)# context name Step 4 To enter the new URL, enter the following command: hostname(config)# config-url new_url The system immediately loads the context so that it is running. Reloading a Security Context You can reload the context in two ways: • Clear the running configuration and then import the startup configuration. This action clears most attributes associated with the context, such as connections and NAT tables. • Remove the context from the system configuration. This action clears additional attributes, such as memory allocation, which might be useful for troubleshooting. However, to add the context back to the system requires you to respecify the URL and interfaces. This section includes the following topics: • Reloading by Clearing the Configuration, page 6-14 • Reloading by Removing and Re-adding the Context, page 6-15 Reloading by Clearing the Configuration To reload the context by clearing the context configuration, and reloading the configuration from the URL, perform the following steps: Step 1 To change to the context that you want to reload, enter the following command: hostname# changeto context name Step 2 To access configuration mode, enter the following command: hostname/name# configure terminal Step 3 To clear the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname/name(config)# clear configure all This command clears all connections. Step 4 To reload the configuration, enter the following command: hostname/name(config)# copy startup-config running-config The security appliance copies the configuration from the URL specified in the system configuration. You cannot change the URL from within a context.6-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts Reloading by Removing and Re-adding the Context To reload the context by removing the context and then re-adding it, perform the steps in the following sections: 1. “Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces” section on page 6-11 2. “Configuring a Security Context” section on page 6-7 Monitoring Security Contexts This section describes how to view and monitor context information, and includes the following topics: • Viewing Context Information, page 6-15 • Viewing Resource Allocation, page 6-16 • Viewing Resource Usage, page 6-19 • Monitoring SYN Attacks in Contexts, page 6-20 Viewing Context Information From the system execution space, you can view a list of contexts including the name, allocated interfaces, and configuration file URL. From the system execution space, view all contexts by entering the following command: hostname# show context [name | detail| count] The detail option shows additional information. See the following sample displays below for more information. If you want to show information for a particular context, specify the name. The count option shows the total number of contexts. The following is sample output from the show context command. The following sample display shows three contexts: hostname# show context Context Name Interfaces URL *admin GigabitEthernet0/1.100 disk0:/admin.cfg GigabitEthernet0/1.101 contexta GigabitEthernet0/1.200 disk0:/contexta.cfg GigabitEthernet0/1.201 contextb GigabitEthernet0/1.300 disk0:/contextb.cfg GigabitEthernet0/1.301 Total active Security Contexts: 3 Table 6-2 shows each field description. Table 6-2 show context Fields Field Description Context Name Lists all context names. The context name with the asterisk (*) is the admin context. Interfaces The interfaces assigned to the context. URL The URL from which the security appliance loads the context configuration.6-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts The following is sample output from the show context detail command: hostname# show context detail Context "admin", has been created, but initial ACL rules not complete Config URL: disk0:/admin.cfg Real Interfaces: Management0/0 Mapped Interfaces: Management0/0 Flags: 0x00000013, ID: 1 Context "ctx", has been created, but initial ACL rules not complete Config URL: ctx.cfg Real Interfaces: GigabitEthernet0/0.10, GigabitEthernet0/1.20, GigabitEthernet0/2.30 Mapped Interfaces: int1, int2, int3 Flags: 0x00000011, ID: 2 Context "system", is a system resource Config URL: startup-config Real Interfaces: Mapped Interfaces: Control0/0, GigabitEthernet0/0, GigabitEthernet0/0.10, GigabitEthernet0/1, GigabitEthernet0/1.10, GigabitEthernet0/1.20, GigabitEthernet0/2, GigabitEthernet0/2.30, GigabitEthernet0/3, Management0/0, Management0/0.1 Flags: 0x00000019, ID: 257 Context "null", is a system resource Config URL: ... null ... Real Interfaces: Mapped Interfaces: Flags: 0x00000009, ID: 258 See the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information about the detail output. The following is sample output from the show context count command: hostname# show context count Total active contexts: 2 Viewing Resource Allocation From the system execution space, you can view the allocation for each resource across all classes and class members. To view the resource allocation, enter the following command: hostname# show resource allocation [detail] This command shows the resource allocation, but does not show the actual resources being used. See the “Viewing Resource Usage” section on page 6-19 for more information about actual resource usage. The detail argument shows additional information. See the following sample displays for more information. The following sample display shows the total allocation of each resource as an absolute value and as a percentage of the available system resources: hostname# show resource allocation Resource Total % of Avail Conns [rate] 35000 N/A Inspects [rate] 35000 N/A Syslogs [rate] 10500 N/A Conns 305000 30.50% Hosts 78842 N/A6-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts SSH 35 35.00% Telnet 35 35.00% Xlates 91749 N/A All unlimited Table 6-3 shows each field description. The following is sample output from the show resource allocation detail command: hostname# show resource allocation detail Resource Origin: A Value was derived from the resource 'all' C Value set in the definition of this class D Value set in default class Resource Class Mmbrs Origin Limit Total Total % Conns [rate] default all CA unlimited gold 1 C 34000 34000 N/A silver 1 CA 17000 17000 N/A bronze 0 CA 8500 All Contexts: 3 51000 N/A Inspects [rate] default all CA unlimited gold 1 DA unlimited silver 1 CA 10000 10000 N/A bronze 0 CA 5000 All Contexts: 3 10000 N/A Syslogs [rate] default all CA unlimited gold 1 C 6000 6000 N/A silver 1 CA 3000 3000 N/A bronze 0 CA 1500 All Contexts: 3 9000 N/A Conns default all CA unlimited gold 1 C 200000 200000 20.00% silver 1 CA 100000 100000 10.00% bronze 0 CA 50000 All Contexts: 3 300000 30.00% Hosts default all CA unlimited gold 1 DA unlimited silver 1 CA 26214 26214 N/A bronze 0 CA 13107 All Contexts: 3 26214 N/A SSH default all C 5 gold 1 D 5 5 5.00% Table 6-3 show resource allocation Fields Field Description Resource The name of the resource that you can limit. Total The total amount of the resource that is allocated across all contexts. The amount is an absolute number of concurrent instances or instances per second. If you specified a percentage in the class definition, the security appliance converts the percentage to an absolute number for this display. % of Avail The percentage of the total system resources that is allocated across all contexts, if the resource has a hard system limit. If a resource does not have a system limit, this column shows N/A.6-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts silver 1 CA 10 10 10.00% bronze 0 CA 5 All Contexts: 3 20 20.00% Telnet default all C 5 gold 1 D 5 5 5.00% silver 1 CA 10 10 10.00% bronze 0 CA 5 All Contexts: 3 20 20.00% Xlates default all CA unlimited gold 1 DA unlimited silver 1 CA 23040 23040 N/A bronze 0 CA 11520 All Contexts: 3 23040 N/A mac-addresses default all C 65535 gold 1 D 65535 65535 100.00% silver 1 CA 6553 6553 9.99% bronze 0 CA 3276 All Contexts: 3 137623 209.99% Table 6-4 shows each field description. Table 6-4 show resource allocation detail Fields Field Description Resource The name of the resource that you can limit. Class The name of each class, including the default class. The All contexts field shows the total values across all classes. Mmbrs The number of contexts assigned to each class. Origin The origin of the resource limit, as follows: • A—You set this limit with the all option, instead of as an individual resource. • C—This limit is derived from the member class. • D—This limit was not defined in the member class, but was derived from the default class. For a context assigned to the default class, the value will be “C” instead of “D.” The security appliance can combine “A” with “C” or “D.” Limit The limit of the resource per context, as an absolute number. If you specified a percentage in the class definition, the security appliance converts the percentage to an absolute number for this display. Total The total amount of the resource that is allocated across all contexts in the class. The amount is an absolute number of concurrent instances or instances per second. If the resource is unlimited, this display is blank. % of Avail The percentage of the total system resources that is allocated across all contexts in the class. If the resource is unlimited, this display is blank. If the resource does not have a system limit, then this column shows N/A.6-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts Viewing Resource Usage From the system execution space, you can view the resource usage for each context and display the system resource usage. From the system execution space, view the resource usage for each context by entering the following command: hostname# show resource usage [context context_name | top n | all | summary | system] [resource {resource_name | all} | detail] [counter counter_name [count_threshold]] By default, all context usage is displayed; each context is listed separately. Enter the top n keyword to show the contexts that are the top n users of the specified resource. You must specify a single resource type, and not resource all, with this option. The summary option shows all context usage combined. The system option shows all context usage combined, but shows the system limits for resources instead of the combined context limits. For the resource resource_name, see Table 6- 1 for available resource names. See also the show resource type command. Specify all (the default) for all types. The detail option shows the resource usage of all resources, including those you cannot manage. For example, you can view the number of TCP intercepts. The counter counter_name is one of the following keywords: • current—Shows the active concurrent instances or the current rate of the resource. • denied—Shows the number of instances that were denied because they exceeded the resource limit shown in the Limit column. • peak—Shows the peak concurrent instances, or the peak rate of the resource since the statistics were last cleared, either using the clear resource usage command or because the device rebooted. • all—(Default) Shows all statistics. The count_threshold sets the number above which resources are shown. The default is 1. If the usage of the resource is below the number you set, then the resource is not shown. If you specify all for the counter name, then the count_threshold applies to the current usage. Note To show all resources, set the count_threshold to 0. The following is sample output from the show resource usage context command, which shows the resource usage for the admin context: hostname# show resource usage context admin Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context Telnet 1 1 5 0 admin Conns 44 55 N/A 0 admin Hosts 45 56 N/A 0 admin The following is sample output from the show resource usage summary command, which shows the resource usage for all contexts and all resources. This sample shows the limits for 6 contexts. hostname# show resource usage summary Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context Syslogs [rate] 1743 2132 N/A 0 Summary Conns 584 763 280000(S) 0 Summary6-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts Xlates 8526 8966 N/A 0 Summary Hosts 254 254 N/A 0 Summary Conns [rate] 270 535 N/A 1704 Summary Inspects [rate] 270 535 N/A 0 Summary S = System: Combined context limits exceed the system limit; the system limit is shown. The following is sample output from the show resource usage summary command, which shows the limits for 25 contexts. Because the context limit for Telnet and SSH connections is 5 per context, then the combined limit is 125. The system limit is only 100, so the system limit is shown. hostname# show resource usage summary Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context Telnet 1 1 100[S] 0 Summary SSH 2 2 100[S] 0 Summary Conns 56 90 N/A 0 Summary Hosts 89 102 N/A 0 Summary S = System: Combined context limits exceed the system limit; the system limit is shown. The following is sample output from the show resource usage system command, which shows the resource usage for all contexts, but it shows the system limit instead of the combined context limits. The counter all 0 option is used to show resources that are not currently in use. The Denied statistics indicate how many times the resource was denied due to the system limit, if available. hostname# show resource usage system counter all 0 Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context Telnet 0 0 100 0 System SSH 0 0 100 0 System ASDM 0 0 32 0 System Syslogs [rate] 1 18 N/A 0 System Conns 0 1 280000 0 System Xlates 0 0 N/A 0 System Hosts 0 2 N/A 0 System Conns [rate] 1 1 N/A 0 System Inspects [rate] 0 0 N/A 0 System Monitoring SYN Attacks in Contexts The security appliance prevents SYN attacks using TCP Intercept. TCP Intercept uses the SYN cookies algorithm to prevent TCP SYN-flooding attacks. A SYN-flooding attack consists of a series of SYN packets usually originating from spoofed IP addresses. The constant flood of SYN packets keeps the server SYN queue full, which prevents it from servicing connection requests. When the embryonic connection threshold of a connection is crossed, the security appliance acts as a proxy for the server and generates a SYN-ACK response to the client SYN request. When the security appliance receives an ACK back from the client, it can then authenticate the client and allow the connection to the server. You can monitor the rate of attacks for individual contexts using the show perfmon command; you can monitor the amount of resources being used by TCP intercept for individual contexts using the show resource usage detail command; you can monitor the resources being used by TCP intercept for the entire system using the show resource usage summary detail command. The following is sample output from the show perfmon command that shows the rate of TCP intercepts for a context called admin. hostname/admin# show perfmon Context:admin PERFMON STATS: Current Average Xlates 0/s 0/s6-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts Connections 0/s 0/s TCP Conns 0/s 0/s UDP Conns 0/s 0/s URL Access 0/s 0/s URL Server Req 0/s 0/s WebSns Req 0/s 0/s TCP Fixup 0/s 0/s HTTP Fixup 0/s 0/s FTP Fixup 0/s 0/s AAA Authen 0/s 0/s AAA Author 0/s 0/s AAA Account 0/s 0/s TCP Intercept 322779/s 322779/s The following is sample output from the show resource usage detail command that shows the amount of resources being used by TCP Intercept for individual contexts. (Sample text in italics shows the TCP intercept information.) hostname(config)# show resource usage detail Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context memory 843732 847288 unlimited 0 admin chunk:channels 14 15 unlimited 0 admin chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 admin chunk:hole 1 1 unlimited 0 admin chunk:ip-users 10 10 unlimited 0 admin chunk:list-elem 21 21 unlimited 0 admin chunk:list-hdr 3 4 unlimited 0 admin chunk:route 2 2 unlimited 0 admin chunk:static 1 1 unlimited 0 admin tcp-intercepts 328787 803610 unlimited 0 admin np-statics 3 3 unlimited 0 admin statics 1 1 unlimited 0 admin ace-rules 1 1 unlimited 0 admin console-access-rul 2 2 unlimited 0 admin fixup-rules 14 15 unlimited 0 admin memory 959872 960000 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:channels 15 16 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:dbgtrace 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:global 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:hole 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:ip-users 10 10 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:udp-ctrl-blk 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:list-elem 24 24 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:list-hdr 5 6 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:nat 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:route 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:static 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 tcp-intercept-rate 16056 16254 unlimited 0 c1 globals 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 np-statics 3 3 unlimited 0 c1 statics 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 nats 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 ace-rules 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 console-access-rul 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 fixup-rules 14 15 unlimited 0 c1 memory 232695716 232020648 unlimited 0 system chunk:channels 17 20 unlimited 0 system chunk:dbgtrace 3 3 unlimited 0 system chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 system chunk:ip-users 4 4 unlimited 0 system chunk:list-elem 1014 1014 unlimited 0 system chunk:list-hdr 1 1 unlimited 0 system chunk:route 1 1 unlimited 0 system6-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 6 Adding and Managing Security Contexts Managing Security Contexts block:16384 510 885 unlimited 0 system block:2048 32 34 unlimited 0 system The following sample output shows the resources being used by TCP intercept for the entire system. (Sample text in italics shows the TCP intercept information.) hostname(config)# show resource usage summary detail Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context memory 238421312 238434336 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:channels 46 48 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:dbgtrace 4 4 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:fixup 45 45 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:global 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:hole 3 3 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:ip-users 24 24 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:udp-ctrl-blk 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:list-elem 1059 1059 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:list-hdr 10 11 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:nat 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:route 5 5 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:static 2 2 unlimited 0 Summary block:16384 510 885 unlimited 0 Summary block:2048 32 35 unlimited 0 Summary tcp-intercept-rate 341306 811579 unlimited 0 Summary globals 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary np-statics 6 6 unlimited 0 Summary statics 2 2 N/A 0 Summary nats 1 1 N/A 0 Summary ace-rules 3 3 N/A 0 Summary console-access-rul 4 4 N/A 0 Summary fixup-rules 43 44 N/A 0 SummaryC H A P T E R 7-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 7 Configuring Interface Parameters This chapter describes how to configure each interface and subinterface for a name, security level, and IP address. For single context mode, the procedures in this chapter continue the interface configuration started in Chapter 5, “Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces.” For multiple context mode, the procedures in Chapter 5, “Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces,” are performed in the system execution space, while the procedures in this chapter are performed within each security context. Note To configure interfaces for the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, see Chapter 4, “Configuring Switch Ports and VLAN Interfaces for the Cisco ASA 5505 Adaptive Security Appliance.” This chapter includes the following sections: • Security Level Overview, page 7-1 • Configuring the Interface, page 7-2 • Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level, page 7-6 Security Level Overview Each interface must have a security level from 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest). For example, you should assign your most secure network, such as the inside host network, to level 100. While the outside network connected to the Internet can be level 0. Other networks, such as DMZs can be in between. You can assign interfaces to the same security level. See the “Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level” section on page 7-6 for more information. The level controls the following behavior: • Network access—By default, there is an implicit permit from a higher security interface to a lower security interface (outbound). Hosts on the higher security interface can access any host on a lower security interface. You can limit access by applying an access list to the interface. If you enable communication for same security interfaces (see the “Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level” section on page 7-6), there is an implicit permit for interfaces to access other interfaces on the same security level or lower. • Inspection engines—Some application inspection engines are dependent on the security level. For same security interfaces, inspection engines apply to traffic in either direction. – NetBIOS inspection engine—Applied only for outbound connections.7-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 7 Configuring Interface Parameters Configuring the Interface – SQL*Net inspection engine—If a control connection for the SQL*Net (formerly OraServ) port exists between a pair of hosts, then only an inbound data connection is permitted through the security appliance. • Filtering—HTTP(S) and FTP filtering applies only for outbound connections (from a higher level to a lower level). For same security interfaces, you can filter traffic in either direction. • NAT control—When you enable NAT control, you must configure NAT for hosts on a higher security interface (inside) when they access hosts on a lower security interface (outside). Without NAT control, or for same security interfaces, you can choose to use NAT between any interface, or you can choose not to use NAT. Keep in mind that configuring NAT for an outside interface might require a special keyword. • established command—This command allows return connections from a lower security host to a higher security host if there is already an established connection from the higher level host to the lower level host. For same security interfaces, you can configure established commands for both directions. Configuring the Interface By default, all physical interfaces are shut down. You must enable the physical interface before any traffic can pass through an enabled subinterface. For multiple context mode, if you allocate a physical interface or subinterface to a context, the interfaces are enabled by default in the context. However, before traffic can pass through the context interface, you must also enable the interface in the system configuration. If you shut down an interface in the system execution space, then that interface is down in all contexts that share it. Before you can complete your configuration and allow traffic through the security appliance, you need to configure an interface name, and for routed mode, an IP address. You should also change the security level from the default, which is 0. If you name an interface “inside” and you do not set the security level explicitly, then the security appliance sets the security level to 100. Note If you are using failover, do not use this procedure to name interfaces that you are reserving for failover and Stateful Failover communications. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover.” to configure the failover and state links. For multiple context mode, follow these guidelines: • Configure the context interfaces from within each context. • You can only configure context interfaces that you already assigned to the context in the system configuration. • The system configuration only lets you configure Ethernet settings and VLANs. The exception is for failover interfaces; do not configure failover interfaces with this procedure. See the Failover chapter for more information. Note If you change the security level of an interface, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new security information is used, you can clear the connections using the clear local-host command.7-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 7 Configuring Interface Parameters Configuring the Interface To configure an interface or subinterface, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the interface you want to configure, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface {physical_interface[.subinterface] | mapped_name} The physical_interface ID includes the type, slot, and port number as type[slot/]port. The physical interface types include the following: • ethernet • gigabitethernet For the PIX 500 series security appliance, enter the type followed by the port number, for example, ethernet0. For the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, enter the type followed by slot/port, for example, gigabitethernet0/1. Interfaces that are built into the chassis are assigned to slot 0, while interfaces on the 4GE SSM are assigned to slot 1. For the ASA 5550 adaptive security appliance, for maximum throughput, be sure to balance your traffic over the two interface slots; for example, assign the inside interface to slot 1 and the outside interface to slot 0. The ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliance also includes the following type: • management The management interface is a Fast Ethernet interface designed for management traffic only, and is specified as management0/0. You can, however, use it for through traffic if desired (see the management-only command). In transparent firewall mode, you can use the management interface in addition to the two interfaces allowed for through traffic. You can also add subinterfaces to the management interface to provide management in each security context for multiple context mode. Append the subinterface ID to the physical interface ID separated by a period (.). In multiple context mode, enter the mapped name if one was assigned using the allocate-interface command. For example, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 Step 2 To name the interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# nameif name The name is a text string up to 48 characters, and is not case-sensitive. You can change the name by reentering this command with a new value. Do not enter the no form, because that command causes all commands that refer to that name to be deleted. Step 3 To set the security level, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# security-level number Where number is an integer between 0 (lowest) and 100 (highest). Step 4 (Optional) To set an interface to management-only mode, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# management-only The ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliance includes a dedicated management interface called Management 0/0, which is meant to support traffic to the security appliance. However, you can configure any interface to be a management-only interface using the management-only command. Also, for Management 0/0, you can disable management-only mode so the interface can pass through traffic just like any other interface.7-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 7 Configuring Interface Parameters Configuring the Interface Note Transparent firewall mode allows only two interfaces to pass through traffic; however, on the The ASA 5510 and higher adaptive security appliance, you can use the Management 0/0 interface (either the physical interface or a subinterface) as a third interface for management traffic. The mode is not configurable in this case and must always be management-only. Step 5 To set the IP address, enter one of the following commands. In routed firewall mode, you set the IP address for all interfaces. In transparent firewall mode, you do not set the IP address for each interface, but rather for the whole security appliance or context. The exception is for the Management 0/0 management-only interface, which does not pass through traffic. To set the management IP address for transparent firewall mode, see the “Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall” section on page 8-5. To set the IP address of the Management 0/0 interface or subinterface, use one of the following commands. To set an IPv6 address, see the “Configuring IPv6 on an Interface” section on page 12-3. For failover, you must set the IP address an standby address manually; DHCP and PPPoE are not supported. • To set the IP address manually, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ip address ip_address [mask] [standby ip_address] The standby keyword and address is used for failover. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover,” for more information. • To obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ip address dhcp [setroute] Reenter this command to reset the DHCP lease and request a new lease. If you do not enable the interface using the no shutdown command before you enter the ip address dhcp command, some DHCP requests might not be sent. • To obtain an IP address from a PPPoE server, see Chapter 35, “Configuring the PPPoE Client.” Step 6 (Optional) To assign a private MAC address to this interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# mac-address mac_address [standby mac_address] The mac_address is in H.H.H format, where H is a 16-bit hexadecimal digit. For example, the MAC address 00-0C-F1-42-4C-DE would be entered as 000C.F142.4CDE. By default, the physical interface uses the burned-in MAC address, and all subinterfaces of a physical interface use the same burned-in MAC address. For use with failover, set the standby MAC address. If the active unit fails over and the standby unit becomes active, the new active unit starts using the active MAC addresses to minimize network disruption, while the old active unit uses the standby address. In multiple context mode, if you share an interface between contexts, you can assign a unique MAC address to the interface in each context. This feature lets the security appliance easily classify packets into the appropriate context. Using a shared interface without unique MAC addresses is possible, but has some limitations. See the “How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets” section on page 3-3 for more information. You can assign each MAC address manually, or you can automatically generate MAC addresses for shared interfaces in contexts. See the “Automatically Assigning MAC Addresses to Context Interfaces” section on page 6-11 to automatically generate MAC addresses. If you automatically generate MAC addresses, you can use the mac-address command to override the generated address.7-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 7 Configuring Interface Parameters Configuring the Interface For single context mode, or for interfaces that are not shared in multiple context mode, you might want to assign unique MAC addresses to subinterfaces. For example, your service provider might perform access control based on the MAC address. Step 7 To enable the interface, if it is not already enabled, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no shutdown To disable the interface, enter the shutdown command. If you enter the shutdown command for a physical interface, you also shut down all subinterfaces. If you shut down an interface in the system execution space, then that interface is shut down in all contexts that share it, even though the context configurations show the interface as enabled. The following example configures parameters for the physical interface in single mode: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1 hostname(config-if)# speed 1000 hostname(config-if)# duplex full hostname(config-if)# nameif inside hostname(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-if)# no shutdown The following example configures parameters for a subinterface in single mode: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 hostname(config-subif)# vlan 101 hostname(config-subif)# nameif dmz1 hostname(config-subif)# security-level 50 hostname(config-subif)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname(config-subif)# mac-address 000C.F142.4CDE standby 020C.F142.4CDE hostname(config-subif)# no shutdown The following example configures interface parameters in multiple context mode for the system configuration, and allocates the gigabitethernet 0/1.1 subinterface to contextA: hostname(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1 hostname(config-if)# speed 1000 hostname(config-if)# duplex full hostname(config-if)# no shutdown hostname(config-if)# interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 hostname(config-subif)# vlan 101 hostname(config-subif)# no shutdown hostname(config-subif)# context contextA hostname(config-ctx)# ... hostname(config-ctx)# allocate-interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 The following example configures parameters in multiple context mode for the context configuration: hostname/contextA(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1.1 hostname/contextA(config-if)# nameif inside hostname/contextA(config-if)# security-level 100 hostname/contextA(config-if)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 hostname/contextA(config-if)# mac-address 030C.F142.4CDE standby 040C.F142.4CDE hostname/contextA(config-if)# no shutdown7-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 7 Configuring Interface Parameters Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level By default, interfaces on the same security level cannot communicate with each other. Allowing communication between same security interfaces provides the following benefits: • You can configure more than 101 communicating interfaces. If you use different levels for each interface and do not assign any interfaces to the same security level, you can configure only one interface per level (0 to 100). • You want traffic to flow freely between all same security interfaces without access lists. Note If you enable NAT control, you do not need to configure NAT between same security level interfaces. See the “NAT and Same Security Level Interfaces” section on page 17-13 for more information on NAT and same security level interfaces. If you enable same security interface communication, you can still configure interfaces at different security levels as usual. To enable interfaces on the same security level so that they can communicate with each other, enter the following command: hostname(config)# same-security-traffic permit inter-interface To disable this setting, use the no form of this command.C H A P T E R 8-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 8 Configuring Basic Settings This chapter describes how to configure basic settings on your security appliance that are typically required for a functioning configuration. This chapter includes the following sections: • Changing the Login Password, page 8-1 • Changing the Enable Password, page 8-1 • Setting the Hostname, page 8-2 • Setting the Domain Name, page 8-2 • Setting the Date and Time, page 8-2 • Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall, page 8-5 Changing the Login Password The login password is used for Telnet and SSH connections. By default, the login password is “cisco.” To change the password, enter the following command: hostname(config)# {passwd | password} password You can enter passwd or password. The password is a case-sensitive password of up to 16 alphanumeric and special characters. You can use any character in the password except a question mark or a space. The password is saved in the configuration in encrypted form, so you cannot view the original password after you enter it. Use the no password command to restore the password to the default setting. Changing the Enable Password The enable password lets you enter privileged EXEC mode. By default, the enable password is blank. To change the enable password, enter the following command: hostname(config)# enable password password The password is a case-sensitive password of up to 16 alphanumeric and special characters. You can use any character in the password except a question mark or a space. This command changes the password for the highest privilege level. If you configure local command authorization, you can set enable passwords for each privilege level from 0 to 15.8-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Settings Setting the Hostname The password is saved in the configuration in encrypted form, so you cannot view the original password after you enter it. Enter the enable password command without a password to set the password to the default, which is blank. Setting the Hostname When you set a hostname for the security appliance, that name appears in the command line prompt. If you establish sessions to multiple devices, the hostname helps you keep track of where you enter commands. The default hostname depends on your platform. For multiple context mode, the hostname that you set in the system execution space appears in the command line prompt for all contexts. The hostname that you optionally set within a context does not appear in the command line, but can be used by the banner command $(hostname) token. To specify the hostname for the security appliance or for a context, enter the following command: hostname(config)# hostname name This name can be up to 63 characters. A hostname must start and end with a letter or digit, and have as interior characters only letters, digits, or a hyphen. This name appears in the command line prompt. For example: hostname(config)# hostname farscape farscape(config)# Setting the Domain Name The security appliance appends the domain name as a suffix to unqualified names. For example, if you set the domain name to “example.com,” and specify a syslog server by the unqualified name of “jupiter,” then the security appliance qualifies the name to “jupiter.example.com.” The default domain name is default.domain.invalid. For multiple context mode, you can set the domain name for each context, as well as within the system execution space. To specify the domain name for the security appliance, enter the following command: hostname(config)# domain-name name For example, to set the domain as example.com, enter the following command: hostname(config)# domain-name example.com Setting the Date and Time This section describes how to set the date and time, either manually or dynamically using an NTP server. Time derived from an NTP server overrides any time set manually. This section also describes how to set the time zone and daylight saving time date range. Note In multiple context mode, set the time in the system configuration only.8-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Settings Setting the Date and Time This section includes the following topics: • Setting the Time Zone and Daylight Saving Time Date Range, page 8-3 • Setting the Date and Time Using an NTP Server, page 8-4 • Setting the Date and Time Manually, page 8-5 Setting the Time Zone and Daylight Saving Time Date Range By default, the time zone is UTC and the daylight saving time date range is from 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday in April to 2:00 a.m. on the last Sunday in October. To change the time zone and daylight saving time date range, perform the following steps: Step 1 To set the time zone, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# clock timezone zone [-]hours [minutes] Where zone specifies the time zone as a string, for example, PST for Pacific Standard Time. The [-]hours value sets the number of hours of offset from UTC. For example, PST is -8 hours. The minutes value sets the number of minutes of offset from UTC. Step 2 To change the date range for daylight saving time from the default, enter one of the following commands. The default recurring date range is from 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday in April to 2:00 a.m. on the last Sunday in October. • To set the start and end dates for daylight saving time as a specific date in a specific year, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clock summer-time zone date {day month | month day} year hh:mm {day month | month day} year hh:mm [offset] If you use this command, you need to reset the dates every year. The zone value specifies the time zone as a string, for example, PDT for Pacific Daylight Time. The day value sets the day of the month, from 1 to 31. You can enter the day and month as April 1 or as 1 April, for example, depending on your standard date format. The month value sets the month as a string. You can enter the day and month as April 1 or as 1 April, for example, depending on your standard date format. The year value sets the year using four digits, for example, 2004. The year range is 1993 to 2035. The hh:mm value sets the hour and minutes in 24-hour time. The offset value sets the number of minutes to change the time for daylight saving time. By default, the value is 60 minutes. • To specify the start and end dates for daylight saving time, in the form of a day and time of the month, and not a specific date in a year, enter the following command. hostname(config)# clock summer-time zone recurring [week weekday month hh:mm week weekday month hh:mm] [offset] This command lets you set a recurring date range that you do not need to alter yearly. The zone value specifies the time zone as a string, for example, PDT for Pacific Daylight Time. The week value specifies the week of the month as an integer between 1 and 4 or as the words first or last. For example, if the day might fall in the partial fifth week, then specify last.8-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Settings Setting the Date and Time The weekday value specifies the day of the week: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and so on. The month value sets the month as a string. The hh:mm value sets the hour and minutes in 24-hour time. The offset value sets the number of minutes to change the time for daylight saving time. By default, the value is 60 minutes. Setting the Date and Time Using an NTP Server To obtain the date and time from an NTP server, perform the following steps: Step 1 To configure authentication with an NTP server, perform the following steps: a. To enable authentication, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ntp authenticate b. To specify an authentication key ID to be a trusted key, which is required for authentication with an NTP server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ntp trusted-key key_id Where the key_id is between 1 and 4294967295. You can enter multiple trusted keys for use with multiple servers. c. To set a key to authenticate with an NTP server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ntp authentication-key key_id md5 key Where key_id is the ID you set in Step 1b using the ntp trusted-key command, and key is a string up to 32 characters in length. Step 2 To identify an NTP server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ntp server ip_address [key key_id] [source interface_name] [prefer] Where the key_id is the ID you set in Step 1b using the ntp trusted-key command. The source interface_name identifies the outgoing interface for NTP packets if you do not want to use the default interface in the routing table. Because the system does not include any interfaces in multiple context mode, specify an interface name defined in the admin context. The prefer keyword sets this NTP server as the preferred server if multiple servers have similar accuracy. NTP uses an algorithm to determine which server is the most accurate and synchronizes to that one. If servers are of similar accuracy, then the prefer keyword specifies which of those servers to use. However, if a server is significantly more accurate than the preferred one, the security appliance uses the more accurate one. For example, the security appliance uses a server of stratum 2 over a server of stratum 3 that is preferred. You can identify multiple servers; the security appliance uses the most accurate server. Note SNTP is not supported; only NTP is supported.8-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Settings Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall Setting the Date and Time Manually To set the date time manually, enter the following command: hostname# clock set hh:mm:ss {month day | day month} year Where hh:mm:ss sets the hour, minutes, and seconds in 24-hour time. For example, set 20:54:00 for 8:54 pm. The day value sets the day of the month, from 1 to 31. You can enter the day and month as april 1 or as 1 april, for example, depending on your standard date format. The month value sets the month. Depending on your standard date format, you can enter the day and month as april 1 or as 1 april. The year value sets the year using four digits, for example, 2004. The year range is 1993 to 2035. The default time zone is UTC. If you change the time zone after you enter the clock set command using the clock timezone command, the time automatically adjusts to the new time zone. This command sets the time in the hardware chip, and does not save the time in the configuration file. This time endures reboots. Unlike the other clock commands, this command is a privileged EXEC command. To reset the clock, you need to set a new time for the clock set command. Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent Firewall Transparent firewall mode only A transparent firewall does not participate in IP routing. The only IP configuration required for the security appliance is to set the management IP address. This address is required because the security appliance uses this address as the source address for traffic originating on the security appliance, such as system messages or communications with AAA servers. You can also use this address for remote management access. For multiple context mode, set the management IP address within each context. To set the management IP address, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ip address ip_address [mask] [standby ip_address] This address must be on the same subnet as the upstream and downstream routers. You cannot set the subnet to a host subnet (255.255.255.255). This address must be IPv4; the transparent firewall does not support IPv6. The standby keyword and address is used for failover. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Failover,” for more information.8-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Settings Setting the Management IP Address for a Transparent FirewallC H A P T E R 9-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 9 Configuring IP Routing This chapter describes how to configure IP routing on the security appliance. This chapter includes the following sections: • How Routing Behaves Within the ASA Security Appliance, page 9-1 • Configuring Static and Default Routes, page 9-2 • Defining Route Maps, page 9-7 • Configuring OSPF, page 9-8 • Configuring RIP, page 9-20 • The Routing Table, page 9-24 • Dynamic Routing and Failover, page 9-26 How Routing Behaves Within the ASA Security Appliance The ASA security appliance uses both routing table and XLATE tables for routing decisions. To handle destination IP translated traffic, that is, untranslated traffic, ASA searches for existing XLATE, or static translation to select the egress interface. The selection process is as follows: Egress Interface Selection Process 1. If destination IP translating XLATE already exists, the egress interface for the packet is determined from the XLATE table, but not from the routing table. 2. If destination IP translating XLATE does not exist, but a matching static translation exists, then the egress interface is determined from the static route and an XLATE is created, and the routing table is not used. 3. If destination IP translating XLATE does not exist and no matching static translation exists, the packet is not destination IP translated. The security appliance processes this packet by looking up the route to select egress interface, then source IP translation is performed (if necessary). For regular dynamic outbound NAT, initial outgoing packets are routed using the route table and then creating the XLATE. Incoming return packets are forwarded using existing XLATE only. For static NAT, destination translated incoming packets are always forwarded using existing XLATE or static translation rules.9-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring Static and Default Routes Next Hop Selection Process After selecting egress interface using any method described above, an additional route lookup is performed to find out suitable next hop(s) that belong to previously selected egress interface. If there are no routes in routing table that explicitly belong to selected interface, the packet is dropped with level 6 error message 110001 "no route to host", even if there is another route for a given destination network that belongs to different egress interface. If the route that belongs to selected egress interface is found, the packet is forwarded to corresponding next hop. Load sharing on the security appliance is possible only for multiple next-hops available using single egress interface. Load sharing cannot share multiple egress interfaces. If dynamic routing is in use on security appliance and route table changes after XLATE creation, for example route flap, then destination translated traffic is still forwarded using old XLATE, not via route table, until XLATE times out. It may be either forwarded to wrong interface or dropped with message 110001 "no route to host" if old route was removed from the old interface and attached to another one by routing process. The same problem may happen when there is no route flaps on the security appliance itself, but some routing process is flapping around it, sending source translated packets that belong to the same flow through the security appliance using different interfaces. Destination translated return packets may be forwarded back using the wrong egress interface. This issue has a high probability in same security traffic configuration, where virtually any traffic may be either source-translated or destination-translated, depending on direction of initial packet in the flow. When this issue occurs after a route flap, it can be resolved manually by using the clear xlate command, or automatically resolved by an XLATE timeout. XLATE timeout may be decreased if necessary. To ensure that this rarely happens, make sure that there is no route flaps on security appliance and around it. That is, ensure that destination translated packets that belong to the same flow are always forwarded the same way through the security appliance. Configuring Static and Default Routes This section describes how to configure static and default routes on the security appliance. Multiple context mode does not support dynamic routing, so you must use static routes for any networks to which the security appliance is not directly connected; for example, when there is a router between a network and the security appliance. You might want to use static routes in single context mode in the following cases: • Your networks use a different router discovery protocol from RIP or OSPF. • Your network is small and you can easily manage static routes. • You do not want the traffic or CPU overhead associated with routing protocols. The simplest option is to configure a default route to send all traffic to an upstream router, relying on the router to route the traffic for you. However, in some cases the default gateway might not be able to reach the destination network, so you must also configure more specific static routes. For example, if the default gateway is outside, then the default route cannot direct traffic to any inside networks that are not directly connected to the security appliance. In transparent firewall mode, for traffic that originates on the security appliance and is destined for a non-directly connected network, you need to configure either a default route or static routes so the security appliance knows out of which interface to send traffic. Traffic that originates on the security 9-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring Static and Default Routes appliance might include communications to a syslog server, Websense or N2H2 server, or AAA server. If you have servers that cannot all be reached through a single default route, then you must configure static routes. The security appliance supports up to three equal cost routes on the same interface for load balancing. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring a Static Route, page 9-3 • Configuring a Default Route, page 9-4 • Configuring Static Route Tracking, page 9-5 For information about configuring IPv6 static and default routes, see the “Configuring IPv6 Default and Static Routes” section on page 12-5. Configuring a Static Route To add a static route, enter the following command: hostname(config)# route if_name dest_ip mask gateway_ip [distance] The dest_ip and mask is the IP address for the destination network and the gateway_ip is the address of the next-hop router.The addresses you specify for the static route are the addresses that are in the packet before entering the security appliance and performing NAT. The distance is the administrative distance for the route. The default is 1 if you do not specify a value. Administrative distance is a parameter used to compare routes among different routing protocols. The default administrative distance for static routes is 1, giving it precedence over routes discovered by dynamic routing protocols but not directly connect routes. The default administrative distance for routes discovered by OSPF is 110. If a static route has the same administrative distance as a dynamic route, the static routes take precedence. Connected routes always take precedence over static or dynamically discovered routes. Static routes remain in the routing table even if the specified gateway becomes unavailable. If the specified gateway becomes unavailable, you need to remove the static route from the routing table manually. However, static routes are removed from the routing table if the specified interface goes down. They are reinstated when the interface comes back up. Note If you create a static route with an administrative distance greater than the administrative distance of the routing protocol running on the security appliance, then a route to the specified destination discovered by the routing protocol takes precedence over the static route. The static route is used only if the dynamically discovered route is removed from the routing table. The following example creates a static route that sends all traffic destined for 10.1.1.0/24 to the router (10.1.2.45) connected to the inside interface: hostname(config)# route inside 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.45 1 You can define up to three equal cost routes to the same destination per interface. ECMP is not supported across multiple interfaces. With ECMP, the traffic is not necessarily divided evenly between the routes; traffic is distributed among the specified gateways based on an algorithm that hashes the source and destination IP addresses. The following example shows static routes that are equal cost routes that direct traffic to three different gateways on the outside interface. The security appliance distributes the traffic among the specified gateways.9-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring Static and Default Routes hostname(config)# route outside 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1 hostname(config)# route outside 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2 hostname(config)# route outside 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.3 Configuring a Default Route A default route identifies the gateway IP address to which the security appliance sends all IP packets for which it does not have a learned or static route. A default route is simply a static route with 0.0.0.0/0 as the destination IP address. Routes that identify a specific destination take precedence over the default route. Note In ASA software Versions 7.0 and later, if you have two default routes configured on different interfaces that have different metrics, the connection to the ASA firewall that is made from the higher metric interface fails, but connections to the ASA firewall from the lower metric interface succeed as expected. PIX software Version 6.3 supports connections from both the the higher and the lower metric interfaces. You can define up to three equal cost default route entries per device. Defining more than one equal cost default route entry causes the traffic sent to the default route to be distributed among the specified gateways. When defining more than one default route, you must specify the same interface for each entry. If you attempt to define more than three equal cost default routes, or if you attempt to define a default route with a different interface than a previously defined default route, you receive the message “ERROR: Cannot add route entry, possible conflict with existing routes.” You can define a separate default route for tunneled traffic along with the standard default route. When you create a default route with the tunneled option, all traffic from a tunnel terminating on the security appliance that cannot be routed using learned or static routes, is sent to this route. For traffic emerging from a tunnel, this route overrides over any other configured or learned default routes. The following restrictions apply to default routes with the tunneled option: • Do not enable unicast RPF (ip verify reverse-path) on the egress interface of tunneled route. Enabling uRPF on the egress interface of a tunneled route causes the session to fail. • Do not enable TCP intercept on the egress interface of the tunneled route. Doing so causes the session to fail. • Do not use the VoIP inspection engines (CTIQBE, H.323, GTP, MGCP, RTSP, SIP, SKINNY), the DNS inspect engine, or the DCE RPC inspection engine with tunneled routes. These inspection engines ignore the tunneled route. You cannot define more than one default route with the tunneled option; ECMP for tunneled traffic is not supported. To define the default route, enter the following command: hostname(config)# route if_name 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 gateway_ip [distance | tunneled] Tip You can enter 0 0 instead of 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 for the destination network address and mask, for example: hostname(config)# route outside 0 0 192.168.1 19-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring Static and Default Routes The following example shows a security appliance configured with three equal cost default routes and a default route for tunneled traffic. Unencrypted traffic received by the security appliance for which there is no static or learned route is distributed among the gateways with the IP addresses 192.168.2.1, 192.168.2.2, 192.168.2.3. Encrypted traffic receive by the security appliance for which there is no static or learned route is passed to the gateway with the IP address 192.168.2.4. hostname(config)# route outside 0 0 192.168.2.1 hostname(config)# route outside 0 0 192.168.2.2 hostname(config)# route outside 0 0 192.168.2.3 hostname(config)# route outside 0 0 192.168.2.4 tunneled Configuring Static Route Tracking One of the problems with static routes is that there is no inherent mechanism for determining if the route is up or down. They remain in the routing table even if the next hop gateway becomes unavailable. Static routes are only removed from the routing table if the associated interface on the security appliance goes down. The static route tracking feature provides a method for tracking the availability of a static route and installing a backup route if the primary route should fail. This allows you to, for example, define a default route to an ISP gateway and a backup default route to a secondary ISP in case the primary ISP becomes unavailable. The security appliance does this by associating a static route with a monitoring target that you define. It monitors the target using ICMP echo requests. If an echo reply is not received within a specified time period, the object is considered down and the associated route is removed from the routing table. A previously configured backup route is used in place of the removed route. When selecting a monitoring target, you need to make sure it can respond to ICMP echo requests. The target can be any network object that you choose, but you should consider using: • the ISP gateway (for dual ISP support) address • the next hop gateway address (if you are concerned about the availability of the gateway) • a server on the target network, such as a AAA server, that the security appliance needs to communicate with • a persistent network object on the destination network (a desktop or notebook computer that may be shut down at night is not a good choice) You can configure static route tracking for statically defined routes or default routes obtained through DHCP or PPPoE. You can only enable PPPoE clients on multiple interface with route tracking. To configure static route tracking, perform the following steps: Step 1 Configure the tracked object monitoring parameters: a. Define the monitoring process: hostname(config)# sla monitor sla_id If you are configuring a new monitoring process, you are taken to SLA monitor configuration mode. If you are changing the monitoring parameters for an unscheduled monitoring process that already has a type defined, you are taken directly to the SLA protocol configuration mode. b. Specify the monitoring protocol. If you are changing the monitoring parameters for an unscheduled monitoring process that already has a type defined, you are taken directly to SLA protocol configuration mode and cannot change this setting.9-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring Static and Default Routes hostname(config-sla-monitor)# type echo protocol ipIcmpEcho target_ip interface if_name The target_ip is the IP address of the network object whose availability the tracking process monitors. While this object is available, the tracking process route is installed in the routing table. When this object becomes unavailable, the tracking process removed the route and the backup route is used in its place. c. Schedule the monitoring process: hostname(config)# sla monitor schedule sla_id [life {forever | seconds}] [start-time {hh:mm[:ss] [month day | day month] | pending | now | after hh:mm:ss}] [ageout seconds] [recurring] Typically, you will use sla monitor schedule sla_id life forever start-time now for the monitoring schedule, and allow the monitoring configuration determine how often the testing occurs. However, you can schedule this monitoring process to begin in the future and to only occur at specified times. Step 2 Associate a tracked static route with the SLA monitoring process by entering the following command: hostname(config)# track track_id rtr sla_id reachability The track_id is a tracking number you assign with this command. The sla_id is the ID number of the SLA process you defined in Step 1. Step 3 Define the static route to be installed in the routing table while the tracked object is reachable using one of the following options: • To track a static route, enter the following command: hostname(config)# route if_name dest_ip mask gateway_ip [admin_distance] track track_id You cannot use the tunneled option with the route command with static route tracking. • To track a default route obtained through DHCP, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# dhcp client route track track_id hostname(config-if)# ip addresss dhcp setroute hostname(config-if)# exit Note You must use the setroute argument with the ip address dhcp command to obtain the default route using DHCP. • To track a default route obtained through PPPoE, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# pppoe client route track track_id hostname(config-if)# ip addresss pppoe setroute hostname(config-if)# exit Note You must use the setroute argument with the ip address pppoe command to obtain the default route using PPPoE. Step 4 Define the backup route to use when the tracked object is unavailable using one of the following options. The administrative distance of the backup route must be greater than the administrative distance of the tracked route. If it is not, the backup route will be installed in the routing table instead of the tracked route.9-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Defining Route Maps • To use a static route, enter the following command: hostname(config)# route if_name dest_ip mask gateway_ip [admin_distance] The static route must have the same destination and mask as the tracked route. If you are tracking a default route obtained through DHCP or PPPoE, then the address and mask would be 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. • To use a default route obtained through DHCP, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# dhcp client route track track_id hostname(config-if)# dhcp client route distance admin_distance hostname(config-if)# ip addresss dhcp setroute hostname(config-if)# exit You must use the setroute argument with the ip address dhcp command to obtain the default route using DHCP. Make sure the administrative distance is greater than the administrative distance of the tracked route. • To use a default route obtained through PPPoE, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# pppoe client route track track_id hostname(config-if)# pppoe client route distance admin_distance hostname(config-if)# ip addresss pppoe setroute hostname(config-if)# exit You must use the setroute argument with the ip address pppoe command to obtain the default route using PPPoE. Make sure the administrative distance is greater than the administrative distance of the tracked route. Defining Route Maps Route maps are used when redistributing routes into an OSPF or RIP routing process. They are also used when generating a default route into an OSPF routing process. A route map defines which of the routes from the specified routing protocol are allowed to be redistributed into the target routing process. To define a route map, perform the following steps: Step 1 To create a route map entry, enter the following command: hostname(config)# route-map name {permit | deny} [sequence_number] Route map entries are read in order. You can identify the order using the sequence_number option, or the security appliance uses the order in which you add the entries. Step 2 Enter one or more match commands: • To match any routes that have a destination network that matches a standard ACL, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match ip address acl_id [acl_id] [...] If you specify more than one ACL, then the route can match any of the ACLs. • To match any routes that have a specified metric, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match metric metric_value9-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF The metric_value can be from 0 to 4294967295. • To match any routes that have a next hop router address that matches a standard ACL, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match ip next-hop acl_id [acl_id] [...] If you specify more than one ACL, then the route can match any of the ACLs. • To match any routes with the specified next hop interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match interface if_name If you specify more than one interface, then the route can match either interface. • To match any routes that have been advertised by routers that match a standard ACL, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match ip route-source acl_id [acl_id] [...] If you specify more than one ACL, then the route can match any of the ACLs. • To match the route type, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# match route-type {internal | external [type-1 | type-2]} Step 3 Enter one or more set commands. If a route matches the match commands, then the following set commands determine the action to perform on the route before redistributing it. • To set the metric, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# set metric metric_value The metric_value can be a value between 0 and 294967295 • To set the metric type, enter the following command: hostname(config-route-map)# set metric-type {type-1 | type-2} The following example shows how to redistribute routes with a hop count equal to 1 into OSPF. The security appliance redistributes these routes as external LSAs with a metric of 5, metric type of Type 1. hostname(config)# route-map 1-to-2 permit hostname(config-route-map)# match metric 1 hostname(config-route-map)# set metric 5 hostname(config-route-map)# set metric-type type-1 Configuring OSPF This section describes how to configure OSPF. This section includes the following topics: • OSPF Overview, page 9-9 • Enabling OSPF, page 9-10 • Redistributing Routes Into OSPF, page 9-10 • Configuring OSPF Interface Parameters, page 9-11 • Configuring OSPF Area Parameters, page 9-139-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF • Configuring OSPF NSSA, page 9-14 • Defining Static OSPF Neighbors, page 9-16 • Configuring Route Summarization Between OSPF Areas, page 9-15 • Configuring Route Summarization When Redistributing Routes into OSPF, page 9-16 • Generating a Default Route, page 9-17 • Configuring Route Calculation Timers, page 9-17 • Logging Neighbors Going Up or Down, page 9-18 • Displaying OSPF Update Packet Pacing, page 9-19 • Monitoring OSPF, page 9-19 • Restarting the OSPF Process, page 9-20 OSPF Overview OSPF uses a link-state algorithm to build and calculate the shortest path to all known destinations. Each router in an OSPF area contains an identical link-state database, which is a list of each of the router usable interfaces and reachable neighbors. The advantages of OSPF over RIP include the following: • OSPF link-state database updates are sent less frequently than RIP updates, and the link-state database is updated instantly rather than gradually as stale information is timed out. • Routing decisions are based on cost, which is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The security appliance calculates the cost of an interface based on link bandwidth rather than the number of hops to the destination. The cost can be configured to specify preferred paths. The disadvantage of shortest path first algorithms is that they require a lot of CPU cycles and memory. The security appliance can run two processes of OSPF protocol simultaneously, on different sets of interfaces. You might want to run two processes if you have interfaces that use the same IP addresses (NAT allows these interfaces to coexist, but OSPF does not allow overlapping addresses). Or you might want to run one process on the inside, and another on the outside, and redistribute a subset of routes between the two processes. Similarly, you might need to segregate private addresses from public addresses. You can redistribute routes into an OSPF routing process from another OSPF routing process, a RIP routing process, or from static and connected routes configured on OSPF-enabled interfaces. The security appliance supports the following OSPF features: • Support of intra-area, interarea, and external (Type I and Type II) routes. • Support of a virtual link. • OSPF LSA flooding. • Authentication to OSPF packets (both password and MD5 authentication). • Support for configuring the security appliance as a designated router or a designated backup router. The security appliance also can be set up as an ABR; however, the ability to configure the security appliance as an ASBR is limited to default information only (for example, injecting a default route). • Support for stub areas and not-so-stubby-areas.9-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF • Area boundary router type-3 LSA filtering. • Advertisement of static and global address translations. Enabling OSPF To enable OSPF, you need to create an OSPF routing process, specify the range of IP addresses associated with the routing process, then assign area IDs associated with that range of IP addresses. To enable OSPF, perform the following steps: Step 1 To create an OSPF routing process, enter the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id This command enters the router configuration mode for this OSPF process. The process_id is an internally used identifier for this routing process. It can be any positive integer. This ID does not have to match the ID on any other device; it is for internal use only. You can use a maximum of two processes. Step 2 To define the IP addresses on which OSPF runs and to define the area ID for that interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# network ip_address mask area area_id The following example shows how to enable OSPF: hostname(config)# router ospf 2 hostname(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 area 0 Redistributing Routes Into OSPF The security appliance can control the redistribution of routes between OSPF routing processes. The security appliance matches and changes routes according to settings in the redistribute command or by using a route map. See also the “Generating a Default Route” section on page 9-17 for another use for route maps. To redistribute static, connected, RIP, or OSPF routes into an OSPF process, perform the following steps: Step 1 (Optional) Create a route-map to further define which routes from the specified routing protocol are redistributed in to the OSPF routing process. See the “Defining Route Maps” section on page 9-7. Step 2 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to redistribute into by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 3 To specify the routes you want to redistribute, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# redistribute {ospf process_id [match {internal | external 1 | external 2}] | static | connected | rip} [metric metric-value] [metric-type {type-1 | type-2}] [tag tag_value] [subnets] [route-map map_name]9-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF The ospf process_id, static, connected, and rip keywords specify from where you want to redistribute routes. You can either use the options in this command to match and set route properties, or you can use a route map. The tag and subnets options do not have equivalents in the route-map command. If you use both a route map and options in the redistribute command, then they must match. The following example shows route redistribution from OSPF process 1 into OSPF process 2 by matching routes with a metric equal to 1. The security appliance redistributes these routes as external LSAs with a metric of 5, metric type of Type 1, and a tag equal to 1. hostname(config)# route-map 1-to-2 permit hostname(config-route-map)# match metric 1 hostname(config-route-map)# set metric 5 hostname(config-route-map)# set metric-type type-1 hostname(config-route-map)# set tag 1 hostname(config-route-map)# router ospf 2 hostname(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 route-map 1-to-2 The following example shows the specified OSPF process routes being redistributed into OSPF process 109. The OSPF metric is remapped to 100. hostname(config)# router ospf 109 hostname(config-router)# redistribute ospf 108 metric 100 subnets The following example shows route redistribution where the link-state cost is specified as 5 and the metric type is set to external, indicating that it has lower priority than internal metrics. hostname(config)# router ospf 1 hostname(config-router)# redistribute ospf 2 metric 5 metric-type external Configuring OSPF Interface Parameters You can alter some interface-specific OSPF parameters as necessary. You are not required to alter any of these parameters, but the following interface parameters must be consistent across all routers in an attached network: ospf hello-interval, ospf dead-interval, and ospf authentication-key. Be sure that if you configure any of these parameters, the configurations for all routers on your network have compatible values. To configure OSPF interface parameters, perform the following steps: Step 1 To enter the interface configuration mode, enter the following command: hostname(config)# interface interface_name Step 2 Enter any of the following commands: • To specify the authentication type for an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf authentication [message-digest | null] • To assign a password to be used by neighboring OSPF routers on a network segment that is using the OSPF simple password authentication, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf authentication-key key The key can be any continuous string of characters up to 8 bytes in length.9-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF The password created by this command is used as a key that is inserted directly into the OSPF header when the security appliance software originates routing protocol packets. A separate password can be assigned to each network on a per-interface basis. All neighboring routers on the same network must have the same password to be able to exchange OSPF information. • To explicitly specify the cost of sending a packet on an OSPF interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf cost cost The cost is an integer from 1 to 65535. • To set the number of seconds that a device must wait before it declares a neighbor OSPF router down because it has not received a hello packet, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf dead-interval seconds The value must be the same for all nodes on the network. • To specify the length of time between the hello packets that the security appliance sends on an OSPF interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf hello-interval seconds The value must be the same for all nodes on the network. • To enable OSPF MD5 authentication, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf message-digest-key key_id md5 key Set the following values: – key_id—An identifier in the range from 1 to 255. – key—Alphanumeric password of up to 16 bytes. Usually, one key per interface is used to generate authentication information when sending packets and to authenticate incoming packets. The same key identifier on the neighbor router must have the same key value. We recommend that you not keep more than one key per interface. Every time you add a new key, you should remove the old key to prevent the local system from continuing to communicate with a hostile system that knows the old key. Removing the old key also reduces overhead during rollover. • To set the priority to help determine the OSPF designated router for a network, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf priority number_value The number_value is between 0 to 255. • To specify the number of seconds between LSA retransmissions for adjacencies belonging to an OSPF interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf retransmit-interval seconds The seconds must be greater than the expected round-trip delay between any two routers on the attached network. The range is from 1 to 65535 seconds. The default is 5 seconds. • To set the estimated number of seconds required to send a link-state update packet on an OSPF interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-interface)# ospf transmit-delay seconds9-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF The seconds is from 1 to 65535 seconds. The default is 1 second. The following example shows how to configure the OSPF interfaces: hostname(config)# router ospf 2 hostname(config-router)# network 2.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 area 0 hostname(config-router)# interface inside hostname(config-interface)# ospf cost 20 hostname(config-interface)# ospf retransmit-interval 15 hostname(config-interface)# ospf transmit-delay 10 hostname(config-interface)# ospf priority 20 hostname(config-interface)# ospf hello-interval 10 hostname(config-interface)# ospf dead-interval 40 hostname(config-interface)# ospf authentication-key cisco hostname(config-interface)# ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco hostname(config-interface)# ospf authentication message-digest The following is sample output from the show ospf command: hostname(config)# show ospf Routing Process "ospf 2" with ID 20.1.89.2 and Domain ID 0.0.0.2 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 5. Checksum Sum 0x 26da6 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x 0 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 2 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 5. Checksum Sum 0x 209a3 Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x 0 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 Configuring OSPF Area Parameters You can configure several area parameters. These area parameters (shown in the following task table) include setting authentication, defining stub areas, and assigning specific costs to the default summary route. Authentication provides password-based protection against unauthorized access to an area. Stub areas are areas into which information on external routes is not sent. Instead, there is a default external route generated by the ABR, into the stub area for destinations outside the autonomous system. To take advantage of the OSPF stub area support, default routing must be used in the stub area. To further reduce the number of LSAs sent into a stub area, you can configure the no-summary keyword of the area stub command on the ABR to prevent it from sending summary link advertisement (LSA type 3) into the stub area. To specify area parameters for your network, perform the following steps:9-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 2 Enter any of the following commands: • To enable authentication for an OSPF area, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id authentication • To enable MD5 authentication for an OSPF area, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id authentication message-digest • To define an area to be a stub area, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id stub [no-summary] • To assign a specific cost to the default summary route used for the stub area, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id default-cost cost The cost is an integer from 1 to 65535. The default is 1. The following example shows how to configure the OSPF area parameters: hostname(config)# router ospf 2 hostname(config-router)# area 0 authentication hostname(config-router)# area 0 authentication message-digest hostname(config-router)# area 17 stub hostname(config-router)# area 17 default-cost 20 Configuring OSPF NSSA The OSPF implementation of an NSSA is similar to an OSPF stub area. NSSA does not flood type 5 external LSAs from the core into the area, but it can import autonomous system external routes in a limited way within the area. NSSA imports type 7 autonomous system external routes within an NSSA area by redistribution. These type 7 LSAs are translated into type 5 LSAs by NSSA ABRs, which are flooded throughout the whole routing domain. Summarization and filtering are supported during the translation. You can simplify administration if you are an ISP or a network administrator that must connect a central site using OSPF to a remote site that is using a different routing protocol using NSSA. Before the implementation of NSSA, the connection between the corporate site border router and the remote router could not be run as an OSPF stub area because routes for the remote site could not be redistributed into the stub area, and two routing protocols needed to be maintained. A simple protocol such as RIP was usually run and handled the redistribution. With NSSA, you can extend OSPF to cover the remote connection by defining the area between the corporate router and the remote router as an NSSA.9-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF To specify area parameters for your network as needed to configure OSPF NSSA, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 2 Enter any of the following commands: • To define an NSSA area, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id nssa [no-redistribution] [default-information-originate] • To summarize groups of addresses, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# summary address ip_address mask [not-advertise] [tag tag] This command helps reduce the size of the routing table. Using this command for OSPF causes an OSPF ASBR to advertise one external route as an aggregate for all redistributed routes that are covered by the address. OSPF does not support summary-address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. In the following example, the summary address 10.1.0.0 includes address 10.1.1.0, 10.1.2.0, 10.1.3.0, and so on. Only the address 10.1.0.0 is advertised in an external link-state advertisement: hostname(config-router)# summary-address 10.1.1.0 255.255.0.0 Before you use this feature, consider these guidelines: – You can set a type 7 default route that can be used to reach external destinations. When configured, the router generates a type 7 default into the NSSA or the NSSA area boundary router. – Every router within the same area must agree that the area is NSSA; otherwise, the routers will not be able to communicate. Configuring Route Summarization Between OSPF Areas Route summarization is the consolidation of advertised addresses. This feature causes a single summary route to be advertised to other areas by an area boundary router. In OSPF, an area boundary router advertises networks in one area into another area. If the network numbers in an area are assigned in a way such that they are contiguous, you can configure the area boundary router to advertise a summary route that covers all the individual networks within the area that fall into the specified range. To define an address range for route summarization, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id9-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF Step 2 To set the address range, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# area area-id range ip-address mask [advertise | not-advertise] The following example shows how to configure route summarization between OSPF areas: hostname(config)# router ospf 1 hostname(config-router)# area 17 range 12.