03 iec-rundsteckverbinder211204.qxp - Farnell - Farnell Element 14 - Revenir à l'accueil

 

 

Branding Farnell element14 (France)

 

Farnell Element 14 :

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Everything You Need To Know About Arduino

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Tutorial 01 for Arduino: Getting Acquainted with Arduino

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The Cube® 3D Printer

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What's easier- DIY Dentistry or our new our website features?

 

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Ben Heck's Getting Started with the BeagleBone Black Trailer

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Ben Heck's Home-Brew Solder Reflow Oven 2.0 Trailer

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Get Started with Pi Episode 3 - Online with Raspberry Pi

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Discover Simulink Promo -- Exclusive element14 Webinar

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Ben Heck's TV Proximity Sensor Trailer

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Ben Heck's PlayStation 4 Teardown Trailer

See the trailer for the next exciting episode of The Ben Heck show. Check back on Friday to be among the first to see the exclusive full show on element…

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Get Started with Pi Episode 4 - Your First Raspberry Pi Project

Connect your Raspberry Pi to a breadboard, download some code and create a push-button audio play project.

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Ben Heck Anti-Pickpocket Wallet Trailer

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Molex Earphones - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tripp Lite Surge Protector - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Microchip ChipKIT Pi - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Beagle Bone Black - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M E26, LED Lamps - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M Colored Duct Tape - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tenma Soldering Station - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Duratool Screwdriver Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Cubify 3D Cube - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Bud Boardganizer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Raspberry Pi Starter Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Fluke 323 True-rms Clamp Meter - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Dymo RHINO 6000 Label Printer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M LED Advanced Lights A-19 - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Innovative LPS Resistor Features Very High Power Dissipation

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Charge Injection Evaluation Board for DG508B Multiplexer Demo

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 2

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Introducing element14 TV

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Ben Heck Time to Meet Your Maker Trailer

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Détecteur de composants

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Recherche intégrée

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar Trailer Part 1

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar - Part 2 Trailer

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PiFace Control and Display Introduction

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Flashmob Farnell

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Express Yourself in 3D with Cube 3D Printers from Newark element14

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Farnell YouTube Channel Move

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Farnell: Design with the best

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French Farnell Quest

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Altera - 3 Ways to Quickly Adapt to Changing Ethernet Protocols

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Cy-Net3 Network Module

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MC AT - Professional and Precision Series Thin Film Chip Resistors

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Solderless LED Connector

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PSA-T Series Spectrum Analyser: PSA1301T/ PSA2701T

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3-axis Universal Motion Controller For Stepper Motor Drivers: TMC429

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Voltage Level Translation

Puce électronique / Microchip :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 2 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 3 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 1 of 3

Sans fil - Wireless :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Wireless Power Solutions - Wurth Electronics, Texas Instruments, CadSoft and element14

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Analog Devices - Remote Water Quality Monitoring via a Low Power, Wireless Network

Texas instrument :

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Texas Instruments - Automotive LED Headlights

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Texas Instruments - Digital Power Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Sensor Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Wireless Pen Input Demo (Mobile World Congress)

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Automation System Components

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x - Industry's first 10-GHz fixed/floating point DSP

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x KeyStone Multicore Architecture

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Interfaces

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Texas Instruments - Concerto™ MCUs - Connectivity without compromise

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Texas Instruments - Stellaris Robot Chronos

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Texas Instruments - DRV8412-C2-KIT, Brushed DC and Stepper Motor Control Kit

Ordinateurs :

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Ask Ben Heck - Connect Raspberry Pi to Car Computer

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Ben's Portable Raspberry Pi Computer Trailer

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Ben's Raspberry Pi Portable Computer Trailer 2

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Ben Heck's Pocket Computer Trailer

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Ask Ben Heck - Atari Computer

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Ask Ben Heck - Using Computer Monitors for External Displays

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Raspberry Pi Partnership with BBC Computer Literacy Project - Answers from co-founder Eben Upton

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Installing RaspBMC on your Raspberry Pi with the Farnell element14 Accessory kit

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Raspberry Pi Served - Joey Hudy

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Happy Birthday Raspberry Pi

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Raspberry Pi board B product overview

Logiciels :

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Opensource or Free CAD Software

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Tektronix FPGAView™ software makes debugging of FPGAs faster than ever!

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Open-Source Schematic Capture and PCB Layout Software

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Introduction to Cadsoft EAGLE PCB Design Software in Chinese

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Altera - Developing Software for Embedded Systems on FPGAs

Tutoriels :

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 1

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the knode tutorial - element14

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Ben's Autodesk 123D Tutorial Trailer

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Ben's CadSoft EAGLE Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Soldering Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's AVR Dev Board tutorial

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Ben Heck's Pinball Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Interface Tutorial Trailer

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First Stage with Python and PiFace Digital

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Cypress - Getting Started with PSoC® 3 - Part 2

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Energy Harvesting Challenge

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New Features of CadSoft EAGLE v6

Autres documentations :

 