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 Configuring Route Summarization When Redistributing Routes into OSPF When routes from other protocols are redistributed into OSPF, each route is advertised individually in an external LSA. However, you can configure the security appliance to advertise a single route for all the redistributed routes that are covered by a specified network address and mask. This configuration decreases the size of the OSPF link-state database. To configure the software advertisement on one summary route for all redistributed routes covered by a network address and mask, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 2 To set the summary address, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# summary-address ip_address mask [not-advertise] [tag tag] Note OSPF does not support summary-address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. The following example shows how to configure route summarization. The summary address 10.1.0.0 includes address 10.1.1.0, 10.1.2.0, 10.1.3.0, and so on. Only the address 10.1.0.0 is advertised in an external link-state advertisement: hostname(config)# router ospf 1 hostname(config-router)# summary-address 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 Defining Static OSPF Neighbors You need to define static OSPF neighbors to advertise OSPF routes over a point-to-point, non-broadcast network. This lets you broadcast OSPF advertisements across an existing VPN connection without having to encapsulate the advertisements in a GRE tunnel. To define a static OSPF neighbor, perform the following tasks: Step 1 Create a static route to the OSPF neighbor. See the “Configuring Static and Default Routes” section on page 9-2 for more information about creating static routes.9-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF Step 2 Define the OSPF neighbor by performing the following tasks: a. Enter router configuration mode for the OSPF process. Enter the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf pid b. Define the OSPF neighbor by entering the following command: hostname(config-router)# neighbor addr [interface if_name] The addr argument is the IP address of the OSPF neighbor. The if_name is the interface used to communicate with the neighbor. If the OSPF neighbor is not on the same network as any of the directly-connected interfaces, you must specify the interface. Generating a Default Route You can force an autonomous system boundary router to generate a default route into an OSPF routing domain. Whenever you specifically configure redistribution of routes into an OSPF routing domain, the router automatically becomes an autonomous system boundary router. However, an autonomous system boundary router does not by default generate a default route into the OSPF routing domain. To generate a default route, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 2 To force the autonomous system boundary router to generate a default route, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# default-information originate [always] [metric metric-value] [metric-type {1 | 2}] [route-map map-name] The following example shows how to generate a default route: hostname(config)# router ospf 2 hostname(config-router)# default-information originate always Configuring Route Calculation Timers You can configure the delay time between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it starts an SPF calculation. You also can configure the hold time between two consecutive SPF calculations. To configure route calculation timers, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id9-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF Step 2 To configure the route calculation time, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# timers spf spf-delay spf-holdtime The spf-delay is the delay time (in seconds) between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it starts an SPF calculation. It can be an integer from 0 to 65535. The default time is 5 seconds. A value of 0 means that there is no delay; that is, the SPF calculation is started immediately. The spf-holdtime is the minimum time (in seconds) between two consecutive SPF calculations. It can be an integer from 0 to 65535. The default time is 10 seconds. A value of 0 means that there is no delay; that is, two SPF calculations can be done, one immediately after the other. The following example shows how to configure route calculation timers: hostname(config)# router ospf 1 hostname(config-router)# timers spf 10 120 Logging Neighbors Going Up or Down By default, the system sends a system message when an OSPF neighbor goes up or down. Configure this command if you want to know about OSPF neighbors going up or down without turning on the debug ospf adjacency command. The log-adj-changes router configuration command provides a higher level view of the peer relationship with less output. Configure log-adj-changes detail if you want to see messages for each state change. To log neighbors going up or down, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not already done so, enter the router configuration mode for the OSPF process you want to configure by entering the following command: hostname(config)# router ospf process_id Step 2 To configure logging for neighbors going up or down, enter the following command: hostname(config-router)# log-adj-changes [detail] Note Logging must be enabled for the the neighbor up/down messages to be sent. The following example shows how to log neighbors up/down messages: hostname(config)# router ospf 1 hostname(config-router)# log-adj-changes detail9-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring OSPF Displaying OSPF Update Packet Pacing OSPF update packets are automatically paced so they are not sent less than 33 milliseconds apart. Without pacing, some update packets could get lost in situations where the link is slow, a neighbor could not receive the updates quickly enough, or the router could run out of buffer space. For example, without pacing packets might be dropped if either of the following topologies exist: • A fast router is connected to a slower router over a point-to-point link. • During flooding, several neighbors send updates to a single router at the same time. Pacing is also used between resends to increase efficiency and minimize lost retransmissions. You also can display the LSAs waiting to be sent out an interface. The benefit of the pacing is that OSPF update and retransmission packets are sent more efficiently. There are no configuration tasks for this feature; it occurs automatically. To observe OSPF packet pacing by displaying a list of LSAs waiting to be flooded over a specified interface, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf flood-list if_name Monitoring OSPF You can display specific statistics such as the contents of IP routing tables, caches, and databases. You can use the information provided to determine resource utilization and solve network problems. You can also display information about node reachability and discover the routing path that your device packets are taking through the network. To display various OSPF routing statistics, perform one of the following tasks, as needed: • To display general information about OSPF routing processes, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf [process-id [area-id]] • To display the internal OSPF routing table entries to the ABR and ASBR, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf border-routers • To display lists of information related to the OSPF database for a specific router, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf [process-id [area-id]] database • To display a list of LSAs waiting to be flooded over an interface (to observe OSPF packet pacing), enter the following command: hostname# show ospf flood-list if-name • To display OSPF-related interface information, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf interface [if_name] • To display OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf neighbor [interface-name] [neighbor-id] [detail] • To display a list of all LSAs requested by a router, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf request-list neighbor if_name9-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring RIP • To display a list of all LSAs waiting to be resent, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf retransmission-list neighbor if_name • To display a list of all summary address redistribution information configured under an OSPF process, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf [process-id] summary-address • To display OSPF-related virtual links information, enter the following command: hostname# show ospf [process-id] virtual-links Restarting the OSPF Process To restart an OSPF process, clear redistribution, or counters, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear ospf pid {process | redistribution | counters [neighbor [neighbor-interface] [neighbor-id]]} Configuring RIP Devices that support RIP send routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. These RIP packets contain information about the networks that the devices can reach, as well as the number of routers or gateways that a packet must travel through to reach the destination address. RIP generates more traffic than OSPF, but is easier to configure. RIP has advantages over static routes because the initial configuration is simple, and you do not need to update the configuration when the topology changes. The disadvantage to RIP is that there is more network and processing overhead than static routing. The security appliance supports RIP Version 1 and RIP Version 2. This section describes how to configure RIP. This section includes the following topics: • Enabling and Configuring RIP, page 9-20 • Redistributing Routes into the RIP Routing Process, page 9-22 • Configuring RIP Send/Receive Version on an Interface, page 9-22 • Enabling RIP Authentication, page 9-23 • Monitoring RIP, page 9-23 Enabling and Configuring RIP You can only enable one RIP routing process on the security appliance. After you enable the RIP routing process, you must define the interfaces that will participate in that routing process using the network command. By default, the security appliance sends RIP Version 1 updates and accepts RIP Version 1 and Version 2 updates.9-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring RIP To enable and configure the RIP routing process, perform the following steps: Step 1 Start the RIP routing process by entering the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config): router rip You enter router configuration mode for the RIP routing process. Step 2 Specify the interfaces that will participate in the RIP routing process. Enter the following command for each interface that will participate in the RIP routing process: hostname(config-router): network network_address If an interface belongs to a network defined by this command, the interface will participate in the RIP routing process. If an interface does not belong to a network defined by this command, it will not send or receive RIP updates. Step 3 (Optional) Specify the version of RIP used by the security appliance by entering the following command: hostname(config-router): version [1 | 2] You can override this setting on a per-interface basis. Step 4 (Optional) To generate a default route into RIP, enter the following command: hostname(config-router): default-information originate Step 5 (Optional) To specify an interface to operate in passive mode, enter the following command: hostname(config-router): passive-interface [default | if_name] Using the default keyword causes all interfaces to operate in passive mode. Specifying an interface name sets only that interface to passive RIP mode. In passive mode, RIP routing updates are accepted by but not sent out of the specified interface. You can enter this command for each interface you want to set to passive mode. Step 6 (Optional) Disable automatic route summarization by entering the following command: hostname(config-router): no auto-summarize RIP Version 1 always uses automatic route summarization; you cannot disable it for RIP Version 1. RIP Version 2 uses route summarization by default; you can disable it using this command. Step 7 (Optional) To filter the networks received in updates, perform the following steps: a. Create a standard access list permitting the networks you want the RIP process to allow in the routing table and denying the networks you want the RIP process to discard. b. Enter the following command to apply the filter. You can specify an interface to apply the filter to only those updates received by that interface. hostname(config-router): distribute-list acl in [interface if_name] You can enter this command for each interface you want to apply a filter to. If you do not specify an interface name, the filter is applied to all RIP updates. Step 8 (Optional) To filter the networks sent in updates, perform the following steps: a. Create a standard access list permitting the networks you want the RIP process to advertise and denying the networks you do not want the RIP process to advertise. b. Enter the following command to apply the filter. You can specify an interface to apply the filter to only those updates sent by that interface. hostname(config-router): distribute-list acl out [interface if_name]9-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring RIP You can enter this command for each interface you want to apply a filter to. If you do not specify an interface name, the filter is applied to all RIP updates. Redistributing Routes into the RIP Routing Process You can redistribute routes from the OSPF, static, and connected routing processes into the RIP routing process. To redistribute a routes into the RIP routing process, perform the following steps: Step 1 (Optional) Create a route-map to further define which routes from the specified routing protocol are redistributed in to the RIP routing process. See the “Defining Route Maps” section on page 9-7 for more information about creating a route map. Step 2 Choose one of the following options to redistribute the selected route type into the RIP routing process. • To redistribute connected routes into the RIP routing process, enter the following command: hostname(config-router): redistribute connected [metric {metric_value | transparent}] [route-map map_name] • To redistribute static routes into the RIP routing process, enter the following command: hostname(config-router): redistribute static [metric {metric_value | transparent}] [route-map map_name] • To redistribute routes from an OSPF routing process into the RIP routing process, enter the following command: hostname(config-router): redistribute ospf pid [match {internal | external [1 | 2] | nssa-external [1 | 2]}] [metric {metric_value | transparent}] [route-map map_name] Configuring RIP Send/Receive Version on an Interface You can override the globally-set version of RIP the security appliance uses to send and receive RIP updates on a per-interface basis. To configure the RIP send and receive Step 1 (Optional) To specify the version of RIP advertisements sent from an interface, perform the following steps: a. Enter interface configuration mode for the interface you are configuring by entering the following command: hostname(config)# interface phy_if b. Specify the version of RIP to use when sending RIP updates out of the interface by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# rip send version {[1] [2]}9-23 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Configuring RIP Step 2 (Optional) To specify the version of RIP advertisements permitted to be received by an interface, perform the following steps: a. Enter interface configuration mode for the interface you are configuring by entering the following command: hostname(config)# interface phy_if b. Specify the version of RIP to allow when receiving RIP updates on the interface by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# rip receive version {[1] [2]} RIP updates received on the interface that do not match the allowed version are dropped. Enabling RIP Authentication The security appliance supports RIP message authentication for RIP Version 2 messages. To enable RIP message authentication, perform the following steps: Step 1 Enter interface configuration mode for the interface you are configuring by entering the following command: hostname(config)# interface phy_if Step 2 (Optional) Set the authentication mode by entering the following command. By default, text authentication is used. MD5 authentication is recommended. hostname(config-if)# rip authentication mode {text | md5} Step 3 Enable authentication and configure the authentication key by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# rip authentication key key key_id key-id Monitoring RIP To display various RIP routing statistics, perform one of the following tasks, as needed: • To display the contents of the RIP routing database, enter the following command: hostname# show rip database • To display the RIP commands in the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname# show running-config router rip Use the following debug commands only to troubleshoot specific problems or during troubleshooting sessions with Cisco TAC. Debugging output is assigned high priority in the CPU process and can render the system unusable. It is best to use debug commands during periods of lower network traffic and fewer users. Debugging during these periods decreases the likelihood that increased debug command processing overhead will affect system performance. • To display RIP processing events, enter the following command: hostname# debug rip events9-24 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing The Routing Table • To display RIP database events, enter the following command: hostname# debug rip database The Routing Table This section contains the following topics: • Displaying the Routing Table, page 9-24 • How the Routing Table is Populated, page 9-24 • How Forwarding Decisions are Made, page 9-26 Displaying the Routing Table To view the entries in the routing table, enter the following command: hostname# show route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.86.194.1 to network 0.0.0.0 S 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 [3/0] via 10.86.194.1, outside C 10.86.194.0 255.255.254.0 is directly connected, outside S* 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 10.86.194.1, outside On the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the following route is also shown. It is the internal loopback interface, which is used by the VPN Hardware Client feature for individual user authentication. C 127.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 is directly connected, _internal_loopback How the Routing Table is Populated The security appliance routing table can be populated by statically defined routes, directly connected routes, and routes discovered by the RIP and OSPF routing protocols. Because the security appliance can run multiple routing protocols in addition to having static and connected routed in the routing table, it is possible that the same route is discovered or entered in more than one manner. When two routes to the same destination are put into the routing table, the one that remains in the routing table is determined as follows: • If the two routes have different network prefix lengths (network masks), then both routes are considered unique and are entered in to the routing table. The packet forwarding logic then determines which of the two to use. For example, if the RIP and OSPF processes discovered the following routes: – RIP: 192.168.32.0/249-25 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing The Routing Table – OSPF: 192.168.32.0/19 Even though OSPF routes have the better administrative distance, both routes are installed in the routing table because each of these routes has a different prefix length (subnet mask). They are considered different destinations and the packet forwarding logic determine which route to use. • If the security appliance learns about multiple paths to the same destination from a single routing protocol, such as RIP, the route with the better metric (as determined by the routing protocol) is entered into the routing table. Metrics are values associated with specific routes, ranking them from most preferred to least preferred. The parameters used to determine the metrics differ for different routing protocols. The path with the lowest metric is selected as the optimal path and installed in the routing table. If there are multiple paths to the same destination with equal metrics, load balancing is done on these equal cost paths. • If the security appliance learns about a destination from more than one routing protocol, the administrative distances of the routes are compared and the routes with lower administrative distance is entered into the routing table. Administrative distance is a route parameter that security appliance uses to select the best path when there are two or more different routes to the same destination from two different routing protocols. Because the routing protocols have metrics based on algorithms that are different from the other protocols, it is not always possible to determine the “best path” for two routes to the same destination that were generated by different routing protocols. Each routing protocol is prioritized using an administrative distance value. Table 9-1 shows the default administrative distance values for the routing protocols supported by the security appliance. The smaller the administrative distance value, the more preference is given to the protocol. For example, if the security appliance receives a route to a certain network from both an OSPF routing process (default administrative distance - 110) and a RIP routing process (default administrative distance - 100), the security appliance chooses the OSPF route because OSPF has a higher preference. This means the router adds the OSPF version of the route to the routing table. In the above example, if the source of the OSPF-derived route was lost (for example, due to a power shutdown), the security appliance would then use the RIP-derived route until the OSPF-derived route reappears. The administrative distance is a local setting. For example, if you use the distance-ospf command to change the administrative distance of routes obtained through OSPF, that change would only affect the routing table for the security appliance the command was entered on. The administrative distance is not advertised in routing updates. Administrative distance does not affect the routing process. The OSPF and RIP routing processes only advertise the routes that have been discovered by the routing process or redistributed into the routing process. For example, the RIP routing process advertises RIP routes, even if routes discovered by the OSPF routing process are used in the security appliance routing table. Table 9-1 Default Administrative Distance for Supported Routing Protocols Route Source Default Administrative Distance Connected interface 0 Static route 1 OSPF 110 RIP 1209-26 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 9 Configuring IP Routing Dynamic Routing and Failover Backup Routes A backup route is registered when the initial attempt to install the route in the routing table fails because another route was installed instead. If the route that was installed in the routing table fails, the routing table maintenance process calls each routing protocol process that has registered a backup route and requests them to reinstall the route in the routing table. If there are multiple protocols with registered backup routes for the failed route, the preferred route is chosen based on administrative distance. Because of this process, you can create “floating” static routes that are installed in the routing table when the route discovered by a dynamic routing protocol fails. A floating static route is simply a static route configured with a greater administrative distance than the dynamic routing protocols running on the security appliance. When the corresponding route discover by a dynamic routing process fails, the static route is installed in the routing table. How Forwarding Decisions are Made Forwarding decisions are made as follows: • If the destination does not match an entry in the routing table, the packet is forwarded through the interface specified for the default route. If a default route has not been configured, the packet is discarded. • If the destination matches a single entry in the routing table, the packet is forwarded through the interface associated with that route. • If the destination matches more than one entry in the routing table, and the entries all have the same network prefix length, the packets for that destination are distributed among the interfaces associated with that route. • If the destination matches more than one entry in the routing table, and the entries have different network prefix lengths, then the packet is forwarded out of the interface associated with the route that has the longer network prefix length. For example, a packet destined for 192.168.32.1 arrives on an interface of a security appliance with the following routes in the routing table: hostname# show route .... R 192.168.32.0/24 [120/4] via 10.1.1.2 O 192.168.32.0/19 [110/229840] via 10.1.1.3 .... In this case, a packet destined to 192.168.32.1 is directed toward 10.1.1.2, because 192.168.32.1 falls within the 192.168.32.0/24 network. It also falls within the other route in the routing table, but the 192.168.32.0/24 has the longest prefix within the routing table (24 bits verses 19 bits). Longer prefixes are always preferred over shorter ones when forwarding a packet. Dynamic Routing and Failover Dynamic routes are not replicated to the standby unit or failover group in a failover configuration. Therefore, immediately after a failover occurs, some packets received by the security appliance may be dropped because of a lack of routing information or routed to a default static route while the routing table is repopulated by the configured dynamic routing protocols.C H A P T E R 10-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services This chapter describes how to configure the DHCP server, dynamic DNS (DDNS) update methods, and WCCP on the security appliance. DHCP provides network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses, to DHCP clients. The security appliance can provide a DHCP server or DHCP relay services to DHCP clients attached to security appliance interfaces. The DHCP server provides network configuration parameters directly to DHCP clients. DHCP relay passes DHCP requests received on one interface to an external DHCP server located behind a different interface. DDNS update integrates DNS with DHCP. The two protocols are complementary: DHCP centralizes and automates IP address allocation; DDNS update automatically records the association between assigned addresses and hostnames at pre-defined intervals. DDNS allows frequently changing address-hostname associations to be updated frequently. Mobile hosts, for example, can then move freely on a network without user or administrator intervention. DDNS provides the necessary dynamic updating and synchronizing of the name to address and address to name mappings on the DNS server. WCCP specifies interactions between one or more routers, Layer 3 switches, or security appliances and one or more web caches. The feature transparently redirects selected types of traffic to a group of web cache engines to optimize resource usage and lower response times. This chapter includes the following sections: • Configuring a DHCP Server, page 10-1 • Configuring DHCP Relay Services, page 10-5 • Configuring Dynamic DNS, page 10-6 • Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP, page 10-9 Configuring a DHCP Server This section describes how to configure DHCP server provided by the security appliance. This section includes the following topics: • Enabling the DHCP Server, page 10-2 • Configuring DHCP Options, page 10-3 • Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server, page 10-410-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring a DHCP Server Enabling the DHCP Server The security appliance can act as a DHCP server. DHCP is a protocol that supplies network settings to hosts including the host IP address, the default gateway, and a DNS server. Note The security appliance DHCP server does not support BOOTP requests. In multiple context mode, you cannot enable the DHCP server or DHCP relay on an interface that is used by more than one context. You can configure a DHCP server on each interface of the security appliance. Each interface can have its own pool of addresses to draw from. However the other DHCP settings, such as DNS servers, domain name, options, ping timeout, and WINS servers, are configured globally and used by the DHCP server on all interfaces. You cannot configure a DHCP client or DHCP Relay services on an interface on which the server is enabled. Additionally, DHCP clients must be directly connected to the interface on which the server is enabled. To enable the DHCP server on a given security appliance interface, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create a DHCP address pool. Enter the following command to define the address pool: hostname(config)# dhcpd address ip_address-ip_address interface_name The security appliance assigns a client one of the addresses from this pool to use for a given length of time. These addresses are the local, untranslated addresses for the directly connected network. The address pool must be on the same subnet as the security appliance interface. Step 2 (Optional) To specify the IP address(es) of the DNS server(s) the client will use, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd dns dns1 [dns2] You can specify up to two DNS servers. Step 3 (Optional) To specify the IP address(es) of the WINS server(s) the client will use, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd wins wins1 [wins2] You can specify up to two WINS servers. Step 4 (Optional) To change the lease length to be granted to the client, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd lease lease_length This lease equals the amount of time (in seconds) the client can use its allocated IP address before the lease expires. Enter a value between 300 to 1,048,575. The default value is 3600 seconds. Step 5 (Optional) To configure the domain name the client uses, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd domain domain_name Step 6 (Optional) To configure the DHCP ping timeout value, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd ping_timeout milliseconds To avoid address conflicts, the security appliance sends two ICMP ping packets to an address before assigning that address to a DHCP client. This command specifies the timeout value for those packets.10-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring a DHCP Server Step 7 (Transparent Firewall Mode) Define a default gateway. To define the default gateway that is sent to DHCP clients, enter the following command. hostname(config)# dhcpd option 3 ip gateway_ip If you do not use the DHCP option 3 to define the default gateway, DHCP clients use the IP address of the management interface. The management interface does not route traffic. Step 8 To enable the DHCP daemon within the security appliance to listen for DHCP client requests on the enabled interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd enable interface_name For example, to assign the range 10.0.1.101 to 10.0.1.110 to hosts connected to the inside interface, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# dhcpd address 10.0.1.101-10.0.1.110 inside hostname(config)# dhcpd dns 209.165.201.2 209.165.202.129 hostname(config)# dhcpd wins 209.165.201.5 hostname(config)# dhcpd lease 3000 hostname(config)# dhcpd domain example.com hostname(config)# dhcpd enable inside Configuring DHCP Options You can configure the security appliance to send information for the DHCP options listed in RFC 2132. The DHCP options fall into one of three categories: • Options that return an IP address. • Options that return a text string. • Options that return a hexadecimal value. The security appliance supports all three categories of DHCP options. To configure a DHCP option, do one of the following: • To configure a DHCP option that returns one or two IP addresses, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option code ip addr_1 [addr_2] • To configure a DHCP option that returns a text string, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option code ascii text • To configure a DHCP option that returns a hexadecimal value, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option code hex value Note The security appliance does not verify that the option type and value that you provide match the expected type and value for the option code as defined in RFC 2132. For example, you can enter the dhcpd option 46 ascii hello command and the security appliance accepts the configuration although option 46 is defined in RFC 2132 as expecting a single-digit, hexadecimal value. For more information about the option codes and their associated types and expected values, refer to RFC 2132. Table 10-1 shows the DHCP options that are not supported by the dhcpd option command.10-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring a DHCP Server Specific options, DHCP option 3, 66, and 150, are used to configure Cisco IP Phones. See the “Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server” section on page 10-4 topic for more information about configuring those options. Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server Enterprises with small branch offices that implement a Cisco IP Telephony Voice over IP solution typically implement Cisco CallManager at a central office to control Cisco IP Phones at small branch offices. This implementation allows centralized call processing, reduces the equipment required, and eliminates the administration of additional Cisco CallManager and other servers at branch offices. Cisco IP Phones download their configuration from a TFTP server. When a Cisco IP Phone starts, if it does not have both the IP address and TFTP server IP address preconfigured, it sends a request with option 150 or 66 to the DHCP server to obtain this information. • DHCP option 150 provides the IP addresses of a list of TFTP servers. • DHCP option 66 gives the IP address or the hostname of a single TFTP server. Cisco IP Phones might also include DHCP option 3 in their requests, which sets the default route. Cisco IP Phones might include both option 150 and 66 in a single request. In this case, the security appliance DHCP server provides values for both options in the response if they are configured on the security appliance. You can configure the security appliance to send information for most options listed in RFC 2132. The following example shows the syntax for any option number, as well as the syntax for commonly-used options 66, 150, and 3: • To provide information for DHCP requests that include an option number as specified in RFC-2132, enter the following command: Table 10-1 Unsupported DHCP Options Option Code Description 0 DHCPOPT_PAD 1 HCPOPT_SUBNET_MASK 12 DHCPOPT_HOST_NAME 50 DHCPOPT_REQUESTED_ADDRESS 51 DHCPOPT_LEASE_TIME 52 DHCPOPT_OPTION_OVERLOAD 53 DHCPOPT_MESSAGE_TYPE 54 DHCPOPT_SERVER_IDENTIFIER 58 DHCPOPT_RENEWAL_TIME 59 DHCPOPT_REBINDING_TIME 61 DHCPOPT_CLIENT_IDENTIFIER 67 DHCPOPT_BOOT_FILE_NAME 82 DHCPOPT_RELAY_INFORMATION 255 DHCPOPT_END10-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring DHCP Relay Services hostname(config)# dhcpd option number value • To provide the IP address or name of a TFTP server for option 66, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option 66 ascii server_name • To provide the IP address or names of one or two TFTP servers for option 150, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option 150 ip server_ip1 [server_ip2] The server_ip1 is the IP address or name of the primary TFTP server while server_ip2 is the IP address or name of the secondary TFTP server. A maximum of two TFTP servers can be identified using option 150. • To set the default route, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcpd option 3 ip router_ip1 Configuring DHCP Relay Services A DHCP relay agent allows the security appliance to forward DHCP requests from clients to a router connected to a different interface. The following restrictions apply to the use of the DHCP relay agent: • The relay agent cannot be enabled if the DHCP server feature is also enabled. • Clients must be directly connected to the security appliance and cannot send requests through another relay agent or a router. • For multiple context mode, you cannot enable DHCP relay on an interface that is used by more than one context. Note DHCP Relay services are not available in transparent firewall mode. A security appliance in transparent firewall mode only allows ARP traffic through; all other traffic requires an access list. To allow DHCP requests and replies through the security appliance in transparent mode, you need to configure two access lists, one that allows DCHP requests from the inside interface to the outside, and one that allows the replies from the server in the other direction. Note When DHCP relay is enabled and more than one DHCP relay server is defined, the security appliance forwards client requests to each defined DHCP relay server. Replies from the servers are also forwarded to the client until the client DHCP relay binding is removed. The binding is removed when the security appliance receives any of the following DHCP messages: ACK, NACK, or decline. To enable DHCP relay, perform the following steps: Step 1 To set the IP address of a DHCP server on a different interface from the DHCP client, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcprelay server ip_address if_name You can use this command up to 4 times to identify up to 4 servers. Step 2 To enable DHCP relay on the interface connected to the clients, enter the following command:10-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Dynamic DNS hostname(config)# dhcprelay enable interface Step 3 (Optional) To set the number of seconds allowed for relay address negotiation, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcprelay timeout seconds Step 4 (Optional) To change the first default router address in the packet sent from the DHCP server to the address of the security appliance interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcprelay setroute interface_name This action allows the client to set its default route to point to the security appliance even if the DHCP server specifies a different router. If there is no default router option in the packet, the security appliance adds one containing the interface address. The following example enables the security appliance to forward DHCP requests from clients connected to the inside interface to a DHCP server on the outside interface: hostname(config)# dhcprelay server 201.168.200.4 hostname(config)# dhcprelay enable inside hostname(config)# dhcprelay setroute inside Configuring Dynamic DNS This section describes examples for configuring the security appliance to support Dynamic DNS. DDNS update integrates DNS with DHCP. The two protocols are complementary—DHCP centralizes and automates IP address allocation, while dynamic DNS update automatically records the association between assigned addresses and hostnames. When you use DHCP and dynamic DNS update, this configures a host automatically for network access whenever it attaches to the IP network. You can locate and reach the host using its permanent, unique DNS hostname. Mobile hosts, for example, can move freely without user or administrator intervention. DDNS provides address and domain name mappings so hosts can find each other even though their DHCP-assigned IP addresses change frequently. The DDNS name and address mappings are held on the DHCP server in two resource records: the A RR contains the name to IP address mapping while the PTR RR maps addresses to names. Of the two methods for performing DDNS updates—the IETF standard defined by RFC 2136 and a generic HTTP method—the security appliance supports the IETF method in this release. The two most common DDNS update configurations are: • The DHCP client updates the A RR while the DHCP server updates PTR RR. • The DHCP server updates both the A and PTR RRs. In general, the DHCP server maintains DNS PTR RRs on behalf of clients. Clients may be configured to perform all desired DNS updates. The server may be configured to honor these updates or not. To update the PTR RR, the DHCP server must know the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the client. The client provides an FQDN to the server using a DHCP option called Client FQDN. The following examples present these common scenarios: • Example 1: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs for Static IP Addresses, page 10-710-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Dynamic DNS • Example 2: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs; DHCP Server Honors Client Update Request; FQDN Provided Through Configuration, page 10-7 • Example 3: Client Includes FQDN Option Instructing Server Not to Update Either RR; Server Overrides Client and Updates Both RRs., page 10-8 • Example 4: Client Asks Server To Perform Both Updates; Server Configured to Update PTR RR Only; Honors Client Request and Updates Both A and PTR RR, page 10-8 • Example 5: Client Updates A RR; Server Updates PTR RR, page 10-9 Example 1: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs for Static IP Addresses The following example configures the client to request that it update both A and PTR resource records for static IP addresses. To configure this example, perform the following steps: Step 1 To define a DDNS update method called ddns-2 that requests that the client update both the A and PTR RRs, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# ddns update method ddns-2 hostname(DDNS-update-method)# ddns both Step 2 To associate the method ddns-2 with the eth1 interface, enter the following commands: hostname(DDNS-update-method)# interface eth1 hostname(config-if)# ddns update ddns-2 hostname(config-if)# ddns update hostname asa.example.com Step 3 To configure a static IP address for eth1, enter the following commands: hostname(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.40 255.255.255.0 Example 2: Client Updates Both A and PTR RRs; DHCP Server Honors Client Update Request; FQDN Provided Through Configuration The following example configures 1) the DHCP client to request that it update both the A and PTR RRs, and 2) the DHCP server to honor the requests. To configure this example, perform the following steps: Step 1 To configure the DHCP client to request that the DHCP server perform no updates, enter the following command: hostname(config)# dhcp-client update dns server none Step 2 To create a DDNS update method named ddns-2 on the DHCP client that requests that the client perform both A and PTR updates, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# ddns update method ddns-2 hostname(DDNS-update-method)# ddns both Step 3 To associate the method named ddns-2 with the security appliance interface named Ethernet0, and enable DHCP on the interface, enter the following commands: hostname(DDNS-update-method)# interface Ethernet0 hostname(if-config)# ddns update ddns-2 hostname(if-config)# ddns update hostname asa.example.com hostname(if-config)# ip address dhcp10-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Dynamic DNS Step 4 To configure the DHCP server, enter the following command: hostname(if-config)# dhcpd update dns Example 3: Client Includes FQDN Option Instructing Server Not to Update Either RR; Server Overrides Client and Updates Both RRs. The following example configures the DHCP client to include the FQDN option instructing the DHCP server not to update either the A or PTR updates. The example also configures the server to override the client request. As a result, the client backs off without performing any updates. To configure this scenario, perform the following steps: Step 1 To configure the update method named ddns-2 to request that it make both A and PTR RR updates, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# ddns update method ddns-2 hostname(DDNS-update-method)# ddns both Step 2 To assign the DDNS update method named ddns-2 on interface Ethernet0 and provide the client hostname (asa), enter the following commands: hostname(DDNS-update-method)# interface Ethernet0 hostname(if-config)# ddns update ddns-2 hostname(if-config)# ddns update hostname asa.example.com Step 3 To enable the DHCP client feature on the interface, enter the following commands: hostname(if-config)# dhcp client update dns server none hostname(if-config)# ip address dhcp Step 4 To configure the DHCP server to override the client update requests, enter the following command: hostname(if-config)# dhcpd update dns both override Example 4: Client Asks Server To Perform Both Updates; Server Configured to Update PTR RR Only; Honors Client Request and Updates Both A and PTR RR The following example configures the server to perform only PTR RR updates by default. However, the server honors the client request that it perform both A and PTR updates. The server also forms the FQDN by appending the domain name (example.com) to the hostname provided by the client (asa). To configure this scenario, perform the following steps: Step 1 To configure the DHCP client on interface Ethernet0, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# interface Ethernet0 hostname(config-if)# dhcp client update dns both hostname(config-if)# ddns update hostname asa Step 2 To configure the DHCP server, enter the following commands: hostname(config-if)# dhcpd update dns10-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP hostname(config-if)# dhcpd domain example.com Example 5: Client Updates A RR; Server Updates PTR RR The following example configures the client to update the A resource record and the server to update the PTR records. Also, the client uses the domain name from the DHCP server to form the FQDN. To configure this scenario, perform the following steps: Step 1 To define the DDNS update method named ddns-2, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# ddns update method ddns-2 hostname(DDNS-update-method)# ddns Step 2 To configure the DHCP client for interface Ethernet0 and assign the update method to the interface, enter the following commands: hostname(DDNS-update-method)# interface Ethernet0 hostname(config-if)# dhcp client update dns hostname(config-if)# ddns update ddns-2 hostname(config-if)# ddns update hostname asa Step 3 To configure the DHCP server, enter the following commands: hostname(config-if)# dhcpd update dns hostname(config-if)# dhcpd domain example.com Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP The purpose of web caching is to reduce latency and network traffic. Previously-accessed web pages are stored in a cache buffer, so if a user needs the page again, they can retrieve it from the cache instead of the web server. WCCP specifies interactions between the security appliance and external web caches. The feature transparently redirects selected types of traffic to a group of web cache engines to optimize resource usage and lower response times. The security appliance only supports WCCP version 2. Using a security appliance as an intermediary eliminates the need for a separate router to do the WCCP redirect because the security appliance takes care of redirecting requests to cache engines. When the security appliance knows when a packet needs redirection, it skips TCP state tracking, TCP sequence number randomization, and NAT on these traffic flows. This section includes the following topics: • WCCP Feature Support, page 10-9 • WCCP Interaction With Other Features, page 10-10 • Enabling WCCP Redirection, page 10-10 WCCP Feature Support The following WCCPv2 features are supported with the security appliance:10-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP • Redirection of multiple TCP/UDP port-destined traffic. • Authentication for cache engines in a service group. The following WCCPv2 features are not supported with the security appliance: • Multiple routers in a service group is not supported. Multiple Cache Engines in a service group is still supported. • Multicast WCCP is not supported. • The Layer 2 redirect method is not supported; only GRE encapsulation is supported. • WCCP source address spoofing. WCCP Interaction With Other Features In the security appliance implementation of WCCP, the following applies as to how the protocol interacts with other configurable features: • An ingress access list entry always takes higher priority over WCCP. For example, if an access list does not permit a client to communicate with a server then traffic will not be redirected to a cache engine. Both ingress interface access lists and egress interface access lists will be applied. • TCP intercept, authorization, URL filtering, inspect engines, and IPS features are not applied to a redirected flow of traffic. • When a cache engine cannot service a request and packet is returned, or when a cache miss happens on a cache engine and it requests data from a web server, then the contents of the traffic flow will be subject to all the other configured features of the security appliance. • In failover, WCCP redirect tables are not replicated to standby units. After a failover, packets will not be redirected until the tables are rebuilt. Sessions redirected prior to failover will likely be reset by the web server. Enabling WCCP Redirection There are two steps to configuring WCCP redirection on the security appliance. The first involves identifying the service to be redirected with the wccp command, and the second is defining on which interface the redirection occurs with the wccp redirect command. The wccp command can optionally also define which cache engines can participate in the service group, and what traffic should be redirected to the cache engine. WCCP redirect is supported only on the ingress of an interface. The only topology that the security appliance supports is when client and cache engine are behind the same interface of the security appliance and the cache engine can directly communicate with the client without going through the security appliance. The following configuration tasks assume you have already installed and configured the cache engines you wish to include in your network. To configure WCCP redirection, perform the following steps: Step 1 To enable a WCCP service group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# wccp {web-cache | service_number} [redirect-list access_list] [group-list access_list] [password password]10-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP The standard service is web-cache, which intercepts TCP port 80 (HTTP) traffic and redirects that traffic to the cache engines, but you can identify a service number if desired between 0 and 254. For example, to transparently redirect native FTP traffic to a cache engine, use WCCP service 60. You can enter this command multiple times for each service group you want to enable. The redirect-list access_list argument controls traffic redirected to this service group. The group-list access_list argument determines which web cache IP addresses are allowed to participate in the service group. The password password argument specifies MD5 authentication for messages received from the service group. Messages that are not accepted by the authentication are discarded. Step 2 To enable WCCP redirection on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# wccp interface interface_name {web-cache | service_number} redirect in The standard service is web-cache, which intercepts TCP port 80 (HTTP) traffic and redirects that traffic to the cache engines, but you can identify a service number if desired between 0 and 254. For example, to transparently redirect native FTP traffic to a cache engine, use WCCP service 60. You can enter this command multiple times for each service group you want to participate in. For example, to enable the standard web-cache service and redirect HTTP traffic that enters the inside interface to a web cache, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# wccp web-cache hostname(config)# wccp interface inside web-cache redirect in10-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 10 Configuring DHCP, DDNS, and WCCP Services Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCPC H A P T E R 11-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 11 Configuring Multicast Routing This chapter describes how to configure multicast routing. This section includes the following topics: • Multicast Routing Overview, page 11-13 • Enabling Multicast Routing, page 11-14 • Configuring IGMP Features, page 11-14 • Configuring Stub Multicast Routing, page 11-17 • Configuring a Static Multicast Route, page 11-17 • Configuring PIM Features, page 11-18 • For More Information about Multicast Routing, page 11-22 Multicast Routing Overview The security appliance supports both stub multicast routing and PIM multicast routing. However, you cannot configure both concurrently on a single security appliance. Stub multicast routing provides dynamic host registration and facilitates multicast routing. When configured for stub multicast routing, the security appliance acts as an IGMP proxy agent. Instead of fully participating in multicast routing, the security appliance forwards IGMP messages to an upstream multicast router, which sets up delivery of the multicast data. When configured for stub multicast routing, the security appliance cannot be configured for PIM. The security appliance supports both PIM-SM and bi-directional PIM. PIM-SM is a multicast routing protocol that uses the underlying unicast routing information base or a separate multicast-capable routing information base. It builds unidirectional shared trees rooted at a single Rendezvous Point per multicast group and optionally creates shortest-path trees per multicast source. Bi-directional PIM is a variant of PIM-SM that builds bi-directional shared trees connecting multicast sources and receivers. Bi-directional trees are built using a DF election process operating on each link of the multicast topology. With the assistance of the DF, multicast data is forwarded from sources to the Rendezvous Point, and therefore along the shared tree to receivers, without requiring source-specific state. The DF election takes place during Rendezvous Point discovery and provides a default route to the Rendezvous Point. Note If the security appliance is the PIM RP, use the untranslated outside address of the security appliance as the RP address.11-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Enabling Multicast Routing Enabling Multicast Routing Enabling multicast routing lets the security appliance forward multicast packets. Enabling multicast routing automatically enables PIM and IGMP on all interfaces. To enable multicast routing, enter the following command: hostname(config)# multicast-routing The number of entries in the multicast routing tables are limited by the amount of RAM on the system. Table 11-1 lists the maximum number of entries for specific multicast tables based on the amount of RAM on the security appliance. Once these limits are reached, any new entries are discarded. Configuring IGMP Features IP hosts use IGMP to report their group memberships to directly connected multicast routers. IGMP uses group addresses (Class D IP address) as group identifiers. Host group address can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address 224.0.0.0 is never assigned to any group. The address 224.0.0.1 is assigned to all systems on a subnet. The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to all routers on a subnet. When you enable multicast routing on the security appliance, IGMP Version 2 is automatically enabled on all interfaces. Note Only the no igmp command appears in the interface configuration when you use the show run command. If the multicast-routing command appears in the device configuration, then IGMP is automatically enabled on all interfaces. This section describes how to configure optional IGMP setting on a per-interface basis. This section includes the following topics: • Disabling IGMP on an Interface, page 11-15 • Configuring Group Membership, page 11-15 • Configuring a Statically Joined Group, page 11-15 • Controlling Access to Multicast Groups, page 11-15 • Limiting the Number of IGMP States on an Interface, page 11-16 • Modifying the Query Interval and Query Timeout, page 11-16 • Changing the Query Response Time, page 11-17 • Changing the IGMP Version, page 11-17 Table 11-1 Entry Limits for Multicast Tables Table 16 MB 128 MB 128+ MB MFIB 1000 3000 5000 IGMP Groups 1000 3000 5000 PIM Routes 3000 7000 1200011-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring IGMP Features Disabling IGMP on an Interface You can disable IGMP on specific interfaces. This is useful if you know that you do not have any multicast hosts on a specific interface and you want to prevent the security appliance from sending host query messages on that interface. To disable IGMP on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no igmp To reenable IGMP on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp Note Only the no igmp command appears in the interface configuration. Configuring Group Membership You can configure the security appliance to be a member of a multicast group. Configuring the security appliance to join a multicast group causes upstream routers to maintain multicast routing table information for that group and keep the paths for that group active. To have the security appliance join a multicast group, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp join-group group-address Configuring a Statically Joined Group Sometimes a group member cannot report its membership in the group, or there may be no members of a group on the network segment, but you still want multicast traffic for that group to be sent to that network segment. You can have multicast traffic for that group sent to the segment in one of two ways: • Using the igmp join-group command (see Configuring Group Membership, page 11-15). This causes the security appliance to accept and to forward the multicast packets. • Using the igmp static-group command. The security appliance does not accept the multicast packets but rather forwards them to the specified interface. To configure a statically joined multicast group on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp static-group group-address Controlling Access to Multicast Groups To control the multicast groups that hosts on the security appliance interface can join, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create an access list for the multicast traffic. You can create more than one entry for a single access list. You can use extended or standard access lists. • To create a standard access list, enter the following command:11-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring IGMP Features hostname(config)# access-list name standard [permit | deny] ip_addr mask The ip_addr argument is the IP address of the multicast group being permitted or denied. • To create an extended access list, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list name extended [permit | deny] protocol src_ip_addr src_mask dst_ip_addr dst_mask The dst_ip_addr argument is the IP address of the multicast group being permitted or denied. Step 2 Apply the access list to an interface by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp access-group acl The acl argument is the name of a standard or extended IP access list. Limiting the Number of IGMP States on an Interface You can limit the number of IGMP states resulting from IGMP membership reports on a per-interface basis. Membership reports exceeding the configured limits are not entered in the IGMP cache and traffic for the excess membership reports is not forwarded. To limit the number of IGMP states on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp limit number Valid values range from 0 to 500, with 500 being the default value. Setting this value to 0 prevents learned groups from being added, but manually defined memberships (using the igmp join-group and igmp static-group commands) are still permitted. The no form of this command restores the default value. Modifying the Query Interval and Query Timeout The security appliance sends query messages to discover which multicast groups have members on the networks attached to the interfaces. Members respond with IGMP report messages indicating that they want to receive multicast packets for specific groups. Query messages are addressed to the all-systems multicast group, which has an address of 224.0.0.1, with a time-to-live value of 1. These messages are sent periodically to refresh the membership information stored on the security appliance. If the security appliance discovers that there are no local members of a multicast group still attached to an interface, it stops forwarding multicast packet for that group to the attached network and it sends a prune message back to the source of the packets. By default, the PIM designated router on the subnet is responsible for sending the query messages. By default, they are sent once every 125 seconds. To change this interval, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp query-interval seconds If the security appliance does not hear a query message on an interface for the specified timeout value (by default, 255 seconds), then the security appliance becomes the designated router and starts sending the query messages. To change this timeout value, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp query-timeout seconds11-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring Stub Multicast Routing Note The igmp query-timeout and igmp query-interval commands require IGMP Version 2. Changing the Query Response Time By default, the maximum query response time advertised in IGMP queries is 10 seconds. If the security appliance does not receive a response to a host query within this amount of time, it deletes the group. To change the maximum query response time, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp query-max-response-time seconds Changing the IGMP Version By default, the security appliance runs IGMP Version 2, which enables several additional features such as the igmp query-timeout and igmp query-interval commands. All multicast routers on a subnet must support the same version of IGMP. The security appliance does not automatically detect version 1 routers and switch to version 1. However, a mix of IGMP Version 1 and 2 hosts on the subnet works; the security appliance running IGMP Version 2 works correctly when IGMP Version 1 hosts are present. To control which version of IGMP is running on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# igmp version {1 | 2} Configuring Stub Multicast Routing A security appliance acting as the gateway to the stub area does not need to participate in PIM. Instead, you can configure it to act as an IGMP proxy agent and forward IGMP messages from hosts connected on one interface to an upstream multicast router on another. To configure the security appliance as an IGMP proxy agent, forward the host join and leave messages from the stub area interface to an upstream interface. To forward the host join and leave messages, enter the following command from the interface attached to the stub area: hostname(config-if)# igmp forward interface if_name Note Stub Multicast Routing and PIM are not supported concurrently. Configuring a Static Multicast Route When using PIM, the security appliance expects to receive packets on the same interface where it sends unicast packets back to the source. In some cases, such as bypassing a route that does not support multicast routing, you may want unicast packets to take one path and multicast packets to take another. Static multicast routes are not advertised or redistributed.11-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring PIM Features To configure a static multicast route for PIM, enter the following command: hostname(config)# mroute src_ip src_mask {input_if_name | rpf_addr) [distance] To configure a static multicast route for a stub area, enter the following command: hostname(config)# mroute src_ip src_mask input_if_name [dense output_if_name] [distance] Note The dense output_if_name keyword and argument pair is only supported for stub multicast routing. Configuring PIM Features Routers use PIM to maintain forwarding tables for forwarding multicast diagrams. When you enable multicast routing on the security appliance, PIM and IGMP are automatically enabled on all interfaces. Note PIM is not supported with PAT. The PIM protocol does not use ports and PAT only works with protocols that use ports. This section describes how to configure optional PIM settings. This section includes the following topics: • Disabling PIM on an Interface, page 11-18 • Configuring a Static Rendezvous Point Address, page 11-19 • Configuring the Designated Router Priority, page 11-19 • Filtering PIM Register Messages, page 11-19 • Configuring PIM Message Intervals, page 11-20 • Configuring a Multicast Boundary, page 11-20 • Filtering PIM Neighbors, page 11-20 • Supporting Mixed Bidirectional/Sparse-Mode PIM Networks, page 11-21 Disabling PIM on an Interface You can disable PIM on specific interfaces. To disable PIM on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# no pim To reenable PIM on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# pim Note Only the no pim command appears in the interface configuration.11-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring PIM Features Configuring a Static Rendezvous Point Address All routers within a common PIM sparse mode or bidir domain require knowledge of the PIM RP address. The address is statically configured using the pim rp-address command. Note The security appliance does not support Auto-RP or PIM BSR; you must use the pim rp-address command to specify the RP address. You can configure the security appliance to serve as RP to more than one group. The group range specified in the access list determines the PIM RP group mapping. If an access list is not specified, then the RP for the group is applied to the entire multicast group range (224.0.0.0/4). To configure the address of the PIM PR, enter the following command: hostname(config)# pim rp-address ip_address [acl] [bidir] The ip_address argument is the unicast IP address of the router to be a PIM RP. The acl argument is the name or number of a standard access list that defines which multicast groups the RP should be used with. Do not use a host ACL with this command. Excluding the bidir keyword causes the groups to operate in PIM sparse mode. Note The security appliance always advertises the bidir capability in the PIM hello messages regardless of the actual bidir configuration. Configuring the Designated Router Priority The DR is responsible for sending PIM register, join, and prune messaged to the RP. When there is more than one multicast router on a network segment, there is an election process to select the DR based on DR priority. If multiple devices have the same DR priority, then the device with the highest IP address becomes the DR. By default, the security appliance has a DR priority of 1. You can change this value by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# pim dr-priority num The num argument can be any number from 1 to 4294967294. Filtering PIM Register Messages You can configure the security appliance to filter PIM register messages. To filter PIM register messages, enter the following command: hostname(config)# pim accept-register {list acl | route-map map-name}11-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring PIM Features Configuring PIM Message Intervals Router query messages are used to elect the PIM DR. The PIM DR is responsible for sending router query messages. By default, router query messages are sent every 30 seconds. You can change this value by entering the following command: hostname(config-if)# pim hello-interval seconds Valid values for the seconds argument range from 1 to 3600 seconds. Every 60 seconds, the security appliance sends PIM join/prune messages. To change this value, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# pim join-prune-interval seconds Valid values for the seconds argument range from 10 to 600 seconds. Configuring a Multicast Boundary Address scoping defines domain boundaries so that domains with RPs that have the same IP address do not leak into each other. Scoping is performed on the subnet boundaries within large domains and on the boundaries between the domain and the Internet. You can set up an administratively scoped boundary on an interface for multicast group addresses using the multicast boundary command. IANA has designated the multicast address range 239.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 as the administratively scoped addresses. This range of addresses can be reused in domains administered by different organizations. They would be considered local, not globally unique. To configure a multicast boundary, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# multicast boundary acl [filter-autorp] A standard ACL defines the range of addresses affected. When a boundary is set up, no multicast data packets are allowed to flow across the boundary from either direction. The boundary allows the same multicast group address to be reused in different administrative domains. You can configure the filter-autorp keyword to examine and filter Auto-RP discovery and announcement messages at the administratively scoped boundary. Any Auto-RP group range announcements from the Auto-RP packets that are denied by the boundary access control list (ACL) are removed. An Auto-RP group range announcement is permitted and passed by the boundary only if all addresses in the Auto-RP group range are permitted by the boundary ACL. If any address is not permitted, the entire group range is filtered and removed from the Auto-RP message before the Auto-RP message is forwarded. Filtering PIM Neighbors You can define the routers that can become PIM neighbors with the pim neighbor-filter command. By filtering the routers that can become PIM neighbors, you can: • Prevent unauthorized routers from becoming PIM neighbors. • Prevent attached stub routers from participating in PIM. To define the neighbors that can become a PIM neighbor, perform the following steps:11-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing Configuring PIM Features Step 1 Use the access-list command to define a standard access list defines the routers you want to participate in PIM. For example the following access list, when used with the pim neighbor-filter command, prevents the 10.1.1.1 router from becoming a PIM neighbor: hostname(config)# access-list pim_nbr deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 Step 2 Use the pim neighbor-filter command on an interface to filter the neighbor routers. For example, the following commands prevent the 10.1.1.1 router from becoming a PIM neighbor on interface GigabitEthernet0/3: hostname(config)# interface GigabitEthernet0/3 hostname(config-if)# pim neighbor-filter pim_nbr Supporting Mixed Bidirectional/Sparse-Mode PIM Networks Bidirectional PIM allows multicast routers to keep reduced state information. All of the multicast routers in a segment must be bidirectionally enabled in order for bidir to elect a DF. The pim bidir-neighbor-filter command enables the transition from a sparse-mode-only network to a bidir network by letting you specify the routers that should participate in DF election while still allowing all routers to participate in the sparse-mode domain. The bidir-enabled routers can elect a DF from among themselves, even when there are non-bidir routers on the segment. Multicast boundaries on the non-bidir routers prevent PIM messages and data from the bidir groups from leaking in or out of the bidir subset cloud. When the pim bidir-neighbor-filter command is enabled, the routers that are permitted by the ACL are considered to be bidir-capable. Therefore: • If a permitted neighbor does not support bidir, the DF election does not occur. • If a denied neighbor supports bidir, then DF election does not occur. • If a denied neighbor des not support bidir, the DF election occurs. To control which neighbors can participate in the DF election, perform the following steps: Step 1 Use the access-list command to define a standard access list that permits the routers you want to participate in the DF election and denies all others. For example, the following access list permits the routers at 10.1.1.1 and 10.2.2.2 to participate in the DF election and denies all others: hostname(config)# access-list pim_bidir permit 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# access-list pim_bidir permit 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# access-list pim_bidir deny any Step 2 Enable the pim bidir-neighbor-filter command on an interface. The following example applies the access list created previous step to the interface GigabitEthernet0/3. hostname(config)# interface GigabitEthernet0/3 hostname(config-if)# pim bidir-neighbor-filter pim_bidir11-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 11 Configuring Multicast Routing For More Information about Multicast Routing For More Information about Multicast Routing The following RFCs from the IETF provide technical details about the IGMP and multicast routing standards used for implementing the SMR feature: • RFC 2236 IGMPv2 • RFC 2362 PIM-SM • RFC 2588 IP Multicast and Firewalls • RFC 2113 IP Router Alert Option • IETF draft-ietf-idmr-igmp-proxy-01.txtC H A P T E R 12-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 12 Configuring IPv6 This chapter describes how to enable and configure IPv6 on the security appliance. IPv6 is available in Routed firewall mode only. This chapter includes the following sections: • IPv6-enabled Commands, page 12-1 • Configuring IPv6, page 12-2 • Verifying the IPv6 Configuration, page 12-11 For an sample IPv6 configuration, see Appendix B, “Sample Configurations.” IPv6-enabled Commands The following security appliance commands can accept and display IPv6 addresses: • capture • configure • copy • http • name • object-group • ping • show conn • show local-host • show tcpstat • ssh • telnet • tftp-server • who • write12-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Note Failover does not support IPv6. The ipv6 address command does not support setting standby addresses for failover configurations. The failover interface ip command does not support using IPv6 addresses on the failover and Stateful Failover interfaces. When entering IPv6 addresses in commands that support them, simply enter the IPv6 address using standard IPv6 notation, for example ping fe80::2e0:b6ff:fe01:3b7a. The security appliance correctly recognizes and processes the IPv6 address. However, you must enclose the IPv6 address in square brackets ([ ]) in the following situations: • You need to specify a port number with the address, for example [fe80::2e0:b6ff:fe01:3b7a]:8080. • The command uses a colon as a separator, such as the write net and config net commands, for example configure net [fe80::2e0:b6ff:fe01:3b7a]:/tftp/config/pixconfig. The following commands were modified to work for IPv6: • debug • fragment • ip verify • mtu • icmp (entered as ipv6 icmp) The following inspection engines support IPv6: • FTP • HTTP • ICMP • SMTP • TCP • UDP Configuring IPv6 This section contains the following topics: • Configuring IPv6 on an Interface, page 12-3 • Configuring a Dual IP Stack on an Interface, page 12-4 • Enforcing the Use of Modified EUI-64 Interface IDs in IPv6 Addresses, page 12-4 • Configuring IPv6 Duplicate Address Detection, page 12-4 • Configuring IPv6 Default and Static Routes, page 12-5 • Configuring IPv6 Access Lists, page 12-6 • Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, page 12-7 • Configuring a Static IPv6 Neighbor, page 12-1112-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 on an Interface At a minimum, each interface needs to be configured with an IPv6 link-local address. Additionally, you can add a site-local and global address to the interface. Note The security appliance does not support IPv6 anycast addresses. You can configure both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses on an interface. To configure IPv6 on an interface, perform the following steps: Step 1 Enter interface configuration mode for the interface on which you are configuring the IPv6 addresses: hostname(config)# interface if Step 2 Configure an IPv6 address on the interface. You can assign several IPv6 addresses to an interface, such as an IPv6 link-local, site-local, and global address. However, at a minimum, you must configure a link-local address. There are several methods for configuring IPv6 addresses. Pick the method that suits your needs from the following: • The simplest method is to enable stateless autoconfiguration on the interface. Enabling stateless autoconfiguration on the interface configures IPv6 addresses based on prefixes received in Router Advertisement messages. A link-local address, based on the Modified EUI-64 interface ID, is automatically generated for the interface when stateless autoconfiguration is enabled. To enable stateless autoconfiguration, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 address autoconfig • If you only need to configure a link-local address on the interface and are not going to assign any other IPv6 addresses to the interface, you have the option of manually defining the link-local address or generating one based on the interface MAC address (Modified EUI-64 format): – Enter the following command to manually specify the link-local address: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 address ipv6-address link-local – Enter the following command to enable IPv6 on the interface and automatically generate the link-local address using the Modified EUI-64 interface ID based on the interface MAC address: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 enable Note You do not need to use the ipv6 enable command if you enter any other ipv6 address commands on an interface; IPv6 support is automatically enabled as soon as you assign an IPv6 address to the interface. • Assign a site-local or global address to the interface. When you assign a site-local or global address, a link-local address is automatically created. Enter the following command to add a global or site-local address to the interface. Use the optional eui-64 keyword to use the Modified EUI-64 interface ID in the low order 64 bits of the address. hostname(config-if)# ipv6 address ipv6-address [eui-64]12-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Step 3 (Optional) Suppress Router Advertisement messages on an interface. By default, Router Advertisement messages are automatically sent in response to router solicitation messages. You may want to disable these messages on any interface for which you do not want the security appliance to supply the IPv6 prefix (for example, the outside interface). Enter the following command to suppress Router Advertisement messages on an interface: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd suppress-ra Configuring a Dual IP Stack on an Interface The security appliance supports the configuration of both IPv6 and IPv4 on an interface. You do not need to enter any special commands to do so; simply enter the IPv4 configuration commands and IPv6 configuration commands as you normally would. Make sure you configure a default route for both IPv4 and IPv6. Enforcing the Use of Modified EUI-64 Interface IDs in IPv6 Addresses RFC 3513: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture requires that the interface identifier portion of all unicast IPv6 addresses, except those that start with binary value 000, be 64 bits long and be constructed in Modified EUI-64 format. The security appliance can enforce this requirement for hosts attached to the local link. To enforce the use of Modified EUI-64 format interface identifiers in IPv6 addresses on a local link, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ipv6 enforce-eui64 if_name The if_name argument is the name of the interface, as specified by the namif command, on which you are enabling the address format enforcement. When this command is enabled on an interface, the source addresses of IPv6 packets received on that interface are verified against the source MAC addresses to ensure that the interface identifiers use the Modified EUI-64 format. If the IPv6 packets do not use the Modified EUI-64 format for the interface identifier, the packets are dropped and the following system log message is generated: %PIX|ASA-3-325003: EUI-64 source address check failed. The address format verification is only performed when a flow is created. Packets from an existing flow are not checked. Additionally, the address verification can only be performed for hosts on the local link. Packets received from hosts behind a router will fail the address format verification, and be dropped, because their source MAC address will be the router MAC address and not the host MAC address. Configuring IPv6 Duplicate Address Detection During the stateless autoconfiguration process, duplicate address detection verifies the uniqueness of new unicast IPv6 addresses before the addresses are assigned to interfaces (the new addresses remain in a tentative state while duplicate address detection is performed). Duplicate address detection is performed first on the new link-local address. When the link local address is verified as unique, then duplicate address detection is performed all the other IPv6 unicast addresses on the interface. 12-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Duplicate address detection is suspended on interfaces that are administratively down. While an interface is administratively down, the unicast IPv6 addresses assigned to the interface are set to a pending state. An interface returning to an administratively up state restarts duplicate address detection for all of the unicast IPv6 addresses on the interface. When a duplicate address is identified, the state of the address is set to DUPLICATE, the address is not used, and the following error message is generated: %PIX|ASA-4-325002: Duplicate address ipv6_address/MAC_address on interface If the duplicate address is the link-local address of the interface, the processing of IPv6 packets is disabled on the interface. If the duplicate address is a global address, the address is not used. However, all configuration commands associated with the duplicate address remain as configured while the state of the address is set to DUPLICATE. If the link-local address for an interface changes, duplicate address detection is performed on the new link-local address and all of the other IPv6 address associated with the interface are regenerated (duplicate address detection is performed only on the new link-local address). The security appliance uses neighbor solicitation messages to perform duplicate address detection. By default, the number of times an interface performs duplicate address detection is 1. To change the number of duplicate address detection attempts, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd dad attempts value The value argument can be any value from 0 to 600. Setting the value argument to 0 disables duplicate address detection on the interface. When you configure an interface to send out more than one duplicate address detection attempt, you can also use the ipv6 nd ns-interval command to configure the interval at which the neighbor solicitation messages are sent out. By default, they are sent out once every 1000 milliseconds. To change the neighbor solicitation message interval, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd ns-interval value The value argument can be from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds. Note Changing this value changes it for all neighbor solicitation messages sent out on the interface, not just those used for duplicate address detection. Configuring IPv6 Default and Static Routes The security appliance automatically routes IPv6 traffic between directly connected hosts if the interfaces to which the hosts are attached are enabled for IPv6 and the IPv6 ACLs allow the traffic. The security appliance does not support dynamic routing protocols. Therefore, to route IPv6 traffic to a non-connected host or network, you need to define a static route to the host or network or, at a minimum, a default route. Without a static or default route defined, traffic to non-connected hosts or networks generate the following error message: %PIX|ASA-6-110001: No route to dest_address from source_address You can add a default route and static routes using the ipv6 route command. To configure an IPv6 default route and static routes, perform the following steps:12-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Step 1 To add the default route, use the following command: hostname(config)# ipv6 route if_name ::/0 next_hop_ipv6_addr The address ::/0 is the IPv6 equivalent of “any.” Step 2 (Optional) Define IPv6 static routes. Use the following command to add an IPv6 static route to the IPv6 routing table: hostname(config)# ipv6 route if_name destination next_hop_ipv6_addr [admin_distance] Note The ipv6 route command works like the route command used to define IPv4 static routes. Configuring IPv6 Access Lists Configuring an IPv6 access list is similar configuring an IPv4 access, but with IPv6 addresses. To configure an IPv6 access list, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create an access entry. To create an access list, use the ipv6 access-list command to create entries for the access list. There are two main forms of this command to choose from, one for creating access list entries specifically for ICMP traffic, and one to create access list entries for all other types of IP traffic. • To create an IPv6 access list entry specifically for ICMP traffic, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ipv6 access-list id [line num] {permit | deny} icmp source destination [icmp_type] • To create an IPv6 access list entry, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ipv6 access-list id [line num] {permit | deny} protocol source [src_port] destination [dst_port] The following describes the arguments for the ipv6 access-list command: • id—The name of the access list. Use the same id in each command when you are entering multiple entries for an access list. • line num—When adding an entry to an access list, you can specify the line number in the list where the entry should appear. • permit | deny—Determines whether the specified traffic is blocked or allowed to pass. • icmp—Indicates that the access list entry applies to ICMP traffic. • protocol—Specifies the traffic being controlled by the access list entry. This can be the name (ip, tcp, or udp) or number (1-254) of an IP protocol. Alternatively, you can specify a protocol object group using object-group grp_id. • source and destination—Specifies the source or destination of the traffic. The source or destination can be an IPv6 prefix, in the format prefix/length, to indicate a range of addresses, the keyword any, to specify any address, or a specific host designated by host host_ipv6_addr. 12-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 • src_port and dst_port—The source and destination port (or service) argument. Enter an operator (lt for less than, gt for greater than, eq for equal to, neq for not equal to, or range for an inclusive range) followed by a space and a port number (or two port numbers separated by a space for the range keyword). • icmp_type—Specifies the ICMP message type being filtered by the access rule. The value can be a valid ICMP type number (from 0 to 155) or one of the ICMP type literals as shown in Appendix D, “Addresses, Protocols, and Ports”. Alternatively, you can specify an ICMP object group using object-group id. Step 2 To apply the access list to an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-group access_list_name {in | out} interface if_name Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery The IPv6 neighbor discovery process uses ICMPv6 messages and solicited-node multicast addresses to determine the link-layer address of a neighbor on the same network (local link), verify the reachability of a neighbor, and keep track of neighboring routers. This section contains the following topics: • Configuring Neighbor Solicitation Messages, page 12-7 • Configuring Router Advertisement Messages, page 12-9 • Multicast Listener Discovery Support, page 12-11 Configuring Neighbor Solicitation Messages Neighbor solicitation messages (ICMPv6 Type 135) are sent on the local link by nodes attempting to discover the link-layer addresses of other nodes on the local link. The neighbor solicitation message is sent to the solicited-node multicast address.The source address in the neighbor solicitation message is the IPv6 address of the node sending the neighbor solicitation message. The neighbor solicitation message also includes the link-layer address of the source node. After receiving a neighbor solicitation message, the destination node replies by sending a neighbor advertisement message (ICPMv6 Type 136) on the local link. The source address in the neighbor advertisement message is the IPv6 address of the node sending the neighbor advertisement message; the destination address is the IPv6 address of the node that sent the neighbor solicitation message. The data portion of the neighbor advertisement message includes the link-layer address of the node sending the neighbor advertisement message. After the source node receives the neighbor advertisement, the source node and destination node can communicate. Figure 12-1 shows the neighbor solicitation and response process.12-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Figure 12-1 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery—Neighbor Solicitation Message Neighbor solicitation messages are also used to verify the reachability of a neighbor after the link-layer address of a neighbor is identified. When a node wants to verifying the reachability of a neighbor, the destination address in a neighbor solicitation message is the unicast address of the neighbor. Neighbor advertisement messages are also sent when there is a change in the link-layer address of a node on a local link. When there is such a change, the destination address for the neighbor advertisement is the all-nodes multicast address. You can configure the neighbor solicitation message interval and neighbor reachable time on a per-interface basis. See the following topics for more information: • Configuring the Neighbor Solicitation Message Interval, page 12-8 • Configuring the Neighbor Reachable Time, page 12-8 Configuring the Neighbor Solicitation Message Interval To configure the interval between IPv6 neighbor solicitation retransmissions on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd ns-interval value Valid values for the value argument range from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds. The default value is 1000 milliseconds. This setting is also sent in router advertisement messages. Configuring the Neighbor Reachable Time The neighbor reachable time enables detecting unavailable neighbors. Shorter configured times enable detecting unavailable neighbors more quickly; however, shorter times consume more IPv6 network bandwidth and processing resources in all IPv6 network devices. Very short configured times are not recommended in normal IPv6 operation. To configure the amount of time that a remote IPv6 node is considered reachable after a reachability confirmation event has occurred, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd reachable-time value 132958 A and B can now exchange packets on this link ICMPv6 Type = 135 Src = A Dst = solicited-node multicast of B Data = link-layer address of A Query = what is your link address? ICMPv6 Type = 136 Src = B Dst = A Data = link-layer address of B12-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 Valid values for the value argument range from 0 to 3600000 milliseconds. The default is 0. This information is also sent in router advertisement messages. When 0 is used for the value, the reachable time is sent as undetermined. It is up to the receiving devices to set and track the reachable time value. To see the time used by the security appliance when this value is set to 0, use the show ipv6 interface command to display information about the IPv6 interface, including the ND reachable time being used. Configuring Router Advertisement Messages Router advertisement messages (ICMPv6 Type 134) are periodically sent out each IPv6 configured interface of security appliance. The router advertisement messages are sent to the all-nodes multicast address. Figure 12-2 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery—Router Advertisement Message Router advertisement messages typically include the following information: • One or more IPv6 prefix that nodes on the local link can use to automatically configure their IPv6 addresses. • Lifetime information for each prefix included in the advertisement. • Sets of flags that indicate the type of autoconfiguration (stateless or stateful) that can be completed. • Default router information (whether the router sending the advertisement should be used as a default router and, if so, the amount of time (in seconds) the router should be used as a default router). • Additional information for hosts, such as the hop limit and MTU a host should use in packets that it originates. • The amount of time between neighbor solicitation message retransmissions on a given link. • The amount of time a node considers a neighbor reachable. Router advertisements are also sent in response to router solicitation messages (ICMPv6 Type 133). Router solicitation messages are sent by hosts at system startup so that the host can immediately autoconfigure without needing to wait for the next scheduled router advertisement message. Because router solicitation messages are usually sent by hosts at system startup, and the host does not have a configured unicast address, the source address in router solicitation messages is usually the unspecified IPv6 address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0). If the host has a configured unicast address, the unicast address of the interface sending the router solicitation message is used as the source address in the message. The destination address in router solicitation messages is the all-routers multicast address with a scope of the link. When a router advertisement is sent in response to a router solicitation, the destination address in the router advertisement message is the unicast address of the source of the router solicitation message. 132917 Router advertisement packet definitions: ICMPv6 Type = 134 Src = router link-local address Dst = all-nodes multicast address Data = options, prefix, lifetime, autoconfig flag Router advertisement Router advertisement12-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Configuring IPv6 You can configure the following settings for router advertisement messages: • The time interval between periodic router advertisement messages. • The router lifetime value, which indicates the amount of time IPv6 nodes should consider security appliance to be the default router. • The IPv6 network prefixes in use on the link. • Whether or not an interface transmits router advertisement messages. Unless otherwise noted, the router advertisement message settings are specific to an interface and are entered in interface configuration mode. See the following topics for information about changing these settings: • Configuring the Router Advertisement Transmission Interval, page 12-10 • Configuring the Router Lifetime Value, page 12-10 • Configuring the IPv6 Prefix, page 12-10 • Suppressing Router Advertisement Messages, page 12-11 Configuring the Router Advertisement Transmission Interval By default, router advertisements are sent out every 200 seconds. To change the interval between router advertisement transmissions on an interface, enter the following command: ipv6 nd ra-interval [msec] value Valid values range from 3 to 1800 seconds (or 500 to 1800000 milliseconds if the msec keyword is used). The interval between transmissions should be less than or equal to the IPv6 router advertisement lifetime if security appliance is configured as a default router by using the ipv6 nd ra-lifetime command. To prevent synchronization with other IPv6 nodes, randomly adjust the actual value used to within 20 percent of the desired value. Configuring the Router Lifetime Value The router lifetime value specifies how long nodes on the local link should consider security appliance as the default router on the link. To configure the router lifetime value in IPv6 router advertisements on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd ra-lifetime seconds Valid values range from 0 to 9000 seconds. The default is 1800 seconds. Entering 0 indicates that security appliance should not be considered a default router on the selected interface. Configuring the IPv6 Prefix Stateless autoconfiguration uses IPv6 prefixes provided in router advertisement messages to create the global unicast address from the link-local address. To configure which IPv6 prefixes are included in IPv6 router advertisements, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd prefix ipv6-prefix/prefix-length Note For stateless autoconfiguration to work properly, the advertised prefix length in router advertisement messages must always be 64 bits. 12-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Verifying the IPv6 Configuration Suppressing Router Advertisement Messages By default, Router Advertisement messages are automatically sent in response to router solicitation messages. You may want to disable these messages on any interface for which you do not want security appliance to supply the IPv6 prefix (for example, the outside interface). To suppress IPv6 router advertisement transmissions on an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 nd suppress-ra Entering this command causes the security appliance to appear as a regular IPv6 neighbor on the link and not as an IPv6 router. Multicast Listener Discovery Support Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol (MLD) Version 2 is supported to discover the presence of multicast address listeners on their directly attached links, and to discover specifically which multicast addresses are of interest to those neighboring nodes. ASA becomes a multicast address listener, or a host, but not a multicast router, and responds to Multicast Listener Queries and sends Multicast Listener Reports only. The following commands were added or enhanced to support MLD: • clear ipv6 mld traffic Command • show ipv6 mld Command Configuring a Static IPv6 Neighbor You can manually define a neighbor in the IPv6 neighbor cache. If an entry for the specified IPv6 address already exists in the neighbor discovery cache—learned through the IPv6 neighbor discovery process—the entry is automatically converted to a static entry. Static entries in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache are not modified by the neighbor discovery process. To configure a static entry in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache, enter the following command: hostname(config-if)# ipv6 neighbor ipv6_address if_name mac_address The ipv6_address argument is the link-local IPv6 address of the neighbor, the if_name argument is the interface through which the neighbor is available, and the mac_address argument is the MAC address of the neighbor interface. Note The clear ipv6 neighbors command does not remove static entries from the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache; it only clears the dynamic entries. Verifying the IPv6 Configuration This section describes how to verify your IPv6 configuration. You can use various clear, and show commands to verify your IPv6 settings. This section includes the following topics: • The show ipv6 interface Command, page 12-1212-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Verifying the IPv6 Configuration • The show ipv6 route Command, page 12-12 • The show ipv6 mld traffic Command, page 12-13 The show ipv6 interface Command To display the IPv6 interface settings, enter the following command: hostname# show ipv6 interface [if_name] Including the interface name, such as “outside”, displays the settings for the specified interface. Excluding the name from the command displays the setting for all interfaces that have IPv6 enabled on them. The output for the command shows the following: • The name and status of the interface. • The link-local and global unicast addresses. • The multicast groups the interface belongs to. • ICMP redirect and error message settings. • Neighbor discovery settings. The following is sample output from the show ipv6 interface command: hostname# show ipv6 interface ipv6interface is down, line protocol is down IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is fe80::20d:88ff:feee:6a82 [TENTATIVE] No global unicast address is configured Joined group address(es): ff02::1 ff02::1:ffee:6a82 ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds Note The show interface command only displays the IPv4 settings for an interface. To see the IPv6 configuration on an interface, you need to use the show ipv6 interface command. The show ipv6 interface command does not display any IPv4 settings for the interface (if both types of addresses are configured on the interface). The show ipv6 route Command To display the routes in the IPv6 routing table, enter the following command: hostname# show ipv6 route The output from the show ipv6 route command is similar to the IPv4 show route command. It displays the following information: • The protocol that derived the route. • The IPv6 prefix of the remote network. • The administrative distance and metric for the route. • The address of the next-hop router.12-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Verifying the IPv6 Configuration • The interface through which the next hop router to the specified network is reached. The following is sample output from the show ipv6 route command: hostname# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 7 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 L fe80::/10 [0/0] via ::, inside L fec0::a:0:0:a0a:a70/128 [0/0] via ::, inside C fec0:0:0:a::/64 [0/0] via ::, inside L ff00::/8 [0/0] via ::, inside The show ipv6 mld traffic Command To display the MLD traffic counters in the IPv6 routing table, enter the following command: hostname# show ipv6 mld traffic The output from the show ipv6 mld traffic command displays whether the expected number of MLD protocol messages have been received and sent. The following is sample output from the show ipv6 mld traffic command: hostname# show ipv6 mld traffic show ipv6 mld traffic MLD Traffic Counters Elapsed time since counters cleared: 00:01:19 Received Sent Valid MLD Packets 1 3 Queries 1 0 Reports 0 3 Leaves 0 0 Mtrace packets 0 0 Errors: Malformed Packets 0 Martian source 0 Non link-local source 0 Hop limit is not equal to 1 012-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 12 Configuring IPv6 Verifying the IPv6 ConfigurationC H A P T E R 13-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database This chapter describes support for AAA (pronounced “triple A”) and how to configure AAA servers and the local database. This chapter contains the following sections: • AAA Overview, page 13-1 • AAA Server and Local Database Support, page 13-2 • Configuring the Local Database, page 13-10 • Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers, page 13-12 • Using Certificates and User Login Credentials, page 13-15 • Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server, page 13-16 AAA Overview AAA enables the security appliance to determine who the user is (authentication), what the user can do (authorization), and what the user did (accounting). AAA provides an extra level of protection and control for user access than using access lists alone. For example, you can create an access list allowing all outside users to access Telnet on a server on the DMZ network. If you want only some users to access the server and you might not always know IP addresses of these users, you can enable AAA to allow only authenticated and/or authorized users to make it through the security appliance. (The Telnet server enforces authentication, too; the security appliance prevents unauthorized users from attempting to access the server.) You can use authentication alone or with authorization and accounting. Authorization always requires a user to be authenticated first. You can use accounting alone, or with authentication and authorization. This section includes the following topics: • About Authentication, page 13-1 • About Authorization, page 13-2 • About Accounting, page 13-2 About Authentication Authentication controls access by requiring valid user credentials, which are typically a username and password. You can configure the security appliance to authenticate the following items:13-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support • All administrative connections to the security appliance including the following sessions: – Telnet – SSH – Serial console – ASDM (using HTTPS) – VPN management access • The enable command • Network access • VPN access About Authorization Authorization controls access per user after users authenticate. You can configure the security appliance to authorize the following items: • Management commands • Network access • VPN access Authorization controls the services and commands available to each authenticated user. Were you not to enable authorization, authentication alone would provide the same access to services for all authenticated users. If you need the control that authorization provides, you can configure a broad authentication rule, and then have a detailed authorization configuration. For example, you authenticate inside users who attempt to access any server on the outside network and then limit the outside servers that a particular user can access using authorization. The security appliance caches the first 16 authorization requests per user, so if the user accesses the same services during the current authentication session, the security appliance does not resend the request to the authorization server. About Accounting Accounting tracks traffic that passes through the security appliance, enabling you to have a record of user activity. If you enable authentication for that traffic, you can account for traffic per user. If you do not authenticate the traffic, you can account for traffic per IP address. Accounting information includes when sessions start and stop, username, the number of bytes that pass through the security appliance for the session, the service used, and the duration of each session. AAA Server and Local Database Support The security appliance supports a variety of AAA server types and a local database that is stored on the security appliance. This section describes support for each AAA server type and the local database. This section contains the following topics: • Summary of Support, page 13-313-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support • RADIUS Server Support, page 13-3 • TACACS+ Server Support, page 13-4 • SDI Server Support, page 13-4 • NT Server Support, page 13-5 • Kerberos Server Support, page 13-5 • LDAP Server Support, page 13-6 • SSO Support for WebVPN with HTTP Forms, page 13-9 • Local Database Support, page 13-9 Summary of Support Table 13-1 summarizes the support for each AAA service by each AAA server type, including the local database. For more information about support for a specific AAA server type, refer to the topics following the table. RADIUS Server Support The security appliance supports RADIUS servers. Table 13-1 Summary of AAA Support AAA Service Database Type Local RADIUS TACACS+ SDI NT Kerberos LDAP HTTP Form Authentication of... VPN u s er s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 1 1. HTTP Form protocol supports single sign-on authentication for WebVPN users only. Fir ewall s es s ion s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Administrators Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 2. SDI is not supported for HTTP administrative access. Yes Yes Yes No Authorization of... VPN users Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Firewall sessions No Yes 3 3. For firewall sessions, RADIUS authorization is supported with user-specific access lists only, which are received or specified in a RADIUS authentication response. Yes No No No No No Administrators Yes 4 4. Local command authorization is supported by privilege level only. No Yes No No No No No Accounting of... VPN connections No Yes Yes No No No No No Firewall sessions No Yes Yes No No No No No Administrators No Yes 5 5. Command accounting is available for TACACS+ only. Yes No No No No No13-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support This section contains the following topics: • Authentication Methods, page 13-4 • Attribute Support, page 13-4 • RADIUS Authorization Functions, page 13-4 Authentication Methods The security appliance supports the following authentication methods with RADIUS: • PAP—For all connection types. • CHAP—For L2TP-over-IPSec. • MS-CHAPv1—For L2TP-over-IPSec. • MS-CHAPv2—For L2TP-over-IPSec, and for regular IPSec remote access connections when the password management feature is enabled. Attribute Support The security appliance supports the following sets of RADIUS attributes: • Authentication attributes defined in RFC 2138. • Accounting attributes defined in RFC 2139. • RADIUS attributes for tunneled protocol support, defined in RFC 2868. • Cisco IOS VSAs, identified by RADIUS vendor ID 9. • Cisco VPN-related VSAs, identified by RADIUS vendor ID 3076. • Microsoft VSAs, defined in RFC 2548. RADIUS Authorization Functions The security appliance can use RADIUS servers for user authorization for network access using dynamic access lists or access list names per user. To implement dynamic access lists, you must configure the RADIUS server to support it. When the user authenticates, the RADIUS server sends a downloadable access list or access list name to the security appliance. Access to a given service is either permitted or denied by the access list. The security appliance deletes the access list when the authentication session expires. TACACS+ Server Support The security appliance supports TACACS+ authentication with ASCII, PAP, CHAP, and MS-CHAPv1. SDI Server Support The RSA SecureID servers are also known as SDI servers. This section contains the following topics: • SDI Version Support, page 13-513-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support • Two-step Authentication Process, page 13-5 • SDI Primary and Replica Servers, page 13-5 SDI Version Support The security appliance supports SDI Version 5.0 and 6.0. SDI uses the concepts of an SDI primary and SDI replica servers. Each primary and its replicas share a single node secret file. The node secret file has its name based on the hexadecimal value of the ACE/Server IP address with .sdi appended. A version 5.0 or 6.0 SDI server that you configure on the security appliance can be either the primary or any one of the replicas. See the “SDI Primary and Replica Servers” section on page 13-5 for information about how the SDI agent selects servers to authenticate users. Two-step Authentication Process SDI version 5.0 and 6.0 uses a two-step process to prevent an intruder from capturing information from an RSA SecurID authentication request and using it to authenticate to another server. The Agent first sends a lock request to the SecurID server before sending the user authentication request. The server locks the username, preventing another (replica) server from accepting it. This means that the same user cannot authenticate to two security appliances using the same authentication servers simultaneously. After a successful username lock, the security appliance sends the passcode. SDI Primary and Replica Servers The security appliance obtains the server list when the first user authenticates to the configured server, which can be either a primary or a replica. The security appliance then assigns priorities to each of the servers on the list, and subsequent server selection derives at random from those assigned priorities. The highest priority servers have a higher likelihood of being selected. NT Server Support The security appliance supports Microsoft Windows server operating systems that support NTLM version 1, collectively referred to as NT servers. Note NT servers have a maximum length of 14 characters for user passwords. Longer passwords are truncated. This is a limitation of NTLM version 1. Kerberos Server Support The security appliance supports 3DES, DES, and RC4 encryption types. Note The security appliance does not support changing user passwords during tunnel negotiation. To avoid this situation happening inadvertently, disable password expiration on the Kerberos/Active Directory server for users connecting to the security appliance. For a simple Kerberos server configuration example, see Example 13-2.13-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support LDAP Server Support This section describes using an LDAP directory with the security appliance for user authentication and VPN authorization. This section includes the following topics: • Authentication with LDAP, page 13-6 • Authorization with LDAP for VPN, page 13-7 • LDAP Attribute Mapping, page 13-8 For example configuration procedures used to set up LDAP authentication or authorization, see Appendix E, “Configuring an External Server for Authorization and Authentication”. Authentication with LDAP During authentication, the security appliance acts as a client proxy to the LDAP server for the user, and authenticates to the LDAP server in either plain text or using the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) protocol. By default, the security appliance passes authentication parameters, usually a username and password, to the LDAP server in plain text. Whether using SASL or plain text, you can secure the communications between the security appliance and the LDAP server with SSL using the ldap-over-ssl command. Note If you do not configure SASL, we strongly recommend that you secure LDAP communications with SSL. See the ldap-over-ssl command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. When user LDAP authentication has succeeded, the LDAP server returns the attributes for the authenticated user. For VPN authentication, these attributes generally include authorization data which is applied to the VPN session. Thus, using LDAP accomplishes authentication and authorization in a single step. Securing LDAP Authentication with SASL The security appliance supports the following SASL mechanisms, listed in order of increasing strength: • Digest-MD5 — The security appliance responds to the LDAP server with an MD5 value computed from the username and password. • Kerberos — The security appliance responds to the LDAP server by sending the username and realm using the GSSAPI (Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface) Kerberos mechanism. You can configure the security appliance and LDAP server to support any combination of these SASL mechanisms. If you configure multiple mechanisms, the security appliance retrieves the list of SASL mechanisms configured on the server and sets the authentication mechanism to the strongest mechanism configured on both the security appliance and the server. For example, if both the LDAP server and the security appliance support both mechanisms, the security appliance selects Kerberos, the stronger of the mechanisms. The following example configures the security appliance for authentication to an LDAP directory server named ldap_dir_1 using the digest-MD5 SASL mechanism, and communicating over an SSL-secured connection: hostname(config)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 protocol ldap hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# sasl-mechanism digest-md5 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# ldap-over-ssl enable13-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# Setting the LDAP Server Type The security appliance supports LDAP Version 3. In the current release, it is compatible only with the Sun Microsystems JAVA System Directory Server (formerly named the Sun ONE Directory Server) and the Microsoft Active Directory. In later releases, the security appliance will support other OpenLDAP servers. By default, the security appliance auto-detects whether it is connected to a Microsoft or a Sun LDAP directory server. However, if auto-detection fails to determine the LDAP server type, and you know the server is either a Microsoft or Sun server, you can manually configure the server type. The following example sets the LDAP directory server ldap_dir_1 to the Sun Microsystems type: hostname(config)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 protocol ldap hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# server-type sun hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# Note • Sun—The DN configured on the security appliance to access a Sun directory server must be able to access the default password policy on that server. We recommend using the directory administrator, or a user with directory administrator privileges, as the DN. Alternatively, you can place an ACI on the default password policy. • Microsoft—You must configure LDAP over SSL to enable password management with Microsoft Active Directory. Authorization with LDAP for VPN When user LDAP authentication for VPN access has succeeded, the security appliance queries the LDAP server which returns LDAP attributes. These attributes generally include authorization data that applies to the VPN session. Thus, using LDAP accomplishes authentication and authorization in a single step. There may be cases, however, where you require authorization from an LDAP directory server that is separate and distinct from the authentication mechanism. For example, if you use an SDI or certificate server for authentication, no authorization information is passed back. For user authorizations in this case, you can query an LDAP directory after successful authentication, accomplishing authentication and authorization in two steps. To set up VPN user authorization using LDAP, you must first create a AAA server group and a tunnel group. You then associate the server and tunnel groups using the tunnel-group general-attributes command. While there are other authorization-related commands and options available for specific requirements, the following example shows fundamental commands for enabling user authorization with LDAP. This example then creates an IPSec remote access tunnel group named remote-1, and assigns that new tunnel group to the previously created ldap_dir_1 AAA server for authorization. hostname(config)# tunnel-group remote-1 type ipsec-ra hostname(config)# tunnel-group remote-1 general-attributes hostname(config-general)# authorization-server-group ldap_dir_1 hostname(config-general)#13-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support After you complete this fundamental configuration work, you can configure additional LDAP authorization parameters such as a directory password, a starting point for searching a directory, and the scope of a directory search: hostname(config)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 protocol ldap hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# ldap-login-dn obscurepassword hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# ldap-base-dn starthere hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# ldap-scope subtree hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# See LDAP commands in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. LDAP Attribute Mapping If you are introducing a security appliance to an existing LDAP directory, your existing LDAP attribute names and values are probably different from the existing ones. You must create LDAP attribute maps that map your existing user-defined attribute names and values to Cisco attribute names and values that are compatible with the security appliance. You can then bind these attribute maps to LDAP servers or remove them as needed. You can also show or clear attribute maps. Note To use the attribute mapping features correctly, you need to understand the Cisco LDAP attribute names and values as well as the user-defined attribute names and values. The following command, entered in global configuration mode, creates an unpopulated LDAP attribute map table named att_map_1: hostname(config)# ldap attribute-map att_map_1 hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# The following commands map the user-defined attribute name department to the Cisco attribute name cVPN3000-IETF-Radius-Class. The second command maps the user-defined attribute value Engineering to the user-defined attribute department and the Cisco-defined attribute value group1. hostname(config)# ldap attribute-map att_map_1 hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# map-name department cVPN3000-IETF-Radius-Class hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# map-value department Engineering group1 hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# The following commands bind the attribute map att_map_1 to the LDAP server ldap_dir_1: hostname(config)# aaa-server ldap_dir_1 host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# ldap-attribute-map att_map_1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# Note The command to create an attribute map (ldap attribute-map) and the command to bind it to an LDAP server (ldap-attribute-map) differ only by a hyphen and the mode. The following commands display or clear all LDAP attribute maps in the running configuration: hostname# show running-config all ldap attribute-map hostname(config)# clear configuration ldap attribute-map hostname(config)# The names of frequently mapped Cisco LDAP attributes and the type of user-defined attributes they would commonly be mapped to include:13-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database AAA Server and Local Database Support cVPN3000-IETF-Radius-Class — Department or user group cVPN3000-IETF-Radius-Filter-Id — Access control list cVPN3000-IETF-Radius-Framed-IP-Address — A static IP address cVPN3000-IPSec-Banner1 — A organization title cVPN3000-Tunneling-Protocols — Allow or deny dial-in For a list of Cisco LDAP attribute names and values, see Appendix E, “Configuring an External Server for Authorization and Authentication”. Alternatively, you can enter “?” within ldap-attribute-map mode to display the complete list of Cisco LDAP attribute names, as shown in the following example: hostname(config)# ldap attribute-map att_map_1 hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# map-name att_map_1 ? ldap mode commands/options: cisco-attribute-names: cVPN3000-Access-Hours cVPN3000-Allow-Network-Extension-Mode cVPN3000-Auth-Service-Type cVPN3000-Authenticated-User-Idle-Timeout cVPN3000-Authorization-Required cVPN3000-Authorization-Type : : cVPN3000-X509-Cert-Data hostname(config-ldap-attribute-map)# SSO Support for WebVPN with HTTP Forms The security appliance can use the HTTP Form protocol for single sign-on (SSO) authentication of WebVPN users only. Single sign-on support lets WebVPN users enter a username and password only once to access multiple protected services and Web servers. The WebVPN server running on the security appliance acts as a proxy for the user to the authenticating server. When a user logs in, the WebVPN server sends an SSO authentication request, including username and password, to the authenticating server using HTTPS. If the server approves the authentication request, it returns an SSO authentication cookie to the WebVPN server. The security appliance keeps this cookie on behalf of the user and uses it to authenticate the user to secure websites within the domain protected by the SSO server. In addition to the HTTP Form protocol, WebVPN administrators can choose to configure SSO with the HTTP Basic and NTLM authentication protocols (the auto-signon command), or with Computer Associates eTrust SiteMinder SSO server (formerly Netegrity SiteMinder) as well. For an in-depth discussion of configuring SSO with either HTTP Forms, auto-signon or SiteMinder, see the Configuring WebVPN chapter. Local Database Support The security appliance maintains a local database that you can populate with user profiles. This section contains the following topics: • User Profiles, page 13-10 • Fallback Support, page 13-1013-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Configuring the Local Database User Profiles User profiles contain, at a minimum, a username. Typically, a password is assigned to each username, although passwords are optional. The username attributes command lets you enter the username mode. In this mode, you can add other information to a specific user profile. The information you can add includes VPN-related attributes, such as a VPN session timeout value. Fallback Support The local database can act as a fallback method for several functions. This behavior is designed to help you prevent accidental lockout from the security appliance. For users who need fallback support, we recommend that their usernames and passwords in the local database match their usernames and passwords in the AAA servers. This provides transparent fallback support. Because the user cannot determine whether a AAA server or the local database is providing the service, using usernames and passwords on AAA servers that are different than the usernames and passwords in the local database means that the user cannot be certain which username and password should be given. The local database supports the following fallback functions: • Console and enable password authentication—When you use the aaa authentication console command, you can add the LOCAL keyword after the AAA server group tag. If the servers in the group all are unavailable, the security appliance uses the local database to authenticate administrative access. This can include enable password authentication, too. • Command authorization—When you use the aaa authorization command command, you can add the LOCAL keyword after the AAA server group tag. If the TACACS+ servers in the group all are unavailable, the local database is used to authorize commands based on privilege levels. • VPN authentication and authorization—VPN authentication and authorization are supported to enable remote access to the security appliance if AAA servers that normally support these VPN services are unavailable. The authentication-server-group command, available in tunnel-group general attributes mode, lets you specify the LOCAL keyword when you are configuring attributes of a tunnel group. When VPN client of an administrator specifies a tunnel group configured to fallback to the local database, the VPN tunnel can be established even if the AAA server group is unavailable, provided that the local database is configured with the necessary attributes. Configuring the Local Database This section describes how to manage users in the local database. You can use the local database for CLI access authentication, privileged mode authentication, command authorization, network access authentication, and VPN authentication and authorization. You cannot use the local database for network access authorization. The local database does not support accounting. For multiple context mode, you can configure usernames in the system execution space to provide individual logins using the login command; however, you cannot configure any aaa commands in the system execution space. Caution If you add to the local database users who can gain access to the CLI but who should not be allowed to enter privileged mode, enable command authorization. (See the “Configuring Local Command Authorization” section on page 40-8.) Without command authorization, users can access privileged 13-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Configuring the Local Database mode (and all commands) at the CLI using their own password if their privilege level is 2 or greater (2 is the default). Alternatively, you can use RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication so that the user cannot use the login command, or you can set all local users to level 1 so you can control who can use the system enable password to access privileged mode. To define a user account in the local database, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create the user account. To do so, enter the following command: hostname(config)# username name {nopassword | password password [mschap]} [privilege priv_level] where the options are as follows: • username—A string from 4 to 64 characters long. • password password—A string from 3 to 16 characters long. • mschap—Specifies that the password will be converted to unicode and hashed using MD4 after you enter it. Use this keyword if users are authenticated using MSCHAPv1 or MSCHAPv2. • privilege level—The privilege level that you want to assign to the new user account (from 0 to 15). The default is 2. This privilege level is used with command authorization. • nopassword—Creates a user account with no password. The encrypted and nt-encrypted keywords are typically for display only. When you define a password in the username command, the security appliance encrypts it when it saves it to the configuration for security purposes. When you enter the show running-config command, the username command does not show the actual password; it shows the encrypted password followed by the encrypted or nt-encrypted keyword (when you specify mschap). For example, if you enter the password “test,” the show running-config display would appear to be something like the following: username pat password DLaUiAX3l78qgoB5c7iVNw== nt-encrypted The only time you would actually enter the encrypted or nt-encrypted keyword at the CLI is if you are cutting and pasting a configuration to another security appliance and you are using the same password. Step 2 To configure a local user account with VPN attributes, follow these steps: a. Enter the following command: hostname(config)# username username attributes When you enter a username attributes command, you enter username mode. The commands available in this mode are as follows: • group-lock • password-storage • vpn-access-hours • vpn-filter • vpn-framed-ip-address • vpn-group-policy • vpn-idle-timeout • vpn-session-timeout • vpn-simultaneous-logins • vpn-tunnel-protocol13-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers • webvpn Use these commands as needed to configure the user profile. For more information about these commands, see the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. b. When you have finished configuring the user profiles, enter exit to return to config mode. For example, the following command assigns a privilege level of 15 to the admin user account: hostname(config)# username admin password passw0rd privilege 15 The following command creates a user account with no password: hostname(config)# username bcham34 nopassword The following commands creates a user account with a password, enters username mode, and specifies a few VPN attributes: hostname(config)# username rwilliams password gOgeOus hostname(config)# username rwilliams attributes hostname(config-username)# vpn-tunnel-protocol IPSec hostname(config-username)# vpn-simultaneous-logins 6 hostname(config-username)# exit Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers If you want to use an external AAA server for authentication, authorization, or accounting, you must first create at least one AAA server group per AAA protocol and add one or more servers to each group. You identify AAA server groups by name. Each server group is specific to one type of server: Kerberos, LDAP, NT, RADIUS, SDI, or TACACS+. The security appliance contacts the first server in the group. If that server is unavailable, the security appliance contacts the next server in the group, if configured. If all servers in the group are unavailable, the security appliance tries the local database if you configured it as a fallback method (management authentication and authorization only). If you do not have a fallback method, the security appliance continues to try the AAA servers. To create a server group and add AAA servers to it, follow these steps: Step 1 For each AAA server group you need to create, follow these steps: a. Identify the server group name and the protocol. To do so, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa-server server_group protocol {kerberos | ldap | nt | radius | sdi | tacacs+} For example, to use RADIUS to authenticate network access and TACACS+ to authenticate CLI access, you need to create at least two server groups, one for RADIUS servers and one for TACACS+ servers. You can have up to 15 single-mode server groups or 4 multi-mode server groups. Each server group can have up to 16 servers in single mode or up to 4 servers in multi-mode. When you enter a aaa-server protocol command, you enter group mode. b. If you want to specify the maximum number of requests sent to a AAA server in the group before trying the next server, enter the following command:13-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# max-failed-attempts number The number can be between 1 and 5. The default is 3. If you configured a fallback method using the local database (for management access only; see the “Configuring AAA for System Administrators” section on page 40-5 and the “Configuring TACACS+ Command Authorization” section on page 40-11 to configure the fallback mechanism), and all the servers in the group fail to respond, then the group is considered to be unresponsive, and the fallback method is tried. The server group remains marked as unresponsive for a period of 10 minutes (by default) so that additional AAA requests within that period do not attempt to contact the server group, and the fallback method is used immediately. To change the unresponsive period from the default, see the reactivation-mode command in the following step. If you do not have a fallback method, the security appliance continues to retry the servers in the group. c. If you want to specify the method (reactivation policy) by which failed servers in a group are reactivated, enter the following command: hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# # reactivation-mode {depletion [deadtime minutes] | timed} Where the depletion keyword reactivates failed servers only after all of the servers in the group are inactive. The deadtime minutes argument specifies the amount of time in minutes, between 0 and 1440, that elapses between the disabling of the last server in the group and the subsequent re-enabling of all servers. The default is 10 minutes. The timed keyword reactivates failed servers after 30 seconds of down time. d. If you want to send accounting messages to all servers in the group (RADIUS or TACACS+ only), enter the following command: hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# accounting-mode simultaneous To restore the default of sending messages only to the active server, enter the accounting-mode single command. Step 2 For each AAA server on your network, follow these steps: a. Identify the server, including the AAA server group it belongs to. To do so, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa-server server_group (interface_name) host server_ip When you enter a aaa-server host command, you enter host mode. b. As needed, use host mode commands to further configure the AAA server. The commands in host mode do not apply to all AAA server types. Table 13-2 lists the available commands, the server types they apply to, and whether a new AAA server definition has a default value for that command. Where a command is applicable to the server type you specified and no default value is provided (indicated by “—”), use the command to specify the value. For more information about these commands, see the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference.13-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers Example 13-1 shows commands that add one TACACS+ group with one primary and one backup server, one RADIUS group with a single server, and an NT domain server. Example 13-1 Multiple AAA Server Groups and Servers hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthInbound protocol tacacs+ hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# max-failed-attempts 2 hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# reactivation-mode depletion deadtime 20 hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthInbound (inside) host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey Table 13-2 Host Mode Commands, Server Types, and Defaults Command Applicable AAA Server Types Default Value accounting-port RADIUS 1646 acl-netmask-convert RADIUS standard authentication-port RADIUS 1645 kerberos-realm Kerberos — key RADIUS — TACACS+ — ldap-attribute-map LDAP — ldap-base-dn LDAP — ldap-login-dn LDAP — ldap-login-password LDAP — ldap-naming-attribute LDAP — ldap-over-ssl LDAP — ldap-scope LDAP — nt-auth-domain-controller NT — radius-common-pw RADIUS — retry-interval Kerberos 10 seconds RADIUS 10 seconds SDI 10 seconds sasl-mechanism LDAP — server-port Kerberos 88 LDAP 389 NT 139 SDI 5500 TACACS+ 49 server-type LDAP auto-discovery timeout All 10 seconds13-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Using Certificates and User Login Credentials hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthInbound (inside) host 10.1.1.2 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey2 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound protocol radius hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound (inside) host 10.1.1.3 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key RadUauthKey hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server NTAuth protocol nt hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server NTAuth (inside) host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# nt-auth-domain-controller primary1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit Example 13-2 shows commands that configure a Kerberos AAA server group named watchdogs, add a AAA server to the group, and define the Kerberos realm for the server. Because Example 13-2 does not define a retry interval or the port that the Kerberos server listens to, the security appliance uses the default values for these two server-specific parameters. Table 13-2 lists the default values for all AAA server host mode commands. Note Kerberos realm names use numbers and upper-case letters only. Although the security appliance accepts lower-case letters for a realm name, it does not translate lower-case letters to upper-case letters. Be sure to use upper-case letters only. Example 13-2 Kerberos Server Group and Server hostname(config)# aaa-server watchdogs protocol kerberos hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server watchdogs host 192.168.3.4 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# kerberos-realm EXAMPLE.COM hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# Using Certificates and User Login Credentials The following section describes the different methods of using certificates and user login credentials (username and password) for authentication and authorization. This applies to both IPSec and WebVPN. In all cases, LDAP authorization does not use the password as a credential. RADIUS authorization uses either a common password for all users or the username as a password. Using User Login Credentials The default method for authentication and authorization uses the user login credentials. • Authentication – Enabled by authentication server group setting – Uses the username and password as credentials • Authorization – Enabled by authorization server group setting – Uses the username as a credential13-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server Using certificates If user digital certificates are configured, the security appliance first validates the certificate. It does not, however, use any of the DNs from the certificates as a username for the authentication. If both authentication and authorization are enabled, the security appliance uses the user login credentials for both user authentication and authorization. • Authentication – Enabled by authentication server group setting – Uses the username and password as credentials • Authorization – Enabled by authorization server group setting – Uses the username as a credential If authentication is disabled and authorization is enabled, the security appliance uses the primary DN field for authorization. • Authentication – DISABLED (set to None) by authentication server group setting – No credentials used • Authorization – Enabled by authorization server group setting – Uses the username value of the certificate primary DN field as a credential Note If the primary DN field is not present in the certificate, the security appliance uses the secondary DN field value as the username for the authorization request. For example, consider a user certificate that contains the following Subject DN fields and values: Cn=anyuser,OU=sales;O=XYZCorporation;L=boston;S=mass;C=us;ea=anyuser@example.com. If the Primary DN = EA (E-mail Address) and the Secondary DN = CN (Common Name), then the username used in the authorization request would be anyuser@example.com. Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server This section introduces the Zone Labs Integrity Server, also called Check Point Integrity Server, and presents an example procedure for configuring the security appliance to support the Zone Labs Integrity Server. The Integrity server is a central management station for configuring and enforcing security policies on remote PCs. If a remote PC does not conform to the security policy dictated by the Integrity Server, it will not be granted access to the private network protected by the Integrity Server and security appliance. This section includes the following topics: • Overview of Integrity Server and Security Appliance Interaction, page 13-17 • Configuring Integrity Server Support, page 13-1713-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server Overview of Integrity Server and Security Appliance Interaction The VPN client software and the Integrity client software are co-resident on a remote PC. The following steps summarize the actions of the remote PC, security appliance, and Integrity server in the establishment of a session between the PC and the enterprise private network: 1. The VPN client software (residing on the same remote PC as the Integrity client software) connects to the security appliance and tells the security appliance what type of firewall client it is. 2. Once it approves the client firewall type, the security appliance passes Integrity server address information back to the Integrity client. 3. With the security appliance acting as a proxy, the Integrity client establishes a restricted connection with the Integrity server. A restricted connection is only between the Integrity client and server. 4. The Integrity server determines if the Integrity client is in compliance with the mandated security policies. If the client is in compliance with security policies, the Integrity server instructs the security appliance to open the connection and provide the client with connection details. 5. On the remote PC, the VPN client passes connection details to the Integrity client and signals that policy enforcement should begin immediately and the client can no enter the private network. 6. Once the connection is established, the server continues to monitor the state of the client using client heartbeat messages. Note The current release of the security appliance supports one Integrity Server at a time even though the user interfaces support the configuration of up to five Integrity Servers. If the active Server fails, configure another Integrity Server on the security appliance and then reestablish the client VPN session. Configuring Integrity Server Support This section describes an example procedure for configuring the security appliance to support the Zone Labs Integrity Servers. The procedure involves configuring address, port, connection fail timeout and fail states, and SSL certificate parameters. First, you must configure the hostname or IP address of the Integrity server. The following example commands, entered in global configuration mode, configure an Integrity server using the IP address 10.0.0.5. They also specify port 300 (the default port is 5054) and the inside interface for communications with the Integrity server. hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity server-address 10.0.0.5 hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity port 300 hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity interface inside hostname(config)# If the connection between the security appliance and the Integrity server fails, the VPN client connections remain open by default so that the enterprise VPN is not disrupted by the failure of an Integrity server. However, you may want to close the VPN connections if the Zone Labs Integrity Server fails. The following commands ensure that the security appliance waits 12 seconds for a response from either the active or standby Integrity servers before declaring an the Integrity server as failed and closing the VPN client connections: hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity fail-timeout 12 hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity fail-close hostname(config)# 13-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 13 Configuring AAA Servers and the Local Database Supporting a Zone Labs Integrity Server The following command returns the configured VPN client connection fail state to the default and ensures the client connections remain open: hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity fail-open hostname(config)# The following example commands specify that the Integrity server connects to port 300 (default is port 80) on the security appliance to request the server SSL certificate. While the server SSL certificate is always authenticated, these commands also specify that the client SSL certificate of the Integrity server be authenticated. hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity ssl-certificate-port 300 hostname(config)# zonelabs-integrity ssl-client-authentication hostname(config)# To set the firewall client type to the Zone Labs Integrity type, use the client-firewall command as described in the “Configuring Firewall Policies” section on page 30-55. The command arguments that specify firewall policies are not used when the firewall type is zonelabs-integrity because the Integrity server determines the policies.C H A P T E R 14-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 14 Configuring Failover This chapter describes the security appliance failover feature, which lets you configure two security appliances so that one takes over operation if the other one fails. Note The ASA 5505 series adaptive security appliance does not support Stateful Failover or Active/Active failover. This chapter includes the following sections: • Understanding Failover, page 14-1 • Configuring Failover, page 14-19 • Controlling and Monitoring Failover, page 14-49 For failover configuration examples, see Appendix B, “Sample Configurations.” Understanding Failover The failover configuration requires two identical security appliances connected to each other through a dedicated failover link and, optionally, a Stateful Failover link. The health of the active interfaces and units is monitored to determine if specific failover conditions are met. If those conditions are met, failover occurs. The security appliance supports two failover configurations, Active/Active failover and Active/Standby failover. Each failover configuration has its own method for determining and performing failover. With Active/Active failover, both units can pass network traffic. This lets you configure load balancing on your network. Active/Active failover is only available on units running in multiple context mode. With Active/Standby failover, only one unit passes traffic while the other unit waits in a standby state. Active/Standby failover is available on units running in either single or multiple context mode. Both failover configurations support stateful or stateless (regular) failover. Note VPN failover is not supported on units running in multiple context mode. VPN failover available for Active/Standby failover configurations only. 14-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover This section includes the following topics: • Failover System Requirements, page 14-2 • The Failover and Stateful Failover Links, page 14-3 • Active/Active and Active/Standby Failover, page 14-6 • Regular and Stateful Failover, page 14-15 • Failover Health Monitoring, page 14-16 • Failover Feature/Platform Matrix, page 14-18 • Failover Times by Platform, page 14-18 Failover System Requirements This section describes the hardware, software, and license requirements for security appliances in a failover configuration. This section contains the following topics: • Hardware Requirements, page 14-2 • Software Requirements, page 14-2 • License Requirements, page 14-2 Hardware Requirements The two units in a failover configuration must have the same hardware configuration. They must be the same model, have the same number and types of interfaces, and the same amount of RAM. Note The two units do not have to have the same size Flash memory. If using units with different Flash memory sizes in your failover configuration, make sure the unit with the smaller Flash memory has enough space to accommodate the software image files and the configuration files. If it does not, configuration synchronization from the unit with the larger Flash memory to the unit with the smaller Flash memory will fail. Software Requirements The two units in a failover configuration must be in the operating modes (routed or transparent, single or multiple context). They have the same major (first number) and minor (second number) software version. However, you can use different versions of the software during an upgrade process; for example, you can upgrade one unit from Version 7.0(1) to Version 7.0(2) and have failover remain active. We recommend upgrading both units to the same version to ensure long-term compatibility. See “Performing Zero Downtime Upgrades for Failover Pairs” section on page 41-6 for more information about upgrading the software on a failover pair. License Requirements On the PIX 500 series security appliance, at least one of the units must have an unrestricted (UR) license. The other unit can have a Failover Only (FO) license, a Failover Only Active-Active (FO_AA) license, or another UR license. Units with a Restricted license cannot be used for failover, and two units with FO or FO_AA licenses cannot be used together as a failover pair.14-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Note The FO license does not support Active/Active failover. The FO and FO_AA licenses are intended to be used solely for units in a failover configuration and not for units in standalone mode. If a failover unit with one of these licenses is used in standalone mode, the unit reboots at least once every 24 hours until the unit is returned to failover duty. A unit with an FO or FO_AA license operates in standalone mode if it is booted without being connected to a failover peer with a UR license. If the unit with a UR license in a failover pair fails and is removed from the configuration, the unit with the FO or FO_AA license does not automatically reboot every 24 hours; it operates uninterrupted unless the it is manually rebooted. When the unit automatically reboots, the following message displays on the console: =========================NOTICE========================= This machine is running in secondary mode without a connection to an active primary PIX. Please check your connection to the primary system. REBOOTING.... ======================================================== The ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance platform does not have this restriction. The Failover and Stateful Failover Links This section describes the failover and the Stateful Failover links, which are dedicated connections between the two units in a failover configuration. This section includes the following topics: • Failover Link, page 14-3 • Stateful Failover Link, page 14-5 Failover Link The two units in a failover pair constantly communicate over a failover link to determine the operating status of each unit. The following information is communicated over the failover link: • The unit state (active or standby). • Power status (cable-based failover only—available only on the PIX 500 series security appliance). • Hello messages (keep-alives). • Network link status. • MAC address exchange. • Configuration replication and synchronization. Caution All information sent over the failover and Stateful Failover links is sent in clear text unless you secure the communication with a failover key. If the security appliance is used to terminate VPN tunnels, this information includes any usernames, passwords and preshared keys used for establishing the tunnels. Transmitting this sensitive data in clear text could pose a significant security risk. We recommend securing the failover communication with a failover key if you are using the security appliance to terminate VPN tunnels.14-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover On the PIX 500 series security appliance, the failover link can be either a LAN-based connection or a dedicated serial Failover cable. On the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, the failover link can only be a LAN-based connection. This section includes the following topics: • LAN-Based Failover Link, page 14-4 • Serial Cable Failover Link (PIX Security Appliance Only), page 14-4 LAN-Based Failover Link You can use any unused Ethernet interface on the device as the failover link; however, you cannot specify an interface that is currently configured with a name. The LAN failover link interface is not configured as a normal networking interface. It exists for failover communication only. This interface should only be used for the LAN failover link (and optionally for the stateful failover link). Connect the LAN failover link in one of the following two ways: • Using a switch, with no other device on the same network segment (broadcast domain or VLAN) as the LAN failover interfaces of the ASA. • Using a crossover Ethernet cable to connect the appliances directly, without the need for an external switch. Note When you use a crossover cable for the LAN failover link, if the LAN interface fails, the link is brought down on both peers. This condition may hamper troubleshooting efforts because you cannot easily determine which interface failed and caused the link to come down. Note The ASA supports Auto-MDI/MDIX on its copper Ethernet ports, so you can either use a crossover cable or a straight-through cable. If you use a straight-through cable, the interface automatically detects the cable and swaps one of the transmit/receive pairs to MDIX. Serial Cable Failover Link (PIX Security Appliance Only) The serial Failover cable, or “cable-based failover,” is only available on the PIX 500 series security appliance. If the two units are within six feet of each other, then we recommend that you use the serial Failover cable. The cable that connects the two units is a modified RS-232 serial link cable that transfers data at 117,760 bps (115 Kbps). One end of the cable is labeled “Primary”. The unit attached to this end of the cable automatically becomes the primary unit. The other end of the cable is labeled “Secondary”. The unit attached to this end of the cable automatically becomes the secondary unit. You cannot override these designations in the PIX 500 series security appliance software. If you purchased a PIX 500 series security appliance failover bundle, this cable is included. To order a spare, use part number PIX-FO=. The benefits of using cable-based failover include: • The PIX 500 series security appliance can immediately detect a power loss on the peer unit and differentiate between a power loss from an unplugged cable. • The standby unit can communicate with the active unit and can receive the entire configuration without having to be bootstrapped for failover. In LAN-based failover you need to configure the failover link on the standby unit before it can communicate with the active unit. • The switch between the two units in LAN-based failover can be another point of hardware failure; cable-based failover eliminates this potential point of failure.14-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover • You do not have to dedicate an Ethernet interface (and switch) to the failover link. • The cable determines which unit is primary and which is secondary, eliminating the need to manually enter that information in the unit configurations. The disadvantages include: • Distance limitation—the units cannot be separated by more than 6 feet. • Slower configuration replication. Stateful Failover Link To use Stateful Failover, you must configure a Stateful Failover link to pass all state information. You have three options for configuring a Stateful Failover link: • You can use a dedicated Ethernet interface for the Stateful Failover link. • If you are using LAN-based failover, you can share the failover link. • You can share a regular data interface, such as the inside interface. However, this option is not recommended. If you are using a dedicated Ethernet interface for the Stateful Failover link, you can use either a switch or a crossover cable to directly connect the units. If you use a switch, no other hosts or routers should be on this link. Note Enable the PortFast option on Cisco switch ports that connect directly to the security appliance. If you use a data interface as the Stateful Failover link, you receive the following warning when you specify that interface as the Stateful Failover link: ******* WARNING ***** WARNING ******* WARNING ****** WARNING ********* Sharing Stateful failover interface with regular data interface is not a recommended configuration due to performance and security concerns. ******* WARNING ***** WARNING ******* WARNING ****** WARNING ********* Sharing a data interface with the Stateful Failover interface can leave you vulnerable to replay attacks. Additionally, large amounts of Stateful Failover traffic may be sent on the interface, causing performance problems on that network segment. Note Using a data interface as the Stateful Failover interface is only supported in single context, routed mode. In multiple context mode, the Stateful Failover link resides in the system context. This interface and the failover interface are the only interfaces in the system context. All other interfaces are allocated to and configured from within security contexts. Note The IP address and MAC address for the Stateful Failover link does not change at failover unless the Stateful Failover link is configured on a regular data interface. Caution All information sent over the failover and Stateful Failover links is sent in clear text unless you secure the communication with a failover key. If the security appliance is used to terminate VPN tunnels, this information includes any usernames, passwords and preshared keys used for establishing the tunnels. 14-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Transmitting this sensitive data in clear text could pose a significant security risk. We recommend securing the failover communication with a failover key if you are using the security appliance to terminate VPN tunnels. Failover Interface Speed for Stateful Links If you use the failover link as the Stateful Failover link, you should use the fastest Ethernet interface available. If you experience performance problems on that interface, consider dedicating a separate interface for the Stateful Failover interface. Use the following failover interface speed guidelines for Cisco PIX security appliances and Cisco ASA adaptive security appliances: • Cisco ASA 5520/5540/5550 and PIX 515E/535 – The stateful link speed should match the fastest data link • Cisco ASA 5510 and PIX 525 – Stateful link speed can be 100 Mbps, even though the data interface can operate at 1 Gigabit due to the CPU speed limitation. For optimum performance when using long distance LAN failover, the latency for the failover link should be less than 10 milliseconds and no more than 250 milliseconds. If latency is less than 10 milliseconds, some performance degradation occurs due to retransmission of failover messages. All platforms support sharing of failover heartbeat and stateful link, but we recommend using a separate heartbeat link on systems with high Stateful Failover traffic. Active/Active and Active/Standby Failover This section describes each failover configuration in detail. This section includes the following topics: • Active/Standby Failover, page 14-6 • Active/Active Failover, page 14-10 • Determining Which Type of Failover to Use, page 14-15 Active/Standby Failover This section describes Active/Standby failover and includes the following topics: • Active/Standby Failover Overview, page 14-6 • Primary/Secondary Status and Active/Standby Status, page 14-7 • Device Initialization and Configuration Synchronization, page 14-7 • Command Replication, page 14-8 • Failover Triggers, page 14-9 • Failover Actions, page 14-9 Active/Standby Failover Overview Active/Standby failover lets you use a standby security appliance to take over the functionality of a failed unit. When the active unit fails, it changes to the standby state while the standby unit changes to the active state. The unit that becomes active assumes the IP addresses (or, for transparent firewall, the 14-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover management IP address) and MAC addresses of the failed unit and begins passing traffic. The unit that is now in standby state takes over the standby IP addresses and MAC addresses. Because network devices see no change in the MAC to IP address pairing, no ARP entries change or time out anywhere on the network. Note For multiple context mode, the security appliance can fail over the entire unit (including all contexts) but cannot fail over individual contexts separately. Primary/Secondary Status and Active/Standby Status The main differences between the two units in a failover pair are related to which unit is active and which unit is standby, namely which IP addresses to use and which unit actively passes traffic. However, a few differences exist between the units based on which unit is primary (as specified in the configuration) and which unit is secondary: • The primary unit always becomes the active unit if both units start up at the same time (and are of equal operational health). • The primary unit MAC addresses are always coupled with the active IP addresses. The exception to this rule occurs when the secondary unit is active, and cannot obtain the primary unit MAC addresses over the failover link. In this case, the secondary unit MAC addresses are used. Device Initialization and Configuration Synchronization Configuration synchronization occurs when one or both devices in the failover pair boot. Configurations are always synchronized from the active unit to the standby unit. When the standby unit completes its initial startup, it clears its running configuration (except for the failover commands needed to communicate with the active unit), and the active unit sends its entire configuration to the standby unit. The active unit is determined by the following: • If a unit boots and detects a peer already running as active, it becomes the standby unit. • If a unit boots and does not detect a peer, it becomes the active unit. • If both units boot simultaneously, then the primary unit becomes the active unit and the secondary unit becomes the standby unit. Note If the secondary unit boots without detecting the primary unit, it becomes the active unit. It uses its own MAC addresses for the active IP addresses. However, when the primary unit becomes available, the secondary unit changes the MAC addresses to those of the primary unit, which can cause an interruption in your network traffic. To avoid this, configure the failover pair with virtual MAC addresses. See the “Configuring Virtual MAC Addresses” section on page 14-26 for more information. When the replication starts, the security appliance console on the active unit displays the message “Beginning configuration replication: Sending to mate,” and when it is complete, the security appliance displays the message “End Configuration Replication to mate.” During replication, commands entered on the active unit may not replicate properly to the standby unit, and commands entered on the standby unit may be overwritten by the configuration being replicated from the active unit. Avoid entering commands on either unit in the failover pair during the configuration replication process. Depending upon the size of the configuration, replication can take from a few seconds to several minutes. On the standby unit, the configuration exists only in running memory. To save the configuration to Flash memory after synchronization:14-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover • For single context mode, enter the write memory command on the active unit. The command is replicated to the standby unit, which proceeds to write its configuration to Flash memory. • For multiple context mode, enter the write memory all command on the active unit from the system execution space. The command is replicated to the standby unit, which proceeds to write its configuration to Flash memory. Using the all keyword with this command causes the system and all context configurations to be saved. Note Startup configurations saved on external servers are accessible from either unit over the network and do not need to be saved separately for each unit. Alternatively, you can copy the contexts on disk from the active unit to an external server, and then copy them to disk on the standby unit, where they become available when the unit reloads. Command Replication Command replication always flows from the active unit to the standby unit. As commands are entered on the active unit, they are sent across the failover link to the standby unit. You do not have to save the active configuration to Flash memory to replicate the commands. The following commands are replicated to the standby unit: • all configuration commands except for the mode, firewall, and failover lan unit commands • copy running-config startup-config • delete • mkdir • rename • rmdir • write memory The following commands are not replicated to the standby unit: • all forms of the copy command except for copy running-config startup-config • all forms of the write command except for write memory • debug • failover lan unit • firewall • mode • show Note Changes made on the standby unit are not replicated to the active unit. If you enter a command on the standby unit, the security appliance displays the message **** WARNING **** Configuration Replication is NOT performed from Standby unit to Active unit. Configurations are no longer synchronized. This message displays even when you enter many commands that do not affect the configuration. If you enter the write standby command on the active unit, the standby unit clears its running configuration (except for the failover commands used to communicate with the active unit), and the active unit sends its entire configuration to the standby unit.14-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover For multiple context mode, when you enter the write standby command in the system execution space, all contexts are replicated. If you enter the write standby command within a context, the command replicates only the context configuration. Replicated commands are stored in the running configuration. To save the replicated commands to the Flash memory on the standby unit: • For single context mode, enter the copy running-config startup-config command on the active unit. The command is replicated to the standby unit, which proceeds to write its configuration to Flash memory. • For multiple context mode, enter the copy running-config startup-config command on the active unit from the system execution space and within each context on disk. The command is replicated to the standby unit, which proceeds to write its configuration to Flash memory. Contexts with startup configurations on external servers are accessible from either unit over the network and do not need to be saved separately for each unit. Alternatively, you can copy the contexts on disk from the active unit to an external server, and then copy them to disk on the standby unit. Failover Triggers The unit can fail if one of the following events occurs: • The unit has a hardware failure or a power failure. • The unit has a software failure. • Too many monitored interfaces fail. • The no failover active command is entered on the active unit or the failover active command is entered on the standby unit. Failover Actions In Active/Standby failover, failover occurs on a unit basis. Even on systems running in multiple context mode, you cannot fail over individual or groups of contexts. Table 14-1 shows the failover action for each failure event. For each failure event, the table shows the failover policy (failover or no failover), the action taken by the active unit, the action taken by the standby unit, and any special notes about the failover condition and actions. Table 14-1 Failover Behavior Failure Event Policy Active Action Standby Action Notes Active unit failed (power or hardware) Failover n/a Become active Mark active as failed No hello messages are received on any monitored interface or the failover link. Formerly active unit recovers No failover Become standby No action None. Standby unit failed (power or hardware) No failover Mark standby as failed n/a When the standby unit is marked as failed, then the active unit does not attempt to fail over, even if the interface failure threshold is surpassed. Failover link failed during operation No failover Mark failover interface as failed Mark failover interface as failed You should restore the failover link as soon as possible because the unit cannot fail over to the standby unit while the failover link is down.14-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Active/Active Failover This section describes Active/Active failover. This section includes the following topics: • Active/Active Failover Overview, page 14-10 • Primary/Secondary Status and Active/Standby Status, page 14-11 • Device Initialization and Configuration Synchronization, page 14-11 • Command Replication, page 14-12 • Failover Triggers, page 14-13 • Failover Actions, page 14-14 Active/Active Failover Overview Active/Active failover is only available to security appliances in multiple context mode. In an Active/Active failover configuration, both security appliances can pass network traffic. In Active/Active failover, you divide the security contexts on the security appliance into failover groups. A failover group is simply a logical group of one or more security contexts. You can create a maximum of two failover groups on the security appliance. The admin context is always a member of failover group 1. Any unassigned security contexts are also members of failover group 1 by default. The failover group forms the base unit for failover in Active/Active failover. Interface failure monitoring, failover, and active/standby status are all attributes of a failover group rather than the unit. When an active failover group fails, it changes to the standby state while the standby failover group becomes active. The interfaces in the failover group that becomes active assume the MAC and IP addresses of the interfaces in the failover group that failed. The interfaces in the failover group that is now in the standby state take over the standby MAC and IP addresses. Note A failover group failing on a unit does not mean that the unit has failed. The unit may still have another failover group passing traffic on it. When creating the failover groups, you should create them on the unit that will have failover group 1 in the active state. Failover link failed at startup No failover Mark failover interface as failed Become active If the failover link is down at startup, both units become active. Stateful Failover link failed No failover No action No action State information becomes out of date, and sessions are terminated if a failover occurs. Interface failure on active unit above threshold Failover Mark active as failed Become active None. Interface failure on standby unit above threshold No failover No action Mark standby as failed When the standby unit is marked as failed, then the active unit does not attempt to fail over even if the interface failure threshold is surpassed. Table 14-1 Failover Behavior (continued) Failure Event Policy Active Action Standby Action Notes14-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Note Active/Active failover generates virtual MAC addresses for the interfaces in each failover group. If you have more than one Active/Active failover pair on the same network, it is possible to have the same default virtual MAC addresses assigned to the interfaces on one pair as are assigned to the interfaces of the other pairs because of the way the default virtual MAC addresses are determined. To avoid having duplicate MAC addresses on your network, make sure you assign each physical interface a virtual active and standby MAC address. Primary/Secondary Status and Active/Standby Status As in Active/Standby failover, one unit in an Active/Active failover pair is designated the primary unit, and the other unit the secondary unit. Unlike Active/Standby failover, this designation does not indicate which unit becomes active when both units start simultaneously. Instead, the primary/secondary designation does two things: • Determines which unit provides the running configuration to the pair when they boot simultaneously. • Determines on which unit each failover group appears in the active state when the units boot simultaneously. Each failover group in the configuration is configured with a primary or secondary unit preference. You can configure both failover groups be in the active state on a single unit in the pair, with the other unit containing the failover groups in the standby state. However, a more typical configuration is to assign each failover group a different role preference to make each one active on a different unit, distributing the traffic across the devices. Note The security appliance does not provide load balancing services. Load balancing must be handled by a router passing traffic to the security appliance. Which unit each failover group becomes active on is determined as follows: • When a unit boots while the peer unit is not available, both failover groups become active on the unit. • When a unit boots while the peer unit is active (with both failover groups in the active state), the failover groups remain in the active state on the active unit regardless of the primary or secondary preference of the failover group until one of the following: – A failover occurs. – You manually force the failover group to the other unit with the no failover active command. – You configured the failover group with the preempt command, which causes the failover group to automatically become active on the preferred unit when the unit becomes available. • When both units boot at the same time, each failover group becomes active on its preferred unit after the configurations have been synchronized. Device Initialization and Configuration Synchronization Configuration synchronization occurs when one or both units in a failover pair boot. The configurations are synchronized as follows: • When a unit boots while the peer unit is active (with both failover groups active on it), the booting unit contacts the active unit to obtain the running configuration regardless of the primary or secondary designation of the booting unit. 14-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover • When both units boot simultaneously, the secondary unit obtains the running configuration from the primary unit. When the replication starts, the security appliance console on the unit sending the configuration displays the message “Beginning configuration replication: Sending to mate,” and when it is complete, the security appliance displays the message “End Configuration Replication to mate.” During replication, commands entered on the unit sending the configuration may not replicate properly to the peer unit, and commands entered on the unit receiving the configuration may be overwritten by the configuration being received. Avoid entering commands on either unit in the failover pair during the configuration replication process. Depending upon the size of the configuration, replication can take from a few seconds to several minutes. On the unit receiving the configuration, the configuration exists only in running memory. To save the configuration to Flash memory after synchronization enter the write memory all command in the system execution space on the unit that has failover group 1 in the active state. The command is replicated to the peer unit, which proceeds to write its configuration to Flash memory. Using the all keyword with this command causes the system and all context configurations to be saved. Note Startup configurations saved on external servers are accessible from either unit over the network and do not need to be saved separately for each unit. Alternatively, you can copy the contexts configuration files from the disk on the primary unit to an external server, and then copy them to disk on the secondary unit, where they become available when the unit reloads. Command Replication After both units are running, commands are replicated from one unit to the other as follows: • Commands entered within a security context are replicated from the unit on which the security context appears in the active state to the peer unit. Note A context is considered in the active state on a unit if the failover group to which it belongs is in the active state on that unit. • Commands entered in the system execution space are replicated from the unit on which failover group 1 is in the active state to the unit on which failover group 1 is in the standby state. • Commands entered in the admin context are replicated from the unit on which failover group 1 is in the active state to the unit on which failover group 1 is in the standby state. All configuration and file commands (copy, rename, delete, mkdir, rmdir, and so on) are replicated, with the following exceptions. The show, debug, mode, firewall, and failover lan unit commands are not replicated. Failure to enter the commands on the appropriate unit for command replication to occur causes the configurations to be out of synchronization. Those changes may be lost the next time the initial configuration synchronization occurs. The following commands are replicated to the standby unit: • all configuration commands except for the mode, firewall, and failover lan unit commands • copy running-config startup-config • delete • mkdir • rename14-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover • rmdir • write memory The following commands are not replicated to the standby unit: • all forms of the copy command except for copy running-config startup-config • all forms of the write command except for write memory • debug • failover lan unit • firewall • mode • show You can use the write standby command to resynchronize configurations that have become out of sync. For Active/Active failover, the write standby command behaves as follows: • If you enter the write standby command in the system execution space, the system configuration and the configurations for all of the security contexts on the security appliance is written to the peer unit. This includes configuration information for security contexts that are in the standby state. You must enter the command in the system execution space on the unit that has failover group 1 in the active state. Note If there are security contexts in the active state on the peer unit, the write standby command causes active connections through those contexts to be terminated. Use the failover active command on the unit providing the configuration to make sure all contexts are active on that unit before entering the write standby command. • If you enter the write standby command in a security context, only the configuration for the security context is written to the peer unit. You must enter the command in the security context on the unit where the security context appears in the active state. Replicated commands are not saved to the Flash memory when replicated to the peer unit. They are added to the running configuration. To save replicated commands to Flash memory on both units, use the write memory or copy running-config startup-config command on the unit that you made the changes on. The command is replicated to the peer unit and cause the configuration to be saved to Flash memory on the peer unit. Failover Triggers In Active/Active failover, failover can be triggered at the unit level if one of the following events occurs: • The unit has a hardware failure. • The unit has a power failure. • The unit has a software failure. • The no failover active or the failover active command is entered in the system execution space. Failover is triggered at the failover group level when one of the following events occurs: • Too many monitored interfaces in the group fail. • The no failover active group group_id or failover active group group_id command is entered. 