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http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/43798.pdf http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/43798.pdf  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D PIC12F609/615/617 PIC12HV609/615 Data Sheet 8-Pin, Flash-Based 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers *8-bit, 8-pin Devices Protected by Microchip’s Low Pin Count Patent: U.S. Patent No. 5,847,450. Additional U.S. and foreign patents and applications may be issued or pending. DS41302D-page 2  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2010, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 3 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 High-Performance RISC CPU: • Only 35 Instructions to Learn: - All single-cycle instructions except branches • Operating Speed: - DC – 20 MHz oscillator/clock input - DC – 200 ns instruction cycle • Interrupt Capability • 8-Level Deep Hardware Stack • Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes Special Microcontroller Features: • Precision Internal Oscillator: - Factory calibrated to ±1%, typical - Software selectable frequency: 4 MHz or 8 MHz • Power-Saving Sleep mode • Voltage Range: - PIC12F609/615/617: 2.0V to 5.5V - PIC12HV609/615: 2.0V to user defined maximum (see note) • Industrial and Extended Temperature Range • Power-on Reset (POR) • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Brown-out Reset (BOR) • Watchdog Timer (WDT) with independent Oscillator for Reliable Operation • Multiplexed Master Clear with Pull-up/Input Pin • Programmable Code Protection • High Endurance Flash: - 100,000 write Flash endurance - Flash retention: > 40 years • Self Read/ Write Program Memory (PIC12F617 only) Low-Power Features: • Standby Current: - 50 nA @ 2.0V, typical • Operating Current: - 11A @ 32 kHz, 2.0V, typical - 260A @ 4 MHz, 2.0V, typical • Watchdog Timer Current: - 1A @ 2.0V, typical Note: Voltage across the shunt regulator should not exceed 5V. Peripheral Features: • Shunt Voltage Regulator (PIC12HV609/615 only): - 5 volt regulation - 4 mA to 50 mA shunt range • 5 I/O Pins and 1 Input Only • High Current Source/Sink for Direct LED Drive - Interrupt-on-pin change or pins - Individually programmable weak pull-ups • Analog Comparator module with: - One analog comparator - Programmable on-chip voltage reference (CVREF) module (% of VDD) - Comparator inputs and output externally accessible - Built-In Hysteresis (software selectable) • Timer0: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit Programmable Prescaler • Enhanced Timer1: - 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler - External Timer1 Gate (count enable) - Option to use OSC1 and OSC2 in LP mode as Timer1 oscillator if INTOSC mode selected - Option to use system clock as Timer1 • In-Circuit Serial ProgrammingTM (ICSPTM) via Two Pins PIC12F615/617/HV615 ONLY: • Enhanced Capture, Compare, PWM module: - 16-bit Capture, max. resolution 12.5 ns - Compare, max. resolution 200 ns - 10-bit PWM with 1 or 2 output channels, 1 output channel programmable “dead time,” max. frequency 20 kHz, auto-shutdown • A/D Converter: - 10-bit resolution and 4 channels, samples internal voltage references • Timer2: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit Period Register, Prescaler and Postscaler 8-Pin Flash-Based, 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 4  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 8-Pin Diagram, PIC12F609/HV609 (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN) TABLE 1: PIC12F609/HV609 PIN SUMMARY (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN) Device Program Memory Data Memory Self Read/ Self Write I/O 10-bit A/D (ch) Comparators ECCP Timers 8/16-bit Voltage Range Flash (words) SRAM (bytes) PIC12F609 1024 64 — 5 0 1 — 1/1 2.0V-5.5V PIC12HV609 1024 64 — 5 0 1 — 1/1 2.0V-user defined PIC12F615 1024 64 — 5 4 1 YES 2/1 2.0V-5.5V PIC12HV615 1024 64 — 5 4 1 YES 2/1 2.0V-user defined PIC12F617 2048 128 YES 5 4 1 YES 2/1 2.0V-5.5V I/O Pin Comparators Timer Interrupts Pull-ups Basic GP0 7 CIN+ — IOC Y ICSPDAT GP1 6 CIN0- — IOC Y ICSPCLK GP2 5 COUT T0CKI INT/IOC Y — GP3(1) 4 — — IOC Y(2) MCLR/VPP GP4 3 CIN1- T1G IOC Y OSC2/CLKOUT GP5 2 — T1CKI IOC Y OSC1/CLKIN — 1 — — — — VDD — 8 — — — — VSS Note 1: Input only. 2: Only when pin is configured for external MCLR. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PIC12F609/ HV609 VSS GP0/CIN+/ICSPDAT GP1/CIN0-/ICSPCLK GP2/T0CKI/INT/COUT VDD GP5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN GP4/CIN1-/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT GP3/MCLR/VPP  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 5 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 8-Pin Diagram, PIC12F615/617/HV615 (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN) TABLE 2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 PIN SUMMARY (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN) I/O Pin Analog Comparator s Timer CCP Interrupts Pull-ups Basic GP0 7 AN0 CIN+ — P1B IOC Y ICSPDAT GP1 6 AN1 CIN0- — — IOC Y ICSPCLK/VREF GP2 5 AN2 COUT T0CKI CCP1/P1A INT/IOC Y — GP3(1) 4 — — T1G* — IOC Y(2) MCLR/VPP GP4 3 AN3 CIN1- T1G P1B* IOC Y OSC2/CLKOUT GP5 2 — — T1CKI P1A* IOC Y OSC1/CLKIN — 1 — — — — — — VDD — 8 — — — — — — VSS * Alternate pin function. Note 1: Input only. 2: Only when pin is configured for external MCLR. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PIC12F615/ 617/HV615 VSS GP0/AN0/CIN+/P1B/ICSPDAT GP1/AN1/CIN0-/VREF/ICSPCLK GP2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/COUT/CCP1/P1A VDD GP5/T1CKI/P1A*/OSC1/CLKIN GP4/AN3/CIN1-/T1G/P1B*/OSC2/CLKOUT GP3/T1G*/MCLR/VPP * Alternate pin function. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 6  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. Table of Contents 1.0 Device Overview ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................ 11 3.0 Flash Program Memory Self Read/Self Write Control (PIC12F617 only).................................................................................. 27 4.0 Oscillator Module ....................................................................................................................................................................... 37 5.0 I/O Port ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 6.0 Timer0 Module .......................................................................................................................................................................... 53 7.0 Timer1 Module with Gate Control .............................................................................................................................................. 57 8.0 Timer2 Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) .......................................................................................................................... 65 9.0 Comparator Module ................................................................................................................................................................... 67 10.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) ............................................................................... 79 11.0 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band) Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) ............... 89 12.0 Special Features of the CPU ................................................................................................................................................... 107 13.0 Voltage Regulator .................................................................................................................................................................... 127 14.0 Instruction Set Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 129 15.0 Development Support ............................................................................................................................................................. 139 16.0 Electrical Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................... 143 17.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ...................................................................................................................... 171 18.0 Packaging Information ............................................................................................................................................................ 195 Appendix A: Data Sheet Revision History ......................................................................................................................................... 203 Appendix B: Migrating from other PIC® Devices ............................................................................................................................... 203 Index ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 205 The Microchip Web Site .................................................................................................................................................................... 209 Customer Change Notification Service ............................................................................................................................................. 209 Customer Support ............................................................................................................................................................................. 209 Reader Response ............................................................................................................................................................................. 210 Product Identification System ............................................................................................................................................................ 211 Worldwide Sales and Service ........................................................................................................................................................... 212 TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced. If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via E-mail at docerrors@microchip.com or fax the Reader Response Form in the back of this data sheet to (480) 792-4150. We welcome your feedback. Most Current Data Sheet To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at: http://www.microchip.com You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page. The last character of the literature number is the version number, (e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000). Errata An errata sheet, describing minor operational differences from the data sheet and recommended workarounds, may exist for current devices. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision of silicon and revision of document to which it applies. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following: • Microchip’s Worldwide Web site; http://www.microchip.com • Your local Microchip sales office (see last page) When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are using. Customer Notification System Register on our web site at www.microchip.com to receive the most current information on all of our products.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 7 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 devices are covered by this data sheet. They are available in 8-pin PDIP, SOIC, MSOP and DFN packages. Block Diagrams and pinout descriptions of the devices are as follows: • PIC12F609/HV609 (Figure 1-1, Table 1-1) • PIC12F615/617/HV615 (Figure 1-2, Table 1-2) FIGURE 1-1: PIC12F609/HV609 BLOCK DIAGRAM Flash Program Memory 13 Data Bus 8 Program 14 Bus Instruction Reg Program Counter RAM File Registers Direct Addr 7 RAM Addr 9 Addr MUX Indirect Addr FSR Reg STATUS Reg MUX ALU W Reg Instruction Decode & Control Timing Generation OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT GPIO 8 8 8 3 8-Level Stack 64 Bytes 1K X 14 (13-Bit) Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer MCLR VSS Brown-out Reset Timer0 Timer1 GP0 GP1 GP2 GP3 GP4 GP5 Analog Comparator T0CKI INT T1CKI Configuration Internal Oscillator and Reference T1G VDD Block CIN+ CIN0- CIN1- COUT Comparator Voltage Reference Absolute Voltage Reference Shunt Regulator (PIC12HV609 only) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 8  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 1-2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 BLOCK DIAGRAM Flash Program Memory 13 Data Bus 8 Program 14 Bus Instruction Reg Program Counter RAM File Registers Direct Addr 7 RAM Addr 9 Addr MUX Indirect Addr FSR Reg STATUS Reg MUX ALU W Reg Instruction Decode & Control Timing Generation OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT GPIO 8 8 8 3 8-Level Stack 64 Bytes and 1K X 14 (13-Bit) Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer MCLR VSS Brown-out Reset Timer0 Timer1 GP0 GP1 GP2 GP3 GP4 GP5 Analog Comparator T0CKI INT T1CKI Configuration Internal Oscillator VREF and Reference T1G VDD Timer2 Block Shunt Regulator (PIC12HV615 only) Analog-To-Digital Converter AN0 AN1 AN2 AN3 CIN+ CIN0- CIN1- COUT ECCP CCP1/P1A P1B P1A* P1B* Comparator Voltage Reference Absolute Voltage Reference * Alternate pin function. ** For the PIC12F617 only. T1G* 2K X 14** and 128 Bytes**  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 9 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 1-1: PIC12F609/HV609 PINOUT DESCRIPTION Name Function Input Type Output Type Description GP0/CIN+/ICSPDAT GP0 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change CIN+ AN — Comparator non-inverting input ICSPDAT ST CMOS Serial Programming Data I/O GP1/CIN0-/ICSPCLK GP1 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change CIN0- AN — Comparator inverting input ICSPCLK ST — Serial Programming Clock GP2/T0CKI/INT/COUT GP2 ST CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change T0CKI ST — Timer0 clock input INT ST — External Interrupt COUT — CMOS Comparator output GP3/MCLR/VPP GP3 TTL — General purpose input with interrupt-on-change MCLR ST — Master Clear w/internal pull-up VPP HV — Programming voltage GP4/CIN1-/T1G/OSC2/ CLKOUT GP4 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change CIN1- AN — Comparator inverting input T1G ST — Timer1 gate (count enable) OSC2 — XTAL Crystal/Resonator CLKOUT — CMOS FOSC/4 output GP5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN GP5 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change T1CKI ST — Timer1 clock input OSC1 XTAL — Crystal/Resonator CLKIN ST — External clock input/RC oscillator connection VDD VDD Power — Positive supply VSS VSS Power — Ground reference Legend: AN=Analog input or output CMOS= CMOS compatible input or output HV= High Voltage ST=Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels TTL = TTL compatible input XTAL=Crystal PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 10  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 1-2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 PINOUT DESCRIPTION Name Function Input Type Output Type Description GP0/AN0/CIN+/P1B/ICSPDAT GP0 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-onchange AN0 AN — A/D Channel 0 input CIN+ AN — Comparator non-inverting input P1B — CMOS PWM output ICSPDAT ST CMOS Serial Programming Data I/O GP1/AN1/CIN0-/VREF/ICSPCLK GP1 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-onchange AN1 AN — A/D Channel 1 input CIN0- AN — Comparator inverting input VREF AN — External Voltage Reference for A/D ICSPCLK ST — Serial Programming Clock GP2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/COUT/CCP1/ P1A GP2 ST CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-onchange AN2 AN — A/D Channel 2 input T0CKI ST — Timer0 clock input INT ST — External Interrupt COUT — CMOS Comparator output CCP1 ST CMOS Capture input/Compare input/PWM output P1A — CMOS PWM output GP3/T1G*/MCLR/VPP GP3 TTL — General purpose input with interrupt-on-change T1G* ST — Timer1 gate (count enable), alternate pin MCLR ST — Master Clear w/internal pull-up VPP HV — Programming voltage GP4/AN3/CIN1-/T1G/P1B*/OSC2/ CLKOUT GP4 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-onchange AN3 AN — A/D Channel 3 input CIN1- AN — Comparator inverting input T1G ST — Timer1 gate (count enable) P1B* — CMOS PWM output, alternate pin OSC2 — XTAL Crystal/Resonator CLKOUT — CMOS FOSC/4 output GP5/T1CKI/P1A*/OSC1/CLKIN GP5 TTL CMOS General purpose I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-onchange T1CKI ST — Timer1 clock input P1A* — CMOS PWM output, alternate pin OSC1 XTAL — Crystal/Resonator CLKIN ST — External clock input/RC oscillator connection VDD VDD Power — Positive supply VSS VSS Power — Ground reference * Alternate pin function. Legend: AN=Analog input or output CMOS=CMOS compatible input or output HV= High Voltage ST=Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels TTL = TTL compatible input XTAL=Crystal  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 11 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 2.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION 2.1 Program Memory Organization The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 has a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. Only the first 1K x 14 (0000h- 03FFh) for the PIC12F609/615/12HV609/615 is physically implemented. For the PIC12F617, the first 2K x 14 (0000h-07FFh) is physically implemented. Accessing a location above these boundaries will cause a wrap-around within the first 1K x 14 space for PIC12F609/615/12HV609/615 devices, and within the first 2K x 14 space for the PIC12F617 device. The Reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h (see Figure 2-1). FIGURE 2-1: PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK FOR THE PIC12F609/615/12HV609/615 FIGURE 2-2: PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK FOR THE PIC12F617 2.2 Data Memory Organization The data memory (see Figure 2-3) is partitioned into two banks, which contain the General Purpose Registers (GPR) and the Special Function Registers (SFR). The Special Function Registers are located in the first 32 locations of each bank. Register locations 40h-7Fh in Bank 0 are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. For the PIC12F617, the register locations 20h-7Fh in Bank 0 and A0h-EFh in Bank 1 are general purpose registers implemented as Static RAM. Register locations F0h-FFh in Bank 1 point to addresses 70h-7Fh in Bank 0. All other RAM is unimplemented and returns ‘0’ when read. The RP0 bit of the STATUS register is the bank select bit. RP0 0  Bank 0 is selected 1  Bank 1 is selected PC<12:0> 13 0000h 0004h 0005h 03FFh 0400h 1FFFh Stack Level 1 Stack Level 8 Reset Vector Interrupt Vector On-chip Program Memory CALL, RETURN RETFIE, RETLW Stack Level 2 Wraps to 0000h-03FFh Note: The IRP and RP1 bits of the STATUS register are reserved and should always be maintained as ‘0’s. PC<12:0> 13 0000h 0004h 0005h 07FFh Stack Level 1 Stack Level 8 Reset Vector Interrupt Vector CALL, RETURN RETFIE, RETLW Stack Level 2 Page 0 On-Chip Program Memory Wraps to 0000h-07FFh 0800h 1FFFh PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 12  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.1 GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE The register file is organized as 64 x 8 in the PIC12F609/615/12HV609/615, and as 128 x 8 in the PIC12F617. Each register is accessed, either directly or indirectly, through the File Select Register (FSR) (see Section 2.4 “Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers”). 2.2.2 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral functions for controlling the desired operation of the device (see Table 2-1). These registers are static RAM. The special registers can be classified into two sets: core and peripheral. The Special Function Registers associated with the “core” are described in this section. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in the section of that peripheral feature. FIGURE 2-3: DATA MEMORY MAP OF THE PIC12F609/HV609 Indirect Addr.(1) TMR0 PCL STATUS FSR GPIO PCLATH INTCON PIR1 TMR1L TMR1H 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah 1Bh 1Ch 1Dh 1Eh 1Fh 20h 7Fh Bank 0 Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Not a physical register. General File Address File Address WPU IOC Indirect Addr.(1) OPTION_REG PCL STATUS FSR TRISIO PCLATH INTCON PIE1 PCON 80h 81h 82h 83h 84h 85h 86h 87h 88h 89h 8Ah 8Bh 8Ch 8Dh 8Eh 8Fh 90h 91h 92h 93h 94h 95h 96h 97h 98h 99h 9Ah 9Bh 9Ch 9Dh 9Eh 9Fh A0h FFh Bank 1 ANSEL Accesses 70h-7Fh F0h VRCON CMCON0 OSCTUNE 40h 3Fh CMCON1 EFh T1CON Purpose Registers 64 Bytes Accesses 70h-7Fh 6Fh 70h  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 13 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 2-4: DATA MEMORY MAP OF THE PIC12F615/617/HV615 Indirect Addr.(1) TMR0 PCL STATUS FSR GPIO PCLATH INTCON PIR1 TMR1L TMR1H T1CON 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah 1Bh 1Ch 1Dh 1Eh 1Fh 20h 7Fh Bank 0 Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Not a physical register. 2: Used for the PIC12F617 only. File Address File Address WPU IOC Indirect Addr.(1) OPTION_REG PCL STATUS FSR TRISIO PCLATH INTCON PIE1 PCON 80h 81h 82h 83h 84h 85h 86h 87h 88h 89h 8Ah 8Bh 8Ch 8Dh 8Eh 8Fh 90h 91h 92h 93h 94h 95h 96h 97h 98h 99h 9Ah 9Bh 9Ch 9Dh 9Eh 9Fh A0h FFh Bank 1 ADRESH ADCON0 ADRESL ANSEL Accesses 70h-7Fh F0h TMR2 T2CON CCPR1L CCPR1H CCP1CON PWM1CON ECCPAS VRCON CMCON0 OSCTUNE PR2 40h 3Fh CMCON1 EFh APFCON General Purpose Registers 64 Bytes Accesses 70h-7Fh 6Fh 70h PMCON1 (2) PMCON2 (2) PMADRL (2) PMADRH (2) PMDATL (2) PMDATH (2) General Purpose Registers 96 Bytes from 20h-7Fh(2) Unimplemented for PIC12F615/HV615 General Purpose Registers 32 Bytes(2) Unimplemented for PIC12F615/HV615 BFh C0h PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 14  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 2-1: PIC12F609/HV609 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 0 Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Page Bank 0 00h INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx 25, 115 01h TMR0 Timer0 Module’s Register xxxx xxxx 53, 115 02h PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 25, 115 03h STATUS IRP(1) RP1(1) RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 18, 115 04h FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 25, 115 05h GPIO — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 --x0 x000 43, 115 06h — Unimplemented — — 07h — Unimplemented — — 08h — Unimplemented — — 09h — Unimplemented — — 0Ah PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter ---0 0000 25, 115 0Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 20, 115 0Ch PIR1 — — — — CMIF — — TMR1IF ---- 0--0 22, 115 0Dh — Unimplemented — — 0Eh TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 57, 115 0Fh TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 57, 115 10h T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 62, 115 11h — Unimplemented — — 12h — Unimplemented — — 13h — Unimplemented — — 14h — Unimplemented — — 15h — Unimplemented — — 16h — Unimplemented — — 17h — Unimplemented — — 18h — Unimplemented — — 19h VRCON CMVREN — VRR FVREN VR3 VR2 VR1 VR0 0-00 0000 76, 116 1Ah CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -0-0 72, 116 1Bh — — — — — 1Ch CMCON1 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC ---0 0-10 73, 116 1Dh — Unimplemented — — 1Eh — Unimplemented — — 1Fh — Unimplemented — — Legend: – = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented 1: IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear. 2: Read only register.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 15 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 2-2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 0 Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Page Bank 0 00h INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx 25, 116 01h TMR0 Timer0 Module’s Register xxxx xxxx 53, 116 02h PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 25, 116 03h STATUS IRP(1) RP1(1) RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 18, 116 04h FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 25, 116 05h GPIO — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 --x0 x000 43, 116 06h — Unimplemented — — 07h — Unimplemented — — 08h — Unimplemented — — 09h — Unimplemented — — 0Ah PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter ---0 0000 25, 116 0Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 20, 116 0Ch PIR1 — ADIF CCP1IF — CMIF — TMR2IF TMR1IF -00- 0-00 22, 116 0Dh — Unimplemented — — 0Eh TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 57, 116 0Fh TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 57, 116 10h T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 62, 116 11h TMR2(3) Timer2 Module Register 0000 0000 65, 116 12h T2CON(3) — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 66, 116 13h CCPR1L(3) Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte XXXX XXXX 90, 116 14h CCPR1H(3) Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte XXXX XXXX 90, 116 15h CCP1CON(3) P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0-00 0000 89, 116 16h PWM1CON(3) PRSEN PDC6 PDC5 PDC4 PDC3 PDC2 PDC1 PDC0 0000 0000 105, 116 17h ECCPAS(3) ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1 PSSBD0 0000 0000 102, 116 18h — Unimplemented — — 19h VRCON CMVREN — VRR FVREN VR3 VR2 VR1 VR0 0-00 0000 76, 116 1Ah CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -0-0 72, 116 1Bh — — — — — 1Ch CMCON1 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC ---0 0-10 73, 116 1Dh — Unimplemented — — 1Eh ADRESH(2, 3) Most Significant 8 bits of the left shifted A/D result or 2 bits of right shifted result xxxx xxxx 85, 116 1Fh ADCON0(3) ADFM VCFG — CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON 00-0 0000 84, 116 Legend: – = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented Note 1: IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear. 2: Read only register. 3: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 16  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 2-3: PIC12F609/HV609 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 1 Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Page Bank 1 80h INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx 25, 116 81h OPTION_RE G GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 19, 116 82h PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 25, 116 83h STATUS IRP(1) RP1(1) RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 18, 116 84h FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 25, 116 85h TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3(4) TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 44, 116 86h — Unimplemented — — 87h — Unimplemented — — 88h — Unimplemented — — 89h — Unimplemented — — 8Ah PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter ---0 0000 25, 116 8Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF(3) 0000 0000 20, 116 8Ch PIE1 — — — — CMIE — — TMR1IE ---- 0--0 21, 116 8Dh — Unimplemented — — 8Eh PCON — — — — — — POR BOR ---- --qq 23, 116 8Fh — Unimplemented — — 90h OSCTUNE — — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 ---0 0000 41, 116 91h — Unimplemented — — 92h — Unimplemented — — 93h — Unimplemented — — 94h — Unimplemented — — 95h WPU(2) — — WPU5 WPU4 — WPU2 WPU1 WPU0 --11 -111 46, 116 96h IOC — — IOC5 IOC4 IOC3 IOC2 IOC1 IOC0 --00 0000 46, 116 97h — Unimplemented — — 98h — Unimplemented — — 99h — Unimplemented — — 9Ah — Unimplemented — — 9Bh — Unimplemented — — 9Ch — Unimplemented — — 9Dh — Unimplemented — — 9Eh — Unimplemented — — 9Fh ANSEL — — — — ANS3 — ANS1 ANS0 ---- 1-11 45, 117 Legend: – = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented Note 1: IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear. 2: GP3 pull-up is enabled when MCLRE is ‘1’ in the Configuration Word register. 3: MCLR and WDT Reset does not affect the previous value data latch. The GPIF bit will clear upon Reset but will set again if the mismatch exists. 4: TRISIO3 always reads as ‘1’ since it is an input only pin.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 17 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 2-4: PIC12F615/617/HV615 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 1 Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Page Bank 1 80h INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx 25, 116 81h OPTION_REG GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 19, 116 82h PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 25, 116 83h STATUS IRP(1) RP1(1) RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 18, 116 84h FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 25, 116 85h TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3(4) TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 44, 116 86h — Unimplemented — — 87h — Unimplemented — — 88h — Unimplemented — — 89h — Unimplemented — — 8Ah PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter ---0 0000 25, 116 8Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF(3) 0000 0000 20, 116 8Ch PIE1 — ADIE CCP1IE — CMIE — TMR2IE TMR1IE -00- 0-00 21, 116 8Dh — Unimplemented — — 8Eh PCON — — — — — — POR BOR ---- --qq 23, 116 8Fh — Unimplemented — — 90h OSCTUNE — — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 ---0 0000 41, 116 91h — Unimplemented — — 92h PR2 Timer2 Module Period Register 1111 1111 65, 116 93h APFCON — — — T1GSEL — — P1BSEL P1ASEL ---0 --00 21, 116 94h — Unimplemented — — 95h WPU(2) — — WPU5 WPU4 — WPU2 WPU1 WPU0 --11 -111 46, 116 96h IOC — — IOC5 IOC4 IOC3 IOC2 IOC1 IOC0 --00 0000 46, 116 97h — Unimplemented — — 98h PMCON1(7) — — — — — WREN WR RD ---- -000 29 99h PMCON2(7) Program Memory Control Register 2 (not a physical register). ---- ---- — 9Ah PMADRL(7) PMADRL7 PMADRL6 PMADRL5 PMADRL4 PMADRL3 PMADRL2 PMADRL1 PMADRL0 0000 0000 28 9Bh PMADRH(7) — — — — — PMADRH2 PMADRH1 PMADRH0 ---- -000 28 9Ch PMDATL(7) PMDATL7 PMDATL6 PMDATL5 PMDATL4 PMDATL3 PMDATL2 PMDATL1 PMDATL0 0000 0000 28 9Dh PMDATH(7) — — Program Memory Data Register High Byte. --00 0000 28 9Eh ADRESL(5, 6) Least Significant 2 bits of the left shifted result or 8 bits of the right shifted result xxxx xxxx 85, 117 9Fh ANSEL — ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 ANS3 ANS2 ANS1 ANS0 -000 1111 45, 117 Legend: – = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented Note 1: IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear. 2: GP3 pull-up is enabled when MCLRE is ‘1’ in the Configuration Word register. 3: MCLR and WDT Reset does not affect the previous value data latch. The GPIF bit will clear upon Reset but will set again if the mismatch exists. 4: TRISIO3 always reads as ‘1’ since it is an input only pin. 5: Read only register. 6: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. 7: PIC12F617 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 18  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.2.1 STATUS Register The STATUS register, shown in Register 2-1, contains: • the arithmetic status of the ALU • the Reset status • the bank select bits for data memory (RAM) The STATUS register can be the destination for any instruction, like any other register. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as destination may be different than intended. For example, CLRF STATUS, will clear the upper three bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register as ‘000u u1uu’ (where u = unchanged). It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF, SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register, because these instructions do not affect any Status bits. For other instructions not affecting any Status bits, see the Section 14.0 “Instruction Set Summary”. Note 1: Bits IRP and RP1 of the STATUS register are not used by the PIC12F609/615/617/ 12HV609/615 and should be maintained as clear. Use of these bits is not recommended, since this may affect upward compatibility with future products. 2: The C and DC bits operate as a Borrow and Digit Borrow out bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF instructions for examples. REGISTER 2-1: STATUS: STATUS REGISTER Reserved Reserved R/W-0 R-1 R-1 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IRP: This bit is reserved and should be maintained as ‘0’ bit 6 RP1: This bit is reserved and should be maintained as ‘0’ bit 5 RP0: Register Bank Select bit (used for direct addressing) 1 = Bank 1 (80h – FFh) 0 = Bank 0 (00h – 7Fh) bit 4 TO: Time-out bit 1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction 0 = A WDT time-out occurred bit 3 PD: Power-down bit 1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction 0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction bit 2 Z: Zero bit 1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero 0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero bit 1 DC: Digit Carry/Borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions), For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. 1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result bit 0 C: Carry/Borrow bit(1) (ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW, SUBWF instructions) 1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred Note 1: For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high-order or low-order bit of the source register.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 19 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 2.2.2.2 OPTION Register The OPTION register is a readable and writable register, which contains various control bits to configure: • Timer0/WDT prescaler • External GP2/INT interrupt • Timer0 • Weak pull-ups on GPIO Note: To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for Timer0, assign the prescaler to the WDT by setting PSA bit to ‘1’ of the OPTION register. See Section 6.1.3 “Software Programmable Prescaler”. REGISTER 2-2: OPTION_REG: OPTION REGISTER R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GPPU: GPIO Pull-up Enable bit 1 = GPIO pull-ups are disabled 0 = GPIO pull-ups are enabled by individual PORT latch values bit 6 INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge of GP2/INT pin 0 = Interrupt on falling edge of GP2/INT pin bit 5 T0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit 1 = Transition on GP2/T0CKI pin 0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (FOSC/4) bit 4 T0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit 1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on GP2/T0CKI pin 0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on GP2/T0CKI pin bit 3 PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit 1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT 0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module bit 2-0 PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 1 : 2 1 : 4 1 : 8 1 : 16 1 : 32 1 : 64 1 : 128 1 : 256 1 : 1 1 : 2 1 : 4 1 : 8 1 : 16 1 : 32 1 : 64 1 : 128 BIT VALUE TIMER0 RATE WDT RATE PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 20  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.2.3 INTCON Register The INTCON register is a readable and writable register, which contains the various enable and flag bits for TMR0 register overflow, GPIO change and external GP2/INT pin interrupts. Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the Global Enable bit, GIE of the INTCON register. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. REGISTER 2-3: INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts bit 6 PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts bit 5 T0IE: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the Timer0 interrupt 0 = Disables the Timer0 interrupt bit 4 INTE: GP2/INT External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the GP2/INT external interrupt 0 = Disables the GP2/INT external interrupt bit 3 GPIE: GPIO Change Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the GPIO change interrupt 0 = Disables the GPIO change interrupt bit 2 T0IF: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit(2) 1 = Timer0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = Timer0 register did not overflow bit 1 INTF: GP2/INT External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The GP2/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The GP2/INT external interrupt did not occur bit 0 GPIF: GPIO Change Interrupt Flag bit 1 = When at least one of the GPIO <5:0> pins changed state (must be cleared in software) 0 = None of the GPIO <5:0> pins have changed state Note 1: IOC register must also be enabled. 2: T0IF bit is set when TMR0 rolls over. TMR0 is unchanged on Reset and should be initialized before clearing T0IF bit.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 21 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 2.2.2.4 PIE1 Register The PIE1 register contains the Peripheral Interrupt Enable bits, as shown in Register 2-4. Note: Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be set to enable any peripheral interrupt. REGISTER 2-4: PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6 ADIE: A/D Converter (ADC) Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the ADC interrupt 0 = Disables the ADC interrupt bit 5 CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt bit 4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the Comparator interrupt 0 = Disables the Comparator interrupt bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 TMR2IE: Timer2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt 0 = Disables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt bit 0 TMR1IE: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the Timer1 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the Timer1 overflow interrupt Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/HV609 unimplemented, read as ‘0’. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 22  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.2.5 PIR1 Register The PIR1 register contains the Peripheral Interrupt flag bits, as shown in Register 2-5. Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the Global Enable bit, GIE of the INTCON register. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. REGISTER 2-5: PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 1 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6 ADIF: A/D Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = A/D conversion complete 0 = A/D conversion has not completed or has not been started bit 5 CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit(1) Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode bit 4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit 1 = Comparator output has changed (must be cleared in software) 0 = Comparator output has not changed bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 TMR2IF: Timer2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = Timer2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = Timer2 to PR2 match has not occurred bit 0 TMR1IF: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = Timer1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = Timer1 has not overflowed Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/HV609 unimplemented, read as ‘0’.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 23 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 2.2.2.6 PCON Register The Power Control (PCON) register (see Table 12-2) contains flag bits to differentiate between a: • Power-on Reset (POR) • Brown-out Reset (BOR) • Watchdog Timer Reset (WDT) • External MCLR Reset The PCON register also controls the software enable of the BOR. The PCON register bits are shown in Register 2-6. REGISTER 2-6: PCON: POWER CONTROL REGISTER U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0(1) — — — — — — POR BOR bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit 1 = No Power-on Reset occurred 0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs) bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit 1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred 0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) Note 1: Reads as ‘0’ if Brown-out Reset is disabled. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 24  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.2.7 APFCON Register (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) The Alternate Pin Function Control (APFCON) register is used to steer specific peripheral input and output functions between different pins. For this device, the P1A, P1B and Timer1 Gate functions can be moved between different pins. The APFCON register bits are shown in Register 2-7. REGISTER 2-7: APFCON:ALTERNATE PIN FUNCTION REGISTER(1) U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — — T1GSEL — — P1BSEL P1ASEL bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 T1GSEL: TMR1 Input Pin Select bit 1 = T1G function is on GP3/T1G(2)/MCLR/VPP 0 = T1G function is on GP4/AN3/CIN1-/T1G/P1B(2)/OSC2/CLKOUT bit 3-2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 P1BSEL: P1B Output Pin Select bit 1 = P1B function is on GP4/AN3/CIN1-/T1G/P1B(2)/OSC2/CLKOUT 0 = P1B function is on GP0/AN0/CIN+/P1B/ICSPDAT bit 0 P1ASEL: P1A Output Pin Select bit 1 = P1A function is on GP5/T1CKI/P1A(2)/OSC1/CLKIN 0 = P1A function is on GP2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/COUT/CCP1/P1A Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. 2: Alternate pin function.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 25 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 2.3 PCL and PCLATH The Program Counter (PC) is 13 bits wide. The low byte comes from the PCL register, which is a readable and writable register. The high byte (PC<12:8>) is not directly readable or writable and comes from PCLATH. On any Reset, the PC is cleared. Figure 2-5 shows the two situations for the loading of the PC. The upper example in Figure 2-5 shows how the PC is loaded on a write to PCL (PCLATH<4:0>  PCH). The lower example in Figure 2-5 shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL or GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3>  PCH). FIGURE 2-5: LOADING OF PC IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS 2.3.1 MODIFYING PCL Executing any instruction with the PCL register as the destination simultaneously causes the Program Counter PC<12:8> bits (PCH) to be replaced by the contents of the PCLATH register. This allows the entire contents of the program counter to be changed by writing the desired upper 5 bits to the PCLATH register. When the lower 8 bits are written to the PCL register, all 13 bits of the program counter will change to the values contained in the PCLATH register and those being written to the PCL register. A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). Care should be exercised when jumping into a look-up table or program branch table (computed GOTO) by modifying the PCL register. Assuming that PCLATH is set to the table start address, if the table length is greater than 255 instructions or if the lower 8 bits of the memory address rolls over from 0xFF to 0x00 in the middle of the table, then PCLATH must be incremented for each address rollover that occurs between the table beginning and the target location within the table. For more information refer to Application Note AN556, “Implementing a Table Read” (DS00556). 2.3.2 STACK The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 Family has an 8-level x 13-bit wide hardware stack (see Figure 2-1). The stack space is not part of either program or data space and the Stack Pointer is not readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack when a CALL instruction is executed or an interrupt causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the event of a RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not affected by a PUSH or POP operation. The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth push overwrites the value that was stored from the first push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and so on). 2.4 Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing the INDF register will cause indirect addressing. Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF register. Any instruction using the INDF register actually accesses data pointed to by the File Select Register (FSR). Reading INDF itself indirectly will produce 00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly results in a no operation (although Status bits may be affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained by concatenating the 8-bit FSR and the IRP bit of the STATUS register, as shown in Figure 2-6. A simple program to clear RAM location 40h-7Fh using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-1. EXAMPLE 2-1: INDIRECT ADDRESSING PC 12 8 7 0 5 PCLATH<4:0> PCLATH Instruction with ALU Result GOTO, CALL OPCODE <10:0> 8 PC 12 11 10 0 PCLATH<4:3> 11 PCH PCL 8 7 2 PCLATH PCH PCL PCL as Destination Note 1: There are no Status bits to indicate stack overflow or stack underflow conditions. 2: There are no instructions/mnemonics called PUSH or POP. These are actions that occur from the execution of the CALL, RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE instructions or the vectoring to an interrupt address. MOVLW 0x40 ;initialize pointer MOVWF FSR ;to RAM NEXT CLRF INDF ;clear INDF register INCF FSR ;inc pointer BTFSS FSR,7 ;all done? GOTO NEXT ;no clear next CONTINUE ;yes continue PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 26  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 2-6: DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 Note 1: The RP1 and IRP bits are reserved; always maintain these bits clear. 2: Accesses in this area are mirrored back into Bank 0 and Bank 1. Data Memory Direct Addressing Indirect Addressing Bank Select Location Select RP1(1) RP0 6 From Opcode 0 IRP(1) 7 File Select Register 0 Bank Select Location Select 00 01 10 11 180h 1FFh 00h 7Fh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 3 NOT USED(2) For memory map detail, see Figure 2-3.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 27 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 3.0 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY SELF READ/SELF WRITE CONTROL (FOR PIC12F617 ONLY) The Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (full VDD range). This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. Instead, it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers (see Registers 3-1 to 3-5). There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: • PMCON1 • PMCON2 • PMDATL • PMDATH • PMADRL • PMADRH When interfacing the program memory block, the PMDATL and PMDATH registers form a two-byte word which holds the 14-bit data for read/write, and the PMADRL and PMADRH registers form a two-byte word which holds the 13-bit address of the Flash location being accessed. These devices have 2K words of program Flash with an address range from 0000h to 07FFh. The program memory allows single word read and a by four word write. A four word write automatically erases the row of the location and writes the new data (erase before write). The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. When the device is code-protected, the CPU may continue to read and write the Flash program memory. Depending on the settings of the Flash Program Memory Enable (WRT<1:0>) bits, the device may or may not be able to write certain blocks of the program memory, however, reads of the program memory are allowed. When the Flash program memory Code Protection (CP) bit in the Configuration Word register is enabled, the program memory is code-protected, and the device programmer (ICSP™) cannot access data or program memory. 3.1 PMADRH and PMADRL Registers The PMADRH and PMADRL registers can address up to a maximum of 8K words of program memory. When selecting a program address value, the Most Significant Byte (MSB) of the address is written to the PMADRH register and the Least Significant Byte (LSB) is written to the PMADRL register. 3.2 PMCON1 and PMCON2 Registers PMCON1 is the control register for the data program memory accesses. Control bits RD and WR initiate read and write, respectively. These bits cannot be cleared, only set in software. They are cleared in hardware at completion of the read or write operation. The inability to clear the WR bit in software prevents the accidental premature termination of a write operation. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. PMCON2 is not a physical register. Reading PMCON2 will read all ‘0’s. The PMCON2 register is used exclusively in the Flash memory write sequence. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 28  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 3-1: PMDATL: PROGRAM MEMORY DATA REGISTER REGISTER 3-2: PMADRL: PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS REGISTER REGISTER 3-3: PMDATH: PROGRAM MEMORY DATA HIGH BYTE REGISTER REGISTER 3-4: PMADRH: PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS HIGH BYTE REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PMDATL7 PMDATL6 PMDATL5 PMDATL4 PMDATL3 PMDATL2 PMDATL1 PMDATL0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-0 PMDATL<7:0>: 8 Least Significant Address bits to Write or Read from Program Memory R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PMADRL7 PMADRL6 PMADRL5 PMADRL4 PMADRL3 PMADRL2 PMADRL1 PMADRL0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-0 PMADRL<7:0>: 8 Least Significant Address bits for Program Memory Read/Write Operation U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — PMDATH5 PMDATH4 PMDATH3 PMDATH2 PMDATH1 PMDATH0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-0 PMDATH<5:0>: 6 Most Significant Data bits from Program Memory U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — — — — PMADRH2 PMADRH1 PMADRH0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2-0 PMADRH<2:0>: Specifies the 3 Most Significant Address bits or high bits for program memory reads.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 29 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 REGISTER 3-5: PMCON1 – PROGRAM MEMORY CONTROL REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS: 93h) U-1 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 — — — — — WREN WR RD bit 7 bit 0 bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’ bit 6-3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 WREN: Program Memory Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles 0 = Inhibits write to the EEPROM bit 1 WR: Write Control bit 1 = Initiates a write cycle to program memory. (The bit is cleared by hardware when write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.) 0 = Write cycle to the Flash memory is complete bit 0 RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates a program memory read (The read takes one cycle. The RD is cleared in hardware; the RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software). 0 = Does not initiate a Flash memory read Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR 1 = bit is set 0 = bit is cleared x = bit is unknown PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 30  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.3 Reading the Flash Program Memory To read a program memory location, the user must write two bytes of the address to the PMADRL and PMADRH registers, and then set control bit RD (PMCON1<0>). Once the read control bit is set, the program memory Flash controller will use the second instruction cycle after to read the data. This causes the second instruction immediately following the “BSF PMCON1,RD” instruction to be ignored. The data is available in the very next cycle in the PMDATL and PMDATH registers; it can be read as two bytes in the following instructions. PMDATL and PMDATH registers will hold this value until another read or until it is written to by the user (during a write operation). EXAMPLE 3-1: FLASH PROGRAM READ BANKSEL PM_ADR ; Change STATUS bits RP1:0 to select bank with PMADRL MOVLW MS_PROG_PM_ADDR ; MOVWF PMADRH ; MS Byte of Program Address to read MOVLW LS_PROG_PM_ADDR ; MOVWF PMADRL ; LS Byte of Program Address to read BANKSEL PMCON1 ; Bank to containing PMCON1 BSF PMCON1, RD ; PM Read NOP ; First instruction after BSF PMCON1,RD executes normally NOP ; Any instructions here are ignored as program ; memory is read in second cycle after BSF PMCON1,RD ; BANKSEL PMDATL ; Bank to containing PMADRL MOVF PMDATL, W ; W = LS Byte of Program PMDATL MOVF PMDATH, W ; W = MS Byte of Program PMDATL  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 31 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 3-1: FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY READ CYCLE EXECUTION Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 BSF PMCON1,RD Executed here INSTR (PC + 1) Executed here NOP Executed here Flash ADDR PC PC + 1 PMADRH,PMADRL PC+3 PC + 5 RD bit INSTR (PC) PMDATH,PMDATL INSTR (PC + 3) PC + 3 PC + 4 INSTR (PC + 1) INSTR (PC + 4) INSTR (PC - 1) Executed here INSTR (PC + 3) Executed here INSTR (PC + 4) Executed here Flash DATA PMDATH PMDATL Register PMRHLT PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 32  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.4 Writing the Flash Program Memory A word of the Flash program memory may only be written to if the word is in an unprotected segment of memory. Flash program memory must be written in four-word blocks. See Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3 for more details. A block consists of four words with sequential addresses, with a lower boundary defined by an address, where PMADRL<1:0> = 00. All block writes to program memory are done as 16-word erase by fourword write operations. The write operation is edgealigned and cannot occur across boundaries. To write program data, it must first be loaded into the buffer registers (see Figure 3-2). This is accomplished by first writing the destination address to PMADRL and PMADRH and then writing the data to PMDATL and PMDATH. After the address and data have been set up, then the following sequence of events must be executed: 1. Write 55h, then AAh, to PMCON2 (Flash programming sequence). 2. Set the WR control bit of the PMCON1 register. All four buffer register locations should be written to with correct data. If less than four words are being written to in the block of four words, then a read from the program memory location(s) not being written to must be performed. This takes the data from the program location(s) not being written and loads it into the PMDATL and PMDATH registers. Then the sequence of events to transfer data to the buffer registers must be executed. To transfer data from the buffer registers to the program memory, the PMADRL and PMADRH must point to the last location in the four-word block (PMADRL<1:0> = 11). Then the following sequence of events must be executed: 1. Write 55h, then AAh, to PMCON2 (Flash programming sequence). 2. Set control bit WR of the PMCON1 register to begin the write operation. The user must follow the same specific sequence to initiate the write for each word in the program block, writing each program word in sequence (000, 001, 010, 011). When the write is performed on the last word (PMADRL<1:0> = 11), a block of sixteen words is automatically erased and the content of the four-word buffer registers are written into the program memory. After the “BSF PMCON1,WR” instruction, the processor requires two cycles to set up the erase/write operation. The user must place two NOP instructions after the WR bit is set. Since data is being written to buffer registers, the writing of the first three words of the block appears to occur immediately. The processor will halt internal operations for the typical 4 ms, only during the cycle in which the erase takes place (i.e., the last word of the sixteen-word block erase). This is not Sleep mode as the clocks and peripherals will continue to run. After the four-word write cycle, the processor will resume operation with the third instruction after the PMCON1 write instruction. The above sequence must be repeated for the higher 12 words. 3.5 Protection Against Spurious Write There are conditions when the device should not write to the program memory. To protect against spurious writes, various mechanisms have been built in. On power-up, WREN is cleared. Also, the Power-up Timer (64 ms duration) prevents program memory writes. The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit help prevent an accidental write during brown-out, power glitch or software malfunction. 3.6 Operation During Code-Protect When the device is code-protected, the CPU is able to read and write unscrambled data to the program memory. The test mode access is disabled. 3.7 Operation During Write Protect When the program memory is write-protected, the CPU can read and execute from the program memory. The portions of program memory that are write protected can be modified by the CPU using the PMCON registers, but the protected program memory cannot be modified using ICSP mode.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 33 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 3-2: BLOCK WRITES TO 2K FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY FIGURE 3-3: FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY LONG WRITE CYCLE EXECUTION 14 14 14 14 Program Memory Buffer Register PMADRL<1:0> = 00 Buffer Register PMADRL<1:0> = 01 Buffer Register PMADRL<1:0> = 10 Buffer Register PMADRL<1:0> = 11 PMDATH PMDATL 7 5 0 7 0 6 8 First word of block to be written If at a new row to Flash automatically after this word is written are transferred Flash are erased, then four buffers sixteen words of Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 BSF PMCON1,WR Executed here INSTR (PC + 1) Executed here Flash PC + 1 INSTR INSTR PMDATH,PMDATL INSTR (PC+3) NOP Executed here Flash Flash PMWHLT WR bit Processor halted PM Write Time PMADRH,PMADRL PC + 3 PC + 4 INSTR (PC + 3) Executed here ADDR DATA Memory Location ignored read PC + 2 INSTR (PC+2) (INSTR (PC + 2) NOP Executed here (PC) (PC + 1) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 34  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. An example of the complete four-word write sequence is shown in Example 3-2. The initial address is loaded into the PMADRH and PMADRL register pair; the eight words of data are loaded using indirect addressing. EXAMPLE 3-2: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; This write routine assumes the following: ; A valid starting address (the least significant bits = '00') ; is loaded in ADDRH:ADDRL ; ADDRH, ADDRL and DATADDR are all located in data memory ; BANKSEL PMADRH MOVF ADDRH,W ; Load initial address MOVWF PMADRH ; MOVF ADDRL,W ; MOVWF PMADRL ; MOVF DATAADDR,W ; Load initial data address MOVWF FSR ; LOOP MOVF INDF,W ; Load first data byte into lower MOVWF PMDATL ; INCF FSR,F ; Next byte MOVF INDF,W ; Load second data byte into upper MOVWF PMDATH ; INCF FSR,F ; BANKSEL PMCON1 BSF PMCON1,WREN ; Enable writes BCF INTCON,GIE ; Disable interrupts (if using) BTFSC INTCON,GIE ; See AN576 GOTO $-2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Required Sequence MOVLW 55h ; Start of required write sequence: MOVWF PMCON2 ; Write 55h MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF PMCON2 ; Write 0AAh BSF PMCON1,WR ; Set WR bit to begin write NOP ; Required to transfer data to the buffer NOP ; registers ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; BCF PMCON1,WREN ; Disable writes BSF INTCON,GIE ; Enable interrupts (comment out if not using interrupts) BANKSEL PMADRL MOVF PMADRL, W INCF PMADRL,F ; Increment address ANDLW 0x03 ; Indicates when sixteen words have been programmed SUBLW 0x03 ; 0x0F = 16 words ; 0x0B = 12 words ; 0x07 = 8 words ; 0x03 = 4 words BTFSS STATUS,Z ; Exit on a match, GOTO LOOP ; Continue if more data needs to be written  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 35 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 3-1: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PROGRAM MEMORY Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets PMCON1 — — — — — WREN WR RD ---- -000 ---- -000 PMCON2 Program Memory Control Register 2 (not a physical register) ---- ---- ---- ---- PMADRL PMADRL7 PMADRL6 PMADRL5 PMADRL4 PMADRL3 PMADRL2 PMADRL1 PMADRL0 0000 0000 0000 0000 PMADRH — — — — — PMADRH2 PMADRH1 PMADRH0 ---- -000 ---- -000 PMDATL PMDATL7 PMDATL6 PMDATL5 PMDATL4 PMDATL3 PMDATL2 PMDATL1 PMDATL0 0000 0000 0000 0000 PMDATH — — PMDATH5 PMDATH4 PMDATH3 PMDATH2 PMDATH1 PMDATH0 --00 0000 --00 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition. Shaded cells are not used by Program Memory module. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 36  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 37 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 4.0 OSCILLATOR MODULE 4.1 Overview The Oscillator module has a wide variety of clock sources and selection features that allow it to be used in a wide range of applications while maximizing performance and minimizing power consumption. Figure 4-1 illustrates a block diagram of the Oscillator module. Clock sources can be configured from external oscillators, quartz crystal resonators, ceramic resonators and Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits. In addition, the system clock source can be configured with a choice of two selectable speeds: internal or external system clock source. The Oscillator module can be configured in one of eight clock modes. 3. EC – External clock with I/O on OSC2/CLKOUT. 4. LP – 32 kHz Low-Power Crystal mode. 5. XT – Medium Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator Oscillator mode. 6. HS – High Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator mode. 7. RC – External Resistor-Capacitor (RC) with FOSC/4 output on OSC2/CLKOUT. 8. RCIO – External Resistor-Capacitor (RC) with I/O on OSC2/CLKOUT. 9. INTOSC – Internal oscillator with FOSC/4 output on OSC2 and I/O on OSC1/CLKIN. 10. INTOSCIO – Internal oscillator with I/O on OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT. Clock Source modes are configured by the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word register (CONFIG). The Internal Oscillator module provides a selectable system clock mode of either 4 MHz (Postscaler) or 8 MHz (INTOSC). FIGURE 4-1: PIC® MCU CLOCK SOURCE BLOCK DIAGRAM (CPU and Peripherals) OSC1 OSC2 Sleep External Oscillator LP, XT, HS, RC, RCIO, EC System Clock MUX FOSC<2:0> (Configuration Word Register) Internal Oscillator INTOSC 8 MHz Postscaler 4 MHz INTOSC IOSCFS<7> PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 38  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.2 Clock Source Modes Clock Source modes can be classified as external or internal. • External Clock modes rely on external circuitry for the clock source. Examples are: Oscillator modules (EC mode), quartz crystal resonators or ceramic resonators (LP, XT and HS modes) and Resistor-Capacitor (RC) mode circuits. • Internal clock sources are contained internally within the Oscillator module. The Oscillator module has two selectable clock frequencies: 4 MHz and 8 MHz The system clock can be selected between external or internal clock sources via the FOSC<2:0> bits of the Configuration Word register. 4.3 External Clock Modes 4.3.1 OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER (OST) If the Oscillator module is configured for LP, XT or HS modes, the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) counts 1024 oscillations from OSC1. This occurs following a Power-on Reset (POR) and when the Power-up Timer (PWRT) has expired (if configured), or a wake-up from Sleep. During this time, the program counter does not increment and program execution is suspended. The OST ensures that the oscillator circuit, using a quartz crystal resonator or ceramic resonator, has started and is providing a stable system clock to the Oscillator module. When switching between clock sources, a delay is required to allow the new clock to stabilize. These oscillator delays are shown in Table 4-1. TABLE 4-1: OSCILLATOR DELAY EXAMPLES 4.3.2 EC MODE The External Clock (EC) mode allows an externally generated logic level as the system clock source. When operating in this mode, an external clock source is connected to the OSC1 input and the OSC2 is available for general purpose I/O. Figure 4-2 shows the pin connections for EC mode. The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) is disabled when EC mode is selected. Therefore, there is no delay in operation after a Power-on Reset (POR) or wake-up from Sleep. Because the PIC® MCU design is fully static, stopping the external clock input will have the effect of halting the device while leaving all data intact. Upon restarting the external clock, the device will resume operation as if no time had elapsed. FIGURE 4-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK (EC) MODE OPERATION Switch From Switch To Frequency Oscillator Delay Sleep/POR INTOSC 125 kHz to 8 MHz Oscillator Warm-Up Delay (TWARM) Sleep/POR EC, RC DC – 20 MHz 2 instruction cycles Sleep/POR LP, XT, HS 32 kHz to 20 MHz 1024 Clock Cycles (OST) OSC1/CLKIN I/O OSC2/CLKOUT(1) Clock from Ext. System PIC® MCU Note 1: Alternate pin functions are listed in the Section 1.0 “Device Overview”.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 39 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 4.3.3 LP, XT, HS MODES The LP, XT and HS modes support the use of quartz crystal resonators or ceramic resonators connected to OSC1 and OSC2 (Figure 4-3). The mode selects a low, medium or high gain setting of the internal inverteramplifier to support various resonator types and speed. LP Oscillator mode selects the lowest gain setting of the internal inverter-amplifier. LP mode current consumption is the least of the three modes. This mode is designed to drive only 32.768 kHz tuning-fork type crystals (watch crystals). XT Oscillator mode selects the intermediate gain setting of the internal inverter-amplifier. XT mode current consumption is the medium of the three modes. This mode is best suited to drive resonators with a medium drive level specification. HS Oscillator mode selects the highest gain setting of the internal inverter-amplifier. HS mode current consumption is the highest of the three modes. This mode is best suited for resonators that require a high drive setting. Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 show typical circuits for quartz crystal and ceramic resonators, respectively. FIGURE 4-3: QUARTZ CRYSTAL OPERATION (LP, XT OR HS MODE) FIGURE 4-4: CERAMIC RESONATOR OPERATION (XT OR HS MODE) Note 1: A series resistor (RS) may be required for quartz crystals with low drive level. 2: The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode selected (typically between 2 M to 10 M. C1 C2 Quartz RS(1) OSC1/CLKIN RF(2) Sleep To Internal Logic PIC® MCU Crystal OSC2/CLKOUT Note 1: Quartz crystal characteristics vary according to type, package and manufacturer. The user should consult the manufacturer data sheets for specifications and recommended application. 2: Always verify oscillator performance over the VDD and temperature range that is expected for the application. 3: For oscillator design assistance, reference the following Microchip Applications Notes: • AN826, “Crystal Oscillator Basics and Crystal Selection for rfPIC® and PIC® Devices” (DS00826) • AN849, “Basic PIC® Oscillator Design” (DS00849) • AN943, “Practical PIC® Oscillator Analysis and Design” (DS00943) • AN949, “Making Your Oscillator Work” (DS00949) Note 1: A series resistor (RS) may be required for ceramic resonators with low drive level. 2: The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode selected (typically between 2 M to 10 M. 3: An additional parallel feedback resistor (RP) may be required for proper ceramic resonator operation. C1 C2 Ceramic RS(1) OSC1/CLKIN RF(2) Sleep To Internal Logic PIC® MCU RP(3) Resonator OSC2/CLKOUT PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 40  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.3.4 EXTERNAL RC MODES The external Resistor-Capacitor (RC) modes support the use of an external RC circuit. This allows the designer maximum flexibility in frequency choice while keeping costs to a minimum when clock accuracy is not required. There are two modes: RC and RCIO. In RC mode, the RC circuit connects to OSC1. OSC2/ CLKOUT outputs the RC oscillator frequency divided by 4. This signal may be used to provide a clock for external circuitry, synchronization, calibration, test or other application requirements. Figure 4-5 shows the external RC mode connections. FIGURE 4-5: EXTERNAL RC MODES In RCIO mode, the RC circuit is connected to OSC1. OSC2 becomes an additional general purpose I/O pin. The RC oscillator frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values and the operating temperature. Other factors affecting the oscillator frequency are: • threshold voltage variation • component tolerances • packaging variations in capacitance The user also needs to take into account variation due to tolerance of external RC components used. 4.4 Internal Clock Modes The Oscillator module provides a selectable system clock source of either 4 MHz or 8 MHz. The selectable frequency is configured through the IOSCFS bit of the Configuration Word. The frequency of the internal oscillator can be trimmed with a calibration value in the OSCTUNE register. 4.4.1 INTOSC AND INTOSCIO MODES The INTOSC and INTOSCIO modes configure the internal oscillators as the system clock source when the device is programmed using the oscillator selection or the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word register (CONFIG). See Section 12.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for more information. In INTOSC mode, OSC1/CLKIN is available for general purpose I/O. OSC2/CLKOUT outputs the selected internal oscillator frequency divided by 4. The CLKOUT signal may be used to provide a clock for external circuitry, synchronization, calibration, test or other application requirements. In INTOSCIO mode, OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT are available for general purpose I/O. OSC2/CLKOUT(1) CEXT REXT PIC® MCU OSC1/CLKIN FOSC/4 or Internal Clock VDD VSS Recommended values: 10 k  REXT  100 k, <3V 3 k  REXT  100 k, 3-5V CEXT > 20 pF, 2-5V Note 1: Alternate pin functions are listed in Section 1.0 “Device Overview”. 2: Output depends upon RC or RCIO Clock mode. I/O(2)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 41 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 4.4.1.1 OSCTUNE Register The oscillator is factory calibrated but can be adjusted in software by writing to the OSCTUNE register (Register 4-1). The default value of the OSCTUNE register is ‘0’. The value is a 5-bit two’s complement number. When the OSCTUNE register is modified, the frequency will begin shifting to the new frequency. Code execution continues during this shift. There is no indication that the shift has occurred. TABLE 4-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOCK SOURCES REGISTER 4-1: OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 TUN<4:0>: Frequency Tuning bits 01111 = Maximum frequency 01110 = ••• 00001 = 00000 = Oscillator module is running at the calibrated frequency. 11111 = ••• 10000 = Minimum frequency Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets(1) CONFIG(2) IOSCFS CP MCLRE PWRTE WDTE FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0 — — OSCTUNE — — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by oscillators. Note 1: Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation. 2: See Configuration Word register (Register 12-1) for operation of all register bits. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 42  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 43 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 5.0 I/O PORT There are as many as six general purpose I/O pins available. Depending on which peripherals are enabled, some or all of the pins may not be available as general purpose I/O. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, the associated pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. 5.1 GPIO and the TRISIO Registers GPIO is a 6-bit wide port with 5 bidirectional and 1 inputonly pin. The corresponding data direction register is TRISIO (Register 5-2). Setting a TRISIO bit (= 1) will make the corresponding GPIO pin an input (i.e., disable the output driver). Clearing a TRISIO bit (= 0) will make the corresponding GPIO pin an output (i.e., enables output driver and puts the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The exception is GP3, which is input only and its TRIS bit will always read as ‘1’. Example 5- 1 shows how to initialize GPIO. Reading the GPIO register (Register 5-1) reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read, this value is modified and then written to the PORT data latch. GP3 reads ‘0’ when MCLRE = 1. The TRISIO register controls the direction of the GPIO pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISIO register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog input always read ‘0’. EXAMPLE 5-1: INITIALIZING GPIO Note: GPIO = PORTA TRISIO = TRISA Note: The ANSEL register must be initialized to configure an analog channel as a digital input. Pins configured as analog inputs will read ‘0’ and cannot generate an interrupt. BANKSEL GPIO ; CLRF GPIO ;Init GPIO BANKSEL ANSEL ; CLRF ANSEL ;digital I/O, ADC clock ;setting ‘don’t care’ MOVLW 0Ch ;Set GP<3:2> as inputs MOVWF TRISIO ;and set GP<5:4,1:0> ;as outputs REGISTER 5-1: GPIO: GPIO REGISTER U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-x R-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-0 GP<5:0>: GPIO I/O Pin bit 1 = GPIO pin is > VIH 0 = GPIO pin is < VIL PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 44  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2 Additional Pin Functions Every GPIO pin on the PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/ 615 has an interrupt-on-change option and a weak pullup option. The next three sections describe these functions. 5.2.1 ANSEL REGISTER The ANSEL register is used to configure the Input mode of an I/O pin to analog. Setting the appropriate ANSEL bit high will cause all digital reads on the pin to be read as ‘0’ and allow analog functions on the pin to operate correctly. The state of the ANSEL bits has no affect on digital output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior when executing read-modify-write instructions on the affected port. 5.2.2 WEAK PULL-UPS Each of the GPIO pins, except GP3, has an individually configurable internal weak pull-up. Control bits WPUx enable or disable each pull-up. Refer to Register 5-5. Each weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset by the GPPU bit of the OPTION register). A weak pull-up is automatically enabled for GP3 when configured as MCLR and disabled when GP3 is an I/O. There is no software control of the MCLR pull-up. 5.2.3 INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE Each GPIO pin is individually configurable as an interrupt-on-change pin. Control bits IOCx enable or disable the interrupt function for each pin. Refer to Register 5-6. The interrupt-on-change is disabled on a Power-on Reset. For enabled interrupt-on-change pins, the values are compared with the old value latched on the last read of GPIO. The ‘mismatch’ outputs of the last read are OR’d together to set the GPIO Change Interrupt Flag bit (GPIF) in the INTCON register (Register 2-3). This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, clears the interrupt by: a) Any read of GPIO AND Clear flag bit GPIF. This will end the mismatch condition; OR b) Any write of GPIO AND Clear flag bit GPIF will end the mismatch condition; A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit GPIF. Reading GPIO will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit GPIF to be cleared. The latch holding the last read value is not affected by a MCLR nor BOR Reset. After these resets, the GPIF flag will continue to be set if a mismatch is present. REGISTER 5-2: TRISIO: GPIO TRI-STATE REGISTER U-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-0 TRISIO<5:0>: GPIO Tri-State Control bit 1 = GPIO pin configured as an input (tri-stated) 0 = GPIO pin configured as an output Note 1: TRISIO<3> always reads ‘1’. 2: TRISIO<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes. Note: If a change on the I/O pin should occur when any GPIO operation is being executed, then the GPIF interrupt flag may not get set.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 45 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 REGISTER 5-3: ANSEL: ANALOG SELECT REGISTER (PIC12F609/HV609) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 — — — — ANS3 — ANS1 ANS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 ANS3: Analog Select Between Analog or Digital Function on Pin GP4 1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). 0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or special function. bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 ANS1: Analog Select Between Analog or Digital Function on Pin GP1 1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input.(1) 0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or special function. bit 0 ANS0: Analog Select Between Analog or Digital Function on Pin GP0 0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or special function. 1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input.(1) Note 1: Setting a pin to an analog input automatically disables the digital input circuitry, weak pull-ups, and interrupt-onchange if available. The corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to allow external control of the voltage on the pin. REGISTER 5-4: ANSEL: ANALOG SELECT REGISTER (PIC12F615/617/HV615) U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 — ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 ANS3 ANS2 ANS1 ANS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6-4 ADCS<2:0>: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 000 = FOSC/2 001 = FOSC/8 010 = FOSC/32 x11 = FRC (clock derived from a dedicated internal oscillator = 500 kHz max) 100 = FOSC/4 101 = FOSC/16 110 = FOSC/64 bit 3-0 ANS<3:0>: Analog Select Between Analog or Digital Function on Pins GP4, GP2, GP1, GP0, respectively. 1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). 0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or special function. Note 1: Setting a pin to an analog input automatically disables the digital input circuitry, weak pull-ups, and interrupt-onchange if available. The corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to allow external control of the voltage on the pin. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 46  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 5-5: WPU: WEAK PULL-UP GPIO REGISTER U-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 — — WPU5 WPU4 — WPU2 WPU1 WPU0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-4 WPU<5:4>: Weak Pull-up Control bits 1 = Pull-up enabled 0 = Pull-up disabled bit 3 WPU<3>: Weak Pull-up Register bit(3) bit 2-0 WPU<2:0>: Weak Pull-up Control bits 1 = Pull-up enabled 0 = Pull-up disabled Note 1: Global GPPU must be enabled for individual pull-ups to be enabled. 2: The weak pull-up device is automatically disabled if the pin is in Output mode (TRISIO = 0). 3: The GP3 pull-up is enabled when configured as MCLR in the Configuration Word, otherwise it is disabled as an input and reads as ‘0’. 4: WPU<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes. REGISTER 5-6: IOC: INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE GPIO REGISTER U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — IOC5 IOC4 IOC3 IOC2 IOC1 IOC0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-0 IOC<5:0>: Interrupt-on-change GPIO Control bit 1 = Interrupt-on-change enabled 0 = Interrupt-on-change disabled Note 1: Global Interrupt Enable (GIE) must be enabled for individual interrupts to be recognized. 2: IOC<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 47 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 5.2.4 PIN DESCRIPTIONS AND DIAGRAMS Each GPIO pin is multiplexed with other functions. The pins and their combined functions are briefly described here. For specific information about individual functions such as the Comparator or the ADC, refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet. 5.2.4.1 GP0/AN0(1)/CIN+/P1B(1)/ICSPDAT Figure 5-1 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP0 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose I/O • an analog input for the ADC(1) • an analog non-inverting input to the comparator • a PWM output(1) • In-Circuit Serial Programming data 5.2.4.2 GP1/AN1(1)/CIN0-/VREF(1)/ICSPCLK Figure 5-1 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP1 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose I/O • an analog input for the ADC(1) • an analog inverting input to the comparator • a voltage reference input for the ADC(1) • In-Circuit Serial Programming clock FIGURE 5-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GP<1:0> Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. VDD VSS D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q VDD D EN Q D EN Q Weak RD GPIO RD WR WR RD WR IOC RD IOC Interrupt-on- To Comparator Analog(1) Input Mode GPPU Analog(1) Input Mode Change Q1 WR RD WPU Data Bus WPU GPIO TRISIO TRISIO GPIO Note 1: Comparator mode and ANSEL determines Analog Input mode. 2: Set has priority over Reset. 3: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. To A/D Converter(3) I/O Pin S(2) R Q From other GP<5:0> pins (GP0) Write ‘0’ to GBIF GP<5:2, 0> pins (GP1) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 48  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.4.3 GP2/AN2(1)/T0CKI/INT/COUT/ CCP1(1)/P1A(1) Figure 5-2 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP2 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose I/O • an analog input for the ADC(1) • the clock input for TMR0 • an external edge triggered interrupt • a digital output from Comparator • a Capture input/Compare input/PWM output(1) • a PWM output(1) FIGURE 5-2: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GP2 Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. VDD VSS D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q VDD D EN Q D EN Q Weak RD GPIO RD WR WR RD WR IOC RD IOC Interrupt-on- To INT Analog(1) Input Mode GPPU Analog(1) Input Mode Change Q1 WR RD WPU Data Bus WPU GPIO TRISIO TRISIO GPIO Note 1: Comparator mode and ANSEL determines Analog Input mode. 2: Set has priority over Reset. 3: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. To A/D Converter(3) I/O Pin S(2) R Q From other GP<5:3, 1:0> pins Write ‘0’ to GBIF 0 C1OE 1 C1OE Enable To Timer0  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 49 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 5.2.4.4 GP3/T1G(1, 2)/MCLR/VPP Figure 5-3 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP3 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose input • a Timer1 gate (count enable), alternate pin(1, 2) • as Master Clear Reset with weak pull-up FIGURE 5-3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GP3 Note 1: Alternate pin function. 2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. VSS D CK Q Q D EN Q Data Bus RD GPIO RD GPIO WR IOC RD IOC Reset MCLRE RD TRISIO VSS D EN Q MCLRE VDD MCLRE Weak Q1 Input Pin Interrupt-on- Change S(1) R Q From other Write ‘0’ to GBIF Note 1: Set has priority over Reset GP<5:4, 2:0> pins PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 50  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.4.5 GP4/AN3(2)/CIN1-/T1G/ P1B(1, 2)/OSC2/CLKOUT Figure 5-4 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP4 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose I/O • an analog input for the ADC(2) • Comparator inverting input • a Timer1 gate (count enable) • PWM output, alternate pin(1, 2) • a crystal/resonator connection • a clock output FIGURE 5-4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GP4 Note 1: Alternate pin function. 2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. VDD VSS D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q VDD D EN Q D EN Q Weak Analog Input Mode Data Bus WR WPU RD WPU RD GPIO WR GPIO WR TRISIO RD TRISIO WR IOC RD IOC FOSC/4 To A/D Converter(5) Oscillator Circuit OSC1 CLKOUT 0 1 CLKOUT Enable Enable Analog(3) Input Mode GPPU RD GPIO To T1G INTOSC/ RC/EC(2) CLK(1) Modes CLKOUT Enable Note 1: CLK modes are XT, HS, LP, TMR1 LP and CLKOUT Enable. 2: With CLKOUT option. 3: Analog Input mode comes from ANSEL. 4: Set has priority over Reset. 5: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. Q1 I/O Pin Interrupt-on- Change S(4) R Q From other Write ‘0’ to GBIF GP<5, 3:0> pins  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 51 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 5.2.4.6 GP5/T1CKI/P1A(1, 2)/OSC1/CLKIN Figure 5-5 shows the diagram for this pin. The GP5 pin is configurable to function as one of the following: • a general purpose I/O • a Timer1 clock input • PWM output, alternate pin(1, 2) • a crystal/resonator connection • a clock input FIGURE 5-5: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GP5 Note 1: Alternate pin function. 2: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. VDD VSS D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q D CK Q Q VDD D EN Q D EN Q Weak Data Bus WR WPU RD WPU RD GPIO WR GPIO WR TRISIO RD TRISIO WR IOC RD IOC To Timer1 INTOSC Mode RD GPIO INTOSC Mode GPPU OSC2 Note 1: Timer1 LP Oscillator enabled. 2: Set has priority over Reset. TMR1LPEN(1) Oscillator Circuit Q1 I/O Pin Interrupt-on- Change S(2) R Q From other GP<4:0> pins Write ‘0’ to GBIF PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 52  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 5-1: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH GPIO Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets ANSEL — ADCS2(1) ADCS1(1) ADCS0(1) ANS3 ANS2(1) ANS1 ANS0 -000 1111 -000 1111 CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -0-0 0000 -0-0 INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 IOC — — IOC5 IOC4 IOC3 IOC2 IOC1 IOC0 --00 0000 --00 0000 OPTION_REG GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 GPIO — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 --xx xxxx --u0 u000 TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 WPU — — WPU5 WPU4 WPU3 WPU2 WPU1 WPU0 --11 1111 --11 -111 T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE TICKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CCP1CON(1) P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 APFCON(1) — — — T1GSEL — — P1BSEL P1ASEL ---0 --00 ---0 --00 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by GPIO. Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 53 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 6.0 TIMER0 MODULE The Timer0 module is an 8-bit timer/counter with the following features: • 8-bit timer/counter register (TMR0) • 8-bit prescaler (shared with Watchdog Timer) • Programmable internal or external clock source • Programmable external clock edge selection • Interrupt on overflow Figure 6-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module. 6.1 Timer0 Operation When used as a timer, the Timer0 module can be used as either an 8-bit timer or an 8-bit counter. 6.1.1 8-BIT TIMER MODE When used as a timer, the Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). Timer mode is selected by clearing the T0CS bit of the OPTION register to ‘0’. When TMR0 is written, the increment is inhibited for two instruction cycles immediately following the write. 6.1.2 8-BIT COUNTER MODE When used as a counter, the Timer0 module will increment on every rising or falling edge of the T0CKI pin. The incrementing edge is determined by the T0SE bit of the OPTION register. Counter mode is selected by setting the T0CS bit of the OPTION register to ‘1’. FIGURE 6-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER Note: The value written to the TMR0 register can be adjusted, in order to account for the two instruction cycle delay when TMR0 is written. T0CKI T0SE pin TMR0 Watchdog Timer WDT Time-out PS<2:0> WDTE Data Bus Set Flag bit T0IF on Overflow T0CS Note 1: T0SE, T0CS, PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register. 2: WDTE bit is in the Configuration Word register. 0 1 0 1 0 1 8 8 8-bit Prescaler 0 1 FOSC/4 PSA PSA PSA Sync 2 TCY PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 54  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.1.3 SOFTWARE PROGRAMMABLE PRESCALER A single software programmable prescaler is available for use with either Timer0 or the Watchdog Timer (WDT), but not both simultaneously. The prescaler assignment is controlled by the PSA bit of the OPTION register. To assign the prescaler to Timer0, the PSA bit must be cleared to a ‘0’. There are 8 prescaler options for the Timer0 module ranging from 1:2 to 1:256. The prescale values are selectable via the PS<2:0> bits of the OPTION register. In order to have a 1:1 prescaler value for the Timer0 module, the prescaler must be assigned to the WDT module. The prescaler is not readable or writable. When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to the TMR0 register will clear the prescaler. When the prescaler is assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler along with the WDT. 6.1.3.1 Switching Prescaler Between Timer0 and WDT Modules As a result of having the prescaler assigned to either Timer0 or the WDT, it is possible to generate an unintended device Reset when switching prescaler values. When changing the prescaler assignment from Timer0 to the WDT module, the instruction sequence shown in Example 6-1, must be executed. EXAMPLE 6-1: CHANGING PRESCALER (TIMER0  WDT) When changing the prescaler assignment from the WDT to the Timer0 module, the following instruction sequence must be executed (see Example 6-2). EXAMPLE 6-2: CHANGING PRESCALER (WDT  TIMER0) 6.1.4 TIMER0 INTERRUPT Timer0 will generate an interrupt when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. The T0IF interrupt flag bit of the INTCON register is set every time the TMR0 register overflows, regardless of whether or not the Timer0 interrupt is enabled. The T0IF bit must be cleared in software. The Timer0 interrupt enable is the T0IE bit of the INTCON register. 6.1.5 USING TIMER0 WITH AN EXTERNAL CLOCK When Timer0 is in Counter mode, the synchronization of the T0CKI input and the Timer0 register is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, the high and low periods of the external clock source must meet the timing requirements as shown in Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”. BANKSEL TMR0 ; CLRWDT ;Clear WDT CLRF TMR0 ;Clear TMR0 and ;prescaler BANKSEL OPTION_REG ; BSF OPTION_REG,PSA ;Select WDT CLRWDT ; ; MOVLW b’11111000’ ;Mask prescaler ANDWF OPTION_REG,W ;bits IORLW b’00000101’ ;Set WDT prescaler MOVWF OPTION_REG ;to 1:32 Note: The Timer0 interrupt cannot wake the processor from Sleep since the timer is frozen during Sleep. CLRWDT ;Clear WDT and ;prescaler BANKSEL OPTION_REG ; MOVLW b’11110000’ ;Mask TMR0 select and ANDWF OPTION_REG,W ;prescaler bits IORLW b’00000011’ ;Set prescale to 1:16 MOVWF OPTION_REG ;  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 55 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 6-1: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0 REGISTER 6-1: OPTION_REG: OPTION REGISTER R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GPPU: GPIO Pull-up Enable bit 1 = GPIO pull-ups are disabled 0 = GPIO pull-ups are enabled by individual PORT latch values in WPU register bit 6 INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge of INT pin 0 = Interrupt on falling edge of INT pin bit 5 T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit 1 = Transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (FOSC/4) bit 4 T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit 1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin bit 3 PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit 1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT 0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module bit 2-0 PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 1 : 2 1 : 4 1 : 8 1 : 16 1 : 32 1 : 64 1 : 128 1 : 256 1 : 1 1 : 2 1 : 4 1 : 8 1 : 16 1 : 32 1 : 64 1 : 128 BIT VALUE TMR0 RATE WDT RATE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets TMR0 Timer0 Module Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 000x 0000 000x OPTION_REG GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 Legend: – = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer0 module. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 56  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 57 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 7.0 TIMER1 MODULE WITH GATE CONTROL The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter with the following features: • 16-bit timer/counter register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) • Programmable internal or external clock source • 3-bit prescaler • Optional LP oscillator • Synchronous or asynchronous operation • Timer1 gate (count enable) via comparator or T1G pin • Interrupt on overflow • Wake-up on overflow (external clock, Asynchronous mode only) • Time base for the Capture/Compare function • Special Event Trigger (with ECCP) • Comparator output synchronization to Timer1 clock Figure 7-1 is a block diagram of the Timer1 module. 7.1 Timer1 Operation The Timer1 module is a 16-bit incrementing counter which is accessed through the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. Writes to TMR1H or TMR1L directly update the counter. When used with an internal clock source, the module is a timer. When used with an external clock source, the module can be used as either a timer or counter. 7.2 Clock Source Selection The TMR1CS bit of the T1CON register is used to select the clock source. When TMR1CS = 0, the clock source is FOSC/4. When TMR1CS = 1, the clock source is supplied externally. Clock Source TMR1CS T1ACS FOSC/4 0 0 FOSC 0 1 T1CKI pin 1 x PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 58  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 7-1: TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM TMR1H TMR1L Oscillator T1SYNC T1CKPS<1:0> FOSC/4 Internal Clock Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 1 0 0 1 Synchronized clock input 2 Set flag bit TMR1IF on Overflow TMR1(2) TMR1GE TMR1ON T1OSCEN 1 COUT 0 T1GSS T1GINV To Comparator Module Timer1 Clock TMR1CS OSC2/T1G OSC1/T1CKI Note 1: ST Buffer is low power type when using LP oscillator, or high speed type when using T1CKI. 2: Timer1 register increments on rising edge. 3: Synchronize does not operate while in Sleep. 4: Alternate pin function. 5: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. (1) EN INTOSC Without CLKOUT 1 0 T1ACS FOSC 0 1 T1GSEL(2) GP3/T1G(4, 5) Synchronize(3) det  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 59 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 7.2.1 INTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE When the internal clock source is selected, the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair will increment on multiples of TCY as determined by the Timer1 prescaler. 7.2.2 EXTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE When the external clock source is selected, the Timer1 module may work as a timer or a counter. When counting, Timer1 is incremented on the rising edge of the external clock input T1CKI. In addition, the Counter mode clock can be synchronized to the microcontroller system clock or run asynchronously. If an external clock oscillator is needed (and the microcontroller is using the INTOSC without CLKOUT), Timer1 can use the LP oscillator as a clock source. In Counter mode, a falling edge must be registered by the counter prior to the first incrementing rising edge after one or more of the following conditions: • Timer1 is enabled after POR or BOR Reset • A write to TMR1H or TMR1L • T1CKI is high when Timer1 is disabled and when Timer1 is re-enabled T1CKI is low. See Figure 7-2. 7.3 Timer1 Prescaler Timer1 has four prescaler options allowing 1, 2, 4 or 8 divisions of the clock input. The T1CKPS bits of the T1CON register control the prescale counter. The prescale counter is not directly readable or writable; however, the prescaler counter is cleared upon a write to TMR1H or TMR1L. 7.4 Timer1 Oscillator A low-power 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator is built-in between pins OSC1 (input) and OSC2 (output). The oscillator is enabled by setting the T1OSCEN control bit of the T1CON register. The oscillator will continue to run during Sleep. The Timer1 oscillator is shared with the system LP oscillator. Thus, Timer1 can use this mode only when the primary system clock is derived from the internal oscillator or when in LP oscillator mode. The user must provide a software time delay to ensure proper oscillator start-up. TRISIO5 and TRISIO4 bits are set when the Timer1 oscillator is enabled. GP5 and GP4 bits read as ‘0’ and TRISIO5 and TRISIO4 bits read as ‘1’. 7.5 Timer1 Operation in Asynchronous Counter Mode If control bit T1SYNC of the T1CON register is set, the external clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks. The timer will continue to run during Sleep and can generate an interrupt on overflow, which will wake-up the processor. However, special precautions in software are needed to read/write the timer (see Section 7.5.1 “Reading and Writing Timer1 in Asynchronous Counter Mode”). 7.5.1 READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER MODE Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running from an external asynchronous clock will ensure a valid read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two 8-bit values itself poses certain problems, since the timer may overflow between the reads. For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop the timer and write the desired values. A write contention may occur by writing to the timer registers, while the register is incrementing. This may produce an unpredictable value in the TMR1H:TTMR1L register pair. Note: The oscillator requires a start-up and stabilization time before use. Thus, T1OSCEN should be set and a suitable delay observed prior to enabling Timer1. Note: When switching from synchronous to asynchronous operation, it is possible to skip an increment. When switching from asynchronous to synchronous operation, it is possible to produce a single spurious increment. Note: In asynchronous counter mode or when using the internal oscillator and T1ACS=1, Timer1 can not be used as a time base for the capture or compare modes of the ECCP module (for PIC12F615/617/ HV615 only). PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 60  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 7.6 Timer1 Gate Timer1 gate source is software configurable to be the T1G pin (or the alternate T1G pin) or the output of the Comparator. This allows the device to directly time external events using T1G or analog events using the Comparator. See the CMCON1 Register (Register 9-2) for selecting the Timer1 gate source. This feature can simplify the software for a Delta-Sigma A/D converter and many other applications. For more information on Delta-Sigma A/D converters, see the Microchip web site (www.microchip.com). Timer1 gate can be inverted using the T1GINV bit of the T1CON register, whether it originates from the T1G pin or the Comparator output. This configures Timer1 to measure either the active-high or active-low time between events. 7.7 Timer1 Interrupt The Timer1 register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. When Timer1 rolls over, the Timer1 interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register is set. To enable the interrupt on rollover, you must set these bits: • Timer1 interrupt enable bit of the PIE1 register • PEIE bit of the INTCON register • GIE bit of the INTCON register The interrupt is cleared by clearing the TMR1IF bit in the Interrupt Service Routine. 7.8 Timer1 Operation During Sleep Timer1 can only operate during Sleep when setup in Asynchronous Counter mode. In this mode, an external crystal or clock source can be used to increment the counter. To set up the timer to wake the device: • TMR1ON bit of the T1CON register must be set • TMR1IE bit of the PIE1 register must be set • PEIE bit of the INTCON register must be set The device will wake-up on an overflow and execute the next instruction. If the GIE bit of the INTCON register is set, the device will call the Interrupt Service Routine (0004h). 7.9 ECCP Capture/Compare Time Base (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) The ECCP module uses the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair as the time base when operating in Capture or Compare mode. In Capture mode, the value in the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair is copied into the CCPR1H:CCPR1L register pair on a configured event. In Compare mode, an event is triggered when the value CCPR1H:CCPR1L register pair matches the value in the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. This event can be a Special Event Trigger. For more information, see Section 11.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band) Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only)”. Note: TMR1GE bit of the T1CON register must be set to use either T1G or COUT as the Timer1 gate source. See Register 9-2 for more information on selecting the Timer1 gate source. Note: The TMR1H:TTMR1L register pair and the TMR1IF bit should be cleared before enabling interrupts.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 61 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 7.10 ECCP Special Event Trigger (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) If a ECCP is configured to trigger a special event, the trigger will clear the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. This special event does not cause a Timer1 interrupt. The ECCP module may still be configured to generate a ECCP interrupt. In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L register pair effectively becomes the period register for Timer1. Timer1 should be synchronized to the FOSC to utilize the Special Event Trigger. Asynchronous operation of Timer1 can cause a Special Event Trigger to be missed. In the event that a write to TMR1H or TMR1L coincides with a Special Event Trigger from the ECCP, the write will take precedence. For more information, see Section 11.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band) Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only)”. 7.11 Comparator Synchronization The same clock used to increment Timer1 can also be used to synchronize the comparator output. This feature is enabled in the Comparator module. When using the comparator for Timer1 gate, the comparator output should be synchronized to Timer1. This ensures Timer1 does not miss an increment if the comparator changes. For more information, see Section 9.0 “Comparator Module”. FIGURE 7-2: TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE T1CKI = 1 when TMR1 Enabled T1CKI = 0 when TMR1 Enabled Note 1: Arrows indicate counter increments. 2: In Counter mode, a falling edge must be registered by the counter prior to the first incrementing rising edge of the clock. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 62  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 7.12 Timer1 Control Register The Timer1 Control register (T1CON), shown in Register 7-1, is used to control Timer1 and select the various features of the Timer1 module. REGISTER 7-1: T1CON: TIMER 1 CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 T1GINV(1) TMR1GE(2) T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 T1GINV: Timer1 Gate Invert bit(1) 1 = Timer1 gate is active-high (Timer1 counts when gate is high) 0 = Timer1 gate is active-low (Timer1 counts when gate is low) bit 6 TMR1GE: Timer1 Gate Enable bit(2) If TMR1ON = 0: This bit is ignored If TMR1ON = 1: 1 = Timer1 is on if Timer1 gate is active 0 = Timer1 is on bit 5-4 T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits 11 = 1:8 Prescale Value 10 = 1:4 Prescale Value 01 = 1:2 Prescale Value 00 = 1:1 Prescale Value bit 3 T1OSCEN: LP Oscillator Enable Control bit If INTOSC without CLKOUT oscillator is active: 1 = LP oscillator is enabled for Timer1 clock 0 = LP oscillator is off For all other system clock modes: This bit is ignored. LP oscillator is disabled. bit 2 T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit TMR1CS = 1: 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input 0 = Synchronize external clock input TMR1CS = 0: This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock bit 1 TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock from T1CKI pin (on the rising edge) 0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4) or system clock (FOSC)(3) bit 0 TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit 1 = Enables Timer1 0 = Stops Timer1 Note 1: T1GINV bit inverts the Timer1 gate logic, regardless of source. 2: TMR1GE bit must be set to use either T1G pin or COUT, as selected by the T1GSS bit of the CMCON1 register, as a Timer1 gate source. 3: See T1ACS bit in CMCON1 register.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 63 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 7-1: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets APFCON(1) — — — T1GSEL — — P1BSEL P1ASEL ---0 --00 ---0 --00 CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -0-0 0000 -0-0 CMCON1 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC ---0 0-10 ---0 0-10 INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 000x 0000 000x PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module. Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 64  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 65 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 8.0 TIMER2 MODULE (PIC12F615/617/HV615 ONLY) The Timer2 module is an 8-bit timer with the following features: • 8-bit timer register (TMR2) • 8-bit period register (PR2) • Interrupt on TMR2 match with PR2 • Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16) • Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16) See Figure 8-1 for a block diagram of Timer2. 8.1 Timer2 Operation The clock input to the Timer2 module is the system instruction clock (FOSC/4). The clock is fed into the Timer2 prescaler, which has prescale options of 1:1, 1:4 or 1:16. The output of the prescaler is then used to increment the TMR2 register. The values of TMR2 and PR2 are constantly compared to determine when they match. TMR2 will increment from 00h until it matches the value in PR2. When a match occurs, two things happen: • TMR2 is reset to 00h on the next increment cycle. • The Timer2 postscaler is incremented The match output of the Timer2/PR2 comparator is then fed into the Timer2 postscaler. The postscaler has postscale options of 1:1 to 1:16 inclusive. The output of the Timer2 postscaler is used to set the TMR2IF interrupt flag bit in the PIR1 register. The TMR2 and PR2 registers are both fully readable and writable. On any Reset, the TMR2 register is set to 00h and the PR2 register is set to FFh. Timer2 is turned on by setting the TMR2ON bit in the T2CON register to a ‘1’. Timer2 is turned off by clearing the TMR2ON bit to a ‘0’. The Timer2 prescaler is controlled by the T2CKPS bits in the T2CON register. The Timer2 postscaler is controlled by the TOUTPS bits in the T2CON register. The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared when: • A write to TMR2 occurs. • A write to T2CON occurs. • Any device Reset occurs (Power-on Reset, MCLR Reset, Watchdog Timer Reset, or Brown-out Reset). FIGURE 8-1: TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM Note: TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written. Comparator TMR2 Sets Flag TMR2 Output Reset Postscaler Prescaler PR2 2 FOSC/4 1:1 to 1:16 1:1, 1:4, 1:16 EQ 4 bit TMR2IF TOUTPS<3:0> T2CKPS<1:0> PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 66  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 8-1: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 REGISTER 8-1: T2CON: TIMER 2 CONTROL REGISTER U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6-3 TOUTPS<3:0>: Timer2 Output Postscaler Select bits 0000 =1:1 Postscaler 0001 =1:2 Postscaler 0010 =1:3 Postscaler 0011 =1:4 Postscaler 0100 =1:5 Postscaler 0101 =1:6 Postscaler 0110 =1:7 Postscaler 0111 =1:8 Postscaler 1000 =1:9 Postscaler 1001 =1:10 Postscaler 1010 =1:11 Postscaler 1011 =1:12 Postscaler 1100 =1:13 Postscaler 1101 =1:14 Postscaler 1110 =1:15 Postscaler 1111 =1:16 Postscaler bit 2 TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit 1 = Timer2 is on 0 = Timer2 is off bit 1-0 T2CKPS<1:0>: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits 00 =Prescaler is 1 01 =Prescaler is 4 1x =Prescaler is 16 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PR2(1) Timer2 Module Period Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 TMR2(1) Holding Register for the 8-bit TMR2 Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 T2CON(1) — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for Timer2 module. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 67 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 9.0 COMPARATOR MODULE The comparator can be used to interface analog circuits to a digital circuit by comparing two analog voltages and providing a digital indication of their relative magnitudes. The comparator is a very useful mixed signal building block because it provides analog functionality independent of the program execution. The Analog Comparator module includes the following features: • Programmable input section • Comparator output is available internally/externally • Programmable output polarity • Interrupt-on-change • Wake-up from Sleep • PWM shutdown • Timer1 gate (count enable) • Output synchronization to Timer1 clock input • Programmable voltage reference • User-enable Comparator Hysteresis 9.1 Comparator Overview The comparator is shown in Figure 9-1 along with the relationship between the analog input levels and the digital output. When the analog voltage at VIN+ is less than the analog voltage at VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital low level. When the analog voltage at VIN+ is greater than the analog voltage at VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital high level. FIGURE 9-1:SINGLE COMPARATOR FIGURE 9-2: COMPARATOR SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM – VIN+ + VINOutput Output VIN+ VINNote: The black areas of the output of the comparator represents the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time. CMOE MUX CMPOL 0 1 CMON(1) CMCH From Timer1 Clock Note 1: When CMON = 0, the comparator will produce a ‘0’ output to the XOR Gate. 2: Q1 and Q3 are phases of the four-phase system clock (FOSC). 3: Q1 is held high during Sleep mode. 4: Output shown for reference only. See I/O port pin diagram for more details. D Q EN D Q EN CL D Q RD_CMCON0 Q3*RD_CMCON0 Q1 Set CMIF To Reset CMVINCMVIN+ GP1/CIN0- GP4/CIN1- 0 1 CMSYNC CMPOL Data Bus MUX COUT(4) To PWM Auto-Shutdown To Timer1 Gate 0 1 CMR MUX GP0/CIN+ 0 1 MUX CVREF CMVREN FixedRef CMVREF SYNCCMOUT PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 68  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.2 Analog Input Connection Considerations A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in Figure 9-3. Since the analog input pins share their connection with a digital input, they have reverse biased ESD protection diodes to VDD and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the diodes is forward biased and a latch-up may occur. A maximum source impedance of 10 k is recommended for the analog sources. Also, any external component connected to an analog input pin, such as a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little leakage current to minimize inaccuracies introduced. FIGURE 9-3: ANALOG INPUT MODEL Note 1: When reading a GPIO register, all pins configured as analog inputs will read as a ‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will convert as an analog input, according to the input specification. 2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a digital input, may cause the input buffer to consume more current than is specified. VA RS < 10K CPIN 5 pF VDD VT  0.6V VT  0.6V RIC ILEAKAGE ±500 nA VSS AIN Legend: CPIN = Input Capacitance ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions RIC = Interconnect Resistance RS = Source Impedance VA = Analog Voltage VT = Threshold Voltage To Comparator  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 69 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 9.3 Comparator Control The comparator has two control and Configuration registers: CMCON0 and CMCON1. The CMCON1 register is used for controlling the interaction with Timer1 and simultaneously reading the comparator output. The CMCON0 register (Register 9-1) contain the control and Status bits for the following: • Enable • Input selection • Reference selection • Output selection • Output polarity 9.3.1 COMPARATOR ENABLE Setting the CMON bit of the CMCON0 register enables the comparator for operation. Clearing the CMON bit disables the comparator for minimum current consumption. 9.3.2 COMPARATOR INPUT SELECTION The CMCH bit of the CMCON0 register directs one of four analog input pins to the comparator inverting input. 9.3.3 COMPARATOR REFERENCE SELECTION Setting the CMR bit of the CMxCON0 register directs an internal voltage reference or an analog input pin to the non-inverting input of the comparator. See Section 9.10 “Comparator Voltage Reference” for more information on the internal voltage reference module. 9.3.4 COMPARATOR OUTPUT SELECTION The output of the comparator can be monitored by reading either the COUT bit of the CMCON0 register. In order to make the output available for an external connection, the following conditions must be true: • CMOE bit of the CMxCON0 register must be set • Corresponding TRIS bit must be cleared • CMON bit of the CMCON0 register must be set. 9.3.5 COMPARATOR OUTPUT POLARITY Inverting the output of the comparator is functionally equivalent to swapping the comparator inputs. The polarity of the comparator output can be inverted by setting the CMPOL bit of the CMCON0 register. Clearing CMPOL results in a non-inverted output. A complete table showing the output state versus input conditions and the polarity bit is shown in Table 9-1. TABLE 9-1: OUTPUT STATE VS. INPUT CONDITIONS 9.4 Comparator Response Time The comparator output is indeterminate for a period of time after the change of an input source or the selection of a new reference voltage. This period is referred to as the response time. The response time of the comparator differs from the settling time of the voltage reference. Therefore, both of these times must be considered when determining the total response time to a comparator input change. See Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more details. Note: To use CIN+ and CIN- pins as analog inputs, the appropriate bits must be set in the ANSEL register and the corresponding TRIS bits must also be set to disable the output drivers. Note 1: The CMOE bit overrides the PORT data latch. Setting the CMON has no impact on the port override. 2: The internal output of the comparator is latched with each instruction cycle. Unless otherwise specified, external outputs are not latched. Input Conditions CMPOL COUT CMVIN- > CMVIN+ 0 0 CMVIN- < CMVIN+ 0 1 CMVIN- > CMVIN+ 1 1 CMVIN- < CMVIN+ 1 0 Note: COUT refers to both the register bit and output pin. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 70  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.5 Comparator Interrupt Operation The comparator interrupt flag can be set whenever there is a change in the output value of the comparator. Changes are recognized by means of a mismatch circuit which consists of two latches and an exclusiveor gate (see Figure 9-4 and Figure 9-5). One latch is updated with the comparator output level when the CMCON0 register is read. This latch retains the value until the next read of the CMCON0 register or the occurrence of a Reset. The other latch of the mismatch circuit is updated on every Q1 system clock. A mismatch condition will occur when a comparator output change is clocked through the second latch on the Q1 clock cycle. At this point the two mismatch latches have opposite output levels which is detected by the exclusive-or gate and fed to the interrupt circuitry. The mismatch condition persists until either the CMCON0 register is read or the comparator output returns to the previous state. The comparator interrupt is set by the mismatch edge and not the mismatch level. This means that the interrupt flag can be reset without the additional step of reading or writing the CMCON0 register to clear the mismatch registers. When the mismatch registers are cleared, an interrupt will occur upon the comparator’s return to the previous state, otherwise no interrupt will be generated. Software will need to maintain information about the status of the comparator output, as read from the CMCON1 register, to determine the actual change that has occurred. The CMIF bit of the PIR1 register is the Comparator Interrupt flag. This bit must be reset in software by clearing it to ‘0’. Since it is also possible to write a '1' to this register, an interrupt can be generated. The CMIE bit of the PIE1 register and the PEIE and GIE bits of the INTCON register must all be set to enable comparator interrupts. If any of these bits are cleared, the interrupt is not enabled, although the CMIF bit of the PIR1 register will still be set if an interrupt condition occurs. FIGURE 9-4: COMPARATOR INTERRUPT TIMING W/O CMCON0 READ FIGURE 9-5: COMPARATOR INTERRUPT TIMING WITH CMCON0 READ Note 1: A write operation to the CMCON0 register will also clear the mismatch condition because all writes include a read operation at the beginning of the write cycle. 2: Comparator interrupts will operate correctly regardless of the state of CMOE. Note 1: If a change in the CMCON0 register (COUT) should occur when a read operation is being executed (start of the Q2 cycle), then the CMIF of the PIR1 register interrupt flag may not get set. 2: When a comparator is first enabled, bias circuitry in the comparator module may cause an invalid output from the comparator until the bias circuitry is stable. Allow about 1 s for bias settling then clear the mismatch condition and interrupt flags before enabling comparator interrupts. Q1 Q3 CIN+ COUT Set CMIF (edge) CMIF TRT reset by software Q1 Q3 CIN+ COUT Set CMIF (edge) CMIF TRT cleared by CMCON0 read reset by software  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 71 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 9.6 Operation During Sleep The comparator, if enabled before entering Sleep mode, remains active during Sleep. The additional current consumed by the comparator is shown separately in the Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”. If the comparator is not used to wake the device, power consumption can be minimized while in Sleep mode by turning off the comparator. The comparator is turned off by clearing the CMON bit of the CMCON0 register. A change to the comparator output can wake-up the device from Sleep. To enable the comparator to wake the device from Sleep, the CMIE bit of the PIE1 register and the PEIE bit of the INTCON register must be set. The instruction following the SLEEP instruction always executes following a wake from Sleep. If the GIE bit of the INTCON register is also set, the device will then execute the Interrupt Service Routine. 