14-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover You configure the failover threshold for each failover group by specifying the number or percentage of interfaces within the failover group that must fail before the group fails. Because a failover group can contain multiple contexts, and each context can contain multiple interfaces, it is possible for all interfaces in a single context to fail without causing the associated failover group to fail. See the “Failover Health Monitoring” section on page 14-16 for more information about interface and unit monitoring. Failover Actions In an Active/Active failover configuration, failover occurs on a failover group basis, not a system basis. For example, if you designate both failover groups as active on the primary unit, and failover group 1 fails, then failover group 2 remains active on the primary unit while failover group 1 becomes active on the secondary unit. Note When configuring Active/Active failover, make sure that the combined traffic for both units is within the capacity of each unit. Table 14-2 shows the failover action for each failure event. For each failure event, the policy (whether or not failover occurs), actions for the active failover group, and actions for the standby failover group are given. Table 14-2 Failover Behavior for Active/Active Failover Failure Event Policy Active Group Action Standby Group Action Notes A unit experiences a power or software failure Failover Become standby Mark as failed Become active Mark active as failed When a unit in a failover pair fails, any active failover groups on that unit are marked as failed and become active on the peer unit. Interface failure on active failover group above threshold Failover Mark active group as failed Become active None. Interface failure on standby failover group above threshold No failover No action Mark standby group as failed When the standby failover group is marked as failed, the active failover group does not attempt to fail over, even if the interface failure threshold is surpassed. Formerly active failover group recovers No failover No action No action Unless configured with the preempt command, the failover groups remain active on their current unit. Failover link failed at startup No failover Become active Become active If the failover link is down at startup, both failover groups on both units become active.14-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Determining Which Type of Failover to Use The type of failover you choose depends upon your security appliance configuration and how you plan to use the security appliances. If you are running the security appliance in single mode, then you can only use Active/Standby failover. Active/Active failover is only available to security appliances running in multiple context mode. If you are running the security appliance in multiple context mode, then you can configure either Active/Active failover or Active/Standby failover. • To provide load balancing, use Active/Active failover. • If you do not want to provide load balancing, use Active/Standby or Active/Active failover. Table 14-3 provides a comparison of some of the features supported by each type of failover configuration: Regular and Stateful Failover The security appliance supports two types of failover, regular and stateful. This section includes the following topics: • Regular Failover, page 14-16 • Stateful Failover, page 14-16 Stateful Failover link failed No failover No action No action State information becomes out of date, and sessions are terminated if a failover occurs. Failover link failed during operation No failover n/a n/a Each unit marks the failover interface as failed. You should restore the failover link as soon as possible because the unit cannot fail over to the standby unit while the failover link is down. Table 14-2 Failover Behavior for Active/Active Failover (continued) Failure Event Policy Active Group Action Standby Group Action Notes Table 14-3 Failover Configuration Feature Support Feature Active/Active Active/Standby Single Context Mode No Yes Multiple Context Mode Yes Yes Load Balancing Network Configurations Yes No Unit Failover Yes Yes Failover of Groups of Contexts Yes No Failover of Individual Contexts No No14-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover Regular Failover When a failover occurs, all active connections are dropped. Clients need to reestablish connections when the new active unit takes over. Stateful Failover When Stateful Failover is enabled, the active unit continually passes per-connection state information to the standby unit. After a failover occurs, the same connection information is available at the new active unit. Supported end-user applications are not required to reconnect to keep the same communication session. The state information passed to the standby unit includes the following: • NAT translation table. • TCP connection states. • UDP connection states. • The ARP table. • The Layer 2 bridge table (when running in transparent firewall mode). • The HTTP connection states (if HTTP replication is enabled). • The ISAKMP and IPSec SA table. • GTP PDP connection database. The information that is not passed to the standby unit when Stateful Failover is enabled includes the following: • The HTTP connection table (unless HTTP replication is enabled). • The user authentication (uauth) table. • The routing tables. After a failover occurs, some packets may be lost our routed out of the wrong interface (the default route) while the dynamic routing protocols rediscover routes. • State information for Security Service Modules. • DHCP server address leases. • L2TP over IPSec sessions. Note If failover occurs during an active Cisco IP SoftPhone session, the call remains active because the call session state information is replicated to the standby unit. When the call is terminated, the IP SoftPhone client loses connection with the Call Manager. This occurs because there is no session information for the CTIQBE hangup message on the standby unit. When the IP SoftPhone client does not receive a response back from the Call Manager within a certain time period, it considers the Call Manager unreachable and unregisters itself. Failover Health Monitoring The security appliance monitors each unit for overall health and for interface health. See the following sections for more information about how the security appliance performs tests to determine the state of each unit: • Unit Health Monitoring, page 14-1714-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover • Interface Monitoring, page 14-17 Unit Health Monitoring The security appliance determines the health of the other unit by monitoring the failover link. When a unit does not receive three consecutive hello messages on the failover link, the unit sends an ARP request on all interfaces, including the failover interface. The action the security appliance takes depends on the response from the other unit. See the following possible actions: • If the security appliance receives a response on the failover interface, then it does not fail over. • If the security appliance does not receive a response on the failover link, but receives a response on another interface, then the unit does not failover. The failover link is marked as failed. You should restore the failover link as soon as possible because the unit cannot fail over to the standby while the failover link is down. • If the security appliance does not receive a response on any interface, then the standby unit switches to active mode and classifies the other unit as failed. Note If a failed unit does not recover and you believe it should not be failed, you can reset the state by entering the failover reset command. If the failover condition persists, however, the unit will fail again. You can configure the frequency of the hello messages and the hold time before failover occurs. A faster poll time and shorter hold time speed the detection of unit failures and make failover occur more quickly, but it can also cause “false” failures due to network congestion delaying the keepalive packets. See Configuring Unit Health Monitoring, page 14-39 for more information about configuring unit health monitoring. Interface Monitoring You can monitor up to 250 interfaces divided between all contexts. You should monitor important interfaces, for example, you might configure one context to monitor a shared interface (because the interface is shared, all contexts benefit from the monitoring). When a unit does not receive hello messages on a monitored interface for half of the configured hold time, it runs the following tests: 1. Link Up/Down test—A test of the interface status. If the Link Up/Down test indicates that the interface is operational, then the security appliance performs network tests. The purpose of these tests is to generate network traffic to determine which (if either) unit has failed. At the start of each test, each unit clears its received packet count for its interfaces. At the conclusion of each test, each unit looks to see if it has received any traffic. If it has, the interface is considered operational. If one unit receives traffic for a test and the other unit does not, the unit that received no traffic is considered failed. If neither unit has received traffic, then the next test is used. 2. Network Activity test—A received network activity test. The unit counts all received packets for up to 5 seconds. If any packets are received at any time during this interval, the interface is considered operational and testing stops. If no traffic is received, the ARP test begins. 3. ARP test—A reading of the unit ARP cache for the 2 most recently acquired entries. One at a time, the unit sends ARP requests to these machines, attempting to stimulate network traffic. After each request, the unit counts all received traffic for up to 5 seconds. If traffic is received, the interface is considered operational. If no traffic is received, an ARP request is sent to the next machine. If at the end of the list no traffic has been received, the ping test begins.14-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Understanding Failover 4. Broadcast Ping test—A ping test that consists of sending out a broadcast ping request. The unit then counts all received packets for up to 5 seconds. If any packets are received at any time during this interval, the interface is considered operational and testing stops. If all network tests fail for an interface, but this interface on the other unit continues to successfully pass traffic, then the interface is considered to be failed. If the threshold for failed interfaces is met, then a failover occurs. If the other unit interface also fails all the network tests, then both interfaces go into the “Unknown” state and do not count towards the failover limit. An interface becomes operational again if it receives any traffic. A failed security appliance returns to standby mode if the interface failure threshold is no longer met. Note If a failed unit does not recover and you believe it should not be failed, you can reset the state by entering the failover reset command. If the failover condition persists, however, the unit will fail again. Failover Feature/Platform Matrix Table 14-4 shows the failover features supported by each hardware platform. Failover Times by Platform Table 14-5 shows the minimum, default, and maximum failover times for the PIX 500 series security appliance. Table 14-6 shows the minimum, default, and maximum failover times for the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance. Table 14-4 Failover Feature Support by Platform Platform Cable-Base Failover LAN-Based Failover Stateful Failover ASA 5505 series adaptive security appliance No Yes No ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance (other than the ASA 5505) No Yes Yes PIX 500 series security appliance Yes Yes Yes Table 14-5 PIX 500 series security appliance failover times. Failover Condition Minimum Default Maximum Active unit loses power or stops normal operation. 800 milliseconds 45 seconds 45 seconds Active unit interface link down. 500 milliseconds 5 seconds 15 seconds Active unit interface up, but connection problem causes interface testing. 5 seconds 25 seconds 75 seconds14-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Configuring Failover This section describes how to configure failover and includes the following topics: • Failover Configuration Limitations, page 14-19 • Configuring Active/Standby Failover, page 14-19 • Configuring Active/Active Failover, page 14-27 • Configuring Unit Health Monitoring, page 14-39 • Configuring Failover Communication Authentication/Encryption, page 14-39 • Verifying the Failover Configuration, page 14-40 Failover Configuration Limitations You cannot configure failover with the following type of IP addresses: • IP addresses obtained through DHCP • IP addresses obtained through PPPoE • IPv6 addresses Additionally, the following restrictions apply: • Stateful Failover is not supported on the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. • Active/Active failover is not supported on the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. • You cannot configure failover when Easy VPN Remote is enabled on the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance. • VPN failover is not supported in multiple context mode. Configuring Active/Standby Failover This section provides step-by-step procedures for configuring Active/Standby failover. This section includes the following topics: • Prerequisites, page 14-20 • Configuring Cable-Based Active/Standby Failover (PIX Security Appliance Only), page 14-20 Table 14-6 ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance failover times. Failover Condition Minimum Default Maximum Active unit loses power or stops normal operation. 800 milliseconds 15 seconds 45 seconds Active unit main board interface link down. 500 milliseconds 5 seconds 15 seconds Active unit 4GE card interface link down. 2 seconds 5 seconds 15 seconds Active unit IPS or CSC card fails. 2 seconds 2 seconds 2 seconds Active unit interface up, but connection problem causes interface testing. 5 seconds 25 seconds 75 seconds14-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover • Configuring LAN-Based Active/Standby Failover, page 14-21 • Configuring Optional Active/Standby Failover Settings, page 14-25 Prerequisites Before you begin, verify the following: • Both units have the same hardware, software configuration, and proper license. • Both units are in the same mode (single or multiple, transparent or routed). Configuring Cable-Based Active/Standby Failover (PIX Security Appliance Only) Follow these steps to configure Active/Standby failover using a serial cable as the failover link. The commands in this task are entered on the primary unit in the failover pair. The primary unit is the unit that has the end of the cable labeled “Primary” plugged into it. For devices in multiple context mode, the commands are entered in the system execution space unless otherwise noted. You do not need to bootstrap the secondary unit in the failover pair when you use cable-based failover. Leave the secondary unit powered off until instructed to power it on. Cable-based failover is only available on the PIX 500 series security appliance. To configure cable-based Active/Standby failover, perform the following steps: Step 1 Connect the Failover cable to the PIX 500 series security appliances. Make sure that you attach the end of the cable marked “Primary” to the unit you use as the primary unit, and that you attach the end of the cable marked “Secondary” to the other unit. Step 2 Power on the primary unit. Step 3 If you have not done so already, configure the active and standby IP addresses for each data interface (routed mode), for the management IP address (transparent mode), or for the management-only interface. To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. The standby IP address is used on the security appliance that is currently the standby unit, and it must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. Note Do not configure an IP address for the Stateful Failover link if you are going to use a dedicated Stateful Failover interface. You use the failover interface ip command to configure a dedicated Stateful Failover interface in a later step. hostname(config-if)# ip address active_addr netmask standby standby_addr In routed firewall mode and for the management-only interface, this command is entered in interface configuration mode for each interface. In transparent firewall mode, the command is entered in global configuration mode. In multiple context mode, you must configure the interface addresses from within each context. Use the changeto context command to switch between contexts. The command prompt changes to hostname/context(config-if)#, where context is the name of the current context. You must enter a management IP address for each context in transparent firewall multiple context mode. Step 4 (Optional) To enable Stateful Failover, configure the Stateful Failover link. 14-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Note Stateful Failover is not available on the ASA 5505 series adaptive security appliance. a. Specify the interface to be used as the Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover link if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. This interface should not be used for any other purpose. b. Assign an active and standby IP address to the Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr Note If the Stateful Failover link uses a data interface, skip this step. You have already defined the active and standby IP addresses for the interface. The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby IP address subnet mask. The Stateful Failover link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover unless it uses a data interface. The active IP address always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. c. Enable the interface: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 5 Enable failover: hostname(config)# failover Step 6 Power on the secondary unit and enable failover on the unit if it is not already enabled: hostname(config)# failover The active unit sends the configuration in running memory to the standby unit. As the configuration synchronizes, the messages “Beginning configuration replication: sending to mate.” and “End Configuration Replication to mate” appear on the primary console. Step 7 Save the configuration to Flash memory on the primary unit. Because the commands entered on the primary unit are replicated to the secondary unit, the secondary unit also saves its configuration to Flash memory. hostname(config)# copy running-config startup-config Configuring LAN-Based Active/Standby Failover This section describes how to configure Active/Standby failover using an Ethernet failover link. When configuring LAN-based failover, you must bootstrap the secondary device to recognize the failover link before the secondary device can obtain the running configuration from the primary device.14-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Note If you are changing from cable-based failover to LAN-based failover, you can skip any steps, such as assigning the active and standby IP addresses for each interface, that you completed for the cable-based failover configuration. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring the Primary Unit, page 14-22 • Configuring the Secondary Unit, page 14-24 Configuring the Primary Unit Follow these steps to configure the primary unit in a LAN-based, Active/Standby failover configuration. These steps provide the minimum configuration needed to enable failover on the primary unit. For multiple context mode, all steps are performed in the system execution space unless otherwise noted. To configure the primary unit in an Active/Standby failover pair, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not done so already, configure the active and standby IP addresses for each data interface (routed mode), for the management IP address (transparent mode), or for the management-only interface. To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. The standby IP address is used on the security appliance that is currently the standby unit, and it must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. Note Do not configure an IP address for the Stateful Failover link if you are going to use a dedicated Stateful Failover interface. You use the failover interface ip command to configure a dedicated Stateful Failover interface in a later step. hostname(config-if)# ip address active_addr netmask standby standby_addr In routed firewall mode and for the management-only interface, this command is entered in interface configuration mode for each interface. In transparent firewall mode, the command is entered in global configuration mode. In multiple context mode, you must configure the interface addresses from within each context. Use the changeto context command to switch between contexts. The command prompt changes to hostname/context(config-if)#, where context is the name of the current context. You must enter a management IP address for each context in transparent firewall multiple context mode. Step 2 (PIX security appliance only) Enable LAN-based failover: hostname(config)# failover lan enable Step 3 Designate the unit as the primary unit: hostname(config)# failover lan unit primary Step 4 Define the failover interface: a. Specify the interface to be used as the failover interface: hostname(config)# failover lan interface if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. On the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the phy_if specifies a VLAN.14-23 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover b. Assign the active and standby IP address to the failover link: hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby address subnet mask. The failover link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover. The active IP address for the failover link always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. c. Enable the interface: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 5 (Optional) To enable Stateful Failover, configure the Stateful Failover link. Note Stateful Failover is not available on the ASA 5505 series adaptive security appliance. a. Specify the interface to be used as Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover link if_name phy_if Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or a data interface, then you only need to supply the if_name argument. The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. This interface should not be used for any other purpose (except, optionally, the failover link). b. Assign an active and standby IP address to the Stateful Failover link. Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or data interface, skip this step. You have already defined the active and standby IP addresses for the interface. hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby address subnet mask. The Stateful Failover link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover unless it uses a data interface. The active IP address always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. c. Enable the interface. Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or data interface, skip this step. You have already enabled the interface. hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 6 Enable failover:14-24 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover hostname(config)# failover Step 7 Save the system configuration to Flash memory: hostname(config)# copy running-config startup-config Configuring the Secondary Unit The only configuration required on the secondary unit is for the failover interface. The secondary unit requires these commands to initially communicate with the primary unit. After the primary unit sends its configuration to the secondary unit, the only permanent difference between the two configurations is the failover lan unit command, which identifies each unit as primary or secondary. For multiple context mode, all steps are performed in the system execution space unless noted otherwise. To configure the secondary unit, perform the following steps: Step 1 (PIX security appliance only) Enable LAN-based failover: hostname(config)# failover lan enable Step 2 Define the failover interface. Use the same settings as you used for the primary unit. a. Specify the interface to be used as the failover interface: hostname(config)# failover lan interface if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. b. Assign the active and standby IP address to the failover link. To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr Note Enter this command exactly as you entered it on the primary unit when you configured the failover interface on the primary unit. c. Enable the interface: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 3 (Optional) Designate this unit as the secondary unit: hostname(config)# failover lan unit secondary Note This step is optional because by default units are designated as secondary unless previously configured. Step 4 Enable failover: hostname(config)# failover After you enable failover, the active unit sends the configuration in running memory to the standby unit. As the configuration synchronizes, the messages “Beginning configuration replication: Sending to mate” and “End Configuration Replication to mate” appear on the active unit console.14-25 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Step 5 After the running configuration has completed replication, save the configuration to Flash memory: hostname(config)# copy running-config startup-config Configuring Optional Active/Standby Failover Settings You can configure the following optional Active/Standby failover setting when you are initially configuring failover or after failover has already been configured. Unless otherwise noted, the commands should be entered on the active unit. This section includes the following topics: • Enabling HTTP Replication with Stateful Failover, page 14-25 • Disabling and Enabling Interface Monitoring, page 14-25 • Configuring Interface Health Monitoring, page 14-26 • Configuring Failover Criteria, page 14-26 • Configuring Virtual MAC Addresses, page 14-26 Enabling HTTP Replication with Stateful Failover To allow HTTP connections to be included in the state information replication, you need to enable HTTP replication. Because HTTP connections are typically short-lived, and because HTTP clients typically retry failed connection attempts, HTTP connections are not automatically included in the replicated state information. Enter the following command in global configuration mode to enable HTTP state replication when Stateful Failover is enabled: hostname(config)# failover replication http Disabling and Enabling Interface Monitoring By default, monitoring physical interfaces is enabled and monitoring subinterfaces is disabled. You can monitor up to 250 interfaces on a unit. You can control which interfaces affect your failover policy by disabling the monitoring of specific interfaces and enabling the monitoring of others. This lets you exclude interfaces attached to less critical networks from affecting your failover policy. For units in multiple configuration mode, use the following commands to enable or disable health monitoring for specific interfaces: • To disable health monitoring for an interface, enter the following command within a context: hostname/context(config)# no monitor-interface if_name • To enable health monitoring for an interface, enter the following command within a context: hostname/context(config)# monitor-interface if_name For units in single configuration mode, use the following commands to enable or disable health monitoring for specific interfaces: • To disable health monitoring for an interface, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# no monitor-interface if_name14-26 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover • To enable health monitoring for an interface, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# monitor-interface if_name Configuring Interface Health Monitoring The security appliance sends hello packets out of each data interface to monitor interface health. If the security appliance does not receive a hello packet from the corresponding interface on the peer unit for over half of the hold time, then the additional interface testing begins. If a hello packet or a successful test result is not received within the specified hold time, the interface is marked as failed. Failover occurs if the number of failed interfaces meets the failover criteria. Decreasing the poll and hold times enables the security appliance to detect and respond to interface failures more quickly, but may consume more system resources. To change the interface poll time, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# failover polltime interface [msec] time [holdtime time] Valid values for the poll time are from 1 to 15 seconds or, if the optional msec keyword is used, from 500 to 999 milliseconds. The hold time determines how long it takes from the time a hello packet is missed to when the interface is marked as failed. Valid values for the hold time are from 5 to 75 seconds. You cannot enter a hold time that is less than 5 times the poll time. Note If the interface link is down, interface testing is not conducted and the standby unit could become active in just one interface polling period if the number of failed interface meets or exceeds the configured failover criteria. Configuring Failover Criteria By default, a single interface failure causes failover. You can specify a specific number of interfaces or a percentage of monitored interfaces that must fail before a failover occurs. To change the default failover criteria, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# failover interface-policy num[%] When specifying a specific number of interfaces, the num argument can be from 1 to 250. When specifying a percentage of interfaces, the num argument can be from 1 to 100. Configuring Virtual MAC Addresses In Active/Standby failover, the MAC addresses for the primary unit are always associated with the active IP addresses. If the secondary unit boots first and becomes active, it uses the burned-in MAC address for its interfaces. When the primary unit comes online, the secondary unit obtains the MAC addresses from the primary unit. The change can disrupt network traffic. You can configure virtual MAC addresses for each interface to ensure that the secondary unit uses the correct MAC addresses when it is the active unit, even if it comes online before the primary unit. If you do not specify virtual MAC addresses the failover pair uses the burned-in NIC addresses as the MAC addresses. Note You cannot configure a virtual MAC address for the failover or Stateful Failover links. The MAC and IP addresses for those links do not change during failover.14-27 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Enter the following command on the active unit to configure the virtual MAC addresses for an interface: hostname(config)# failover mac address phy_if active_mac standby_mac The phy_if argument is the physical name of the interface, such as Ethernet1. The active_mac and standby_mac arguments are MAC addresses in H.H.H format, where H is a 16-bit hexadecimal digit. For example, the MAC address 00-0C-F1-42-4C-DE would be entered as 000C.F142.4CDE. The active_mac address is associated with the active IP address for the interface, and the standby_mac is associated with the standby IP address for the interface. There are multiple ways to configure virtual MAC addresses on the security appliance. When more than one method has been used to configure virtual MAC addresses, the security appliance uses the following order of preference to determine which virtual MAC address is assigned to an interface: 1. The mac-address command (in interface configuration mode) address. 2. The failover mac address command address. 3. The mac-address auto command generated address. 4. The burned-in MAC address. Use the show interface command to display the MAC address used by an interface. Configuring Active/Active Failover This section describes how to configure Active/Active failover. Note Active/Active failover is not available on the ASA 5505 series adaptive security appliance. This section includes the following topics: • Prerequisites, page 14-27 • Configuring Cable-Based Active/Active Failover (PIX security appliance), page 14-27 • Configuring LAN-Based Active/Active Failover, page 14-29 • Configuring Optional Active/Active Failover Settings, page 14-33 Prerequisites Before you begin, verify the following: • Both units have the same hardware, software configuration, and proper license. • Both units are in multiple context mode. Configuring Cable-Based Active/Active Failover (PIX security appliance) Follow these steps to configure Active/Active failover using a serial cable as the failover link. The commands in this task are entered on the primary unit in the failover pair. The primary unit is the unit that has the end of the cable labeled “Primary” plugged into it. For devices in multiple context mode, the commands are entered in the system execution space unless otherwise noted. You do not need to bootstrap the secondary unit in the failover pair when you use cable-based failover. Leave the secondary unit powered off until instructed to power it on.14-28 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Cable-based failover is only available on the PIX 500 series security appliance. To configure cable-based, Active/Active failover, perform the following steps: Step 1 Connect the failover cable to the PIX 500 series security appliances. Make sure that you attach the end of the cable marked “Primary” to the unit you use as the primary unit, and that you attach the end of the cable marked “Secondary” to the unit you use as the secondary unit. Step 2 Power on the primary unit. Step 3 If you have not done so already, configure the active and standby IP addresses for each data interface (routed mode), for the management IP address (transparent mode), or for the management-only interface. To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. The standby IP address is used on the security appliance that is currently the standby unit, and it must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You must configure the interface addresses from within each context. Use the changeto context command to switch between contexts. The command prompt changes to hostname/context(config-if)#, where context is the name of the current context. You must enter a management IP address for each context in transparent firewall multiple context mode. Note Do not configure an IP address for the Stateful Failover link if you are going to use a dedicated Stateful Failover interface. You use the failover interface ip command to configure a dedicated Stateful Failover interface in a later step. hostname/context(config-if)# ip address active_addr netmask standby standby_addr In routed firewall mode and for the management-only interface, this command is entered in interface configuration mode for each interface. In transparent firewall mode, the command is entered in global configuration mode. Step 4 (Optional) To enable Stateful Failover, configure the Stateful Failover link. a. Specify the interface to be used as Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover link if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. This interface should not be used for any other purpose (except, optionally, the failover link). b. Assign an active and standby IP address to the Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby IP address subnet mask. The Stateful Failover link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover except for when Stateful Failover uses a regular data interface. The active IP address always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. c. Enable the interface: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 5 Configure the failover groups. You can have at most two failover groups. The failover group command creates the specified failover group if it does not exist and enters the failover group configuration mode.14-29 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover For each failover group, you need to specify whether the failover group has primary or secondary preference using the primary or secondary command. You can assign the same preference to both failover groups. For load balancing configurations, you should assign each failover group a different unit preference. The following example assigns failover group 1 a primary preference and failover group 2 a secondary preference: hostname(config)# failover group 1 hostname(config-fover-group)# primary hostname(config-fover-group)# exit hostname(config)# failover group 2 hostname(config-fover-group)# secondary hostname(config-fover-group)# exit Step 6 Assign each user context to a failover group using the join-failover-group command in context configuration mode. Any unassigned contexts are automatically assigned to failover group 1. The admin context is always a member of failover group 1. Enter the following commands to assign each context to a failover group: hostname(config)# context context_name hostname(config-context)# join-failover-group {1 | 2} hostname(config-context)# exit Step 7 Enable failover: hostname(config)# failover Step 8 Power on the secondary unit and enable failover on the unit if it is not already enabled: hostname(config)# failover The active unit sends the configuration in running memory to the standby unit. As the configuration synchronizes, the messages “Beginning configuration replication: Sending to mate” and “End Configuration Replication to mate” appear on the primary console. Step 9 Save the configuration to Flash memory on the Primary unit. Because the commands entered on the primary unit are replicated to the secondary unit, the secondary unit also saves its configuration to Flash memory. hostname(config)# copy running-config startup-config Step 10 If necessary, force any failover group that is active on the primary to the active state on the secondary. To force a failover group to become active on the secondary unit, issue the following command in the system execution space on the primary unit: hostname# no failover active group group_id The group_id argument specifies the group you want to become active on the secondary unit. Configuring LAN-Based Active/Active Failover This section describes how to configure Active/Active failover using an Ethernet failover link. When configuring LAN-based failover, you must bootstrap the secondary device to recognize the failover link before the secondary device can obtain the running configuration from the primary device. This section includes the following topics:14-30 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover • Configure the Primary Unit, page 14-30 • Configure the Secondary Unit, page 14-32 Configure the Primary Unit To configure the primary unit in an Active/Active failover configuration, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you have not done so already, configure the active and standby IP addresses for each data interface (routed mode), for the management IP address (transparent mode), or for the management-only interface.To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. The standby IP address is used on the security appliance that is currently the standby unit, and it must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You must configure the interface addresses from within each context. Use the changeto context command to switch between contexts. The command prompt changes to hostname/context(config-if)#, where context is the name of the current context. In transparent firewall mode, you must enter a management IP address for each context. Note Do not configure an IP address for the Stateful Failover link if you are going to use a dedicated Stateful Failover interface. You use the failover interface ip command to configure a dedicated Stateful Failover interface in a later step. hostname/context(config-if)# ip address active_addr netmask standby standby_addr In routed firewall mode and for the management-only interface, this command is entered in interface configuration mode for each interface. In transparent firewall mode, the command is entered in global configuration mode. Step 2 Configure the basic failover parameters in the system execution space. a. (PIX security appliance only) Enable LAN-based failover: hostname(config)# hostname(config)# failover lan enable b. Designate the unit as the primary unit: hostname(config)# failover lan unit primary c. Specify the failover link: hostname(config)# failover lan interface if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. On the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the phy_if specifies a VLAN. This interface should not be used for any other purpose (except, optionally, the Stateful Failover link). d. Specify the failover link active and standby IP addresses: hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby IP address subnet mask. The failover link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover. The active IP address always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. 14-31 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Step 3 (Optional) To enable Stateful Failover, configure the Stateful Failover link: a. Specify the interface to be used as Stateful Failover link: hostname(config)# failover link if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. This interface should not be used for any other purpose (except, optionally, the failover link). Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or a regular data interface, then you only need to supply the if_name argument. b. Assign an active and standby IP address to the Stateful Failover link. Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or a regular data interface, skip this step. You have already defined the active and standby IP addresses for the interface. hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby address subnet mask. The state link IP address and MAC address do not change at failover. The active IP address always stays with the primary unit, while the standby IP address stays with the secondary unit. c. Enable the interface. Note If the Stateful Failover link uses the failover link or regular data interface, skip this step. You have already enabled the interface. hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 4 Configure the failover groups. You can have at most two failover groups. The failover group command creates the specified failover group if it does not exist and enters the failover group configuration mode. For each failover group, specify whether the failover group has primary or secondary preference using the primary or secondary command. You can assign the same preference to both failover groups. For load balancing configurations, you should assign each failover group a different unit preference. The following example assigns failover group 1 a primary preference and failover group 2 a secondary preference: hostname(config)# failover group 1 hostname(config-fover-group)# primary hostname(config-fover-group)# exit hostname(config)# failover group 2 hostname(config-fover-group)# secondary hostname(config-fover-group)# exit Step 5 Assign each user context to a failover group using the join-failover-group command in context configuration mode. Any unassigned contexts are automatically assigned to failover group 1. The admin context is always a member of failover group 1.14-32 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Enter the following commands to assign each context to a failover group: hostname(config)# context context_name hostname(config-context)# join-failover-group {1 | 2} hostname(config-context)# exit Step 6 Enable failover: hostname(config)# failover Configure the Secondary Unit When configuring LAN-based Active/Active failover, you need to bootstrap the secondary unit to recognize the failover link. This allows the secondary unit to communicate with and receive the running configuration from the primary unit. To bootstrap the secondary unit in an Active/Active failover configuration, perform the following steps: Step 1 (PIX security appliance only) Enable LAN-based failover: hostname(config)# failover lan enable Step 2 Define the failover interface. Use the same settings as you used for the primary unit: a. Specify the interface to be used as the failover interface: hostname(config)# failover lan interface if_name phy_if The if_name argument assigns a logical name to the interface specified by the phy_if argument. The phy_if argument can be the physical port name, such as Ethernet1, or a previously created subinterface, such as Ethernet0/2.3. On the ASA 5505 adaptive security appliance, the phy_if specifies a VLAN. b. Assign the active and standby IP address to the failover link. To receive packets from both units in a failover pair, standby IP addresses need to be configured on all interfaces. hostname(config)# failover interface ip if_name ip_addr mask standby ip_addr Note Enter this command exactly as you entered it on the primary unit when you configured the failover interface. The standby IP address must be in the same subnet as the active IP address. You do not need to identify the standby address subnet mask. c. Enable the interface: hostname(config)# interface phy_if hostname(config-if)# no shutdown Step 3 (Optional) Designate this unit as the secondary unit: hostname(config)# failover lan unit secondary Note This step is optional because by default units are designated as secondary unless previously configured otherwise.14-33 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Step 4 Enable failover: hostname(config)# failover After you enable failover, the active unit sends the configuration in running memory to the standby unit. As the configuration synchronizes, the messages Beginning configuration replication: Sending to mate and End Configuration Replication to mate appear on the active unit console. Step 5 After the running configuration has completed replication, enter the following command to save the configuration to Flash memory: hostname(config)# copy running-config startup-config Step 6 If necessary, force any failover group that is active on the primary to the active state on the secondary unit. To force a failover group to become active on the secondary unit, enter the following command in the system execution space on the primary unit: hostname# no failover active group group_id The group_id argument specifies the group you want to become active on the secondary unit. Configuring Optional Active/Active Failover Settings The following optional Active/Active failover settings can be configured when you are initially configuring failover or after you have already established failover. Unless otherwise noted, the commands should be entered on the unit that has failover group 1 in the active state. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring Failover Group Preemption, page 14-33 • Enabling HTTP Replication with Stateful Failover, page 14-34 • Disabling and Enabling Interface Monitoring, page 14-34 • Configuring Interface Health Monitoring, page 14-34 • Configuring Failover Criteria, page 14-34 • Configuring Virtual MAC Addresses, page 14-35 • Configuring Asymmetric Routing Support, page 14-35 Configuring Failover Group Preemption Assigning a primary or secondary priority to a failover group specifies which unit the failover group becomes active on when both units boot simultaneously. However, if one unit boots before the other, then both failover groups become active on that unit. When the other unit comes online, any failover groups that have the unit as a priority do not become active on that unit unless manually forced over, a failover occurs, or the failover group is configured with the preempt command. The preempt command causes a failover group to become active on the designated unit automatically when that unit becomes available. Enter the following commands to configure preemption for the specified failover group: hostname(config)# failover group {1 | 2} hostname(config-fover-group)# preempt [delay] You can enter an optional delay value, which specifies the number of seconds the failover group remains active on the current unit before automatically becoming active on the designated unit.14-34 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Enabling HTTP Replication with Stateful Failover To allow HTTP connections to be included in the state information, you need to enable HTTP replication. Because HTTP connections are typically short-lived, and because HTTP clients typically retry failed connection attempts, HTTP connections are not automatically included in the replicated state information. You can use the replication http command to cause a failover group to replicate HTTP state information when Stateful Failover is enabled. To enable HTTP state replication for a failover group, enter the following command. This command only affects the failover group in which it was configured. To enable HTTP state replication for both failover groups, you must enter this command in each group. This command should be entered in the system execution space. hostname(config)# failover group {1 | 2} hostname(config-fover-group)# replication http Disabling and Enabling Interface Monitoring You can monitor up to 250 interfaces on a unit. By default, monitoring of physical interfaces is enabled and the monitoring of subinterfaces is disabled. You can control which interfaces affect your failover policy by disabling the monitoring of specific interfaces and enabling the monitoring of others. This lets you exclude interfaces attached to less critical networks from affecting your failover policy. To disable health monitoring on an interface, enter the following command within a context: hostname/context(config)# no monitor-interface if_name To enable health monitoring on an interface, enter the following command within a context: hostname/context(config)# monitor-interface if_name Configuring Interface Health Monitoring The security appliance sends hello packets out of each data interface to monitor interface health. If the security appliance does not receive a hello packet from the corresponding interface on the peer unit for over half of the hold time, then the additional interface testing begins. If a hello packet or a successful test result is not received within the specified hold time, the interface is marked as failed. Failover occurs if the number of failed interfaces meets the failover criteria. Decreasing the poll and hold times enables the security appliance to detect and respond to interface failures more quickly, but may consume more system resources. To change the default interface poll time, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# failover group {1 | 2} hostname(config-fover-group)# polltime interface seconds Valid values for the poll time are from 1 to 15 seconds or, if the optional msec keyword is used, from 500 to 999 milliseconds. The hold time determines how long it takes from the time a hello packet is missed to when the interface is marked as failed. Valid values for the hold time are from 5 to 75 seconds. You cannot enter a hold time that is less than 5 times the poll time. Configuring Failover Criteria By default, if a single interface fails failover occurs. You can specify a specific number of interfaces or a percentage of monitored interfaces that must fail before a failover occurs. The failover criteria is specified on a failover group basis.14-35 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover To change the default failover criteria for the specified failover group, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# failover group {1 | 2} hostname(config-fover-group)# interface-policy num[%] When specifying a specific number of interfaces, the num argument can be from 1 to 250. When specifying a percentage of interfaces, the num argument can be from 1 to 100. Configuring Virtual MAC Addresses Active/Active failover uses virtual MAC addresses on all interfaces. If you do not specify the virtual MAC addresses, then they are computed as follows: • Active unit default MAC address: 00a0.c9physical_port_number.failover_group_id01. • Standby unit default MAC address: 00a0.c9physical_port_number.failover_group_id02. Note If you have more than one Active/Active failover pair on the same network, it is possible to have the same default virtual MAC addresses assigned to the interfaces on one pair as are assigned to the interfaces of the other pairs because of the way the default virtual MAC addresses are determined. To avoid having duplicate MAC addresses on your network, make sure you assign each physical interface a virtual active and standby MAC address for all failover groups. You can configure specific active and standby MAC addresses for an interface by entering the following commands: hostname(config)# failover group {1 | 2} hostname(config-fover-group)# mac address phy_if active_mac standby_mac The phy_if argument is the physical name of the interface, such as Ethernet1. The active_mac and standby_mac arguments are MAC addresses in H.H.H format, where H is a 16-bit hexadecimal digit. For example, the MAC address 00-0C-F1-42-4C-DE would be entered as 000C.F142.4CDE. The active_mac address is associated with the active IP address for the interface, and the standby_mac is associated with the standby IP address for the interface. There are multiple ways to configure virtual MAC addresses on the security appliance. When more than one method has been used to configure virtual MAC addresses, the security appliance uses the following order of preference to determine which virtual MAC address is assigned to an interface: 1. The mac-address command (in interface configuration mode) address. 2. The failover mac address command address. 3. The mac-address auto command generate address. 4. The automatically generated failover MAC address. Use the show interface command to display the MAC address used by an interface. Configuring Asymmetric Routing Support When running in Active/Active failover, a unit may receive a return packet for a connection that originated through its peer unit. Because the security appliance that receives the packet does not have any connection information for the packet, the packet is dropped. This most commonly occurs when the two security appliances in an Active/Active failover pair are connected to different service providers and the outbound connection does not use a NAT address.14-36 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover You can prevent the return packets from being dropped using the asr-group command on interfaces where this is likely to occur. When an interface configured with the asr-group command receives a packet for which it has no session information, it checks the session information for the other interfaces that are in the same group. If it does not find a match, the packet is dropped. If it finds a match, then one of the following actions occurs: • If the incoming traffic originated on a peer unit, some or all of the layer 2 header is rewritten and the packet is redirected to the other unit. This redirection continues as long as the session is active. • If the incoming traffic originated on a different interface on the same unit, some or all of the layer 2 header is rewritten and the packet is reinjected into the stream. Note Using the asr-group command to configure asymmetric routing support is more secure than using the static command with the nailed option. The asr-group command does not provide asymmetric routing; it restores asymmetrically routed packets to the correct interface. Prerequisites You must have to following configured for asymmetric routing support to function properly: • Active/Active Failover • Stateful Failover—passes state information for sessions on interfaces in the active failover group to the standby failover group. • replication http—HTTP session state information is not passed to the standby failover group, and therefore is not present on the standby interface. For the security appliance to be able re-route asymmetrically routed HTTP packets, you need to replicate the HTTP state information. You can configure the asr-group command on an interface without having failover configured, but it does not have any effect until Stateful Failover is enabled. Configuring Support for Asymmetrically Routed Packets To configure support for asymmetrically routed packets, perform the following steps: Step 1 Configure Active/Active Stateful Failover for the failover pair. See Configuring Active/Active Failover, page 14-27. Step 2 For each interface that you want to participate in asymmetric routing support enter the following command. You must enter the command on the unit where the context is in the active state so that the command is replicated to the standby failover group. For more information about command replication, see Command Replication, page 14-12. hostname/ctx(config)# interface phy_if hostname/ctx(config-if)# asr-group num Valid values for num range from 1 to 32. You need to enter the command for each interface that participates in the asymmetric routing group. You can view the number of ASR packets transmitted, received, or dropped by an interface using the show interface detail command. You can have more than one ASR group configured on the security appliance, but only one per interface. Only members of the same ASR group are checked for session information.14-37 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Example Figure 14-1 shows an example of using the asr-group command for asymmetric routing support. Figure 14-1 ASR Example The two units have the following configuration (configurations show only the relevant commands). The device labeled SecAppA in the diagram is the primary unit in the failover pair. Example 14-1 Primary Unit System Configuration hostname primary interface GigabitEthernet0/1 description LAN/STATE Failover Interface interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no shutdown interface GigabitEthernet0/3 no shutdown interface GigabitEthernet0/4 no shutdown interface GigabitEthernet0/5 no shutdown failover failover lan unit primary failover lan interface folink GigabitEthernet0/1 failover link folink failover interface ip folink 10.0.4.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.0.4.11 failover group 1 primary failover group 2 secondary admin-context admin context admin description admin 250093 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.2 SecAppA SecAppB ISP A Inside network Failover/State link Outbound Traffic Return Traffic ISP B 192.168.2.1 192.168.1.214-38 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/2 allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/3 config-url flash:/admin.cfg join-failover-group 1 context ctx1 description context 1 allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/4 allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/5 config-url flash:/ctx1.cfg join-failover-group 2 Example 14-2 admin Context Configuration hostname SecAppA interface GigabitEthernet0/2 nameif outsideISP-A security-level 0 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 standby 192.168.1.2 asr-group 1 interface GigabitEthernet0/3 nameif inside security-level 100 ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.1.0.11 monitor-interface outside Example 14-3 ctx1 Context Configuration hostname SecAppB interface GigabitEthernet0/4 nameif outsideISP-B security-level 0 ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0 standby 192.168.2.1 asr-group 1 interface GigabitEthernet0/5 nameif inside security-level 100 ip address 10.2.20.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.2.20.11 Figure 14-1 on page 14-37 shows the ASR support working as follows: 1. An outbound session passes through security appliance SecAppA. It exits interface outsideISP-A (192.168.1.1). 2. Because of asymmetric routing configured somewhere upstream, the return traffic comes back through the interface outsideISP-B (192.168.2.2) on security appliance SecAppB. 3. Normally the return traffic would be dropped because there is no session information for the traffic on interface 192.168.2.2. However, the interface is configure with the command asr-group 1. The unit looks for the session on any other interface configured with the same ASR group ID. 4. The session information is found on interface outsideISP-A (192.168.1.2), which is in the standby state on the unit SecAppB. Stateful Failover replicated the session information from SecAppA to SecAppB. 5. Instead of being dropped, the layer 2 header is re-written with information for interface 192.168.1.1 and the traffic is redirected out of the interface 192.168.1.2, where it can then return through the interface on the unit from which it originated (192.168.1.1 on SecAppA). This forwarding continues as needed until the session ends.14-39 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Configuring Unit Health Monitoring The security appliance sends hello packets over the failover interface to monitor unit health. If the standby unit does not receive a hello packet from the active unit for two consecutive polling periods, it sends additional testing packets through the remaining device interfaces. If a hello packet or a response to the interface test packets is not received within the specified hold time, the standby unit becomes active. You can configure the frequency of hello messages when monitoring unit health. Decreasing the poll time allows a unit failure to be detected more quickly, but consumes more system resources. To change the unit poll time, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# failover polltime [msec] time [holdtime [msec] time] You can configure the polling frequency from 1 to 15 seconds or, if the optional msec keyword is used, from 200 to 999 milliseconds. The hold time determines how long it takes from the time a hello packet is missed to when failover occurs. The hold time must be at least 3 times the poll time. You can configure the hold time from 1 to 45 seconds or, if the optional msec keyword is used, from 800 to 990 milliseconds. Setting the security appliance to use the minimum poll and hold times allows it to detect and respond to unit failures in under a second, but it also increases system resource usage and can cause false failure detection in cases where the networks are congested or where the security appliance is running near full capacity. Configuring Failover Communication Authentication/Encryption You can encrypt and authenticate the communication between failover peers by specifying a shared secret or hexadecimal key. Note On the PIX 500 series security appliance, if you are using the dedicated serial failover cable to connect the units, then communication over the failover link is not encrypted even if a failover key is configured. The failover key only encrypts LAN-based failover communication. Caution All information sent over the failover and Stateful Failover links is sent in clear text unless you secure the communication with a failover key. If the security appliance is used to terminate VPN tunnels, this information includes any usernames, passwords and preshared keys used for establishing the tunnels. Transmitting this sensitive data in clear text could pose a significant security risk. We recommend securing the failover communication with a failover key if you are using the security appliance to terminate VPN tunnels. Enter the following command on the active unit of an Active/Standby failover pair or on the unit that has failover group 1 in the active state of an Active/Active failover pair: hostname(config)# failover key {secret | hex key} The secret argument specifies a shared secret that is used to generate the encryption key. It can be from 1 to 63 characters. The characters can be any combination of numbers, letters, or punctuation. The hex key argument specifies a hexadecimal encryption key. The key must be 32 hexadecimal characters (0-9, a-f).14-40 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Note To prevent the failover key from being replicated to the peer unit in clear text for an existing failover configuration, disable failover on the active unit (or in the system execution space on the unit that has failover group 1 in the active state), enter the failover key on both units, and then re-enable failover. When failover is re-enabled, the failover communication is encrypted with the key. For new LAN-based failover configurations, the failover key command should be part of the failover pair bootstrap configuration. Verifying the Failover Configuration This section describes how to verify your failover configuration. This section includes the following topics: • Using the show failover Command, page 14-40 • Viewing Monitored Interfaces, page 14-48 • Displaying the Failover Commands in the Running Configuration, page 14-48 • Testing the Failover Functionality, page 14-49 Using the show failover Command This section describes the show failover command output. On each unit you can verify the failover status by entering the show failover command. The information displayed depends upon whether you are using Active/Standby or Active/Active failover. This section includes the following topics: • show failover—Active/Standby, page 14-40 • Show Failover—Active/Active, page 14-44 show failover—Active/Standby The following is sample output from the show failover command for Active/Standby Failover. Table 14-7 provides descriptions for the information shown. hostname# show failover Failover On Cable status: N/A - LAN-based failover enabled Failover unit Primary Failover LAN Interface: fover Ethernet2 (up) Unit Poll frequency 1 seconds, holdtime 3 seconds Interface Poll frequency 15 seconds Interface Policy 1 Monitored Interfaces 2 of 250 maximum failover replication http Last Failover at: 22:44:03 UTC Dec 8 2004 This host: Primary - Active Active time: 13434 (sec) Interface inside (10.130.9.3): Normal Interface outside (10.132.9.3): Normal Other host: Secondary - Standby Ready Active time: 0 (sec) Interface inside (10.130.9.4): Normal Interface outside (10.132.9.4): Normal 14-41 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics Link : fover Ethernet2 (up) Stateful Obj xmit xerr rcv rerr General 1950 0 1733 0 sys cmd 1733 0 1733 0 up time 0 0 0 0 RPC services 0 0 0 0 TCP conn 6 0 0 0 UDP conn 0 0 0 0 ARP tbl 106 0 0 0 Xlate_Timeout 0 0 0 0 VPN IKE upd 15 0 0 0 VPN IPSEC upd 90 0 0 0 VPN CTCP upd 0 0 0 0 VPN SDI upd 0 0 0 0 VPN DHCP upd 0 0 0 0 Logical Update Queue Information Cur Max Total Recv Q: 0 2 1733 Xmit Q: 0 2 15225 In multiple context mode, using the show failover command in a security context displays the failover information for that context. The information is similar to the information shown when using the command in single context mode. Instead of showing the active/standby status of the unit, it displays the active/standby status of the context. Table 14-7 provides descriptions for the information shown. Failover On Last Failover at: 04:03:11 UTC Jan 4 2003 This context: Negotiation Active time: 1222 (sec) Interface outside (192.168.5.121): Normal Interface inside (192.168.0.1): Normal Peer context: Not Detected Active time: 0 (sec) Interface outside (192.168.5.131): Normal Interface inside (192.168.0.11): Normal Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics Status: Configured. Stateful Obj xmit xerr rcv rerr RPC services 0 0 0 0 TCP conn 99 0 0 0 UDP conn 0 0 0 0 ARP tbl 22 0 0 0 Xlate_Timeout 0 0 0 0 GTP PDP 0 0 0 0 GTP PDPMCB 0 0 0 0 14-42 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Table 14-7 Show Failover Display Description Field Options Failover • On • Off Cable status: • Normal—The cable is connected to both units, and they both have power. • My side not connected—The serial cable is not connected to this unit. It is unknown if the cable is connected to the other unit. • Other side is not connected—The serial cable is connected to this unit, but not to the other unit. • Other side powered off—The other unit is turned off. • N/A—LAN-based failover is enabled. Failover Unit Primary or Secondary. Failover LAN Interface Displays the logical and physical name of the failover link. Unit Poll frequency Displays the number of seconds between hello messages sent to the peer unit and the number of seconds during which the unit must receive a hello message on the failover link before declaring the peer failed. Interface Poll frequency n seconds The number of seconds you set with the failover polltime interface command. The default is 15 seconds. Interface Policy Displays the number or percentage of interfaces that must fail to trigger failover. Monitored Interfaces Displays the number of interfaces monitored out of the maximum possible. failover replication http Displays if HTTP state replication is enabled for Stateful Failover. Last Failover at: The date and time of the last failover in the following form: hh:mm:ss UTC DayName Month Day yyyy UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) is equivalent to GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). This host: Other host: For each host, the display shows the following information. Primary or Secondary • Active • Standby Active time: n (sec) The amount of time the unit has been active. This time is cumulative, so the standby unit, if it was active in the past, also shows a value. slot x Information about the module in the slot or empty.14-43 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Interface name (n.n.n.n): For each interface, the display shows the IP address currently being used on each unit, as well as one of the following conditions: • Failed—The interface has failed. • No Link—The interface line protocol is down. • Normal—The interface is working correctly. • Link Down—The interface has been administratively shut down. • Unknown—The security appliance cannot determine the status of the interface. • Waiting—Monitoring of the network interface on the other unit has not yet started. Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics The following fields relate to the Stateful Failover feature. If the Link field shows an interface name, the Stateful Failover statistics are shown. Link • interface_name—The interface used for the Stateful Failover link. • Unconfigured—You are not using Stateful Failover. • up—The interface is up and functioning. • down—The interface is either administratively shutdown or is physically down. • failed—The interface has failed and is not passing stateful data. Stateful Obj For each field type, the following statistics are shown. They are counters for the number of state information packets sent between the two units; the fields do not necessarily show active connections through the unit. • xmit—Number of transmitted packets to the other unit. • xerr—Number of errors that occurred while transmitting packets to the other unit. • rcv—Number of received packets. • rerr—Number of errors that occurred while receiving packets from the other unit. General Sum of all stateful objects. sys cmd Logical update system commands; for example, LOGIN and Stay Alive. up time Up time, which the active unit passes to the standby unit. RPC services Remote Procedure Call connection information. TCP conn TCP connection information. UDP conn Dynamic UDP connection information. ARP tbl Dynamic ARP table information. L2BRIDGE tbl Layer 2 bridge table information (transparent firewall mode only). Xlate_Timeout Indicates connection translation timeout information. VPN IKE upd IKE connection information. Table 14-7 Show Failover Display Description (continued) Field Options14-44 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Show Failover—Active/Active The following is sample output from the show failover command for Active/Active Failover. Table 14-8 provides descriptions for the information shown. hostname# show failover Failover On Failover unit Primary Failover LAN Interface: third GigabitEthernet0/2 (up) Unit Poll frequency 1 seconds, holdtime 15 seconds Interface Poll frequency 4 seconds Interface Policy 1 Monitored Interfaces 8 of 250 maximum failover replication http Group 1 last failover at: 13:40:18 UTC Dec 9 2004 Group 2 last failover at: 13:40:06 UTC Dec 9 2004 This host: Primary Group 1 State: Active Active time: 2896 (sec) Group 2 State: Standby Ready Active time: 0 (sec) slot 0: ASA-5530 hw/sw rev (1.0/7.0(0)79) status (Up Sys) slot 1: SSM-IDS-20 hw/sw rev (1.0/5.0(0.11)S91(0.11)) status (Up) admin Interface outside (10.132.8.5): Normal admin Interface third (10.132.9.5): Normal admin Interface inside (10.130.8.5): Normal admin Interface fourth (10.130.9.5): Normal ctx1 Interface outside (10.1.1.1): Normal ctx1 Interface inside (10.2.2.1): Normal ctx2 Interface outside (10.3.3.2): Normal ctx2 Interface inside (10.4.4.2): Normal Other host: Secondary VPN IPSEC upd IPSec connection information. VPN CTCP upd cTCP tunnel connection information. VPN SDI upd SDI AAA connection information. VPN DHCP upd Tunneled DHCP connection information. GTP PDP GTP PDP update information. This information appears only if inspect GTP is enabled. GTP PDPMCB GTP PDPMCB update information. This information appears only if inspect GTP is enabled. Logical Update Queue Information For each field type, the following statistics are used: • Cur—Current number of packets • Max—Maximum number of packets • Total—Total number of packets Recv Q The status of the receive queue. Xmit Q The status of the transmit queue. Table 14-7 Show Failover Display Description (continued) Field Options14-45 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Group 1 State: Standby Ready Active time: 190 (sec) Group 2 State: Active Active time: 3322 (sec) slot 0: ASA-5530 hw/sw rev (1.0/7.0(0)79) status (Up Sys) slot 1: SSM-IDS-20 hw/sw rev (1.0/5.0(0.1)S91(0.1)) status (Up) admin Interface outside (10.132.8.6): Normal admin Interface third (10.132.9.6): Normal admin Interface inside (10.130.8.6): Normal admin Interface fourth (10.130.9.6): Normal ctx1 Interface outside (10.1.1.2): Normal ctx1 Interface inside (10.2.2.2): Normal ctx2 Interface outside (10.3.3.1): Normal ctx2 Interface inside (10.4.4.1): Normal Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics Link : third GigabitEthernet0/2 (up) Stateful Obj xmit xerr rcv rerr General 1973 0 1895 0 sys cmd 380 0 380 0 up time 0 0 0 0 RPC services 0 0 0 0 TCP conn 1435 0 1450 0 UDP conn 0 0 0 0 ARP tbl 124 0 65 0 Xlate_Timeout 0 0 0 0 VPN IKE upd 15 0 0 0 VPN IPSEC upd 90 0 0 0 VPN CTCP upd 0 0 0 0 VPN SDI upd 0 0 0 0 VPN DHCP upd 0 0 0 0 Logical Update Queue Information Cur Max Total Recv Q: 0 1 1895 Xmit Q: 0 0 1940 The following is sample output from the show failover group command for Active/Active Failover. The information displayed is similar to that of the show failover command, but limited to the specified group. Table 14-8 provides descriptions for the information shown. hostname# show failover group 1 Last Failover at: 04:09:59 UTC Jan 4 2005 This host: Secondary State: Active Active time: 186 (sec) admin Interface outside (192.168.5.121): Normal admin Interface inside (192.168.0.1): Normal Other host: Primary State: Standby Active time: 0 (sec) admin Interface outside (192.168.5.131): Normal admin Interface inside (192.168.0.11): Normal Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics Status: Configured.14-46 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover RPC services 0 0 0 0 TCP conn 33 0 0 0 UDP conn 0 0 0 0 ARP tbl 12 0 0 0 Xlate_Timeout 0 0 0 0 GTP PDP 0 0 0 0 GTP PDPMCB 0 0 0 0 Table 14-8 Show Failover Display Description Field Options Failover • On • Off Failover Unit Primary or Secondary. Failover LAN Interface Displays the logical and physical name of the failover link. Unit Poll frequency Displays the number of seconds between hello messages sent to the peer unit and the number of seconds during which the unit must receive a hello message on the failover link before declaring the peer failed. Interface Poll frequency n seconds The number of seconds you set with the failover polltime interface command. The default is 15 seconds. Interface Policy Displays the number or percentage of interfaces that must fail before triggering failover. Monitored Interfaces Displays the number of interfaces monitored out of the maximum possible. Group 1 Last Failover at: Group 2 Last Failover at: The date and time of the last failover for each group in the following form: hh:mm:ss UTC DayName Month Day yyyy UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) is equivalent to GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). This host: Other host: For each host, the display shows the following information. Role Primary or Secondary System State • Active or Standby Ready • Active Time in seconds Group 1 State Group 2 State • Active or Standby Ready • Active Time in seconds slot x Information about the module in the slot or empty.14-47 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover context Interface name (n.n.n.n): For each interface, the display shows the IP address currently being used on each unit, as well as one of the following conditions: • Failed—The interface has failed. • No link—The interface line protocol is down. • Normal—The interface is working correctly. • Link Down—The interface has been administratively shut down. • Unknown—The security appliance cannot determine the status of the interface. • Waiting—Monitoring of the network interface on the other unit has not yet started. Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics The following fields relate to the Stateful Failover feature. If the Link field shows an interface name, the Stateful Failover statistics are shown. Link • interface_name—The interface used for the Stateful Failover link. • Unconfigured—You are not using Stateful Failover. • up—The interface is up and functioning. • down—The interface is either administratively shutdown or is physically down. • failed—The interface has failed and is not passing stateful data. Stateful Obj For each field type, the following statistics are used. They are counters for the number of state information packets sent between the two units; the fields do not necessarily show active connections through the unit. • xmit—Number of transmitted packets to the other unit • xerr—Number of errors that occurred while transmitting packets to the other unit • rcv—Number of received packets • rerr—Number of errors that occurred while receiving packets from the other unit General Sum of all stateful objects. sys cmd Logical update system commands; for example, LOGIN and Stay Alive. up time Up time, which the active unit passes to the standby unit. RPC services Remote Procedure Call connection information. TCP conn TCP connection information. UDP conn Dynamic UDP connection information. ARP tbl Dynamic ARP table information. L2BRIDGE tbl Layer 2 bridge table information (transparent firewall mode only). Xlate_Timeout Indicates connection translation timeout information. VPN IKE upd IKE connection information. Table 14-8 Show Failover Display Description (continued) Field Options14-48 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Configuring Failover Viewing Monitored Interfaces To view the status of monitored interfaces, enter the following command. In single context mode, enter this command in global configuration mode. In multiple context mode, enter this command within a context. primary/context(config)# show monitor-interface For example: hostname/context(config)# show monitor-interface This host: Primary - Active Interface outside (192.168.1.2): Normal Interface inside (10.1.1.91): Normal Other host: Secondary - Standby Interface outside (192.168.1.3): Normal Interface inside (10.1.1.100): Normal Displaying the Failover Commands in the Running Configuration To view the failover commands in the running configuration, enter the following command: hostname(config)# show running-config failover All of the failover commands are displayed. On units running multiple context mode, enter this command in the system execution space. Entering show running-config all failover displays the failover commands in the running configuration and includes commands for which you have not changed the default value. VPN IPSEC upd IPSec connection information. VPN CTCP upd cTCP tunnel connection information. VPN SDI upd SDI AAA connection information. VPN DHCP upd Tunneled DHCP connection information. GTP PDP GTP PDP update information. This information appears only if inspect GTP is enabled. GTP PDPMCB GTP PDPMCB update information. This information appears only if inspect GTP is enabled. Logical Update Queue Information For each field type, the following statistics are used: • Cur—Current number of packets • Max—Maximum number of packets • Total—Total number of packets Recv Q The status of the receive queue. Xmit Q The status of the transmit queue. Table 14-8 Show Failover Display Description (continued) Field Options14-49 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Controlling and Monitoring Failover Testing the Failover Functionality To test failover functionality, perform the following steps: Step 1 Test that your active unit or failover group is passing traffic as expected by using FTP (for example) to send a file between hosts on different interfaces. Step 2 Force a failover to the standby unit by entering the following command: • For Active/Standby failover, enter the following command on the active unit: hostname(config)# no failover active • For Active/Active failover, enter the following command on the unit where the failover group containing the interface connecting your hosts is active: hostname(config)# no failover active group group_id Step 3 Use FTP to send another file between the same two hosts. Step 4 If the test was not successful, enter the show failover command to check the failover status. Step 5 When you are finished, you can restore the unit or failover group to active status by enter the following command: • For Active/Standby failover, enter the following command on the active unit: hostname(config)# failover active • For Active/Active failover, enter the following command on the unit where the failover group containing the interface connecting your hosts is active: hostname(config)# failover active group group_id Controlling and Monitoring Failover This sections describes how to control and monitor failover. This section includes the following topics: • Forcing Failover, page 14-49 • Disabling Failover, page 14-50 • Restoring a Failed Unit or Failover Group, page 14-50 • Monitoring Failover, page 14-50 Forcing Failover To force the standby unit or failover group to become active, enter one of the following commands: • For Active/Standby failover: Enter the following command on the standby unit: hostname# failover active Or, enter the following command on the active unit:14-50 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Controlling and Monitoring Failover hostname# no failover active • For Active/Active failover: Enter the following command in the system execution space of the unit where the failover group is in the standby state: hostname# failover active group group_id Or, enter the following command in the system execution space of the unit where the failover group is in the active state: hostname# no failover active group group_id Entering the following command in the system execution space causes all failover groups to become active: hostname# failover active Disabling Failover To disable failover, enter the following command: hostname(config)# no failover Disabling failover on an Active/Standby pair causes the active and standby state of each unit to be maintained until you restart. For example, the standby unit remains in standby mode so that both units do not start passing traffic. To make the standby unit active (even with failover disabled), see the “Forcing Failover” section on page 14-49. Disabling failover on an Active/Active pair causes the failover groups to remain in the active state on whichever unit they are currently active on, no matter which unit they are configured to prefer. The no failover command should be entered in the system execution space. Restoring a Failed Unit or Failover Group To restore a failed unit to an unfailed state, enter the following command: hostname(config)# failover reset To restore a failed Active/Active failover group to an unfailed state, enter the following command: hostname(config)# failover reset group group_id Restoring a failed unit or group to an unfailed state does not automatically make it active; restored units or groups remain in the standby state until made active by failover (forced or natural). An exception is a failover group configured with the preempt command. If previously active, a failover group becomes active if it is configured with the preempt command and if the unit on which it failed is the preferred unit. Monitoring Failover When a failover occurs, both security appliances send out system messages. This section includes the following topics: • Failover System Messages, page 14-5114-51 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Controlling and Monitoring Failover • Debug Messages, page 14-51 • SNMP, page 14-51 Failover System Messages The security appliance issues a number of system messages related to failover at priority level 2, which indicates a critical condition. To view these messages, see the Cisco Security Appliance Logging Configuration and System Log Messages to enable logging and to see descriptions of the system messages. Note During switchover, failover logically shuts down and then bring up interfaces, generating syslog 411001 and 411002 messages. This is normal activity. Debug Messages To see debug messages, enter the debug fover command. See the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. Note Because debugging output is assigned high priority in the CPU process, it can drastically affect system performance. For this reason, use the debug fover commands only to troubleshoot specific problems or during troubleshooting sessions with Cisco TAC. SNMP To receive SNMP syslog traps for failover, configure the SNMP agent to send SNMP traps to SNMP management stations, define a syslog host, and compile the Cisco syslog MIB into your SNMP management station. See the snmp-server and logging commands in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. 14-52 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 14 Configuring Failover Controlling and Monitoring FailoverP A R T 2 Configuring the FirewallC H A P T E R 15-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 15 Firewall Mode Overview This chapter describes how the firewall works in each firewall mode. To set the firewall mode, see the “Setting Transparent or Routed Firewall Mode” section on page 2-5. Note In multiple context mode, you cannot set the firewall mode separately for each context; you can only set the firewall mode for the entire security appliance. This chapter includes the following sections: • Routed Mode Overview, page 15-1 • Transparent Mode Overview, page 15-8 Routed Mode Overview In routed mode, the security appliance is considered to be a router hop in the network. It can perform NAT between connected networks, and can use OSPF or RIP (in single context mode). Routed mode supports many interfaces. Each interface is on a different subnet. You can share interfaces between contexts. This section includes the following topics: • IP Routing Support, page 15-1 • Network Address Translation, page 15-2 • How Data Moves Through the Security Appliance in Routed Firewall Mode, page 15-3 IP Routing Support The security appliance acts as a router between connected networks, and each interface requires an IP address on a different subnet. In single context mode, the routed firewall supports OSPF and RIP. Multiple context mode supports static routes only. We recommend using the advanced routing capabilities of the upstream and downstream routers instead of relying on the security appliance for extensive routing needs.15-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview Network Address Translation NAT substitutes the local address on a packet with a global address that is routable on the destination network. By default, NAT is not required. If you want to enforce a NAT policy that requires hosts on a higher security interface (inside) to use NAT when communicating with a lower security interface (outside), you can enable NAT control (see the nat-control command). Note NAT control was the default behavior for software versions earlier than Version 7.0. If you upgrade a security appliance from an earlier version, then the nat-control command is automatically added to your configuration to maintain the expected behavior. Some of the benefits of NAT include the following: • You can use private addresses on your inside networks. Private addresses are not routable on the Internet. • NAT hides the local addresses from other networks, so attackers cannot learn the real address of a host. • NAT can resolve IP routing problems by supporting overlapping IP addresses. Figure 15-1 shows a typical NAT scenario, with a private network on the inside. When the inside user sends a packet to a web server on the Internet, the local source address of the packet is changed to a routable global address. When the web server responds, it sends the response to the global address, and the security appliance receives the packet. The security appliance then translates the global address to the local address before sending it on to the user. Figure 15-1 NAT Example Web Server www.example.com 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.2.27 Source Addr Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.10 Originating Packet Dest Addr Translation 209.165.201.10 10.1.2.27 Responding Packet Outside Inside 9240515-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview How Data Moves Through the Security Appliance in Routed Firewall Mode This section describes how data moves through the security appliance in routed firewall mode, and includes the following topics: • An Inside User Visits a Web Server, page 15-3 • An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ, page 15-4 • An Inside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ, page 15-6 • An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host, page 15-7 • A DMZ User Attempts to Access an Inside Host, page 15-8 An Inside User Visits a Web Server Figure 15-2 shows an inside user accessing an outside web server. Figure 15-2 Inside to Outside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-2): 1. The user on the inside network requests a web page from www.example.com. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and because it is a new session, the security appliance verifies that the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). Web Server 10.1.1.3 www.example.com User 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.1.1 Source Addr Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.10 Outside Inside DMZ 9240415-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to either a unique interface or a unique destination address associated with a context; the destination address is associated by matching an address translation in a context. In this case, the interface would be unique; the www.example.com IP address does not have a current address translation in a context. 3. The security appliance translates the local source address (10.1.2.27) to the global address 209.165.201.10, which is on the outside interface subnet. The global address could be on any subnet, but routing is simplified when it is on the outside interface subnet. 4. The security appliance then records that a session is established and forwards the packet from the outside interface. 5. When www.example.com responds to the request, the packet goes through the security appliance, and because the session is already established, the packet bypasses the many lookups associated with a new connection. The security appliance performs NAT by translating the global destination address to the local user address, 10.1.2.27. 6. The security appliance forwards the packet to the inside user. An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ Figure 15-3 shows an outside user accessing the DMZ web server. Figure 15-3 Outside to DMZ Web Server 10.1.1.3 User 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.1.1 Dest Addr Translation 209.165.201.3 10.1.1.13 Outside Inside DMZ 9240615-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-3): 1. A user on the outside network requests a web page from the DMZ web server using the global destination address of 209.165.201.3, which is on the outside interface subnet. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and because it is a new session, the security appliance verifies that the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to either a unique interface or a unique destination address associated with a context; the destination address is associated by matching an address translation in a context. In this case, the classifier “knows” that the DMZ web server address belongs to a certain context because of the server address translation. 3. The security appliance translates the destination address to the local address 10.1.1.3. 4. The security appliance then adds a session entry to the fast path and forwards the packet from the DMZ interface. 5. When the DMZ web server responds to the request, the packet goes through the security appliance and because the session is already established, the packet bypasses the many lookups associated with a new connection. The security appliance performs NAT by translating the local source address to 209.165.201.3. 6. The security appliance forwards the packet to the outside user.15-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview An Inside User Visits a Web Server on the DMZ Figure 15-4 shows an inside user accessing the DMZ web server. Figure 15-4 Inside to DMZ The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-4): 1. A user on the inside network requests a web page from the DMZ web server using the destination address of 10.1.1.3. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and because it is a new session, the security appliance verifies that the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to either a unique interface or a unique destination address associated with a context; the destination address is associated by matching an address translation in a context. In this case, the interface is unique; the web server IP address does not have a current address translation. 3. The security appliance then records that a session is established and forwards the packet out of the DMZ interface. 4. When the DMZ web server responds to the request, the packet goes through the fast path, which lets the packet bypass the many lookups associated with a new connection. 5. The security appliance forwards the packet to the inside user. Web Server 10.1.1.3 User 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.1.1 Inside DMZ Outside 9240315-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Routed Mode Overview An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host Figure 15-5 shows an outside user attempting to access the inside network. Figure 15-5 Outside to Inside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-5): 1. A user on the outside network attempts to reach an inside host (assuming the host has a routable IP address). If the inside network uses private addresses, no outside user can reach the inside network without NAT. The outside user might attempt to reach an inside user by using an existing NAT session. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and because it is a new session, the security appliance verifies if the packet is allowed according to the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). 3. The packet is denied, and the security appliance drops the packet and logs the connection attempt. If the outside user is attempting to attack the inside network, the security appliance employs many technologies to determine if a packet is valid for an already established session. www.example.com User 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.1.1 Outside Inside DMZ 9240715-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview A DMZ User Attempts to Access an Inside Host Figure 15-6 shows a user in the DMZ attempting to access the inside network. Figure 15-6 DMZ to Inside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-6): 1. A user on the DMZ network attempts to reach an inside host. Because the DMZ does not have to route the traffic on the internet, the private addressing scheme does not prevent routing. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and because it is a new session, the security appliance verifies if the packet is allowed according to the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). 3. The packet is denied, and the security appliance drops the packet and logs the connection attempt. Transparent Mode Overview Traditionally, a firewall is a routed hop and acts as a default gateway for hosts that connect to one of its screened subnets. A transparent firewall, on the other hand, is a Layer 2 firewall that acts like a “bump in the wire,” or a “stealth firewall,” and is not seen as a router hop to connected devices. This section describes transparent firewall mode, and includes the following topics: • Transparent Firewall Network, page 15-9 • Allowing Layer 3 Traffic, page 15-9 • Passing Traffic Not Allowed in Routed Mode, page 15-9 • MAC Address Lookups, page 15-10 • Using the Transparent Firewall in Your Network, page 15-10 • Transparent Firewall Guidelines, page 15-10 Web Server 10.1.1.3 User 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.1.1 Outside Inside DMZ 9240215-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview • Unsupported Features in Transparent Mode, page 15-11 • How Data Moves Through the Transparent Firewall, page 15-13 Transparent Firewall Network The security appliance connects the same network on its inside and outside interfaces. Because the firewall is not a routed hop, you can easily introduce a transparent firewall into an existing network; IP readdressing is unnecessary. Allowing Layer 3 Traffic IPv4 traffic is allowed through the transparent firewall automatically from a higher security interface to a lower security interface, without an access list. ARPs are allowed through the transparent firewall in both directions without an access list. ARP traffic can be controlled by ARP inspection. For Layer 3 traffic travelling from a low to a high security interface, an extended access list is required. Allowed MAC Addresses The following destination MAC addresses are allowed through the transparent firewall. Any MAC address not on this list is dropped. • TRUE broadcast destination MAC address equal to FFFF.FFFF.FFFF • IPv4 multicast MAC addresses from 0100.5E00.0000 to 0100.5EFE.FFFF • IPv6 multicast MAC addresses from 3333.0000.0000 to 3333.FFFF.FFFF • BPDU multicast address equal to 0100.0CCC.CCCD • Appletalk multicast MAC addresses from 0900.0700.0000 to 0900.07FF.FFFF Passing Traffic Not Allowed in Routed Mode In routed mode, some types of traffic cannot pass through the security appliance even if you allow it in an access list. The transparent firewall, however, can allow almost any traffic through using either an extended access list (for IP traffic) or an EtherType access list (for non-IP traffic). Note The transparent mode security appliance does not pass CDP packets or IPv6 packets, or any packets that do not have a valid EtherType greater than or equal to 0x600. For example, you cannot pass IS-IS packets. An exception is made for BPDUs, which are supported. For example, you can establish routing protocol adjacencies through a transparent firewall; you can allow OSPF, RIP, EIGRP, or BGP traffic through based on an extended access list. Likewise, protocols like HSRP or VRRP can pass through the security appliance. Non-IP traffic (for example AppleTalk, IPX, BPDUs, and MPLS) can be configured to go through using an EtherType access list.15-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview For features that are not directly supported on the transparent firewall, you can allow traffic to pass through so that upstream and downstream routers can support the functionality. For example, by using an extended access list, you can allow DHCP traffic (instead of the unsupported DHCP relay feature) or multicast traffic such as that created by IP/TV. MAC Address Lookups When the security appliance runs in transparent mode, the outgoing interface of a packet is determined by performing a MAC address lookup instead of a route lookup. Route statements can still be configured, but they only apply to security appliance-originated traffic. For example, if your syslog server is located on a remote network, you must use a static route so the security appliance can reach that subnet. Using the Transparent Firewall in Your Network Figure 15-7 shows a typical transparent firewall network where the outside devices are on the same subnet as the inside devices. The inside router and hosts appear to be directly connected to the outside router. Figure 15-7 Transparent Firewall Network Transparent Firewall Guidelines Follow these guidelines when planning your transparent firewall network: 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 Management IP 10.1.1.3 192.168.1.2 Network A Network B Internet 9241115-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview • A management IP address is required; for multiple context mode, an IP address is required for each context. Unlike routed mode, which requires an IP address for each interface, a transparent firewall has an IP address assigned to the entire device. The security appliance uses this IP address as the source address for packets originating on the security appliance, such as system messages or AAA communications. The management IP address must be on the same subnet as the connected network. You cannot set the subnet to a host subnet (255.255.255.255). You can configure an IP address for the Management 0/0 management-only interface. This IP address can be on a separate subnet from the main management IP address. Note If the management IP address is not configured, transient traffic does not pass through the transparent firewall. For multiple context mode, transient traffic does not pass through virtual contexts. • The transparent security appliance uses an inside interface and an outside interface only. If your platform includes a dedicated management interface, you can also configure the management interface or subinterface for management traffic only. In single mode, you can only use two data interfaces (and the dedicated management interface, if available) even if your security appliance includes more than two interfaces. • Each directly connected network must be on the same subnet. • Do not specify the security appliance management IP address as the default gateway for connected devices; devices need to specify the router on the other side of the security appliance as the default gateway. • For multiple context mode, each context must use different interfaces; you cannot share an interface across contexts. • For multiple context mode, each context typically uses a different subnet. You can use overlapping subnets, but your network topology requires router and NAT configuration to make it possible from a routing standpoint. Unsupported Features in Transparent Mode Table 15-1 lists the features are not supported in transparent mode. Table 15-1 Unsupported Features in Transparent Mode Feature Description Dynamic DNS — DHCP relay The transparent firewall can act as a DHCP server, but it does not support the DHCP relay commands. DHCP relay is not required because you can allow DHCP traffic to pass through using two extended access lists: one that allows DCHP requests from the inside interface to the outside, and one that allows the replies from the server in the other direction.15-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview Dynamic routing protocols You can, however, add static routes for traffic originating on the security appliance. You can also allow dynamic routing protocols through the security appliance using an extended access list. IPv6 You also cannot allow IPv6 using an EtherType access list. Multicast You can allow multicast traffic through the security appliance by allowing it in an extended access list. NAT NAT is performed on the upstream router. QoS — VPN termination for through traffic The transparent firewall supports site-to-site VPN tunnels for management connections only. It does not terminate VPN connections for traffic through the security appliance. You can pass VPN traffic through the security appliance using an extended access list, but it does not terminate non-management connections. WebVPN is also not supported. Table 15-1 Unsupported Features in Transparent Mode (continued) Feature Description15-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview How Data Moves Through the Transparent Firewall Figure 15-8 shows a typical transparent firewall implementation with an inside network that contains a public web server. The security appliance has an access list so that the inside users can access Internet resources. Another access list lets the outside users access only the web server on the inside network. Figure 15-8 Typical Transparent Firewall Data Path This section describes how data moves through the security appliance, and includes the following topics: • An Inside User Visits a Web Server, page 15-14 • An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the Inside Network, page 15-15 • An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host, page 15-16 www.example.com 209.165.201.2 Management IP 209.165.201.6 209.165.200.230 Web Server 209.165.200.225 Host 209.165.201.3 Internet 9241215-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview An Inside User Visits a Web Server Figure 15-9 shows an inside user accessing an outside web server. Figure 15-9 Inside to Outside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-9): 1. The user on the inside network requests a web page from www.example.com. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and adds the source MAC address to the MAC address table, if required. Because it is a new session, it verifies that the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to a unique interface. 3. The security appliance records that a session is established. 4. If the destination MAC address is in its table, the security appliance forwards the packet out of the outside interface. The destination MAC address is that of the upstream router, 209.186.201.2. If the destination MAC address is not in the security appliance table, the security appliance attempts to discover the MAC address by sending an ARP request and a ping. The first packet is dropped. 5. The web server responds to the request; because the session is already established, the packet bypasses the many lookups associated with a new connection. 6. The security appliance forwards the packet to the inside user. Management IP 209.165.201.6 www.example.com 209.165.201.2 Host 209.165.201.3 Internet 9240815-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview An Outside User Visits a Web Server on the Inside Network Figure 15-10 shows an outside user accessing the inside web server. Figure 15-10 Outside to Inside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-10): 1. A user on the outside network requests a web page from the inside web server. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and adds the source MAC address to the MAC address table, if required. Because it is a new session, it verifies that the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to a unique interface. 3. The security appliance records that a session is established. 4. If the destination MAC address is in its table, the security appliance forwards the packet out of the inside interface. The destination MAC address is that of the downstream router, 209.186.201.1. If the destination MAC address is not in the security appliance table, the security appliance attempts to discover the MAC address by sending an ARP request and a ping. The first packet is dropped. 5. The web server responds to the request; because the session is already established, the packet bypasses the many lookups associated with a new connection. Host 209.165.201.2 209.165.201.1 209.165.200.230 Web Server 209.165.200.225 Management IP 209.165.201.6 Internet 9240915-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 15 Firewall Mode Overview Transparent Mode Overview 6. The security appliance forwards the packet to the outside user. An Outside User Attempts to Access an Inside Host Figure 15-11 shows an outside user attempting to access a host on the inside network. Figure 15-11 Outside to Inside The following steps describe how data moves through the security appliance (see Figure 15-11): 1. A user on the outside network attempts to reach an inside host. 2. The security appliance receives the packet and adds the source MAC address to the MAC address table, if required. Because it is a new session, it verifies if the packet is allowed according to the terms of the security policy (access lists, filters, AAA). For multiple context mode, the security appliance first classifies the packet according to a unique interface. 3. The packet is denied, and the security appliance drops the packet. 4. If the outside user is attempting to attack the inside network, the security appliance employs many technologies to determine if a packet is valid for an already established session. Management IP 209.165.201.6 Host 209.165.201.2 Host 209.165.201.3 Internet 92410C H A P T E R 16-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists This chapter describes how to identify traffic with access lists. This chapter includes the following topics: • Access List Overview, page 16-1 • Adding an Extended Access List, page 16-5 • Adding an EtherType Access List, page 16-8 • Adding a Standard Access List, page 16-11 • Adding a Webtype Access List, page 16-11 • Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping, page 16-11 • Adding Remarks to Access Lists, page 16-18 • Scheduling Extended Access List Activation, page 16-18 • Logging Access List Activity, page 16-20 For information about IPv6 access lists, see the “Configuring IPv6 Access Lists” section on page 12-6. Access List Overview Access lists are made up of one or more Access Control Entries. An ACE is a single entry in an access list that specifies a permit or deny rule, and is applied to a protocol, a source and destination IP address or network, and optionally the source and destination ports. Access lists are used in a variety of features. If your feature uses Modular Policy Framework, you can use an access list to identify traffic within a traffic class map. For more information on Modular Policy Framework, see Chapter 21, “Using Modular Policy Framework.” This section includes the following topics: • Access List Types, page 16-2 • Access Control Entry Order, page 16-2 • Access Control Implicit Deny, page 16-3 • IP Addresses Used for Access Lists When You Use NAT, page 16-316-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Access List Overview Access List Types Table 16-1 lists the types of access lists and some common uses for them. Access Control Entry Order An access list is made up of one or more Access Control Entries. Depending on the access list type, you can specify the source and destination addresses, the protocol, the ports (for TCP or UDP), the ICMP type (for ICMP), or the EtherType. Each ACE that you enter for a given access list name is appended to the end of the access list. The order of ACEs is important. When the security appliance decides whether to forward or drop a packet, the security appliance tests the packet against each ACE in the order in which the entries are listed. After a match is found, no more ACEs are checked. For example, if you create an ACE at the beginning of an access list that explicitly permits all traffic, no further statements are ever checked. Table 16-1 Access List Types and Common Uses Access List Use Access List Type Description Control network access for IP traffic (routed and transparent mode) Extended The security appliance does not allow any traffic from a lower security interface to a higher security interface unless it is explicitly permitted by an extended access list. Note To access the security appliance interface for management access, you do not also need an access list allowing the host IP address. You only need to configure management access according to Chapter 40, “Managing System Access.” Identify traffic for AAA rules Extended AAA rules use access lists to identify traffic. Control network access for IP traffic for a given user Extended, downloaded from a AAA server per user You can configure the RADIUS server to download a dynamic access list to be applied to the user, or the server can send the name of an access list that you already configured on the security appliance. Identify addresses for NAT (policy NAT and NAT exemption) Extended Policy NAT lets you identify local traffic for address translation by specifying the source and destination addresses in an extended access list. Establish VPN access Extended You can use an extended access list in VPN commands. Identify traffic in a traffic class map for Modular Policy Framework Extended EtherType Access lists can be used to identify traffic in a class map, which is used for features that support Modular Policy Framework. Features that support Modular Policy Framework include TCP and general connection settings, and inspection. For transparent firewall mode, control network access for non-IP traffic EtherType You can configure an access list that controls traffic based on its EtherType. Identify OSPF route redistribution Standard Standard access lists include only the destination address. You can use a standard access list to control the redistribution of OSPF routes. Filtering for WebVPN Webtype You can configure a Webtype access list to filter URLs.16-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Access List Overview You can disable an ACE by specifying the keyword inactive in the access-list command. Access Control Implicit Deny Access lists have an implicit deny at the end of the list, so unless you explicitly permit it, traffic cannot pass. For example, if you want to allow all users to access a network through the security appliance except for particular addresses, then you need to deny the particular addresses and then permit all others. For EtherType access lists, the implicit deny at the end of the access list does not affect IP traffic or ARPs; for example, if you allow EtherType 8037, the implicit deny at the end of the access list does not now block any IP traffic that you previously allowed with an extended access list (or implicitly allowed from a high security interface to a low security interface). However, if you explicitly deny all traffic with an EtherType ACE, then IP and ARP traffic is denied. IP Addresses Used for Access Lists When You Use NAT When you use NAT, the IP addresses you specify for an access list depend on the interface to which the access list is attached; you need to use addresses that are valid on the network connected to the interface. This guideline applies for both inbound and outbound access lists: the direction does not determine the address used, only the interface does. For example, you want to apply an access list to the inbound direction of the inside interface. You configure the security appliance to perform NAT on the inside source addresses when they access outside addresses. Because the access list is applied to the inside interface, the source addresses are the original untranslated addresses. Because the outside addresses are not translated, the destination address used in the access list is the real address (see Figure 16-1). Figure 16-1 IP Addresses in Access Lists: NAT Used for Source Addresses See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list INSIDE extended permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 209.165.200.225 209.165.200.225 Inside Outside Inbound ACL Permit from 10.1.1.0/24 to 209.165.200.225 10.1.1.0/24 PAT 10.1.1.0/24 209.165.201.4:port 10463416-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Access List Overview hostname(config)# access-group INSIDE in interface inside If you want to allow an outside host to access an inside host, you can apply an inbound access list on the outside interface. You need to specify the translated address of the inside host in the access list because that address is the address that can be used on the outside network (see Figure 16-2). Figure 16-2 IP Addresses in Access Lists: NAT used for Destination Addresses See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list OUTSIDE extended permit ip host 209.165.200.225 host 209.165.201.5 hostname(config)# access-group OUTSIDE in interface outside 209.165.200.225 Inside Outside Static NAT 10.1.1.34 209.165.201.5 ACL Permit from 209.165.200.225 to 209.165.201.5 10463616-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an Extended Access List If you perform NAT on both interfaces, keep in mind the addresses that are visible to a given interface. In Figure 16-3, an outside server uses static NAT so that a translated address appears on the inside network. Figure 16-3 IP Addresses in Access Lists: NAT used for Source and Destination Addresses See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list INSIDE extended permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.1.1.56 hostname(config)# access-group INSIDE in interface inside Adding an Extended Access List This section describes how to add an extended access list, and includes the following sections: • Extended Access List Overview, page 16-5 • Allowing Broadcast and Multicast Traffic through the Transparent Firewall, page 16-6 • Adding an Extended ACE, page 16-6 Extended Access List Overview An extended access list is made up of one or more ACEs, in which you can specify the line number to insert the ACE, source and destination addresses, and, depending on the ACE type, the protocol, the ports (for TCP or UDP), or the ICMP type (for ICMP). You can identify all of these parameters within the access-list command, or you can use object groups for each parameter. This section describes how to identify the parameters within the command. To use object groups, see the “Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping” section on page 16-11. 209.165.200.225 10.1.1.0/24 Inside Outside Static NAT 10.1.1.56 ACL Permit from 10.1.1.0/24 to 10.1.1.56 PAT 10.1.1.0/24 209.165.201.4:port 10463516-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an Extended Access List For information about logging options that you can add to the end of the ACE, see the “Logging Access List Activity” section on page 16-20. For information about time range options, see “Scheduling Extended Access List Activation” section on page 16-18. For TCP and UDP connections, you do not need an access list to allow returning traffic, because the FWSM allows all returning traffic for established, bidirectional connections. For connectionless protocols such as ICMP, however, the security appliance establishes unidirectional sessions, so you either need access lists to allow ICMP in both directions (by applying access lists to the source and destination interfaces), or you need to enable the ICMP inspection engine. The ICMP inspection engine treats ICMP sessions as bidirectional connections. You can apply only one access list of each type (extended and EtherType) to each direction of an interface. You can apply the same access lists on multiple interfaces. See Chapter 18, “Permitting or Denying Network Access,” for more information about applying an access list to an interface. Note If you change the access list configuration, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new access list information is used, you can clear the connections using the clear local-host command. Allowing Broadcast and Multicast Traffic through the Transparent Firewall In routed firewall mode, broadcast and multicast traffic is blocked even if you allow it in an access list, including unsupported dynamic routing protocols and DHCP (unless you configure DHCP relay). Transparent firewall mode can allow any IP traffic through. This feature is especially useful in multiple context mode, which does not allow dynamic routing, for example. Note Because these special types of traffic are connectionless, you need to apply an extended access list to both interfaces, so returning traffic is allowed through. Table 16-2 lists common traffic types that you can allow through the transparent firewall. Adding an Extended ACE When you enter the access-list command for a given access list name, the ACE is added to the end of the access list unless you specify the line number. Table 16-2 Transparent Firewall Special Traffic Traffic Type Protocol or Port Notes DHCP UDP ports 67 and 68 If you enable the DHCP server, then the security appliance does not pass DHCP packets. EIGRP Protocol 88 — OSPF Protocol 89 — Multicast streams The UDP ports vary depending on the application. Multicast streams are always destined to a Class D address (224.0.0.0 to 239.x.x.x). RIP (v1 or v2) UDP port 520 —16-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an Extended Access List To add an ACE, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name [line line_number] [extended] {deny | permit} protocol source_address mask [operator port] dest_address mask [operator port | icmp_type] [inactive] Tip Enter the access list name in upper case letters so the name is easy to see in the configuration. You might want to name the access list for the interface (for example, INSIDE), or for the purpose for which it is created (for example, NO_NAT or VPN). Typically, you identify the ip keyword for the protocol, but other protocols are accepted. For a list of protocol names, see the “Protocols and Applications” section on page D-11. Enter the host keyword before the IP address to specify a single address. In this case, do not enter a mask. Enter the any keyword instead of the address and mask to specify any address. You can specify the source and destination ports only for the tcp or udp protocols. For a list of permitted keywords and well-known port assignments, see the “TCP and UDP Ports” section on page D-11. DNS, Discard, Echo, Ident, NTP, RPC, SUNRPC, and Talk each require one definition for TCP and one for UDP. TACACS+ requires one definition for port 49 on TCP. Use an operator to match port numbers used by the source or destination. The permitted operators are as follows: • lt—less than • gt—greater than • eq—equal to • neq—not equal to • range—an inclusive range of values. When you use this operator, specify two port numbers, for example: range 100 200 You can specify the ICMP type only for the icmp protocol. Because ICMP is a connectionless protocol, you either need access lists to allow ICMP in both directions (by applying access lists to the source and destination interfaces), or you need to enable the ICMP inspection engine (see the “Adding an ICMP Type Object Group” section on page 16-15). The ICMP inspection engine treats ICMP sessions as stateful connections. To control ping, specify echo-reply (0) (security appliance to host) or echo (8) (host to security appliance). See the “Adding an ICMP Type Object Group” section on page 16-15 for a list of ICMP types. When you specify a network mask, the method is different from the Cisco IOS software access-list command. The security appliance uses a network mask (for example, 255.255.255.0 for a Class C mask). The Cisco IOS mask uses wildcard bits (for example, 0.0.0.255). To make an ACE inactive, use the inactive keyword. To reenable it, enter the entire ACE without the inactive keyword. This feature lets you keep a record of an inactive ACE in your configuration to make reenabling easier. To remove an ACE, enter the no access-list command with the entire command syntax string as it appears in the configuration: hostname(config)# no access-list access_list_name [line line_number] [extended] {deny | permit} protocol source_address mask [operator port] dest_address mask [operator port | icmp_type] [inactive] If the entry that you are removing is the only entry in the access list, the entire access list is removed.16-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an EtherType Access List See the following examples: The following access list allows all hosts (on the interface to which you apply the access list) to go through the security appliance: hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any The following sample access list prevents hosts on 192.168.1.0/24 from accessing the 209.165.201.0/27 network. All other addresses are permitted. hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any If you want to restrict access to only some hosts, then enter a limited permit ACE. By default, all other traffic is denied unless explicitly permitted. hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 The following access list restricts all hosts (on the interface to which you apply the access list) from accessing a website at address 209.165.201.29. All other traffic is allowed. hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp any host 209.165.201.29 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any Adding an EtherType Access List Transparent firewall mode only This section describes how to add an EtherType access list, and includes the following sections: • EtherType Access List Overview, page 16-8 • Adding an EtherType ACE, page 16-10 EtherType Access List Overview An EtherType access list is made up of one or more ACEs that specify an EtherType. This section includes the following topics: • Supported EtherTypes, page 16-8 • Implicit Permit of IP and ARPs Only, page 16-9 • Implicit and Explicit Deny ACE at the End of an Access List, page 16-9 • IPv6 Unsupported, page 16-9 • Using Extended and EtherType Access Lists on the Same Interface, page 16-9 • Allowing MPLS, page 16-9 Supported EtherTypes An EtherType ACE controls any EtherType identified by a 16-bit hexadecimal number. EtherType access lists support Ethernet V2 frames.16-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an EtherType Access List 802.3-formatted frames are not handled by the access list because they use a length field as opposed to a type field. BPDUs, which are handled by the access list, are the only exception: they are SNAP-encapsulated, and the security appliance is designed to specifically handle BPDUs. The security appliance receives trunk port (Cisco proprietary) BPDUs. Trunk BPDUs have VLAN information inside the payload, so the security appliance modifies the payload with the outgoing VLAN if you allow BPDUs. Note If you use failover, you must allow BPDUs on both interfaces with an EtherType access list to avoid bridging loops. Implicit Permit of IP and ARPs Only IPv4 traffic is allowed through the transparent firewall automatically from a higher security interface to a lower security interface, without an access list. ARPs are allowed through the transparent firewall in both directions without an access list. ARP traffic can be controlled by ARP inspection. However, to allow any traffic with EtherTypes other than IPv4 and ARP, you need to apply an EtherType access list, even from a high security to a low security interface. Because EtherTypes are connectionless, you need to apply the access list to both interfaces if you want traffic to pass in both directions. Implicit and Explicit Deny ACE at the End of an Access List For EtherType access lists, the implicit deny at the end of the access list does not affect IP traffic or ARPs; for example, if you allow EtherType 8037, the implicit deny at the end of the access list does not now block any IP traffic that you previously allowed with an extended access list (or implicitly allowed from a high security interface to a low security interface). However, if you explicitly deny all traffic with an EtherType ACE, then IP and ARP traffic is denied. IPv6 Unsupported EtherType ACEs do not allow IPv6 traffic, even if you specify the IPv6 EtherType. Using Extended and EtherType Access Lists on the Same Interface You can apply only one access list of each type (extended and EtherType) to each direction of an interface. You can also apply the same access lists on multiple interfaces. Allowing MPLS If you allow MPLS, ensure that Label Distribution Protocol and Tag Distribution Protocol TCP connections are established through the security appliance by configuring both MPLS routers connected to the security appliance to use the IP address on the security appliance interface as the router-id for LDP or TDP sessions. (LDP and TDP allow MPLS routers to negotiate the labels (addresses) used to forward packets.) On Cisco IOS routers, enter the appropriate command for your protocol, LDP or TDP. The interface is the interface connected to the security appliance.16-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding an EtherType Access List hostname(config)# mpls ldp router-id interface force Or hostname(config)# tag-switching tdp router-id interface force Adding an EtherType ACE To add an EtherType ACE, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name ethertype {permit | deny} {ipx | bpdu | mpls-unicast | mpls-multicast | any | hex_number} The hex_number is any EtherType that can be identified by a 16-bit hexadecimal number greater than or equal to 0x600. See RFC 1700, “Assigned Numbers,” at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1700.txt for a list of EtherTypes. To remove an ACE, enter the no access-list command with the entire command syntax string as it appears in the configuration: hostname(config)# no access-list access_list_name [line line_number] [extended] {deny | permit} protocol source_address mask [operator port] dest_address mask [operator port | icmp_type] [inactive] To remove an EtherType ACE, enter the no access-list command with the entire command syntax string as it appears in the configuration: ehostname(config)# no access-list access_list_name ethertype {permit | deny} {ipx | bpdu | mpls-unicast | mpls-multicast | any | hex_number} Note If an EtherType access list is configured to deny all, all ethernet frames are discarded. Only physical protocol traffic, such as auto-negotiation, is still allowed. When you enter the access-list command for a given access list name, the ACE is added to the end of the access list. Tip Enter the access_list_name in upper case letters so the name is easy to see in the configuration. You might want to name the access list for the interface (for example, INSIDE), or for the purpose (for example, MPLS or IPX). For example, the following sample access list allows common EtherTypes originating on the inside interface: hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit ipx hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit bpdu hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit mpls-unicast hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside The following access list allows some EtherTypes through the security appliance, but denies IPX: hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype deny ipx hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit 0x1234 hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit bpdu hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit mpls-unicast hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface outside16-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding a Standard Access List The following access list denies traffic with EtherType 0x1256, but allows all others on both interfaces: hostname(config)# access-list nonIP ethertype deny 1256 hostname(config)# access-list nonIP ethertype permit any hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface outside Adding a Standard Access List Single context mode only Standard access lists identify the destination IP addresses of OSPF routes, and can be used in a route map for OSPF redistribution. Standard access lists cannot be applied to interfaces to control traffic. The following command adds a standard ACE. To add another ACE at the end of the access list, enter another access-list command specifying the same access list name. Apply the access list using the “Defining Route Maps” section on page 9-7. To add an ACE, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name standard {deny | permit} {any | ip_address mask} To remove an ACE, enter the no access-list command with the entire command syntax string as it appears in the configuration: hostname(config)# no access-list access_list_name standard {deny | permit} {any | ip_address mask} The following sample access list identifies routes to 192.168.1.0/24: hostname(config)# access-list OSPF standard permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 Adding a Webtype Access List To add an access list to the configuration that supports filtering for WebVPN, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name webtype {deny | permit} url [url_string | any] To remove a Webtype access list, enter the no access-list command with the entire syntax string as it appears in the configuration: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name webtype {deny | permit} url [url_string | any] For information about logging options that you can add to the end of the ACE, see the “Logging Access List Activity” section on page 16-20. Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping This section describes how to use object grouping to simplify access list creation and maintenance. This section includes the following topics: • How Object Grouping Works, page 16-12 • Adding Object Groups, page 16-1216-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping • Nesting Object Groups, page 16-15 • Displaying Object Groups, page 16-17 • Removing Object Groups, page 16-17 • Using Object Groups with an Access List, page 16-16 How Object Grouping Works By grouping like-objects together, you can use the object group in an ACE instead of having to enter an ACE for each object separately. You can create the following types of object groups: • Protocol • Network • Service • ICMP type For example, consider the following three object groups: • MyServices—Includes the TCP and UDP port numbers of the service requests that are allowed access to the internal network • TrustedHosts—Includes the host and network addresses allowed access to the greatest range of services and servers • PublicServers—Includes the host addresses of servers to which the greatest access is provided After creating these groups, you could use a single ACE to allow trusted hosts to make specific service requests to a group of public servers. You can also nest object groups in other object groups. Note The ACE system limit applies to expanded access lists. If you use object groups in ACEs, the number of actual ACEs that you enter is fewer, but the number of expanded ACEs is the same as without object groups. In many cases, object groups create more ACEs than if you added them manually, because creating ACEs manually leads you to summarize addresses more than an object group does. To view the number of expanded ACEs in an access list, enter the show access-list access_list_name command. Adding Object Groups This section describes how to add object groups. This section includes the following topics: • Adding a Protocol Object Group, page 16-13 • Adding a Network Object Group, page 16-13 • Adding a Service Object Group, page 16-14 • Adding an ICMP Type Object Group, page 16-1516-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping Adding a Protocol Object Group To add or change a protocol object group, follow these steps. After you add the group, you can add more objects as required by following this procedure again for the same group name and specifying additional objects. You do not need to reenter existing objects; the commands you already set remain in place unless you remove them with the no form of the command. To add a protocol group, follow these steps: Step 1 To add a protocol group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# object-group protocol grp_id The grp_id is a text string up to 64 characters in length. The prompt changes to protocol configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) To add a description, enter the following command: hostname(config-protocol)# description text The description can be up to 200 characters. Step 3 To define the protocols in the group, enter the following command for each protocol: hostname(config-protocol)# protocol-object protocol The protocol is the numeric identifier of the specific IP protocol (1 to 254) or a keyword identifier (for example, icmp, tcp, or udp). To include all IP protocols, use the keyword ip. For a list of protocols you can specify, see the “Protocols and Applications” section on page D-11. For example, to create a protocol group for TCP, UDP, and ICMP, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# object-group protocol tcp_udp_icmp hostname(config-protocol)# protocol-object tcp hostname(config-protocol)# protocol-object udp hostname(config-protocol)# protocol-object icmp Adding a Network Object Group To add or change a network object group, follow these steps. After you add the group, you can add more objects as required by following this procedure again for the same group name and specifying additional objects. You do not need to reenter existing objects; the commands you already set remain in place unless you remove them with the no form of the command. Note A network object group supports IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, depending on the type of access list. For more information about IPv6 access lists, see “Configuring IPv6 Access Lists” section on page 12-6. To add a network group, follow these steps: Step 1 To add a network group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# object-group network grp_id The grp_id is a text string up to 64 characters in length. The prompt changes to network configuration mode.16-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping Step 2 (Optional) To add a description, enter the following command: hostname(config-network)# description text The description can be up to 200 characters. Step 3 To define the networks in the group, enter the following command for each network or address: hostname(config-network)# network-object {host ip_address | ip_address mask} For example, to create network group that includes the IP addresses of three administrators, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# object-group network admins hostname(config-network)# description Administrator Addresses hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.78 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.34 Adding a Service Object Group To add or change a service object group, follow these steps. After you add the group, you can add more objects as required by following this procedure again for the same group name and specifying additional objects. You do not need to reenter existing objects; the commands you already set remain in place unless you remove them with the no form of the command. To add a service group, follow these steps: Step 1 To add a service group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# object-group service grp_id {tcp | udp | tcp-udp} The grp_id is a text string up to 64 characters in length. Specify the protocol for the services (ports) you want to add, either tcp, udp, or tcp-udp keywords. Enter tcp-udp keyword if your service uses both TCP and UDP with the same port number, for example, DNS (port 53). The prompt changes to service configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) To add a description, enter the following command: hostname(config-service)# description text The description can be up to 200 characters. Step 3 To define the ports in the group, enter the following command for each port or range of ports: hostname(config-service)# port-object {eq port | range begin_port end_port} For a list of permitted keywords and well-known port assignments, see the “Protocols and Applications” section on page D-11. For example, to create service groups that include DNS (TCP/UDP), LDAP (TCP), and RADIUS (UDP), enter the following commands: hostname(config)# object-group service services1 tcp-udp hostname(config-service)# description DNS Group hostname(config-service)# port-object eq domain16-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping hostname(config-service)# object-group service services2 udp hostname(config-service)# description RADIUS Group hostname(config-service)# port-object eq radius hostname(config-service)# port-object eq radius-acct hostname(config-service)# object-group service services3 tcp hostname(config-service)# description LDAP Group hostname(config-service)# port-object eq ldap Adding an ICMP Type Object Group To add or change an ICMP type object group, follow these steps. After you add the group, you can add more objects as required by following this procedure again for the same group name and specifying additional objects. You do not need to reenter existing objects; the commands you already set remain in place unless you remove them with the no form of the command. To add an ICMP type group, follow these steps: Step 1 To add an ICMP type group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# object-group icmp-type grp_id The grp_id is a text string up to 64 characters in length. The prompt changes to ICMP type configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) To add a description, enter the following command: hostname(config-icmp-type)# description text The description can be up to 200 characters. Step 3 To define the ICMP types in the group, enter the following command for each type: hostname(config-icmp-type)# icmp-object icmp_type See the “ICMP Types” section on page D-15 for a list of ICMP types. For example, to create an ICMP type group that includes echo-reply and echo (for controlling ping), enter the following commands: hostname(config)# object-group icmp-type ping hostname(config-service)# description Ping Group hostname(config-icmp-type)# icmp-object echo hostname(config-icmp-type)# icmp-object echo-reply Nesting Object Groups To nest an object group within another object group of the same type, first create the group that you want to nest according to the “Adding Object Groups” section on page 16-12. Then follow these steps: Step 1 To add or edit an object group under which you want to nest another object group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# object-group {{protocol | network | icmp-type} grp_id | service grp_id {tcp | udp | tcp-udp}}16-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping Step 2 To add the specified group under the object group you specified in Step 1, enter the following command: hostname(config-group_type)# group-object grp_id The nested group must be of the same type. You can mix and match nested group objects and regular objects within an object group. For example, you create network object groups for privileged users from various departments: hostname(config)# object-group network eng hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.5 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.9 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.89 hostname(config-network)# object-group network hr hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.2.8 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.2.12 hostname(config-network)# object-group network finance hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.4.89 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.4.100 You then nest all three groups together as follows: hostname(config)# object-group network admin hostname(config-network)# group-object eng hostname(config-network)# group-object hr hostname(config-network)# group-object finance You only need to specify the admin object group in your ACE as follows: hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip object-group admin host 209.165.201.29 Using Object Groups with an Access List To use object groups in an access list, replace the normal protocol (protocol), network (source_address mask, etc.), service (operator port), or ICMP type (icmp_type) parameter with object-group grp_id parameter. For example, to use object groups for all available parameters in the access-list {tcp | udp} command, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name [line line_number] [extended] {deny | permit} {tcp | udp} object-group nw_grp_id [object-group svc_grp_id] object-group nw_grp_id [object-group svc_grp_id] [log [[level] [interval secs] | disable | default]] [inactive | time-range time_range_name] You do not have to use object groups for all parameters; for example, you can use an object group for the source address, but identify the destination address with an address and mask. The following normal access list that does not use object groups restricts several hosts on the inside network from accessing several web servers. All other traffic is allowed. hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.4 host 209.165.201.29 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.78 host 209.165.201.29 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.89 host 209.165.201.29 eq www16-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Simplifying Access Lists with Object Grouping hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.4 host 209.165.201.16 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.78 host 209.165.201.16 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.89 host 209.165.201.16 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.4 host 209.165.201.78 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.78 host 209.165.201.78 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp host 10.1.1.89 host 209.165.201.78 eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any hostname(config)# access-group ACL_IN in interface inside If you make two network object groups, one for the inside hosts, and one for the web servers, then the configuration can be simplified and can be easily modified to add more hosts: hostname(config)# object-group network denied hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.4 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.78 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 10.1.1.89 hostname(config-network)# object-group network web hostname(config-network)# network-object host 209.165.201.29 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 209.165.201.16 hostname(config-network)# network-object host 209.165.201.78 hostname(config-network)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp object-group denied object-group web eq www hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any hostname(config)# access-group ACL_IN in interface inside Displaying Object Groups To display a list of the currently configured object groups, enter the following command: hostname(config)# show object-group [protocol | network | service | icmp-type | id grp_id] If you enter the command without any parameters, the system displays all configured object groups. The following is sample output from the show object-group command: hostname# show object-group object-group network ftp_servers description: This is a group of FTP servers network-object host 209.165.201.3 network-object host 209.165.201.4 object-group network TrustedHosts network-object host 209.165.201.1 network-object 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 group-object ftp_servers Removing Object Groups To remove an object group, enter one of the following commands. Note You cannot remove an object group or make an object group empty if it is used in an access list.16-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Adding Remarks to Access Lists • To remove a specific object group, enter the following command: hostname(config)# no object-group grp_id • To remove all object groups of the specified type, enter the following command: hostname(config)# clear object-group [protocol | network | services | icmp-type] If you do not enter a type, all object groups are removed. Adding Remarks to Access Lists You can include remarks about entries in any access list, including extended, EtherType, and standard access lists. The remarks make the access list easier to understand. To add a remark after the last access-list command you entered, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name remark text If you enter the remark before any access-list command, then the remark is the first line in the access list. If you delete an access list using the no access-list access_list_name command, then all the remarks are also removed. The text can be up to 100 characters in length. You can enter leading spaces at the beginning of the text. Trailing spaces are ignored. For example, you can add remarks before each ACE, and the remark appears in the access list in this location. Entering a dash (-) at the beginning of the remark helps set it apart from ACEs. hostname(config)# access-list OUT remark - this is the inside admin address hostname(config)# access-list OUT extended permit ip host 209.168.200.3 any hostname(config)# access-list OUT remark - this is the hr admin address hostname(config)# access-list OUT extended permit ip host 209.168.200.4 any Scheduling Extended Access List Activation You can schedule each ACE to be activated at specific times of the day and week by applying a time range to the ACE. This section includes the following topics: • Adding a Time Range, page 16-18 • Applying the Time Range to an ACE, page 16-19 Adding a Time Range To add a time range to implement a time-based access list, perform the following steps: Step 1 Identify the time-range name by entering the following command: hostname(config)# time-range name Step 2 Specify the time range as either a recurring time range or an absolute time range.16-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Scheduling Extended Access List Activation Note Users could experience a delay of approximately 80 to 100 seconds after the specified end time for the ACL to become inactive. For example, if the specified end time is 3:50, because the end time is inclusive, the command is picked up anywhere between 3:51:00 and 3:51:59. After the command is picked up, the security appliance finishes any currently running task and then services the command to deactivate the ACL. Multiple periodic entries are allowed per time-range command. If a time-range command has both absolute and periodic values specified, then the periodic commands are evaluated only after the absolute start time is reached, and are not further evaluated after the absolute end time is reached. • Recurring time range: hostname(config-time-range)# periodic days-of-the-week time to [days-of-the-week] time You can specify the following values for days-of-the-week: – monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, friday, saturday, and sunday. – daily – weekdays – weekend The time is in the format hh:mm. For example, 8:00 is 8:00 a.m. and 20:00 is 8:00 p.m. • Absolute time range: hostname(config-time-range)# absolute start time date [end time date] The time is in the format hh:mm. For example, 8:00 is 8:00 a.m. and 20:00 is 8:00 p.m. The date is in the format day month year; for example, 1 january 2006. The following is an example of an absolute time range beginning at 8:00 a.m. on January 1, 2006. Because no end time and date are specified, the time range is in effect indefinitely. hostname(config)# time-range for2006 hostname(config-time-range)# absolute start 8:00 1 january 2006 The following is an example of a weekly periodic time range from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m on weekdays.: hostname(config)# time-range workinghours hostname(config-time-range)# periodic weekdays 8:00 to 18:00 Applying the Time Range to an ACE To apply the time range to an ACE, use the following command: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name [extended] {deny | permit}...[time-range name] See the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5 for complete access-list command syntax.16-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Logging Access List Activity Note If you also enable logging for the ACE, use the log keyword before the time-range keyword. If you disable the ACE using the inactive keyword, use the inactive keyword as the last keyword. The following example binds an access list named “Sales” to a time range named “New_York_Minute.” hostname(config)# access-list Sales line 1 extended deny tcp host 209.165.200.225 host 209.165.201.1 time-range New_York_Minute Logging Access List Activity This section describes how to configure access list logging for extended access lists and Webtype access lists. This section includes the following topics: • Access List Logging Overview, page 16-20 • Configuring Logging for an Access Control Entry, page 16-21 • Managing Deny Flows, page 16-22 Access List Logging Overview By default, when traffic is denied by an extended ACE or a Webtype ACE, the security appliance generates system message 106023 for each denied packet, in the following form: %ASA|PIX-4-106023: Deny protocol src [interface_name:source_address/source_port] dst interface_name:dest_address/dest_port [type {string}, code {code}] by access_group acl_id If the security appliance is attacked, the number of system messages for denied packets can be very large. We recommend that you instead enable logging using system message 106100, which provides statistics for each ACE and lets you limit the number of system messages produced. Alternatively, you can disable all logging. Note Only ACEs in the access list generate logging messages; the implicit deny at the end of the access list does not generate a message. If you want all denied traffic to generate messages, add the implicit ACE manually to the end of the access list, as follows. hostname(config)# access-list TEST deny ip any any log The log options at the end of the extended access-list command lets you to set the following behavior: • Enable message 106100 instead of message 106023 • Disable all logging • Return to the default logging using message 106023 System message 106100 is in the following form: %ASA|PIX-n-106100: access-list acl_id {permitted | denied} protocol interface_name/source_address(source_port) -> interface_name/dest_address(dest_port) hit-cnt number ({first hit | number-second interval})16-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Logging Access List Activity When you enable logging for message 106100, if a packet matches an ACE, the security appliance creates a flow entry to track the number of packets received within a specific interval. The security appliance generates a system message at the first hit and at the end of each interval, identifying the total number of hits during the interval. At the end of each interval, the security appliance resets the hit count to 0. If no packets match the ACE during an interval, the security appliance deletes the flow entry. A flow is defined by the source and destination IP addresses, protocols, and ports. Because the source port might differ for a new connection between the same two hosts, you might not see the same flow increment because a new flow was created for the connection. See the “Managing Deny Flows” section on page 16-22 to limit the number of logging flows. Permitted packets that belong to established connections do not need to be checked against access lists; only the initial packet is logged and included in the hit count. For connectionless protocols, such as ICMP, all packets are logged even if they are permitted, and all denied packets are logged. See the Cisco Security Appliance Logging Configuration and System Log Messages for detailed information about this system message. Configuring Logging for an Access Control Entry To configure logging for an ACE, see the following information about the log option: hostname(config)# access-list access_list_name [extended] {deny | permit}...[log [[level] [interval secs] | disable | default]] See the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5 and “Adding a Webtype Access List” section on page 16-11 for complete access-list command syntax. If you enter the log option without any arguments, you enable system log message 106100 at the default level (6) and for the default interval (300 seconds). See the following options: • level—A severity level between 0 and 7. The default is 6. • interval secs—The time interval in seconds between system messages, from 1 to 600. The default is 300. This value is also used as the timeout value for deleting an inactive flow. • disable—Disables all access list logging. • default—Enables logging to message 106023. This setting is the same as having no log option. For example, you configure the following access list: hostname(config)# access-list outside-acl permit ip host 1.1.1.1 any log 7 interval 600 hostname(config)# access-list outside-acl permit ip host 2.2.2.2 any hostname(config)# access-list outside-acl deny ip any any log 2 hostname(config)# access-group outside-acl in interface outside When a packet is permitted by the first ACE of outside-acl, the security appliance generates the following system message: %ASA|PIX-7-106100: access-list outside-acl permitted tcp outside/1.1.1.1(12345) -> inside/192.168.1.1(1357) hit-cnt 1 (first hit) Although 20 additional packets for this connection arrive on the outside interface, the traffic does not have to be checked against the access list, and the hit count does not increase. If one more connection by the same host is initiated within the specified 10 minute interval (and the source and destination ports remain the same), then the hit count is incremented by 1 and the following message is displayed at the end of the 10 minute interval: %ASA|PIX-7-106100: access-list outside-acl permitted tcp outside/1.1.1.1(12345)-> inside/192.168.1.1(1357) hit-cnt 2 (600-second interval)16-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 16 Identifying Traffic with Access Lists Logging Access List Activity When a packet is denied by the third ACE, the security appliance generates the following system message: %ASA|PIX-2-106100: access-list outside-acl denied ip outside/3.3.3.3(12345) -> inside/192.168.1.1(1357) hit-cnt 1 (first hit) 20 additional attempts within a 5 minute interval (the default) result in the following message at the end of 5 minutes: %ASA|PIX-2-106100: access-list outside-acl denied ip outside/3.3.3.3(12345) -> inside/192.168.1.1(1357) hit-cnt 21 (300-second interval) Managing Deny Flows When you enable logging for message 106100, if a packet matches an ACE, the security appliance creates a flow entry to track the number of packets received within a specific interval. The security appliance has a maximum of 32 K logging flows for ACEs. A large number of flows can exist concurrently at any point of time. To prevent unlimited consumption of memory and CPU resources, the security appliance places a limit on the number of concurrent deny flows; the limit is placed only on deny flows (and not permit flows) because they can indicate an attack. When the limit is reached, the security appliance does not create a new deny flow for logging until the existing flows expire. For example, if someone initiates a DoS attack, the security appliance can create a large number of deny flows in a short period of time. Restricting the number of deny flows prevents unlimited consumption of memory and CPU resources. When you reach the maximum number of deny flows, the security appliance issues system message 106100: %ASA|PIX-1-106101: The number of ACL log deny-flows has reached limit (number). To configure the maximum number of deny flows and to set the interval between deny flow alert messages (106101), enter the following commands: • To set the maximum number of deny flows permitted per context before the security appliance stops logging, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list deny-flow-max number The number is between 1 and 4096. 4096 is the default. • To set the amount of time between system messages (number 106101) that identify that the maximum number of deny flows was reached, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list alert-interval secs The seconds are between 1 and 3600. 300 is the default.C H A P T E R 17-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 17 Applying NAT This chapter describes Network Address Translation (NAT). In routed firewall mode, the security appliance can perform NAT between each network. Note In transparent firewall mode, the security appliance does not support NAT. This chapter contains the following sections: • NAT Overview, page 17-1 • Configuring NAT Control, page 17-16 • Using Dynamic NAT and PAT, page 17-17 • Using Static NAT, page 17-26 • Using Static PAT, page 17-27 • Bypassing NAT, page 17-29 • NAT Examples, page 17-33 NAT Overview This section describes how NAT works on the security appliance, and includes the following topics: • Introduction to NAT, page 17-2 • NAT Control, page 17-3 • NAT Types, page 17-5 • Policy NAT, page 17-9 • NAT and Same Security Level Interfaces, page 17-13 • Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Real Addresses, page 17-14 • Mapped Address Guidelines, page 17-14 • DNS and NAT, page 17-1417-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Introduction to NAT Address translation substitutes the real address in a packet with a mapped address that is routable on the destination network. NAT is comprised of two steps: the process in which a real address is translated into a mapped address, and then the process to undo translation for returning traffic. The security appliance translates an address when a NAT rule matches the traffic. If no NAT rule matches, processing for the packet continues. The exception is when you enable NAT control. NAT control requires that packets traversing from a higher security interface (inside) to a lower security interface (outside) match a NAT rule, or else processing for the packet stops. (See the “Security Level Overview” section on page 7-1 for more information about security levels, and see “NAT Control” section on page 17-3 for more information about NAT control). Note In this document, all types of translation are generally referred to as NAT. When discussing NAT, the terms inside and outside are relative, and represent the security relationship between any two interfaces. The higher security level is inside and the lower security level is outside; for example, interface 1 is at 60 and interface 2 is at 50, so interface 1 is “inside” and interface 2 is “outside.” Some of the benefits of NAT are as follows: • You can use private addresses on your inside networks. Private addresses are not routable on the Internet. (See the “Private Networks” section on page D-2 for more information.) • NAT hides the real addresses from other networks, so attackers cannot learn the real address of a host. • You can resolve IP routing problems such as overlapping addresses. See Table 25-1 on page 25-3 for information about protocols that do not support NAT. Figure 17-1 shows a typical NAT scenario, with a private network on the inside. When the inside host at 10.1.2.27 sends a packet to a web server, the real source address, 10.1.2.27, of the packet is changed to a mapped address, 209.165.201.10. When the server responds, it sends the response to the mapped address, 209.165.201.10, and the security appliance receives the packet. The security appliance then undoes the translation of the mapped address, 209.165.201.10 back to the real address, 10.1.2.27 before sending it on to the host.17-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-1 NAT Example See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.1-209.165.201.15 NAT Control NAT control requires that packets traversing from an inside interface to an outside interface match a NAT rule; for any host on the inside network to access a host on the outside network, you must configure NAT to translate the inside host address (see Figure 17-2). Figure 17-2 NAT Control and Outbound Traffic Web Server www.cisco.com Outside Inside 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.2.27 130023 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.10 Originating Packet Undo Translation 209.165.201.10 10.1.2.27 Responding Security Packet Appliance 10.1.1.1 NAT No NAT 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 10.1.2.1 Security Appliance 13221217-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Interfaces at the same security level are not required to use NAT to communicate. However, if you configure dynamic NAT or PAT on a same security interface, then all traffic from the interface to a same security interface or an outside interface must match a NAT rule (see Figure 17-3). Figure 17-3 NAT Control and Same Security Traffic Similarly, if you enable outside dynamic NAT or PAT, then all outside traffic must match a NAT rule when it accesses an inside interface (see Figure 17-4). Figure 17-4 NAT Control and Inbound Traffic Static NAT does not cause these restrictions. By default, NAT control is disabled, so you do not need to perform NAT on any networks unless you choose to perform NAT. If you upgraded from an earlier version of software, however, NAT control might be enabled on your system. Even with NAT control disabled, you need to perform NAT on any addresses for which you configure dynamic NAT. See the “Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation” section on page 17-17 for more information on how dynamic NAT is applied. If you want the added security of NAT control but do not want to translate inside addresses in some cases, you can apply a NAT exemption or identity NAT rule on those addresses. (See the “Bypassing NAT” section on page 17-29 for more information). To configure NAT control, see the “Configuring NAT Control” section on page 17-16. Note In multiple context mode, the packet classifier might rely on the NAT configuration to assign packets to contexts if you do not enable unique MAC addresses for shared interfaces. See the “How the Security Appliance Classifies Packets” section on page 3-3 for more information about the relationship between the classifier and NAT. 10.1.1.1 Dyn. NAT No NAT 209.165.201.1 Level 50 Level 50 or Outside 10.1.2.1 Security Appliance 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.1 No NAT Level 50 Level 50 Security Appliance 132215 209.165.202.129 No NAT 209.165.202.129 Outside Inside Security Appliance 209.165.202.129 209.165.200.240 Dyn. NAT 10.1.1.50 Outside Inside Security Appliance No NAT 13221317-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview NAT Types This section describes the available NAT types. You can implement address translation as dynamic NAT, Port Address Translation, static NAT, or static PAT or as a mix of these types. You can also configure rules to bypass NAT, for example, if you enable NAT control but do not want to perform NAT. This section includes the following topics: • Dynamic NAT, page 17-5 • PAT, page 17-7 • Static NAT, page 17-7 • Static PAT, page 17-8 • Bypassing NAT When NAT Control is Enabled, page 17-9 Dynamic NAT Dynamic NAT translates a group of real addresses to a pool of mapped addresses that are routable on the destination network. The mapped pool can include fewer addresses than the real group. When a host you want to translate accesses the destination network, the security appliance assigns it an IP address from the mapped pool. The translation is added only when the real host initiates the connection. The translation is in place only for the duration of the connection, and a given user does not keep the same IP address after the translation times out (see the timeout xlate command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference). Users on the destination network, therefore, cannot reliably initiate a connection to a host that uses dynamic NAT (even if the connection is allowed by an access list), and the security appliance rejects any attempt to connect to a real host address directly. See the following “Static NAT” or “Static PAT” sections for reliable access to hosts. Note In some cases, a translation is added for a connection (see the show xlate command) even though the session is denied by the security appliance. This condition occurs with an outbound access list, a management-only interface, or a backup interface. The translation times out normally. Figure 17-5 shows a remote host attempting to connect to the real address. The connection is denied because the security appliance only allows returning connections to the mapped address.17-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-5 Remote Host Attempts to Connect to the Real Address Figure 17-6 shows a remote host attempting to initiate a connection to a mapped address. This address is not currently in the translation table, so the security appliance drops the packet. Figure 17-6 Remote Host Attempts to Initiate a Connection to a Mapped Address Note For the duration of the translation, a remote host can initiate a connection to the translated host if an access list allows it. Because the address is unpredictable, a connection to the host is unlikely. However in this case, you can rely on the security of the access list. Web Server www.example.com Outside Inside 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.2.27 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.10 10.1.2.27 Security Appliance 132216 Web Server www.example.com Outside Inside 209.165.201.2 10.1.2.1 10.1.2.27 Security Appliance 209.165.201.10 13221717-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Dynamic NAT has these disadvantages: • If the mapped pool has fewer addresses than the real group, you could run out of addresses if the amount of traffic is more than expected. Use PAT if this event occurs often, because PAT provides over 64,000 translations using ports of a single address. • You have to use a large number of routable addresses in the mapped pool; if the destination network requires registered addresses, such as the Internet, you might encounter a shortage of usable addresses. The advantage of dynamic NAT is that some protocols cannot use PAT. For example, PAT does not work with IP protocols that do not have a port to overload, such as GRE version 0. PAT also does not work with some applications that have a data stream on one port and the control path on another and are not open standard, such as some multimedia applications. See the “When to Use Application Protocol Inspection” section on page 25-2 for more information about NAT and PAT support. PAT PAT translates multiple real addresses to a single mapped IP address. Specifically, the security appliance translates the real address and source port (real socket) to the mapped address and a unique port above 1024 (mapped socket). Each connection requires a separate translation, because the source port differs for each connection. For example, 10.1.1.1:1025 requires a separate translation from 10.1.1.1:1026. After the connection expires, the port translation also expires after 30 seconds of inactivity. The timeout is not configurable. Users on the destination network cannot reliably initiate a connection to a host that uses PAT (even if the connection is allowed by an access list). Not only can you not predict the real or mapped port number of the host, but the security appliance does not create a translation at all unless the translated host is the initiator. See the following “Static NAT” or “Static PAT” sections for reliable access to hosts. PAT lets you use a single mapped address, thus conserving routable addresses. You can even use the security appliance interface IP address as the PAT address. PAT does not work with some multimedia applications that have a data stream that is different from the control path. See the “When to Use Application Protocol Inspection” section on page 25-2 for more information about NAT and PAT support. Note For the duration of the translation, a remote host can initiate a connection to the translated host if an access list allows it. Because the port address (both real and mapped) is unpredictable, a connection to the host is unlikely. Nevertheless, in this case, you can rely on the security of the access list. However, policy PAT does not support time-based ACLs. Static NAT Static NAT creates a fixed translation of real address(es) to mapped address(es).With dynamic NAT and PAT, each host uses a different address or port for each subsequent translation. Because the mapped address is the same for each consecutive connection with static NAT, and a persistent translation rule exists, static NAT allows hosts on the destination network to initiate traffic to a translated host (if there is an access list that allows it). The main difference between dynamic NAT and a range of addresses for static NAT is that static NAT allows a remote host to initiate a connection to a translated host (if there is an access list that allows it), while dynamic NAT does not. You also need an equal number of mapped addresses as real addresses with static NAT.17-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Static PAT Static PAT is the same as static NAT, except it lets you specify the protocol (TCP or UDP) and port for the real and mapped addresses. This feature lets you identify the same mapped address across many different static statements, so long as the port is different for each statement (you cannot use the same mapped address for multiple static NAT statements). For applications that require application inspection for secondary channels (FTP, VoIP, etc.), the security appliance automatically translates the secondary ports. For example, if you want to provide a single address for remote users to access FTP, HTTP, and SMTP, but these are all actually different servers on the real network, you can specify static PAT statements for each server that uses the same mapped IP address, but different ports (see Figure 17-7). Figure 17-7 Static PAT See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.3 ftp 10.1.2.27 ftp netmask 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.3 http 10.1.2.28 http netmask 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.3 smtp 10.1.2.29 smtp netmask 255.255.255.255 You can also use static PAT to translate a well-known port to a non-standard port or vice versa. For example, if your inside web servers use port 8080, you can allow outside users to connect to port 80, and then undo translation to the original port 8080. Similarly, if you want to provide extra security, you can tell your web users to connect to non-standard port 6785, and then undo translation to port 80. Host Outside Inside Undo Translation 209.165.201.3:21 10.1.2.27 Undo Translation 209.165.201.3:80 10.1.2.28 Undo Translation 209.165.201.3:25 10.1.2.29 FTP server 10.1.2.27 HTTP server 10.1.2.28 SMTP server 10.1.2.29 13003117-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Bypassing NAT When NAT Control is Enabled If you enable NAT control, then inside hosts must match a NAT rule when accessing outside hosts. If you do not want to perform NAT for some hosts, then you can bypass NAT for those hosts (alternatively, you can disable NAT control). You might want to bypass NAT, for example, if you are using an application that does not support NAT (see the “When to Use Application Protocol Inspection” section on page 25-2 for information about inspection engines that do not support NAT). You can configure traffic to bypass NAT using one of three methods. All methods achieve compatibility with inspection engines. However, each method offers slightly different capabilities, as follows: • Identity NAT (nat 0 command)—When you configure identity NAT (which is similar to dynamic NAT), you do not limit translation for a host on specific interfaces; you must use identity NAT for connections through all interfaces. Therefore, you cannot choose to perform normal translation on real addresses when you access interface A, but use identity NAT when accessing interface B. Regular dynamic NAT, on the other hand, lets you specify a particular interface on which to translate the addresses. Make sure that the real addresses for which you use identity NAT are routable on all networks that are available according to your access lists. For identity NAT, even though the mapped address is the same as the real address, you cannot initiate a connection from the outside to the inside (even if the interface access list allows it). Use static identity NAT or NAT exemption for this functionality. • Static identity NAT (static command)—Static identity NAT lets you specify the interface on which you want to allow the real addresses to appear, so you can use identity NAT when you access interface A, and use regular translation when you access interface B. Static identity NAT also lets you use policy NAT, which identifies the real and destination addresses when determining the real addresses to translate (see the “Policy NAT” section on page 17-9 for more information about policy NAT). For example, you can use static identity NAT for an inside address when it accesses the outside interface and the destination is server A, but use a normal translation when accessing the outside server B. • NAT exemption (nat 0 access-list command)—NAT exemption allows both translated and remote hosts to initiate connections. Like identity NAT, you do not limit translation for a host on specific interfaces; you must use NAT exemption for connections through all interfaces. However, NAT exemption does let you specify the real and destination addresses when determining the real addresses to translate (similar to policy NAT), so you have greater control using NAT exemption. However unlike policy NAT, NAT exemption does not consider the ports in the access list. Policy NAT Policy NAT lets you identify real addresses for address translation by specifying the source and destination addresses in an extended access list. You can also optionally specify the source and destination ports. Regular NAT can only consider the real addresses. For example, you can use translate the real address to mapped address A when it accesses server A, but translate the real address to mapped address B when it accesses server B. Note Policy NAT does not support time-based ACLs. When you specify the ports in policy NAT for applications that require application inspection for secondary channels (FTP, VoIP, etc.), the security appliance automatically translates the secondary ports.17-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Note All types of NAT support policy NAT except for NAT exemption. NAT exemption uses an access list to identify the real addresses, but differs from policy NAT in that the ports are not considered. See the “Bypassing NAT” section on page 17-29 for other differences. You can accomplish the same result as NAT exemption using static identity NAT, which does support policy NAT. Figure 17-8 shows a host on the 10.1.2.0/24 network accessing two different servers. When the host accesses the server at 209.165.201.11, the real address is translated to 209.165.202.129. When the host accesses the server at 209.165.200.225, the real address is translated to 209.165.202.130 so that the host appears to be on the same network as the servers, which can help with routing. Figure 17-8 Policy NAT with Different Destination Addresses See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list NET2 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 access-list NET1 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 access-list NET2 hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 209.165.202.130 Server 1 209.165.201.11 Server 2 209.165.200.225 DMZ Inside 10.1.2.27 10.1.2.0/24 130039 209.165.201.0/27 209.165.200.224/27 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.202.129 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.202.130 Packet Dest. Address: 209.165.201.11 Packet Dest. Address: 209.165.200.22517-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-9 shows the use of source and destination ports. The host on the 10.1.2.0/24 network accesses a single host for both web services and Telnet services. When the host accesses the server for web services, the real address is translated to 209.165.202.129. When the host accesses the same server for Telnet services, the real address is translated to 209.165.202.130. Figure 17-9 Policy NAT with Different Destination Ports See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list WEB permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 80 hostname(config)# access-list TELNET permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 23 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 access-list WEB hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 access-list TELNET hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 209.165.202.130 For policy static NAT (and for NAT exemption, which also uses an access list to identify traffic), both translated and remote hosts can originate traffic. For traffic originated on the translated network, the NAT access list specifies the real addresses and the destination addresses, but for traffic originated on the remote network, the access list identifies the real addresses and the source addresses of remote hosts who are allowed to connect to the host using this translation. Web and Telnet server: 209.165.201.11 Internet Inside Translation 10.1.2.27:80 209.165.202.129 10.1.2.27 10.1.2.0/24 Translation 10.1.2.27:23 209.165.202.130 Web Packet Dest. Address: 209.165.201.11:80 Telnet Packet Dest. Address: 209.165.201.11:23 13004017-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-10 shows a remote host connecting to a translated host. The translated host has a policy static NAT translation that translates the real address only for traffic to and from the 209.165.201.0/27 network. A translation does not exist for the 209.165.200.224/27 network, so the translated host cannot connect to that network, nor can a host on that network connect to the translated host. Figure 17-10 Policy Static NAT with Destination Address Translation See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.224 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.202.128 access-list NET1 Note For policy static NAT, in undoing the translation, the ACL in the static command is not used. If the destination address in the packet matches the mapped address in the static rule, the static rule is used to untranslate the address. Note Policy NAT does not support SQL*Net, but it is supported by regular NAT. See the “When to Use Application Protocol Inspection” section on page 25-2 for information about NAT support for other protocols. You cannot use policy static NAT to translate different real addresses to the same mapped address. For example, Figure 17-11 shows two inside hosts, 10.1.1.1 and 10.1.1.2, that you want to be translated to 209.165.200.225. When outside host 209.165.201.1 connects to 209.165.200.225, then the connection goes to 10.1.1.1. When outside host 209.165.201.2 connects to the same mapped address, 209.165.200.225, you want the connection to go to 10.1.1.2. However, only one source address in the access list can be used. Since the first ACE is for 10.1.1.1, then all inbound connections sourced from 209.165.201.1 and 209.165.201.2 and destined to 209.165.200.255 will have their destination address translated to 10.1.1.1. 