9.7 Effects of a Reset A device Reset forces the CMCON1 register to its Reset state. This sets the comparator and the voltage reference to the OFF state. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 72  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 9-1: CMCON0: COMPARATOR CONTROL REGISTER 0 R/W-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 CMON: Comparator Enable bit 1 = Comparator is enabled 0 = Comparator is disabled bit 6 COUT: Comparator Output bit If C1POL = 1 (inverted polarity): COUT = 0 when CMVIN+ > CMVINCOUT = 1 when CMVIN+ < CMVINIf C1POL = 0 (non-inverted polarity): COUT = 1 when CMVIN+ > CMVINCOUT = 0 when CMVIN+ < CMVINbit 5 CMOE: Comparator Output Enable bit 1 = COUT is present on the COUT pin(1) 0 = COUT is internal only bit 4 CMPOL: Comparator Output Polarity Select bit 1 = COUT logic is inverted 0 = COUT logic is not inverted bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 CMR: Comparator Reference Select bit (non-inverting input) 1 = CMVIN+ connects to CMVREF output 0 = CMVIN+ connects to CIN+ pin bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 0 CMCH: Comparator C1 Channel Select bit 0 = CMVIN- pin of the Comparator connects to CIN0- 1 = CMVIN- pin of the Comparator connects to CIN1- Note 1: Comparator output requires the following three conditions: CMOE = 1, CMON = 1 and corresponding port TRIS bit = 0.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 73 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 9.8 Comparator Gating Timer1 This feature can be used to time the duration or interval of analog events. Clearing the T1GSS bit of the CMCON1 register will enable Timer1 to increment based on the output of the comparator. This requires that Timer1 is on and gating is enabled. See Section 7.0 “Timer1 Module with Gate Control” for details. It is recommended to synchronize the comparator with Timer1 by setting the CMSYNC bit when the comparator is used as the Timer1 gate source. This ensures Timer1 does not miss an increment if the comparator changes during an increment. 9.9 Synchronizing Comparator Output to Timer1 The comparator output can be synchronized with Timer1 by setting the CMSYNC bit of the CMCON1 register. When enabled, the comparator output is latched on the falling edge of the Timer1 clock source. If a prescaler is used with Timer1, the comparator output is latched after the prescaling function. To prevent a race condition, the comparator output is latched on the falling edge of the Timer1 clock source and Timer1 increments on the rising edge of its clock source. See the Comparator Block Diagram (Figure 9- 2) and the Timer1 Block Diagram (Figure 7-1) for more information. REGISTER 9-2: CMCON1: COMPARATOR CONTROL REGISTER 1 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-0 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 T1ACS: Timer1 Alternate Clock Select bit 1 = Timer 1 Clock Source is System Clock (FOSC) 0 = Timer 1 Clock Source is Instruction Clock (FOSC\4) bit 3 CMHYS: Comparator Hysteresis Select bit 1 = Comparator Hysteresis enabled 0 = Comparator Hysteresis disabled bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 T1GSS: Timer1 Gate Source Select bit(1) 1 = Timer 1 Gate Source is T1G pin (pin should be configured as digital input) 0 = Timer 1 Gate Source is comparator output bit 0 CMSYNC: Comparator Output Synchronization bit(2) 1 = Output is synchronized with falling edge of Timer1 clock 0 = Output is asynchronous Note 1: Refer to Section 7.6 “Timer1 Gate”. 2: Refer to Figure 9-2. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 74  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.10 Comparator Voltage Reference The Comparator Voltage Reference module provides an internally generated voltage reference for the comparators. The following features are available: • Independent from Comparator operation • 16-level voltage range • Output clamped to VSS • Ratiometric with VDD • Fixed Reference (0.6) The VRCON register (Register 9-3) controls the Voltage Reference module shown in Register 9-6. 9.10.1 INDEPENDENT OPERATION The comparator voltage reference is independent of the comparator configuration. Setting the VREN bit of the VRCON register will enable the voltage reference. 9.10.2 OUTPUT VOLTAGE SELECTION The CVREF voltage reference has 2 ranges with 16 voltage levels in each range. Range selection is controlled by the VRR bit of the VRCON register. The 16 levels are set with the VR<3:0> bits of the VRCON register. The CVREF output voltage is determined by the following equations: EQUATION 9-1: CVREF OUTPUT VOLTAGE The full range of VSS to VDD cannot be realized due to the construction of the module. See Figure 9-6. 9.10.3 OUTPUT CLAMPED TO VSS The CVREF output voltage can be set to Vss with no power consumption by configuring VRCON as follows: • FVREN = 0 This allows the comparator to detect a zero-crossing while not consuming additional CVREF module current. 9.10.4 OUTPUT RATIOMETRIC TO VDD The comparator voltage reference is VDD derived and therefore, the CVREF output changes with fluctuations in VDD. The tested absolute accuracy of the Comparator Voltage Reference can be found in Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”. 9.10.5 FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE The fixed voltage reference is independent of VDD, with a nominal output voltage of 0.6V. This reference can be enabled by setting the FVREN bit of the VRCON register to ‘1’. This reference is always enabled when the HFINTOSC oscillator is active. 9.10.6 FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE STABILIZATION PERIOD When the Fixed Voltage Reference module is enabled, it will require some time for the reference and its amplifier circuits to stabilize. The user program must include a small delay routine to allow the module to settle. See Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for the minimum delay requirement. 9.10.7 VOLTAGE REFERENCE SELECTION Multiplexers on the output of the Voltage Reference module enable selection of either the CVREF or fixed voltage reference for use by the comparators. Setting the CMVREN bit of the VRCON register enables current to flow in the CVREF voltage divider and selects the CVREF voltage for use by the Comparator. Clearing the CMVREN bit selects the fixed voltage for use by the Comparator. When the CMVREN bit is cleared, current flow in the CVREF voltage divider is disabled minimizing the power drain of the voltage reference peripheral. VRR = 1 (low range): VRR = 0 (high range): CVREF = (VDD/4) + CVREF = (VR<3:0>/24)  VDD (VR<3:0>  VDD/32)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 75 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 9-6: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM 8R VRR VR<3:0>(1) Analog 8R R R R R 16 Stages VDD MUX Fixed Voltage CMVREN CVREF(1) Reference EN FVREN Sleep HFINTOSC enable FixedRef 0.6V To Comparators and ADC Module To Comparators and ADC Module Note 1: Care should be taken to ensure CVREF remains within the comparator common mode input range. See Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more detail. 15 0 4 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 76  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 9-3: VRCON: VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 CMVREN — VRR FVREN VR3 VR2 VR1 VR0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 CMVREN: Comparator Voltage Reference Enable bit(1, 2) 1 = CVREF circuit powered on and routed to CVREF input of the Comparator 0 = 0.6 Volt constant reference routed to CVREF input of the Comparator bit 6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5 VRR: CVREF Range Selection bit 1 = Low range 0 = High range bit 4 FVREN: 0.6V Reference Enable bit(2) 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 3-0 VR<3:0>: Comparator Voltage Reference CVREF Value Selection bits (0  VR<3:0>  15) When VRR = 1: CVREF = (VR<3:0>/24) * VDD When VRR = 0: CVREF = VDD/4 + (VR<3:0>/32) * VDD Note 1: When CMVREN is low, the CVREF circuit is powered down and does not contribute to IDD current. 2: When CMVREN is low and the FVREN bit is low, the CVREF signal should provide Vss to the comparator.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 77 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 9.11 Comparator Hysteresis Each comparator has built-in hysteresis that is user enabled by setting the CMHYS bit of the CMCON1 register. The hysteresis feature can help filter noise and reduce multiple comparator output transitions when the output is changing state. Figure 9-7 shows the relationship between the analog input levels and digital output of a comparator with and without hysteresis. The output of the comparator changes from a low state to a high state only when the analog voltage at VIN+ rises above the upper hysteresis threshold (VH+). The output of the comparator changes from a high state to a low state only when the analog voltage at VIN+ falls below the lower hysteresis threshold (VH-). FIGURE 9-7: COMPARATOR HYSTERESIS – VIN+ + VINOutput Note: The black areas of the comparator output represents the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time. VHVH+ VINV+ VIN+ Output (Without Hysteresis) Output (With Hysteresis) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 78  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 9-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPARATOR AND VOLTAGE REFERENCE MODULES Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets ANSEL — ADCS2(1) ADCS1(1) ADCS0(1) ANS3 ANS2(1) ANS1 ANS0 -000 1111 -000 1111 CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -000 0000 -000 CMCON1 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC 0000 0000 0000 0000 INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 000x 0000 000x PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 GPIO — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 --xx xxxx --uu uuuu TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 VRCON CMVREN — VRR FVREN VR3 VR2 VR1 VR0 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for comparator. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 79 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 10.0 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (ADC) MODULE (PIC12F615/617/HV615 ONLY) The Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) allows conversion of an analog input signal to a 10-bit binary representation of that signal. This device uses analog inputs, which are multiplexed into a single sample and hold circuit. The output of the sample and hold is connected to the input of the converter. The converter generates a 10-bit binary result via successive approximation and stores the conversion result into the ADC result registers (ADRESL and ADRESH). The ADC voltage reference is software selectable to either VDD or a voltage applied to the external reference pins. The ADC can generate an interrupt upon completion of a conversion. This interrupt can be used to wake-up the device from Sleep. Figure 10-1 shows the block diagram of the ADC. FIGURE 10-1: ADC BLOCK DIAGRAM Note: The ADRESL and ADRESH registers are Read Only. GP0/AN0 A/D GP1/AN1/VREF GP2/AN2 CVREF VDD VREF ADON GO/DONE VCFG = 1 VCFG = 0 CHS VSS 0.6V Reference 1.2V Reference GP4/AN3 ADRESH ADRESL 10 10 ADFM 0 = Left Justify 1 = Right Justify 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 80  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.1 ADC Configuration When configuring and using the ADC the following functions must be considered: • Port configuration • Channel selection • ADC voltage reference selection • ADC conversion clock source • Interrupt control • Results formatting 10.1.1 PORT CONFIGURATION The ADC can be used to convert both analog and digital signals. When converting analog signals, the I/O pin should be configured for analog by setting the associated TRIS and ANSEL bits. See the corresponding port section for more information. 10.1.2 CHANNEL SELECTION The CHS bits of the ADCON0 register determine which channel is connected to the sample and hold circuit. When changing channels, a delay is required before starting the next conversion. Refer to Section 10.2 “ADC Operation” for more information. 10.1.3 ADC VOLTAGE REFERENCE The VCFG bit of the ADCON0 register provides control of the positive voltage reference. The positive voltage reference can be either VDD or an external voltage source. The negative voltage reference is always connected to the ground reference. 10.1.4 CONVERSION CLOCK The source of the conversion clock is software selectable via the ADCS bits of the ANSEL register. There are seven possible clock options: • FOSC/2 • FOSC/4 • FOSC/8 • FOSC/16 • FOSC/32 • FOSC/64 • FRC (dedicated internal oscillator) The time to complete one bit conversion is defined as TAD. One full 10-bit conversion requires 11 TAD periods as shown in Figure 10-3. For correct conversion, the appropriate TAD specification must be met. See A/D conversion requirements in Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more information. Table 10-1 gives examples of appropriate ADC clock selections. Note: Analog voltages on any pin that is defined as a digital input may cause the input buffer to conduct excess current. Note: Unless using the FRC, any changes in the system clock frequency will change the ADC clock frequency, which may adversely affect the ADC result.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 81 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 10-1: ADC CLOCK PERIOD (TAD) VS. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES (VDD > 3.0V) FIGURE 10-2: ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION TAD CYCLES 10.1.5 INTERRUPTS The ADC module allows for the ability to generate an interrupt upon completion of an Analog-to-Digital conversion. The ADC interrupt flag is the ADIF bit in the PIR1 register. The ADC interrupt enable is the ADIE bit in the PIE1 register. The ADIF bit must be cleared in software. This interrupt can be generated while the device is operating or while in Sleep. If the device is in Sleep, the interrupt will wake-up the device. Upon waking from Sleep, the next instruction following the SLEEP instruction is always executed. If the user is attempting to wake-up from Sleep and resume in-line code execution, the global interrupt must be disabled. If the global interrupt is enabled, execution will switch to the Interrupt Service Routine. Please see Section 10.1.5 “Interrupts” for more information. ADC Clock Period (TAD) Device Frequency (FOSC) ADC Clock Source ADCS<2:0> 20 MHz 8 MHz 4 MHz 1 MHz FOSC/2 000 100 ns(2) 250 ns(2) 500 ns(2) 2.0 s FOSC/4 100 200 ns(2) 500 ns(2) 1.0 s(2) 4.0 s FOSC/8 001 400 ns(2) 1.0 s(2) 2.0 s 8.0 s(3) FOSC/16 101 800 ns(2) 2.0 s 4.0 s 16.0 s(3) FOSC/32 010 1.6 s 4.0 s 8.0 s(3) 32.0 s(3) FOSC/64 110 3.2 s 8.0 s(3) 16.0 s(3) 64.0 s(3) FRC x11 2-6 s(1,4) 2-6 s(1,4) 2-6 s(1,4) 2-6 s(1,4) Legend: Shaded cells are outside of recommended range. Note 1: The FRC source has a typical TAD time of 4 s for VDD > 3.0V. 2: These values violate the minimum required TAD time. 3: For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended. 4: When the device frequency is greater than 1 MHz, the FRC clock source is only recommended if the conversion will be performed during Sleep. TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 Set GO/DONE bit Holding Capacitor is Disconnected from Analog Input (typically 100 ns) b9 b8 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 TAD10 TAD11 b1 b0 TCY to TAD Conversion Starts ADRESH and ADRESL registers are loaded, GO bit is cleared, ADIF bit is set, Holding capacitor is connected to analog input Note: The ADIF bit is set at the completion of every conversion, regardless of whether or not the ADC interrupt is enabled. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 82  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.1.6 RESULT FORMATTING The 10-bit A/D conversion result can be supplied in two formats, left justified or right justified. The ADFM bit of the ADCON0 register controls the output format. Figure 10-4 shows the two output formats. FIGURE 10-3: 10-BIT A/D CONVERSION RESULT FORMAT 10.2 ADC Operation 10.2.1 STARTING A CONVERSION To enable the ADC module, the ADON bit of the ADCON0 register must be set to a ‘1’. Setting the GO/ DONE bit of the ADCON0 register to a ‘1’ will start the Analog-to-Digital conversion. 10.2.2 COMPLETION OF A CONVERSION When the conversion is complete, the ADC module will: • Clear the GO/DONE bit • Set the ADIF flag bit • Update the ADRESH:ADRESL registers with new conversion result 10.2.3 TERMINATING A CONVERSION If a conversion must be terminated before completion, the GO/DONE bit can be cleared in software. The ADRESH:ADRESL registers will not be updated with the partially complete Analog-to-Digital conversion sample. Instead, the ADRESH:ADRESL register pair will retain the value of the previous conversion. Additionally, a 2 TAD delay is required before another acquisition can be initiated. Following this delay, an input acquisition is automatically started on the selected channel. 10.2.4 ADC OPERATION DURING SLEEP The ADC module can operate during Sleep. This requires the ADC clock source to be set to the FRC option. When the FRC clock source is selected, the ADC waits one additional instruction before starting the conversion. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed, which can reduce system noise during the conversion. If the ADC interrupt is enabled, the device will wake-up from Sleep when the conversion completes. If the ADC interrupt is disabled, the ADC module is turned off after the conversion completes, although the ADON bit remains set. When the ADC clock source is something other than FRC, a SLEEP instruction causes the present conversion to be aborted and the ADC module is turned off, although the ADON bit remains set. 10.2.5 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER The ECCP Special Event Trigger allows periodic ADC measurements without software intervention. When this trigger occurs, the GO/DONE bit is set by hardware and the Timer1 counter resets to zero. Using the Special Event Trigger does not assure proper ADC timing. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the ADC timing requirements are met. See Section 11.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/ PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band) Module (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only)” for more information. ADRESH ADRESL (ADFM = 0) MSB LSB bit 7 bit 0 bit 7 bit 0 10-bit A/D Result Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ (ADFM = 1) MSB LSB bit 7 bit 0 bit 7 bit 0 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ 10-bit A/D Result Note: The GO/DONE bit should not be set in the same instruction that turns on the ADC. Refer to Section 10.2.6 “A/D Conversion Procedure”. Note: A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state. Thus, the ADC module is turned off and any pending conversion is terminated.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 83 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 10.2.6 A/D CONVERSION PROCEDURE This is an example procedure for using the ADC to perform an Analog-to-Digital conversion: 1. Configure Port: • Disable pin output driver (See TRIS register) • Configure pin as analog 2. Configure the ADC module: • Select ADC conversion clock • Configure voltage reference • Select ADC input channel • Select result format • Turn on ADC module 3. Configure ADC interrupt (optional): • Clear ADC interrupt flag • Enable ADC interrupt • Enable peripheral interrupt • Enable global interrupt(1) 4. Wait the required acquisition time(2). 5. Start conversion by setting the GO/DONE bit. 6. Wait for ADC conversion to complete by one of the following: • Polling the GO/DONE bit • Waiting for the ADC interrupt (interrupts enabled) 7. Read ADC Result 8. Clear the ADC interrupt flag (required if interrupt is enabled). EXAMPLE 10-1: A/D CONVERSION Note 1: The global interrupt can be disabled if the user is attempting to wake-up from Sleep and resume in-line code execution. 2: See Section 10.3 “A/D Acquisition Requirements”. ;This code block configures the ADC ;for polling, Vdd reference, Frc clock ;and GP0 input. ; ;Conversion start & polling for completion ; are included. ; BANKSEL TRISIO ; BSF TRISIO,0 ;Set GP0 to input BANKSEL ANSEL ; MOVLW B’01110001’ ;ADC Frc clock, IORWF ANSEL ; and GP0 as analog BANKSEL ADCON0 ; MOVLW B’10000001’ ;Right justify, MOVWF ADCON0 ;Vdd Vref, AN0, On CALL SampleTime ;Acquisiton delay BSF ADCON0,GO ;Start conversion BTFSC ADCON0,GO ;Is conversion done? GOTO $-1 ;No, test again BANKSEL ADRESH ; MOVF ADRESH,W ;Read upper 2 bits MOVWF RESULTHI ;Store in GPR space BANKSEL ADRESL ; MOVF ADRESL,W ;Read lower 8 bits MOVWF RESULTLO ;Store in GPR space PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 84  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.2.7 ADC REGISTER DEFINITIONS The following registers are used to control the operation of the ADC. REGISTER 10-1: ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ADFM VCFG — CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 ADFM: A/D Conversion Result Format Select bit 1 = Right justified 0 = Left justified bit 6 VCFG: Voltage Reference bit 1 = VREF pin 0 = VDD bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-2 CHS<2:0>: Analog Channel Select bits 000 = Channel 00 (AN0) 001 = Channel 01 (AN1) 010 = Channel 02 (AN2) 011 = Channel 03 (AN3) 100 = CVREF 101 = 0.6V Reference 110 = 1.2V Reference 111 = Reserved. Do not use. bit 1 GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit 1 = A/D conversion cycle in progress. Setting this bit starts an A/D conversion cycle. This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion has completed. 0 = A/D conversion completed/not in progress bit 0 ADON: ADC Enable bit 1 = ADC is enabled 0 = ADC is disabled and consumes no operating current Note 1: When the CHS<2:0> bits change to select the 1.2V or 0.6V reference, the reference output voltage will have a transient. If the Comparator module uses this 0.6V reference voltage, the comparator output may momentarily change state due to the transient.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 85 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 REGISTER 10-2: ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 0 (READ-ONLY) R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x ADRES9 ADRES8 ADRES7 ADRES6 ADRES5 ADRES4 ADRES3 ADRES2 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-0 ADRES<9:2>: ADC Result Register bits Upper 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result REGISTER 10-3: ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 0 (READ-ONLY) R-x R-x U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 ADRES1 ADRES0 — — — — — — bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 ADRES<1:0>: ADC Result Register bits Lower 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result bit 5-0 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ REGISTER 10-4: ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 1 (READ-ONLY) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R-x R-x — — — — — — ADRES9 ADRES8 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1-0 ADRES<9:8>: ADC Result Register bits Upper 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result REGISTER 10-5: ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 1 (READ-ONLY) R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x R-x ADRES7 ADRES6 ADRES5 ADRES4 ADRES3 ADRES2 ADRES1 ADRES0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-0 ADRES<7:0>: ADC Result Register bits Lower 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 86  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.3 A/D Acquisition Requirements For the ADC to meet its specified accuracy, the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The Analog Input model is shown in Figure 10-4. The source impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS) impedance directly affect the time required to charge the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD), see Figure 10-4. The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 k. As the source impedance is decreased, the acquisition time may be decreased. After the analog input channel is selected (or changed), an A/D acquisition must be done before the conversion can be started. To calculate the minimum acquisition time, Equation 10-1 may be used. This equation assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the ADC). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the ADC to meet its specified resolution. EQUATION 10-1: ACQUISITION TIME EXAMPLE TACQ Amplifier Settling Time Hold Capacitor Charging = + Time + Temperature Coefficient = TAMP + TC + TCOFF = 2μs + TC + Temperature - 25°C0.05μs/°C TC = –CHOLDRIC + RSS + RS ln(1/2047) = –10pF1k + 7k + 10k ln(0.0004885) = 1.37μs TACQ = 2μs + 1.37μs + 50°C- 25°C0.05μs/°C = 4.67μs VAPPLIED 1 e –Tc -R----C---- –       VAPPLIED 1 1  – -2---0---4---7- =   VAPPLIED 1 1  – -2---0---4---7-   = VCHOLD VAPPLIED 1 e –TC --R----C--- –       = VCHOLD ;[1] VCHOLD charged to within 1/2 lsb ;[2] VCHOLD charge response to VAPPLIED ;combining [1] and [2] The value for TC can be approximated with the following equations: Solving for TC: Therefore: Assumptions: Temperature = 50°C and external impedance of 10k 5.0V VDD Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation, since it cancels itself out. 2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion. 3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 k. This is required to meet the pin leakage specification.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 87 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 10-4: ANALOG INPUT MODEL FIGURE 10-5: ADC TRANSFER FUNCTION VA CPIN Rs ANx 5 pF VDD VT = 0.6V VT = 0.6V I LEAKAGE RIC  1k Sampling Switch SS Rss CHOLD = 10 pF VSS/VREF- 6V Sampling Switch 5V 4V 3V 2V 5 6 7 8 91011 (k) VDD ± 500 nA Legend: CPIN VT I LEAKAGE RIC SS CHOLD = Input Capacitance = Threshold Voltage = Leakage current at the pin due to = Interconnect Resistance = Sampling Switch = Sample/Hold Capacitance various junctions RSS 3FFh 3FEh ADC Output Code 3FDh 3FCh 004h 003h 002h 001h 000h Full-Scale 3FBh 1 LSB ideal VSS/VREF- Zero-Scale Transition VDD/VREF+ Transition 1 LSB ideal Full-Scale Range Analog Input Voltage PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 88  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 10-2: SUMMARY OF ASSOCIATED ADC REGISTERS Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets ADCON0(1) ADFM VCFG — CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 ANSEL — ADCS2(1) ADCS1(1) ADCS0(1) ANS3 ANS2(1) ANS1 ANS0 -000 1111 -000 1111 ADRESH(1,2) A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu ADRESL(1,2) A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu GPIO — — GP5 GP4 GP3 GP2 GP1 GP0 --x0 x000 --x0 x000 INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for ADC module. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. 2: Read Only Register.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 89 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 11.0 ENHANCED CAPTURE/ COMPARE/PWM (WITH AUTOSHUTDOWN AND DEAD BAND) MODULE (PIC12F615/617/ HV615 ONLY) The Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM module is a peripheral which allows the user to time and control different events. In Capture mode, the peripheral allows the timing of the duration of an event.The Compare mode allows the user to trigger an external event when a predetermined amount of time has expired. The PWM mode can generate a Pulse-Width Modulated signal of varying frequency and duty cycle. Table 11-1 shows the timer resources required by the ECCP module. TABLE 11-1: ECCP MODE – TIMER RESOURCES REQUIRED ECCP Mode Timer Resource Capture Timer1 Compare Timer1 PWM Timer2 REGISTER 11-1: CCP1CON: ENHANCED CCP1 CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 P1M: PWM Output Configuration bits If CCP1M<3:2> = 00, 01, 10: x = P1A assigned as Capture/Compare input; P1B assigned as port pins If CCP1M<3:2> = 11: 0 = Single output; P1A modulated; P1B assigned as port pins 1 = Half-Bridge output; P1A, P1B modulated with dead-band control bit 6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-4 DC1B<1:0>: PWM Duty Cycle Least Significant bits Capture mode: Unused. Compare mode: Unused. PWM mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPR1L. bit 3-0 CCP1M<3:0>: ECCP Mode Select bits 0000 =Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets ECCP module) 0001 =Unused (reserved) 0010 =Compare mode, toggle output on match (CCP1IF bit is set) 0011 =Unused (reserved) 0100 =Capture mode, every falling edge 0101 =Capture mode, every rising edge 0110 =Capture mode, every 4th rising edge 0111 =Capture mode, every 16th rising edge 1000 =Compare mode, set output on match (CCP1IF bit is set) 1001 =Compare mode, clear output on match (CCP1IF bit is set) 1010 =Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCP1IF bit is set, CCP1 pin is unaffected) 1011 =Compare mode, trigger special event (CCP1IF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1 or TMR2 and starts an A/D conversion, if the ADC module is enabled) 1100 =PWM mode; P1A active-high; P1B active-high 1101 =PWM mode; P1A active-high; P1B active-low 1110 =PWM mode; P1A active-low; P1B active-high 1111 =PWM mode; P1A active-low; P1B active-low PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 90  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.1 Capture Mode In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs on pin CCP1. An event is defined as one of the following and is configured by the CCP1M<3:0> bits of the CCP1CON register: • Every falling edge • Every rising edge • Every 4th rising edge • Every 16th rising edge When a capture is made, the Interrupt Request Flag bit CCP1IF of the PIR1 register is set. The interrupt flag must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before the value in the CCPR1H, CCPR1L register pair is read, the old captured value is overwritten by the new captured value (see Figure 11-1). 11.1.1 CCP1 PIN CONFIGURATION In Capture mode, the CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the associated TRIS control bit. FIGURE 11-1: CAPTURE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM 11.1.2 TIMER1 MODE SELECTION Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the capture operation may not work. 11.1.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture interrupt may be generated. The user should keep the CCP1IE interrupt enable bit of the PIE1 register clear to avoid false interrupts. Additionally, the user should clear the CCP1IF interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register following any change in operating mode. 11.1.4 CCP PRESCALER There are four prescaler settings specified by the CCP1M<3:0> bits of the CCP1CON register. Whenever the CCP module is turned off, or the CCP module is not in Capture mode, the prescaler counter is cleared. Any Reset will clear the prescaler counter. Switching from one capture prescaler to another does not clear the prescaler and may generate a false interrupt. To avoid this unexpected operation, turn the module off by clearing the CCP1CON register before changing the prescaler (see Example 11-1). EXAMPLE 11-1: CHANGING BETWEEN CAPTURE PRESCALERS Note: If the CCP1 pin is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture condition. CCPR1H CCPR1L TMR1H TMR1L Set Flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1 register) Capture Enable CCP1CON<3:0> Prescaler  1, 4, 16 and Edge Detect pin CCP1 System Clock (FOSC) BANKSEL CCP1CON ;Set Bank bits to point ;to CCP1CON CLRF CCP1CON ;Turn CCP module off MOVLW NEW_CAPT_PS ;Load the W reg with ; the new prescaler ; move value and CCP ON MOVWF CCP1CON ;Load CCP1CON with this ; value  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 91 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 11-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets CCP1CON P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 Legend: - = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Capture. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 92  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.2 Compare Mode In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair value. When a match occurs, the CCP1 module may: • Toggle the CCP1 output. • Set the CCP1 output. • Clear the CCP1 output. • Generate a Special Event Trigger. • Generate a Software Interrupt. The action on the pin is based on the value of the CCP1M<3:0> control bits of the CCP1CON register. All Compare modes can generate an interrupt. FIGURE 11-2: COMPARE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM 11.2.1 CCP1 PIN CONFIGURATION The user must configure the CCP1 pin as an output by clearing the associated TRIS bit. 11.2.2 TIMER1 MODE SELECTION In Compare mode, Timer1 must be running in either Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode. The compare operation may not work in Asynchronous Counter mode. 11.2.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen (CCP1M<3:0> = 1010), the CCP1 module does not assert control of the CCP1 pin (see the CCP1CON register). 11.2.4 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER When Special Event Trigger mode is chosen (CCP1M<3:0> = 1011), the CCP1 module does the following: • Resets Timer1 • Starts an ADC conversion if ADC is enabled The CCP1 module does not assert control of the CCP1 pin in this mode (see the CCP1CON register). The Special Event Trigger output of the CCP occurs immediately upon a match between the TMR1H, TMR1L register pair and the CCPR1H, CCPR1L register pair. The TMR1H, TMR1L register pair is not reset until the next rising edge of the Timer1 clock. This allows the CCPR1H, CCPR1L register pair to effectively provide a 16-bit programmable period register for Timer1. Note: Clearing the CCP1CON register will force the CCP1 compare output latch to the default low level. This is not the PORT I/O data latch. CCPR1H CCPR1L TMR1H TMR1L Comparator Q S R Output Logic Special Event Trigger Set CCP1IF Interrupt Flag (PIR1) Match TRIS CCP1CON<3:0> Mode Select Output Enable Pin Special Event Trigger will: • Clear TMR1H and TMR1L registers. • NOT set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF of the PIR1 register. • Set the GO/DONE bit to start the ADC conversion. CCP1 4 Note 1: The Special Event Trigger from the CCP module does not set interrupt flag bit TMRxIF of the PIR1 register. 2: Removing the match condition by changing the contents of the CCPR1H and CCPR1L register pair, between the clock edge that generates the Special Event Trigger and the clock edge that generates the Timer1 Reset, will preclude the Reset from occurring.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 93 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 11-3: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets CCP1CON P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 T1CON T1GINV TMR1GE T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR2 Timer2 Module Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 Legend: - = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Compare. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 94  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.3 PWM Mode The PWM mode generates a Pulse-Width Modulated signal on the CCP1 pin. The duty cycle, period and resolution are determined by the following registers: • PR2 • T2CON • CCPR1L • CCP1CON In Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCP module produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output on the CCP1 pin. Since the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORT data latch, the TRIS for that pin must be cleared to enable the CCP1 pin output driver. Figure 11-3 shows a simplified block diagram of PWM operation. Figure 11-4 shows a typical waveform of the PWM signal. For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP module for PWM operation, see Section 11.3.7 “Setup for PWM Operation”. FIGURE 11-3: SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK DIAGRAM The PWM output (Figure 11-4) has a time base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). FIGURE 11-4: CCP PWM OUTPUT Note: Clearing the CCP1CON register will relinquish CCP1 control of the CCP1 pin. CCPR1L CCPR1H(2) (Slave) Comparator TMR2 PR2 (1) R Q S Duty Cycle Registers CCP1CON<5:4> Clear Timer2, toggle CCP1 pin and latch duty cycle Note 1: The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. 2: In PWM mode, CCPR1H is a read-only register. TRIS CCP1 Comparator Period Pulse Width TMR2 = 0 TMR2 = CCPRxL:CCPxCON<5:4> TMR2 = PR2  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 95 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 11.3.1 PWM PERIOD The PWM period is specified by the PR2 register of Timer2. The PWM period can be calculated using the formula of Equation 11-1. EQUATION 11-1: PWM PERIOD When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur on the next increment cycle: • TMR2 is cleared • The CCP1 pin is set. (Exception: If the PWM duty cycle = 0%, the pin will not be set.) • The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into CCPR1H. 11.3.2 PWM DUTY CYCLE The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing a 10-bit value to multiple registers: CCPR1L register and DC1B<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register. The CCPR1L contains the eight MSbs and the DC1B<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register contain the two LSbs. CCPR1L and DC1B<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register can be written to at any time. The duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR1H until after the period completes (i.e., a match between PR2 and TMR2 registers occurs). While using the PWM, the CCPR1H register is read-only. Equation 11-2 is used to calculate the PWM pulse width. Equation 11-3 is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle ratio. EQUATION 11-2: PULSE WIDTH EQUATION 11-3: DUTY CYCLE RATIO The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation. The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with either the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. The system clock is used if the Timer2 prescaler is set to 1:1. When the 10-bit time base matches the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch, then the CCP1 pin is cleared (see Figure 11- 3). 11.3.3 PWM RESOLUTION The resolution determines the number of available duty cycles for a given period. For example, a 10-bit resolution will result in 1024 discrete duty cycles, whereas an 8-bit resolution will result in 256 discrete duty cycles. The maximum PWM resolution is 10 bits when PR2 is 255. The resolution is a function of the PR2 register value as shown by Equation 11-4. EQUATION 11-4: PWM RESOLUTION TABLE 11-4: EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 20 MHz) TABLE 11-5: EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 8 MHz) Note: The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 8.1 “Timer2 Operation”) is not used in the determination of the PWM frequency. PWM Period = PR2 + 1  4  TOSC  (TMR2 Prescale Value) Note: If the pulse width value is greater than the period the assigned PWM pin(s) will remain unchanged. Pulse Width = CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>  TOSC  (TMR2 Prescale Value) Duty Cycle Ratio CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4> 4PR2 + 1 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Resolution log4PR2 + 1 log2 = ------------------------------------------ bits PWM Frequency 1.22 kHz 4.88 kHz 19.53 kHz 78.12 kHz 156.3 kHz 208.3 kHz Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16) 16 4 1 1 1 1 PR2 Value 0xFF 0xFF 0xFF 0x3F 0x1F 0x17 Maximum Resolution (bits) 10 10 10 8 7 6.6 PWM Frequency 1.22 kHz 4.90 kHz 19.61 kHz 76.92 kHz 153.85 kHz 200.0 kHz Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16) 16 4 1 1 1 1 PR2 Value 0x65 0x65 0x65 0x19 0x0C 0x09 Maximum Resolution (bits) 8 8 8 6 5 5 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 96  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.3.4 OPERATION IN SLEEP MODE In Sleep mode, the TMR2 register will not increment and the state of the module will not change. If the CCP1 pin is driving a value, it will continue to drive that value. When the device wakes up, TMR2 will continue from its previous state. 11.3.5 CHANGES IN SYSTEM CLOCK FREQUENCY The PWM frequency is derived from the system clock frequency. Any changes in the system clock frequency will result in changes to the PWM frequency. See Section 4.0 “Oscillator Module” for additional details. 11.3.6 EFFECTS OF RESET Any Reset will force all ports to Input mode and the CCP registers to their Reset states. 11.3.7 SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION The following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: 1. Disable the PWM pin (CCP1) output drivers by setting the associated TRIS bit. 2. Set the PWM period by loading the PR2 register. 3. Configure the CCP module for the PWM mode by loading the CCP1CON register with the appropriate values. 4. Set the PWM duty cycle by loading the CCPR1L register and DC1B bits of the CCP1CON register. 5. Configure and start Timer2: • Clear the TMR2IF interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register. • Set the Timer2 prescale value by loading the T2CKPS bits of the T2CON register. • Enable Timer2 by setting the TMR2ON bit of the T2CON register. 6. Enable PWM output after a new PWM cycle has started: • Wait until Timer2 overflows (TMR2IF bit of the PIR1 register is set). • Enable the CCP1 pin output driver by clearing the associated TRIS bit.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 97 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 11.4 PWM (Enhanced Mode) The Enhanced PWM Mode can generate a PWM signal on up to four different output pins with up to 10-bits of resolution. It can do this through four different PWM output modes: • Single PWM • Half-Bridge PWM To select an Enhanced PWM mode, the P1M bits of the CCP1CON register must be set appropriately. The PWM outputs are multiplexed with I/O pins and are designated P1A and P1B. The polarity of the PWM pins is configurable and is selected by setting the CCP1M bits in the CCP1CON register appropriately. Table 11-6 shows the pin assignments for each Enhanced PWM mode. Figure 11-5 shows an example of a simplified block diagram of the Enhanced PWM module. FIGURE 11-5: EXAMPLE SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ENHANCED PWM MODE TABLE 11-6: EXAMPLE PIN ASSIGNMENTS FOR VARIOUS PWM ENHANCED MODES Note: To prevent the generation of an incomplete waveform when the PWM is first enabled, the ECCP module waits until the start of a new PWM period before generating a PWM signal. CCPR1L CCPR1H (Slave) Comparator TMR2 Comparator PR2 (1) R Q S Duty Cycle Registers CCP1<1:0> Clear Timer2, toggle PWM pin and latch duty cycle * Alternate pin function. Note 1: The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler to create the 10-bit time base. TRISIO2 CCP1/P1A Output Controller P1M<1:0> 2 CCP1M<3:0> 4 PWM1CON CCP1/P1A P1B 0 1 TRISIO5 CCP1/P1A* P1ASEL (APFCON<0>) TRISIO0 0 P1B 1 TRISIO4 P1B* P1BSEL (APFCON<1>) Note 1: The TRIS register value for each PWM output must be configured appropriately. 2: Clearing the CCP1CON register will relinquish ECCP control of all PWM output pins. 3: Any pin not used by an Enhanced PWM mode is available for alternate pin functions. ECCP Mode P1M<1:0> CCP1/P1A P1B Single 00 Yes(1) Yes(1) Half-Bridge 10 Yes Yes PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 98  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 11-6: EXAMPLE PWM (ENHANCED MODE) OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-HIGH STATE) FIGURE 11-7: EXAMPLE ENHANCED PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-LOW STATE) 0 Period 00 10 Signal PR2+1 P1M<1:0> P1A Modulated P1A Modulated P1B Modulated P1A Active P1B Inactive P1C Inactive P1D Modulated Pulse Width (Single Output) (Half-Bridge) Delay(1) Delay(1) Relationships: • Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWM1CON<6:0>) Note 1: Dead-band delay is programmed using the PWM1CON register (Section 11.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay mode”). 0 Period 00 10 Signal PR2+1 P1M<1:0> P1A Modulated P1A Modulated P1B Modulated P1A Active P1B Inactive P1C Inactive P1D Modulated Pulse Width (Single Output) (Half-Bridge) Delay(1) Delay(1) Relationships: • Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWM1CON<6:0>) Note 1: Dead-band delay is programmed using the PWM1CON register (Section 11.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay mode”).  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 99 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 11.4.1 HALF-BRIDGE MODE In Half-Bridge mode, two pins are used as outputs to drive push-pull loads. The PWM output signal is output on the CCP1/P1A pin, while the complementary PWM output signal is output on the P1B pin (see Figure 11-8). This mode can be used for Half-Bridge applications, as shown in Figure 11-9, or for Full-Bridge applications, where four power switches are being modulated with two PWM signals. In Half-Bridge mode, the programmable dead-band delay can be used to prevent shoot-through current in Half- Bridge power devices. The value of the PDC<6:0> bits of the PWM1CON register sets the number of instruction cycles before the output is driven active. If the value is greater than the duty cycle, the corresponding output remains inactive during the entire cycle. See Section 11.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay mode” for more details of the dead-band delay operations. Since the P1A and P1B outputs are multiplexed with the PORT data latches, the associated TRIS bits must be cleared to configure P1A and P1B as outputs. FIGURE 11-8: EXAMPLE OF HALFBRIDGE PWM OUTPUT FIGURE 11-9: EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS Period Pulse Width td td (1) P1A(2) P1B(2) td = Dead-Band Delay Period (1) (1) Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register. 2: Output signals are shown as active-high. P1A P1B FET Driver FET Driver Load + - + - FET Driver FET Driver V+ Load FET Driver FET Driver P1A P1B Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”) Half-Bridge Output Driving a Full-Bridge Circuit PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 100  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.4.2 START-UP CONSIDERATIONS When any PWM mode is used, the application hardware must use the proper external pull-up and/or pull-down resistors on the PWM output pins. The CCP1M<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register allow the user to choose whether the PWM output signals are active-high or active-low for each PWM output pin (P1A and P1B). The PWM output polarities must be selected before the PWM pin output drivers are enabled. Changing the polarity configuration while the PWM pin output drivers are enable is not recommended since it may result in damage to the application circuits. The P1A and P1B output latches may not be in the proper states when the PWM module is initialized. Enabling the PWM pin output drivers at the same time as the Enhanced PWM modes may cause damage to the application circuit. The Enhanced PWM modes must be enabled in the proper Output mode and complete a full PWM cycle before configuring the PWM pin output drivers. The completion of a full PWM cycle is indicated by the TMR2IF bit of the PIR1 register being set as the second PWM period begins. 11.4.3 OPERATION DURING SLEEP When the device is placed in sleep, the allocated timer will not increment and the state of the module will not change. If the CCP1 pin is driving a value, it will continue to drive that value. When the device wakes up, it will continue from this state. Note: When the microcontroller is released from Reset, all of the I/O pins are in the highimpedance state. The external circuits must keep the power switch devices in the OFF state until the microcontroller drives the I/O pins with the proper signal levels or activates the PWM output(s).  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 101 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 11.4.4 ENHANCED PWM AUTOSHUTDOWN MODE The PWM mode supports an Auto-Shutdown mode that will disable the PWM outputs when an external shutdown event occurs. Auto-Shutdown mode places the PWM output pins into a predetermined state. This mode is used to help prevent the PWM from damaging the application. The auto-shutdown sources are selected using the ECCPASx bits of the ECCPAS register. A shutdown event may be generated by: • A logic ‘0’ on the INT pin • Comparator • Setting the ECCPASE bit in firmware A shutdown condition is indicated by the ECCPASE (Auto-Shutdown Event Status) bit of the ECCPAS register. If the bit is a ‘0’, the PWM pins are operating normally. If the bit is a ‘1’, the PWM outputs are in the shutdown state. Refer to Figure 1. When a shutdown event occurs, two things happen: The ECCPASE bit is set to ‘1’. The ECCPASE will remain set until cleared in firmware or an auto-restart occurs (see Section 11.4.5 “Auto-Restart Mode”). The enabled PWM pins are asynchronously placed in their shutdown states. The state of P1A is determined by the PSSAC bit. The state of P1B is determined by the PSSBD bit. The PSSAC and PSSBD bits are located in the ECCPAS register. Each pin may be placed into one of three states: • Drive logic ‘1’ • Drive logic ‘0’ • Tri-state (high-impedance) FIGURE 11-10: AUTO-SHUTDOWN BLOCK DIAGRAM PSSAC<1> TRISx P1A 0 1 P1A_DRV PSSAC<0> PSSBD<1> TRISx P1B 0 PSSBD<0> 1 P1B_DRV 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 From Comparator ECCPAS<2:0> R D Q S From Data Bus ECCPASE Write to ECCPASE PRSEN INT PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 102  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 11-2: ECCPAS: ENHANCED CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1 PSSBD0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 ECCPASE: ECCP Auto-Shutdown Event Status bit 1 = A shutdown event has occurred; ECCP outputs are in shutdown state 0 = ECCP outputs are operating bit 6-4 ECCPAS<2:0>: ECCP Auto-shutdown Source Select bits 000 =Auto-Shutdown is disabled 001 =Comparator output change 010 =Auto-Shutdown is disabled 011 =Comparator output change(1) 100 =VIL on INT pin 101 =VIL on INT pin or Comparator change 110 =VIL on INT pin(1) 111 =VIL on INT pin or Comparator change bit 3-2 PSSAC<1:0>: Pin P1A Shutdown State Control bits 00 = Drive pin P1A to ‘0’ 01 = Drive pin P1A to ‘1’ 1x = Pin P1A tri-state bit 1-0 PSSBD<1:0>: Pin P1B Shutdown State Control bits 00 = Drive pin P1B to ‘0’ 01 = Drive pin P1B to ‘1’ 1x = Pin P1B tri-state Note 1: If CMSYNC is enabled, the shutdown will be delayed by Timer1. Note 1: The auto-shutdown condition is a levelbased signal, not an edge-based signal. As long as the level is present, the autoshutdown will persist. 2: Writing to the ECCPASE bit is disabled while an auto-shutdown condition persists. 3: Once the auto-shutdown condition has been removed and the PWM restarted (either through firmware or auto-restart) the PWM signal will always restart at the beginning of the next PWM period.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 103 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 11-11: PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH FIRMWARE RESTART (PRSEN = 0) 11.4.5 AUTO-RESTART MODE The Enhanced PWM can be configured to automatically restart the PWM signal once the auto-shutdown condition has been removed. Auto-restart is enabled by setting the PRSEN bit in the PWM1CON register. If auto-restart is enabled, the ECCPASE bit will remain set as long as the auto-shutdown condition is active. When the auto-shutdown condition is removed, the ECCPASE bit will be cleared via hardware and normal operation will resume. FIGURE 11-12: PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH AUTO-RESTART ENABLED (PRSEN = 1) Shutdown PWM ECCPASE bit Activity Event Shutdown Event Occurs Shutdown Event Clears PWM Resumes PWM Period Start of PWM Period ECCPASE Cleared by Firmware Shutdown PWM ECCPASE bit Activity Event Shutdown Event Occurs Shutdown Event Clears PWM Resumes PWM Period Start of PWM Period PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 104  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.4.6 PROGRAMMABLE DEAD-BAND DELAY MODE In Half-Bridge applications where all power switches are modulated at the PWM frequency, the power switches normally require more time to turn off than to turn on. If both the upper and lower power switches are switched at the same time (one turned on, and the other turned off), both switches may be on for a short period of time until one switch completely turns off. During this brief interval, a very high current (shootthrough current) will flow through both power switches, shorting the bridge supply. To avoid this potentially destructive shoot-through current from flowing during switching, turning on either of the power switches is normally delayed to allow the other switch to completely turn off. In Half-Bridge mode, a digitally programmable deadband delay is available to avoid shoot-through current from destroying the bridge power switches. The delay occurs at the signal transition from the non-active state to the active state. See Figure 11-13 for illustration. The lower seven bits of the associated PWMxCON register (Register 11-3) sets the delay period in terms of microcontroller instruction cycles (TCY or 4 TOSC). FIGURE 11-13: EXAMPLE OF HALFBRIDGE PWM OUTPUT FIGURE 11-14: EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS Period Pulse Width td td (1) P1A(2) P1B(2) td = Dead-Band Delay Period (1) (1) Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register. 2: Output signals are shown as active-high. P1A P1B FET Driver FET Driver V+ VLoad + V- + VStandard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 105 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 11-7: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM REGISTER 11-3: PWM1CON: ENHANCED PWM CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PRSEN PDC6 PDC5 PDC4 PDC3 PDC2 PDC1 PDC0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 PRSEN: PWM Restart Enable bit 1 = Upon auto-shutdown, the ECCPASE bit clears automatically once the shutdown event goes away; the PWM restarts automatically 0 = Upon auto-shutdown, ECCPASE must be cleared in software to restart the PWM bit 6-0 PDC<6:0>: PWM Delay Count bits PDCn =Number of FOSC/4 (4 * TOSC) cycles between the scheduled time when a PWM signal should transition active and the actual time it transitions active Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets APFCON — — — T1GSEL — — P1BSEL P1ASEL ---0 --00 ---0 --00 CCP1CON(1) P1M — DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 CCPR1L(1) Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu CCPR1H(1) Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu CMCON0 CMON COUT CMOE CMPOL — CMR — CMCH 0000 -0-0 0000 -0-0 CMCON1 — — — T1ACS CMHYS — T1GSS CMSYNC ---0 0-10 ---0 0-10 ECCPAS(1) ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1 PSSBD0 0000 0000 0000 0000 PWM1CON PRSEN PDC6 PDC5 PDC4 PDC3 PDC2 PDC1 PDC0 0000 0000 0000 0000 INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 T2CON(1) — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000 TMR2(1) Timer2 Module Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 TRISIO — — TRISIO5 TRISIO4 TRISIO3 TRISIO2 TRISIO1 TRISIO0 --11 1111 --11 1111 Legend: - = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the PWM. Note 1: For PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 106  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 107 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.0 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE CPU The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 has a host of features intended to maximize system reliability, minimize cost through elimination of external components, provide power-saving features and offer code protection. These features are: • Reset - Power-on Reset (POR) - Power-up Timer (PWRT) - Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) - Brown-out Reset (BOR) • Interrupts • Watchdog Timer (WDT) • Oscillator selection • Sleep • Code protection • ID Locations • In-Circuit Serial Programming The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 has two timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep the chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a fixed delay of 64 ms (nominal) on power-up only, designed to keep the part in Reset while the power supply stabilizes. There is also circuitry to reset the device if a brown-out occurs, which can use the Powerup Timer to provide at least a 64 ms Reset. With these three functions-on-chip, most applications need no external Reset circuitry. The Sleep mode is designed to offer a very low-current Power-Down mode. The user can wake-up from Sleep through: • External Reset • Watchdog Timer Wake-up • An interrupt Several oscillator options are also made available to allow the part to fit the application. The INTOSC option saves system cost while the LP crystal option saves power. A set of Configuration bits are used to select various options (see Register 12-1). 12.1 Configuration Bits The Configuration bits can be programmed (read as ‘0’), or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various device configurations as shown in Register 12-1. These bits are mapped in program memory location 2007h. Note: Address 2007h is beyond the user program memory space. It belongs to the special configuration memory space (2000h- 3FFFh), which can be accessed only during programming. See Memory Programming Specification (DS41204) for more information. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 108  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 12-1: CONFIG: CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER (ADDRESS: 2007h) FOR PIC12F609/615/HV609/615 ONLY U-1 U-1 U-1 U-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 — — — — BOREN1(1) BOREN0(1) IOSCFS CP(2) MCLRE(3) PWRTE WDTE FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0 bit 13 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit -n = Value at POR W = Writable bit ‘1’ = Bit is set P = Programmable ‘0’ = Bit is cleared U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ x = Bit is unknown bit 13-10 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’ bit 9-8 BOREN<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Selection bits(1) 11 = BOR enabled 10 = BOR enabled during operation and disabled in Sleep 0x = BOR disabled bit 7 IOSCFS: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bit 1 = 8 MHz 0 = 4 MHz bit 6 CP: Code Protection bit(2) 1 = Program memory code protection is disabled 0 = Program memory code protection is enabled bit 5 MCLRE: MCLR Pin Function Select bit(3) 1 = MCLR pin function is MCLR 0 = MCLR pin function is digital input, MCLR internally tied to VDD bit 4 PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit 1 = PWRT disabled 0 = PWRT enabled bit 3 WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit 1 = WDT enabled 0 = WDT disabled bit 2-0 FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits 111 =RC oscillator: CLKOUT function on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, RC on GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 110 =RCIO oscillator: I/O function on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, RC on GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 101 =INTOSC oscillator: CLKOUT function on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 100 = INTOSCIO oscillator: I/O function on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 011 =EC: I/O function on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, CLKIN on GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 010 =HS oscillator: High-speed crystal/resonator on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT and GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 001 = XT oscillator: Crystal/resonator on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT and GP5/OSC1/CLKIN 000 = LP oscillator: Low-power crystal on GP4/OSC2/CLKOUT and GP5/OSC1/CLKIN Note 1: Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable Power-up Timer. 2: The entire program memory will be erased when the code protection is turned off. 3: When MCLR is asserted in INTOSC or RC mode, the internal clock oscillator is disabled.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 109 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 REGISTER 12-2: CONFIG – CONFIGURATION WORD (ADDRESS: 2007h) FOR PIC12F617 ONLY U-1 U-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 — — WRT1 WRT0 BOREN1 BOREN0 IOSCFS CP MCLRE PWRTE WDTE FOSC2 F0SC1 F0SC0 bit 13 bit 0 bit 13-12 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’ bit 11-10 WRT<1:0>: Flash Program Memory Self Write Enable bits 11 =Write protection off 10 = 000h to 1FFh write protected, 200h to 7FFh may be modified by PMCON1 control 01 = 000h to 3FFh write protected, 400h to 7FFh may be modified by PMCON1 control 00 = 000h to 7FFh write protected, entire program memory is write protected. bit 9-8 BOREN<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Enable bits 11 = BOR enabled 10 = BOR disabled during Sleep and enabled during operation 0X = BOR disabled bit 7 IOSCFS: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select 1 = 8 MHz 0 = 4 MHz bit 6 CP: Code Protection 1 = Program memory is not code protected 0 = Program memory is external read and write protected bit 5 MCLRE: MCLR Pin Function Select 1 = MCLR pin is MCLR function and weak internal pull-up is enabled 0 = MCLR pin is alternate function, MCLR function is internally disabled bit 4 PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit(1) 1 = PWRT disabled 0 = PWRT enabled bit 3 WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit 1 = WDT enabled 0 = WDT disabled bit 2-0 FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits 000 =LP oscillator: Low-power crystal on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN and RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT 001 =XT oscillator: Crystal/resonator on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN and RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT 010 =HS oscillator: High-speed crystal/resonator on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN and RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT 011 =EC: I/O function on RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT, CLKIN on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN 100 =INTOSCIO oscillator: I/O function on RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT, I/O function on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN 101 =INTOSC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT, I/O function on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/ CLKIN 110 =EXTRCIO oscillator: I/O function on RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT, RC on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN 111 =EXTRC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT, RC on RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN Note 1:Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable the Power-up Timer (PWRT). Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘1’ P = Programmable -n = Value at POR 1 = bit is set 0 = bit is cleared x = bit is unknown PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 110  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.2 Calibration Bits The 8 MHz internal oscillator is factory calibrated. These calibration values are stored in fuses located in the Calibration Word (2008h). The Calibration Word is not erased when using the specified bulk erase sequence in the Memory Programming Specification (DS41204) and thus, does not require reprogramming. 12.3 Reset The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 device differentiates between various kinds of Reset: a) Power-on Reset (POR) b) WDT Reset during normal operation c) WDT Reset during Sleep d) MCLR Reset during normal operation e) MCLR Reset during Sleep f) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Some registers are not affected in any Reset condition; their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any other Reset. Most other registers are reset to a “Reset state” on: • Power-on Reset • MCLR Reset • MCLR Reset during Sleep • WDT Reset • Brown-out Reset (BOR) WDT wake-up does not cause register resets in the same manner as a WDT Reset since wake-up is viewed as the resumption of normal operation. TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different Reset situations, as indicated in Table 12-2. Software can use these bits to determine the nature of the Reset. See Table 12-5 for a full description of Reset states of all registers. A simplified block diagram of the On-Chip Reset Circuit is shown in Figure 12-1. The MCLR Reset path has a noise filter to detect and ignore small pulses. See Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for pulse-width specifications. FIGURE 12-1: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT S R Q External Reset MCLR/VPP pin VDD OSC1/ WDT Module VDD Rise Detect OST/PWRT On-Chip WDT Time-out Power-on Reset OST 10-bit Ripple Counter PWRT Chip_Reset 11-bit Ripple Counter Reset Enable OST Enable PWRT Sleep Brown-out(1) Reset BOREN CLKIN pin Note 1: Refer to the Configuration Word register (Register 12-1). RC OSC  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 111 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.3.1 POWER-ON RESET (POR) The on-chip POR circuit holds the chip in Reset until VDD has reached a high enough level for proper operation. To take advantage of the POR, simply connect the MCLR pin through a resistor to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for VDD is required. See Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications” for details. If the BOR is enabled, the maximum rise time specification does not apply. The BOR circuitry will keep the device in Reset until VDD reaches VBOR (see Section 12.3.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”). When the device starts normal operation (exits the Reset condition), device operating parameters (i.e., voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to ensure proper operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must be held in Reset until the operating conditions are met. For additional information, refer to Application Note AN607, “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607). 12.3.2 MCLR PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 has a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive MCLR pin low. Voltages applied to the MCLR pin that exceed its specification can result in both MCLR Resets and excessive current beyond the device specification during the ESD event. For this reason, Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. The use of an RC network, as shown in Figure 12-2, is suggested. An internal MCLR option is enabled by clearing the MCLRE bit in the Configuration Word register. When MCLRE = 0, the Reset signal to the chip is generated internally. When the MCLRE = 1, the GP3/MCLR pin becomes an external Reset input. In this mode, the GP3/MCLR pin has a weak pull-up to VDD. FIGURE 12-2: RECOMMENDED MCLR CIRCUIT 12.3.3 POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT) The Power-up Timer provides a fixed 64 ms (nominal) time-out on power-up only, from POR or Brown-out Reset. The Power-up Timer operates from an internal RC oscillator. For more information, see Section 4.4 “Internal Clock Modes”. The chip is kept in Reset as long as PWRT is active. The PWRT delay allows the VDD to rise to an acceptable level. A Configuration bit, PWRTE, can disable (if set) or enable (if cleared or programmed) the Power-up Timer. The Power-up Timer should be enabled when Brown-out Reset is enabled, although it is not required. The Power-up Timer delay will vary from chip-to-chip due to: • VDD variation • Temperature variation • Process variation See DC parameters for details (Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”). Note: The POR circuit does not produce an internal Reset when VDD declines. To reenable the POR, VDD must reach Vss for a minimum of 100 s. Note: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus, a series resistor of 50-100  should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin, rather than pulling this pin directly to VSS. VDD PIC® MCLR R1 1 kor greater) C1 0.1 F (optional, not critical) R2 100  SW1 needed with capacitor) (optional) MCU PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 112  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.3.4 BROWN-OUT RESET (BOR) The BOREN0 and BOREN1 bits in the Configuration Word register select one of three BOR modes. One mode has been added to allow control of the BOR enable for lower current during Sleep. By selecting BOREN<1:0> = 10, the BOR is automatically disabled in Sleep to conserve power and enabled on wake-up. See Register 12-1 for the Configuration Word definition. A brown-out occurs when VDD falls below VBOR for greater than parameter TBOR (see Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”). The brown-out condition will reset the device. This will occur regardless of VDD slew rate. A Brown-out Reset may not occur if VDD falls below VBOR for less than parameter TBOR. On any Reset (Power-on, Brown-out Reset, Watchdog timer, etc.), the chip will remain in Reset until VDD rises above VBOR (see Figure 12-3). If enabled, the Powerup Timer will be invoked by the Reset and keep the chip in Reset an additional 64 ms. If VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up Timer will be re-initialized. Once VDD rises above VBOR, the Power-up Timer will execute a 64 ms Reset. FIGURE 12-3: BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS Note: The Power-up Timer is enabled by the PWRTE bit in the Configuration Word register. 64 ms(1) VBOR VDD Internal Reset VBOR VDD Internal Reset 64 ms < 64 ms (1) 64 ms(1) VBOR VDD Internal Reset Note 1: 64 ms delay only if PWRTE bit is programmed to ‘0’.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 113 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.3.5 TIME-OUT SEQUENCE On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows: • PWRT time-out is invoked after POR has expired. • OST is activated after the PWRT time-out has expired. The total time-out will vary based on oscillator configuration and PWRTE bit status. For example, in EC mode with PWRTE bit erased (PWRT disabled), there will be no time-out at all. Figure 12-4, Figure 12-5 and Figure 12-6 depict time-out sequences. Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR is kept low long enough, the time-outs will expire. Then, bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately (see Figure 12-5). This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC12F609/615/617/ 12HV609/615 device operating in parallel. Table 12-6 shows the Reset conditions for some special registers, while Table 12-5 shows the Reset conditions for all the registers. 12.3.6 POWER CONTROL (PCON) REGISTER The Power Control register PCON (address 8Eh) has two Status bits to indicate what type of Reset occurred last. Bit 0 is BOR (Brown-out). BOR is unknown on Poweron Reset. It must then be set by the user and checked on subsequent Resets to see if BOR = 0, indicating that a Brown-out has occurred. The BOR Status bit is a “don’t care” and is not necessarily predictable if the brown-out circuit is disabled (BOREN<1:0> = 00 in the Configuration Word register). Bit 1 is POR (Power-on Reset). It is a ‘0’ on Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user must write a ‘1’ to this bit following a Power-on Reset. On a subsequent Reset, if POR is ‘0’, it will indicate that a Poweron Reset has occurred (i.e., VDD may have gone too low). For more information, see Section 12.3.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. TABLE 12-1: TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS TABLE 12-2: STATUS/PCON BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TABLE 12-3: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BROWN-OUT RESET Oscillator Configuration Power-up Brown-out Reset Wake-up from PWRTE = 0 PWRTE = 1 PWRTE = 0 PWRTE = 1 Sleep XT, HS, LP TPWRT + 1024 • TOSC 1024 • TOSC TPWRT + 1024 • TOSC 1024 • TOSC 1024 • TOSC RC, EC, INTOSC TPWRT — TPWRT — — POR BOR TO PD Condition 0 x 1 1 Power-on Reset u 0 1 1 Brown-out Reset u u 0 u WDT Reset u u 0 0 WDT Wake-up u u u u MCLR Reset during normal operation u u 1 0 MCLR Reset during Sleep Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets(1) PCON — — — — — — POR BOR ---- --qq ---- --uu STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 000q quuu Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are not used by BOR. Note 1: Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 114  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 12-4: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (DELAYED MCLR): CASE 1 FIGURE 12-5: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (DELAYED MCLR): CASE 2 FIGURE 12-6: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR WITH VDD) TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OST Time-out Internal Reset VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OST Time-out Internal Reset TPWRT TOST TOST VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OST Time-out Internal Reset TPWRT  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 115 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 12-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS (PIC12F609/HV609) Register Address Power-on Reset MCLR Reset WDT Reset Brown-out Reset(1) Wake-up from Sleep through Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep through WDT Time-out W — xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INDF 00h/80h xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR0 01h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PCL 02h/82h 0000 0000 0000 0000 PC + 1(3) STATUS 03h/83h 0001 1xxx 000q quuu(4) uuuq quuu(4) FSR 04h/84h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu GPIO 05h --x0 x000 --u0 u000 --uu uuuu PCLATH 0Ah/8Ah ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu INTCON 0Bh/8Bh 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(2) PIR1 0Ch ----- 0--0 ---- 0--0 ---- u--u(2) TMR1L 0Eh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR1H 0Fh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T1CON 10h 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu -uuu uuuu VRCON 19h 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 u-uu uuuu CMCON0 1Ah 0000 -0-0 0000 -0-0 uuuu -u-u CMCON1 1Ch ---0 0-10 ---0 0-10 ---u u-qu OPTION_REG 81h 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISIO 85h --11 1111 --11 1111 --uu uuuu PIE1 8Ch ----- 0--0 ---- 0--0 ---- u--u PCON 8Eh ---- --0x ---- --uu(1, 5) ---- --uu OSCTUNE 90h ---0 0000 ---u uuuu ---u uuuu WPU 95h --11 -111 --11 -111 --uu -uuu IOC 96h --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu ANSEL 9Fh ---- 1-11 ---- 1-11 ---- q-qq Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Note 1: If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently. 2: One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). 4: See Table 12-6 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 116  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 12-5: INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS (PIC12F615/617/HV615) Register Address Power-on Reset MCLR Reset WDT Reset Brown-out Reset(1) Wake-up from Sleep through Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep through WDT Time-out W — xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INDF 00h/80h xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu TMR0 01h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PCL 02h/82h 0000 0000 0000 0000 PC + 1(3) STATUS 03h/83h 0001 1xxx 000q quuu(4) uuuq quuu(4) FSR 04h/84h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu GPIO 05h --x0 x000 --u0 u000 --uu uuuu PCLATH 0Ah/8Ah ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu INTCON 0Bh/8Bh 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(2) PIR1 0Ch -000 0-00 -000 0-00 -uuu u-uu(2) TMR1L 0Eh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR1H 0Fh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T1CON 10h 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu -uuu uuuu TMR2(1) 11h 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu T2CON(1) 12h -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu CCPR1L(1) 13h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR1H(1) 14h xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP1CON(1) 15h 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 u-uu uuuu PWM1CON(1) 16h 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ECCPAS(1) 17h 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu VRCON 19h 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 u-uu uuuu CMCON0 1Ah 0000 -0-0 0000 -0-0 uuuu -u-u CMCON1 1Ch ---0 0-10 ---0 0-10 ---u u-qu ADRESH(1) 1Eh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADCON0(1) 1Fh 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu OPTION_REG 81h 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISIO 85h --11 1111 --11 1111 --uu uuuu PIE1 8Ch -00- 0-00 -00- 0-00 -uu- u-uu PCON 8Eh ---- --0x ---- --uu(1, 5) ---- --uu OSCTUNE 90h ---0 0000 ---u uuuu ---u uuuu PR2 92h 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 APFCON 93h ---0 --00 ---0 --00 ---u --uu WPU 95h --11 -111 --11 -111 --uu -uuu IOC 96h --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu PMCON1(6) 98h ---- -000 ---- -000 ---- -uuu PMCON2(6) 99h ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- PMADRL(6) 9Ah 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Note 1: If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently. 2: One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). 4: See Table 12-6 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u. 6: For PIC12F617 only.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 117 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 12-6: INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS PMADRH(6) 9Bh ---- -000 ---- -000 ---- -uuu PMDATL(6) 9Ch 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PMDATH(6) 9Dh --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu ADRESL(1) 9Eh xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ANSEL 9Fh -000 1111 -000 1111 -uuu qqqq Condition Program Counter Status Register PCON Register Power-on Reset 000h 0001 1xxx ---- --0x MCLR Reset during normal operation 000h 000u uuuu ---- --uu MCLR Reset during Sleep 000h 0001 0uuu ---- --uu WDT Reset 000h 0000 uuuu ---- --uu WDT Wake-up PC + 1 uuu0 0uuu ---- --uu Brown-out Reset 000h 0001 1uuu ---- --10 Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep PC + 1(1) uuu1 0uuu ---- --uu Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE, is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h) after execution of PC + 1. TABLE 12-5: INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS (CONTINUED)(PIC12F615/617/HV615) Register Address Power-on Reset MCLR Reset WDT Reset (Continued) Brown-out Reset(1) Wake-up from Sleep through Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep through WDT Time-out (Continued) Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Note 1: If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently. 2: One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). 4: See Table 12-6 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u. 6: For PIC12F617 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 118  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.4 Interrupts The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 has 8 sources of interrupt: • External Interrupt GP2/INT • Timer0 Overflow Interrupt • GPIO Change Interrupts • Comparator Interrupt • A/D Interrupt (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) • Timer1 Overflow Interrupt • Timer2 Match Interrupt (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) • Enhanced CCP Interrupt (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) • Flash Memory Self Write (PIC12F617 only) The Interrupt Control register (INTCON) and Peripheral Interrupt Request Register 1 (PIR1) record individual interrupt requests in flag bits. The INTCON register also has individual and global interrupt enable bits. The Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE of the INTCON register, enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts, or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in the INTCON register and PIE1 register. GIE is cleared on Reset. When an interrupt is serviced, the following actions occur automatically: • The GIE is cleared to disable any further interrupt. • The return address is pushed onto the stack. • The PC is loaded with 0004h. The Return from Interrupt instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine, as well as sets the GIE bit, which re-enables unmasked interrupts. The following interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register: • INT Pin Interrupt • GPIO Change Interrupt • Timer0 Overflow Interrupt The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special register, PIR1. The corresponding interrupt enable bit is contained in special register, PIE1. The following interrupt flags are contained in the PIR1 register: • A/D Interrupt • Comparator Interrupt • Timer1 Overflow Interrupt • Timer2 Match Interrupt • Enhanced CCP Interrupt For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or GPIO change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency depends upon when the interrupt event occurs (see Figure 12-8). The latency is the same for one or twocycle instructions. Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid multiple interrupt requests. For additional information on Timer1, Timer2, comparators, ADC, Enhanced CCP modules, refer to the respective peripheral section. 12.4.1 GP2/INT INTERRUPT The external interrupt on the GP2/INT pin is edgetriggered; either on the rising edge if the INTEDG bit of the OPTION register is set, or the falling edge, if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge appears on the GP2/INT pin, the INTF bit of the INTCON register is set. This interrupt can be disabled by clearing the INTE control bit of the INTCON register. The INTF bit must be cleared by software in the Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The GP2/INT interrupt can wake-up the processor from Sleep, if the INTE bit was set prior to going into Sleep. See Section 12.7 “Power-Down Mode (Sleep)” for details on Sleep and Figure 12-9 for timing of wake-up from Sleep through GP2/INT interrupt. Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits are set, regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit. 2: When an instruction that clears the GIE bit is executed, any interrupts that were pending for execution in the next cycle are ignored. The interrupts, which were ignored, are still pending to be serviced when the GIE bit is set again. Note: The ANSEL register must be initialized to configure an analog channel as a digital input. Pins configured as analog inputs will read ‘0’ and cannot generate an interrupt.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 119 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.4.2 TIMER0 INTERRUPT An overflow (FFh  00h) in the TMR0 register will set the T0IF bit of the INTCON register. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing T0IE bit of the INTCON register. See Section 6.0 “Timer0 Module” for operation of the Timer0 module. 12.4.3 GPIO INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE An input change on GPIO sets the GPIF bit of the INTCON register. The interrupt can be enabled/ disabled by setting/clearing the GPIE bit of the INTCON register. Plus, individual pins can be configured through the IOC register. FIGURE 12-7: INTERRUPT LOGIC Note: If a change on the I/O pin should occur when any GPIO operation is being executed, then the GPIF interrupt flag may not get set. TMR1IF TMR1IE CMIF CMIE T0IF T0IE INTF INTE GPIF GPIE GIE PEIE Wake-up (If in Sleep mode)(1) Interrupt to CPU ADIF ADIE IOC-GP0 IOC0 IOC-GP1 IOC1 IOC-GP2 IOC2 IOC-GP3 IOC3 IOC-GP4 IOC4 IOC-GP5 IOC5 TMR2IF TMR2IE CCP1IF CCP1IE Note 1: Some peripherals depend upon the system clock for operation. Since the system clock is suspended during Sleep, only those peripherals which do not depend upon the system clock will wake the part from Sleep. See Section 12.7.1 “Wake-up from Sleep”. (615/617 (615/617 only) (615/617 only) only) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 120  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 12-8: INT PIN INTERRUPT TIMING TABLE 12-7: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH INTERRUPTS Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE GPIE T0IF INTF GPIF 0000 0000 0000 0000 IOC — — IOC5 IOC4 IOC3 IOC2 IOC1 IOC0 --00 0000 --00 0000 PIR1 — ADIF(1) CCP1IF(1) — CMIF — TMR2IF(1) TMR1IF -00- 0-00 -000 0-00 PIE1 — ADIE(1) CCP1IE(1) — CMIE — TMR2IE(1) TMR1IE -00- 0-00 -000 0-00 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition. Shaded cells are not used by the interrupt module. Note 1: PIC12F615/617/HV615 only. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 CLKOUT INT pin INTF flag (INTCON reg.) GIE bit (INTCON reg.) INSTRUCTION FLOW PC Instruction Fetched Instruction Executed Interrupt Latency PC PC + 1 PC + 1 0004h 0005h Inst (0004h) Inst (0005h) Dummy Cycle Inst (PC) Inst (PC + 1) Inst (PC – 1) Inst (PC) Dummy Cycle Inst (0004h) — Note 1: INTF flag is sampled here (every Q1). 2: Asynchronous interrupt latency = 3-4 TCY. Synchronous latency = 3 TCY, where TCY = instruction cycle time. Latency is the same whether Inst (PC) is a single cycle or a 2-cycle instruction. 3: CLKOUT is available only in INTOSC and RC Oscillator modes. 4: For minimum width of INT pulse, refer to AC specifications in Section 16.0 “Electrical Specifications”. 5: INTF is enabled to be set any time during the Q4-Q1 cycles. (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) (5)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 121 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.5 Context Saving During Interrupts During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key registers during an interrupt (e.g., W and STATUS registers). This must be implemented in software. Temporary holding registers W_TEMP and STATUS_TEMP should be placed in the last 16 bytes of GPR (see Figure 2-3). These 16 locations are common to all banks and do not require banking. This makes context save and restore operations simpler. The code shown in Example 12-1 can be used to: • Store the W register • Store the STATUS register • Execute the ISR code • Restore the Status (and Bank Select Bit register) • Restore the W register EXAMPLE 12-1: SAVING STATUS AND W REGISTERS IN RAM 12.6 Watchdog Timer (WDT) The Watchdog Timer is a free running, on-chip RC oscillator, which requires no external components. This RC oscillator is separate from the external RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin and INTOSC. That means that the WDT will run, even if the clock on the OSC1 and OSC2 pins of the device has been stopped (for example, by execution of a SLEEP instruction). During normal operation, a WDT time out generates a device Reset. If the device is in Sleep mode, a WDT time out causes the device to wake-up and continue with normal operation. The WDT can be permanently disabled by programming the Configuration bit, WDTE, as clear (Section 12.1 “Configuration Bits”). 12.6.1 WDT PERIOD The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms (with no prescaler). The time-out periods vary with temperature, VDD and process variations from part to part (see DC specs). If longer time-out periods are desired, a prescaler with a division ratio of up to 1:128 can be assigned to the WDT under software control by writing to the OPTION register. Thus, time-out periods up to 2.3 seconds can be realized. The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT and the prescaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevent it from timing out and generating a device Reset. The TO bit in the STATUS register will be cleared upon a Watchdog Timer time out. Note: The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 does not require saving the PCLATH. However, if computed GOTOs are used in both the ISR and the main code, the PCLATH must be saved and restored in the ISR. MOVWF W_TEMP ;Copy W to TEMP register SWAPF STATUS,W ;Swap status to be saved into W ;Swaps are used because they do not affect the status bits MOVWF STATUS_TEMP ;Save status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register : :(ISR) ;Insert user code here : SWAPF STATUS_TEMP,W ;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W ;(sets bank to original state) MOVWF STATUS ;Move W into STATUS register SWAPF W_TEMP,F ;Swap W_TEMP SWAPF W_TEMP,W ;Swap W_TEMP into W PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 122  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.6.2 WDT PROGRAMMING CONSIDERATIONS It should also be taken in account that under worstcase conditions (i.e., VDD = Min., Temperature = Max., Max. WDT prescaler) it may take several seconds before a WDT time out occurs. FIGURE 12-2: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM TABLE 12-9: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH WATCHDOG TIMER TABLE 12-8: WDT STATUS Conditions WDT WDTE = 0 Cleared CLRWDT Command Oscillator Fail Detected Exit Sleep + System Clock = T1OSC, EXTRC, INTRC, EXTCLK Exit Sleep + System Clock = XT, HS, LP Cleared until the end of OST Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Value on all other Resets OPTION_REG GPPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 CONFIG IOSCFS CP MCLRE PWRTE WDTE FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0 — — Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer. Note 1: See Register 12-1 for operation of all Configuration Word register bits. T0CKI T0SE pin CLKOUT TMR0 Watchdog Timer WDT Time-Out PS<2:0> WDTE Data Bus Set Flag bit T0IF on Overflow T0CS Note 1: T0SE, T0CS, PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register. 0 1 0 1 0 1 SYNC 2 Cycles 8 8 8-bit Prescaler 0 1 (= FOSC/4) PSA PSA PSA 3  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 123 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.7 Power-Down Mode (Sleep) The Power-Down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP instruction. If the Watchdog Timer is enabled: • WDT will be cleared but keeps running. • PD bit in the STATUS register is cleared. • TO bit is set. • Oscillator driver is turned off. • I/O ports maintain the status they had before SLEEP was executed (driving high, low or high-impedance). For lowest current consumption in this mode, all I/O pins should be either at VDD or VSS, with no external circuitry drawing current from the I/O pin and the comparators and CVREF should be disabled. I/O pins that are highimpedance inputs should be pulled high or low externally to avoid switching currents caused by floating inputs. The T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest current consumption. The contribution from on-chip pullups on GPIO should be considered. The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level. 12.7.1 WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of the following events: 1. External Reset input on MCLR pin. 2. Watchdog Timer wake-up (if WDT was enabled). 3. Interrupt from GP2/INT pin, GPIO change or a peripheral interrupt. The first event will cause a device Reset. The two latter events are considered a continuation of program execution. The TO and PD bits in the STATUS register can be used to determine the cause of device Reset. The PD bit, which is set on power-up, is cleared when Sleep is invoked. TO bit is cleared if WDT wake-up occurred. The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device from Sleep: 1. Timer1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as an asynchronous counter. 2. ECCP Capture mode interrupt. 3. A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC). 4. Comparator output changes state. 5. Interrupt-on-change. 6. External Interrupt from INT pin. Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since during Sleep, no on-chip clocks are present. When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next instruction (PC + 1) is prefetched. For the device to wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after the SLEEP instruction, then branches to the interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the user should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction. The WDT is cleared when the device wakes up from Sleep, regardless of the source of wake-up. 12.7.2 WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur: • If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT prescaler and postscaler (if enabled) will not be cleared, the TO bit will not be set and the PD bit will not be cleared. • If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will Immediately wake-up from Sleep. The SLEEP instruction is executed. Therefore, the WDT and WDT prescaler and postscaler (if enabled) will be cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will be cleared. Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction was executed as a NOP. To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction. See Figure 12-9 for more details. Note: It should be noted that a Reset generated by a WDT time-out does not drive MCLR pin low. Note: If the global interrupts are disabled (GIE is cleared) and any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit and the corresponding interrupt flag bits set, the device will immediately wake-up from Sleep. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 124  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 12-9: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT 12.8 Code Protection If the code protection bit(s) have not been programmed, the on-chip program memory can be read out using ICSP™ for verification purposes. 12.9 ID Locations Four memory locations (2000h-2003h) are designated as ID locations where the user can store checksum or other code identification numbers. These locations are not accessible during normal execution but are readable and writable during Program/Verify mode. Only the Least Significant 7 bits of the ID locations are used. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 CLKOUT(4) INT pin INTF flag (INTCON reg.) GIE bit (INTCON reg.) Instruction Flow PC Instruction Fetched Instruction Executed PC PC + 1 PC + 2 Inst(PC) = Sleep Inst(PC – 1) Inst(PC + 1) Sleep Processor in Sleep Interrupt Latency(3) Inst(PC + 2) Inst(PC + 1) Inst(0004h) Inst(0005h) Dummy Cycle Inst(0004h) PC + 2 0004h 0005h Dummy Cycle TOST(2) PC + 2 Note 1: XT, HS or LP Oscillator mode assumed. 2: TOST = 1024 TOSC (drawing not to scale). This delay does not apply to EC, INTOSC and RC Oscillator modes. 3: GIE = ‘1’ assumed. In this case after wake-up, the processor jumps to 0004h. If GIE = ‘0’, execution will continue in-line. 4: CLKOUT is not available in XT, HS, LP or EC Oscillator modes, but shown here for timing reference. Note: The entire Flash program memory will be erased when the code protection is turned off. See the MemoryProgramming Specification (DS41204) for more information.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 125 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 12.10 In-Circuit Serial Programming™ ThePIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 microcontrollers can be serially programmed while in the end application circuit. This is simply done with five connections for: • clock • data • power • ground • programming voltage This allows customers to manufacture boards with unprogrammed devices and then program the microcontroller just before shipping the product. This also allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware to be programmed. The device is placed into a Program/Verify mode by holding the GP0 and GP1 pins low, while raising the MCLR (VPP) pin from VIL to VIHH. See the Memory Programming Specification (DS41284) for more information. GP0 becomes the programming data and GP1 becomes the programming clock. Both GP0 and GP1 are Schmitt Trigger inputs in Program/Verify mode. A typical In-Circuit Serial Programming connection is shown in Figure 12-10. FIGURE 12-10: TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT SERIAL PROGRAMMING CONNECTION 12.11 In-Circuit Debugger Since in-circuit debugging requires access to three pins, MPLAB® ICD 2 development with an 14-pin device is not practical. A special 28-pin PIC12F609/615/617/ 12HV609/615 ICD device is used with MPLAB ICD 2 to provide separate clock, data and MCLR pins and frees all normally available pins to the user. A special debugging adapter allows the ICD device to be used in place of a PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/ 615 device. The debugging adapter is the only source of the ICD device. When the ICD pin on the PIC12F609/615/617/ 12HV609/615 ICD device is held low, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality is enabled. This function allows simple debugging functions when used with MPLAB ICD 2. When the microcontroller has this feature enabled, some of the resources are not available for general use. Table 12-10 shows which features are consumed by the background debugger. TABLE 12-10: DEBUGGER RESOURCES For more information, see “MPLAB® ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger User’s Guide” (DS51331), available on Microchip’s web site (www.microchip.com). FIGURE 12-11: 28 PIN ICD PINOUT Note: To erase the device VDD must be above the Bulk Erase VDD minimum given in the Memory Programming Specification (DS41284) External Connector Signals To Normal Connections To Normal Connections PIC12F615/12HV615 VDD VSS MCLR/VPP/GP3/RA3 GP1 GP0 +5V 0V VPP CLK Data I/O * * * * * Isolation devices (as required) PIC12F609/12HV609 PIC12F617/ Resource Description I/O pins ICDCLK, ICDDATA Stack 1 level Program Memory Address 0h must be NOP 700h-7FFh 28-Pin PDIP In-Circuit Debug Device VDD CS0 CS1 CS2 RA5 RA4 GND RA0 RA1 SHUNTEN RC3 NC RA2 RC0 RA3 RC5 RC4 RC1 RC2 NC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 ICDDATA ICD NC ICDCLK ICDMCLR NC NC NC 11 12 13 14 18 17 16 15 PIC16F616-ICD PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 126  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 127 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 13.0 VOLTAGE REGULATOR The PIC12HV609/HV615 devices include a permanent internal 5 volt (nominal) shunt regulator in parallel with the VDD pin. This eliminates the need for an external voltage regulator in systems sourced by an unregulated supply. All external devices connected directly to the VDD pin will share the regulated supply voltage and contribute to the total VDD supply current (ILOAD). 13.1 Regulator Operation A shunt regulator generates a specific supply voltage by creating a voltage drop across a pass resistor RSER. The voltage at the VDD pin of the microcontroller is monitored and compared to an internal voltage reference. The current through the resistor is then adjusted, based on the result of the comparison, to produce a voltage drop equal to the difference between the supply voltage VUNREG and the VDD of the microcontroller. See Figure 13-1 for voltage regulator schematic. FIGURE 13-1: VOLTAGE REGULATOR An external current limiting resistor, RSER, located between the unregulated supply, VUNREG, and the VDD pin, drops the difference in voltage between VUNREG and VDD. RSER must be between RMAX and RMIN as defined by Equation 13-1. EQUATION 13-1: RSER LIMITING RESISTOR 13.2 Regulator Considerations The supply voltage VUNREG and load current are not constant. Therefore, the current range of the regulator is limited. Selecting a value for RSER must take these three factors into consideration. Since the regulator uses the band gap voltage as the regulated voltage reference, this voltage reference is permanently enabled in the PIC12HV609/HV615 devices. The shunt regulator will still consume current when below operating voltage range for the shunt regulator. 13.3 Design Considerations For more information on using the shunt regulator and managing current load, see Application Note AN1035, “Designing with HV Microcontrollers” (DS01035). Feedback VDD VSS CBYPASS RSER VUNREG ISUPPLY ISHUNT ILOAD Device RMAX = (VUMIN - 5V) 1.05 • (4 MA + ILOAD) RMIN = (VUMAX - 5V) 0.95 • (50 MA) Where: RMAX = maximum value of RSER (ohms) RMIN = minimum value of RSER (ohms) VUMIN = minimum value of VUNREG VUMAX= maximum value of VUNREG VDD = regulated voltage (5V nominal) ILOAD = maximum expected load current in mA including I/O pin currents and external circuits connected to VDD. 1.05 = compensation for +5% tolerance of RSER 0.95 = compensation for -5% tolerance of RSER PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 128  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 129 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 14.0 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY The PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 instruction set is highly orthogonal and is comprised of three basic categories: • Byte-oriented operations • Bit-oriented operations • Literal and control operations Each PIC16 instruction is a 14-bit word divided into an opcode, which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands, which further specify the operation of the instruction. The formats for each of the categories is presented in Figure 14-1, while the various opcode fields are summarized in Table 14-1. Table 14-2 lists the instructions recognized by the MPASMTM assembler. For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field designator, which selects the bit affected by the operation, while ‘f’ represents the address of the file in which the bit is located. For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an 8-bit or 11-bit constant, or literal value. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods; for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, this gives a normal instruction execution time of 1 s. All instructions are executed within a single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true, or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. When this occurs, the execution takes two instruction cycles, with the second cycle executed as a NOP. All instruction examples use the format ‘0xhh’ to represent a hexadecimal number, where ‘h’ signifies a hexadecimal digit. 14.1 Read-Modify-Write Operations Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (RMW) operation. The register is read, the data is modified, and the result is stored according to either the instruction or the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation is performed on a register even if the instruction writes to that register. For example, a CLRF GPIO instruction will read GPIO, clear all the data bits, then write the result back to GPIO. This example would have the unintended consequence of clearing the condition that set the GPIF flag. TABLE 14-1: OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS FIGURE 14-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR INSTRUCTIONS Field Description f Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F) W Working register (accumulator) b Bit address within an 8-bit file register k Literal field, constant data or label x Don’t care location (= 0 or 1). The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the recommended form of use for compatibility with all Microchip software tools. d Destination select; d = 0: store result in W, d = 1: store result in file register f. Default is d = 1. PC Program Counter TO Time-out bit C Carry bit DC Digit carry bit Z Zero bit PD Power-down bit Byte-oriented file register operations 13 8 7 6 0 d = 0 for destination W OPCODE d f (FILE #) d = 1 for destination f f = 7-bit file register address Bit-oriented file register operations 13 10 9 7 6 0 OPCODE b (BIT #) f (FILE #) b = 3-bit bit address f = 7-bit file register address Literal and control operations 13 8 7 0 OPCODE k (literal) k = 8-bit immediate value 13 11 10 0 OPCODE k (literal) k = 11-bit immediate value General CALL and GOTO instructions only PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 130  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 14-2: PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 INSTRUCTION SET Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 14-Bit Opcode Status Affected Notes MSb LSb BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS ADDWF ANDWF CLRF CLRW COMF DECF DECFSZ INCF INCFSZ IORWF MOVF MOVWF NOP RLF RRF SUBWF SWAPF XORWF f, d f, d f– f, d f, d f, d f, d f, d f, d f, d f– f, d f, d f, d f, d f, d Add W and f AND W with f Clear f Clear W Complement f Decrement f Decrement f, Skip if 0 Increment f Increment f, Skip if 0 Inclusive OR W with f Move f Move W to f No Operation Rotate Left f through Carry Rotate Right f through Carry Subtract W from f Swap nibbles in f Exclusive OR W with f 111111 1(2) 1 1(2) 111111111 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0111 0101 0001 0001 1001 0011 1011 1010 1111 0100 1000 0000 0000 1101 1100 0010 1110 0110 dfff dfff lfff 0xxx dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff lfff 0xx0 dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff ffff ffff ffff xxxx ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff 0000 ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff C, DC, Z ZZZZZ Z ZZ CC C, DC, Z Z 1, 2 1, 2 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2, 3 1, 2 1, 2, 3 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS BCF BSF BTFSC BTFSS f, b f, b f, b f, b Bit Clear f Bit Set f Bit Test f, Skip if Clear Bit Test f, Skip if Set 11 1 (2) 1 (2) 01 01 01 01 00bb 01bb 10bb 11bb bfff bfff bfff bfff ffff ffff ffff ffff 1, 2 1, 2 33 LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS ADDLW ANDLW CALL CLRWDT GOTO IORLW MOVLW RETFIE RETLW RETURN SLEEP SUBLW XORLW kkk–kkk–k––kk Add literal and W AND literal with W Call Subroutine Clear Watchdog Timer Go to address Inclusive OR literal with W Move literal to W Return from interrupt Return with literal in W Return from Subroutine Go into Standby mode Subtract W from literal Exclusive OR literal with W 1121211222111 11 11 10 00 10 11 11 00 11 00 00 11 11 111x 1001 0kkk 0000 1kkk 1000 00xx 0000 01xx 0000 0000 110x 1010 kkkk kkkk kkkk 0110 kkkk kkkk kkkk 0000 kkkk 0000 0110 kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk 0100 kkkk kkkk kkkk 1001 kkkk 1000 0011 kkkk kkkk C, DC, Z Z TO, PD Z TO, PD C, DC, Z Z Note 1: When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF GPIO, 1), the value used will be that value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’. 2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned to the Timer0 module. 3: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified, or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed as a NOP.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 131 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 14.2 Instruction Descriptions ADDLW Add literal and W Syntax: [ label ] ADDLW k Operands: 0  k  255 Operation: (W) + k  (W) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: The contents of the W register are added to the eight-bit literal ‘k’ and the result is placed in the W register. ADDWF Add W and f Syntax: [ label ] ADDWF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d 0,1 Operation: (W) + (f)  (destination) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: Add the contents of the W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. ANDLW AND literal with W Syntax: [ label ] ANDLW k Operands: 0  k  255 Operation: (W) .AND. (k)  (W) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of W register are AND’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the W register. ANDWF AND W with f Syntax: [ label ] ANDWF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d 0,1 Operation: (W) .AND. (f)  (destination) Status Affected: Z Description: AND the W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. BCF Bit Clear f Syntax: [ label ] BCF f,b Operands: 0  f  127 0  b  7 Operation: 0  (f) Status Affected: None Description: Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared. BSF Bit Set f Syntax: [ label ] BSF f,b Operands: 0  f  127 0  b  7 Operation: 1  (f) Status Affected: None Description: Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set. BTFSC Bit Test f, Skip if Clear Syntax: [ label ] BTFSC f,b Operands: 0  f  127 0  b  7 Operation: skip if (f) = 0 Status Affected: None Description: If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, the next instruction is executed. If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next instruction is discarded, and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 132  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. BTFSS Bit Test f, Skip if Set Syntax: [ label ] BTFSS f,b Operands: 0  f  127 0  b < 7 Operation: skip if (f) = 1 Status Affected: None Description: If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next instruction is executed. If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next instruction is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. CALL Call Subroutine Syntax: [ label ] CALL k Operands: 0  k  2047 Operation: (PC)+ 1 TOS, k  PC<10:0>, (PCLATH<4:3>)  PC<12:11> Status Affected: None Description: Call Subroutine. First, return address (PC + 1) is pushed onto the stack. The eleven-bit immediate address is loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of the PC are loaded from PCLATH. CALL is a two-cycle instruction. CLRF Clear f Syntax: [ label ] CLRF f Operands: 0  f  127 Operation: 00h  (f) 1  Z Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are cleared and the Z bit is set. CLRW Clear W Syntax: [ label ] CLRW Operands: None Operation: 00h  (W) 1  Z Status Affected: Z Description: W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z) is set. CLRWDT Clear Watchdog Timer Syntax: [ label ] CLRWDT Operands: None Operation: 00h  WDT 0  WDT prescaler, 1  TO 1  PD Status Affected: TO, PD Description: CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the prescaler of the WDT. Status bits TO and PD are set. COMF Complement f Syntax: [ label ] COMF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f)  (destination) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. DECF Decrement f Syntax: [ label ] DECF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f) - 1  (destination) Status Affected: Z Description: Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 133 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DECFSZ Decrement f, Skip if 0 Syntax: [ label ] DECFSZ f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f) - 1  (destination); skip if result = 0 Status Affected: None Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’. If the result is ‘1’, the next instruction is executed. If the result is ‘0’, then a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. GOTO Unconditional Branch Syntax: [ label ] GOTO k Operands: 0  k  2047 Operation: k  PC<10:0> PCLATH<4:3>  PC<12:11> Status Affected: None Description: GOTO is an unconditional branch. The eleven-bit immediate value is loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of PC are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>. GOTO is a two-cycle instruction. INCF Increment f Syntax: [ label ] INCF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f) + 1  (destination) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’. INCFSZ Increment f, Skip if 0 Syntax: [ label ] INCFSZ f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f) + 1  (destination), skip if result = 0 Status Affected: None Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’. If the result is ‘1’, the next instruction is executed. If the result is ‘0’, a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. IORLW Inclusive OR literal with W Syntax: [ label ] IORLW k Operands: 0  k  255 Operation: (W) .OR. k  (W) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of the W register are OR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the W register. IORWF Inclusive OR W with f Syntax: [ label ] IORWF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (W) .OR. (f)  (destination) Status Affected: Z Description: Inclusive OR the W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 134  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. MOVF Move f Syntax: [ label ] MOVF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f)  (dest) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of register ‘f’ is moved to a destination dependent upon the status of ‘d’. If d = 0, destination is W register. If d = 1, the destination is file register ‘f’ itself. d = 1 is useful to test a file register since Status flag Z is affected. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Example: MOVF FSR, 0 After Instruction W = value in FSR register Z = 1 MOVLW Move literal to W Syntax: [ label ] MOVLW k Operands: 0  k  255 Operation: k  (W) Status Affected: None Description: The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into W register. The “don’t cares” will assemble as ‘0’s. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Example: MOVLW 0x5A After Instruction W = 0x5A MOVWF Move W to f Syntax: [ label ] MOVWF f Operands: 0  f  127 Operation: (W)  (f) Status Affected: None Description: Move data from W register to register ‘f’. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Example: MOVW F OPTION Before Instruction OPTION= 0xFF W = 0x4F After Instruction OPTION= 0x4F W = 0x4F NOP No Operation Syntax: [ label ] NOP Operands: None Operation: No operation Status Affected: None Description: No operation. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Example: NOP  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 135 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 RETFIE Return from Interrupt Syntax: [ label ] RETFIE Operands: None Operation: TOS  PC, 1  GIE Status Affected: None Description: Return from Interrupt. Stack is POPed and Top-of-Stack (TOS) is loaded in the PC. Interrupts are enabled by setting Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON< 7>). This is a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Example: RETFIE After Interrupt PC = TOS GIE = 1 RETLW Return with literal in W Syntax: [ label ] RETLW k Operands: 0  k  255 Operation: k  (W); TOS  PC Status Affected: None Description: The W register is loaded with the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The program counter is loaded from the top of the stack (the return address). This is a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Example: TABLE DONE CALL TABLE;W contains ;table offset ;value GOTO DONE • • ADDWF PC ;W = offset RETLW k1 ;Begin table RETLW k2 ; • • • RETLW kn ;End of table Before Instruction W = 0x07 After Instruction W = value of k8 RETURN Return from Subroutine Syntax: [ label ] RETURN Operands: None Operation: TOS  PC Status Affected: None Description: Return from subroutine. The stack is POPed and the top of the stack (TOS) is loaded into the program counter. This is a two-cycle instruction. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 136  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. RLF Rotate Left f through Carry Syntax: [ label ] RLF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: See description below Status Affected: C Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the left through the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Example: RLF REG1,0 Before Instruction REG1 = 1110 0110 C = 0 After Instruction REG1 = 1110 0110 W = 1100 1100 C = 1 RRF Rotate Right f through Carry Syntax: [ label ] RRF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: See description below Status Affected: C Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the right through the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’. C Register f C Register f SLEEP Enter Sleep mode Syntax: [ label ] SLEEP Operands: None Operation: 00h  WDT, 0  WDT prescaler, 1  TO, 0  PD Status Affected: TO, PD Description: The power-down Status bit, PD is cleared. Time-out Status bit, TO is set. Watchdog Timer and its prescaler are cleared. The processor is put into Sleep mode with the oscillator stopped. SUBLW Subtract W from literal Syntax: [ label ] SUBLW k Operands: 0 k 255 Operation: k - (W) W) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: The W register is subtracted (2’s complement method) from the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the W register. Result Condition C = 0 W  k C = 1 W  k DC = 0 W<3:0>  k<3:0> DC = 1 W<3:0>  k<3:0>  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 137 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 SUBWF Subtract W from f Syntax: [ label ] SUBWF f,d Operands: 0 f 127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f) - (W) destination) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: Subtract (2’s complement method) W register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. SWAPF Swap Nibbles in f Syntax: [ label ] SWAPF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (f<3:0>)  (destination<7:4>), (f<7:4>)  (destination<3:0>) Status Affected: None Description: The upper and lower nibbles of register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed in register ‘f’. XORLW Exclusive OR literal with W Syntax: [ label ] XORLW k Operands: 0 k 255 Operation: (W) .XOR. k W) Status Affected: Z Description: The contents of the W register are XOR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the W register. C = 0 W  f C = 1 W  f DC = 0 W<3:0>  f<3:0> DC = 1 W<3:0>  f<3:0> XORWF Exclusive OR W with f Syntax: [ label ] XORWF f,d Operands: 0  f  127 d  [0,1] Operation: (W) .XOR. (f) destination) Status Affected: Z Description: Exclusive OR the contents of the W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 138  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 139 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 15.0 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal controllers are supported with a full range of software and hardware development tools: • Integrated Development Environment - MPLAB® IDE Software • Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers - MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device Families - HI-TECH C for Various Device Families - MPASMTM Assembler - MPLINKTM Object Linker/ MPLIBTM Object Librarian - MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for Various Device Families • Simulators - MPLAB SIM Software Simulator • Emulators - MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator • In-Circuit Debuggers - MPLAB ICD 3 - PICkit™ 3 Debug Express • Device Programmers - PICkit™ 2 Programmer - MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer • Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards, Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits 15.1 MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows® operating system-based application that contains: • A single graphical interface to all debugging tools - Simulator - Programmer (sold separately) - In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately) - In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately) • A full-featured editor with color-coded context • A multiple project manager • Customizable data windows with direct edit of contents • High-level source code debugging • Mouse over variable inspection • Drag and drop variables from source to watch windows • Extensive on-line help • Integration of select third party tools, such as IAR C Compilers The MPLAB IDE allows you to: • Edit your source files (either C or assembly) • One-touch compile or assemble, and download to emulator and simulator tools (automatically updates all project information) • Debug using: - Source files (C or assembly) - Mixed C and assembly - Machine code MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a single development paradigm, from the cost-effective simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility and power. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 140  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 15.2 MPLAB C Compilers for Various Device Families The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18, PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of use. For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE debugger. 15.3 HI-TECH C for Various Device Families The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration capabilities, omniscient code generation and ease of use. For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE debugger. The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple platforms. 15.4 MPASM Assembler The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs. The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines and generated machine code and COFF files for debugging. The MPASM Assembler features include: • Integration into MPLAB IDE projects • User-defined macros to streamline assembly code • Conditional assembly for multi-purpose source files • Directives that allow complete control over the assembly process 15.5 MPLINK Object Linker/ MPLIB Object Librarian The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects from precompiled libraries, using directives from a linker script. The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and modification of library files of precompiled code. When a routine from a library is called from a source file, only the modules that contain that routine will be linked in with the application. This allows large libraries to be used efficiently in many different applications. The object linker/library features include: • Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many smaller files • Enhanced code maintainability by grouping related modules together • Flexible creation of libraries with easy module listing, replacement, deletion and extraction 15.6 MPLAB Assembler, Linker and Librarian for Various Device Families MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24, PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler generates relocatable object files that can then be archived or linked with other relocatable object files and archives to create an executable file. Notable features of the assembler include: • Support for the entire device instruction set • Support for fixed-point and floating-point data • Command line interface • Rich directive set • Flexible macro language • MPLAB IDE compatibility  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 141 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 15.7 MPLAB SIM Software Simulator The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of the simulator to record and track program execution, actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers. The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers, and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software development tool. 15.8 MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE), included with each kit. The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS) interconnection (CAT5). The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers significant advantages over competitive emulators including low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters) interconnection cables. 15.9 MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU) devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto- use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all MPLAB ICD 2 headers. 15.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/ Programmer and PICkit 3 Debug Express The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a most affordable price point using the powerful graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB interface and can be connected to the target via an Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming ™. The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and MPLAB IDE software. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 142  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 15.11 PICkit 2 Development Programmer/Debugger and PICkit 2 Debug Express The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash families of microcontrollers. The full featured Windows® programming interface supports baseline (PIC10F, PIC12F5xx, PIC16F5xx), midrange (PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30, dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2 enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified. The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and MPLAB IDE software. 15.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal, CE compliant device programmer with programmable voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display (128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3 connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable. The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and optimized algorithms for quick programming of large memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file storage and data applications. 15.13 Demonstration/Development Boards, Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits A wide variety of demonstration, development and evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware and source code for examination and modification. The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs, temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232 interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional EEPROM memory. The demonstration and development boards can be used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom circuits and for learning about various microcontroller applications. In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/ development board series of circuits, Microchip has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN, IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL® evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate sensing, plus many more. Also available are starter kits that contain everything needed to experience the specified device. This usually includes a single application and debug capability, all on one board. Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com) for the complete list of demonstration, development and evaluation kits.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 143 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.0 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings(†) Ambient temperature under bias..........................................................................................................-40° to +125°C Storage temperature ........................................................................................................................ -65°C to +150°C Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ................................................................................................... -0.3V to +6.5V Voltage on MCLR with respect to Vss ............................................................................................... -0.3V to +13.5V Voltage on all other pins with respect to VSS ........................................................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Total power dissipation(1) ...............................................................................................................................800 mW Maximum current out of VSS pin ...................................................................................................................... 95 mA Maximum current into VDD pin ......................................................................................................................... 95 mA Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)20 mA Output clamp current, IOK (Vo < 0 or Vo >VDD)20 mA Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin.................................................................................................... 25 mA Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .............................................................................................. 25 mA Maximum current sunk by GPIO...................................................................................................................... 90 mA Maximum current sourced GPIO...................................................................................................................... 90 mA Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: PDIS = VDD x {IDD –  IOH} +  {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + (VOl x IOL). † NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure above maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 144  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 16-1: PIC12F609/615/617 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C  TA  +125°C FIGURE 16-2: PIC12HV609/615 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C  TA  +125°C 2.0 3.5 2.5 0 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 Frequency (MHz) VDD (V) Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency. 8 10 20 5.5 2.0 3.5 2.5 0 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 Frequency (MHz) VDD (V) Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency. 8 10 20  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 145 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.1 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-I (Industrial) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Supply Voltage D001 PIC12F609/615/617 2.0 — 5.5 V FOSC < = 4 MHz D001 PIC12HV609/615 2.0 — —(2) V FOSC < = 4 MHz D001B PIC12F609/615/617 2.0 — 5.5 V FOSC < = 8 MHz D001B PIC12HV609/615 2.0 — —(2) V FOSC < = 8 MHz D001C PIC12F609/615/617 3.0 — 5.5 V FOSC < = 10 MHz D001C PIC12HV609/615 3.0 — —(2) V FOSC < = 10 MHz D001D PIC12F609/615/617 4.5 — 5.5 V FOSC < = 20 MHz D001D PIC12HV609/615 4.5 — —(2) V FOSC < = 20 MHz D002* VDR RAM Data Retention Voltage(1) 1.5 — — V Device in Sleep mode D003 VPOR VDD Start Voltage to ensure internal Power-on Reset signal — VSS — V See Section 12.3.1 “Power-on Reset (POR)” for details. D004* SVDD VDD Rise Rate to ensure internal Power-on Reset signal 0.05 — — V/ms See Section 12.3.1 “Power-on Reset (POR)” for details. * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data. 2: User defined. Voltage across the shunt regulator should not exceed 5V. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 146  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.2 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617-I (Industrial) PIC12F609/615/617-E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D010 Supply Current (IDD)(1, 2) — 13 25 A 2.0 FOSC = 32 kHz PIC12F609/615/617 — 19 29 A 3.0 LP Oscillator mode — 32 51 A 5.0 D011* — 135 225 A 2.0 FOSC = 1 MHz — 185 285 A 3.0 XT Oscillator mode — 300 405 A 5.0 D012 — 240 360 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 360 505 A 3.0 XT Oscillator mode — 0.66 1.0 mA 5.0 D013* — 75 110 A 2.0 FOSC = 1 MHz — 155 255 A 3.0 EC Oscillator mode — 345 530 A 5.0 D014 — 185 255 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 325 475 A 3.0 EC Oscillator mode — 0.665 1.0 mA 5.0 D016* — 245 340 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 360 485 A 3.0 INTOSC mode — 0.620 0.845 mA 5.0 D017 — 395 550 A 2.0 FOSC = 8 MHz — 0.620 0.850 mA 3.0 INTOSC mode — 1.2 1.6 mA 5.0 D018 — 175 235 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz EXTRC mode(3) — 285 390 A 3.0 — 530 750 A 5.0 D019 — 2.2 3.1 mA 4.5 FOSC = 20 MHz HS Oscillator mode — 2.8 3.35 mA 5.0 * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-torail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled. 2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. 3: For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be extended by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in KOhms (K  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 147 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.3 DC Characteristics: PIC12HV609/615-I (Industrial) PIC12HV609/615-E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D010 Supply Current (IDD)(1, 2) — 160 230 A 2.0 FOSC = 32 kHz PIC12HV609/615 — 240 310 A 3.0 LP Oscillator mode — 280 400 A 4.5 D011* — 270 380 A 2.0 FOSC = 1 MHz — 400 560 A 3.0 XT Oscillator mode — 520 780 A 4.5 D012 — 380 540 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 575 810 A 3.0 XT Oscillator mode — 0.875 1.3 mA 4.5 D013* — 215 310 A 2.0 FOSC = 1 MHz — 375 565 A 3.0 EC Oscillator mode — 570 870 A 4.5 D014 — 330 475 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 550 800 A 3.0 EC Oscillator mode — 0.85 1.2 mA 4.5 D016* — 310 435 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz — 500 700 A 3.0 INTOSC mode — 0.74 1.1 mA 4.5 D017 — 460 650 A 2.0 FOSC = 8 MHz — 0.75 1.1 mA 3.0 INTOSC mode — 1.2 1.6 mA 4.5 D018 — 320 465 A 2.0 FOSC = 4 MHz EXTRC mode(3) — 510 750 A 3.0 — 0.770 1.0 mA 4.5 D019 — 2.5 3.4 mA 4.5 FOSC = 20 MHz HS Oscillator mode * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled. 2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. 3: For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be extended by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 148  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.4 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617 - I (Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D020 Power-down Base Current (IPD)(2) — 0.05 0.9 A 2.0 WDT, BOR, Comparator, VREF and T1OSC disabled — 0.15 1.2 A 3.0 PIC12F609/615/617 — 0.35 1.5 A 5.0 150 500 nA 3.0 -40°C  TA  +25°C for industrial D021 — 0.5 1.5 A 2.0 WDT Current(1) — 2.5 4.0 A 3.0 — 9.5 17 A 5.0 D022 — 5.0 9 A 3.0 BOR Current(1) — 6.0 12 A 5.0 D023 — 50 60 A 2.0 Comparator Current(1), single — 55 65 A 3.0 comparator enabled — 60 75 A 5.0 D024 — 30 40 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (high range) — 45 60 A 3.0 — 75 105 A 5.0 D025* — 39 50 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (low range) — 59 80 A 3.0 — 98 130 A 5.0 D026 — 5.5 10 A 2.0 T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz — 7.0 12 A 3.0 — 8.5 14 A 5.0 D027 — 0.2 1.6 A 3.0 A/D Current(1), no conversion in — 0.36 1.9 A 5.0 progress * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption. 2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 149 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.5 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617 - E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D020E Power-down Base Current (IPD)(2) PIC12F609/615/617 — 0.05 4.0 A 2.0 WDT, BOR, Comparator, VREF and — 0.15 5.0 A 3.0 T1OSC disabled — 0.35 8.5 A 5.0 D021E — 0.5 5.0 A 2.0 WDT Current(1) — 2.5 8.0 A 3.0 — 9.5 19 A 5.0 D022E — 5.0 15 A 3.0 BOR Current(1) — 6.0 19 A 5.0 D023E — 50 70 A 2.0 Comparator Current(1), single — 55 75 A 3.0 comparator enabled — 60 80 A 5.0 D024E — 30 40 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (high range) — 45 60 A 3.0 — 75 105 A 5.0 D025E* — 39 50 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (low range) — 59 80 A 3.0 — 98 130 A 5.0 D026E — 5.5 16 A 2.0 T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz — 7.0 18 A 3.0 — 8.5 22 A 5.0 D027E — 0.2 6.5 A 3.0 A/D Current(1), no conversion in — 0.36 10 A 5.0 progress * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption. 2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 150  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.6 DC Characteristics: PIC12HV609/615 - I (Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D020 Power-down Base Current (IPD)(2,3) — 135 200 A 2.0 WDT, BOR, Comparator, VREF and T1OSC disabled — 210 280 A 3.0 PIC12HV609/615 — 260 350 A 4.5 D021 — 135 200 A 2.0 WDT Current(1) — 210 285 A 3.0 — 265 360 A 4.5 D022 — 215 285 A 3.0 BOR Current(1) — 265 360 A 4.5 D023 — 185 270 A 2.0 Comparator Current(1), single — 265 350 A 3.0 comparator enabled — 320 430 A 4.5 D024 — 165 235 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (high range) — 255 330 A 3.0 — 330 430 A 4.5 D025* — 175 245 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (low range) — 275 350 A 3.0 — 355 450 A 4.5 D026 — 140 205 A 2.0 T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz — 220 290 A 3.0 — 270 360 A 4.5 D027 — 210 280 A 3.0 A/D Current(1), no conversion in — 260 350 A 4.5 progress * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption. 2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD. 3: Shunt regulator is always on and always draws operating current.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 151 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.7 DC Characteristics: PIC12HV609/615-E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Device Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VDD Note D020E Power-down Base Current (IPD)(2,3) PIC12HV609/615 — 135 200 A 2.0 WDT, BOR, Comparator, VREF and — 210 280 A 3.0 T1OSC disabled — 260 350 A 4.5 D021E — 135 200 A 2.0 WDT Current(1) — 210 285 A 3.0 — 265 360 A 4.5 D022E — 215 285 A 3.0 BOR Current(1) — 265 360 A 4.5 D023E — 185 280 A 2.0 Comparator Current(1), single — 265 360 A 3.0 comparator enabled — 320 430 A 4.5 D024E — 165 235 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (high range) — 255 330 A 3.0 — 330 430 A 4.5 D025E* — 175 245 A 2.0 CVREF Current(1) (low range) — 275 350 A 3.0 — 355 450 A 4.5 D026E — 140 205 A 2.0 T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz — 220 290 A 3.0 — 270 360 A 4.5 D027E — 210 280 A 3.0 A/D Current(1), no conversion in — 260 350 A 4.5 progress * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption. 2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD. 3: Shunt regulator is always on and always draws operating current. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 152  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.8 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-I (Industrial) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-E (Extended) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VIL Input Low Voltage I/O port: D030 with TTL buffer Vss — 0.8 V 4.5V  VDD  5.5V D030A Vss — 0.15 VDD V 2.0V  VDD  4.5V D031 with Schmitt Trigger buffer Vss — 0.2 VDD V 2.0V  VDD  5.5V D032 MCLR, OSC1 (RC mode) VSS — 0.2 VDD V (NOTE 1) D033 OSC1 (XT and LP modes) VSS — 0.3 V D033A OSC1 (HS mode) VSS — 0.3 VDD V VIH Input High Voltage I/O ports: — D040 with TTL buffer 2.0 — VDD V 4.5V  VDD 5.5V D040A 0.25 VDD + 0.8 — VDD V 2.0V  VDD  4.5V D041 with Schmitt Trigger buffer 0.8 VDD — VDD V 2.0V  VDD  5.5V D042 MCLR 0.8 VDD — VDD V D043 OSC1 (XT and LP modes) 1.6 — VDD V D043A OSC1 (HS mode) 0.7 VDD — VDD V D043B OSC1 (RC mode) 0.9 VDD — VDD V (NOTE 1) IIL Input Leakage Current(2,3) D060 I/O ports — 0.1 1 A VSS VPIN VDD, Pin at high-impedance D061 GP3/MCLR(3,4) — 0.7 5 A VSS VPIN VDD D063 OSC1 — 0.1 5 A VSS VPIN VDD, XT, HS and LP oscillator configuration D070* IPUR GPIO Weak Pull-up Current(5) 50 250 400 A VDD = 5.0V, VPIN = VSS VOL Output Low Voltage — — 0.6 V IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +125°C D080 I/O ports — — 0.6 V IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C VOH Output High Voltage VDD – 0.7 — — V IOH = -2.5mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +125°C D090 I/O ports(2) VDD – 0.7 — — V IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external clock in RC mode. 2: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin. 3: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 4: This specification applies to GP3/MCLR configured as GP3 with the internal weak pull-up disabled. 5: This specification applies to all weak pull-up pins, including the weak pull-up found on GP3/MCLR. When GP3/MCLR is configured as MCLR reset pin, the weak pull-up is always enabled. 6: Applies to PIC12F617 only.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 153 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 D101* COSC2 Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins OSC2 pin — — 15 pF In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is used to drive OSC1 D101A* CIO All I/O pins — — 50 pF Program Flash Memory D130 EP Cell Endurance 10K 100K — E/W -40°C  TA +85°C D130A ED Cell Endurance 1K 10K — E/W +85°C  TA +125°C D131 VPR VDD for Read VMIN — 5.5 V VMIN = Minimum operating voltage D132 VPEW VDD for Bulk Erase/Write 4.5 — 5.5 V D132A VPEW VDD for Row Erase/Write(6) VMIN — 5.5 V D133 TPEW Erase/Write cycle time — 2 2.5 ms D134 TRETD Characteristic Retention 40 — — Year Provided no other specifications are violated 16.8 DC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-I (Industrial) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615-E (Extended) (Continued) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external clock in RC mode. 2: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin. 3: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 4: This specification applies to GP3/MCLR configured as GP3 with the internal weak pull-up disabled. 5: This specification applies to all weak pull-up pins, including the weak pull-up found on GP3/MCLR. When GP3/MCLR is configured as MCLR reset pin, the weak pull-up is always enabled. 6: Applies to PIC12F617 only. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 154  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.9 Thermal Considerations Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Typ Units Conditions TH01 JA Thermal Resistance Junction to Ambient 84.6* C/W 8-pin PDIP package 149.5* C/W 8-pin SOIC package 211* C/W 8-pin MSOP package 60* C/W 8-pin DFN 3x3mm package 44* C/W 8-pin DFN 4x4mm package TH02 JC Thermal Resistance Junction to Case 41.2* C/W 8-pin PDIP package 39.9* C/W 8-pin SOIC package 39* C/W 8-pin MSOP package 9* C/W 8-pin DFN 3x3mm package 3.0* C/W 8-pin DFN 4x4mm package TH03 TDIE Die Temperature 150* C TH04 PD Power Dissipation — W PD = PINTERNAL + PI/O TH05 PINTERNAL Internal Power Dissipation — W PINTERNAL = IDD x VDD (NOTE 1) TH06 PI/O I/O Power Dissipation — W PI/O =  (IOL * VOL) +  (IOH * (VDD - VOH)) TH07 PDER Derated Power — W PDER = PDMAX (TDIE - TA)/JA (NOTE 2) * These parameters are characterized but not tested. Note 1: IDD is current to run the chip alone without driving any load on the output pins. 2: TA = Ambient temperature.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 155 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.10 Timing Parameter Symbology The timing parameter symbols have been created with one of the following formats: FIGURE 16-3: LOAD CONDITIONS 1. TppS2ppS 2. TppS T F Frequency T Time Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings: pp cc CCP1 osc OSC1 ck CLKOUT rd RD cs CS rw RD or WR di SDI sc SCK do SDO ss SS dt Data in t0 T0CKI io I/O Port t1 T1CKI mc MCLR wr WR Uppercase letters and their meanings: S F Fall P Period H High R Rise I Invalid (High-impedance) V Valid L Low Z High-impedance VSS CL Legend: CL=50 pF for all pins 15 pF for OSC2 output Load Condition Pin PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 156  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.11 AC Characteristics: PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 (Industrial, Extended) FIGURE 16-4: CLOCK TIMING TABLE 16-1: CLOCK OSCILLATOR TIMING REQUIREMENTS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions OS01 FOSC External CLKIN Frequency(1) DC — 37 kHz LP Oscillator mode DC — 4 MHz XT Oscillator mode DC — 20 MHz HS Oscillator mode DC — 20 MHz EC Oscillator mode Oscillator Frequency(1) — 32.768 — kHz LP Oscillator mode 0.1 — 4 MHz XT Oscillator mode 1 — 20 MHz HS Oscillator mode DC — 4 MHz RC Oscillator mode OS02 TOSC External CLKIN Period(1) 27 —  s LP Oscillator mode 250 —  ns XT Oscillator mode 50 —  ns HS Oscillator mode 50 —  ns EC Oscillator mode Oscillator Period(1) — 30.5 — s LP Oscillator mode 250 — 10,000 ns XT Oscillator mode 50 — 1,000 ns HS Oscillator mode 250 — — ns RC Oscillator mode OS03 TCY Instruction Cycle Time(1) 200 TCY DC ns TCY = 4/FOSC OS04* TOSH, TOSL External CLKIN High, External CLKIN Low 2 — — s LP oscillator 100 — — ns XT oscillator 20 — — ns HS oscillator OS05* TOSR, TOSF External CLKIN Rise, External CLKIN Fall 0 —  ns LP oscillator 0 —  ns XT oscillator 0 —  ns HS oscillator * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices. OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 OS02 OS03 OS04 OS04 OSC2/CLKOUT (LP,XT,HS Modes) (CLKOUT Mode)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 157 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 16-2: OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Freq. Tolerance Min Typ† Max Units Conditions OS06 TWARM Internal Oscillator Switch when running(3) — — — 2 TOSC Slowest clock OS07 INTOSC Internal Calibrated INTOSC Frequency(2) (4MHz) 1% 3.96 4.0 4.04 MHz VDD = 3.5V, TA = 25°C 2% 3.92 4.0 4.08 MHz 2.5V VDD  5.5V, 0°C  TA  +85°C 5% 3.80 4.0 4.2 MHz 2.0V VDD  5.5V, -40°C  TA  +85°C (Ind.), -40°C  TA  +125°C (Ext.) OS08 INTOSC Internal Calibrated INTOSC Frequency(2) (8MHz) 1% 7.92 8.0 8.08 MHz VDD = 3.5V, TA = 25°C 2% 7.84 8.0 8.16 MHz 2.5V VDD  5.5V, 0°C  TA  +85°C 5% 7.60 8.0 8.40 MHz 2.0V VDD  5.5V, -40°C  TA  +85°C (Ind.), -40°C  TA  +125°C (Ext.) OS10* TIOSC ST INTOSC Oscillator Wakeup from Sleep Start-up Time — 5.5 12 24 s VDD = 2.0V, -40°C to +85°C — 3.5 7 14 s VDD = 3.0V, -40°C to +85°C — 3 6 11 s VDD = 5.0V, -40°C to +85°C * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices. 2: To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as possible. 0.1 F and 0.01 F values in parallel are recommended. 3: By design. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 158  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 16-5: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING FOSC CLKOUT I/O pin (Input) I/O pin (Output) Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 OS11 OS19 OS13 OS15 OS18, OS19 OS20 OS21 OS17 OS16 OS14 OS12 OS18 Old Value New Value Cycle Write Fetch Read Execute TABLE 16-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING PARAMETERS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions OS11 TOSH2CKL FOSC to CLKOUT (1) — — 70 ns VDD = 5.0V OS12 TOSH2CKH FOSC to CLKOUT (1) — — 72 ns VDD = 5.0V OS13 TCKL2IOV CLKOUT to Port out valid(1) — — 20 ns OS14 TIOV2CKH Port input valid before CLKOUT(1) TOSC + 200 ns — — ns OS15 TOSH2IOV FOSC (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid — 50 70* ns VDD = 5.0V OS16 TOSH2IOI FOSC (Q2 cycle) to Port input invalid (I/O in hold time) 50 — — ns VDD = 5.0V OS17 TIOV2OSH Port input valid to FOSC(Q2 cycle) (I/O in setup time) 20 — — ns OS18 TIOR Port output rise time(2) —— 15 40 72 32 ns VDD = 2.0V VDD = 5.0V OS19 TIOF Port output fall time(2) —— 28 15 55 30 ns VDD = 2.0V VDD = 5.0V OS20* TINP INT pin input high or low time 25 — — ns OS21* TRAP GPIO interrupt-on-change new input level time TCY — — ns * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated. Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC. 2: Includes OSC2 in CLKOUT mode.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 159 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 16-6: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP TIMER TIMING FIGURE 16-7: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING AND CHARACTERISTICS VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OSC Start-Up Time Internal Reset(1) Watchdog Timer 33 32 30 31 34 I/O pins 34 Note 1: Asserted low. Reset(1) VBOR VDD (Device in Brown-out Reset) (Device not in Brown-out Reset) 33* 37 * 64 ms delay only if PWRTE bit in the Configuration Word register is programmed to ‘0’. Reset (due to BOR) VBOR + VHYST PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 160  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 16-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER AND BROWN-OUT RESET PARAMETERS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 30 TMCL MCLR Pulse Width (low) 2 5 —— —— s s VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C 31* TWDT Watchdog Timer Time-out Period (No Prescaler) 10 10 20 20 30 35 ms ms VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C 32 TOST Oscillation Start-up Timer Period(1, 2) — 1024 — TOSC (NOTE 3) 33* TPWRT Power-up Timer Period 40 65 140 ms 34* TIOZ I/O High-impedance from MCLR Low or Watchdog Timer Reset — — 2.0 s 35 VBOR Brown-out Reset Voltage 2.0 2.15 2.3 V (NOTE 4) 36* VHYST Brown-out Reset Hysteresis — 100 — mV 37* TBOR Brown-out Reset Minimum Detection Period 100 — — s VDD  VBOR * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices. 2: By design. 3: Period of the slower clock. 4: To ensure these voltage tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as possible. 0.1 F and 0.01 F values in parallel are recommended.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 161 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 16-8: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS TABLE 16-5: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 40* TT0H T0CKI High Pulse Width No Prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — — ns With Prescaler 10 — — ns 41* TT0L T0CKI Low Pulse Width No Prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — — ns With Prescaler 10 — — ns 42* TT0P T0CKI Period Greater of: 20 or TCY + 40 N — — ns N = prescale value (2, 4, ..., 256) 45* TT1H T1CKI High Time Synchronous, No Prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — — ns Synchronous, with Prescaler 15 — — ns Asynchronous 30 — — ns 46* TT1L T1CKI Low Time Synchronous, No Prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — — ns Synchronous, with Prescaler 15 — — ns Asynchronous 30 — — ns 47* TT1P T1CKI Input Period Synchronous Greater of: 30 or TCY + 40 N — — ns N = prescale value (1, 2, 4, 8) Asynchronous 60 — — ns 48 FT1 Timer1 Oscillator Input Frequency Range (oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN) — 32.768 — kHz 49* TCKEZTMR1 Delay from External Clock Edge to Timer Increment 2 TOSC — 7 TOSC — Timers in Sync mode * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. T0CKI T1CKI 40 41 42 45 46 47 49 TMR0 or TMR1 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 162  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 16-9: PIC12F615/617/HV615 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (ECCP) TABLE 16-6: PIC12F615/617/HV615 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (ECCP) TABLE 16-7: COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions CC01* TccL CCP1 Input Low Time No Prescaler 0.5TCY + 20 — — ns With Prescaler 20 — — ns CC02* TccH CCP1 Input High Time No Prescaler 0.5TCY + 20 — — ns With Prescaler 20 — — ns CC03* TccP CCP1 Input Period 3TCY + 40 N — — ns N = prescale value (1, 4 or 16) * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Comments CM01 VOS Input Offset Voltage(2) —  5.0  10 mV CM02 VCM Input Common Mode Voltage 0 — VDD – 1.5 V CM03* CMRR Common Mode Rejection Ratio +55 — — dB CM04* TRT Response Time(1) Falling — 150 600 ns Rising — 200 1000 ns CM05* TMC2COV Comparator Mode Change to Output Valid — — 10 s CM06* VHYS Input Hysteresis Voltage — 45 60 mV * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Response time is measured with one comparator input at (VDD - 1.5)/2 - 100 mV to (VDD - 1.5)/2 + 20mV. The other input is at (VDD -1.5)/2. 2: Input offset voltage is measured with one comparator input at (VDD - 1.5V)/2. Note: Refer to Figure 16-3 for load conditions. (Capture mode) CC01 CC02 CC03 CCP1  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 163 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 16-8: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE (CVREF) SPECIFICATIONS TABLE 16-9: VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS TABLE 16-10: SHUNT REGULATOR SPECIFICATIONS (PIC12HV609/615 only) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristics Min Typ† Max Units Comments CV01* CLSB Step Size(2) —— VDD/24 VDD/32 —— VV Low Range (VRR = 1) High Range (VRR = 0) CV02* CACC Absolute Accuracy(3) —— ——  1/2 1/2 LSb LSb Low Range (VRR = 1) High Range (VRR = 0) CV03* CR Unit Resistor Value (R) — 2k —  CV04* CST Settling Time(1) — — 10 s * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Settling time measured while VRR = 1 and VR<3:0> transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’. 2: See Section 9.10 “Comparator Voltage Reference” for more information. 3: Absolute Accuracy when CVREF output is  (VDD -1.5). VR Voltage Reference Specifications Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Symbol Characteristics Min Typ Max Units Comments VR01 VP6OUT VP6 voltage output 0.5 0.6 0.7 V VR02 V1P2OUT V1P2 voltage output 1.05 1.20 1.35 V VR03* TSTABLE Settling Time — 10 — s * These parameters are characterized but not tested. SHUNT REGULATOR CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Symbol Characteristics Min Typ Max Units Comments SR01 VSHUNT Shunt Voltage 4.75 5 5.4 V SR02 ISHUNT Shunt Current 4 — 50 mA SR03* TSETTLE Settling Time — — 150 ns To 1% of final value SR04 CLOAD Load Capacitance 0.01 — 10 F Bypass capacitor on VDD pin SR05 ISNT Regulator operating current — 180 — A Includes band gap reference current * These parameters are characterized but not tested. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 164  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 16-11: PIC12F615/617/HV615 A/D CONVERTER (ADC) CHARACTERISTICS: Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions AD01 NR Resolution — — 10 bits bit AD02 EIL Integral Error — — 1 LSb VREF = 5.12V(5) AD03 EDL Differential Error — — 1 LSb No missing codes to 10 bits VREF = 5.12V(5) AD04 EOFF Offset Error — +1.5 +2.0 LSb VREF = 5.12V(5) AD07 EGN Gain Error — — 1 LSb VREF = 5.12V(5) AD06 AD06A VREF Reference Voltage(3) 2.2 2.5 — — VDD V Absolute minimum to ensure 1 LSb accuracy AD07 VAIN Full-Scale Range VSS — VREF V AD08 ZAIN Recommended Impedance of Analog Voltage Source — — 10 k AD09* IREF VREF Input Current(3) 10 — 1000 A During VAIN acquisition. Based on differential of VHOLD to VAIN. — — 50 A During A/D conversion cycle. * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Total Absolute Error includes integral, differential, offset and gain errors. 2: The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing codes. 3: ADC VREF is from external VREF or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input. 4: When ADC is off, it will not consume any current other than leakage current. The power-down current specification includes any such leakage from the ADC module. 5: VREF = 5V for PIC12HV615.  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 165 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 16-12: PIC12F615/617/HV615 A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS FIGURE 16-10: PIC12F615/617/HV615 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (NORMAL MODE) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions AD130* TAD A/D Clock Period 1.6 — 9.0 s TOSC-based, VREF 3.0V 3.0 — 9.0 s TOSC-based, VREF full range(3) A/D Internal RC Oscillator Period 3.0 6.0 9.0 s ADCS<1:0> = 11 (ADRC mode) At VDD = 2.5V 1.6 4.0 6.0 s At VDD = 5.0V AD131 TCNV Conversion Time (not including Acquisition Time)(1) — 11 — TAD Set GO/DONE bit to new data in A/D Result register AD132* TACQ Acquisition Time 11.5 — s AD133* TAMP Amplifier Settling Time — — 5 s AD134 TGO Q4 to A/D Clock Start — — TOSC/2 TOSC/2 + TCY — — — — If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed. * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: ADRESH and ADRESL registers may be read on the following TCY cycle. 2: See Section 10.3 “A/D Acquisition Requirements” for minimum conditions. 3: Full range for PIC12HV609/HV615 powered by the shunt regulator is the 5V regulated voltage. AD131 AD130 BSF ADCON0, GO Q4 A/D CLK A/D Data ADRES ADIF GO Sample OLD_DATA Sampling Stopped DONE NEW_DATA 9 8 7 3 2 1 0 Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed. 1 TCY 6 AD134 (TOSC/2(1)) 1 TCY AD132 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 166  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 16-11: PIC12F615/617/HV615 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (SLEEP MODE) AD132 AD131 AD130 BSF ADCON0, GO Q4 A/D CLK A/D Data ADRES ADIF GO Sample OLD_DATA Sampling Stopped DONE NEW_DATA 9 7 3 2 1 0 Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed. AD134 8 6 (TOSC/2 + TCY(1)) 1 TCY 1 TCY  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 167 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 16.12 High Temperature Operation This section outlines the specifications for the PIC12F615 device operating in a temperature range between -40°C and 150°C.(4) The specifications between -40°C and 150°C(4) are identical to those shown in DS41288 and DS80329. TABLE 16-13: ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Note 1: Writes are not allowed for Flash Program Memory above 125°C. 2: All AC timing specifications are increased by 30%. This derating factor will include parameters such as TPWRT. 3: The temperature range indicator in the part number is “H” for -40°C to 150°C.(4) Example: PIC12F615T-H/ST indicates the device is shipped in a TAPE and reel configuration, in the MSOP package, and is rated for operation from -40°C to 150°C.(4) 4: AEC-Q100 reliability testing for devices intended to operate at 150°C is 1,000 hours. Any design in which the total operating time from 125°C to 150°C will be greater than 1,000 hours is not warranted without prior written approval from Microchip Technology Inc. Parameter Source/Sink Value Units Max. Current: VDD Source 20 mA Max. Current: VSS Sink 50 mA Max. Current: PIN Source 5 mA Max. Current: PIN Sink 10 mA Pin Current: at VOH Source 3 mA Pin Current: at VOL Sink 8.5 mA Port Current: GPIO Source 20 mA Port Current: GPIO Sink 50 mA Maximum Junction Temperature 155 °C Note: Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only, and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure above maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 168  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 16-14: DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR IDD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) Param No. Device Characteristics Units Min Typ Max Condition VDD Note D010 Supply Current (IDD) A — 13 58 2.0 — 19 67 3.0 IDD LP OSC (32 kHz) — 32 92 5.0 D011 A — 135 316 2.0 — 185 400 3.0 IDD XT OSC (1 MHz) — 300 537 5.0 D012 A — 240 495 2.0 — 360 680 3.0 IDD XT OSC (4 MHz) mA — 0.660 1.20 5.0 D013 A — 75 158 2.0 — 155 338 3.0 IDD EC OSC (1 MHz) — 345 792 5.0 D014 A — 185 357 2.0 — 325 625 3.0 IDD EC OSC (4 MHz) mA — 0.665 1.30 5.0 D016 A — 245 476 2.0 — 360 672 3.0 IDD INTOSC (4 MHz) — 620 1.10 5.0 D017 A — 395 757 2.0 mA — 0.620 1.20 3.0 IDD INTOSC (8 MHz) — 1.20 2.20 5.0 D018 A — 175 332 2.0 — 285 518 3.0 IDD EXTRC (4 MHz) — 530 972 5.0 D019 mA — 2.20 4.10 4.5 IDD HS OSC (20 MHz) — 2.80 4.80 5.0  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 169 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 TABLE 16-15: DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR IPD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) TABLE 16-16: WATCHDOG TIMER SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) TABLE 16-17: LEAKAGE CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) Param No. Device Characteristics Units Min Typ Max Condition VDD Note D020E Power Down Base Current A — 0.05 12 2.0 — 0.15 13 3.0 IPD Base — 0.35 14 5.0 D021E A — 0.5 20 2.0 — 2.5 25 3.0 WDT Current — 9.5 36 5.0 D022E A — 5.0 28 3.0 BOR Current — 6.0 36 5.0 D023E A — 105 195 2.0 IPD Current (Both Comparators Enabled) — 110 210 3.0 — 116 220 5.0 A — 50 105 2.0 IPD Current (One Comparator — 55 110 3.0 Enabled) — 60 125 5.0 D024E A — 30 58 2.0 — 45 85 3.0 IPD (CVREF, High Range) — 75 142 5.0 D025E A — 39 76 2.0 — 59 114 3.0 IPD (CVREF, Low Range) — 98 190 5.0 D026E A — 5.5 30 2.0 — 7.0 35 3.0 IPD (T1 OSC, 32 kHz) — 8.5 45 5.0 D027E A — 0.2 12 3.0 IPD (A2D on, not converting) — 0.3 15 5.0 Param No. Sym Characteristic Units Min Typ Max Conditions 31 TWDT Watchdog Timer Time-out Period (No Prescaler) ms 6 20 70 150°C Temperature Param No. Sym Characteristic Units Min Typ Max Conditions D061 IIL Input Leakage Current(1) (GP3/RA3/MCLR) μA — ±0.5 ±5.0 VSS VPIN VDD D062 IIL Input Leakage Current(2) (GP3/RA3/MCLR) μA 50 250 400 VDD = 5.0V Note 1: This specification applies when GP3/RA3/MCLR is configured as an input with the pull-up disabled. The leakage current for the GP3/RA3/MCLR pin is higher than for the standard I/O port pins. 2: This specification applies when GP3/RA3/MCLR is configured as the MCLR reset pin function with the weak pull-up enabled. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 170  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 16-18: OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) TABLE 16-19: COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC12F615-H (High Temp.) Param No. Sym Characteristic Frequency Tolerance Units Min Typ Max Conditions OS08 INTOSC Int. Calibrated INTOSC Freq.(1) ±10% MHz 7.2 8.0 8.8 2.0V VDD 5.5V -40°C TA 150°C Note 1: To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, Vdd and Vss must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as possible. 0.1 μF and 0.01 μF values in parallel are recommended. Param No. Sym Characteristic Units Min Typ Max Conditions CM01 VOS Input Offset Voltage mV — ±5 ±20 (VDD - 1.5)/2  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 171 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 17.0 DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES “Typical” represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C. “Maximum” or “minimum” represents (mean + 3) or (mean - 3) respectively, where s is a standard deviation, over each temperature range. FIGURE 17-1: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD LP (32 kHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-2: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD EC (1 MHz) vs. VDD Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore, outside the warranted range. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) IDD LP (μA) Maximum VDD (V) Typical 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD EC (μA) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 172  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-3: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD EC (4 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-4: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD XT (1 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-5: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD XT (4 MHz) vs. VDD 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Typical VDD (V) IDD EC (μA) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD XT (μA) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD XT ( μA)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 173 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-6: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD INTOSC (4 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-7: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD INTOSC (8 MHz) vs. VDD 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD INTOSC (μA) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD INTOSC (μA) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 174  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-8: PIC12F609/615617 IDD EXTRC (4 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-9: PIC12F609/615/617 IDD HS (20 MHz) vs. VDD 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical Maximum VDD (V) IDD EXTRC (μA) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 1 2 3 4 VDD (V) IDD HS (mA) 4 5 6 Maximum Typical  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 175 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-10: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD BASE vs. VDD FIGURE 17-11: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD COMPARATOR (SINGLE ON) vs. VDD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IPD BASE (μA) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Industrial Typical Extended VDD (V) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 VDD (V) IPD CMP (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Industrial Typical Extended Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 176  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-12: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD WDT vs. VDD FIGURE 17-13: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD BOR vs. VDD 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 VDD (V) IPD WDT (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Industrial Typical Extended Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 VDD (V) IPD BOR (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Industrial Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 177 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-14: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD CVREF (LOW RANGE) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-15: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD CVREF (HI RANGE) vs. VDD 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 VDD (V) IPD CVREF (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Maximum Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 3 5 VDD (V) IPD CVREF (μA) 2 4 6 Maximum Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 178  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-16: PIC12F609/615/617 IPD T1OSC vs. VDD FIGURE 17-17: PIC12F615/617 IPD A/D vs. VDD 0 5 10 15 20 25 VDD (V) IPD T1OSC (μA) Industrial Typical Extended 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 VDD (V) IPD A2D (μA) Industrial Typical Extended 1 2 3 4 5 6 Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 85°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 179 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-18: PIC12HV609/615 IDD LP (32 kHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-19: PIC12HV609/615 IDD EC (1 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-20: PIC12HV609/615 IDD EC (4 MHz) vs. VDD 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 VDD (V) IDD LP (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 VDD (V) IDD EC (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 VDD (V) IDD EC (μA) 5 1 3 4 2 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 180  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-21: PIC12HV609/615 IDD XT (1 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-22: PIC12HV609/615 IDD XT (4 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-23: PIC12HV609/615 IDD INTOSC (4 MHz) vs. VDD 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 VDD (V) IDD XT (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 VDD (V) IDD XT (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 VDD (V) IDD INTOSC ( μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 181 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-24: PIC12HV609/615 IDD INTOSC (8 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-25: PIC12HV609/615 IDD EXTRC (4 MHz) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-26: PIC12HV609/615 IPD BASE vs. VDD 0 500 1000 1500 2000 VDD (V) IDD INTOSC (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 VDD (V) IDD EXTRC (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Typical 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 VDD (V) IPD BASE (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 182  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-27: PIC12HV609/615 IPD COMPARATOR (SINGLE ON) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-28: PIC12HV609/615 IPD WDT vs. VDD FIGURE 17-29: PIC12HV609/615 IPD BOR vs. VDD 0 100 200 300 400 500 VDD (V) IPD CMP (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 VDD (V) IPD WDT (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 VDD (V) IPD BOR (μA) 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 183 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-30: PIC12HV609/615 IPD CVREF (LOW RANGE) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-31: PIC12HV609/615 IPD CVREF (HI RANGE) vs. VDD FIGURE 17-32: PIC12HV609/615 IPD T1OSC vs. VDD 0 100 200 300 400 500 VDD (V) IPD CVREF (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) VDD (V) IPD CVREF (μA) 0 100 200 300 400 500 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 VDD (V) IPD T1OSC (μA) 1 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 184  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-33: PIC12HV615 IPD A/D vs. VDD FIGURE 17-34: VOL vs. IOL OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 3.0V) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 VDD (V) IPD A2D (μA) 2 3 4 5 Typical Maximum Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 IOL (mA) VOL (V) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Max. 125°C Min. -40°C Max. 85°C Typical 25°C  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 185 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-35: VOL vs. IOL OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 5.0V) FIGURE 17-36: VOH vs. IOH OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 3.0V) Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 IOL (mA) VOL (V) Max. 85°C Typ. 25°C Min. -40°C Max. 125°C 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 IOH (mA) VOH (V) Typ. 25°C Max. -40°C Min. 125°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 186  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-37: VOH vs. IOH OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 5.0V) FIGURE 17-38: TTL INPUT THRESHOLD VIN vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 -4.5 -5.0 IOH (mA) VOH (V) Max. -40°C Typ. 25°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) Min. 125°C 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) VIN (V) Typ. 25°C Max. -40°C Min. 125°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 187 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-39: SCHMITT TRIGGER INPUT THRESHOLD VIN vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE FIGURE 17-40: TYPICAL HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) VIN (V) VIH Max. 125°C VIH Min. -40°C VIL Min. 125°C VIL Max. -40°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Time (μs) 85°C 25°C -40°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 188  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-41: MAXIMUM HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE FIGURE 17-42: MINIMUM HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE 0 5 10 15 20 25 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Time (μs) -40°C 85°C 25°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Time (s) -40°C 25°C 85°C Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3 (-40°C to 125°C)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 189 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-43: TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (25°C) FIGURE 17-44: TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (85°C) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Change from Calibration (%) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Change from Calibration (%) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 190  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-45: TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (125°C) FIGURE 17-46: TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (-40°C) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Change from Calibration (%) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 VDD (V) Change from Calibration (%)  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 191 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-47: 0.6V REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL) FIGURE 17-48: 1.2V REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL) FIGURE 17-49: SHUNT REGULATOR VOLTAGE vs. INPUT CURRENT (TYPICAL) 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.6 0.61 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Temp (C) Reference Voltage (V) 2.5V 4V 5V 5.5V 3V 1.2 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Temp (C) Reference Voltage (V) 2.5V 3V 4V 5V 5.5V 4.96 4.98 5 5.02 5.04 5.06 5.08 5.1 5.12 5.14 5.16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Input Current (mA) Shunt Regulator Voltage (V) 25°C 85°C 125°C -40°C PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 192  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-50: SHUNT REGULATOR VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL) FIGURE 17-51: COMPARATOR RESPONSE TIME (RISING EDGE) 4.96 4.98 5 5.02 5.04 5.06 5.08 5.1 5.12 5.14 5.16 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Temp (C) Shunt Regulator Voltage (V) 50 mA 40 mA 20 mA 15 mA 10 mA 4 mA 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2.0 2.5 4.0 5.5 VDD (V) Response Time (nS) Note: V- input = Transition from VCM + 100mV to VCM - 20mV V+ input = VCM VCM = (VDD - 1.5V)/2 Min. -40°C Typ. 25°C Max. 85°C Max. 125°C  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 193 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 FIGURE 17-52: COMPARATOR RESPONSE TIME (FALLING EDGE) FIGURE 17-53: WDT TIME-OUT PERIOD vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2.0 2.5 4.0 5.5 VDD (V) Response Time (nS) Max. 85°C Typ. 25°C Min. -40°C Max. 125°C Note: V- input = Transition from VCM - 100mV to VCM + 20MV V+ input = VCM VCM = (VDD - 1.5V)/2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 VDD (V) Time (ms) -40°C 25°C 85°C 125°C PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 194  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 195 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 18.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 18.1 Package Marking Information * Standard PIC device marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, and traceability code. For PIC device marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price. Legend: XX...X Customer-specific information Y Year code (last digit of calendar year) YY Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) WW Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) NNN Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) * This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. Note: In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. e3 e3 XXXXXNNN 8-Lead PDIP (.300”) XXXXXXXX YYWW 017 Example XXFXXX/P 0610 8-Lead SOIC (.150”) XXXXXXXX XXXXYYWW NNN Example PICXXCXX /SN0610 017 XXXXXX 8-Lead DFN (4x4 mm) (for PIC12F609/615/HV609/615 YYWW NNN Example XXXXXX XXXXXX 0610 017 XXXX e3 e3 e3 8-Lead MSOP XXXXXX YWWNNN Example 602/MS 610017 XXXX 8-Lead DFN (3x3 mm) YYWW NNN Example 0610 017 XXXX devices only) PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 196  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 18.2 Package Details The following sections give the technical details of the packages.              !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   +%&,  & !& - '! !#.#  &"#' #%!   & "! ! #%!   & "! !!  &$#/  !#  '! #&    .0 1,21!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  !   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 7,8. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  1, & &  = =   ##4 4!!   -  1!& &   = =  "# &  "# >#& .  - -  ##4>#& .   < :  9&  -< -?   & & 9  -  9# 4!!  <   6  9#>#& )  ?  9 * 9#>#& )  <  :   * + 1 = = - N E1 NOTE 1 D 1 2 3 A A1 A2 L b1 b e E eB c         * ,<1  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page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e E E1 NOTE 1 1 2 3 b A A1 A2 L L1 c h h φ β α         * ,1 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 198  2010 Microchip Technology Inc.     !  ""#$%& !'   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 199 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615   ("  !  )*( ( !       !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   '! !#.#  &"#' #%!   & "! ! #%!   & "! !!  &$#''  !# - '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  ! .32 % '! ("!"*& "&&  (% % '&  " !!    3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  ?1, :  8 &  = =   ##4 4!!   <  &# %%   =  :  >#& . 1,  ##4>#& . -1, :  9&  -1, 3 &9& 9  ? < 3 & & 9 .3 3 &  B = #& )  =  D N E E1 NOTE 1 1 2 e b A A1 A2 c L1 L φ         * ,1 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 200  2010 Microchip Technology Inc.    +  $ )*(+,,%&+      !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   4'    ' $ !#&) !&#! - 4!!*!"&#  '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  ! .32 % '! ("!"*& "&&  (% % '&  " !!    3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  ?1, :  8 &  <   &# %%     , && 4!! - .3 :  9&  -1, .$ !##>#& .  = ? :  >#& . -1, .$ !##9&   =  , &&>#& )  - - , &&9& 9  -  , &&& .$ !## C  = = TOP VIEW BOTTOM VIEW D N E NOTE 1 1 2 EXPOSED PAD b e N L E2 K NOTE 1 D2 2 1 NOTE 2 A A3 A1         * ,?1  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 201 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615    +  $ )*(-,-,%&+      !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   4'    ' $ !#&) !&#! - 4!!*!"&#  '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  ! .32 % '! ("!"*& "&&  (% % '&  " !!    3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  <1, :  8 &  <   &# %%     , && 4!! - .3 :  9&  1, .$ !##>#& .   < :  >#& . 1, .$ !##9&   - -? , &&>#& )  - - , &&9& 9 -   , &&& .$ !## C  = = D N E NOTE 1 1 2 A3 A A1 NOTE 2 NOTE 1 D2 2 1 E2 L N e b K EXPOSED PAD TOP VIEW BOTTOM VIEW         * ,- PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 202  2010 Microchip Technology Inc.    +  $ )*(D-,-,%&+   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 203 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 APPENDIX A: DATA SHEET REVISION HISTORY Revision A This is a new data sheet. Revision B (05/2008) Added Graphs. Revised 28-Pin ICD Pinout, Electrical Specifications Section, Package Details. Revision C (09/2009) Updated adding the PIC12F617 device throughout the entire data sheet; Added Figure 2-2 to Memory Organization section; Added section 3 ”FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY SELF READ/SELF WRITE CONTROL (FOR PIC12F617 ONLY)”; Updated Register 12-1; Updated Table12-5 adding PMCON1, PMCON2, PMADRL, PMADRH, PMDATL, PMDATH; Added section 16-12 in the Electrical Specification section; Other minor edits. Revision D (01/2010) Updated Figure 17-50; Revised 16.8 DC Characteristics; Removed Preliminary Status. APPENDIX B: MIGRATING FROM OTHER PIC® DEVICES This discusses some of the issues in migrating from other PIC devices to the PIC12F6XX Family of devices. B.1 PIC12F675 to PIC12F609/615/ 12HV609/615 TABLE B-1: FEATURE COMPARISON Feature PIC12F675 PIC12F609/ 615/ 12HV609/615 Max Operating Speed 20 MHz 20 MHz Max Program Memory (Words) 1024 1024 SRAM (bytes) 64 64 A/D Resolution 10-bit 10-bit (615 only) Timers (8/16-bit) 1/1 2/1 (615) 1/1 (609) Oscillator Modes 8 8 Brown-out Reset Y Y Internal Pull-ups RA0/1/2/4/5 GP0/1/2/4/5, MCLR Interrupt-on-change RA0/1/2/3/4/5 GP0/1/2/3/4/5 Comparator 1 1 ECCP N Y (615) INTOSC Frequencies 4 MHz 4/8 MHz Internal Shunt Regulator N Y (PIC12HV609/ 615) Note: This device has been designed to perform to the parameters of its data sheet. It has been tested to an electrical specification designed to determine its conformance with these parameters. Due to process differences in the manufacture of this device, this device may have different performance characteristics than its earlier version. These differences may cause this device to perform differently in your application than the earlier version of this device. PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 204  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 205 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 INDEX A A/D Specifications.................................................... 164, 165 Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................. 143 AC Characteristics Industrial and Extended ............................................ 156 Load Conditions ........................................................ 155 ADC Acquisition Requirements ........................................... 86 Associated registers.................................................... 88 Block Diagram............................................................. 79 Calculating Acquisition Time....................................... 86 Channel Selection....................................................... 80 Configuration............................................................... 80 Configuring Interrupt ................................................... 83 Conversion Clock........................................................ 80 Conversion Procedure ................................................ 83 Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance................ 86 Interrupts..................................................................... 81 Operation .................................................................... 82 Operation During Sleep .............................................. 82 Port Configuration....................................................... 80 Reference Voltage (VREF)........................................... 80 Result Formatting........................................................ 82 Source Impedance...................................................... 86 Special Event Trigger.................................................. 82 Starting an A/D Conversion ........................................ 82 ADC (PIC12F615/617/HV615 Only) ................................... 79 ADCON0 Register............................................................... 84 ADRESH Register (ADFM = 0) ........................................... 85 ADRESH Register (ADFM = 1) ........................................... 85 ADRESL Register (ADFM = 0)............................................ 85 ADRESL Register (ADFM = 1)............................................ 85 Analog Input Connection Considerations............................ 68 Analog-to-Digital Converter. See ADC ANSEL Register (PIC12F609/HV609) ................................ 45 ANSEL Register (PIC12F615/617/HV615) ......................... 45 APFCON Register............................................................... 24 Assembler MPASM Assembler................................................... 140 B Block Diagrams (CCP) Capture Mode Operation ................................. 90 ADC ............................................................................ 79 ADC Transfer Function ............................................... 87 Analog Input Model ............................................... 68, 87 Auto-Shutdown ......................................................... 101 CCP PWM................................................................... 94 Clock Source............................................................... 37 Comparator ................................................................. 67 Compare ..................................................................... 92 Crystal Operation........................................................ 39 External RC Mode....................................................... 40 GP0 and GP1 Pins...................................................... 47 GP2 Pins..................................................................... 48 GP3 Pin....................................................................... 49 GP4 Pin....................................................................... 50 GP5 Pin....................................................................... 51 In-Circuit Serial Programming Connections.............. 125 Interrupt Logic ........................................................... 119 MCLR Circuit............................................................. 111 On-Chip Reset Circuit ............................................... 110 PIC12F609/12HV609 ................................................... 7 PIC12F615/617/12HV615 ............................................ 8 PWM (Enhanced) ....................................................... 97 Resonator Operation .................................................. 39 Timer1 .................................................................. 57, 58 Timer2 ........................................................................ 65 TMR0/WDT Prescaler ................................................ 53 Watchdog Timer ....................................................... 122 Brown-out Reset (BOR).................................................... 112 Associated Registers................................................ 113 Specifications ........................................................... 160 Timing and Characteristics ....................................... 159 C C Compilers MPLAB C18.............................................................. 140 MPLAB C30.............................................................. 140 Calibration Bits.................................................................. 109 Capture Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/ PWM (ECCP) Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Associated registers w/ Capture................................. 91 Associated registers w/ Compare............................... 93 Associated registers w/ PWM................................... 105 Capture Mode............................................................. 90 CCP1 Pin Configuration ............................................. 90 Compare Mode........................................................... 92 CCP1 Pin Configuration ..................................... 92 Software Interrupt Mode............................... 90, 92 Special Event Trigger ......................................... 92 Timer1 Mode Selection................................. 90, 92 Prescaler .................................................................... 90 PWM Mode................................................................. 94 Duty Cycle .......................................................... 95 Effects of Reset .................................................. 96 Example PWM Frequencies and Resolutions, 20 MHZ.................................. 95 Example PWM Frequencies and Resolutions, 8 MHz .................................... 95 Operation in Sleep Mode.................................... 96 Setup for Operation ............................................ 96 System Clock Frequency Changes .................... 96 PWM Period ............................................................... 95 Setup for PWM Operation .......................................... 96 CCP1CON (Enhanced) Register ........................................ 89 Clock Sources External Modes........................................................... 38 EC ...................................................................... 38 HS ...................................................................... 39 LP....................................................................... 39 OST .................................................................... 38 RC ...................................................................... 40 XT....................................................................... 39 Internal Modes............................................................ 40 INTOSC.............................................................. 40 INTOSCIO.......................................................... 40 CMCON0 Register.............................................................. 72 CMCON1 Register.............................................................. 73 Code Examples A/D Conversion .......................................................... 83 Assigning Prescaler to Timer0.................................... 54 Assigning Prescaler to WDT....................................... 54 Changing Between Capture Prescalers ..................... 90 Indirect Addressing..................................................... 25 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 206  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. Initializing GPIO .......................................................... 43 Saving Status and W Registers in RAM ................... 121 Writing to Flash Program Memory ..............................34 Code Protection ................................................................ 124 Comparator ......................................................................... 67 Associated registers.................................................... 78 Control ........................................................................69 Gating Timer1 ............................................................. 73 Operation During Sleep .............................................. 71 Overview..................................................................... 67 Response Time........................................................... 69 Synchronizing COUT w/Timer1 .................................. 73 Comparator Hysteresis ....................................................... 77 Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF) ............................74 Effects of a Reset........................................................ 71 Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF) Response Time........................................................... 69 Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF) Specifications............................................................ 163 Comparators C2OUT as T1 Gate .....................................................60 Effects of a Reset........................................................ 71 Specifications............................................................ 162 Compare Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/ PWM (ECCP) (PIC12F615/617/HV615 only) CONFIG Register.............................................................. 108 Configuration Bits.............................................................. 107 CPU Features ................................................................... 107 Customer Change Notification Service ............................. 209 Customer Notification Service........................................... 209 Customer Support ............................................................. 209 D Data EEPROM Memory Associated Registers .................................................. 35 Data Memory....................................................................... 11 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ...................................................171 DC Characteristics Extended and Industrial ............................................ 152 Industrial and Extended ............................................ 145 Development Support ....................................................... 139 Device Overview ................................................................... 7 E ECCP. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM ECCPAS Register ............................................................. 102 EEDAT Register.................................................................. 28 EEDATH Register ............................................................... 28 Effects of Reset PWM mode ................................................................. 96 Electrical Specifications .................................................... 143 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Enhanced PWM Mode ................................................ 97 Auto-Restart...................................................... 103 Auto-shutdown.................................................. 101 Half-Bridge Application ....................................... 99 Half-Bridge Application Examples..................... 104 Half-Bridge Mode ................................................ 99 Output Relationships (Active-High and Active-Low) .................................................98 Output Relationships Diagram............................98 Programmable Dead Band Delay ..................... 104 Shoot-through Current ...................................... 104 Start-up Considerations .................................... 100 Specifications............................................................ 162 Timer Resources ........................................................ 89 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (PIC12F615/617/HV615 Only).................................... 89 Errata .................................................................................... 6 F Firmware Instructions ....................................................... 129 Flash Program Memory Self Read/Self Write Control (For PIC12F617 only)..................................... 27 Fuses. See Configuration Bits G General Purpose Register File ........................................... 12 GPIO................................................................................... 43 Additional Pin Functions ............................................. 44 ANSEL Register ................................................. 44 Interrupt-on-Change ........................................... 44 Weak Pull-Ups.................................................... 44 Associated registers ................................................... 52 GP0 ............................................................................ 47 GP1 ............................................................................ 47 GP2 ............................................................................ 48 GP3 ............................................................................ 49 GP4 ............................................................................ 50 GP5 ............................................................................ 51 Pin Descriptions and Diagrams .................................. 47 Specifications ........................................................... 158 GPIO Register .................................................................... 43 H High Temperature Operation............................................ 167 I ID Locations...................................................................... 124 In-Circuit Debugger........................................................... 125 In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP)............................... 125 Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR registers..................... 25 Instruction Format............................................................. 129 Instruction Set................................................................... 129 ADDLW..................................................................... 131 ADDWF..................................................................... 131 ANDLW..................................................................... 131 ANDWF..................................................................... 131 MOVF ....................................................................... 134 BCF .......................................................................... 131 BSF........................................................................... 131 BTFSC...................................................................... 131 BTFSS ...................................................................... 132 CALL......................................................................... 132 CLRF ........................................................................ 132 CLRW....................................................................... 132 CLRWDT .................................................................. 132 COMF ....................................................................... 132 DECF........................................................................ 132 DECFSZ ................................................................... 133 GOTO....................................................................... 133 INCF ......................................................................... 133 INCFSZ..................................................................... 133 IORLW...................................................................... 133 IORWF...................................................................... 133 MOVLW.................................................................... 134 MOVWF.................................................................... 134 NOP.......................................................................... 134 RETFIE..................................................................... 135 RETLW..................................................................... 135 RETURN................................................................... 135  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 207 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 RLF ........................................................................... 136 RRF........................................................................... 136 SLEEP ...................................................................... 136 SUBLW..................................................................... 136 SUBWF..................................................................... 137 SWAPF ..................................................................... 137 XORLW..................................................................... 137 XORWF..................................................................... 137 Summary Table......................................................... 130 INTCON Register................................................................ 20 Internal Oscillator Block INTOSC Specifications............................................ 157, 158 Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance........................ 86 Internet Address................................................................ 209 Interrupts........................................................................... 118 ADC ............................................................................ 83 Associated Registers ................................................ 120 Context Saving.......................................................... 121 GP2/INT.................................................................... 118 GPIO Interrupt-on-Change........................................ 119 Interrupt-on-Change.................................................... 44 Timer0....................................................................... 119 TMR1 .......................................................................... 60 INTOSC Specifications ............................................. 157, 158 IOC Register ....................................................................... 46 L Load Conditions ................................................................ 155 M MCLR................................................................................ 111 Internal ...................................................................... 111 Memory Organization.......................................................... 11 Data ............................................................................ 11 Program...................................................................... 11 Microchip Internet Web Site.............................................. 209 Migrating from other PICmicro Devices ............................ 203 MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ................... 140 MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger ................................... 141 MPLAB ICE 2000 High-Performance Universal In-Circuit Emulator .................................................... 141 MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software .. 139 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer .................................... 141 MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System................. 141 MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ................ 140 O OPCODE Field Descriptions............................................. 129 Operation During Code Protect........................................... 32 Operation During Write Protect ........................................... 32 Operational Amplifier (OPA) Module AC Specifications...................................................... 163 OPTION Register................................................................ 19 OPTION_REG Register ...................................................... 55 Oscillator Associated registers.............................................. 41, 63 Oscillator Module .......................................................... 27, 37 EC............................................................................... 37 HS............................................................................... 37 INTOSC ...................................................................... 37 INTOSCIO................................................................... 37 LP................................................................................ 37 RC............................................................................... 37 RCIO........................................................................... 37 XT ............................................................................... 37 Oscillator Parameters ....................................................... 157 Oscillator Specifications.................................................... 156 Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) Specifications ........................................................... 160 OSCTUNE Register............................................................ 41 P P1A/P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/ PWM (ECCP) ............................................................. 97 Packaging......................................................................... 195 Marking..................................................................... 195 PDIP Details ............................................................. 196 PCL and PCLATH............................................................... 25 Stack........................................................................... 25 PCON Register ........................................................... 23, 113 PICSTART Plus Development Programmer..................... 142 PIE1 Register ..................................................................... 21 Pin Diagram PIC12F609/HV609 (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN)........... 4 PIC12F615/617/HV615 (PDIP, SOIC, MSOP, DFN).... 5 Pinout Descriptions PIC12F609/12HV609 ................................................... 9 PIC12F615/617/12HV615 .......................................... 10 PIR1 Register ..................................................................... 22 PMADRH and PMADRL Registers ..................................... 27 PMCON1 and PMCON2 Registers..................................... 27 Power-Down Mode (Sleep)............................................... 123 Power-on Reset (POR)..................................................... 111 Power-up Timer (PWRT) .................................................. 111 Specifications ........................................................... 160 Precision Internal Oscillator Parameters .......................... 158 Prescaler Shared WDT/Timer0................................................... 54 Switching Prescaler Assignment ................................ 54 Program Memory................................................................ 11 Map and Stack............................................................ 11 Programming, Device Instructions.................................... 129 Protection Against Spurious Write...................................... 32 PWM Mode. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM........ 97 PWM1CON Register......................................................... 105 R Reader Response............................................................. 210 Reading the Flash Program Memory.................................. 30 Read-Modify-Write Operations ......................................... 129 Registers ADCON0 (ADC Control 0) .......................................... 84 ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 0) ............ 85 ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 1) ............ 85 ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 0).............. 85 ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 1).............. 85 ANSEL (Analog Select) .............................................. 45 APFCON (Alternate Pin Function Register) ............... 24 CCP1CON (Enhanced CCP1 Control) ....................... 89 CMCON0 (Comparator Control 0) .............................. 72 CMCON1 (Comparator Control 1) .............................. 73 CONFIG (Configuration Word) ................................. 108 Data Memory Map (PIC12F609/HV609) .................... 12 Data Memory Map (PIC12F615/617/HV615) ............. 13 ECCPAS (Enhanced CCP Auto-shutdown Control) . 102 EEDAT (EEPROM Data) ............................................ 28 EEDATH (EEPROM Data) ......................................... 28 GPIO........................................................................... 43 INTCON (Interrupt Control) ........................................ 20 IOC (Interrupt-on-Change GPIO) ............................... 46 OPTION_REG (OPTION)........................................... 19 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 208  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. OPTION_REG (Option) .............................................. 55 OSCTUNE (Oscillator Tuning) .................................... 41 PCON (Power Control Register) ................................. 23 PCON (Power Control) ............................................. 113 PIE1 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 1)........................... 21 PIR1 (Peripheral Interrupt Register 1) ........................ 22 PWM1CON (Enhanced PWM Control) ..................... 105 Reset Values (PIC12F609/HV609) ........................... 115 Reset Values (PIC12F615/617/HV615) .................... 116 Reset Values (special registers) ............................... 117 Special Function Registers ......................................... 12 Special Register Summary (PIC12F609/HV609).. 14, 16 Special Register Summary (PIC12F615/617/HV615) .............................. 15, 17 STATUS......................................................................18 T1CON........................................................................62 T2CON........................................................................66 TRISIO (Tri-State GPIO) ............................................. 44 VRCON (Voltage Reference Control) ......................... 76 WPU (Weak Pull-Up GPIO) ........................................ 46 Reset................................................................................. 110 Revision History ................................................................ 203 S Shoot-through Current ...................................................... 104 Sleep Power-Down Mode ...................................................123 Wake-up....................................................................123 Wake-up using Interrupts.......................................... 123 Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM)..................................... 140 Special Event Trigger.......................................................... 82 Special Function Registers .................................................12 STATUS Register................................................................ 18 T T1CON Register.................................................................. 62 T2CON Register.................................................................. 66 Thermal Considerations .................................................... 154 Time-out Sequence........................................................... 113 Timer0................................................................................. 53 Associated Registers .................................................. 55 External Clock............................................................. 54 Interrupt....................................................................... 55 Operation .............................................................. 53, 57 Specifications............................................................ 161 T0CKI ..........................................................................54 Timer1................................................................................. 57 Associated registers.................................................... 63 Asynchronous Counter Mode ..................................... 59 Reading and Writing ........................................... 59 Comparator Synchronization ...................................... 61 ECCP Special Event Trigger (PIC12F615/617/HV615 Only) ............................61 ECCP Time Base (PIC12F615/617/HV615 Only) .......60 Interrupt....................................................................... 60 Modes of Operation .................................................... 57 Operation During Sleep .............................................. 60 Oscillator ..................................................................... 59 Prescaler..................................................................... 59 Specifications............................................................ 161 Timer1 Gate Inverting Gate .....................................................60 Selecting Source........................................... 60, 73 Synchronizing COUT w/Timer1 .......................... 73 TMR1H Register ......................................................... 57 TMR1L Register.......................................................... 57 Timer2 (PIC12F615/617/HV615 Only) Associated registers ................................................... 66 Timers Timer1 T1CON ............................................................... 62 Timer2 T2CON ............................................................... 66 Timing Diagrams A/D Conversion......................................................... 165 A/D Conversion (Sleep Mode).................................. 166 Brown-out Reset (BOR)............................................ 159 Brown-out Reset Situations ...................................... 112 CLKOUT and I/O ...................................................... 158 Clock Timing............................................................. 156 Comparator Output ..................................................... 67 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)............. 162 Half-Bridge PWM Output .................................... 99, 104 INT Pin Interrupt ....................................................... 120 PWM Auto-shutdown Auto-restart Enabled......................................... 103 Firmware Restart .............................................. 103 PWM Output (Active-High) ......................................... 98 PWM Output (Active-Low) .......................................... 98 Reset, WDT, OST and Power-up Timer ................... 159 Time-out Sequence Case 1 .............................................................. 114 Case 2 .............................................................. 114 Case 3 .............................................................. 114 Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock ........................... 161 Timer1 Incrementing Edge ......................................... 61 Wake-up from Interrupt............................................. 124 Timing Parameter Symbology .......................................... 155 TRISIO................................................................................ 43 TRISIO Register ................................................................. 44 V Voltage Reference (VR) Specifications ........................................................... 163 Voltage Reference. See Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF) Voltage References Associated registers ................................................... 78 VP6 Stabilization ........................................................ 74 VREF. SEE ADC Reference Voltage W Wake-up Using Interrupts ................................................. 123 Watchdog Timer (WDT).................................................... 121 Associated registers ................................................. 122 Specifications ........................................................... 160 WPU Register ..................................................................... 46 Writing the Flash Program Memory .................................... 32 WWW Address ................................................................. 209 WWW, On-Line Support ....................................................... 6  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 209 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means to make files and information easily available to customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the following information: • Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes and sample programs, design resources, user’s guides and hardware support documents, latest software releases and archived software • General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), technical support requests, online discussion groups, Microchip consultant program member listing • Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases, listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION SERVICE Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers will receive e-mail notification whenever there are changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of interest. To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com, click on Customer Change Notification and follow the registration instructions. CUSTOMER SUPPORT Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through several channels: • Distributor or Representative • Local Sales Office • Field Application Engineer (FAE) • Technical Support • Development Systems Information Line Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer (FAE) for support. Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is included in the back of this document. Technical support is available through the web site at: http://support.microchip.com PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D-page 210  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. READER RESPONSE It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 792-4150. Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document. To: Technical Publications Manager RE: Reader Response Total Pages Sent ________ From: Name Company Address City / State / ZIP / Country Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________ Application (optional): Would you like a reply? Y N Device: Literature Number: Questions: FAX: (______) _________ - _________ PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 DS41302D 1. What are the best features of this document? 2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs? 3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why? 4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject? 5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness? 6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)? 7. How would you improve this document?  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. DS41302D-page 211 PIC12F609/615/617/12HV609/615 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. X /XX XXX Temperature Package Pattern Range Device Device: PIC12F609, PIC12F609T(1), PIC12HV609, PIC12HV609T(1), PIC12F615, PIC12F615T(1), PIC12HV615, PIC12HV615T(1), PIC12F617, PIC12F617T(1) Temperature Range: H = -40C to +150C (High Temp)(3) I = -40C to +85C (Industrial) E = -40C to +125C (Extended) Package: P = Plastic DIP (PDIP) SN = 8-lead Small Outline (150 mil) (SOIC) MS = Micro Small Outline (MSOP) MF = 8-lead Plastic Dual Flat, No Lead (3x3) (DFN) MD = 8-lead Plastic Dual Flat, No Lead (4x4)(DFN)(1,2) Pattern: QTP, SQTP or ROM Code; Special Requirements (blank otherwise) Examples: a) PIC12F615-E/P 301 = Extended Temp., PDIP package, 20 MHz, QTP pattern #301 b) PIC12F615-I/SN = Industrial Temp., SOIC package, 20 MHz c) PIC12F615T-E/MF = Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 3x3 DFN, 20 MHz d) PIC12F609T-E/MF = Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 3x3 DFN, 20 MHz e) PIC12HV615T-E/MF = Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 3x3 DFN, 20 MHz f) PIC12HV609T-E/MF = Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 3x3 DFN, 20 MHz g) PIC12F617T-E/MF = Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 3x3 DFN, 20 MHz h) PIC12F617-I/P = Industrial Temp., PDIP package, 20 MHz i) PIC12F615-H/SN = High Temp., SOIC package, 20 MHz Note 1: T = in tape and reel for MSOP, SOIC and DFN packages only. 2: Not available for PIC12F617. 3: High Temp. available for PIC12F615 only. DS41302D-page 212  2010 Microchip Technology Inc. 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Designed for use with Tektronix MDO3000, MDO4000B, MSO/DPO4000B and MSO/ DPO5000B Series oscilloscopes, these probes provide up to 1 GHz of analog bandwidth with less than 3.9 pF of capacitive loading. Key performance specs 1 GHz, 500 MHz and 250 MHz probe bandwidth models <4 pF input capacitance 10X and 2X attenuation factor 300 V CAT II input voltage Designed for use with the MDO3000, MDO4000B, MSO/DPO4000B and MSO/DPO5000B series oscilloscopes Key features Compact probe head for probing small-geometry circuit elements Small probe body for enhanced visibility to the device-under-test Rigid tip for secure device-under-test connectivity Replaceable probe tip cartridges Large accessory set for versatile connectivity Connectivity Integrated oscilloscope and probe measurement system provides intelligent communication that automatically scales and adjusts units on the oscilloscope display to match the probe attenuation Built-in AC compensation optimizes signal path across the entire frequency range Applications Low-power devices Service Manufacturing engineering test Research and development Accurate high-speed passive probing The extremely low capacitive loading limits adverse affects on your circuits and is more forgiving of longer ground leads. And with the probe's wide bandwidth, you can see the high-frequency components in your signal which is critical for high-speed applications. The TPP1000, TPP0500B and TPP0250 passive voltage probes offer all the benefits of general-purpose probes like high dynamic range, flexible connection options, and robust mechanical design, while providing the performance of active probes. Accurate low voltage The TPP0502 offers the industry's highest bandwidth (500 MHz) and lowest attenuation factor (2X) for making low-voltage measurements such as ripple, a common measurement on the output of power supplies. The low capacitive loading of the TPP0502 means long ground leads can also be used on this probe with minimal impact on measurement quality, providing today's engineer with the flexibility to move around their design without worrying about ground lead length. www.tektronix.com 1 Specifications All specifications apply to all models unless noted otherwise. Model overview TPP1000 TPP0500B TPP0502 TPP0250 Attenuation 10X 10X 2X 10X Dynamic range 300 V Cat II 300 V Cat II 300 V Cat II 300 V Cat II Bandwidth 1 GHz 500 MHz 500 MHz 250 MHz Input impedance at the probe tip 10 MΩ, <4 pF 10 MΩ, <4 pF 2 MΩ, 12.7 pF 10 MΩ, <4 pF Cable length 1.3 m 1.3 m 1.3 m 1.3 m Ordering information Models TPP1000 1 GHz, 10X attenuation passive probe with TekVPI™ interface. TPP0500B 500 MHz, 10X attenuation passive probe with TekVPI™ interface. TPP0502 500 MHz, 2X attenuation passive probe with TekVPI™ interface. TPP0250 250 MHz, 10X attenuation passive probe with TekVPI™ interface. Standard accessories Description Quantity included Reorder part number Rigid tip 3.8 mm 1 206-0610-00 Flex ground spring SHORT 3.8 mm 2 016-2034-00 Long ground spring 2 016-2028-00 Alligator ground (6 in.) 1 196-3521-00 Hook tip (regular) 1 013-0362-00 Hook tip (micro) 1 013-0363-00 IC cap (universal) 3.8 mm 1 013-0366-00 Datasheet 2 www.tektronix.com Recommended accessories Description Quantity included Reorder part number Alligator ground (12 in.) 1 196-3512-00 6 in. clip-on ground lead (with 0.025 in. pin receptacle) 1 196-3198-01 Microcircuit test tip 1 206-0569-00 Wire, 32 AWG (spool) 1 020-3045-00 BNC to probe tip adapter 1 013-0367-00 PCB to probe tip adapter, pack of 10 1 016-2016-00 Compact probe tip chassis mount test jack 1 131-4210-00 Color bands (set of 4 color-coded bands) 1 016-0633-00 Tweaker tool 1 003-1433-02 Options Service options Opt. SILV100 Standard warranty extended to 5 years Opt. SILV200 Standard warranty extended to 5 years Probes and accessories are not covered by the oscilloscope warranty and Service Offerings. Refer to the datasheet of each probe and accessory model for its unique warranty and calibration terms. Tektronix is registered to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 by SRI Quality System Registrar. Product(s) complies with IEEE Standard 488.1-1987, RS-232-C, and with Tektronix Standard Codes and Formats. TPP1000, TPP0500B, TPP0502, TPP0250 Passive Voltage Probes www.tektronix.com 3 Datasheet ASEAN / Australasia (65) 6356 3900 Austria 00800 2255 4835* Balkans, Israel, South Africa and other ISE Countries +41 52 675 3777 Belgium 00800 2255 4835* Brazil +55 (11) 3759 7627 Canada 1 800 833 9200 Central East Europe and the Baltics +41 52 675 3777 Central Europe & Greece +41 52 675 3777 Denmark +45 80 88 1401 Finland +41 52 675 3777 France 00800 2255 4835* Germany 00800 2255 4835* Hong Kong 400 820 5835 India 000 800 650 1835 Italy 00800 2255 4835* Japan 81 (3) 6714 3010 Luxembourg +41 52 675 3777 Mexico, Central/South America & Caribbean 52 (55) 56 04 50 90 Middle East, Asia, and North Africa +41 52 675 3777 The Netherlands 00800 2255 4835* Norway 800 16098 People's Republic of China 400 820 5835 Poland +41 52 675 3777 Portugal 80 08 12370 Republic of Korea 001 800 8255 2835 Russia & CIS +7 (495) 6647564 South Africa +41 52 675 3777 Spain 00800 2255 4835* Sweden 00800 2255 4835* Switzerland 00800 2255 4835* Taiwan 886 (2) 2722 9622 United Kingdom & Ireland 00800 2255 4835* USA 1 800 833 9200 * European toll-free number. If not accessible, call: +41 52 675 3777 Updated 10 April 2013 For Further Information. Tektronix maintains a comprehensive, constantly expanding collection of application notes, technical briefs and other resources to help engineers working on the cutting edge of technology. Please visit www.tektronix.com. Copyright © Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved. Tektronix products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending. Information in this publication supersedes that in all previously published material. Specification and price change privileges reserved. TEKTRONIX and TEK are registered trademarks of Tektronix, Inc. All other trade names referenced are the service marks, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 10 Feb 2014 51W-26151-5 www.tektronix.com http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/1807245.pdf AVR172: Sensorless Commutation of Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) using ATmega32M1 and ATAVRMC320 Features • Robust sensorless commutation control • Ramp-up sequence References [1] ATmega32M1 Data sheet [2] AVR194: Brushless DC Motor Control using ATmega32M1 [3] AVR430: MC300 Hardware User Guide [4] AVR470: MC310 User Guide [5] AVR471: MC320 Getting Started Guide [6] AVR928: Sensorless methods to drive BLDC motors 1 Introduction This application note describes how to implement a sensorless commutation of BLDC motors with the ATAVRMC320 development kit. The ATmega32M1 is equipped with integrated peripherals that reduce the number of external components required in a BLDC application. The ATmega32M1 is suitable for sensorless commutation and for commutation with Hall sensors as well, but this application note focuses on the sensorless commutation. The AVR928 Application Note describes the theory of the sensorless control method and must be carefully read first. 8-bit Microcontrollers Application Note Rev. 8306B-AVR-05/10 2 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 2 Hardware The hardware includes the ATAVRMC310 and ATAVRMC300 boards which are the two parts of the ATAVRMC320 Starter kit. Please refer to the ATAVRMC300 and ATAVRMC310 user guides : - AVR430: MC300 Hardware User Guide - AVR470: MC310 Hardware User Guide 2.1 MC310 jumpers setting The AVR172 firmware has been developed with the following jumper settings: Table 2-1.ATAVRMC310 jumpers setting for sensorless control Designator Setting Function J5 Vm connect PB4 to Vm’ (motor voltage measurement if necessary) J6 PFC OC Connect to overcurrent signal J7 none used by CAN applications J8 ShCo connect PC5 to ShCo for current measurement J9 GNDm connect PC4 to GNDm for current measurement J12 TxD connect PD3 to the RS232 driver MOSI A Connect PD3 to ISP connector (for ISP use) RxDUSB Connect PD3 to RxD1 (for USB interface use) J13 RxD connect PD4 to the RS232 driver SCK Connect PD3 to ISP connector (for ISP use) TxDUSB Connect PD3 to RxD1 (for USB interface use) J15 none used by CAN application to add a termination resistor J21 Cmp- connect ACMP0- to V+W bemf conditioning J22 Cmp+ connect ACMP0+ to U bemf conditioning J23 Cmp- connect ACMP1- to U+W bemf conditioning J24 Cmp+ connect ACMP1+ to V bemf conditioning J25 Cmp- connect ACMP2- to U+V bemf conditioning J26 Cmp+ connect ACMP2+ to W bemf conditioning J28 VCC supply the on board USB dongle from the board power supply See also following picture of MC310 Jumpers configurations : AVR172 3 8306B-AVR-05/10 Figure 1. MC310 Jumpers configuration 2.2 MC300 jumper settings Table 2-1. ATAVRMC300 jumpers setting for sensorless control Designator Setting Function J2 none provide +5V to supply the ATAVRMC310 board On ATAVRMC300, Vm and Vin connectors can be supplied from the same +12V/7A power supply. Nevertheless a separate +12V/1A can also be used to supply the Vin (processor supply voltage). 2.3 Power-supply This firmware example has been configured according to a power-supply Vm=12V. This power-supply must be able to provide up to 4A output current. 2.4 Motor The BLDC motor provided inside MC320 and MC300 Motor Control Kit has the following characteristics: Manufacturer : TECMOTION Number of phases : 3 Number of poles : 8 (4 pairs) Rated voltage : 24V Rated speed : 4000 rpm Rated torque : 62.5 Nm Torque constant : 35 Nm/A = k_tau 4 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 Line to Line Resistance : 1.8 ohm = R Back EMF : 3.66 V/Krpm = k_e Peak current : 5.4A As Vm=12V, the rated speed will be 2000 rpm. 2.5 ATmega32M1 Configuration ATmega32M1 must be programmed to run at 16MHz using PLL (set corresponding Fuse bits). The CKDIV8 fuse must be disabled. Extended/High/Low Fuses configurations are : FF/DF/F3 2.6 Technical Advices 2.6.1 Disconnecting the BLDC Motor The BLDC motor must not be disconnected while it is running or while its coils carry current. It is allowed to disconnect a BLDC motor if the PWM duty cycle is 0% and the rotor is at rest so that no current is driven through the coils. Be careful, when stopping the power supply or PWM, a BLDC motor with a high moment of inertia is able to run for a relatively long time. 2.6.2 Ground and Power Wirings One design its own board has to take care of the ground wiring and power wiring. The power supply of the processor and additional signal conditioning components (e.g. additional fast comparators, operational amplifiers, …) has to be decoupled from the motor power supply. The ground connection has to be of low resistance and low inductance to prevent against voltage drop and noise due to high currents. A ground plane within a multi layer PCB is recommended for proper operation. 3 Firmware The example firmware is based on the Sensorless method described in AVR928 Application Note. It is operating in sensorless mode using the ATmega32M1 internal comparators. Hall sensor wires of the BLDC motor of the kit can remain unconnected. The source file directory embeds an html documentation which can be opened through the readme.html file. The theory of the different tasks has been detailed in AVR928. The application to ATmega32M1 is detailed in following sections. 3.1 Main Flow chart The firmware main flowchart is described below : AVR172 5 8306B-AVR-05/10 Figure 2. Main flow chart The tasks are scheduled thanks to the g_tick produced each 1.024ms with Timer0. 6 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 3.2 MS_ALIGN phase The ALIGN phase forces the motor at a specific position. The time of this phase is controlled with ALIGN_TIME constant which is the ru_period_counter initial value (200 for MC310 motor). 3.3 RAMP_UP phase The ramp-up charateristics (duty-cycles and times) are stored in two tables: • ramp_up_duty_table[] : which provides the duty_cycle of the step • ramp_up_time_table[] : which provides the length of the step (ru_step_length) These two tables are specific to the motor and the application. The scanning of the step sequences and the monitoring of the step length are achieved thanks to three independant counters : - ru_step_length_cntr : which counts the commutation time (up to ru_step_length variable) - ru_period_counter : which counts the step length (up to RAMP_UP_PERIOD constant) - ramp_up_index : which counts the step numbers (up to RAMP_UP_INDEX_MAX constant) The figure below provides a waveform of steps timing : Figure 3. Steps timing AVR172 7 8306B-AVR-05/10 3.3.1 Time of steps The step time is RAMP_UP_PERIOD = 50ms. 3.3.2 Number of steps The parameter : RAMP_UP_INDEX_MAX = 9, defines 10 steps ramp up. 3.3.3 Parameters tables In firmware example, the tables have been defined according to the characteristics of the motor provided in the kit (see parameters in 2.4 Motor section) : ramp_up_time_table[] = {26,23,20,17,14,11,8,5,3,2,2}; ramp_up_duty_table[] = {122,124,126,129,131,133,135,137,140,143,145}; 3.3.4 Sp1/pwm1 The usual parameters described in AVR928 Application Note are: • Pwm1 = 50% • Sp1 = Sp_max/60 The parameters defined with MC310 Tecmotion motor are: • Pwm1 = 48% (= 122/256) • Sp1 : Sp1 is defined thanks to the initialization value of ru_step_length : ru_step_length = RAMP_UP_STEP_MAX = 40 This variable determines one commutation each 40ms. So an electrical rotation time is 120ms. As the motor has 4 pairs of poles, the mechanical rotation time is 480ms. So the rotation speed is 60/0.48 = 125 rpm. So Sp1 = Sp_max/32. The second value of ru_step_length is 26 in the time table. It defines the following commutation time. 3.3.5 Sp2/pwm2 The theorical parameters described in AVR928 Application Note are: • Pwm2 = 60% • Sp2 = Sp_max/6 = Sp1 / 10 The parameters defined with Tecmotion motor are: • Pwm2 = 57% (= 145/256) • Sp2 : Sp2 is defined thanks to the last value of ru_step_length : 2 This variable determines one commutation each 4ms. So an electrical rotation time is 12ms. As the motor has 4 pairs of poles, the mechanical rotation time is 48ms. So the rotation speed is 60/0.048 = 1250 rpm. So Sp2 = Sp_max/3.2. 8 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 This confirms also the usual ratio = 10 between Sp1 and Sp2 which is defined in AVR498 Application Note. 3.4 LAST_RAMP_UP phase To avoid a shorten last step, this phase monitors the last ramp-up step to guarantee it is ended properly before running in closed loop. 3.5 RUNNING Phase 3.5.1 Closed-loop block diagram The Running phase is a sensorless closed loop which block diagram is following : Figure 4. Closed-loop block diagram AVR172 9 8306B-AVR-05/10 3.5.2 Running flowchart The flowchart is following : Figure 5. Closed-loop flowchart • Motor_state is kept equal to MS_RUNNING mci_set_ref_speed() function updates the speed setpoint according to the potentiometer adjustment or the speed command received on serial transmission. In mc_regulation_loop() function, duty_cycle_reference is the duty_cycle variable which controls the PWM generator. This variable is the result of following functions : • In OPEN_LOOP: mci_set_ref_speed() function • In SPEED_LOOP: 10 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 mc_control_speed(2*mci_get_ref_speed()) duty-cycle_reference is calculated from ref_speed and from monitored mci_get_measured_speed() measured_speed = (KSPEED * 4) / mci_measured_period with mci_measured_period calculated in the Interrupt vector of Analog Comparator 1. This interrupt uses Timer 0 to compute the period. • In CURRENT_LOOP : mc_control_current(mc_get_potentiometer_value() 3.5.3 Sensorless Detection and Commutation Management The analog comparators 0, 1 and 2 are used to detect the zero crossing of the U, V and W phases. The timer 1 is used to monitor the time between two consecutive zero crossings. This time corresponds to one sector of the electrical rotation of the motor. It equals 60° of the entire electrical period of the motor. When a zero crossing event occurs, the timer 1 value is stored. Then this value is divided by 2 (providing the 30° time) and loaded into the Compare A register of timer 1. Then this value is added to the half of itself to provide the 45° time and loaded into the Compare B register of timer 1. The timer 1 compare A event occurs 30° after the zero crossing. It activates the next commutation state and masks the zero crossing to avoid the discharge of the inductance (demagnetization) pulse generated at the end of a step when the active switches are released. Due to the inductance of the motor coils, a voltage equals to -Ldi/dt is generated, the demagnetization is done through the diodes of the power bridge. The timer 1 compare B event releases the zero crossing mask : enables the comparator n interrupt according to the motor_step variable. This Timer1 interrupt provides the demagnetization mask delay. AVR172 11 8306B-AVR-05/10 4 RS232 Communication with firmware 4.1 Connecting ATAVRMC310 to use the RS232 interface Connect PC com port to the ATAVRMC310 RS232 connector through a direct cable. The serial configuration is: • 38400 bauds, • 8 bit data bit, • 1 stop bit, • no handshake, 4.2 PC applications User can communicate with firmware through RS232 with usual PC serial communication applications (i.e. Hyperterminal) or the Atmel “Motor Control Center” application which can be downloaded from Atmel web at url : http://www.atmel.com 4.2.1 PC Terminal : RS232 Messages and Commands At power up the following welcome message is received on terminal : “ATMEL Motor Control Interface”. The following commands can be sent to the firmware: Table 2-1. List of commands Command Action ru Run motor st Stop Motor help Gives help fw Set direction to Forward bw Set direction to Backward ss Set Speed (followed with speed value) gi Get ID g0 Get Status 0 g1 Get Status 1 4.2.2 Motor Control Center The User Guide is available in Install directory at URL : C:\Program Files\Atmel\Motor Control Center\help\Overview.htm The AVR172 Target must be selected first to get the right configuration : To select a target, execute the File > Select Target command or click the button in the toolbar. The following dialog pops up: 12 AVR172 8306B-AVR-05/10 Figure 6. Motor Control Center Interface 5 USB communication Communication can be achieved from PC to USB connector of MC310 board. The AVR470, MC310 Hardware User Guide details the configuration to be achieved. Communication port becomes a Virtual Com port. Same tools as described in section 4 (RS232 Communication with firmware), can be used through this Virtual Com port. 8306B-AVR-05/10 Disclaimer Headquarters International Atmel Corporation 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 USA Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 Fax: 1(408) 487-2600 Atmel Asia Unit 1-5 & 16, 19/F BEA Tower, Millennium City 5 418 Kwun Tong Road Kwun Tong, Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2245-6100 Fax: (852) 2722-1369 Product Contact Atmel Europe Le Krebs 8, Rue Jean-Pierre Timbaud BP 309 78054 Saint-Quentin-en- Yvelines Cedex France Tel: (33) 1-30-60-70-00 Fax: (33) 1-30-60-71-11 Atmel Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg. 1-24-8 Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0033 Japan Tel: (81) 3-3523-3551 Fax: (81) 3-3523-7581 Web Site http://www.atmel.com/ Technical Support avr@atmel.com Sales Contact www.atmel.com/contacts Literature Request www.atmel.com/literature Disclaimer: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. 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Product profile 1.1 General description NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor pair in a small SOT457 (SC-74) Surface-Mounted Device (SMD) plastic package. 