209.165.201.11 209.165.200.225 DMZ Inside No Translation 10.1.2.27 10.1.2.27 10.1.2.0/27 209.165.201.0/27 209.165.200.224/27 Undo Translation 209.165.202.128 13003717-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-11 Real Addresses Cannot Share the Same Mapped Address See the following commands for this example. (Although the second ACE in the example does allow 209.165.201.2 to connect to 209.165.200.225, it only allows 209.165.200.225 to be translated to 10.1.1.1.) hostname(config)# static (in,out) 209.165.200.225 access-list policy-nat hostname(config)# access-list policy-nat permit ip host 10.1.1.1 host 209.165.201.1 hostname(config)# access-list policy-nat permit ip host 10.1.1.2 host 209.165.201.2 NAT and Same Security Level Interfaces NAT is not required between same security level interfaces even if you enable NAT control. You can optionally configure NAT if desired. However, if you configure dynamic NAT when NAT control is enabled, then NAT is required. See the “NAT Control” section on page 17-3 for more information. Also, when you specify a group of IP address(es) for dynamic NAT or PAT on a same security interface, then you must perform NAT on that group of addresses when they access any lower or same security level interface (even when NAT control is not enabled). Traffic identified for static NAT is not affected. See the “Allowing Communication Between Interfaces on the Same Security Level” section on page 7-6 to enable same security communication. Note The security appliance does not support VoIP inspection engines when you configure NAT on same security interfaces. These inspection engines include Skinny, SIP, and H.323. See the “When to Use Application Protocol Inspection” section on page 25-2 for supported inspection engines. 209.165.201.1 Outside Inside 10.1.1.1 209.165.201.2 10.1.1.2 Undo Translation 209.165.200.225 10.1.1.1 209.165.200.225 10.1.1.2 No Undo Translation 24298117-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Real Addresses The security appliance matches real addresses to NAT commands in the following order: 1. NAT exemption (nat 0 access-list)—In order, until the first match. Identity NAT is not included in this category; it is included in the regular static NAT or regular NAT category. We do not recommend overlapping addresses in NAT exemption statements because unexpected results can occur. 2. Static NAT and Static PAT (regular and policy) (static)—In order, until the first match. Static identity NAT is included in this category. 3. Policy dynamic NAT (nat access-list)—In order, until the first match. Overlapping addresses are allowed. 4. Regular dynamic NAT (nat)—Best match. Regular identity NAT is included in this category. The order of the NAT commands does not matter; the NAT statement that best matches the real address is used. For example, you can create a general statement to translate all addresses (0.0.0.0) on an interface. If you want to translate a subset of your network (10.1.1.1) to a different address, then you can create a statement to translate only 10.1.1.1. When 10.1.1.1 makes a connection, the specific statement for 10.1.1.1 is used because it matches the real address best. We do not recommend using overlapping statements; they use more memory and can slow the performance of the security appliance. Mapped Address Guidelines When you translate the real address to a mapped address, you can use the following mapped addresses: • Addresses on the same network as the mapped interface. If you use addresses on the same network as the mapped interface (through which traffic exits the security appliance), the security appliance uses proxy ARP to answer any requests for mapped addresses, and thus intercepts traffic destined for a real address. This solution simplifies routing, because the security appliance does not have to be the gateway for any additional networks. However, this approach does put a limit on the number of available addresses used for translations. For PAT, you can even use the IP address of the mapped interface. • Addresses on a unique network. If you need more addresses than are available on the mapped interface network, you can identify addresses on a different subnet. The security appliance uses proxy ARP to answer any requests for mapped addresses, and thus intercepts traffic destined for a real address. If you use OSPF, and you advertise routes on the mapped interface, then the security appliance advertises the mapped addresses. If the mapped interface is passive (not advertising routes) or you are using static routing, then you need to add a static route on the upstream router that sends traffic destined for the mapped addresses to the security appliance. DNS and NAT You might need to configure the security appliance to modify DNS replies by replacing the address in the reply with an address that matches the NAT configuration. You can configure DNS modification when you configure each translation. For example, a DNS server is accessible from the outside interface. A server, ftp.cisco.com, is on the inside interface. You configure the security appliance to statically translate the ftp.cisco.com real address (10.1.3.14) to a mapped address (209.165.201.10) that is visible on the outside network (see 17-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Overview Figure 17-12). In this case, you want to enable DNS reply modification on this static statement so that inside users who have access to ftp.cisco.com using the real address receive the real address from the DNS server, and not the mapped address. When an inside host sends a DNS request for the address of ftp.cisco.com, the DNS server replies with the mapped address (209.165.201.10). The security appliance refers to the static statement for the inside server and translates the address inside the DNS reply to 10.1.3.14. If you do not enable DNS reply modification, then the inside host attempts to send traffic to 209.165.201.10 instead of accessing ftp.cisco.com directly. Figure 17-12 DNS Reply Modification See the following command for this example: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.10 10.1.3.14 netmask 255.255.255.255 dns Note If a user on a different network (for example, DMZ) also requests the IP address for ftp.cisco.com from the outside DNS server, then the IP address in the DNS reply is also modified for this user, even though the user is not on the Inside interface referenced by the static command. DNS Server Outside Inside User 130021 1 2 3 4 5 DNS Reply Modification 209.165.201.10 10.1.3.14 DNS Reply 209.165.201.10 DNS Reply 10.1.3.14 DNS Query ftp.cisco.com? FTP Request 10.1.3.14 Security Appliance ftp.cisco.com 10.1.3.14 Static Translation on Outside to: 209.165.201.1017-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Configuring NAT Control Figure 17-13 shows a web server and DNS server on the outside. The security appliance has a static translation for the outside server. In this case, when an inside user requests the address for ftp.cisco.com from the DNS server, the DNS server responds with the real address, 209.165.20.10. Because you want inside users to use the mapped address for ftp.cisco.com (10.1.2.56) you need to configure DNS reply modification for the static translation. Figure 17-13 DNS Reply Modification Using Outside NAT See the following command for this example: hostname(config)# static (outside,inside) 10.1.2.56 209.165.201.10 netmask 255.255.255.255 dns Configuring NAT Control NAT control requires that packets traversing from an inside interface to an outside interface match a NAT rule. See the “NAT Control” section on page 17-3 for more information. To enable NAT control, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat-control To disable NAT control, enter the no form of the command. ftp.cisco.com 209.165.201.10 DNS Server Outside Inside User 10.1.2.27 Static Translation on Inside to: 10.1.2.56 130022 1 2 7 6 5 4 3 DNS Query ftp.cisco.com? DNS Reply 209.165.201.10 DNS Reply Modification 209.165.201.10 10.1.2.56 DNS Reply 10.1.2.56 FTP Request 209.165.201.10 Dest Addr. Translation 10.1.2.56 209.165.201.10 FTP Request 10.1.2.56 Security Appliance17-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT This section describes how to configure dynamic NAT and PAT, and includes the following topics: • Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation, page 17-17 • Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT, page 17-23 Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation For dynamic NAT and PAT, you first configure a nat command identifying the real addresses on a given interface that you want to translate. Then you configure a separate global command to specify the mapped addresses when exiting another interface (in the case of PAT, this is one address). Each nat command matches a global command by comparing the NAT ID, a number that you assign to each command (see Figure 17-14). Figure 17-14 nat and global ID Matching See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.10 130027 Web Server: www.cisco.com Outside Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.10 NAT 1: 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.2.27 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.317-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT You can enter a nat command for each interface using the same NAT ID; they all use the same global command when traffic exits a given interface. For example, you can configure nat commands for Inside and DMZ interfaces, both on NAT ID 1. Then you configure a global command on the Outside interface that is also on ID 1. Traffic from the Inside interface and the DMZ interface share a mapped pool or a PAT address when exiting the Outside interface (see Figure 17-15). Figure 17-15 nat Commands on Multiple Interfaces See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.10 Web Server: www.cisco.com Outside DMZ Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.10 NAT 1: 10.1.2.0/24 NAT 1: 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.15 10.1.2.27 130028 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.3 Translation 10.1.1.15 209.165.201.417-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT You can also enter a global command for each interface using the same NAT ID. If you enter a global command for the Outside and DMZ interfaces on ID 1, then the Inside nat command identifies traffic to be translated when going to both the Outside and the DMZ interfaces. Similarly, if you also enter a nat command for the DMZ interface on ID 1, then the global command on the Outside interface is also used for DMZ traffic. (See Figure 17-16). Figure 17-16 global and nat Commands on Multiple Interfaces See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.10 hostname(config)# global (dmz) 1 10.1.1.23 If you use different NAT IDs, you can identify different sets of real addresses to have different mapped addresses. For example, on the Inside interface, you can have two nat commands on two different NAT IDs. On the Outside interface, you configure two global commands for these two IDs. Then, when traffic from Inside network A exits the Outside interface, the IP addresses are translated to pool A addresses; while traffic from Inside network B are translated to pool B addresses (see Figure 17-17). If you use policy NAT, you can specify the same real addresses for multiple nat commands, as long as the the destination addresses and ports are unique in each access list. Web Server: www.cisco.com Outside DMZ Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.10 NAT 1: 10.1.2.0/24 NAT 1: 10.1.1.0/24 Global 1: 10.1.1.23 10.1.1.15 10.1.2.27 130024 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.3 Translation 10.1.1.15 209.165.201.4 Translation 10.1.2.27 10.1.1.23:2024 Security Appliance17-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT Figure 17-17 Different NAT IDs See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.10 hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 209.165.201.11 You can enter multiple global commands for one interface using the same NAT ID; the security appliance uses the dynamic NAT global commands first, in the order they are in the configuration, and then uses the PAT global commands in order. You might want to enter both a dynamic NAT global command and a PAT global command if you need to use dynamic NAT for a particular application, but want to have a backup PAT statement in case all the dynamic NAT addresses are depleted. Similarly, you might enter two PAT statements if you need more than the approximately 64,000 PAT sessions that a single PAT mapped statement supports (see Figure 17-18). Web Server: www.cisco.com Outside Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.10 Global 2: 209.165.201.11 NAT 1: 10.1.2.0/24 NAT 2: 192.168.1.0/24 10.1.2.27 192.168.1.14 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.3 Translation 192.168.1.14 209.165.201.11:4567 130025 Security Appliance17-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT Figure 17-18 NAT and PAT Together See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.4 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.5 For outside NAT, you need to identify the nat command for outside NAT (the outside keyword). If you also want to translate the same traffic when it accesses an inside interface (for example, traffic on a DMZ is translated when accessing the Inside and the Outside interfaces), then you must configure a separate nat command without the outside option. In this case, you can identify the same addresses in both statements and use the same NAT ID (see Figure 17-19). Note that for outside NAT (DMZ interface to Inside interface), the inside host uses a static command to allow outside access, so both the source and destination addresses are translated. Web Server: www.cisco.com Outside Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.4 Global 1: 209.165.201.5 NAT 1: 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.2.27 10.1.2.28 10.1.2.29 130026 Translation 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.3 Translation 10.1.2.28 209.165.201.4 Translation 10.1.2.29 209.165.201.5:609617-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT Figure 17-19 Outside NAT and Inside NAT Combined See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 outside hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# static (inside,dmz) 10.1.1.5 10.1.2.27 netmask 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.3-209.165.201.4 hostname(config)# global (inside) 1 10.1.2.30-1-10.1.2.40 When you specify a group of IP address(es) in a nat command, then you must perform NAT on that group of addresses when they access any lower or same security level interface; you must apply a global command with the same NAT ID on each interface, or use a static command. NAT is not required for that group when it accesses a higher security interface, because to perform NAT from outside to inside, you must create a separate nat command using the outside keyword. If you do apply outside NAT, then the NAT requirements preceding come into effect for that group of addresses when they access all higher security interfaces. Traffic identified by a static command is not affected. Outside DMZ Inside Global 1: 209.165.201.3- 209.165.201.10 Global 1: 10.1.2.30- 10.1.2.40 Static to DMZ: 10.1.2.27 10.1.1.5 Outside NAT 1: 10.1.1.0/24 NAT 1: 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.15 10.1.2.27 Translation 10.1.1.15 209.165.201.4 Translation 10.1.1.15 10.1.2.30 Undo Translation 10.1.1.5 10.1.2.27 13003817-23 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT This section describes how to configure dynamic NAT or dynamic PAT. The configuration for dynamic NAT and PAT are almost identical; for NAT you specify a range of mapped addresses, and for PAT you specify a single address. Figure 17-20 shows a typical dynamic NAT scenario. Only translated hosts can create a NAT session, and responding traffic is allowed back. The mapped address is dynamically assigned from a pool defined by the global command. Figure 17-20 Dynamic NAT Figure 17-21 shows a typical dynamic PAT scenario. Only translated hosts can create a NAT session, and responding traffic is allowed back. The mapped address defined by the global command is the same for each translation, but the port is dynamically assigned. Figure 17-21 Dynamic PAT For more information about dynamic NAT, see the “Dynamic NAT” section on page 17-5. For more information about PAT, see the “PAT” section on page 17-7. Note If you change the NAT configuration, and you do not want to wait for existing translations to time out before the new NAT information is used, you can clear the translation table using the clear xlate command. However, clearing the translation table disconnects all current connections that use translations. 10.1.1.1 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 10.1.1.2 209.165.201.2 130032 Security Appliance 10.1.1.1:1025 209.165.201.1:2020 Inside Outside 10.1.1.1:1026 209.165.201.1:2021 10.1.1.2:1025 209.165.201.1:2022 130034 Security Appliance17-24 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT To configure dynamic NAT or PAT, perform the following steps: Step 1 To identify the real addresses that you want to translate, enter one of the following commands: • Policy NAT: hostname(config)# nat (real_interface) nat_id access-list acl_name [dns] [outside] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] You can identify overlapping addresses in other nat commands. For example, you can identify 10.1.1.0 in one command, but 10.1.1.1 in another. The traffic is matched to a policy NAT command in order, until the first match, or for regular NAT, using the best match. See the following description about options for this command: – access-list acl_name—Identify the real addresses and destination addresses using an extended access list. Create the access list using the access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5). This access list should include only permit ACEs. You can optionally specify the real and destination ports in the access list using the eq operator. Policy NAT considers the inactive and time-range keywords, but it does not support ACL with all inactive and time-range ACEs. – nat_id—An integer between 1 and 65535. The NAT ID should match a global command NAT ID. See the “Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation” section on page 17-17 for more information about how NAT IDs are used. 0 is reserved for NAT exemption. (See the “Configuring NAT Exemption” section on page 17-32 for more information about NAT exemption.) – dns—If your nat command includes the address of a host that has an entry in a DNS server, and the DNS server is on a different interface from a client, then the client and the DNS server need different addresses for the host; one needs the mapped address and one needs the real address. This option rewrites the address in the DNS reply to the client. The translated host needs to be on the same interface as either the client or the DNS server. Typically, hosts that need to allow access from other interfaces use a static translation, so this option is more likely to be used with the static command. (See the “DNS and NAT” section on page 17-14 for more information.) – outside—If this interface is on a lower security level than the interface you identify by the matching global statement, then you must enter outside to identify the NAT instance as outside NAT. – norandomseq, tcp tcp_max_conns, udp udp_max_conns, and emb_limit—These keywords set connection limits. However, we recommend using a more versatile method for setting connection limits; see the “Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts” section on page 23-6. • Regular NAT: hostname(config)# nat (real_interface) nat_id real_ip [mask [dns] [outside] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns]] The nat_id is an integer between 1 and 2147483647. The NAT ID must match a global command NAT ID. See the “Dynamic NAT and PAT Implementation” section on page 17-17 for more information about how NAT IDs are used. 0 is reserved for identity NAT. See the “Configuring Identity NAT” section on page 17-30 for more information about identity NAT. See the preceding policy NAT command for information about other options. Step 2 To identify the mapped address(es) to which you want to translate the real addresses when they exit a particular interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# global (mapped_interface) nat_id {mapped_ip[-mapped_ip] | interface}17-25 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Dynamic NAT and PAT This NAT ID should match a nat command NAT ID. The matching nat command identifies the addresses that you want to translate when they exit this interface. You can specify a single address (for PAT) or a range of addresses (for NAT). The range can go across subnet boundaries if desired. For example, you can specify the following “supernet”: 192.168.1.1-192.168.2.254 For example, to translate the 10.1.1.0/24 network on the inside interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.1-209.165.201.30 To identify a pool of addresses for dynamic NAT as well as a PAT address for when the NAT pool is exhausted, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.5 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.10-209.165.201.20 To translate the lower security dmz network addresses so they appear to be on the same network as the inside network (10.1.1.0), for example, to simplify routing, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside dns hostname(config)# global (inside) 1 10.1.1.45 To identify a single real address with two different destination addresses using policy NAT, enter the following commands (see Figure 17-8 on page 17-10 for a related figure): hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list NET2 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 access-list NET1 tcp 0 2000 udp 10000 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 access-list NET2 tcp 1000 500 udp 2000 hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 209.165.202.130 To identify a single real address/destination address pair that use different ports using policy NAT, enter the following commands (see Figure 17-9 on page 17-11 for a related figure): hostname(config)# access-list WEB permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 80 hostname(config)# access-list TELNET permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 23 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 access-list WEB hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 access-list TELNET hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 209.165.202.13017-26 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Static NAT Using Static NAT This section describes how to configure a static translation. Figure 17-22 shows a typical static NAT scenario. The translation is always active so both translated and remote hosts can originate connections, and the mapped address is statically assigned by the static command. Figure 17-22 Static NAT You cannot use the same real or mapped address in multiple static commands between the same two interfaces. Do not use a mapped address in the static command that is also defined in a global command for the same mapped interface. For more information about static NAT, see the “Static NAT” section on page 17-7. Note If you remove a static command, existing connections that use the translation are not affected. To remove these connections, enter the clear local-host command. You cannot clear static translations from the translation table with the clear xlate command; you must remove the static command instead. Only dynamic translations created by the nat and global commands can be removed with the clear xlate command. To configure static NAT, enter one of the following commands. • For policy static NAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) {mapped_ip | interface} access-list acl_name [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] Create the access list using the access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5). This access list should include only permit ACEs. The source subnet mask used in the access list is also used for the mapped addresses. You can also specify the real and destination ports in the access list using the eq operator. Policy NAT does not consider the inactive or time-range keywords; all ACEs are considered to be active for policy NAT configuration. See the “Policy NAT” section on page 17-9 for more information. If you specify a network for translation (for example, 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0), then the security appliance translates the .0 and .255 addresses. If you want to prevent access to these addresses, be sure to configure an access list to deny access. See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the other options. 10.1.1.1 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 10.1.1.2 209.165.201.2 130035 Security Appliance17-27 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Static PAT • To configure regular static NAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) {mapped_ip | interface} real_ip [netmask mask] [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the options. For example, the following policy static NAT example shows a single real address that is translated to two mapped addresses depending on the destination address (see Figure 17-8 on page 17-10 for a related figure): hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip host 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list NET2 permit ip host 10.1.2.27 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.202.129 access-list NET1 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.202.130 access-list NET2 The following command maps an inside IP address (10.1.1.3) to an outside IP address (209.165.201.12): hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.12 10.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.255 The following command maps the outside address (209.165.201.15) to an inside address (10.1.1.6): hostname(config)# static (outside,inside) 10.1.1.6 209.165.201.15 netmask 255.255.255.255 The following command statically maps an entire subnet: hostname(config)# static (inside,dmz) 10.1.1.0 10.1.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 Using Static PAT This section describes how to configure a static port translation. Static PAT lets you translate the real IP address to a mapped IP address, as well as the real port to a mapped port. You can choose to translate the real port to the same port, which lets you translate only specific types of traffic, or you can take it further by translating to a different port. Figure 17-23 shows a typical static PAT scenario. The translation is always active so both translated and remote hosts can originate connections, and the mapped address and port is statically assigned by the static command. Figure 17-23 Static PAT For applications that require application inspection for secondary channels (FTP, VoIP, etc.), the security appliance automatically translates the secondary ports. 10.1.1.1:23 209.165.201.1:23 Inside Outside 10.1.1.2:8080 209.165.201.2:80 130044 Security Appliance17-28 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Using Static PAT You cannot use the same real or mapped address in multiple static statements between the same two interfaces. Do not use a mapped address in the static command that is also defined in a global command for the same mapped interface. For more information about static PAT, see the “Static PAT” section on page 17-8. Note If you remove a static command, existing connections that use the translation are not affected. To remove these connections, enter the clear local-host command. You cannot clear static translations from the translation table with the clear xlate command; you must remove the static command instead. Only dynamic translations created by the nat and global commands can be removed with the clear xlate command. To configure static PAT, enter one of the following commands. • For policy static PAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) {tcp | udp} {mapped_ip | interface} mapped_port access-list acl_name [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] Create the access list using the access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5). The protocol in the access list must match the protocol you set in this command. For example, if you specify tcp in the static command, then you must specify tcp in the access list. Specify the port using the eq operator. This access list should include only permit ACEs. The source subnet mask used in the access list is also used for the mapped addresses. Policy NAT does not consider the inactive or time-range keywords; all ACEs are considered to be active for policy NAT configuration. If you specify a network for translation (for example, 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0), then the security appliance translates the .0 and .255 addresses. If you want to prevent access to these addresses, be sure to configure an access list to deny access. See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the other options. • To configure regular static PAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) {tcp | udp} {mapped_ip | interface} mapped_port real_ip real_port [netmask mask] [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the options. Note When configuring static PAT with FTP, you need to add entries for both TCP ports 20 and 21. You must specify port 20 so that the source port for the active transfer is not modified to another port, which may interfere with other devices that perform NAT on FTP traffic. For example, for Telnet traffic initiated from hosts on the 10.1.3.0 network to the security appliance outside interface (10.1.2.14), you can redirect the traffic to the inside host at 10.1.1.15 by entering the following commands: hostname(config)# access-list TELNET permit tcp host 10.1.1.15 eq telnet 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 eq telnet hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet access-list TELNET17-29 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Bypassing NAT For HTTP traffic initiated from hosts on the 10.1.3.0 network to the security appliance outside interface (10.1.2.14), you can redirect the traffic to the inside host at 10.1.1.15 by entering: hostname(config)# access-list HTTP permit tcp host 10.1.1.15 eq http 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 eq http hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 http access-list HTTP To redirect Telnet traffic from the security appliance outside interface (10.1.2.14) to the inside host at 10.1.1.15, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255 If you want to allow the preceding real Telnet server to initiate connections, though, then you need to provide additional translation. For example, to translate all other types of traffic, enter the following commands. The original static command provides translation for Telnet to the server, while the nat and global commands provide PAT for outbound connections from the server. hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.15 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 10.1.2.14 If you also have a separate translation for all inside traffic, and the inside hosts use a different mapped address from the Telnet server, you can still configure traffic initiated from the Telnet server to use the same mapped address as the static statement that allows Telnet traffic to the server. You need to create a more exclusive nat statement just for the Telnet server. Because nat statements are read for the best match, more exclusive nat statements are matched before general statements. The following example shows the Telnet static statement, the more exclusive nat statement for initiated traffic from the Telnet server, and the statement for other inside hosts, which uses a different mapped address. hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.15 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 10.1.2.14 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 2 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 2 10.1.2.78 To translate a well-known port (80) to another port (8080), enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.45 80 10.1.1.16 8080 netmask 255.255.255.255 Bypassing NAT This section describes how to bypass NAT. You might want to bypass NAT when you enable NAT control. You can bypass NAT using identity NAT, static identity NAT, or NAT exemption. See the “Bypassing NAT When NAT Control is Enabled” section on page 17-9 for more information about these methods. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring Identity NAT, page 17-30 • Configuring Static Identity NAT, page 17-30 • Configuring NAT Exemption, page 17-3217-30 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Bypassing NAT Configuring Identity NAT Identity NAT translates the real IP address to the same IP address. Only “translated” hosts can create NAT translations, and responding traffic is allowed back. Figure 17-24 shows a typical identity NAT scenario. Figure 17-24 Identity NAT Note If you change the NAT configuration, and you do not want to wait for existing translations to time out before the new NAT information is used, you can clear the translation table using the clear xlate command. However, clearing the translation table disconnects all current connections that use translations. To configure identity NAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat (real_interface) 0 real_ip [mask [dns] [outside] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the options. For example, to use identity NAT for the inside 10.1.1.0/24 network, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 0 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 Configuring Static Identity NAT Static identity NAT translates the real IP address to the same IP address. The translation is always active, and both “translated” and remote hosts can originate connections. Static identity NAT lets you use regular NAT or policy NAT. Policy NAT lets you identify the real and destination addresses when determining the real addresses to translate (see the “Policy NAT” section on page 17-9 for more 209.165.201.1 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 209.165.201.2 209.165.201.2 130033 Security Appliance17-31 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Bypassing NAT information about policy NAT). For example, you can use policy static identity NAT for an inside address when it accesses the outside interface and the destination is server A, but use a normal translation when accessing the outside server B. Figure 17-25 shows a typical static identity NAT scenario. Figure 17-25 Static Identity NAT Note If you remove a static command, existing connections that use the translation are not affected. To remove these connections, enter the clear local-host command. You cannot clear static translations from the translation table with the clear xlate command; you must remove the static command instead. Only dynamic translations created by the nat and global commands can be removed with the clear xlate command. To configure static identity NAT, enter one of the following commands: • To configure policy static identity NAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) real_ip access-list acl_id [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] Create the access list using the access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5). This access list should include only permit ACEs. Make sure the source address in the access list matches the real_ip in this command. Policy NAT does not consider the inactive or time-range keywords; all ACEs are considered to be active for policy NAT configuration. See the “Policy NAT” section on page 17-9 for more information. See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the other options. • To configure regular static identity NAT, enter the following command: hostname(config)# static (real_interface,mapped_interface) real_ip real_ip [netmask mask] [dns] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] Specify the same IP address for both real_ip arguments. See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the other options. For example, the following command uses static identity NAT for an inside IP address (10.1.1.3) when accessed by the outside: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 10.1.1.3 10.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.255 209.165.201.1 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 209.165.201.2 209.165.201.2 130036 Security Appliance17-32 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT Bypassing NAT The following command uses static identity NAT for an outside address (209.165.201.15) when accessed by the inside: hostname(config)# static (outside,inside) 209.165.201.15 209.165.201.15 netmask 255.255.255.255 The following command statically maps an entire subnet: hostname(config)# static (inside,dmz) 10.1.2.0 10.1.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 The following static identity policy NAT example shows a single real address that uses identity NAT when accessing one destination address, and a translation when accessing another: hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip host 10.1.2.27 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list NET2 permit ip host 10.1.2.27 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 10.1.2.27 access-list NET1 hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.202.130 access-list NET2 Configuring NAT Exemption NAT exemption exempts addresses from translation and allows both real and remote hosts to originate connections. NAT exemption lets you specify the real and destination addresses when determining the real traffic to exempt (similar to policy NAT), so you have greater control using NAT exemption than identity NAT. However unlike policy NAT, NAT exemption does not consider the ports in the access list. Use static identity NAT to consider ports in the access list. Figure 17-26 shows a typical NAT exemption scenario. Figure 17-26 NAT Exemption Note If you remove a NAT exemption configuration, existing connections that use NAT exemption are not affected. To remove these connections, enter the clear local-host command. To configure NAT exemption, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat (real_interface) 0 access-list acl_name [outside] [norandomseq] [[tcp] tcp_max_conns [emb_limit]] [udp udp_max_conns] Create the access list using the access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5). This access list can include both permit ACEs and deny ACEs. Do not specify the real and destination ports in the access list; NAT exemption does not consider the ports. NAT exemption considers the inactive and time-range keywords, but it does not support ACL with all inactive and time-range ACEs. 209.165.201.1 209.165.201.1 Inside Outside 209.165.201.2 209.165.201.2 130036 Security Appliance17-33 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Examples See the “Configuring Dynamic NAT or PAT” section on page 17-23 for information about the other options. By default, this command exempts traffic from inside to outside. If you want traffic from outside to inside to bypass NAT, then add an additional nat command and enter outside to identify the NAT instance as outside NAT. You might want to use outside NAT exemption if you configure dynamic NAT for the outside interface and want to exempt other traffic. For example, to exempt an inside network when accessing any destination address, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-list EXEMPT permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 any hostname(config)# nat (inside) 0 access-list EXEMPT To use dynamic outside NAT for a DMZ network, and exempt another DMZ network, enter the following command: hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside dns hostname(config)# global (inside) 1 10.1.1.45 hostname(config)# access-list EXEMPT permit ip 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 any hostname(config)# nat (dmz) 0 access-list EXEMPT To exempt an inside address when accessing two different destination addresses, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 0 access-list NET1 NAT Examples This section describes typical scenarios that use NAT solutions, and includes the following topics: • Overlapping Networks, page 17-34 • Redirecting Ports, page 17-3517-34 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Examples Overlapping Networks In Figure 17-27, the security appliance connects two private networks with overlapping address ranges. Figure 17-27 Using Outside NAT with Overlapping Networks Two networks use an overlapping address space (192.168.100.0/24), but hosts on each network must communicate (as allowed by access lists). Without NAT, when a host on the inside network tries to access a host on the overlapping DMZ network, the packet never makes it past the security appliance, which sees the packet as having a destination address on the inside network. Moreover, if the destination address is being used by another host on the inside network, that host receives the packet. To solve this problem, use NAT to provide non-overlapping addresses. If you want to allow access in both directions, use static NAT for both networks. If you only want to allow the inside interface to access hosts on the DMZ, then you can use dynamic NAT for the inside addresses, and static NAT for the DMZ addresses you want to access. This example shows static NAT. To configure static NAT for these two interfaces, perform the following steps. The 10.1.1.0/24 network on the DMZ is not translated. Step 1 Translate 192.168.100.0/24 on the inside to 10.1.2.0 /24 when it accesses the DMZ by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,dmz) 10.1.2.0 192.168.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 Step 2 Translate the 192.168.100.0/24 network on the DMZ to 10.1.3.0/24 when it accesses the inside by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (dmz,inside) 10.1.3.0 192.168.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 Step 3 Configure the following static routes so that traffic to the dmz network can be routed correctly by the security appliance: hostname(config)# route dmz 192.168.100.128 255.255.255.128 10.1.1.2 1 hostname(config)# route dmz 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.128 10.1.1.2 1 192.168.100.2 inside 192.168.100.0/24 outside 10.1.1.2 192.168.100.1 192.168.100.2 dmz 192.168.100.0/24 192.168.100.3 10.1.1.1 130029 192.168.100.317-35 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Examples The security appliance already has a connected route for the inside network. These static routes allow the security appliance to send traffic for the 192.168.100.0/24 network out the DMZ interface to the gateway router at 10.1.1.2. (You need to split the network into two because you cannot create a static route with the exact same network as a connected route.) Alternatively, you could use a more broad route for the DMZ traffic, such as a default route. If host 192.168.100.2 on the DMZ network wants to initiate a connection to host 192.168.100.2 on the inside network, the following events occur: 1. The DMZ host 192.168.100.2 sends the packet to IP address 10.1.2.2. 2. When the security appliance receives this packet, the security appliance translates the source address from 192.168.100.2 to 10.1.3.2. 3. Then the security appliance translates the destination address from 10.1.2.2 to 192.168.100.2, and the packet is forwarded. Redirecting Ports Figure 17-28 illustrates a typical network scenario in which the port redirection feature might be useful. Figure 17-28 Port Redirection Using Static PAT In the configuration described in this section, port redirection occurs for hosts on external networks as follows: • Telnet requests to IP address 209.165.201.5 are redirected to 10.1.1.6. • FTP requests to IP address 209.165.201.5 are redirected to 10.1.1.3. • HTTP request to security appliance outside IP address 209.165.201.25 are redirected to 10.1.1.5. • HTTP port 8080 requests to PAT address 209.165.201.15 are redirected to 10.1.1.7 port 80. Telnet Server 10.1.1.6 209.165.201.25 209.165.201.5 209.165.201.15 10.1.1.1 Inside FTP Server 10.1.1.3 Web Server 10.1.1.5 Web Server 10.1.1.7 Outside 13003017-36 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 17 Applying NAT NAT Examples To implement this scenario, perform the following steps: Step 1 Configure PAT for the inside network by entering the following commands: hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.15 Step 2 Redirect Telnet requests for 209.165.201.5 to 10.1.1.6 by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.5 telnet 10.1.1.6 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255 Step 3 Redirect FTP requests for IP address 209.165.201.5 to 10.1.1.3 by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.5 ftp 10.1.1.3 ftp netmask 255.255.255.255 Step 4 Redirect HTTP requests for the security appliance outside interface address to 10.1.1.5 by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp interface www 10.1.1.5 www netmask 255.255.255.255 Step 5 Redirect HTTP requests on port 8080 for PAT address 209.165.201.15 to 10.1.1.7 port 80 by entering the following command: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) tcp 209.165.201.15 8080 10.1.1.7 www netmask 255.255.255.255C H A P T E R 18-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 18 Permitting or Denying Network Access This chapter describes how to control network access through the security appliance using access lists. To create an extended access lists or an EtherType access list, see Chapter 16, “Identifying Traffic with Access Lists.” Note You use ACLs to control network access in both routed and transparent firewall modes. In transparent mode, you can use both extended ACLs (for Layer 3 traffic) and EtherType ACLs (for Layer 2 traffic). To access the security appliance interface for management access, you do not also need an access list allowing the host IP address. You only need to configure management access according to Chapter 40, “Managing System Access.” This chapter includes the following sections: • Inbound and Outbound Access List Overview, page 18-1 • Applying an Access List to an Interface, page 18-2 Inbound and Outbound Access List Overview By default, all traffic from a higher-security interface to a lower-security interface is allowed. Access lists let you either allow traffic from lower-security interfaces, or restrict traffic from higher-security interfaces. The security appliance supports two types of access lists: • Inbound—Inbound access lists apply to traffic as it enters an interface. • Outbound—Outbound access lists apply to traffic as it exits an interface. Note “Inbound” and “outbound” refer to the application of an access list on an interface, either to traffic entering the security appliance on an interface or traffic exiting the security appliance on an interface. These terms do not refer to the movement of traffic from a lower security interface to a higher security interface, commonly known as inbound, or from a higher to lower interface, commonly known as outbound. An outbound access list is useful, for example, if you want to allow only certain hosts on the inside networks to access a web server on the outside network. Rather than creating multiple inbound access lists to restrict access, you can create a single outbound access list that allows only the specified hosts 18-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 18 Permitting or Denying Network Access Applying an Access List to an Interface (see Figure 18-1). See the “IP Addresses Used for Access Lists When You Use NAT” section on page 16-3 for information about NAT and IP addresses. The outbound access list prevents any other hosts from reaching the outside network. Figure 18-1 Outbound Access List See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# access-list OUTSIDE extended permit tcp host 209.165.201.4 host 209.165.200.225 eq www hostname(config)# access-list OUTSIDE extended permit tcp host 209.165.201.6 host 209.165.200.225 eq www hostname(config)# access-list OUTSIDE extended permit tcp host 209.165.201.8 host 209.165.200.225 eq www hostname(config)# access-group OUTSIDE out interface outside Applying an Access List to an Interface To apply an extended access list to the inbound or outbound direction of an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# access-group access_list_name {in | out} interface interface_name [per-user-override] You can apply one access list of each type (extended and EtherType) to both directions of the interface. See the “Inbound and Outbound Access List Overview” section on page 18-1 for more information about access list directions. Web Server: 209.165.200.225 Inside HR Eng Outside Static NAT 10.1.1.14 209.165.201.4 Static NAT 10.1.2.67 209.165.201.6 Static NAT 10.1.3.34 209.165.201.8 ACL Outbound Permit HTTP from 209.165.201.4, 209.165.201.6, and 209.165.201.8 to 209.165.200.225 Deny all others 132210 ACL Inbound Permit from any to any ACL Inbound Permit from any to any ACL Inbound Permit from any to any Security appliance18-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 18 Permitting or Denying Network Access Applying an Access List to an Interface The per-user-override keyword allows dynamic access lists that are downloaded for user authorization to override the access list assigned to the interface. For example, if the interface access list denies all traffic from 10.0.0.0, but the dynamic access list permits all traffic from 10.0.0.0, then the dynamic access list overrides the interface access list for that user. See the “Configuring RADIUS Authorization” section for more information about per-user access lists. The per-user-override keyword is only available for inbound access lists. For connectionless protocols, you need to apply the access list to the source and destination interfaces if you want traffic to pass in both directions. The following example illustrates the commands required to enable access to an inside web server with the IP address 209.165.201.12 (this IP address is the address visible on the outside interface after NAT): hostname(config)# access-list ACL_OUT extended permit tcp any host 209.165.201.12 eq www hostname(config)# access-group ACL_OUT in interface outside You also need to configure NAT for the web server. The following access lists allow any hosts to communicate between the inside and hr networks, but only specific hosts (209.168.200.3 and 209.168.200.4) to access the outside network, as shown in the last line below: hostname(config)# access-list ANY extended permit ip any any hostname(config)# access-list OUT extended permit ip host 209.168.200.3 any hostname(config)# access-list OUT extended permit ip host 209.168.200.4 any hostname(config)# access-group ANY in interface inside hostname(config)# access-group ANY in interface hr hostname(config)# access-group OUT out interface outside For example, the following sample access list allows common EtherTypes originating on the inside interface: hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit ipx hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit bpdu hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit mpls-unicast hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside The following access list allows some EtherTypes through the security appliance, but denies all others: hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit 0x1234 hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit bpdu hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit mpls-unicast hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface outside The following access list denies traffic with EtherType 0x1256 but allows all others on both interfaces: hostname(config)# access-list nonIP ethertype deny 1256 hostname(config)# access-list nonIP ethertype permit any hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface outside18-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 18 Permitting or Denying Network Access Applying an Access List to an InterfaceC H A P T E R 19-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 19 Applying AAA for Network Access This chapter describes how to enable AAA (pronounced “triple A”) for network access. For information about AAA for management access, see the “Configuring AAA for System Administrators” section on page 40-5. This chapter contains the following sections: • AAA Performance, page 19-1 • Configuring Authentication for Network Access, page 19-1 • Configuring Authorization for Network Access, page 19-6 • Configuring Accounting for Network Access, page 19-13 • Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and Authorization, page 19-14 AAA Performance The security appliance uses “cut-through proxy” to significantly improve performance compared to a traditional proxy server. The performance of a traditional proxy server suffers because it analyzes every packet at the application layer of the OSI model. The security appliance cut-through proxy challenges a user initially at the application layer and then authenticates against standard AAA servers or the local database. After the security appliance authenticates the user, it shifts the session flow, and all traffic flows directly and quickly between the source and destination while maintaining session state information. Configuring Authentication for Network Access This section includes the following topics: • Authentication Overview, page 19-2 • Enabling Network Access Authentication, page 19-3 • Enabling Secure Authentication of Web Clients, page 19-5 • Authenticating Directly with the Security Appliance, page 19-619-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authentication for Network Access Authentication Overview The security appliance lets you configure network access authentication using AAA servers. This section includes the following topics: • One-Time Authentication, page 19-2 • Applications Required to Receive an Authentication Challenge, page 19-2 • Security Appliance Authentication Prompts, page 19-2 • Static PAT and HTTP, page 19-3 • Enabling Network Access Authentication, page 19-3 One-Time Authentication A user at a given IP address only needs to authenticate one time for all rules and types, until the authentication session expires. (See the timeout uauth command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for timeout values.) For example, if you configure the security appliance to authenticate Telnet and FTP, and a user first successfully authenticates for Telnet, then as long as the authentication session exists, the user does not also have to authenticate for FTP. Applications Required to Receive an Authentication Challenge Although you can configure the security appliance to require authentication for network access to any protocol or service, users can authenticate directly with HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP only. A user must first authenticate with one of these services before the security appliance allows other traffic requiring authentication. The authentication ports that the security appliance supports for AAA are fixed: • Port 21 for FTP • Port 23 for Telnet • Port 80 for HTTP • Port 443 for HTTPS Security Appliance Authentication Prompts For Telnet and FTP, the security appliance generates an authentication prompt. For HTTP, the security appliance uses basic HTTP authentication by default, and provides an authentication prompt. You can optionally configure the security appliance to redirect users to an internal web page where they can enter their username and password (configured with the aaa authentication listener command). For HTTPS, the security appliance generates a custom login screen. You can optionally configure the security appliance to redirect users to an internal web page where they can enter their username and password (configured with the aaa authentication listener command). Redirection is an improvement over the basic method because it provides an improved user experience when authenticating, and an identical user experience for HTTP and HTTPS in both Easy VPN and firewall modes. It also supports authenticating directly with the security appliance.19-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authentication for Network Access You might want to continue to use basic HTTP authentication if: you do not want the security appliance to open listening ports; if you use NAT on a router and you do not want to create a translation rule for the web page served by the security appliance; basic HTTP authentication might work better with your network. For example non-browser applications, like when a URL is embedded in email, might be more compatible with basic authentication. After you authenticate correctly, the security appliance redirects you to your original destination. If the destination server also has its own authentication, the user enters another username and password. If you use basic HTTP authentication and need to enter another username and password for the destination server, then you need to configure the virtual http command. Note If you use HTTP authentication without using the aaa authentication secure-http-client command, the username and password are sent from the client to the security appliance in clear text. We recommend that you use the aaa authentication secure-http-client command whenever you enable HTTP authentication. For more information about the aaa authentication secure-http-client command, see the “Enabling Secure Authentication of Web Clients” section on page 19-5. For FTP, a user has the option of entering the security appliance username followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP username (name1@name2). For the password, the user enters the security appliance password followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP password (password1@password2). For example, enter the following text. name> jamiec@jchrichton password> letmein@he110 This feature is useful when you have cascaded firewalls that require multiple logins. You can separate several names and passwords by multiple at signs (@). Static PAT and HTTP For HTTP authentication, the security appliance checks real ports when static PAT is configured. If it detects traffic destined for real port 80, regardless of the mapped port, the security appliance intercepts the HTTP connection and enforces authentication. For example, assume that outside TCP port 889 is translated to port 80 (www) and that any relevant access lists permit the traffic: static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 www netmask 255.255.255.255 Then when users try to access 10.48.66.155 on port 889, the security appliance intercepts the traffic and enforces HTTP authentication. Users see the HTTP authentication page in their web browsers before the security appliance allows HTTP connection to complete. If the local port is different than port 80, as in the following example: static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 111 netmask 255.255.255.255 Then users do not see the authentication page. Instead, the security appliance sends to the web browser an error message indicating that the user must be authenticated prior using the requested service. Enabling Network Access Authentication To enable network access authentication, perform the following steps:19-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authentication for Network Access Step 1 Using the aaa-server command, identify your AAA servers. If you have already identified your AAA servers, continue to the next step. For more information about identifying AAA servers, see the “Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers” section on page 13-12. Step 2 Using the access-list command, create an access list that identifies the source addresses and destination addresses of traffic you want to authenticate. For steps, see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5. The permit ACEs mark matching traffic for authentication, while deny entries exclude matching traffic from authentication. Be sure to include the destination ports for either HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP in the access list because the user must authenticate with one of these services before other services are allowed through the security appliance. Step 3 To configure authentication, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa authentication match acl_name interface_name server_group Where acl_name is the name of the access list you created in Step 2, interface_name is the name of the interface as specified with the nameif command, and server_group is the AAA server group you created in Step 1. Note You can alternatively use the aaa authentication include command (which identifies traffic within the command). However, you cannot use both methods in the same configuration. See the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. Step 4 (Optional) To enable the redirection method of authentication for HTTP or HTTPS connections, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa authentication listener http[s] interface_name [port portnum] redirect where the interface_name argument is the interface on which you want to enable listening ports. The port portnum argument specifies the port number that the security appliance listens on; the defaults are 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS). Enter this command separately for HTTP and for HTTPS. Step 5 (Optional) If you are using the local database for network access authentication and you want to limit the number of consecutive failed login attempts that the security appliance allows any given user account, use the following command: hostname(config)# aaa local authentication attempts max-fail number Where number is between 1 and 16. For example: hostname(config)# aaa local authentication attempts max-fail 7 Tip To clear the lockout status of a specific user or all users, use the clear aaa local user lockout command. For example, the following commands authenticate all inside HTTP traffic and SMTP traffic: hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound protocol tacacs+19-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authentication for Network Access hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound (inside) host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# access-list MAIL_AUTH extended permit tcp any any eq smtp hostname(config)# access-list MAIL_AUTH extended permit tcp any any eq www hostname(config)# aaa authentication match MAIL_AUTH inside AuthOutbound hostname(config)# aaa authentication listener http inside redirect The following commands authenticate Telnet traffic from the outside interface to a particular server (209.165.201.5): hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthInbound protocol tacacs+ hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthInbound (inside) host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# access-list TELNET_AUTH extended permit tcp any host 209.165.201.5 eq telnet hostname(config)# aaa authentication match TELNET_AUTH outside AuthInbound Enabling Secure Authentication of Web Clients The security appliance provides a method of securing HTTP authentication. Without securing HTTP authentication, usernames and passwords from the client to the security appliance would be passed as clear text. By using the aaa authentication secure-http-client command, you enable the exchange of usernames and passwords between a web client and the security appliance with HTTPS. After enabling this feature, when a user requires authentication when using HTTP, the security appliance redirects the HTTP user to an HTTPS prompt. After you authenticate correctly, the security appliance redirects you to the original HTTP URL. To enable secure authentication of web clients, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa authentication secure-http-client Secured web-client authentication has the following limitations: • A maximum of 16 concurrent HTTPS authentication sessions are allowed. If all 16 HTTPS authentication processes are running, a new connection requiring authentication will not succeed. • When uauth timeout 0 is configured (the uauth timeout is set to 0), HTTPS authentication might not work. If a browser initiates multiple TCP connections to load a web page after HTTPS authentication, the first connection is let through, but the subsequent connections trigger authentication. As a result, users are continuously presented with an authentication page, even if the correct username and password are entered each time. To work around this, set the uauth timeout to 1 second with the timeout uauth 0:0:1 command. However, this workaround opens a 1-second window of opportunity that might allow non-authenticated users to go through the firewall if they are coming from the same source IP address. • Because HTTPS authentication occurs on the SSL port 443, users must not configure an access-list command statement to block traffic from the HTTP client to HTTP server on port 443. Furthermore, if static PAT is configured for web traffic on port 80, it must also be configured for the SSL port. In the following example, the first line configures static PAT for web traffic and the second line must be added to support the HTTPS authentication configuration. static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 www 10.130.16.10 www static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 443 10.130.16.10 44319-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access Authenticating Directly with the Security Appliance If you do not want to allow HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP through the security appliance but want to authenticate other types of traffic, you can authenticate with the security appliance directly using HTTP, HTTPS, or Telnet. This section includes the following topics: • Enabling Direct Authentication Using HTTP and HTTPS, page 19-6 • Enabling Direct Authentication Using Telnet, page 19-6 Enabling Direct Authentication Using HTTP and HTTPS If you enabled the redirect method of HTTP and HTTPS authentication in the “Enabling Network Access Authentication” section on page 19-3, then you also automatically enabled direct authentication. If you want to continue to use basic HTTP authentication, but want to enable direct authentication for HTTP and HTTPS, then enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa authentication listener http[s] interface_name [port portnum] where the interface_name argument is the interface on which you want to enable direct authentication. The port portnum argument specifies the port number that the security appliance listens on; the defaults are 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS). Enter this command separately for HTTP and for HTTPS. You can authenticate directly with the security appliance at the following URLs when you enable AAA for the interface: http://interface_ip[:port]/netaccess/connstatus.html https://interface_ip[:port]/netaccess/connstatus.html Enabling Direct Authentication Using Telnet To enable direct authentication with Telnet, configure a virtual Telnet server. With virtual Telnet, the user Telnets to a given IP address configured on the security appliance, and the security appliance provides a Telnet prompt. To configure a virtual Telnet server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# virtual telnet ip_address where the ip_address argument sets the IP address for the virtual Telnet server. Make sure this address is an unused address that is routed to the security appliance. For example, if you perform NAT for inside addresses when they access the outside, and you want to provide outside access to the virtual Telnet server, you can use one of the global NAT addresses for the virtual Telnet server address. Configuring Authorization for Network Access After a user authenticates for a given connection, the security appliance can use authorization to further control traffic from the user. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring TACACS+ Authorization, page 19-7 • Configuring RADIUS Authorization, page 19-819-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access Configuring TACACS+ Authorization You can configure the security appliance to perform network access authorization with TACACS+. You identify the traffic to be authorized by specifying access lists that authorization rules must match. Alternatively, you can identify the traffic directly in authorization rules themselves. Tip Using access lists to identify traffic to be authorized can greatly reduced the number of authorization commands you must enter. This is because each authorization rule you enter can specify only one source and destination subnet and service, whereas an access list can include many entries. Authentication and authorization statements are independent; however, any unauthenticated traffic matched by an authorization statement will be denied. For authorization to succeed, a user must first authenticate with the security appliance. Because a user at a given IP address only needs to authenticate one time for all rules and types, if the authentication session hasn’t expired, authorization can occur even if the traffic is matched by an authentication statement. After a user authenticates, the security appliance checks the authorization rules for matching traffic. If the traffic matches the authorization statement, the security appliance sends the username to the TACACS+ server. The TACACS+ server responds to the security appliance with a permit or a deny for that traffic, based on the user profile. The security appliance enforces the authorization rule in the response. See the documentation for your TACACS+ server for information about configuring network access authorizations for a user. To configure TACACS+ authorization, perform the following steps: Step 1 Enable authentication. For more information, see the “Enabling Network Access Authentication” section on page 19-3. If you have already enabled authentication, continue to the next step. Step 2 Using the access-list command, create an access list that identifies the source addresses and destination addresses of traffic you want to authorize. For steps, see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5. The permit ACEs mark matching traffic for authorization, while deny entries exclude matching traffic from authorization. The access list you use for authorization matching should contain rules that are equal to or a subset of the rules in the access list used for authentication matching. Note If you have configured authentication and want to authorize all the traffic being authenticated, you can use the same access list you created for use with the aaa authentication match command. Step 3 To enable authorization, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa authorization match acl_name interface_name server_group where acl_name is the name of the access list you created in Step 2, interface_name is the name of the interface as specified with the nameif command or by default, and server_group is the AAA server group you created when you enabled authentication.19-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access Note Alternatively, you can use the aaa authorization include command (which identifies traffic within the command) but you cannot use both methods in the same configuration. See the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. The following commands authenticate and authorize inside Telnet traffic. Telnet traffic to servers other than 209.165.201.5 can be authenticated alone, but traffic to 209.165.201.5 requires authorization. hostname(config)# access-list TELNET_AUTH extended permit tcp any any eq telnet hostname(config)# access-list SERVER_AUTH extended permit tcp any host 209.165.201.5 eq telnet hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound protocol tacacs+ hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound (inside) host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# aaa authentication match TELNET_AUTH inside AuthOutbound hostname(config)# aaa authorization match SERVER_AUTH inside AuthOutbound Configuring RADIUS Authorization When authentication succeeds, the RADIUS protocol returns user authorizations in the access-accept message sent by a RADIUS server. For more information about configuring authentication, see the “Configuring Authentication for Network Access” section on page 19-1. When you configure the security appliance to authenticate users for network access, you are also implicitly enabling RADIUS authorizations; therefore, this section contains no information about configuring RADIUS authorization on the security appliance. It does provide information about how the security appliance handles access list information received from RADIUS servers. You can configure a RADIUS server to download an access list to the security appliance or an access list name at the time of authentication. The user is authorized to do only what is permitted in the user-specific access list. Note If you have used the access-group command to apply access lists to interfaces, be aware of the following effects of the per-user-override keyword on authorization by user-specific access lists: • Without the per-user-override keyword, traffic for a user session must be permitted by both the interface access list and the user-specific access list. • With the per-user-override keyword, the user-specific access list determines what is permitted. For more information, see the access-group command entry in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring a RADIUS Server to Send Downloadable Access Control Lists, page 19-9 • Configuring a RADIUS Server to Download Per-User Access Control List Names, page 19-1219-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access Configuring a RADIUS Server to Send Downloadable Access Control Lists This section describes how to configure Cisco Secure ACS or a third-party RADIUS server, and includes the following topics: • About the Downloadable Access List Feature and Cisco Secure ACS, page 19-9 • Configuring Cisco Secure ACS for Downloadable Access Lists, page 19-10 • Configuring Any RADIUS Server for Downloadable Access Lists, page 19-11 • Converting Wildcard Netmask Expressions in Downloadable Access Lists, page 19-12 About the Downloadable Access List Feature and Cisco Secure ACS Downloadable access lists is the most scalable means of using Cisco Secure ACS to provide the appropriate access lists for each user. It provides the following capabilities: • Unlimited access list size—Downloadable access lists are sent using as many RADIUS packets as required to transport the full access list from Cisco Secure ACS to the security appliance. • Simplified and centralized management of access lists—Downloadable access lists enable you to write a set of access lists once and apply it to many user or group profiles and distribute it to many security appliances. This approach is most useful when you have very large access list sets that you want to apply to more than one Cisco Secure ACS user or group; however, its ability to simplify Cisco Secure ACS user and group management makes it useful for access lists of any size. The security appliance receives downloadable access lists from Cisco Secure ACS using the following process: 1. The security appliance sends a RADIUS authentication request packet for the user session. 2. If Cisco Secure ACS successfully authenticates the user, Cisco Secure ACS returns a RADIUS access-accept message that contains the internal name of the applicable downloadable access list. The Cisco IOS cisco-av-pair RADIUS VSA (vendor 9, attribute 1) contains the following attribute-value pair to identify the downloadable access list set: ACS:CiscoSecure-Defined-ACL=acl-set-name where acl-set-name is the internal name of the downloadable access list, which is a combination of the name assigned to the access list by the Cisco Secure ACS administrator and the date and time that the access list was last modified. 3. The security appliance examines the name of the downloadable access list and determines if it has previously received the named downloadable access list. – If the security appliance has previously received the named downloadable access list, communication with Cisco Secure ACS is complete and the security appliance applies the access list to the user session. Because the name of the downloadable access list includes the date and time it was last modified, matching the name sent by Cisco Secure ACS to the name of an access list previous downloaded means that the security appliance has the most recent version of the downloadable access list. – If the security appliance has not previously received the named downloadable access list, it may have an out-of-date version of the access list or it may not have downloaded any version of the access list. In either case, the security appliance issues a RADIUS authentication request using the downloadable access list name as the username in the RADIUS request and a null password attribute. In a cisco-av-pair RADIUS VSA, the request also includes the following attribute-value pairs:19-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access AAA:service=ip-admission AAA:event=acl-download In addition, the security appliance signs the request with the Message-Authenticator attribute (IETF RADIUS attribute 80). 4. Upon receipt of a RADIUS authentication request that has a username attribute containing the name of a downloadable access list, Cisco Secure ACS authenticates the request by checking the Message-Authenticator attribute. If the Message-Authenticator attribute is missing or incorrect, Cisco Secure ACS ignores the request. The presence of the Message-Authenticator attribute prevents malicious use of a downloadable access list name to gain unauthorized network access. The Message-Authenticator attribute and its use are defined in RFC 2869, RADIUS Extensions, available at http://www.ietf.org. 5. If the access list required is less than approximately 4 KB in length, Cisco Secure ACS responds with an access-accept message containing the access list. The largest access list that can fit in a single access-accept message is slightly less than 4 KB because some of the message must be other required attributes. Cisco Secure ACS sends the downloadable access list in a cisco-av-pair RADIUS VSA. The access list is formatted as a series of attribute-value pairs that each contain an ACE and are numbered serially: ip:inacl#1=ACE-1 ip:inacl#2=ACE-2 . . . ip:inacl#n=ACE-n An example of an attribute-value pair follows: ip:inacl#1=permit tcp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 6. If the access list required is more than approximately 4 KB in length, Cisco Secure ACS responds with an access-challenge message that contains a portion of the access list, formatted as described above, and an State attribute (IETF RADIUS attribute 24), which contains control data used by Cisco Secure ACS to track the progress of the download. Cisco Secure ACS fits as many complete attribute-value pairs into the cisco-av-pair RADIUS VSA as it can without exceeding the maximum RADIUS message size. The security appliance stores the portion of the access list received and responds with another access-request message containing the same attributes as the first request for the downloadable access list plus a copy of the State attribute received in the access-challenge message. This repeats until Cisco Secure ACS sends the last of the access list in an access-accept message. Configuring Cisco Secure ACS for Downloadable Access Lists You can configure downloadable access lists on Cisco Secure ACS as a shared profile component and then assign the access list to a group or to an individual user. The access list definition consists of one or more security appliance commands that are similar to the extended access-list command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5), except without the following prefix: access-list acl_name extended The following example is a downloadable access list definition on Cisco Secure ACS version 3.3: +--------------------------------------------+19-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access | Shared profile Components | | | | Downloadable IP ACLs Content | | | | Name: acs_ten_acl | | | | ACL Definitions | | | | permit tcp any host 10.0.0.254 | | permit udp any host 10.0.0.254 | | permit icmp any host 10.0.0.254 | | permit tcp any host 10.0.0.253 | | permit udp any host 10.0.0.253 | | permit icmp any host 10.0.0.253 | | permit tcp any host 10.0.0.252 | | permit udp any host 10.0.0.252 | | permit icmp any host 10.0.0.252 | | permit ip any any | +--------------------------------------------+ For more information about creating downloadable access lists and associating them with users, see the user guide for your version of Cisco Secure ACS. On the security appliance, the downloaded access list has the following name: #ACSACL#-ip-acl_name-number The acl_name argument is the name that is defined on Cisco Secure ACS (acs_ten_acl in the preceding example), and number is a unique version ID generated by Cisco Secure ACS. The downloaded access list on the security appliance consists of the following lines: access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit tcp any host 10.0.0.254 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit udp any host 10.0.0.254 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit icmp any host 10.0.0.254 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit tcp any host 10.0.0.253 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit udp any host 10.0.0.253 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit icmp any host 10.0.0.253 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit tcp any host 10.0.0.252 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit udp any host 10.0.0.252 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit icmp any host 10.0.0.252 access-list #ACSACL#-ip-asa-acs_ten_acl-3b5385f7 permit ip any any Configuring Any RADIUS Server for Downloadable Access Lists You can configure any RADIUS server that supports Cisco IOS RADIUS VSAs to send user-specific access lists to the security appliance in a Cisco IOS RADIUS cisco-av-pair VSA (vendor 9, attribute 1). In the cisco-av-pair VSA, configure one or more ACEs that are similar to the access-list extended command (see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5), except that you replace the following command prefix: access-list acl_name extended with the following text: ip:inacl#nnn= The nnn argument is a number in the range from 0 to 999999999 that identifies the order of the command statement to be configured on the security appliance. If this parameter is omitted, the sequence value is 0, and the order of the ACEs inside the cisco-av-pair RADIUS VSA is used.19-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Authorization for Network Access The following example is an access list definition as it should be configured for a cisco-av-pair VSA on a RADIUS server: ip:inacl#1=permit tcp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 ip:inacl#99=deny tcp any any ip:inacl#2=permit udp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 ip:inacl#100=deny udp any any ip:inacl#3=permit icmp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 For information about making unique per user the access lists that are sent in the cisco-av-pair attribute, see the documentation for your RADIUS server. On the security appliance, the downloaded access list name has the following format: AAA-user-username The username argument is the name of the user that is being authenticated. The downloaded access list on the security appliance consists of the following lines. Notice the order based on the numbers identified on the RADIUS server. access-list AAA-user-bcham34-79AD4A08 permit tcp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 access-list AAA-user-bcham34-79AD4A08 permit udp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 access-list AAA-user-bcham34-79AD4A08 permit icmp 10.1.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 access-list AAA-user-bcham34-79AD4A08 deny tcp any any access-list AAA-user-bcham34-79AD4A08 deny udp any any Downloaded access lists have two spaces between the word “access-list” and the name. These spaces serve to differentiate a downloaded access list from a local access list. In this example, “79AD4A08” is a hash value generated by the security appliance to help determine when access list definitions have changed on the RADIUS server. Converting Wildcard Netmask Expressions in Downloadable Access Lists If a RADIUS server provides downloadable access lists to Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrators as well as to the security appliance, you may need the security appliance to convert wildcard netmask expressions to standard netmask expressions. This is because Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrators support wildcard netmask expressions but the security appliance only supports standard netmask expressions. Configuring the security appliance to convert wildcard netmask expressions helps minimize the effects of these differences upon how you configure downloadable access lists on your RADIUS servers. Translation of wildcard netmask expressions means that downloadable access lists written for Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrators can be used by the security appliance without altering the configuration of the downloadable access lists on the RADIUS server. You configure access list netmask conversion on a per server basis, using the acl-netmask-convert command, available in the AAA-server configuration mode. For more information about configuring a RADIUS server, see “Identifying AAA Server Groups and Servers” section on page 13-12. For more information about the acl-netmask-convert command, see the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. Configuring a RADIUS Server to Download Per-User Access Control List Names To download a name for an access list that you already created on the security appliance from the RADIUS server when a user authenticates, configure the IETF RADIUS filter-id attribute (attribute number 11) as follows: filter-id=acl_name19-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Configuring Accounting for Network Access Note In Cisco Secure ACS, the value for filter-id attributes are specified in boxes in the HTML interface, omitting filter-id= and entering only acl_name. For information about making unique per user the filter-id attribute value, see the documentation for your RADIUS server. See the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5 to create an access list on the security appliance. Configuring Accounting for Network Access The security appliance can send accounting information to a RADIUS or TACACS+ server about any TCP or UDP traffic that passes through the security appliance. If that traffic is also authenticated, then the AAA server can maintain accounting information by username. If the traffic is not authenticated, the AAA server can maintain accounting information by IP address. Accounting information includes when sessions start and stop, username, the number of bytes that pass through the security appliance for the session, the service used, and the duration of each session. To configure accounting, perform the following steps: Step 1 If you want the security appliance to provide accounting data per user, you must enable authentication. For more information, see the “Enabling Network Access Authentication” section on page 19-3. If you want the security appliance to provide accounting data per IP address, enabling authentication is not necessary and you can continue to the next step. Step 2 Using the access-list command, create an access list that identifies the source addresses and destination addresses of traffic you want accounted. For steps, see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5. The permit ACEs mark matching traffic for authorization, while deny entries exclude matching traffic from authorization. Note If you have configured authentication and want accounting data for all the traffic being authenticated, you can use the same access list you created for use with the aaa authentication match command. Step 3 To enable accounting, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa accounting match acl_name interface_name server_group Note Alternatively, you can use the aaa accounting include command (which identifies traffic within the command) but you cannot use both methods in the same configuration. See the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for more information. The following commands authenticate, authorize, and account for inside Telnet traffic. Telnet traffic to servers other than 209.165.201.5 can be authenticated alone, but traffic to 209.165.201.5 requires authorization and accounting.19-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and Authorization hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound protocol tacacs+ hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# exit hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthOutbound (inside) host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# key TACPlusUauthKey hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit hostname(config)# access-list TELNET_AUTH extended permit tcp any any eq telnet hostname(config)# access-list SERVER_AUTH extended permit tcp any host 209.165.201.5 eq telnet hostname(config)# aaa authentication match TELNET_AUTH inside AuthOutbound hostname(config)# aaa authorization match SERVER_AUTH inside AuthOutbound hostname(config)# aaa accounting match SERVER_AUTH inside AuthOutbound Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and Authorization The security appliance can exempt from authentication and authorization any traffic from specific MAC addresses. For example, if the security appliance authenticates TCP traffic originating on a particular network but you want to allow unauthenticated TCP connections from a specific server, you would use a MAC exempt rule to exempt from authentication and authorization any traffic from the server specified by the rule. This feature is particularly useful to exempt devices such as IP phones that cannot respond to authentication prompts. To use MAC addresses to exempt traffic from authentication and authorization, perform the following steps: Step 1 To configure a MAC list, enter the following command: hostname(config)# mac-list id {deny | permit} mac macmask Where the id argument is the hexadecimal number that you assign to the MAC list. To group a set of MAC addresses, enter the mac-list command as many times as needed with the same ID value. Because you can only use one MAC list for AAA exemption, be sure that your MAC list includes all the MAC addresses you want to exempt. You can create multiple MAC lists, but you can only use one at a time. The order of entries matters, because the packet uses the first entry it matches, as opposed to a best match scenario. If you have a permit entry, and you want to deny an address that is allowed by the permit entry, be sure to enter the deny entry before the permit entry. The mac argument specifies the source MAC address in 12-digit hexadecimal form; that is, nnnn.nnnn.nnnn. The macmask argument specifies the portion of the MAC address that should be used for matching. For example, ffff.ffff.ffff matches the MAC address exactly. ffff.ffff.0000 matches only the first 8 digits. Step 2 To exempt traffic for the MAC addresses specified in a particular MAC list, enter the following command: hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match id Where id is the string identifying the MAC list containing the MAC addresses whose traffic is to be exempt from authentication and authorization. You can only enter one instance of the aaa mac-exempt command.19-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and Authorization The following example bypasses authentication for a single MAC address: hostname(config)# mac-list abc permit 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match abc The following entry bypasses authentication for all Cisco IP Phones, which have the hardware ID 0003.E3: hostname(config)# mac-list acd permit 0003.E300.0000 FFFF.FF00.0000 hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match acd The following example bypasses authentication for a a group of MAC addresses except for 00a0.c95d.02b2. Enter the deny statement before the permit statement, because 00a0.c95d.02b2 matches the permit statement as well, and if it is first, the deny statement will never be matched. hostname(config)# mac-list 1 deny 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff hostname(config)# mac-list 1 permit 00a0.c95d.0000 ffff.ffff.0000 hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match 119-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 19 Applying AAA for Network Access Using MAC Addresses to Exempt Traffic from Authentication and AuthorizationC H A P T E R 20-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 20 Applying Filtering Services This chapter describes ways to filter web traffic to reduce security risks or prevent inappropriate use. This chapter contains the following sections: • Filtering Overview, page 20-1 • Filtering ActiveX Objects, page 20-2 • Filtering Java Applets, page 20-3 • Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server, page 20-4 • Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration, page 20-9 Filtering Overview This section describes how filtering can provide greater control over traffic passing through the security appliance. Filtering can be used in two distinct ways: • Filtering ActiveX objects or Java applets • Filtering with an external filtering server Instead of blocking access altogether, you can remove specific undesirable objects from HTTP traffic, such as ActiveX objects or Java applets, that may pose a security threat in certain situations. You can also use URL filtering to direct specific traffic to an external filtering server, such an Secure Computing SmartFilter (formerly N2H2) or Websense filtering server. Long URL, HTTPS, and FTP filtering can now be enabled using both Websense and Secure Computing SmartFilter for URL filtering. Filtering servers can block traffic to specific sites or types of sites, as specified by the security policy. Note URL caching will only work if the version of the URL server software from the URL server vender supports it. Because URL filtering is CPU-intensive, using an external filtering server ensures that the throughput of other traffic is not affected. However, depending on the speed of your network and the capacity of your URL filtering server, the time required for the initial connection may be noticeably slower when filtering traffic with an external filtering server.20-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering ActiveX Objects Filtering ActiveX Objects This section describes how to apply filtering to remove ActiveX objects from HTTP traffic passing through the firewall. This section includes the following topics: • ActiveX Filtering Overview, page 20-2 • Enabling ActiveX Filtering, page 20-2 ActiveX Filtering Overview ActiveX objects may pose security risks because they can contain code intended to attack hosts and servers on a protected network. You can disable ActiveX objects with ActiveX filtering. ActiveX controls, formerly known as OLE or OCX controls, are components you can insert in a web page or other application. These controls include custom forms, calendars, or any of the extensive third-party forms for gathering or displaying information. As a technology, ActiveX creates many potential problems for network clients including causing workstations to fail, introducing network security problems, or being used to attack servers. The filter activex command blocks the HTML commands by commenting them out within the HTML web page. ActiveX filtering of HTML files is performed by selectively replacing the and and and tags with comments. Filtering of nested tags is supported by converting top-level tags to comments. Caution This command also blocks any Java applets, image files, or multimedia objects that are embedded in object tags . If the or HTML tags split across network packets or if the code in the tags is longer than the number of bytes in the MTU, security appliance cannot block the tag. ActiveX blocking does not occur when users access an IP address referenced by the alias command or for WebVPN traffic. Enabling ActiveX Filtering This section describes how to remove ActiveX objects in HTTP traffic passing through the security appliance. To remove ActiveX objects, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# filter activex port[-port] local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask To use this command, replace port with the TCP port to which filtering is applied. Typically, this is port 80, but other values are accepted. The http or url literal can be used for port 80. You can specify a range of ports by using a hyphen between the starting port number and the ending port number. The local IP address and mask identify one or more internal hosts that are the source of the traffic to be filtered. The foreign address and mask specify the external destination of the traffic to be filtered. You can set either address to 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. You can use 0.0.0.0 for either mask (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. The following example specifies that ActiveX objects are blocked on all outbound connections: hostname(config)# filter activex 80 0 0 0 020-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering Java Applets This command specifies that the ActiveX object blocking applies to web traffic on port 80 from any local host and for connections to any foreign host. To remove the configuration, use the no form of the command, as in the following example: hostname(config)# no filter activex 80 0 0 0 0 Filtering Java Applets This section describes how to apply filtering to remove Java applets from HTTP traffic passing through the firewall. Java applets may pose security risks because they can contain code intended to attack hosts and servers on a protected network. You can remove Java applets with the filter java command. The filter java command filters out Java applets that return to the security appliance from an outbound connection. The user still receives the HTML page, but the web page source for the applet is commented out so that the applet cannot execute. The filter java command does not filter WebVPN traffic. Note Use the filter activex command to remove Java applets that are embedded in tags. To remove Java applets in HTTP traffic passing through the firewall, enter the following command in global configuration mode: hostname(config)# filter java port[-port] local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask To use this command, replace port with the TCP port to which filtering is applied. Typically, this is port 80, but other values are accepted. The http or url literal can be used for port 80. You can specify a range of ports by using a hyphen between the starting port number and the ending port number. The local IP address and mask identify one or more internal hosts that are the source of the traffic to be filtered. The foreign address and mask specify the external destination of the traffic to be filtered. You can set either address to 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. You can use 0.0.0.0 for either mask (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. You can set either address to 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. You can use 0.0.0.0 for either mask (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts. The following example specifies that Java applets are blocked on all outbound connections: hostname(config)# filter java 80 0 0 0 0 This command specifies that the Java applet blocking applies to web traffic on port 80 from any local host and for connections to any foreign host. The following example blocks downloading of Java applets to a host on a protected network: hostname(config)# filter java http 192.168.3.3 255.255.255.255 0 0 This command prevents host 192.168.3.3 from downloading Java applets. To remove the configuration, use the no form of the command, as in the following example: hostname(config)# no filter java http 192.168.3.3 255.255.255.255 0 020-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server This section describes how to filter URLs and FTP requests with an external server. This section includes the following topics: • URL Filtering Overview, page 20-4 • Identifying the Filtering Server, page 20-4 • Buffering the Content Server Response, page 20-6 • Caching Server Addresses, page 20-6 • Filtering HTTP URLs, page 20-7 • Filtering HTTPS URLs, page 20-8 • Filtering FTP Requests, page 20-9 URL Filtering Overview You can apply filtering to connection requests originating from a more secure network to a less secure network. Although you can use ACLs to prevent outbound access to specific content servers, managing usage this way is difficult because of the size and dynamic nature of the Internet. You can simplify configuration and improve security appliance performance by using a separate server running one of the following Internet filtering products: • Websense Enterprise for filtering HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP. • Secure Computing SmartFilter (formerly N2H2) for filtering HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and long URL filtering. Note URL caching will only work if the version of the URL server software from the URL server vender supports it. Although security appliance performance is less affected when using an external server, users may notice longer access times to websites or FTP servers when the filtering server is remote from the security appliance. When filtering is enabled and a request for content is directed through the security appliance, the request is sent to the content server and to the filtering server at the same time. If the filtering server allows the connection, the security appliance forwards the response from the content server to the originating client. If the filtering server denies the connection, the security appliance drops the response and sends a message or return code indicating that the connection was not successful. If user authentication is enabled on the security appliance, then the security appliance also sends the user name to the filtering server. The filtering server can use user-specific filtering settings or provide enhanced reporting regarding usage. Identifying the Filtering Server You can identify up to four filtering servers per context. The security appliance uses the servers in order until a server responds. You can only configure a single type of server (Websense or Secure Computing SmartFilter ) in your configuration.20-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server Note You must add the filtering server before you can configure filtering for HTTP or HTTPS with the filter command. If you remove the filtering servers from the configuration, then all filter commands are also removed. Identify the address of the filtering server using the url-server command: For Websense: hostname(config)# url-server (if_name) host local_ip [timeout seconds] [protocol TCP | UDP version [1|4] [connections num_conns] ] For Secure Computing SmartFilter (formerly N2H2): hostname(config)# url-server (if_name) vendor {secure-computing | n2h2} host [port ] [timeout ] [protocol {TCP [connections ]} | UDP] where is the name of the security appliance interface connected to the filtering server (the default is inside). For the vendor {secure-computing | n2h2}, you can use ‘secure-computing as a vendor string, however, ‘n2h2’ is acceptable for backward compatibility. When the configuration entries are generated, ‘secure-computing’ is saved as the vendor string. The host is the IP address of the URL filtering server. The port is the Secure Computing SmartFilter server port number of the filtering server; the security appliance also listens for UDP replies on this port. Note The default port is 4005. This is the default port used by the Secure Computing SmartFilter server to communicate to the security appliance via TCP or UDP. For information on changing the default port, please refer to the Filtering by N2H2 Administrator's Guide. The timeout is the number of seconds the security appliance should keep trying to connect to the filtering server. The connections is the number of tries to attempt to make a connection between the host and server. For example, to identify a single Websense filtering server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# url-server (perimeter) host 10.0.1.1 protocol TCP version 4 This identifies a Websense filtering server with the IP address 10.0.1.1 on a perimeter interface of the security appliance.Version 4, which is enabled in this example, is recommended by Websense because it supports caching. To identify redundant Secure Computing SmartFilter servers, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# url-server (perimeter) vendor n2h2 host 10.0.1.1 hostname(config)# url-server (perimeter) vendor n2h2 host 10.0.1.2 This identifies two Sentian filtering servers, both on a perimeter interface of the security appliance.20-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server Buffering the Content Server Response When a user issues a request to connect to a content server, the security appliance sends the request to the content server and to the filtering server at the same time. If the filtering server does not respond before the content server, the server response is dropped. This delays the web server response from the point of view of the web client because the client must reissue the request. By enabling the HTTP response buffer, replies from web content servers are buffered and the responses are forwarded to the requesting client if the filtering server allows the connection. This prevents the delay that might otherwise occur. To configure buffering for responses to HTTP or FTP requests, perform the following steps: Step 1 To enable buffering of responses for HTTP or FTP requests that are pending a response from the filtering server, enter the following command: hostname(config)# url-block block block-buffer-limit Replace block-buffer with the maximum number of HTTP responses that can be buffered while awaiting responses from the url-server. Note Buffering URLs longer than 3072 bytes are not supported. Step 2 To configure the maximum memory available for buffering pending URLs (and for buffering long URLs), enter the following command: hostname(config)# url-block mempool-size memory-pool-size Replace memory-pool-size with a value from 2 to 10240 for a maximum memory allocation of 2 KB to 10 MB. Caching Server Addresses After a user accesses a site, the filtering server can allow the security appliance to cache the server address for a certain amount of time, as long as every site hosted at the address is in a category that is permitted at all times. Then, when the user accesses the server again, or if another user accesses the server, the security appliance does not need to consult the filtering server again. Note Requests for cached IP addresses are not passed to the filtering server and are not logged. As a result, this activity does not appear in any reports. You can accumulate Websense run logs before using the url-cache command. Use the url-cache command if needed to improve throughput, as follows: hostname(config)# url-cache dst | src_dst size Replace size with a value for the cache size within the range 1 to 128 (KB). Use the dst keyword to cache entries based on the URL destination address. Select this mode if all users share the same URL filtering policy on the Websense server.20-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server Use the src_dst keyword to cache entries based on both the source address initiating the URL request as well as the URL destination address. Select this mode if users do not share the same URL filtering policy on the Websense server. Filtering HTTP URLs This section describes how to configure HTTP filtering with an external filtering server. This section includes the following topics: • Configuring HTTP Filtering, page 20-7 • Enabling Filtering of Long HTTP URLs, page 20-7 • Truncating Long HTTP URLs, page 20-7 • Exempting Traffic from Filtering, page 20-8 Configuring HTTP Filtering You must identify and enable the URL filtering server before enabling HTTP filtering. When the filtering server approves an HTTP connection request, the security appliance allows the reply from the web server to reach the originating client. If the filtering server denies the request, the security appliance redirects the user to a block page, indicating that access was denied. To enable HTTP filtering, enter the following command: hostname(config)# filter url [http | port[-port] local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask] [allow] [proxy-block] Replace port with one or more port numbers if a different port than the default port for HTTP (80) is used. Replace local_ip and local_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a user or subnetwork making requests. Replace foreign_ip and foreign_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a server or subnetwork responding to requests. The allow option causes the security appliance to forward HTTP traffic without filtering when the primary filtering server is unavailable. Use the proxy-block command to drop all requests to proxy servers. Enabling Filtering of Long HTTP URLs By default, the security appliance considers an HTTP URL to be a long URL if it is greater than 1159 characters. You can increase the maximum length allowed. Configure the maximum size of a single URL with the following command: hostname(config)# url-block url-size long-url-size Replace long-url-size with the maximum size in KB for each long URL being buffered. For Websense, this is a value from 2 to 4 for a maximum URL size of 2 KB to 4 KB; for Secure Computing, this is a value between 2 to 3 for a maximum URL size of 2 KB to 3 KB. The default value is 2. Truncating Long HTTP URLs By default, if a URL exceeds the maximum permitted size, then it is dropped. To avoid this, you can set the security appliance to truncate a long URL by entering the following command:20-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Filtering URLs and FTP Requests with an External Server hostname(config)# filter url [longurl-truncate | longurl-deny | cgi-truncate] The longurl-truncate option causes the security appliance to send only the hostname or IP address portion of the URL for evaluation to the filtering server when the URL is longer than the maximum length permitted. Use the longurl-deny option to deny outbound URL traffic if the URL is longer than the maximum permitted. Use the cgi-truncate option to truncate CGI URLs to include only the CGI script location and the script name without any parameters. Many long HTTP requests are CGI requests. If the parameters list is very long, waiting and sending the complete CGI request including the parameter list can use up memory resources and affect firewall performance. Exempting Traffic from Filtering To exempt specific traffic from filtering, enter the following command: hostname(config)# filter url except source_ip source_mask dest_ip dest_mask For example, the following commands cause all HTTP requests to be forwarded to the filtering server except for those from 10.0.2.54. hostname(config)# filter url http 0 0 0 0 hostname(config)# filter url except 10.0.2.54 255.255.255.255 0 0 Filtering HTTPS URLs You must identify and enable the URL filtering server before enabling HTTPS filtering. Note Websense and Smartfilter currently support HTTPS; older versions of Secure Computing SmartFilter (formerly N2H2) did not support HTTPS filtering. Because HTTPS content is encrypted, the security appliance sends the URL lookup without directory and filename information. When the filtering server approves an HTTPS connection request, the security appliance allows the completion of SSL connection negotiation and allows the reply from the web server to reach the originating client. If the filtering server denies the request, the security appliance prevents the completion of SSL connection negotiation. The browser displays an error message such as “The Page or the content cannot be displayed.” Note The security appliance does not provide an authentication prompt for HTTPS, so a user must authenticate with the security appliance using HTTP or FTP before accessing HTTPS servers. To enable HTTPS filtering, enter the following command: hostname(config)# filter https port[-port] localIP local_mask foreign_IP foreign_mask [allow] Replace port[-port] with a range of port numbers if a different port than the default port for HTTPS (443) is used. Replace local_ip and local_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a user or subnetwork making requests. 20-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration Replace foreign_ip and foreign_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a server or subnetwork responding to requests. The allow option causes the security appliance to forward HTTPS traffic without filtering when the primary filtering server is unavailable. Filtering FTP Requests You must identify and enable the URL filtering server before enabling FTP filtering. Note Websense and Smartfilter currently support FTP; older versions of Secure Computing SmartFilter (formerly known as N2H2) did not support FTP filtering. When the filtering server approves an FTP connection request, the security appliance allows the successful FTP return code to reach originating client. For example, a successful return code is “250: CWD command successful.” If the filtering server denies the request, alters the FTP return code to show that the connection was denied. For example, the security appliance changes code 250 to “550 Requested file is prohibited by URL filtering policy.” To enable FTP filtering, enter the following command: hostname(config)# filter ftp port[-port] localIP local_mask foreign_IP foreign_mask [allow] [interact-block] Replace port[-port] with a range of port numbers if a different port than the default port for FTP (21) is used. Replace local_ip and local_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a user or subnetwork making requests. Replace foreign_ip and foreign_mask with the IP address and subnet mask of a server or subnetwork responding to requests. The allow option causes the security appliance to forward HTTPS traffic without filtering when the primary filtering server is unavailable. Use the interact-block option to prevent interactive FTP sessions that do not provide the entire directory path. An interactive FTP client allows the user to change directories without typing the entire path. For example, the user might enter cd ./files instead of cd /public/files. Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration This section describes how to monitor filtering statistics. This section includes the following topics: • Viewing Filtering Server Statistics, page 20-10 • Viewing Buffer Configuration and Statistics, page 20-11 • Viewing Caching Statistics, page 20-11 • Viewing Filtering Performance Statistics, page 20-11 • Viewing Filtering Configuration, page 20-1220-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration Viewing Filtering Server Statistics To show information about the filtering server, enter the following command: hostname# show running-config url-server The following is sample output from the show running-config url-server command: hostname# show running-config url-server url-server (outside) vendor n2h2 host 128.107.254.202 port 4005 timeout 5 protocol TCP To show information about the filtering server or to show statistics, enter the following command: The following is sample output from the show running-config url-server statistics command, which shows filtering statistics: hostname# show running-config url-server statistics Global Statistics: -------------------- URLs total/allowed/denied 13/3/10 URLs allowed by cache/server 0/3 URLs denied by cache/server 0/10 HTTPSs total/allowed/denied 138/137/1 HTTPSs allowed by cache/server 0/137 HTTPSs denied by cache/server 0/1 FTPs total/allowed/denied 0/0/0 FTPs allowed by cache/server 0/0 FTPs denied by cache/server 0/0 Requests dropped 0 Server timeouts/retries 0/0 Processed rate average 60s/300s 0/0 requests/second Denied rate average 60s/300s 0/0 requests/second Dropped rate average 60s/300s 0/0 requests/second Server Statistics: -------------------- 10.125.76.20 UP Vendor websense Port 15868 Requests total/allowed/denied 151/140/11 Server timeouts/retries 0/0 Responses received 151 Response time average 60s/300s 0/0 URL Packets Sent and Received Stats: ------------------------------------ Message Sent Received STATUS_REQUEST 1609 1601 LOOKUP_REQUEST 1526 1526 LOG_REQUEST 0 NA Errors: ------- RFC noncompliant GET method 0 URL buffer update failure 020-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration Viewing Buffer Configuration and Statistics The show running-config url-block command displays the number of packets held in the url-block buffer and the number (if any) dropped due to exceeding the buffer limit or retransmission. The following is sample output from the show running-config url-block command: hostname# show running-config url-block url-block url-mempool 128 url-block url-size 4 url-block block 128 This shows the configuration of the URL block buffer. The following is sample output from the show url-block block statistics command: hostname# show running-config url-block block statistics URL Pending Packet Buffer Stats with max block 128 ----------------------------------------------------- Cumulative number of packets held: 896 Maximum number of packets held (per URL): 3 Current number of packets held (global): 38 Packets dropped due to exceeding url-block buffer limit: 7546 HTTP server retransmission: 10 Number of packets released back to client: 0 This shows the URL block statistics. Viewing Caching Statistics The following is sample output from the show url-cache stats command: hostname# show url-cache stats URL Filter Cache Stats ---------------------- Size : 128KB Entries : 1724 In Use : 456 Lookups : 45 Hits : 8 This shows how the cache is used. Viewing Filtering Performance Statistics The following is sample output from the show perfmon command: hostname# show perfmon PERFMON STATS: Current Average Xlates 0/s 0/s Connections 0/s 2/s TCP Conns 0/s 2/s UDP Conns 0/s 0/s URL Access 0/s 2/s URL Server Req 0/s 3/s TCP Fixup 0/s 0/s TCPIntercept 0/s 0/s HTTP Fixup 0/s 3/s20-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 20 Applying Filtering Services Viewing Filtering Statistics and Configuration FTP Fixup 0/s 0/s AAA Authen 0/s 0/s AAA Author 0/s 0/s AAA Account 0/s 0/s This shows URL filtering performance statistics, along with other performance statistics. The filtering statistics are shown in the URL Access and URL Server Req rows. Viewing Filtering Configuration The following is sample output from the show running-config filter command: hostname# show running-config filter filter url http 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 C H A P T E R 21-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 21 Using Modular Policy Framework This chapter describes how to use Modular Policy Framework to create security policies for TCP and general connection settings, inspections, IPS, CSC, and QoS. This chapter includes the following sections: • Modular Policy Framework Overview, page 21-1 • Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map), page 21-4 • Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map), page 21-7 • Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map), page 21-15 • Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy), page 21-21 • Modular Policy Framework Examples, page 21-21 Modular Policy Framework Overview Modular Policy Framework provides a consistent and flexible way to configure security appliance features. For example, you can use Modular Policy Framework to create a timeout configuration that is specific to a particular TCP application, as opposed to one that applies to all TCP applications. This section includes the following topics: • Modular Policy Framework Features, page 21-1 • Modular Policy Framework Configuration Overview, page 21-2 • Default Global Policy, page 21-3 Modular Policy Framework Features Modular Policy Framework supports the following features: • QoS input policing • TCP normalization, TCP and UDP connection limits and timeouts, and TCP sequence number randomization • CSC • Application inspection • IPS • QoS output policing21-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Modular Policy Framework Overview • QoS standard priority queue • QoS traffic shaping, hierarchical priority queue Modular Policy Framework Configuration Overview Configuring Modular Policy Framework consists of the following tasks: 1. Identify the traffic on which you want to perform Modular Policy Framework actions by creating Layer 3/4 class maps. For example, you might want to perform actions on all traffic that passes through the security appliance; or you might only want to perform certain actions on traffic from 10.1.1.0/24 to any destination address. See the “Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map)” section on page 21-4. 2. If one of the actions you want to perform is application inspection, and you want to perform additional actions on some inspection traffic, then create an inspection policy map. The inspection policy map identifies the traffic and specifies what to do with it. For example, you might want to drop all HTTP requests with a body length greater than 1000 bytes. You can create a self-contained inspection policy map that identifies the traffic directly with match commands, or you can create an inspection class map for reuse or for more complicated matching. See the “Defining Actions in an Inspection Policy Map” section on page 21-8 and the “Identifying Traffic in an Inspection Class Map” section on page 21-11. 3. If you want to match text with a regular expression within inspected packets, you can create a regular expression or a group of regular expressions (a regular expression class map). Then, when you define the traffic to match for the inspection policy map, you can call on an existing regular expression. For example, you might want to drop all HTTP requests with a URL including the text “example.com.” Layer 3/4 Class Map Layer 3/4 Class Map 241506 Inspection Class Map/ Match Commands Inspection Policy Map Actions 24150721-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Modular Policy Framework Overview See the “Creating a Regular Expression” section on page 21-12 and the “Creating a Regular Expression Class Map” section on page 21-14. 4. Define the actions you want to perform on each Layer 3/4 class map by creating a Layer 3/4 policy map. Then, determine on which interfaces you want to apply the policy map using a service policy. See the “Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map)” section on page 21-15 and the “Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy)” section on page 21-21. Default Global Policy By default, the configuration includes a policy that matches all default application inspection traffic and applies certain inspections to the traffic on all interfaces (a global policy). Not all inspections are enabled by default. You can only apply one global policy, so if you want to alter the global policy, you need to either edit the default policy or disable it and apply a new one. (An interface policy overrides the global policy for a particular feature.) Regular Expression Statement/ Regular Expression Class Map Inspection Class Map/ Match Commands Inspection Policy Map Actions 241509 Inspection Connection Limits Layer 3/4 Policy Map Service Policy IPS Inspection Connection Limits 24150821-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map) The default policy configuration includes the following commands: class-map inspection_default match default-inspection-traffic policy-map type inspect dns preset_dns_map parameters message-length maximum 512 policy-map global_policy class inspection_default inspect dns preset_dns_map inspect ftp inspect h323 h225 inspect h323 ras inspect rsh inspect rtsp inspect esmtp inspect sqlnet inspect skinny inspect sunrpc inspect xdmcp inspect sip inspect netbios inspect tftp service-policy global_policy global Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map) A Layer 3/4 class map identifies Layer 3 and 4 traffic to which you want to apply actions. The maximum number of Layer 3/4 class maps is 255 in single mode or per context in multiple mode.You can create multiple Layer 3/4 class maps for each Layer 3/4 policy map. You can create the following types of class maps: • Default Class Maps, page 21-4 • Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Through Traffic, page 21-5 • Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Management Traffic, page 21-7 Default Class Maps The configuration includes a default Layer 3/4 class map that the security appliance uses in the default global policy. It is called inspection_default and matches the default inspection traffic: class-map inspection_default match default-inspection-traffic Another class map that exists in the default configuration is called class-default, and it matches all traffic: class-map class-default match any This class map appears at the end of all Layer 3/4 policy maps and essentially tells the security appliance to not perform any actions on all other traffic. You can use the class-default class map if desired, rather than making your own match any class map. In fact, some features are only available for class-default, such as QoS traffic shaping.21-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map) Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Through Traffic A Layer 3/4 class map matches traffic based on protocols, ports, IP addresses and other Layer 3 or 4 attributes. To define a Layer 3/4 class map, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create a Layer 3/4 class map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# class-map class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# Where class_map_name is a string up to 40 characters in length. The name “class-default” is reserved. All types of class maps use the same name space, so you cannot reuse a name already used by another type of class map. The CLI enters class-map configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) Add a description to the class map by entering the following command: hostname(config-cmap)# description string Step 3 Define the traffic to include in the class by matching one of the following characteristics. Unless otherwise specified, you can include only one match command in the class map. • Any traffic—The class map matches all traffic. hostname(config-cmap)# match any • Access list—The class map matches traffic specified by an extended access list. If the security appliance is operating in transparent firewall mode, you can use an EtherType access list. hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list access_list_name For more information about creating access lists, see the “Adding an Extended Access List” section on page 16-5 or the “Adding an EtherType Access List” section on page 16-8. For information about creating access lists with NAT, see the “IP Addresses Used for Access Lists When You Use NAT” section on page 16-3. • TCP or UDP destination ports—The class map matches a single port or a contiguous range of ports. hostname(config-cmap)# match port {tcp | udp} {eq port_num | range port_num port_num} Tip For applications that use multiple, non-contiguous ports, use the match access-list command and define an ACE to match each port. For a list of ports you can specify, see the “TCP and UDP Ports” section on page D-11. For example, enter the following command to match TCP packets on port 80 (HTTP): hostname(config-cmap)# match tcp eq 80 • Default traffic for inspection—The class map matches the default TCP and UDP ports used by all applications that the security appliance can inspect. hostname(config-cmap)# match default-inspection-traffic See the “Default Inspection Policy” section on page 25-3 for a list of default ports. The security appliance includes a default global policy that matches the default inspection traffic, and applies common inspections to the traffic on all interfaces. Not all applications whose ports are included in the match default-inspection-traffic command are enabled by default in the policy map.21-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map) You can specify a match access-list command along with the match default-inspection-traffic command to narrow the matched traffic. Because the match default-inspection-traffic command specifies the ports to match, any ports in the access list are ignored. • DSCP value in an IP header—The class map matches up to eight DSCP values. hostname(config-cmap)# match dscp value1 [value2] [...] [value8] For example, enter the following: hostname(config-cmap)# match dscp af43 cs1 ef • Precedence—The class map matches up to four precedence values, represented by the Type of Service (TOS) byte in the IP header. hostname(config-cmap)# match precedence value1 [value2] [value3] [value4] where value1 through value4 can be 0 to 7, corresponding to the possible precedences. • RTP traffic—The class map matches RTP traffic. hostname(config-cmap)# match rtp starting_port range The starting_port specifies an even-numbered UDP destination port between 2000 and 65534. The range specifies the number of additional UDP ports to match above the starting_port, between 0 and 16383. • Tunnel group traffic—The class map matches traffic for a tunnel group to which you want to apply QoS. hostname(config-cmap)# match tunnel-group name You can also specify one other match command to refine the traffic match. You can specify any of the preceding commands, except for the match any, match access-list, or match default-inspection-traffic commands. Or you can enter the following command to police each flow: hostname(config-cmap)# match flow ip destination address All traffic going to a unique IP destination address is considered a flow. The following is an example for the class-map command: hostname(config)# access-list udp permit udp any any hostname(config)# access-list tcp permit tcp any any hostname(config)# access-list host_foo permit ip any 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# class-map all_udp hostname(config-cmap)# description "This class-map matches all UDP traffic" hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list udp hostname(config-cmap)# class-map all_tcp hostname(config-cmap)# description "This class-map matches all TCP traffic" hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list tcp hostname(config-cmap)# class-map all_http hostname(config-cmap)# description "This class-map matches all HTTP traffic" hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq http hostname(config-cmap)# class-map to_server hostname(config-cmap)# description "This class-map matches all traffic to server 10.1.1.1" hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list host_foo21-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Management Traffic For management traffic to the security appliance, you might want to perform actions specific to this kind of traffic. You can specify a management class map that can match TCP or UDP ports. The types of actions available for a management class map in the policy map are specialized for management traffic. Namely, this type of class map lets you inspect RADIUS accounting traffic. To create a class map for management traffic to the security appliance, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create a class map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# class-map type management class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# Where class_map_name is a string up to 40 characters in length. The name “class-default” is reserved. All types of class maps use the same name space, so you cannot reuse a name already used by another type of class map. The CLI enters class-map configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) Add a description to the class map by entering the following command: hostname(config-cmap)# description string Step 3 Define the traffic to include in the class by matching the TCP or UDP port. You can include only one match command in the class map. hostname(config-cmap)# match port {tcp | udp} {eq port_num | range port_num port_num} For a list of ports you can specify, see the “TCP and UDP Ports” section on page D-11. For example, enter the following command to match TCP packets on port 10000: hostname(config-cmap)# match tcp eq 10000 Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) Modular Policy Framework lets you configure special actions for many application inspections. When you enable an inspection engine in the Layer 3/4 policy map, you can also optionally enable actions as defined in an inspection policy map. When the inspection policy map matches traffic within the Layer 3/4 class map for which you have defined an inspection action, then that subset of traffic will be acted upon as specified (for example, dropped or rate-limited). This section includes the following topics: • Inspection Policy Map Overview, page 21-8 • Defining Actions in an Inspection Policy Map, page 21-8 • Identifying Traffic in an Inspection Class Map, page 21-11 • Creating a Regular Expression, page 21-12 • Creating a Regular Expression Class Map, page 21-1421-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) Inspection Policy Map Overview See the “Configuring Application Inspection” section on page 25-5 for a list of applications that support inspection policy maps. An inspection policy map consists of one or more of the following elements. The exact options available for an inspection policy map depends on the application. • Traffic matching command—You can define a traffic matching command directly in the inspection policy map to match application traffic to criteria specific to the application, such as a URL string, for which you then enable actions. – Some traffic matching commands can specify regular expressions to match text inside a packet. Be sure to create and test the regular expressions before you configure the policy map, either singly or grouped together in a regular expression class map. • Inspection class map—(Not available for all applications. See the CLI help for a list of supported applications.) An inspection class map includes traffic matching commands that match application traffic with criteria specific to the application, such as a URL string. You then identify the class map in the policy map and enable actions. The difference between creating a class map and defining the traffic match directly in the inspection policy map is that you can create more complex match criteria and you can reuse class maps. – Some traffic matching commands can specify regular expressions to match text inside a packet. Be sure to create and test the regular expressions before you configure the policy map, either singly or grouped together in a regular expression class map. • Parameters—Parameters affect the behavior of the inspection engine. The default inspection policy map configuration includes the following commands, which sets the maximum message length for DNS packets to be 512 bytes: policy-map type inspect dns preset_dns_map parameters message-length maximum 512 Note There are other default inspection policy maps such as policy-map type inspect esmtp _default_esmtp_map. These default policy maps are created implicitly by the command inspect protocol. For example, inspect esmtp implicitly uses the policy map “_default_esmtp_map.” All the default policy maps can be shown by using the show running-config all policy-map command. Defining Actions in an Inspection Policy Map When you enable an inspection engine in the Layer 3/4 policy map, you can also optionally enable actions as defined in an inspection policy map. To create an inspection policy map, perform the following steps: Step 1 To create the HTTP inspection policy map, enter the following command: hostname(config)# policy-map type inspect application policy_map_name hostname(config-pmap)# See the “Configuring Application Inspection” section on page 25-5 for a list of applications that support inspection policy maps.21-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) The policy_map_name argument is the name of the policy map up to 40 characters in length. All types of policy maps use the same name space, so you cannot reuse a name already used by another type of policy map. The CLI enters policy-map configuration mode. Step 2 To apply actions to matching traffic, perform the following steps: a. Specify the traffic on which you want to perform actions using one of the following methods: • Specify the inspection class map that you created in the “Identifying Traffic in an Inspection Class Map” section on page 21-11 by entering the following command: hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name hostname(config-pmap-c)# • Specify traffic directly in the policy map using one of the match commands described for each application in Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection.” If you use a match not command, then any traffic that matches the criterion in the match not command does not have the action applied. b. Specify the action you want to perform on the matching traffic by entering the following command: hostname(config-pmap-c)# {[drop [send-protocol-error] | drop-connection [send-protocol-error]| mask | reset] [log] | rate-limit message_rate} Not all options are available for each application. Other actions specific to the application might also be available. See Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection,” for the exact options available. The drop keyword drops all packets that match. The send-protocol-error keyword sends a protocol error message. The drop-connection keyword drops the packet and closes the connection. The mask keyword masks out the matching portion of the packet. The reset keyword drops the packet, closes the connection, and sends a TCP reset to the server and/or client. The log keyword, which you can use alone or with one of the other keywords, sends a system log message. The rate-limit message_rate argument limits the rate of messages. Note You can specify multiple class or match commands in the policy map. If a packet matches multiple different match or class commands, then the order in which the security appliance applies the actions is determined by internal security appliance rules, and not by the order they are added to the policy map. The internal rules are determined by the application type and the logical progression of parsing a packet, and are not user-configurable. For example for HTTP traffic, parsing a Request Method field precedes parsing the Header Host Length field; an action for the Request Method field occurs before the action for the Header Host Length field. For example, the following match commands can be entered in any order, but the match request method get command is matched first. match request header host length gt 100 reset match request method get log21-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) If an action drops a packet, then no further actions are performed in the inspection policy map. For example, if the first action is to reset the connection, then it will never match any further match or class commands. If the first action is to log the packet, then a second action, such as resetting the connection, can occur. (You can configure both the reset (or drop-connection, and so on.) and the log action for the same match or class command, in which case the packet is logged before it is reset for a given match.) If a packet matches multiple match or class commands that are the same, then they are matched in the order they appear in the policy map. For example, for a packet with the header length of 1001, it will match the first command below, and be logged, and then will match the second command and be reset. If you reverse the order of the two match commands, then the packet will be dropped and the connection reset before it can match the second match command; it will never be logged. match request header length gt 100 log match request header length gt 1000 reset A class map is determined to be the same type as another class map or match command based on the lowest priority match command in the class map (the priority is based on the internal rules). If a class map has the same type of lowest priority match command as another class map, then the class maps are matched according to the order they are added to the policy map. If the lowest priority command for each class map is different, then the class map with the higher priority match command is matched first. For example, the following three class maps contain two types of match commands: match request-cmd (higher priority) and match filename (lower priority). The ftp3 class map includes both commands, but it is ranked according to the lowest priority command, match filename. The ftp1 class map includes the highest priority command, so it is matched first, regardless of the order in the policy map. The ftp3 class map is ranked as being of the same priority as the ftp2 class map, which also contains the match filename command. They are matched according to the order in the policy map: ftp3 and then ftp2. class-map inspect type ftp ftp1 match request-cmd get class-map inspect type ftp ftp2 match filename regex abc class-map inspect type ftp ftp3 match request-cmd get match filename regex abc policy-map type inspect ftp ftp class ftp3 log class ftp2 log class ftp1 log Step 3 To configure parameters that affect the inspection engine, enter the following command: hostname(config-pmap)# parameters hostname(config-pmap-p)# The CLI enters parameters configuration mode. For the parameters available for each application, see Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection.” The following is an example of an HTTP inspection policy map and the related class maps. This policy map is activated by the Layer 3/4 policy map, which is enabled by the service policy. hostname(config)# regex url_example example.com21-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) hostname(config)# regex url_example2 example2.com hostname(config)# class-map type regex match-any URLs hostname(config-cmap)# match regex url_example hostname(config-cmap)# match regex url_example2 hostname(config-cmap)# class-map type inspect http match-all http-traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match req-resp content-type mismatch hostname(config-cmap)# match request body length gt 1000 hostname(config-cmap)# match not request uri regex class URLs hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map type inspect http http-map1 hostname(config-pmap)# class http-traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# drop-connection log hostname(config-pmap-c)# match req-resp content-type mismatch hostname(config-pmap-c)# reset log hostname(config-pmap-c)# parameters hostname(config-pmap-p)# protocol-violation action log hostname(config-pmap-p)# policy-map test hostname(config-pmap)# class test (a Layer 3/4 class map not shown) hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http http-map1 hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy test interface outside Identifying Traffic in an Inspection Class Map This type of class map allows you to match criteria that is specific to an application. For example, for DNS traffic, you can match the domain name in a DNS query. Note Not all applications support inspection class maps. See the CLI help for a list of supported applications. A class map groups multiple traffic matches. Traffic must match all of the match criteria to match the class map. You can alternatively identify the traffic you want to match directly in the policy map. The difference between creating a class map and defining the traffic match directly in the inspection policy map is that the class map lets you group multiple matches, and you can reuse class maps. For the traffic that you identify in this class map, you can specify actions such as dropping, resetting, and/or logging the connection in the inspection policy map. If you want to perform different actions on different types of traffic, you should identify the traffic directly in the policy map. To define an inspection class map, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create a class map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# class-map type inspect application [match-all] class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# Where the application is the application you want to inspect. For supported applications, see Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection.” The class_map_name argument is the name of the class map up to 40 characters in length. The match-all keyword is the default, and specifies that traffic must match all criteria to match the class map. The CLI enters class-map configuration mode, where you can enter one or more match commands. Step 2 (Optional) To add a description to the class map, enter the following command:21-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) hostname(config-cmap)# description string Step 3 Define the traffic to include in the class by entering one or more match commands available for your application. To specify traffic that should not match the class map, use the match not command. For example, if the match not command specifies the string “example.com,” then any traffic that includes “example.com” does not match the class map. To see the match commands available for each application, see Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection.” The following example creates an HTTP class map that must match all criteria: hostname(config-cmap)# class-map type inspect http match-all http-traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match req-resp content-type mismatch hostname(config-cmap)# match request body length gt 1000 hostname(config-cmap)# match not request uri regex class URLs Creating a Regular Expression A regular expression matches text strings either literally as an exact string, or by using metacharacters so you can match multiple variants of a text string. You can use a regular expression to match the content of certain application traffic; for example, you can match a URL string inside an HTTP packet. Use Ctrl+V to escape all of the special characters in the CLI, such as question mark (?) or a tab. For example, type d[Ctrl+V]g to enter d?g in the configuration. See the regex command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference for performance impact information when matching a regular expression to packets. Note As an optimization, the security appliance searches on the deobfuscated URL. Deobfuscation compresses multiple forward slashes (/) into a single slash. For strings that commonly use double slashes, like “http://”, be sure to search for “http:/” instead. Table 21-1 lists the metacharacters that have special meanings. Table 21-1 regex Metacharacters Character Description Notes . Dot Matches any single character. For example, d.g matches dog, dag, dtg, and any word that contains those characters, such as doggonnit. (exp) Subexpression A subexpression segregates characters from surrounding characters, so that you can use other metacharacters on the subexpression. For example, d(o|a)g matches dog and dag, but do|ag matches do and ag. A subexpression can also be used with repeat quantifiers to differentiate the characters meant for repetition. For example, ab(xy){3}z matches abxyxyxyz.21-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) | Alternation Matches either expression it separates. For example, dog|cat matches dog or cat. ? Question mark A quantifier that indicates that there are 0 or 1 of the previous expression. For example, lo?se matches lse or lose. Note You must enter Ctrl+V and then the question mark or else the help function is invoked. * Asterisk A quantifier that indicates that there are 0, 1 or any number of the previous expression. For example, lo*se matches lse, lose, loose, and so on. + Plus A quantifier that indicates that there is at least 1 of the previous expression. For example, lo+se matches lose and loose, but not lse. {x} Repeat quantifier Repeat exactly x times. For example, ab(xy){3}z matches abxyxyxyz. {x,} Minimum repeat quantifier Repeat at least x times. For example, ab(xy){2,}z matches abxyxyz, abxyxyxyz, and so on. [abc] Character class Matches any character in the brackets. For example, [abc] matches a, b, or c. [^abc] Negated character class Matches a single character that is not contained within the brackets. For example, [^abc] matches any character other than a, b, or c. [^A-Z] matches any single character that is not an uppercase letter. [a-c] Character range class Matches any character in the range. [a-z] matches any lowercase letter. You can mix characters and ranges: [abcq-z] matches a, b, c, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, and so does [a-cq-z]. The dash (-) character is literal only if it is the last or the first character within the brackets: [abc-] or [-abc]. "" Quotation marks Preserves trailing or leading spaces in the string. For example, " test" preserves the leading space when it looks for a match. ^ Caret Specifies the beginning of a line. \ Escape character When used with a metacharacter, matches a literal character. For example, \[ matches the left square bracket. char Character When character is not a metacharacter, matches the literal character. \r Carriage return Matches a carriage return 0x0d. \n Newline Matches a new line 0x0a. \t Tab Matches a tab 0x09. \f Formfeed Matches a form feed 0x0c. Table 21-1 regex Metacharacters (continued) Character Description Notes21-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Configuring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map) To test and create a regular expression, perform the following steps: Step 1 To test a regular expression to make sure it matches what you think it will match, enter the following command: hostname(config)# test regex input_text regular_expression Where the input_text argument is a string you want to match using the regular expression, up to 201 characters in length. The regular_expression argument can be up to 100 characters in length. Use Ctrl+V to escape all of the special characters in the CLI. For example, to enter a tab in the input text in the test regex command, you must enter test regex "test[Ctrl+V Tab]" "test\t". If the regular expression matches the input text, you see the following message: INFO: Regular expression match succeeded. If the regular expression does not match the input text, you see the following message: INFO: Regular expression match failed. Step 2 To add a regular expression after you tested it, enter the following command: hostname(config)# regex name regular_expression Where the name argument can be up to 40 characters in length. The regular_expression argument can be up to 100 characters in length. The following example creates two regular expressions for use in an inspection policy map: hostname(config)# regex url_example example\.com hostname(config)# regex url_example2 example2\.com Creating a Regular Expression Class Map A regular expression class map identifies one or more regular expressions. You can use a regular expression class map to match the content of certain traffic; for example, you can match URL strings inside HTTP packets. To create a regular expression class map, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create one or more regular expressions according to the “Creating a Regular Expression” section. \xNN Escaped hexadecimal number Matches an ASCII character using hexadecimal (exactly two digits). \NNN Escaped octal number Matches an ASCII character as octal (exactly three digits). For example, the character 040 represents a space. Table 21-1 regex Metacharacters (continued) Character Description Notes21-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) Step 2 Create a class map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# class-map type regex match-any class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# Where class_map_name is a string up to 40 characters in length. The name “class-default” is reserved. All types of class maps use the same name space, so you cannot reuse a name already used by another type of class map. The match-any keyword specifies that the traffic matches the class map if it matches only one of the regular expressions. The CLI enters class-map configuration mode. Step 3 (Optional) Add a description to the class map by entering the following command: hostname(config-cmap)# description string Step 4 Identify the regular expressions you want to include by entering the following command for each regular expression: hostname(config-cmap)# match regex regex_name The following example creates two regular expressions, and adds them to a regular expression class map. Traffic matches the class map if it includes the string “example.com” or “example2.com.” hostname(config)# regex url_example example\.com hostname(config)# regex url_example2 example2\.com hostname(config)# class-map type regex match-any URLs hostname(config-cmap)# match regex url_example hostname(config-cmap)# match regex url_example2 Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) This section describes how to associate actions with Layer 3/4 class maps by creating a Layer 3/4 policy map. This section includes the following topics: • Layer 3/4 Policy Map Overview, page 21-15 • Default Layer 3/4 Policy Map, page 21-18 • Adding a Layer 3/4 Policy Map, page 21-19 Layer 3/4 Policy Map Overview This section describes how Layer 3/4 policy maps work, and includes the following topics: • Policy Map Guidelines, page 21-16 • Supported Feature Types, page 21-16 • Hierarchical Policy Maps, page 21-16 • Feature Directionality, page 21-17 • Feature Matching Guidelines within a Policy Map, page 21-17 • Feature Matching Guidelines for multiple Policy Maps, page 21-1821-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) • Order in Which Multiple Feature Actions are Applied, page 21-18 Policy Map Guidelines See the following guidelines for using policy maps: • You can only assign one policy map per interface. • You can apply the same policy map to multiple interfaces. • You can identify multiple Layer 3/4 class maps in a Layer 3/4 policy map. • For each class map, you can assign multiple actions from one or more feature types. • You can create a hierarchical policy map. See the “Hierarchical Policy Maps” section on page 21-16. Supported Feature Types Feature types supported by the Modular Policy Framework that you can enable in the policy map include the following: • QoS input policing • TCP normalization, TCP and UDP connection limits and timeouts, and TCP sequence number randomization • CSC • Application inspection • IPS • QoS output policing • QoS standard priority queue • QoS traffic shaping, hierarchical priority queue Hierarchical Policy Maps If you enable QoS traffic shaping for a class map, then you can optionally enable priority queueing for a subset of shaped traffic. To do so, you need to create a policy map for the priority queueing, and then within the traffic shaping policy map, you can call the priority class map. Only the traffic shaping class map is applied to an interface. See Chapter 24, “Configuring QoS,” for more information about this feature. Hierarchical policy maps are only supported for traffic shaping and priority queueing. To implement a hierarchical policy map, perform the following tasks: 1. Identify the prioritized traffic according to the “Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map)” section on page 21-4. You can create multiple class maps to be used in the hierarchical policy map. 2. Create a policy map according to the “Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map)” section on page 21-15, and identify the sole action for each class map as priority. 3. Create a separate policy map according to the “Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map)” section on page 21-15, and identify the shape action for the class-default class map. Traffic shaping can only be applied the to class-default class map.21-17 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) 4. For the same class map, identify the priority policy map that you created in Step 2 using the service-policy priority_policy_map command. 5. Apply the shaping policy map to the interface accrding to “Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy)” section on page 21-21. Feature Directionality Actions are applied to traffic bidirectionally or unidirectionally depending on the feature. For features that are applied bidirectionally, all traffic that enters or exits the interface to which you apply the policy map is affected if the traffic matches the class map for both directions. Note When you use a global policy, all features are unidirectional; features that are normally bidirectional when applied to a single interface only apply to the ingress of each interface when applied globally. Because the policy is applied to all interfaces, the policy will be applied in both directions so bidirectionality in this case is redundant. For features that are applied unidirectionally, for example QoS priority queue, only traffic that exits the interface to which you apply the policy map is affected. See Table 21-2 for the directionality of each feature. Feature Matching Guidelines within a Policy Map See the following guidelines for how a packet matches class maps in a policy map: • A packet can match only one class map in the policy map for each feature type. • When the packet matches a class map for a feature type, the security appliance does not attempt to match it to any subsequent class maps for that feature type. • If the packet matches a subsequent class map for a different feature type, however, then the security appliance also applies the actions for the subsequent class map. For example, if a packet matches a class map for connection limits, and also matches a class map for application inspection, then both class map actions are applied. Table 21-2 Feature Directionality Feature Single Interface Direction Global Direction TCP normalization, TCP and UDP connection limits and timeouts, and TCP sequence number randomization Bidirectional Ingress CSC Bidirectional Ingress Application inspection Bidirectional Ingress IPS Bidirectional Ingress QoS input policing Ingress Ingress QoS output policing Egress Egress QoS standard priority queue Egress Egress QoS traffic shaping, hierarchical priority queue Egress Egress21-18 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) If a packet matches a class map for application inspection, but also matches another class map that includes application inspection, then the second class map actions are not applied. Feature Matching Guidelines for multiple Policy Maps For TCP and UDP traffic (and ICMP when you enable stateful ICMP inspection), Modular Policy Framework operates on traffic flows, and not just individual packets. If traffic is part of an existing connection that matches a feature in a policy on one interface, that traffic flow cannot also match the same feature in a policy on another interface; only the first policy is used. For example, if HTTP traffic matches a policy on the inside interface to inspect HTTP traffic, and you have a separate policy on the outside interface for HTTP inspection, then that traffic is not also inspected on the egress of the outside interface. Similarly, the return traffic for that connection will not be inspected by the ingress policy of the outside interface, nor by the egress policy of the inside interface. For traffic that is not treated as a flow, for example ICMP when you do not enable stateful ICMP inspection, returning traffic can match a different policy map on the returning interface. For example, if you configure IPS inspection on the inside and outside interfaces, but the inside policy uses virtual sensor 1 while the outside policy uses virtual sensor 2, then a non-stateful Ping will match virtual sensor 1 outbound, but will match virtual sensor 2 inbound. Order in Which Multiple Feature Actions are Applied The order in which different types of actions in a policy map are performed is independent of the order in which the actions appear in the policy map. Actions are performed in the following order: • QoS input policing • TCP normalization, TCP and UDP connection limits and timeouts, and TCP sequence number randomization Note When a the security appliance performs a proxy service (such as AAA or CSC) or it modifies the TCP payload (such as FTP inspection), the TCP normalizer acts in dual mode, where it is applied before and after the proxy or payload modifying service. • CSC • Application inspection • IPS • QoS output policing • QoS standard priority queue • QoS traffic shaping, hierarchical priority queue Default Layer 3/4 Policy Map The configuration includes a default Layer 3/4 policy map that the security appliance uses in the default global policy. It is called global_policy and performs inspection on the default inspection traffic. You can only apply one global policy, so if you want to alter the global policy, you need to either reconfigure the default policy or disable it and apply a new one. The default policy map configuration includes the following commands:21-19 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) policy-map global_policy class inspection_default inspect dns preset_dns_map inspect ftp inspect h323 h225 inspect h323 ras inspect rsh inspect rtsp inspect esmtp inspect sqlnet inspect skinny inspect sunrpc inspect xdmcp inspect sip inspect netbios inspect tftp Adding a Layer 3/4 Policy Map The maximum number of policy maps is 64. To create a Layer 3/4 policy map, perform the following steps: Step 1 Add the policy map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# policy-map policy_map_name The policy_map_name argument is the name of the policy map up to 40 characters in length. All types of policy maps use the same name space, so you cannot reuse a name already used by another type of policy map. The CLI enters policy-map configuration mode. Step 2 (Optional) Specify a description for the policy map: hostname(config-pmap)# description text Step 3 Specify a previously configured Layer 3/4 class map using the following command: hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name See the “Identifying Traffic (Layer 3/4 Class Map)” section on page 21-4 to add a class map. Step 4 Specify one or more actions for this class map. • IPS. See the “Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM” section on page 22-2. • CSC. See the “Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM” section on page 22-11. • TCP normalization. See the “Configuring TCP Normalization” section on page 23-1. • TCP and UDP connection limits and timeouts, and TCP sequence number randomization. See the “Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts” section on page 23-6. • QoS. See Chapter 24, “Configuring QoS.” Note You can configure a hierarchical policy map for the traffic shaping and priority queue features. See the “Hierarchical Policy Maps” section on page 21-16 for more information. • Application inspection. See Chapter 25, “Configuring Application Layer Protocol Inspection.”21-20 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Defining Actions (Layer 3/4 Policy Map) Note If there is no match default_inspection_traffic command in a class map, then at most one inspect command is allowed to be configured under the class. Step 5 Repeat Step 3 and Step 4 for each class map you want to include in this policy map. The following is an example of a policy-map command for connection policy. It limits the number of connections allowed to the web server 10.1.1.1: hostname(config)# access-list http-server permit tcp any host 10.1.1.1 hostname(config)# class-map http-server hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list http-server hostname(config)# policy-map global-policy hostname(config-pmap)# description This policy map defines a policy concerning connection to http server. hostname(config-pmap)# class http-server hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 256 The following example shows how multi-match works in a policy map: hostname(config)# class-map inspection_default hostname(config-cmap)# match default-inspection-traffic hostname(config)# class-map http_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq 80 hostname(config)# policy-map outside_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class inspection_default hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http http_map hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect sip hostname(config-pmap)# class http_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout tcp 0:10:0 The following example shows how traffic matches the first available class map, and will not match any subsequent class maps that specify actions in the same feature domain: hostname(config)# class-map telnet_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq 23 hostname(config)# class-map ftp_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq 21 hostname(config)# class-map tcp_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp range 1 65535 hostname(config)# class-map udp_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port udp range 0 65535 hostname(config)# policy-map global_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class telnet_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout tcp 0:0:0 hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 100 hostname(config-pmap)# class ftp_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout tcp 0:5:0 hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 50 hostname(config-pmap)# class tcp_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout tcp 2:0:0 hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 2000 When a Telnet connection is initiated, it matches class telnet_traffic. Similarly, if an FTP connection is initiated, it matches class ftp_traffic. For any TCP connection other than Telnet and FTP, it will match class tcp_traffic. Even though a Telnet or FTP connection can match class tcp_traffic, the security appliance does not make this match because they previously matched other classes.21-21 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy) Applying Actions to an Interface (Service Policy) To activate the Layer 3/4 policy map, create a service policy that applies it to one or more interfaces or that applies it globally to all interfaces. Interface service policies take precedence over the global service policy for a given feature. For example, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with TCP normalization, then both inspections and TCP normalization are applied to the interface. However, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with inspections, then only the interface policy inspections are applied to that interface. • To create a service policy by associating a policy map with an interface, enter the following command: hostname(config)# service-policy policy_map_name interface interface_name • To create a service policy that applies to all interfaces that do not have a specific policy, enter the following command: hostname(config)# service-policy policy_map_name global By default, the configuration includes a global policy that matches all default application inspection traffic and applies inspection to the traffic globally. You can only apply one global policy, so if you want to alter the global policy, you need to either edit the default policy or disable it and apply a new one. The default service policy includes the following command: service-policy global_policy global For example, the following command enables the inbound_policy policy map on the outside interface: hostname(config)# service-policy inbound_policy interface outside The following commands disable the default global policy, and enables a new one called new_global_policy on all other security appliance interfaces: hostname(config)# no service-policy global_policy global hostname(config)# service-policy new_global_policy global Modular Policy Framework Examples This section includes several Modular Policy Framework examples, and includes the following topics: • Applying Inspection and QoS Policing to HTTP Traffic, page 21-22 • Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic Globally, page 21-22 • Applying Inspection and Connection Limits to HTTP Traffic to Specific Servers, page 21-23 • Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic with NAT, page 21-2421-22 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Modular Policy Framework Examples Applying Inspection and QoS Policing to HTTP Traffic In this example (see Figure 21-1), any HTTP connection (TCP traffic on port 80) that enters or exits the security appliance through the outside interface is classified for HTTP inspection. Any HTTP traffic that exits the outside interface is classified for policing. Figure 21-1 HTTP Inspection and QoS Policing See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# class-map http_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq 80 hostname(config)# policy-map http_traffic_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class http_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http hostname(config-pmap-c)# police output 250000 hostname(config)# service-policy http_traffic_policy interface outside Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic Globally In this example (see Figure 21-2), any HTTP connection (TCP traffic on port 80) that enters the security appliance through any interface is classified for HTTP inspection. Because the policy is a global policy, inspection occurs only as the traffic enters each interface. Figure 21-2 Global HTTP Inspection See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# class-map http_traffic hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp eq 80 143356 inside port 80 outside A Host A Host B port 80 Security appliance insp. insp. police inside port 80 outside A Host A Host B port 80 insp. insp. Security appliance 14341421-23 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Modular Policy Framework Examples hostname(config)# policy-map http_traffic_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class http_traffic hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http hostname(config)# service-policy http_traffic_policy global Applying Inspection and Connection Limits to HTTP Traffic to Specific Servers In this example (see Figure 21-3), any HTTP connection destined for Server A (TCP traffic on port 80) that enters the security appliance through the outside interface is classified for HTTP inspection and maximum connection limits. Connections initiated from server A to Host A does not match the access list in the class map, so it is not affected. Any HTTP connection destined for Server B that enters the security appliance through the inside interface is classified for HTTP inspection. Connections initiated from server B to Host B does not match the access list in the class map, so it is not affected. Figure 21-3 HTTP Inspection and Connection Limits to Specific Servers See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.1 192.168.1.2 hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 hostname(config)# global (outside) 1 209.165.201.2 hostname(config)# access-list serverA extended permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq 80 hostname(config)# access-list ServerB extended permit tcp any host 209.165.200.227 eq 80 hostname(config)# class-map http_serverA hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list serverA hostname(config)# class-map http_serverB hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list serverB hostname(config)# policy-map policy_serverA hostname(config-pmap)# class http_serverA hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 100 hostname(config)# policy-map policy_serverB hostname(config-pmap)# class http_serverB hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http hostname(config)# service-policy policy_serverB interface inside hostname(config)# service-policy policy_serverA interface outside inside outside Server A Real Address: 192.168.1.2 Mapped Address: 209.165.201.1 Host B Real Address: 192.168.1.1 Mapped Address: 209.165.201.2:port Host A 209.165.200.226 Server B 209.165.200.227 port 80 port 80 insp. insp. set conns 143357 Security appliance21-24 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 21 Using Modular Policy Framework Modular Policy Framework Examples Applying Inspection to HTTP Traffic with NAT In this example, the Host on the inside network has two addresses: one is the real IP address 192.168.1.1, and the other is a mapped IP address used on the outside network, 209.165.200.225. Because the policy is applied to the inside interface, where the real address is used, then you must use the real IP address in the access list in the class map. If you applied it to the outside interface, you would use the mapped address. Figure 21-4 HTTP Inspection with NAT See the following commands for this example: hostname(config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.200.225 192.168.1.1 hostname(config)# access-list http_client extended permit tcp host 192.168.1.1 any eq 80 hostname(config)# class-map http_client hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list http_client hostname(config)# policy-map http_client hostname(config-pmap)# class http_client hostname(config-pmap-c)# inspect http hostname(config)# service-policy http_client interface inside inside outside Host Real IP: 192.168.1.1 Mapped IP: 209.165.200.225 Server 209.165.201.1 port 80 insp. Security appliance 143416C H A P T E R 22-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM The Cisco ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance supports a variety of SSMs. This chapter describes how to configure the adaptive security appliance to support an AIP SSM or a CSC SSM, including how to send traffic to these SSMs. For information about the 4GE SSM for the ASA 5000 series adaptive security appliance, see Chapter 5, “Configuring Ethernet Settings and Subinterfaces”. Note The Cisco PIX 500 series security appliances cannot support SSMs. This chapter includes the following sections: • Managing the AIP SSM, page 22-1 • Managing the CSC SSM, page 22-5 • Checking SSM Status, page 22-13 • Transferring an Image onto an SSM, page 22-14 Managing the AIP SSM This section contains the following topics: • About the AIP SSM, page 22-1 • Getting Started with the AIP SSM, page 22-2 • Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM, page 22-2 • Sessioning to the AIP SSM and Running Setup, page 22-4 About the AIP SSM The ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance supports the AIP SSM, which runs advanced IPS software that provides further security inspection. The adaptive security appliance diverts packets to the AIP SSM just before the packet exits the egress interface (or before VPN encryption occurs, if configured) and after other firewall policies are applied. For example, packets that are blocked by an access list are not forwarded to the AIP SSM.22-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the AIP SSM The AIP SSM can operate in one of two modes, as follows: • Inline mode—Places the AIP SSM directly in the traffic flow. No traffic can continue through the adaptive security appliance without first passing through, and being inspected by, the AIP SSM. This mode is the most secure because every packet is analyzed before being allowed through. Also, the AIP SSM can implement a blocking policy on a packet-by-packet basis. This mode, however, can affect throughput. You specify this mode with the inline keyword of the ips command. • Promiscuous mode—Sends a duplicate stream of traffic to the AIP SSM. This mode is less secure, but has little impact on traffic throughput. Unlike operation in inline mode, the SSM operating in promiscuous mode can only block traffic by instructing the adaptive security appliance to shun the traffic or by resetting a connection on the adaptive security appliance. Also, while the AIP SSM is analyzing the traffic, a small amount of traffic might pass through the adaptive security appliance before the AIP SSM can block it. You specify this mode with the inline keyword of the ips command. You can specify how the adaptive security appliance treats traffic when the AIP SSM is unavailable due to hardware failure or other causes. Two keywords of the ips command control this behavior. The fail-close keyword sets the adaptive security appliance to block all traffic if the AIP SSM is unavailable. The fail-open keyword sets the adaptive security appliance to allow all traffic through, uninspected, if the AIP SSM is unavailable. For more information about configuring the operating mode of the AIP SSM and how the adaptive security appliance treats traffic during an AIP SSM failure, see the “Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM” section on page 22-2. Getting Started with the AIP SSM Configuring the AIP SSM is a two-part process that involves configuration of the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance first, and then configuration of the AIP SSM: 1. On the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, identify traffic to divert to the AIP SSM (as described in the “Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM” section on page 22-2). 2. On the AIP SSM, configure the inspection and protection policy, which determines how to inspect traffic and what to do when an intrusion is detected. Because the IPS software that runs on the AIP SSM is very robust and beyond the scope of this document, detailed configuration information is available in the following separate documentation: • Configuring the Cisco Intrusion Prevention System Sensor Using the Command Line Interface • Cisco Intrusion Prevention System Command Reference Diverting Traffic to the AIP SSM You use MPF commands to configure the adaptive security appliance to divert traffic to the AIP SSM. Before configuring the adaptive security appliance to do so, read Chapter 21, “Using Modular Policy Framework,” which introduces MPF concepts and common commands. To identify traffic to divert from the adaptive security appliance to the AIP SSM, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create an access list that matches all traffic: hostname(config)# access-list acl-name permit ip any any22-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the AIP SSM Step 2 Create a class map to identify the traffic that should be diverted to the AIP SSM. Use the class-map command to do so, as follows: hostname(config)# class-map class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# where class_map_name is the name of the traffic class. When you enter the class-map command, the CLI enters class map configuration mode. Step 3 With the access list you created in Step 1, use a match access-list command to identify the traffic to be scanned: hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list acl-name Step 4 Create a policy map or modify an existing policy map that you want to use to send traffic to the AIP SSM. To do so, use the policy-map command, as follows. hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map policy_map_name hostname(config-pmap)# where policy_map_name is the name of the policy map. The CLI enters the policy map configuration mode and the prompt changes accordingly. Step 5 Specify the class map, created in Step 2, that identifies the traffic to be scanned. Use the class command to do so, as follows. hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name hostname(config-pmap-c)# where class_map_name is the name of the class map you created in Step 2. The CLI enters the policy map class configuration mode and the prompt changes accordingly. Step 6 Assign the traffic identified by the class map as traffic to be sent to the AIP SSM. Use the ips command to do so, as follows. hostname(config-pmap-c)# ips {inline | promiscuous} {fail-close | fail-open} The inline and promiscuous keywords control the operating mode of the AIP SSM. The fail-close and fail-open keywords control how the adaptive security appliance treats traffic when the AIP SSM is unavailable. For more information about the operating modes and failure behavior, see the “About the AIP SSM” section on page 22-1. Step 7 Use the service-policy command to apply the policy map globally or to a specific interface, as follows: hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy policy_map_name [global | interface interface_ID] hostname(config)# where policy_map_name is the policy map you configured in Step 4. If you want to apply the policy map to traffic on all the interfaces, use the global keyword. If you want to apply the policy map to traffic on a specific interface, use the interface interface_ID option, where interface_ID is the name assigned to the interface with the nameif command. Only one global policy is allowed. You can override the global policy on an interface by applying a service policy to that interface. You can only apply one policy map to each interface. The adaptive security appliance begins diverting traffic to the AIP SSM as specified. The following example diverts all IP traffic to the AIP SSM in promiscuous mode, and blocks all IP traffic should the AIP SSM card fail for any reason: hostname(config)# access-list IPS permit ip any any hostname(config)# class-map my-ips-class22-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the AIP SSM hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list IPS hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map my-ips-policy hostname(config-pmap)# class my-ips-class hostname(config-pmap-c)# ips promiscuous fail-close hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy my-ips-policy global For a complete example of network traffic diversion from the adaptive security appliance to the AIP SSM, see Example 16: Network Traffic Diversion. Sessioning to the AIP SSM and Running Setup After you have completed configuration of the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance to divert traffic to the AIP SSM, session to the AIP SSM and run the setup utility for initial configuration. Note You can either session to the SSM from the adaptive security appliance (by using the session 1 command) or you can connect directly to the SSM using SSH or Telnet on its management interface. Alternatively, you can use ASDM. To session to the AIP SSM from the adaptive security appliance, perform the following steps: Step 1 Enter the session 1 command to session from the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance to the AIP SSM: hostname# session 1 Opening command session with slot 1. Connected to slot 1. Escape character sequence is 'CTRL-^X'. Step 2 Enter the username and password. The default username and password are both cisco. Note The first time you log in to the AIP SSM you are prompted to change the default password. Passwords must be at least eight characters long and not a dictionary word. login: cisco Password: Last login: Fri Sep 2 06:21:20 from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx ***NOTICE*** This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption. Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately. A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html If you require further assistance please contact us by sending email to export@cisco.com. ***LICENSE NOTICE*** There is no license key installed on the system. Please go to http://www.cisco.com/go/license to obtain a new license or install a license. AIP SSM# 22-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM Note If you see the preceding license notice (which displays only in some versions of software), you can ignore the message until you need to upgrade the signature files on the AIP SSM. The AIP SSM continues to operate at the current signature level until a valid license key is installed. You can install the license key at a later time. The license key does not affect the current functionality of the AIP SSM. Step 3 Enter the setup command to run the setup utility for initial configuration of the AIP SSM: AIP SSM# setup You are now ready to configure the AIP SSM for intrusion prevention. See the following two guides for AIP SSM configuration information: • Configuring the Cisco Intrusion Prevention System Sensor Using the Command Line Interface • Cisco Intrusion Prevention System Command Reference Managing the CSC SSM This section contains the following topics: • About the CSC SSM, page 22-5 • Getting Started with the CSC SSM, page 22-7 • Determining What Traffic to Scan, page 22-9 • Limiting Connections Through the CSC SSM, page 22-11 • Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM, page 22-11 About the CSC SSM The ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance supports the CSC SSM, which runs Content Security and Control software. The CSC SSM provides protection against viruses, spyware, spam, and other unwanted traffic. It accomplishes this by scanning the FTP, HTTP, POP3, and SMTP traffic that you configure the adaptive security appliance to send to it. Figure 22-1 illustrates the flow of traffic through an adaptive security appliance that has the following: • A CSC SSM installed and setup. • A service policy that determines what traffic is diverted to the SSM for scans. In this example, the client could be a network user who is accessing a website, downloading files from an FTP server, or retrieving mail from a POP3 server. SMTP scans differ in that you should configure the adaptive security appliance to scan traffic sent from outside to SMTP servers protected by the adaptive security appliance. Note The CSC SSM can scan FTP file transfers only when FTP inspection is enabled on the adaptive security appliance. By default, FTP inspection is enabled.22-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM Figure 22-1 Flow of Scanned Traffic with CSC SSM You use ASDM for system setup and monitoring of the CSC SSM. For advanced configuration of content security policies in the CSC SSM software, you access the web-based GUI for the CSC SSM by clicking links within ASDM. Use of the CSC SSM GUI is explained in the Trend Micro InterScan for Cisco CSC SSM Administrator Guide. Note ASDM and the CSC SSM maintain separate passwords. You can configure their passwords to be identical; however, changing one of these two passwords does not affect the other password. The connection between the host running ASDM and the adaptive security appliance is made through a management port on the adaptive security appliance. The connection to the CSC SSM GUI is made through the SSM management port. Because these two connections are required to manage the CSC SSM, any host running ASDM must be able to reach the IP address of both the adaptive security appliance management port and the SSM management port. Figure 22-2 shows an adaptive security appliance with a CSC SSM that is connected to a dedicated management network. While use of a dedicated management network is not required, we recommend it. Of particular interest in Figure 22-2 are the following: • An HTTP proxy server is connected to the inside network and to the management network. This enables the CSC SSM to contact the Trend Micro update server. • The management port of the adaptive security appliance is connected to the management network. To permit management of the adaptive security appliance and the CSC SSM, hosts running ASDM must be connected to the management network. • The management network includes an SMTP server for email notifications for the CSC SSM and a syslog server that the CSC SSM can send syslog messages to. 148386 Adaptive Security Appliance Main System Request sent Client Reply forwarded inside modular service policy Request forwarded Reply sent CSC SSM Server Diverted Traffic content security scan outside22-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM Figure 22-2 CSC SSM Deployment with a Management Network CSC SSM cannot suport stateful failover, because the CSC SSM does not maintain connection information and therefore cannot provide the failover unit with information necessary for stateful failover. The connections that a CSC SSM is scanning are dropped upon failure of the security appliance that the CSC SSM is installed in. When the standby adaptive security appliance becomes active, it will forward the scanned traffic to its CSC SSM and the connections will be reset. Getting Started with the CSC SSM Before you receive the security benefits provided by a CSC SSM, you must perform several steps beyond simple hardware installation of the SSM. This procedure provides an overview of those steps. To configure the adaptive security appliance and the CSC SSM, follow these steps: Step 1 If the CSC SSM did not come pre-installed in a Cisco ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, install it and connect a network cable to the management port of the SSM. For assistance with installation and connecting the SSM, see the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Hardware Installation Guide. The management port of the CSC SSM must be connected to your network to allow management of and automatic updates to the CSC SSM software. Additionally, the CSC SSM uses the management port for email notifications and syslogging. Step 2 With the CSC SSM, you should have received a Product Authorization Key (PAK). Use the PAK to register the CSC SSM at the following URL. http://www.cisco.com/go/license After you register, you will receive activation keys by email. The activation keys are required before you can complete Step 6 Step 3 Gather the following information, for use in Step 6. • Activation keys, received after completing Step 2. • SSM management port IP address, netmask, and gateway IP address. 148387 192.168.100.1 192.168.50.1 Notifications SMTP Server 192.168.50.38 SSM management port 10.6.13.67 Trend Micro Update Server Adaptive Security Appliance Main System inside CSC SSM HTTP outside Proxy management port ASDM Syslog Internet22-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM Note The SSM management port IP address must be accessible by the hosts used to run ASDM. The IP addresses for the SSM management port and the adaptive security appliance management interface can be in different subnets. • DNS server IP address. • HTTP proxy server IP address (required only if your security policies require use of a proxy server for HTTP access to the Internet). • Domain name and hostname for the SSM. • An email address and an SMTP server IP address and port number, for email notifications. • IP addresses of hosts or networks allowed to manage the CSC SSM. • Password for the CSC SSM. Step 4 In a web browser, access ASDM for the adaptive security appliance that the CSC SSM is in. Note If you are accessing ASDM for the first time, see the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance Getting Started Guide for assistance with the Startup Wizard. For more information about enabling ASDM access, see the “Allowing HTTPS Access for ASDM” section on page 40-3. Step 5 Verify time settings on the adaptive security appliance. Time setting accuracy is important for logging of security events and for automatic updates of CSC SSM software. • If you manually control time settings, verify the clock settings, including time zone. Choose Configuration > Properties > Device Administration > Clock. • If you are using NTP, verify the NTP configuration. Choose Configuration > Properties > Device Administration > NTP. Step 6 In ASDM, run the Content Security setup wizard. To do so, access the ASDM GUI in a supported web browser and on the Home page, click the Content Security tab. The Content Security setup wizard runs. For assistance with the Content Security setup wizard, click the Help button. Note If you are accessing ASDM for the first time, see the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance Getting Started Guide for assistance with the Startup Wizard. Step 7 On the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, identify traffic to divert to the CSC SSM (as described in the “Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM” section on page 22-11). Step 8 (Optional) Review the default content security policies in the CSC SSM GUI. The default content security policies are suitable for most implementations. Modifying them is advanced configuration that you should perform only after reading the Trend Micro InterScan for Cisco CSC SSM Administrator Guide. You review the content security policies by viewing the enabled features in the CSC SSM GUI. The availability of features depends on the license level you purchased. By default, all features included in the license you purchased are enabled. With a Base License, the features enabled by default are SMTP virus scanning, POP3 virus scanning and content filtering, webmail virus scanning, HTTP file blocking, FTP virus scanning and file blocking, logging, and automatic updates.22-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM With a Plus License, the additional features enabled by default are SMTP anti-spam, SMTP content filtering, POP3 anti-spam, URL blocking, and URL filtering. To access the CSC SSM GUI, in ASDM choose Configuration > Trend Micro Content Security, and then select one of the following: Web, Mail, File Transfer, or Updates. The blue links on these panes, beginning with the word “Configure”, open the CSC SSM GUI. Determining What Traffic to Scan The CSC SSM can scan FTP, HTTP, POP3, and SMTP traffic. It supports these protocols only when the destination port of the packet requesting the connection is the well known port for the protocol, that is, CSC SSM can scan only the following connections: • FTP connections opened to TCP port 21. • HTTP connections opened to TCP port 80. • POP3 connections opened to TCP port 110. • SMTP connections opened to TCP port 25. You can choose to scan traffic for all of these protocols or any combination of them. For example, if you do not allow network users to receive POP3 email, you would not want to configure the adaptive security appliance to divert POP3 traffic to the CSC SSM (you would want to block it instead). To maximize performance of the adaptive security appliance and the CSC SSM, divert to the CSC SSM only the traffic that you want the CSC SSM to scan. Needlessly diverting traffic that you do not want to scan, such as traffic between a trusted source and destination, can adversely affect network performance. The action of scanning traffic with the CSC SSM is enabled with the csc command, which must be part of a service policy. Service policies can be applied globally or to specific interfaces; therefore, you can choose to enable the csc command globally or for specific interfaces. Adding the csc command to your global policy ensures that all unencrypted connections through the adaptive security appliance are scanned by the CSC SSM; however, this may mean that traffic from trusted sources is needlessly scanned. If you enable the csc command in interface-specific service policies, it is bi-directional. This means that when the adaptive security appliance opens a new connection, if the csc command is active on either the inbound or the outbound interface of the connection and if the class map for the policy identifies traffic for scanning, the adaptive security appliance diverts it to the CSC SSM. However, bi-directionality means that if you divert to the CSC SSM any of the supported traffic types that cross a given interface, the CSC SSM is likely performing needless scans on traffic from your trusted inside networks. For example, URLs and files requested from web servers on a DMZ network are unlikely to pose content security risks to hosts on an inside network and you probably do not want the adaptive security appliance to divert such traffic to the CSC SSM. Therefore, we highly recommend using access lists to further limit the traffic selected by the class maps of CSC SSM service policies. Specifically, use access lists that match the following: • HTTP connections to outside networks. • FTP connections from clients inside the adaptive security appliance to servers outside the adaptive security appliance. • POP3 connections from clients inside the security appliance to servers outside the adaptive security appliance.22-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM • Incoming SMTP connections destined to inside mail servers. In Figure 22-3, the adaptive security appliance should be configured to divert traffic to CSC SSM requests from clients on the inside network for HTTP, FTP, and POP3 connections to the outside network and incoming SMTP connections from outside hosts to the mail server on the DMZ network. HTTP requests from the inside network to the web server on the DMZ network should not be scanned. Figure 22-3 Common Network Configuration for CSC SSM Scanning There are many ways you could configure the adaptive security appliance to identify the traffic that you want to scan. One approach is to define two service policies, one on the inside interface and the other on the outside interface, each with an access list that matches traffic to be scanned. The following access list could be used on the policy applied to the inside interface: access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 21 access-list csc_out deny tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 80 access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 80 access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 110 As previously mentioned, policies applying the csc command to a specific interface are effective on both ingress and egress traffic, but by specifying 192.168.10.0 as the source network in the csc_out access list the policy applied to the inside interface matches only connections initiated by the hosts on the inside network. Notice also that the second ACE of the access list uses the deny keyword. This ACE does not mean the adaptive security appliance blocks traffic sent from the 192.168.10.0 network to TCP port 80 on the 192.168.20.0 network. It simply exempts the traffic from being matched by the policy map and thus prevents the adaptive security appliance from sending it to the CSC SSM. You can use deny statements in an access list to exempt connections with trusted external hosts from being scanned. For example, to reduce the load on the CSC SSM, you might want to exempt HTTP traffic to a well known, trusted site. If the web server at such a site had the IP address 209.165.201.7, you could add the following ACE to the csc_out access list to exclude HTTP connections between the trusted external web server and inside hosts from being scanned by CSC SSM: access-list csc_out deny tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.7 255.255.255.255 eq 80 The second policy in this example, applied to the outside interface, could use the following access list: access-list csc_in permit tcp any 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 25 192.168.30.0 192.168.20.0 (dmz) Web server Mail server 192.168.10.0 inside outside Internet Adaptive Security Appliance 14380022-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM This access list matches inbound SMTP connections from any external host to any host on the DMZ network. The policy applied to the outside interface would therefore ensure that incoming SMTP email would be diverted to the CSC SSM for scanning. It would not match SMTP connections from hosts on the inside network to the mail server on the DMZ network because those connections never use the outside interface. If the web server on the DMZ network receives files uploaded by HTTP from external hosts, you could add the following ACE to the csc_in access list to use the CSC SSM to protect the web server from infected files: access-list csc_in permit tcp any 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 80 For a complete example service policy configuration using the access lists in this section, see Example 22-1. Limiting Connections Through the CSC SSM The adaptive security appliance can prevent the CSC SSM and the destinations of connections it scans from accepting or even receiving requests for more connections than desired. It can do so for embryonic connections or fully established connections. Also, you can specify limits for all clients included in a class-map and per-client limits. The set connection command lets you configure limits for embryonic connections or fully established connections. Also, you can specify limits for all clients included in a class-map and per-client limits. The per-client-embryonic-max and per-client-max parameters limit the maximum number of connections that individual clients can open. If a client uses more network resources simultaneously than is desired, you can use these parameters to limit the number of connections that the adaptive security appliance allows each client. DoS attacks seek to disrupt networks by overwhelming the capacity of key hosts with connections or requests for connections. You can use the set connection command to thwart DoS attacks. After you configure a per-client maximum that can be supported by hosts likely to be attacked, malicious clients will be unable to overwhelm hosts on protected networks. Use of the set connection command to protect the CSC SSM and the destinations of connections it scans is included in the “Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM” section on page 22-11. Diverting Traffic to the CSC SSM You use MPF commands to configure the adaptive security appliance to divert traffic to the CSC SSM. Before configuring the adaptive security appliance to do so, read Chapter 21, “Using Modular Policy Framework,” which introduces MPF concepts and common commands. To identify traffic to divert from the adaptive security appliance to the CSC SSM, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create an access list that matches the traffic you want scanned by the CSC SSM. To do so, use the access-list extended command. Create as many ACEs as needed to match all the traffic. For example, if you want to specify FTP, HTTP, POP3, and SMTP traffic, you would need four ACEs. For guidance on identifying the traffic you want to scan, see the “Determining What Traffic to Scan” section on page 22-9. Step 2 Create a class map to identify the traffic that should be diverted to the CSC SSM. Use the class-map command to do so, as follows.22-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Managing the CSC SSM hostname(config)# class-map class_map_name hostname(config-cmap)# where class_map_name is the name of the traffic class. When you enter the class-map command, the CLI enters class map configuration mode. Step 3 With the access list you created in Step 1, use a match access-list command to identify the traffic to be scanned: hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list acl-name Step 4 Create a policy map or modify an existing policy map that you want to use to send traffic to the CSC SSM. To do so, use the policy-map command, as follows. hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map policy_map_name hostname(config-pmap)# where policy_map_name is the name of the policy map. The CLI enters the policy map configuration mode and the prompt changes accordingly. Step 5 Specify the class map, created in Step 2, that identifies the traffic to be scanned. Use the class command to do so, as follows. hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name hostname(config-pmap-c)# where class_map_name is the name of the class map you created in Step 2. The CLI enters the policy map class configuration mode and the prompt changes accordingly. Step 6 If you want to enforce a per-client limit for simultaneous connections that the adaptive security appliance diverts to the CSC SSM, use the set connection command, as follows: hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection per-client-max n where n is the maximum simultaneous connections the adaptive security appliance will allow per client. This prevents a single client from abusing the services of the CSC SSM or any server protected by the SSM, including prevention of attempts at DoS attacks on HTTP, FTP, POP3, or SMTP servers that the CSC SSM protects. Step 7 Assign the traffic identified by the class map as traffic to be sent to the CSC SSM. Use the csc command to do so, as follows. hostname(config-pmap-c)# csc {fail-close | fail-open} The fail-close and fail-open keywords control how the adaptive security appliance treats traffic when the CSC SSM is unavailable. For more information about the operating modes and failure behavior, see the “About the CSC SSM” section on page 22-5. Step 8 Use the service-policy command to apply the policy map globally or to a specific interface, as follows: hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy policy_map_name [global | interface interface_ID] hostname(config)# where policy_map_name is the policy map you configured in Step 4. If you want to apply the policy map to traffic on all the interfaces, use the global keyword. If you want to apply the policy map to traffic on a specific interface, use the interface interface_ID option, where interface_ID is the name assigned to the interface with the nameif command. Only one global policy is allowed. You can override the global policy on an interface by applying a service policy to that interface. You can only apply one policy map to each interface. The adaptive security appliance begins diverting traffic to the CSC SSM as specified.22-13 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Checking SSM Status Example 22-1 is based on the network shown in Figure 22-3. It creates two service policies. The first policy, csc_out_policy, is applied to the inside interface and uses the csc_out access list to ensure that all outbound requests for FTP and POP3 are scanned. The csc_out access list also ensures that HTTP connections from inside to networks on the outside interface are scanned but it includes a deny ACE to exclude HTTP connections from inside to servers on the DMZ network. The second policy, csc_in_policy, is applied to the outside interface and uses the csc_in access list to ensure that requests for SMTP and HTTP originating on the outside interface and destined for the DMZ network are scanned by the CSC SSM. Scanning HTTP requests protects the web server from HTTP file uploads. Example 22-1 Service Policies for a Common CSC SSM Scanning Scenario hostname(config)# access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 21 hostname(config)# access-list csc_out deny tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 80 hostname(config)# access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 80 hostname(config)# access-list csc_out permit tcp 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 any eq 110 hostname(config)# class-map csc_outbound_class hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list csc_out hostname(config)# policy-map csc_out_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class csc_outbound_class hostname(config-pmap-c)# csc fail-close hostname(config)# service-policy csc_out_policy interface inside hostname(config)# access-list csc_in permit tcp any 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 25 hostname(config)# access-list csc_in permit tcp any 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 eq 80 hostname(config)# class-map csc_inbound_class hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list csc_in hostname(config)# policy-map csc_in_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class csc_inbound_class hostname(config-pmap-c)# csc fail-close hostname(config)# service-policy csc_in_policy interface outside Note FTP inspection must be enabled for CSC SSM to scan files transferred by FTP. FTP inspection is enabled by default. Checking SSM Status To check the status of an SSM, use the show module command. The follow example output is from an adaptive security appliance with a CSC SSM installed. The Status field indicates the operational status of the SSM. An SSM operating normally has a status of “Up” in the output of the show module command. While the adaptive security appliance transfers an application image to the SSM, the Status field in the output reads “Recover”. For more information about possible statuses, see the entry for the show module command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. hostname# show module 1 Mod Card Type Model Serial No. --- -------------------------------------------- ------------------ -----------22-14 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Transferring an Image onto an SSM 0 ASA 5520 Adaptive Security Appliance ASA5520 P3000000034 1 ASA 5500 Series Security Services Module-20 ASA-SSM-20 0 Mod MAC Address Range Hw Version Fw Version Sw Version --- --------------------------------- ------------ ------------ --------------- 0 000b.fcf8.c30d to 000b.fcf8.c311 1.0 1.0(10)0 7.1(0)1 1 000b.fcf8.012c to 000b.fcf8.012c 1.0 1.0(10)0 Trend Micro InterScan Security Module Version 5.0 Mod SSM Application Name SSM Application Version --- ------------------------------ -------------------------- 1 Trend Micro InterScan Security Version 5.0 Mod Status Data Plane Status Compatability --- ------------------ --------------------- ------------- 0 Up Sys Not Applicable 1 Up Up The argument 1, at the end of the command, is the slot number occupied by the SSM. If you do not know the slot number, you can omit it and see information about all modules, including the adaptive security appliance, which is considered to occupy slot 0 (zero). Use the details keyword to view additional information for the SSM. The follow example output is from an adaptive security appliance with a CSC SSM installed. hostname# show module 1 details Getting details from the Service Module, please wait... ASA 5500 Series Security Services Module-20 Model: ASA-SSM-20 Hardware version: 1.0 Serial Number: 0 Firmware version: 1.0(10)0 Software version: Trend Micro InterScan Security Module Version 5.0 App. name: Trend Micro InterScan Security Module App. version: Version 5.0 Data plane Status: Up Status: Up HTTP Service: Up Mail Service: Up FTP Service: Up Activated: Yes Mgmt IP addr: 10.23.62.92 Mgmt web port: 8443 Transferring an Image onto an SSM For an intelligent SSM, such as AIP SSM or CSC SSM, you can transfer application images from a TFTP server to the SSM. This process supports upgrade images and maintenance images. Note If you are upgrading the application on the SSM, the SSM application may support backup of its configuration. If you do not back up the configuration of the SSM application, it is lost when you transfer an image onto the SSM. For more information about how your SSM supports backups, see the documentation for your SSM.22-15 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Transferring an Image onto an SSM To transfer an image onto an intelligent SSM, perform the following steps: Step 1 Create or modify a recovery configuration for the SSM. To do so, perform the following steps: a. Determine if there is a recovery configuration for the SSM. To do so, use the show module command with the recover keyword, as follows. hostname# show module slot recover where slot is the slot number occupied by the SSM. If the recover keyword is not valid, a recovery configuration does not exist. The recover keyword of the show module command is available only when a recovery configuration exists for the SSM. Note When the adaptive security appliance operates in multiple context mode, the configure keyword is available only in the system context. If there is a recovery configuration for the SSM, the adaptive security appliance displays it. Examine the recovery configuration closely to ensure that it is correct, especially the Image URL field. The following example show a recovery configuration for an SSM in slot 1. hostname# show module 1 recover Module 1 recover parameters. . . Boot Recovery Image: Yes Image URL: tftp://10.21.18.1/ids-oldimg Port IP Address: 10.1.2.10 Port Mask : 255.255.255.0 Gateway IP Address: 10.1.2.254 b. If you need to create or modify the recovery configuration, use the hw-module module recover command with the configure keyword, as follows: hostname# hw-module module slot recover configure where slot is the slot number occupied by the SSM. Complete the prompts as applicable. If you are modifying a configuration, you can keep the previously configured value by pressing Enter. The following example shows the prompts. For more information about them, see the entry for the hw-module module recover command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference. Image URL [tftp://0.0.0.0/]: Port IP Address [0.0.0.0]: VLAN ID [0]: Gateway IP Address [0.0.0.0]: Note Be sure the TFTP server you specify can transfer files up to 60 MB in size. Also, be sure the TFTP server can connect to the management port IP address that you specify for the SSM. After you complete the prompts, the adaptive security appliance is ready to transfer to the SSM the image that it finds at the URL you specified. Step 2 Transfer the image from the TFTP server to the SSM and restart the SSM. To do so, use the hw-module module recover command with the boot keyword, as follows. hostname# hw-module module slot recover boot where slot is the slot number occupied by the SSM.22-16 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 22 Managing AIP SSM and CSC SSM Transferring an Image onto an SSM Step 3 Check the progress of the image transfer and SSM restart process. To do so, use the show module command. For details, see the “Checking SSM Status” section on page 22-13. When the adaptive security appliance completes the image transfer and restart of the SSM, the SSM is running the newly transferred image. Note If your SSM supports configuration backups and you want to restore the configuration of the application running on the SSM, see the documentation for your SSM for details.C H A P T E R 23-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 23 Preventing Network Attacks This chapter describes how to prevent network attacks by configuring TCP normalization, limiting TCP and UDP connections, and many other protection features. This chapter includes the following sections: • Configuring TCP Normalization, page 23-1 • Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts, page 23-6 • Preventing IP Spoofing, page 23-10 • Configuring the Fragment Size, page 23-11 • Blocking Unwanted Connections, page 23-11 • Configuring IP Audit for Basic IPS Support, page 23-12 Configuring TCP Normalization The TCP normalization feature identifies abnormal packets that the security appliance can act on when they are detected; for example, the security appliance can allow, drop, or clear the packets. TCP normalization helps protect the security appliance from attacks. This section includes the following topics: • TCP Normalization Overview, page 23-1 • Enabling the TCP Normalizer, page 23-2 TCP Normalization Overview The TCP normalizer includes non-configurable actions and configurable actions. Typically, non-configurable actions that drop or clear connections apply to packets that are always bad. Configurable actions (as detailed in “Enabling the TCP Normalizer” section on page 23-2) might need to be customized depending on your network needs. See the following guidelines for TCP normalization: • The normalizer does not protect from SYN floods. The security appliance includes SYN flood protection in other ways. • The normalizer always sees the SYN packet as the first packet in a flow unless the security appliance is in loose mode due to failover.23-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring TCP Normalization Enabling the TCP Normalizer This feature uses Modular Policy Framework, so that implementing TCP normalization consists of identifying traffic, specifying the TCP normalization actions, and activating TCP normalization on an interface. See Chapter 21, “Using Modular Policy Framework,” for more information. To configure TCP normalization, perform the following steps: Step 1 To specify the TCP normalization criteria that you want to look for, create a TCP map by entering the following command: hostname(config)# tcp-map tcp-map-name For each TCP map, you can customize one or more settings. Step 2 (Optional) Configure the TCP map criteria by entering one or more of the following commands (see Table 23-1). If you want to use the default settings for all criteria, you do not need to enter any commands for the TCP map. If you want to customize some settings, then the defaults are used for any commands you do not enter. The default configuration includes the following settings: no check-retransmission no checksum-verification exceed-mss allow queue-limit 0 timeout 4 reserved-bits allow syn-data allow synack-data drop invalid-ack drop seq-past-window drop tcp-options range 6 7 clear tcp-options range 9 255 clear tcp-options selective-ack allow tcp-options timestamp allow tcp-options window-scale allow ttl-evasion-protection urgent-flag clear window-variation allow-connection Table 23-1 tcp-map Commands Command Notes check-retransmission Prevents inconsistent TCP retransmissions. checksum-verification Verifies the checksum. exceed-mss {allow | drop} Sets the action for packets whose data length exceeds the TCP maximum segment size. (Default) The allow keyword allows packets whose data length exceeds the TCP maximum segment size. The drop keyword drops packets whose data length exceeds the TCP maximum segment size.23-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring TCP Normalization invalid-ack {allow | drop} Sets the action for packets with an invalid ACK. You might see invalid ACKs in the following instances: • In the TCP connection SYN-ACK-received status, if the ACK number of a received TCP packet is not exactly same as the sequence number of the next TCP packet sending out, it is an invalid ACK. • Whenever the ACK number of a received TCP packet is greater than the sequence number of the next TCP packet sending out, it is an invalid ACK. The allow keyword allows packets with an invalid ACK. (Default) The drop keyword drops packets with an invalid ACK. Note TCP packets with an invalid ACK are automatically allowed for WAAS connections. queue-limit pkt_num [timeout seconds] Sets the maximum number of out-of-order packets that can be buffered and put in order for a TCP connection, between 1 and 250 packets. The default is 0, which means this setting is disabled and the default system queue limit is used depending on the type of traffic: • Connections for application inspection (the inspect command), IPS (the ips command), and TCP check-retransmission (the TCP map check-retransmission command) have a queue limit of 3 packets. If the security appliance receives a TCP packet with a different window size, then the queue limit is dynamically changed to match the advertised setting. • For other TCP connections, out-of-order packets are passed through untouched. If you set the queue-limit command to be 1 or above, then the number of out-of-order packets allowed for all TCP traffic matches this setting. For application inspection, IPS, and TCP check-retransmission traffic, any advertised settings are ignored. For other TCP traffic, out-of-order packets are now buffered and put in order instead of passed through untouched. The timeout seconds argument sets the maximum amount of time that out-of-order packets can remain in the buffer, between 1 and 20 seconds; if they are not put in order and passed on within the timeout period, then they are dropped. The default is 4 seconds. You cannot change the timeout for any traffic if the pkt_num argument is set to 0; you need to set the limit to be 1 or above for the timeout keyword to take effect. Table 23-1 tcp-map Commands (continued) Command Notes23-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring TCP Normalization reserved-bits {allow | clear | drop} Sets the action for reserved bits in the TCP header. (Default) The allow keyword allows packets with the reserved bits in the TCP header. The clear keyword clears the reserved bits in the TCP header and allows the packet. The drop keyword drops the packet with the reserved bits in the TCP header. seq-past-window {allow | drop} Sets the action for packets that have past-window sequence numbers, namely the sequence number of a received TCP packet is greater than the right edge of the TCP receiving window. The allow keyword allows packets that have past-window sequence numbers. This action is only allowed if the queue-limit command is set to 0 (disabled). (Default) The drop keyword drops packets that have past-window sequence numbers. synack-data {allow | drop} Sets the action for TCP SYNACK packets that contain data. The allow keyword allows TCP SYNACK packets that contain data. (Default) The drop keyword drops TCP SYNACK packets that contain data. syn-data {allow | drop} Sets the action for SYN packets with data. (Default) The allow keyword allows SYN packets with data. The drop keyword drops SYN packets with data. tcp-options {selective-ack | timestamp | window-scale} {allow | clear} Or tcp-options range lower upper {allow | clear | drop} Sets the action for packets with TCP options, including the selective-ack, timestamp, or window-scale TCP options. (Default) The allow keyword allows packets with the specified option. (Default for range) The clear keyword clears the option and allows the packet. The drop keyword drops the packet with the specified option. The selective-ack keyword sets the action for the SACK option. The timestamp keyword sets the action for the timestamp option. Clearing the timestamp option disables PAWS and RTT. The widow-scale keyword sets the action for the window scale mechanism option. The range keyword specifies a range of options. The lower argument sets the lower end of the range as 6, 7, or 9 through 255. The upper argument sets the upper end of the range as 6, 7, or 9 through 255. Table 23-1 tcp-map Commands (continued) Command Notes23-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring TCP Normalization Step 3 To identify the traffic, add a class map using the class-map command. See the “Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Through Traffic” section on page 21-5 for more information. For example, you can match all traffic using the following commands: hostname(config)# class-map TCPNORM hostname(config-cmap)# match any To match specific traffic, you can match an access list: hostname(config)# access list TCPNORM extended permit ip any 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# class-map TCP_norm_class hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list TCPNORM Step 4 To add or edit a policy map that sets the actions to take with the class map traffic, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# policy-map name hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name hostname(config-pmap-c)# ttl-evasion-protection Disables the TTL evasion protection. Do not enter this command it you want to prevent attacks that attempt to evade security policy. For example, an attacker can send a packet that passes policy with a very short TTL. When the TTL goes to zero, a router between the security appliance and the endpoint drops the packet. It is at this point that the attacker can send a malicious packet with a long TTL that appears to the security appliance to be a retransmission and is passed. To the endpoint host, however, it is the first packet that has been received by the attacker. In this case, an attacker is able to succeed without security preventing the attack. urgent-flag {allow | clear} Sets the action for packets with the URG flag. The URG flag is used to indicate that the packet contains information that is of higher priority than other data within the stream. The TCP RFC is vague about the exact interpretation of the URG flag, therefore end systems handle urgent offsets in different ways, which may make the end system vulnerable to attacks. The allow keyword allows packets with the URG flag. (Default) The clear keyword clears the URG flag and allows the packet. window-variation {allow | drop} Sets the action for a connection that has changed its window size unexpectedly. The window size mechanism allows TCP to advertise a large window and to subsequently advertise a much smaller window without having accepted too much data. From the TCP specification, “shrinking the window” is strongly discouraged. When this condition is detected, the connection can be dropped. (Default) The allow keyword allows connections with a window variation. The drop keyword drops connections with a window variation. Table 23-1 tcp-map Commands (continued) Command Notes23-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts where the class_map_name is the class map from Step 1. For example: hostname(config)# policy-map TCP_norm_policy hostname(config-pmap)# class TCP_norm_class hostname(config-pmap-c)# Step 5 Apply the TCP map to the class map by entering the following command. hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection advanced-options tcp-map-name Step 6 To activate the policy map on one or more interfaces, enter the following command: hostname(config)# service-policy policymap_name {global | interface interface_name} Where global applies the policy map to all interfaces, and interface applies the policy to one interface. Only one global policy is allowed. Interface service policies take precedence over the global service policy for a given feature. For example, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with TCP normalization, then both inspections and TCP normalization are applied to the interface. However, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with inspections, then only the interface policy inspections are applied to that interface. For example, to allow urgent flag and urgent offset packets for all traffic sent to the range of TCP ports between the well known FTP data port and the Telnet port, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# tcp-map tmap hostname(config-tcp-map)# urgent-flag allow hostname(config-tcp-map)# class-map urg-class hostname(config-cmap)# match port tcp range ftp-data telnet hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map pmap hostname(config-pmap)# class urg-class hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection advanced-options tmap hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy pmap global Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts This section describes how to set maximum TCP and UDP connections, maximum embryonic connections, maximum per-client connections, connection timeouts, dead connection detection, and how to disable TCP sequence randomization. You can set limits for connections that go through the security appliance, or for management connections to the security appliance. This section includes the following topics: • Connection Limit Overview, page 23-7 • Enabling Connection Limits and Timeouts, page 23-8 Note You can also configure maximum connections, maximum embryonic connections, and TCP sequence randomization in the NAT configuration. If you configure these settings for the same traffic using both methods, then the security appliance uses the lower limit. For TCP sequence randomization, if it is disabled using either method, then the security appliance disables TCP sequence randomization.23-7 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts Connection Limit Overview This section describes why you might want to limit connections, and includes the following topics: • TCP Intercept Overview, page 23-7 • Disabling TCP Intercept for Management Packets for Clientless SSL Compatibility, page 23-7 • Dead Connection Detection (DCD) Overview, page 23-7 • TCP Sequence Randomization Overview, page 23-8 TCP Intercept Overview Limiting the number of embryonic connections protects you from a DoS attack. The security appliance uses the per-client limits and the embryonic connection limit to trigger TCP Intercept, which protects inside systems from a DoS attack perpetrated by flooding an interface with TCP SYN packets. An embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake between source and destination. TCP Intercept uses the SYN cookies algorithm to prevent TCP SYN-flooding attacks. A SYN-flooding attack consists of a series of SYN packets usually originating from spoofed IP addresses. The constant flood of SYN packets keeps the server SYN queue full, which prevents it from servicing connection requests. When the embryonic connection threshold of a connection is crossed, the security appliance acts as a proxy for the server and generates a SYN-ACK response to the client SYN request. When the security appliance receives an ACK back from the client, it can then authenticate the client and allow the connection to the server. Disabling TCP Intercept for Management Packets for Clientless SSL Compatibility By default, TCP management connections have TCP Intercept always enabled. When TCP Intercept is enabled, it intercepts the 3-way TCP connection establishment handshake packets and thus deprives the security appliance from processing the packets for clientless SSL. Clientless SSL requires the ability to process the 3-way handshake packets to provide selective ACK and other TCP options for clientless SSL connections. To disable TCP Intercept for management traffic, you can set the embryonic connection limit; only after the embryonic connection limit is reached is TCP Intercept enabled. Dead Connection Detection (DCD) Overview DCD detects a dead connection and allows it to expire, without expiring connections that can still handle traffic. You configure DCD when you want idle, but valid connections to persist. When you enable DCD, idle timeout behavior changes. With idle timeout, DCD probes are sent to each of the two end-hosts to determine the validity of the connection. If an end-host fails to respond after probes are sent at the configured intervals, the connection is freed, and reset values, if configured, are sent to each of the end-hosts. If both end-hosts respond that the connection is valid, the activity timeout is updated to the current time and the idle timeout is rescheduled accordingly. Enabling DCD changes the behavior of idle-timeout handling in the TCP normalizer. DCD probing resets the idle timeout on the connections seen in the show conn command. To determine when a connection that has exceeded the configured timeout value in the timeout command but is kept alive due to DCD probing, the show service-policy command includes counters to show the amount of activity from DCD.23-8 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts TCP Sequence Randomization Overview Each TCP connection has two ISNs: one generated by the client and one generated by the server. The security appliance randomizes the ISN of the TCP SYN passing in both the inbound and outbound directions. Randomizing the ISN of the protected host prevents an attacker from predicting the next ISN for a new connection and potentially hijacking the new session. TCP initial sequence number randomization can be disabled if required. For example: • If another in-line firewall is also randomizing the initial sequence numbers, there is no need for both firewalls to be performing this action, even though this action does not affect the traffic. • If you use eBGP multi-hop through the security appliance, and the eBGP peers are using MD5. Randomization breaks the MD5 checksum. • You use a WAAS device that requires the security appliance not to randomize the sequence numbers of connections. Enabling Connection Limits and Timeouts To set connection limits and timeouts, perform the following steps: Step 1 To identify the traffic, add a class map using the class-map command. See the “Creating a Layer 3/4 Class Map for Through Traffic” section on page 21-5 for more information. For example, you can match all traffic using the following commands: hostname(config)# class-map CONNS hostname(config-cmap)# match any To match specific traffic, you can match an access list: hostname(config)# access list CONNS extended permit ip any 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 hostname(config)# class-map CONNS hostname(config-cmap)# match access-list CONNS Step 2 To add or edit a policy map that sets the actions to take with the class map traffic, enter the following commands: hostname(config)# policy-map name hostname(config-pmap)# class class_map_name hostname(config-pmap-c)# where the class_map_name is the class map from Step 1. For example: hostname(config)# policy-map CONNS hostname(config-pmap)# class CONNS hostname(config-pmap-c)# Step 3 To set maximum connection limits or whether TCP sequence randomization is enabled, enter the following command: hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection {[conn-max n] [embryonic-conn-max n] [per-client-embryonic-max n] [per-client-max n] [random-sequence-number {enable | disable}]}23-9 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring Connection Limits and Timeouts where the conn-max n argument sets the maximum number of simultaneous TCP and/or UDP connections that are allowed, between 0 and 65535. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. The embryonic-conn-max n argument sets the maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections allowed, between 0 and 65535. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. The per-client-embryonic-max n argument sets the maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections allowed per client, between 0 and 65535. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. The per-client-max n argument sets the maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed per client, between 0 and 65535. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. The random-sequence-number {enable | disable} keyword enables or disables TCP sequence number randomization. See the “TCP Sequence Randomization Overview” section on page 23-8 section for more information. You can enter this command all on one line (in any order), or you can enter each attribute as a separate command. The security appliance combines the command into one line in the running configuration. Step 4 To set connection timeouts, enter the following command: hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout {[embryonic hh:mm:ss] {tcp hh:mm:ss [reset]] [half-closed hh:mm:ss] [dcd hh:mm:ss [max_retries]]} where the embryonic hh:mm:ss keyword sets the timeout period until a TCP embryonic (half-open) connection is closed, between 0:0:5 and 1193:00:00. The default is 0:0:30. You can also set this value to 0, which means the connection never times out. The tcp hh:mm:ss keyword sets the idle timeout between 0:5:0 and 1193:00:00. The default is 1:0:0. You can also set this value to 0, which means the connection never times out. The reset keyword sends a reset to TCP endpoints when the connection times out. The security appliance sends the reset packet only in response to a host sending another packet for the timed-out flow (on the same source and destination port). The host then removes the connection from its connection table after receiving the reset packet. The host application can then attempt to establish a new connection using a SYN packet. The half-closed hh:mm:ss keyword sets the idle timeout between 0:5:0 and 1193:00:00. The default is 0:10:0. Half-closed connections are not affected by DCD. Also, the security appliance does not send a reset when taking down half-closed connections. The dcd keyword enables DCD. DCD detects a dead connection and allows it to expire, without expiring connections that can still handle traffic. You configure DCD when you want idle, but valid connections to persist. After a TCP connection times out, the security appliance sends DCD probes to the end hosts to determine the validity of the connection. If one of the end hosts fails to respond after the maximum retries are exhausted, the security appliance frees the connection. If both end hosts respond that the connection is valid, the security appliance updates the activity timeout to the current time and reschedules the idle timeout accordingly. The retry-interval sets the time duration in hh:mm:ss format to wait after each unresponsive DCD probe before sending another probe, between 0:0:1 and 24:0:0. The default is 0:0:15. The max-retries sets the number of consecutive failed retries for DCD before declaring the connection as dead. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is 255. The default is 5. You can enter this command all on one line (in any order), or you can enter each attribute as a separate command. The command is combined onto one line in the running configuration. Step 5 To activate the policy map on one or more interfaces, enter the following command: hostname(config)# service-policy policymap_name {global | interface interface_name}23-10 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Preventing IP Spoofing Where global applies the policy map to all interfaces, and interface applies the policy to one interface. Only one global policy is allowed. Interface service policies take precedence over the global service policy for a given feature. For example, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with TCP normalization, then both inspections and TCP normalization are applied to the interface. However, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with inspections, then only the interface policy inspections are applied to that interface. The following example sets the connection limits and timeouts for all traffic: hostname(config)# class-map CONNS hostname(config-cmap)# match any hostname(config-cmap)# policy-map CONNS hostname(config-pmap)# class CONNS hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 1000 embryonic-conn-max 3000 hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout tcp 2:0:0 embryonic 0:40:0 half-closed 0:20:0 dcd hostname(config-pmap-c)# service-policy CONNS interface outside You can enter set connection commands with multiple parameters or you can enter each parameter as a separate command. The security appliance combines the commands into one line in the running configuration. For example, if you entered the following two commands in class configuration mode: hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 600 hostname(config-pmap-c)# set connection embryonic-conn-max 50 the output of the show running-config policy-map command would display the result of the two commands in a single, combined command: set connection conn-max 600 embryonic-conn-max 50 Preventing IP Spoofing This section lets you enable Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding on an interface. Unicast RPF guards against IP spoofing (a packet uses an incorrect source IP address to obscure its true source) by ensuring that all packets have a source IP address that matches the correct source interface according to the routing table. Normally, the security appliance only looks at the destination address when determining where to forward the packet. Unicast RPF instructs the security appliance to also look at the source address; this is why it is called Reverse Path Forwarding. For any traffic that you want to allow through the security appliance, the security appliance routing table must include a route back to the source address. See RFC 2267 for more information. For outside traffic, for example, the security appliance can use the default route to satisfy the Unicast RPF protection. If traffic enters from an outside interface, and the source address is not known to the routing table, the security appliance uses the default route to correctly identify the outside interface as the source interface. If traffic enters the outside interface from an address that is known to the routing table, but is associated with the inside interface, then the security appliance drops the packet. Similarly, if traffic enters the inside interface from an unknown source address, the security appliance drops the packet because the matching route (the default route) indicates the outside interface. Unicast RPF is implemented as follows: • ICMP packets have no session, so each packet is checked.23-11 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring the Fragment Size • UDP and TCP have sessions, so the initial packet requires a reverse route lookup. Subsequent packets arriving during the session are checked using an existing state maintained as part of the session. Non-initial packets are checked to ensure they arrived on the same interface used by the initial packet. To enable Unicast RPF, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ip verify reverse-path interface interface_name Configuring the Fragment Size By default, the security appliance allows up to 24 fragments per IP packet, and up to 200 fragments awaiting reassembly. You might need to let fragments on your network if you have an application that routinely fragments packets, such as NFS over UDP. However, if you do not have an application that fragments traffic, we recommend that you do not allow fragments through the security appliance. Fragmented packets are often used as DoS attacks. To set disallow fragments, enter the following command: hostname(config)# fragment chain 1 [interface_name] Enter an interface name if you want to prevent fragmentation on a specific interface. By default, this command applies to all interfaces. Blocking Unwanted Connections If you know that a host is attempting to attack your network (for example, system log messages show an attack), then you can block (or shun) connections based on the source IP address and other identifying parameters. No new connections can be made until you remove the shun. Note If you have an IPS that monitors traffic, such as an AIP SSM, then the IPS can shun connections automatically. To shun a connection manually, perform the following steps: Step 1 If necessary, view information about the connection by entering the following command: hostname# show conn The security appliance shows information about each connection, such as the following: TCP out 64.101.68.161:4300 in 10.86.194.60:23 idle 0:00:00 bytes 1297 flags UIO Step 2 To shun connections from the source IP address, enter the following command: hostname(config)# shun src_ip [dst_ip src_port dest_port [protocol]] [vlan vlan_id] If you enter only the source IP address, then all future connections are shunned; existing connections remain active. To drop an existing connection, as well as blocking future connections from the source IP address, enter the destination IP address, source and destination ports, and the protocol. By default, the protocol is 0 for IP.23-12 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 23 Preventing Network Attacks Configuring IP Audit for Basic IPS Support For multiple context mode, you can enter this command in the admin context, and by specifying a VLAN ID that is assigned to an interface in other contexts, you can shun the connection in other contexts. Step 3 To remove the shun, enter the following command: hostname(config)# no shun src_ip [vlan vlan_id] Configuring IP Audit for Basic IPS Support The IP audit feature provides basic IPS support for a security appliance that does not have an AIP SSM. It supports a basic list of signatures, and you can configure the security appliance to perform one or more actions on traffic that matches a signature. To enable IP audit, perform the following steps: Step 1 To define an IP audit policy for informational signatures, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ip audit name name info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]] Where alarm generates a system message showing that a packet matched a signature, drop drops the packet, and reset drops the packet and closes the connection. If you do not define an action, then the default action is to generate an alarm. Step 2 To define an IP audit policy for attack signatures, enter the following command: hostname(config)# ip audit name name attack [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]] Where alarm generates a system message showing that a packet matched a signature, drop drops the packet, and reset drops the packet and closes the connection. If you do not define an action, then the default action is to generate an alarm. Step 3 To assign the policy to an interface, enter the following command: ip audit interface interface_name policy_name Step 4 To disable signatures, or for more information about signatures, see the ip audit signature command in the Cisco Security Appliance Command Reference.C H A P T E R 24-1 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 24 Configuring QoS Have you ever participated in a long-distance phone call that involved a satellite connection? The conversation might be interrupted with brief, but perceptible, gaps at odd intervals. Those gaps are the time, called the latency, between the arrival of packets being transmitted over the network. Some network traffic, such as voice and video, cannot tolerate long latency times. Quality of Service (QoS) is a feature that lets you give priority to critical traffic, prevent bandwidth hogging, and manage network bottlenecks to prevent packet drops. This chapter describes how to apply QoS policies, and includes the following sections: • QoS Overview, page 24-1 • Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface, page 24-5 • Identifying Traffic for QoS Using Class Maps, page 24-8 • Creating a Policy for Standard Priority Queueing and/or Policing, page 24-9 • Creating a Policy for Traffic Shaping and Hierarchical Priority Queueing, page 24-11 • Viewing QoS Statistics, page 24-13 QoS Overview You should consider that in an ever-changing network environment, QoS is not a one-time deployment, but an ongoing, essential part of network design. Note QoS is only available in single context mode. This section describes the QoS features supported by the security appliance, and includes the following topics: • Supported QoS Features, page 24-2 • What is a Token Bucket?, page 24-2 • Policing Overview, page 24-3 • Priority Queueing Overview, page 24-3 • Traffic Shaping Overview, page 24-4 • DSCP and DiffServ Preservation, page 24-524-2 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 24 Configuring QoS QoS Overview Supported QoS Features The security appliance supports the following QoS features: • Policing—To prevent individual flows from hogging the network bandwidth, you can limit the maximum bandwidth used per flow. See the “Policing Overview” section on page 24-3 for more information. • Priority queuing—For critical traffic that cannot tolerate latency, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), you can identify traffic for Low Latency Queuing (LLQ) so that it is always transmitted ahead of other traffic. See the “Priority Queueing Overview” section on page 24-3 for more information. • Traffic shaping—If you have a device that transmits packets at a high speed, such as a security appliance with Fast Ethernet, and it is connected to a low speed device such as a cable modem, then the cable modem is a bottleneck at which packets are frequently dropped. To manage networks with differing line speeds, you can configure the security appliance to transmit packets at a fixed slower rate. See the “Traffic Shaping Overview” section on page 24-4 for more information. What is a Token Bucket? A token bucket is used to manage a device that regulates the data in a flow. For example, the regulator might be a traffic policer or a traffic shaper. A token bucket itself has no discard or priority policy. Rather, a token bucket discards tokens and leaves to the flow the problem of managing its transmission queue if the flow overdrives the regulator. A token bucket is a formal definition of a rate of transfer. It has three components: a burst size, an average rate, and a time interval. Although the average rate is generally represented as bits per second, any two values may be derived from the third by the relation shown as follows: average rate = burst size / time interval Here are some definitions of these terms: • Average rate—Also called the committed information rate (CIR), it specifies how much data can be sent or forwarded per unit time on average. • Burst size—Also called the Committed Burst (Bc) size, it specifies in bits or bytes per burst how much traffic can be sent within a given unit of time to not create scheduling concerns. (For traffic shaping, it specifies bits per burst; for policing, it specifies bytes per burst.) • Time interval—Also called the measurement interval, it specifies the time quantum in seconds per burst. In the token bucket metaphor, tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate. The bucket itself has a specified capacity. If the bucket fills to capacity, newly arriving tokens are discarded. Each token is permission for the source to send a certain number of bits into the network. To send a packet, the regulator must remove from the bucket a number of tokens equal in representation to the packet size. If not enough tokens are in the bucket to send a packet, the packet either waits until the bucket has enough tokens (in the case of traffic shaping) or the packet is discarded or marked down (in the case of policing). If the bucket is already full of tokens, incoming tokens overflow and are not available to future packets. Thus, at any time, the largest burst a source can send into the network is roughly proportional to the size of the bucket. Note that the token bucket mechanism used for traffic shaping has both a token bucket and a data buffer, or queue; if it did not have a data buffer, it would be a policer. For traffic shaping, packets that arrive that cannot be sent immediately are delayed in the data buffer.24-3 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 24 Configuring QoS QoS Overview For traffic shaping, a token bucket permits burstiness but bounds it. It guarantees that the burstiness is bounded so that the flow will never send faster than the token bucket capacity, divided by the time interval, plus the established rate at which tokens are placed in the token bucket. See the following formula: (token bucket capacity in bits / time interval in seconds) + established rate in bps = maximum flow speed in bps This method of bounding burstiness also guarantees that the long-term transmission rate will not exceed the established rate at which tokens are placed in the bucket. Policing Overview Policing is a way of ensuring that no traffic exceeds the maximum rate (in bits/second) that you configure, thus ensuring that no one traffic flow or class can take over the entire resource. When traffic exceeds the maximum rate, the security appliance drops the excess traffic. Policing also sets the largest single burst of traffic allowed. Priority Queueing Overview LLQ priority queueing lets you prioritize certain traffic flows (such as latency-sensitive traffic like voice and video) ahead of other traffic. The security appliance supports two types of priority queueing: • Standard priority queueing—Standard priority queueing uses an LLQ priority queue on an interface (see the “Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface” section on page 24-5), while all other traffic goes into the “best effort” queue. Because queues are not of infinite size, they can fill and overflow. When a queue is full, any additional packets cannot get into the queue and are dropped. This is called tail drop. To avoid having the queue fill up, you can increase the queue buffer size. You can also fine-tune the maximum number of packets allowed into the transmit queue. These options let you control the latency and robustness of the priority queuing. Packets in the LLQ queue are always transmitted before packets in the best effort queue. • Hierarchical priority queueing—Hierarchical priority queueing is used on interfaces on which you enable a traffic shaping queue. A subset of the shaped traffic can be prioritized. The standard priority queue is not used. See the following guidelines about hierarchical priority queueing: – Priority packets are always queued at the head of the shape queue so they are always transmitted ahead of other non-priority queued packets. – Priority packets are never dropped from the shape queue unless the sustained rate of priority traffic exceeds the shape rate. – For IPSec-encrypted packets, you can only match traffic based on the DSCP or precedence setting. – IPSec-over-TCP is not supported for priority traffic classification.24-4 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 24 Configuring QoS QoS Overview Traffic Shaping Overview Traffic shaping is used to match device and link speeds, thereby controlling packet loss, variable delay, and link saturation, which can cause jitter and delay. • Traffic shaping must be applied to all outgoing traffic on a physical interface or in the case of the ASA 5505, on a VLAN. You cannot configure traffic shaping for specific types of traffic. • Traffic shaping is implemented when packets are ready to be transmitted on an interface, so the rate calculation is performed based on the actual size of a packet to be transmitted, including all the possible overhead such as the IPSec header and L2 header. • The shaped traffic includes both through-the-box and from-the-box traffic. • The shape rate calculation is based on the standard token bucket algorithm. The token bucket size is twice the Burst Size value. See the “What is a Token Bucket?” section on page 24-2. • When bursty traffic exceeds the specified shape rate, packets are queued and transmitted later. Following are some characteristics regarding the shape queue (for information about hierarchical priority queueing, see the “Priority Queueing Overview” section on page 24-3): – The queue size is calculated based on the shape rate. The queue can hold the equivalent of 200-milliseconds worth of shape rate traffic, assuming a 1500-byte packet. The minimum queue size is 64. – When the queue limit is reached, packets are tail-dropped. – Certain critical keep-alive packets such as OSPF Hello packets are never dropped. – The time interval is derived by time_interval = burst_size / average_rate. The larger the time interval is, the burstier the shaped traffic might be, and the longer the link might be idle. The effect can be best understood using the following exaggerated example: Average Rate = 1000000 Burst Size = 1000000 In the above example, the time interval is 1 second, which means, 1 Mbps of traffic can be bursted out within the first 10 milliseconds of the 1-second interval on a 100 Mbps FE link and leave the remaining 990 milliseconds idle without being able to send any packets until the next time interval. So if there is delay-sensitive traffic such as voice traffic, the Burst Size should be reduced compared to the average rate so the time interval is reduced. How QoS Features Interact You can configure each of the QoS features alone if desired for the security appliance. Often, though, you configure multiple QoS features on the security appliance so you can prioritize some traffic, for example, and prevent other traffic from causing bandwidth problems. See the following supported feature combinations per interface: • Standard priority queuing (for specific traffic) + Policing (for the rest of the traffic). You cannot configure priority queueing and policing for the same set of traffic. • Traffic shaping (for all traffic on an interface) + Hierarchical priority queueing (for a subset of traffic).24-5 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 24 Configuring QoS Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface You cannot configure traffic shaping and standard priority queueing for the same interface; only hierarchical priority queueing is allowed. For example, if you configure standard priority queueing for the global policy, and then configure traffic shaping for a specific interface, the feature you configured last is rejected because the global policy overlaps the interface policy. Typically, if you enable traffic shaping, you do not also enable policing for the same traffic, although the security appliance does not restrict you from configuring this. DSCP and DiffServ Preservation • DSCP markings are preserved on all traffic passing through the security appliance. • The security appliance does not locally mark/remark any classified traffic, but it honors the Expedited Forwarding (EF) DSCP bits of every packet to determine if it requires “priority” handling and will direct those packets to the LLQ. • DiffServ marking is preserved on packets when they traverse the service provider backbone so that QoS can be applied in transit (QoS tunnel pre-classification). Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface If you enable standard priority queueing for traffic on a physical interface, then you need to also create the priority queue on each interface. Each physical interface uses two queues: one for priority traffic, and the other for all other traffic. For the other traffic, you can optionally configure policing. Note The standard priority queue is not required for hierarchical priority queueing with traffic shaping; see the “Priority Queueing Overview” section on page 24-3 for more information. This section includes the following topics: • Determining the Queue and TX Ring Limits, page 24-6 • Configuring the Priority Queue, page 24-724-6 Cisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide OL-10088-02 Chapter 24 Configuring QoS Creating the Standard Priority Queue for an Interface Determining the Queue and TX Ring Limits To determine the priority queue and TX ring limits, use the worksheets below. Table 24-1 shows how to calculate the priority queue size. Because queues are not of infinite size, they can fill and overflow. When a queue is full, any additional packets cannot get into the queue and are dropped (called tail drop). To avoid having the queue fill up, you can adjust the queue buffer size according to the “Configuring the Priority Queue” section on page 24-7. Table 24-2 shows how to calculate the TX ring limit. This limit determines the maximum number of packets allowed into the Ethernet transmit driver before the driver pushes back to the queues on the interface to let them buffer packets until the congestion clears. This setting guarantees that the hardware-based transmit ring imposes a limited amount of extra latency for a high-priority packet. Table 24-1 Queue Limit Worksheet Step 1 __________ Outbound bandwidth (Mbps or Kbps) 1 1. For example, DSL might have an uplink speed of 768 Kbps.Check with your provider. Mbps x 125 = __________ # of bytes/ms Kbps x .125 = __________ # of bytes/ms Step 2 ___________ # of bytes/ms from Step 1 ÷ __________ Average packet size (bytes) 2 2. Determine this value from a codec or sampling size. For example, for VoIP over VPN, you might use 160 bytes. We recommend 256 bytes if you do not know what size to use. x __________ Delay (ms) 3 3. The delay depends on your application. For example, the recommended maximum delay for VoIP is 200 ms. We recommend 500 ms if you do not know what delay to use. = __________ Queue limit (# of packets) Table 24-2 TX Ring Limit Worksheet Step 1 __________ Outbound bandwidth (Mbps or Kbps) 1 1. For example, DSL might have an uplink speed of 768 Kbps.Check with your provider. Mbps x 125 = __________ # of bytes/ms Kbps x 0.125 = __________ # of bytes/ms Step 2 ___________ # of bytes/ms