1.2 Features ■ Low collector capacitance ■ Low collector-emitter saturation voltage ■ Closely matched current gain ■ Reduces number of components and board space ■ No mutual interference between the transistors ■ AEC-Q101 qualified 1.3 Applications ■ General-purpose switching and amplification 1.4 Quick reference data BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 Product data sheet Table 1. Quick reference data Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit Per transistor VCEO collector-emitter voltage open base - - 45 V IC collector current - - 100 mA hFE DC current gain VCE = 5 V; IC = 2 mA 200 300 450BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 2 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 2. Pinning information 3. Ordering information 4. Marking 5. Limiting values Table 2. Pinning Pin Description Simplified outline Graphic symbol 1 emitter TR1 2 base TR1 3 collector TR2 4 emitter TR2 5 base TR2 6 collector TR1 1 3 2 6 5 4 sym020 1 2 3 6 5 TR1 TR2 4 Table 3. Ordering information Type number Package Name Description Version BC847DS SC-74 plastic surface-mounted package (TSOP6); 6 leads SOT457 Table 4. Marking codes Type number Marking code BC847DS ZL Table 5. Limiting values In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134). Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Max Unit Per transistor VCBO collector-base voltage open emitter - 50 V VCEO collector-emitter voltage open base - 45 V VEBO emitter-base voltage open collector - 6 V IC collector current - 100 mA ICM peak collector current single pulse; tp ≤ 1 ms - 200 mA IBM peak base current single pulse; tp ≤ 1 ms - 200 mA Ptot total power dissipation Tamb ≤ 25 °C [1] - 250 mW Per device Ptot total power dissipation Tamb ≤ 25 °C [1] - 380 mWBC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 3 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor [1] Device mounted on an FR4 Printed-Circuit Board (PCB), single-sided copper, tin-plated and standard footprint. 6. Thermal characteristics [1] Device mounted on an FR4 PCB, single-sided copper, tin-plated and standard footprint. Tj junction temperature - 150 °C Tamb ambient temperature −55 +150 °C Tstg storage temperature −65 +150 °C FR4 PCB, standard footprint Fig 1. Per device: Power derating curve SOT457 (SC-74) Table 5. Limiting values …continued In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134). Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Max Unit Tamb (°C) −75 175 −25 25 75 125 006aab621 200 300 100 400 500 Ptot (mW) 0 Table 6. Thermal characteristics Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit Per transistor Rth(j-a) thermal resistance from junction to ambient in free air [1] - - 500 K/W Rth(j-sp) thermal resistance from junction to solder point - - 250 K/W Per device Rth(j-a) thermal resistance from junction to ambient in free air [1] - - 328 K/WBC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 4 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 7. Characteristics FR4 PCB, standard footprint Fig 2. Per transistor: Transient thermal impedance from junction to ambient as a function of pulse duration; typical values 006aab622 10−5 10 10 −2 10−4 102 10−1 tp (s) 10−3 103 1 102 10 103 Zth(j-a) (K/W) 1 δ = 1 0.75 0.50 0.33 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01 0 0.20 Table 7. Characteristics Tamb = 25 °C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit Per transistor ICBO collector-base cut-off current VCB = 30 V; IE = 0 A - - 15 nA VCB = 30 V; IE = 0 A; Tj = 150 °C --5 µA IEBO emitter-base cut-off current VEB = 6 V; IC = 0 A - - 100 nA hFE DC current gain VCE =5V IC = 10 µA - 280 - IC = 2 mA 200 300 450 VCEsat collector-emitter saturation voltage IC = 10 mA; IB = 0.5 mA - 55 100 mV IC = 100 mA; IB = 5 mA - 200 300 mV VBEsat base-emitter saturation voltage IC = 10 mA; IB = 0.5 mA - 755 850 mV IC = 100 mA; IB = 5 mA - 1000 - mV VBE base-emitter voltage VCE =5V IC = 2 mA 580 650 700 mV IC = 10 mA - - 770 mVBC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 5 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor Cc collector capacitance VCB = 10 V; IE = ie = 0 A; f = 1 MHz - 1.9 - pF Ce emitter capacitance VEB = 0.5 V; IC = ic = 0 A; f = 1 MHz - 11 - pF fT transition frequency VCE = 5 V; IC = 10 mA; f = 100 MHz 100 - - MHz NF noise figure VCE = 5 V; IC = 0.2 mA; RS =2kΩ; f = 10 Hz to 15.7 kHz - 1.9 - dB VCE = 5 V; IC = 0.2 mA; RS =2kΩ; f = 1 kHz; B = 200 Hz - 3.1 - dB Table 7. Characteristics …continued Tamb = 25 °C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit VCE =5V (1) Tamb = 100 °C (2) Tamb = 25 °C (3) Tamb = −55 °C Tamb = 25 °C Fig 3. Per transistor: DC current gain as a function of collector current; typical values Fig 4. Per transistor: Collector current as a function of collector-emitter voltage; typical values 006aaa533 200 400 600 hFE 0 IC (mA) 10−2 103 102 10−1 1 10 (3) (1) (2) 006aaa532 VCE (V) 0 10 2 4 6 8 0.08 0.12 0.04 0.16 0.20 IC (A) 0 IB (mA) = 4.50 2.70 3.15 4.05 3.60 0.45 0.90 1.35 1.80 2.25BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 6 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor VCE = 5 V; Tamb = 25 °C IC/IB = 20 (1) Tamb = −55 °C (2) Tamb = 25 °C (3) Tamb = 100 °C Fig 5. Per transistor: Base-emitter voltage as a function of collector current; typical values Fig 6. Per transistor: Base-emitter saturation voltage as a function of collector current; typical values IC/IB = 20 (1) Tamb = 100 °C (2) Tamb = 25 °C (3) Tamb = −55 °C VCE = 5 V; Tamb = 25 °C Fig 7. Per transistor: Collector-emitter saturation voltage as a function of collector current; typical values Fig 8. Per transistor: Transition frequency as a function of collector current; typical values 006aaa536 0.6 0.8 1 VBE (V) 0.4 IC (mA) 10−1 103 102 1 10 006aaa534 IC (mA) 10−1 103 102 1 10 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.3 0.7 1.1 VBEsat (V) 0.1 (1) (2) (3) 006aaa535 1 10−1 10 VCEsat (V) 10−2 IC (mA) 10−1 103 102 1 10 (1) (2) (3) 006aaa537 IC (mA) 1 102 10 102 103 fT (MHz) 10BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 7 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor f = 1 MHz; Tamb = 25 °C f = 1 MHz; Tamb = 25 °C Fig 9. Per transistor: Collector capacitance as a function of collector-base voltage; typical values Fig 10. Per transistor: Emitter capacitance as a function of emitter-base voltage; typical values VCB (V) 0 10 2 4 6 8 006aab620 2 4 6 Cc (pF) 0 006aaa539 VEB (V) 0 6 2 4 9 11 7 13 15 Ce (pF) 5BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 8 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 8. Test information 8.1 Quality information This product has been qualified in accordance with the Automotive Electronics Council (AEC) standard Q101 - Stress test qualification for discrete semiconductors, and is suitable for use in automotive applications. 9. Package outline 10. Packing information [1] For further information and the availability of packing methods, see Section 14. [2] T1: normal taping [3] T2: reverse taping Fig 11. Package outline SOT457 (SC-74) Dimensions in mm 04-11-08 3.0 2.5 1.7 1.3 3.1 2.7 pin 1 index 1.9 0.26 0.10 0.40 0.25 0.95 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.2 1 3 2 6 5 4 Table 8. Packing methods The indicated -xxx are the last three digits of the 12NC ordering code.[1] Type number Package Description Packing quantity 3000 10000 BC847DS SOT457 4 mm pitch, 8 mm tape and reel; T1 [2] -115 -135 4 mm pitch, 8 mm tape and reel; T2 [3] -125 -165BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 9 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 11. Soldering Fig 12. Reflow soldering footprint SOT457 (SC-74) Fig 13. Wave soldering footprint SOT457 (SC-74) solder lands solder resist occupied area solder paste sot457_fr 3.45 1.95 3.3 2.825 0.45 (6×) 0.55 (6×) 0.7 (6×) 0.8 (6×) 2.4 0.95 0.95 Dimensions in mm sot457_fw 5.3 5.05 1.45 (6×) 0.45 (2×) 1.5 (4×) 2.85 1.475 1.475 solder lands solder resist occupied area preferred transport direction during soldering Dimensions in mmBC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 10 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 12. Revision history Table 9. Revision history Document ID Release date Data sheet status Change notice Supersedes BC847DS_1 20090825 Product data sheet - -BC847DS_1 © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. Product data sheet Rev. 01 — 25 August 2009 11 of 12 NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor 13. Legal information 13.1 Data sheet status [1] Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design. [2] The term ‘short data sheet’ is explained in section “Definitions”. [3] The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this document was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.nxp.com. 13.2 Definitions Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such information. Short data sheet — A short data sheet is an extract from a full data sheet with the same product type number(s) and title. A short data sheet is intended for quick reference only and should not be relied upon to contain detailed and full information. For detailed and full information see the relevant full data sheet, which is available on request via the local NXP Semiconductors sales office. In case of any inconsistency or conflict with the short data sheet, the full data sheet shall prevail. 13.3 Disclaimers General — Information in this document is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such information. Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes to information published in this document, including without limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior to the publication hereof. Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed, authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in medical, military, aircraft, space or life support equipment, nor in applications where failure or malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental damage. NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk. Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the specified use without further testing or modification. Limiting values — Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in the Absolute Maximum Ratings System of IEC 60134) may cause permanent damage to the device. Limiting values are stress ratings only and operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics sections of this document is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability. Terms and conditions of sale — NXP Semiconductors products are sold subject to the general terms and conditions of commercial sale, as published at http://www.nxp.com/profile/terms, including those pertaining to warranty, intellectual property rights infringement and limitation of liability, unless explicitly otherwise agreed to in writing by NXP Semiconductors. In case of any inconsistency or conflict between information in this document and such terms and conditions, the latter will prevail. No offer to sell or license — Nothing in this document may be interpreted or construed as an offer to sell products that is open for acceptance or the grant, conveyance or implication of any license under any copyrights, patents or other industrial or intellectual property rights. Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior authorization from national authorities. Quick reference data — The Quick reference data is an extract of the product data given in the Limiting values and Characteristics sections of this document, and as such is not complete, exhaustive or legally binding. 13.4 Trademarks Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 14. Contact information For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com Document status[1][2] Product status[3] Definition Objective [short] data sheet Development This document contains data from the objective specification for product development. Preliminary [short] data sheet Qualification This document contains data from the preliminary specification. Product [short] data sheet Production This document contains the product specification.NXP Semiconductors BC847DS 45 V, 100 mA NPN/NPN general-purpose transistor © NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved. For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com Date of release: 25 August 2009 Document identifier: BC847DS_1 Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s) described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’. 15. Contents 1 Product profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 General description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.4 Quick reference data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Pinning information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 Limiting values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 Thermal characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 Test information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8.1 Quality information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 Package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 10 Packing information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 11 Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 12 Revision history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 13 Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13.1 Data sheet status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13.2 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13.3 Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13.4 Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 14 Contact information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 15 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/480916.pdf Plug and Play Wireless CPU® Fastrack Supreme User Guide Revision: 003 Date: November 2007 © Restricted Page: 1 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Plug and Play Wireless CPU® Fastrack Supreme User Guide Reference: WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001 Revision: 003 Date: November 5, 2007 Supports Open AT® embedded ANSI C applications Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 2 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Document History Revision Date List of revisions 001 June 5, 2007 First Issue 002 September 6, 2007 Update 003 November 5, 2007 Update Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 3 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Overview The Fastrack Supreme 10 and Fastrack Supreme 20 are discrete, rugged cellular Plug & Play Wireless CPU® offering state-of-the-art GSM/GPRS (and EGPRS for Fastrack Supreme 20) connectivity for machine to machine applications. Proven for reliable, stable performance on wireless networks worldwide, Wavecom’s latest generation of Fastrack Supreme continues to deliver rapid time to market and painless integration. Having comparable size with the previous M1306B generation, and updated with new features, the Fastrack Supreme offers an Internal Expansion Socket (IES) interface accessible for customer use. Expanding application features is easy without voiding the warrantee of the Fastrack Supreme by simply plugging in of an Internal Expansion Socket Module (IESM) board. Fully certified, the quad band 850/900/1800/1900 MHz Fastrack Supreme 10 offers GPRS Class 10 capability and Fastrack Supreme 20 offers GPRS/EGPRS Class 10 capability. Both support a powerful open software platform (Open AT®). Open AT® is the world’s most comprehensive cellular development environment, which allows embedded standard ANSI C applications to be natively executed directly on the Wireless CPU®. Fastrack Supreme is controlled by firmware through a set of AT commands. This document describes the Fastrack Supreme and gives information on the following topics: • general presentation, • functional description, • basic services available, • technical characteristics, • installing and using the Fastrack Supreme, • user-level troubleshooting. • recommended accessories to be used with the product. Note: This document covers the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play alone and does not include 􀂃 The programmable capabilities provided via the use of Open AT® Software Suites. 􀂃 The development guide for IESM for expanding the application feature through the IES interface. For detailed, please refer to the documents shown in the "Reference Documents" section. Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 4 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 RoHS Directive The Fastrack Supreme is now compliant with RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, which sets limits for the use of certain restricted hazardous substances. This directive states that "from 1st July 2006, new electrical and electronic equipment put on the market does not contain lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)". Plug & Plays which are compliant with this directive are identified by the RoHS logo on their label. Disposing of the product This electronic product is subject to the EU Directive 2002/96/EC for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). As such, this product must not be disposed off at a municipal waste collection point. Please refer to local regulations for directions on how to dispose off this product in an environmental friendly manner. Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 5 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Cautions Information furnished herein by WAVECOM is accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Please read carefully the safety recommendations given in Section 9 for an application based on Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play. Trademarks ®, WAVECOM®, Wireless CPU®, Open AT® and certain other trademarks and logos appearing on this document, are filed or registered trademarks of Wavecom S.A. in France or in other countries. All other company and/or product names mentioned may be filed or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Copyright This manual is copyrighted by WAVECOM with all rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the prior written permission of WAVECOM. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of their respective owners. Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 6 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Web Site Support General information about Wavecom and its range of products: www.wavecom.com Specific support is available for the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play Wireless CPU®: www.wavecom.com/fastracksupreme Open AT® Introduction: www.wavecom.com/OpenAT Developer community for software and hardware: www.wavecom.com/forum Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 7 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Contents DOCUMENT HISTORY ...............................................................................................2 OVERVIEW................................................................................................................3 CAUTIONS ................................................................................................................5 TRADEMARKS ..........................................................................................................5 COPYRIGHT ..............................................................................................................5 WEB SITE SUPPORT .................................................................................................6 CONTENTS ...............................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................11 LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................12 1 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................14 1.1 Reference Documents..................................................................................... 14 1.1.1 Open AT® Software Documentation ........................................................ 14 1.1.2 AT Software Documentation................................................................... 14 1.1.3 Delta between M1306B Documents ....................................................... 14 1.1.4 IESM Related Documents ....................................................................... 14 1.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 15 2 PACKAGING ......................................................................................................18 2.1 Contents......................................................................................................... 18 2.2 Packaging Box................................................................................................ 19 2.3 Production Labelling ....................................................................................... 20 3 GENERAL PRESENTATION.................................................................................21 3.1 Description ..................................................................................................... 21 3.2 External Connections...................................................................................... 23 3.2.1 Connectors ............................................................................................. 23 3.2.1.1 Antenna Connector ........................................................................... 23 3.2.1.2 Power Supply Connector................................................................... 23 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 8 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 3.2.1.3 Sub HD 15-pin Connector ................................................................. 24 3.2.1.4 IES Connector ................................................................................... 26 3.2.2 Power Supply Cable................................................................................ 30 4 FEATURES AND SERVICES................................................................................31 4.1 Basic Features and Services ........................................................................... 31 4.2 Additional NEW Features................................................................................ 33 4.2.1 Support Additional GSM850/PCS1900 Bands......................................... 33 4.2.2 IES Interface for Easy Expansion of Application Features ........................ 33 4.2.3 Serial Port Auto Shut Down or Improving Power Consumption .............. 33 4.2.4 Real Time Clock (RTC) for Saving Date and Time .................................... 34 4.2.5 SIM Card Lock Feature............................................................................ 34 5 USING THE FASTRACK SUPREME PLUG & PLAY...............................................35 5.1 Getting Started ............................................................................................... 35 5.1.1 Mount the Fastrack Supreme.................................................................. 35 5.1.2 Insert/extract the SIM card to/from the Fastrack Supreme....................... 35 5.1.3 Set up the Fastrack Supreme .................................................................. 37 5.1.4 Check the communication with the Fastrack Supreme............................ 38 5.1.5 Reset the Fastrack Supreme.................................................................... 39 5.2 Specific Recommendations when Using the Fastrack Supreme on Trucks...... 39 5.2.1 Recommended Power Supply Connection on Trucks .............................. 39 5.2.2 Technical Constraints on Trucks ............................................................. 40 5.3 Fastrack Supreme Operational Status............................................................. 41 5.4 Echo Function Disabled .................................................................................. 42 5.5 Verify the Received Signal Strength ................................................................ 43 5.6 Check the Pin Code Status.............................................................................. 43 5.7 Switch between EU/US Band(s) ...................................................................... 44 5.8 Check the Band(s) Selection ........................................................................... 44 5.9 Verify the Fastrack Supreme Network Registration ......................................... 45 5.10 Main AT Commands for the Plug & Play ........................................................ 46 5.11 Firmware Upgrade Procedure ......................................................................... 48 6 TROUBLESHOOTING.........................................................................................49 6.1 No Communication with the Fastrack Supreme through the Serial Link.......... 49 6.2 Receiving "ERROR" Message ........................................................................... 50 6.3 Receiving "NO CARRIER" Message .................................................................. 50 7 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION..............................................................................53 7.1 Architecture.................................................................................................... 53 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 9 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.2 EU and US Bands ........................................................................................... 54 7.2.1 General Presentation............................................................................... 54 7.2.2 AT COMMAND for Bands Switch ........................................................... 54 7.3 Power Supply ................................................................................................. 54 7.3.1 General Presentation............................................................................... 54 7.3.2 Protections.............................................................................................. 54 7.4 RS232 Serial Link............................................................................................ 55 7.4.1 General Presentation............................................................................... 55 7.4.2 Autobauding Mode................................................................................. 56 7.4.3 Pin Description........................................................................................ 56 7.4.4 Serial Port Auto shut down Feature ........................................................ 56 7.5 General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) ............................................................. 57 7.6 BOOT ............................................................................................................. 57 7.7 RESET ............................................................................................................ 58 7.7.1 General Presentation............................................................................... 58 7.7.2 Reset Sequence ...................................................................................... 58 7.8 Audio.............................................................................................................. 59 7.8.1 Microphone Inputs.................................................................................. 59 7.8.2 Speaker Outputs ..................................................................................... 60 7.9 Real Time Clock (RTC)..................................................................................... 60 7.10 FLASH LED 61 8 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS ........................................................................62 8.1 Mechanical Characteristics ............................................................................. 62 8.2 Electrical Characteristics ................................................................................. 64 8.2.1 Power Supply ......................................................................................... 64 8.2.2 Power Consumption ............................................................................... 65 8.2.3 Audio Interface ....................................................................................... 68 8.2.4 General Purpose Input/Output................................................................. 69 8.2.5 SIM Interface .......................................................................................... 69 8.2.6 RESET Signal .......................................................................................... 69 8.2.7 RF Characteristics ................................................................................... 70 8.2.7.1 Frequency Ranges ............................................................................ 70 8.2.7.2 RF Performances............................................................................... 71 8.2.7.3 External Antenna .............................................................................. 71 8.3 Environmental Characteristics ........................................................................ 72 8.4 Conformity...................................................................................................... 75 8.5 Protections ..................................................................................................... 75 8.5.1 Power Supply ......................................................................................... 75 8.5.2 Overvoltage............................................................................................. 76 8.5.3 Electrostatic Discharge............................................................................ 76 8.5.4 Miscellaneous......................................................................................... 76 9 SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS..........................................................................77 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 10 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 9.1 General Safety ................................................................................................ 77 9.2 Vehicle Safety ................................................................................................. 78 9.3 Care and Maintenance.................................................................................... 78 9.4 Your Responsibility ......................................................................................... 79 10 RECOMMENDED ACCESSORIES........................................................................80 11 ONLINE SUPPORT .............................................................................................82 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 11 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 List of Figures Figure 1: Complete package contents ....................................................................... 18 Figure 2: Packaging box ........................................................................................... 19 Figure 3: Production Label ........................................................................................ 20 Figure 4: Fastrack Supreme general description........................................................ 21 Figure 5: Fastrack Supreme holding bridles .............................................................. 22 Figure 6: SMA connector for antenna connection ..................................................... 23 Figure 7: Power supply connector ............................................................................ 24 Figure 8: Sub HD 15-pin connector .......................................................................... 25 Figure 9: IES connector for feature expansion........................................................... 27 Figure 10: Power supply cable.................................................................................. 30 Figure 11: SIM card lock feature ............................................................................... 34 Figure 12: Fastrack Supreme mounting .................................................................... 35 Figure 13: Procedure for SIM card insertion.............................................................. 36 Figure 14: Procedure for SIM card extraction............................................................ 37 Figure 15: Recommended power supply connection on trucks ................................. 40 Figure 16: Example of electrical connection which may dramatically damage the Fastrack Supreme................................................................................... 41 Figure 17: Functional architecture ............................................................................ 53 Figure 18: RS232 Serial Link signals......................................................................... 55 Figure 19: Reset sequence diagram.......................................................................... 59 Figure 20: Dimensioning diagram............................................................................. 63 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 12 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 List of Tables . Table 1: Power supply connector pin description...................................................... 24 Table 2: Sub HD 15-pin connector description.......................................................... 25 Table 3: IES Connector Description........................................................................... 27 Table 4: Basic features of the Fastrack Supreme....................................................... 31 Table 5: Fastrack Supreme operational status .......................................................... 42 Table 6: Values of received signal strength............................................................... 43 Table 7: AT+CPIN Responses ................................................................................... 43 Table 8: AT+WMBS Band Selection ......................................................................... 44 Table 9: AT+WMBS Responses................................................................................ 44 Table 10: Values of network registration................................................................... 45 Table 11: Main usual AT commands for the Plug & Play .......................................... 46 Table 12: Solutions for no connection with Fastrack Supreme through serial link..... 49 Table 13: Solutions for "NO CARRIER" message ........................................................ 51 Table 14: Interpretation of extended error code ........................................................ 52 Table 15: Mechanical characteristics ........................................................................ 62 Table 16: Electrical characteristics ............................................................................ 64 Table 17: Effects of power supply defect .................................................................. 64 Table 18: Power consumption in connected modes (1*)........................................... 65 Table 19: Power consumption in non-connected modes(1*)..................................... 66 Table 20: Audio parameters caracteristics ................................................................ 68 Table 21: Microphone inputs internal audio filter characteristics .............................. 68 Table 22: Recommended characteristics for the microphone: ................................... 68 Table 23: Recommended characteristics for the speaker: ......................................... 69 Table 24: Operating conditions................................................................................. 69 Table 25: SIM card characteristics............................................................................ 69 Table 26: Electrical characteristics ............................................................................ 69 Table 27: Operating conditions................................................................................. 70 Table 28: Frequency ranges...................................................................................... 70 Table 29: Receiver and transmitter RF performances................................................ 71 Table 30: External antenna characteristics................................................................ 71 Table 31: Ranges of temperature.............................................................................. 72 Fastrack Supreme User Guide © Restricted Page: 13 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 32: Environmental standard constraints.......................................................... 73 Table 33: List of recommended accessories.............................................................. 80 Table 34: Fastrack Supreme Family .......................................................................... 81 Fastrack Supreme User Guide References © Restricted Page: 14 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 1 References 1.1 Reference Documents For more details, several reference documents may be consulted. The Wavecom reference documents are provided in the Wavecom documents package contrary to the general reference documents, which are not Wavecom owned. 1.1.1 Open AT® Software Documentation [1] Getting started with Open AT® SDK v4.22 (Ref.WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_048) [2] Tutorial for Open AT® IDE V1.04 (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_044) [3] Tools Manual for Open AT® IDE V1.04 (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_045) [4] Basic Development Guide for Open AT®V4.21 (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_050) [5] ADL User Guide for Open AT®V4.21 (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_051) [6] Open AT® v4.22 Official Release Note (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_DVD_338) 1.1.2 AT Software Documentation [7] AT commands interface Guide for FW v6.63 (Ref. WM_DEV_OAT_UGD_049) [8] Open AT® Firmware v6.63 Customer Release Note (Ref.WM_PGM_OAT_CRN_001) 1.1.3 Delta between M1306B Documents [9] Delta between M1306B and Fastrack Supreme (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_004) 1.1.4 IESM Related Documents [10] IESM Product Technical Specification (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_PTS_001) [11] IESM-GPS+USB User Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_002) [12] IESM-GPS+USB Installation Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_003) [13] IESM-IO+USB Installation Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_005) [14] IESM-IO+USB User Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_006) [15] IESM-IO+USB+GPS Installation Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_007) [16] IESM-IO+USB+GPS User Guide (Ref. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_008) Note: New versions of software may be available. Wavecom recommends customers to check the web site for the latest documentation. Fastrack Supreme User Guide References © Restricted Page: 15 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 1.2 Abbreviations Abbreviation Definition AC Alternating Current ACM Accumulated Call Meter AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate AT ATtention (prefix for Wireless CPU® commands) CLK CLocK CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CS Coding Scheme CTS Clear To Send dB Decibel dBc Decibel relative to the Carrier power dBi Decibel relative to an Isotropic radiator dBm Decibel relative to one milliwatt DC Direct Current DCD Data Carrier Detect DCE Data Communication Equipment DCS Digital Cellular System DSR Data Set Ready DTE Data Terminal Equipment DTMF Dual Tone Multi-Frequency DTR Data Terminal Ready EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EFR Enhanced Full Rate E-GSM Extended GSM EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility EMI ElectroMagnetic Interference ESD ElectroStatic Discharges ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute FIT Series of connectors (micro-FIT) FR Full Rate FTA Full Type Approval GCF Global Certification Forum Fastrack Supreme User Guide References © Restricted Page: 16 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Abbreviation Definition GND GrouND GPIO General Purpose Input Output GPRS General Packet Radio Service GSM Global System for Mobile communications HR Half Rate I Input IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IES Internal Expansion Socket IESM Internal Expansion Socket Module IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identification I/O Input / Output LED Light Emitting Diode MAX MAXimum ME Mobile Equipment MIC MICrophone Micro-Fit Family of connectors from Molex MIN MINimum MNP Microcom Networking Protocol MO Mobile Originated MS Mobile Station MT Mobile Terminated NOM NOMinal O Output Pa Pascal (for speaker sound pressure measurements) PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control CHannel PC Personal Computer PCL Power Control Level PDP Packet Data Protocol PIN Personal Identity Number PLMN Public Land Mobile Network PUK Personal Unblocking Key RF Radio Frequency RFI Radio Frequency Interference Fastrack Supreme User Guide References © Restricted Page: 17 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Abbreviation Definition RI Ring Indicator RMS Root Mean Square RTS Request To Send RX Receive SIM Subscriber Identification Module SMA SubMiniature version A RF connector SMS Short Message Service SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SPL Sound Pressure Level SPK SpeaKer SRAM Static RAM TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TU Typical Urban fading profile TUHigh Typical Urban, High speed fading profile TX Transmit TYP TYPical VSWR Voltage Stationary Wave Ratio Fastrack Supreme User Guide Packaging © Restricted Page: 18 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 2 Packaging 2.1 Contents The complete package content of the Fastrack Supreme consists of (see): • one packaging box (A), • one Fastrack Supreme (B), • two holding bridles (C), • one power supply cable with fuse integrated (D) • a mini notice (E) with: 􀂃 a summary of the main technical features, 􀂃 safety recommendations, 􀂃 EC declaration of conformity. Figure 1: Complete package contents A D E C B Fastrack Supreme User Guide Packaging © Restricted Page: 19 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 2.2 Packaging Box The packaging box is a carton box (see) with the following external dimensions: • width: 54.5 mm, • height: 68 mm, • length: 108 mm. A packaging label is slicked on the packaging box cover and supports the: • WAVECOM logo, • Product reference (Fastrack Supreme 20 or Fastrack Supreme 10), • CE marking • 15-digit IMEI code • Open AT® Logo • WEEE logo Figure 2: Packaging box The packaging label dimensions are: • height: 40 mm, • length: 65 mm. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Packaging © Restricted Page: 20 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 2.3 Production Labelling A production label (see Figure 3) located at the Fastrack Supreme back side gives the following information: • product reference (Fastrack Supreme 10 or Fastrack Supreme 20), • part number (WM20230), • CE marking, • 15-digit IMEI code, • Open AT® logo • Made by Wavecom Figure 3: Production Label Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 21 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 3 General Presentation 3.1 Description The Fastrack Supreme description is given in the Figure 4 below. IES connector for expanding feature, like GPS, USB, I/O expander… Refer to Section 3.2.1.4 Removed Screw for Back Plate Sub HD connector Micro- Fit connector Back Plate SIM card inside Back Cap SIM connector Lock switch of SIM connector SMA connector GSM LED Indicator Screw for Back Plate Removed Back Plate Back Cap with 5 screws Figure 4: Fastrack Supreme general description Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 22 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 CAUTION: Users are free to remove the back plate for IESM board plug in/unplug without voiding the warrantee of the Fastrack Supreme. However, the warrantee will be voided if unscrewing any screw of the back cap. In addition, two holding bridles are provided to tighten the Fastrack Supreme on a support. Figure 5: Fastrack Supreme holding bridles Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 23 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 3.2 External Connections 3.2.1 Connectors 3.2.1.1 Antenna Connector The antenna connector is a SMA type connector for a 50 Ω RF connection. Figure 6: SMA connector for antenna connection 3.2.1.2 Power Supply Connector The power supply connector is a 4-pin Micro FIT connector for: • external DC Power Supply connection, • GPIOs connection (two General Purpose Input/Output signals available). SMA connector for antenna connection Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 24 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 1 2 3 4 Figure 7: Power supply connector Table 1: Power supply connector pin description Pin # Signal I/O I/O type Description Reset State Comment 1 V+BATTERY I Power supply Battery voltage input: 􀂃 5.5 V Min. 􀂃 13.2 V Typ. 􀂃 32 V Max. High current 2 GND Power supply Ground 3 GPIO21 I/O 2V8 General Purpose Input/output Undefined Not mux 4 GPIO25 I/O 2V8 General Purpose Input/output Z Multiplex with INT1 Warning: Both pin 3 and pin 4 are used by GPIO interface. It is strictly prohibited to connect them to any power supply at the risk of damage to the Fastrack Supreme. 3.2.1.3 Sub HD 15-pin Connector The Sub D high density 15-pin connector is used for: • RS232 serial link connection, • Audio lines (microphone and speaker) connection, • BOOT and RESET signal connection. Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 25 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 15 14 13 12 11 Figure 8: Sub HD 15-pin connector Table 2: Sub HD 15-pin connector description Pin # Signal (CCITT / EIA) I/O I/O type Description Comment 1 CDCD/CT109 O STANDARD RS232 RS232 Data Carrier Detect 2 CTXD/CT103 I STANDARD RS232 RS232 Transmit serial data 3 BOOT I CMOS Boot This signal must not be connected. Its use is strictly reserved to Wavecom or competent retailers. 4 CMIC2P I Analog Microphone positive line 5 CMIC2N I Analog Microphone negative line 6 CRXD/CT104 O STANDARD RS232 RS232 Receive serial data 7 CDSR/CT107 O STANDARD RS232 RS232 Data Set Ready Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 26 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Pin # Signal (CCITT / EIA) I/O I/O type Description Comment 8 CDTR/CT108-2 I STANDARD RS232 RS232 Data Terminal Ready 9 GND - GND Ground 10 CSPK2P O Analog Speaker positive line 11 CCTS/CT106 O STANDARD RS232 RS232 Clear To Send 12 CRTS/CT105 I STANDARD RS232 RS232 Request To Send 13 CRI/CT125 O STANDARD RS232 RS232 Ring Indicator 14 RESET I/O Schmitt Supreme Plug & Play reset Active low 15 CSPK2N O Analog Speaker negative line 3.2.1.4 IES Connector The IES connector is a 50 pins board-to-board connector for expanding application features like GPS, USB, I/O expander… Currently there are already 3 IESM boards available for customer to expand the Fastrack Supreme features immediately. They are: 􀂃 IESM GPS+USB 􀂃 IESM I/O+USB 􀂃 IESM I/O+USB+GPS For detail, please refer to Document in Section 1.1.4. Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 27 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 For sales and support, please contact Wavecom sales/FAE or your distributor. Figure 9: IES connector for feature expansion Table 3: IES Connector Description Pin Signal Name Number Nominal Mux I/O type Voltage I/O* Reset State Description Dealing with unused pins 1 GND Ground 2 GND Ground 3 GPIO4 COL0 C8 GSM-1V8 I/O Pull-up Keypad column 0 NC 4 GPIO5 COL1 C8 GSM-1V8 I/O Pull-up Keypad column 1 NC 5 GPIO6 COL2 C8 GSM-1V8 I/O Pull-up Keypad column 2 NC 6 GPIO7 COL3 C8 GSM-1V8 I/O Pull-up Keypad column 3 NC 7 VPADUSB VPAD-USB I USB Power supply input NC 8 USB-DP VPAD-USB I/O USB Data NC 9 USB-DM VPAD-USB I/O USB Data NC 10 GSM- 1V8* GSM-1V8 O 1.8V Supply Output (for GPIO pull-up only) NC 11 GSM- 2V8* GSM-1V8 O 2.8V Supply Output (for GPIO pull-up only) NC 12 BOOT GSM-1V8 I Not Used Add a test point / a jumper/ a switch to VCC_1V8 (Pin 10) in case Download Specific mode is used (See product specification for details) Pin 2 Pin 1 Pin 50 Pin 49 Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 28 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Pin Signal Name Number Nominal Mux I/O type Voltage I/O* Reset State Description Dealing with unused pins 13 ~RESET C4 GSM-1V8 I/O RESET Input NC or add a test point 14 AUX-ADC A2 Analog I Analog to Digital Input Pull to GND 15 ~SPI1-CS GPIO31 C1 GSM-2V8 O Z SPI1 Chip Select NC 16 SPI1-CLK GPIO32 C1 GSM-2V8 O Z SPI1 Clock NC 17 SPI1-I GPIO30 C1 GSM-2V8 I Z SPI1 Data Input NC 18 SPI1-IO GPIO29 C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Z SPI1 Data Input / Output NC 19 SPI2-CLK GPIO32 C1 GSM-2V8 O Z SPI2 Clock NC 20 SPI2-IO GPIO33 C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Z SPI2 Data Input / Output NC 21 ~SPI2-CS GPIO35 C1 GSM-2V8 O Z SPI2 Chip Select NC 22 SPI2-I GPIO34 C1 GSM-2V8 I Z SPI2 Data Input NC 23 CT104- RXD2 GPIO15 C1 GSM-1V8 O Z Auxiliary RS232 Receive Add a test point for firmware upgrade 24 CT103- TXD2 GPIO14 C1 GSM-1V8 I Z Auxiliary RS232 Transmit (TXD2) Pull-up to VCC_1V8 with 100k and add a test point for firmware update 25 ~CT106- CTS2 GPIO16 C1 GSM-1V8 O Z Auxiliary RS232 Clear To Send (CTS2) Add a test point for firmware update 26 ~CT105- RTS2 GPIO17 C1 GSM-1V8 I Z Auxiliary RS232 Request To Send (RTS2) Pull-up to VCC_1V8 with 100k and add a test point for firmware update 27 GPIO8 COL4 C8 GSM-1V8 I/O Pull-up Keypad column 4 NC 28 GPIO26 SCL A1 Open Drain O Z I²C Clock NC 29 GPIO19 C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Z NC 30 GPIO27 SDA A1 Open Drain I/O Z I²C Data NC 31 GPIO20 C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Undefine d NC 32 INT0 GPIO3 C1 GSM-1V8 I Z Interruption 0 Input If INT0 is not used, it should be configured as GPIO 33 GPIO23 ** C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Z NC 34 GPIO22 ** C1 GSM-2V8 I/O Z NC 35 ~CT108- 2-DTR1 GPIO41 C1 GSM-2V8 I Z Main RS232 Data Terminal Ready (DTR1) Pull-up to VCC_2V8 with 100k 36 PCMSYNC GSM-1V8 O Pulldown PCM Frame Synchro NC Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 29 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Pin Signal Name Number Nominal Mux I/O type Voltage I/O* Reset State Description Dealing with unused pins 37 PCM-IN C5 GSM-1V8 I Pull-up PCM Data Input NC 38 PCM-CLK GSM-1V8 O Pulldown PCM Clock NC 39 PCM-OUT GSM-1V8 O Pull-up PCM Data Output NC 40 AUX-DAC Analog O Digital to Analog Output NC 41 VCC-2V8 VCC_2V8 O LDO 2.8V Supply Output NC 42 GND Ground 43 DC-IN DC-IN from 5.5V~32V DC O DC voltage input through Micro-Fit connector NC 44 DC-IN DC-IN from 5.5V~32V DC O DC voltage input through Micro-Fit connector NC 45 GND Ground 46 4V 4V O 4V DC/DC converter Output NC 47 4V 4V O 4V DC/DC converter Output NC 48 GND Ground 49 GND Ground 50 GND Ground Fastrack Supreme User Guide General Presentation © Restricted Page: 30 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 3.2.2 Power Supply Cable Figure 10: Power supply cable Component Characteristics Micro-Fit connector 4-pin Part number: MOLEX 43025-0400 Cable Cable length: ∼1.5 m Wire Core: tinned copper 24 x 0.2 mm Section: 0.75 mm2 Fastrack Supreme User Guide Features and Services © Restricted Page: 31 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 4 Features and Services 4.1 Basic Features and Services Basic features of the Fastrack Supreme and available services are summarized in the table below. Table 4: Basic features of the Fastrack Supreme Features GSM850 / GSM900 DCS1800 / PCS1900 Open AT® Open AT® programmable: Native execution of embedded standard ANSI C applications, Custom AT command creation, Custom application library creation, Standalone operation. Standard 850MHz / 900 MHz. E-GSM compliant. Output power: class 4 (2W). Fully compliant with ETSI GSM phase 2 + small MS. 1800 MHz / 1900MHz Output power: class 1 (1W). Fully compliant with ETSI GSM phase 2 + small MS. GPRS Class 10. PBCCH support. Coding schemes: CS1 to CS4. Compliant with SMG31bis. Embedded TCP/IP stack. EGPRS Output power: 0.5W Output power: 0.4W (for Fastrack Supreme 20 only) Class 10. PBCCH support. Coding schemes: MCS1 to MCS9. Compliant with SMG31bis. Embedded TCP/IP stack. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Features and Services © Restricted Page: 32 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Features GSM850 / GSM900 DCS1800 / PCS1900 Interfaces RS232 (V.24/V.28) Serial interface supporting: 􀂃 Baud rate (bits/s): 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800 and 921600. 􀂃 Autobauding (bits/s): from 1200 to 921600. 2 General Purpose Input/Output gates (GPIOs) available. 1.8 V / 3 V SIM interface. AT command set based on V.25ter and GSM 07.05 & 07.07. Open AT® interface for embedded application. Open AT® Plug-In Compatible. SMS Text & PDU. Point to point (MT/MO). Cell broadcast. Data Data circuit asynchronous. Transparent and Non Transparent modes. Up to 14.400 bits/s. MNP Class 2 error correction. V42.bis data compression. Fax Automatic fax group 3 (class 1 and Class 2). Audio Echo cancellation Noise reduction Telephony. Emergency calls. Full Rate, Enhanced Full Rate, Half Rate operation and Adaptive Multi-Rate (FR/EFR/HR/AMR). Dual Tone Multi Frequency function (DTMF). Fastrack Supreme User Guide Features and Services © Restricted Page: 33 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Features GSM850 / GSM900 DCS1800 / PCS1900 GSM supplement services Call forwarding. Call barring. Multiparty. Call waiting and call hold. Calling line identity. Advice of charge. USSD Other DC power supply Real Time Clock with calendar Complete shielding For other detailed technical characteristics, refer to Section 8. 4.2 Additional NEW Features 4.2.1 Support Additional GSM850/PCS1900 Bands Apart from GSM900/DCS1800, the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play now supports also the GSM850/PCS1900 bands. Fastrack Supreme is fully compliant to PTCRB and FCC also. 4.2.2 IES Interface for Easy Expansion of Application Features The Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play offers a 50 pin Internal Expansion Socket (IES) Interface accessible for customer use. It is the additional interface which is easy for customers to expand their application features without voiding the warrantee of the Fastrack Supreme, by simply plugging in an Internal Expansion Socket Module (IESM) board through the matting connector of the IES interface. Thanks to the flexible IES interface, customers are ready to expand the application features by plugging in the corresponding Internal Expansion Socket Module (IESM) of GPS, I/O expander…, etc. For brief description of the interface, please refer to Section 3.2.1.4. For technical detail, please refer to Document [10] or contact your Wavecom distributor or Wavecom FAE. 4.2.3 Serial Port Auto Shut Down or Improving Power Consumption In order to save power consumption when there is no data communication between the Plug & Play and the DTE, Fastrack Supreme has now implement the Serial Port Auto Shut Down feature. User can activate or deactivate the Serial Port Auto Shut Down mode by simple AT-command. For detail, please refer to Section 7.4.4. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Features and Services © Restricted Page: 34 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 4.2.4 Real Time Clock (RTC) for Saving Date and Time The Fastrack Supreme has now implemented the Real Time Clock for saving date and time when the Plug & Play is unplugged from the DC power supply through the DC power cable. For detail, please refer to Section 7.9. 4.2.5 SIM Card Lock Feature The Fastrack Supreme has now implemented a SIM connector having a carrier with lock. This helps ensuring the user to have proper SIM card insertion and locked before proper use of GSM network. SIM card is inserted but not locked. GSM network is not ready for use. Only emergency call 112 is possible. SIM card is inserted and being locked properly. GSM network is ready for use. Figure 11: SIM card lock feature Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 35 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 5 Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play 5.1 Getting Started 5.1.1 Mount the Fastrack Supreme To mount the Fastrack Supreme on its support, bind it using the holding bridles as shown in the Figure 12 below. Figure 12: Fastrack Supreme mounting For the drill template, refer to Figure 20. 5.1.2 Insert/extract the SIM card to/from the Fastrack Supreme In order to insert the SIM card to the Fastrack Supreme, please follow the procedure in Figure 13. Step 1: Ready the SIM card in the orientation as shown. Step 2: Slide in the SIM card inside the SIM holder. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 36 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Step 3: Use a tool to help pushing the SIM card inside the SIM holder. Step 4: Push until you hear a “click” sound. Step 5: Release the tool. The SIM card is now put inside the SIM holder. Step 6: Move the carrier toward center to lock properly the SIM card. GSM network is ready for use. Figure 13: Procedure for SIM card insertion Caution: Please make sure the SIM card is horizontally inserted into the SIM holder. Otherwise, the SIM card may be blocked inside the Fastrack Supreme. In order to extract the SIM card from the Fastrack Supreme, please follow the procedure in Figure 14. Step 1: SIM card is put inside the SIM holder and locked properly before extraction. Step 2: Move the carrier toward the edge to unlock the SIM card. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 37 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Step 3: Use a tool to help pushing the SIM card a little bit inside the SIM holder until you hear a “click” sound. Step 4: The SIM card spring out a little bit. Step 5: You can easily extract the SIM card by hand now. Step 6: SIM card is extracted. Figure 14: Procedure for SIM card extraction 5.1.3 Set up the Fastrack Supreme To set up the Fastrack Supreme, perform the following operations: • Insert the SIM card into the SIM card holder of the Fastrack Supreme. • Lock the SIM card by sliding the lever towards the SIM card. • Connect the antenna to the SMA connector. • Connect both sides of the serial and control cable (15-pin Sub HD connector on the Fastrack Supreme side). • Connect the power supply cable to the external power supply source. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 38 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Note: For automotive application, it is recommended to connect the V+BATTERY line of the Fastrack Supreme directly to the battery positive terminal. • Plug the power supply cable into the Fastrack Supreme and switch on the external power supply source. • The Fastrack Supreme is ready to work. Refer to Section 5.10 for the description of AT commands used to configure the Fastrack Supreme. 5.1.4 Check the communication with the Fastrack Supreme To check the communication with the Fastrack Supreme, do the following operations: • Connect the RS232 link between the DTE (port COM) and the Fastrack Supreme (DCE). • Configure the RS232 port of the DTE as follows: 􀂃 Bits per second: 115.200 bps, 􀂃 Data bits: 8, 􀂃 Parity: None, 􀂃 Stop bits: 1, 􀂃 Flow control: hardware. • Using a communication software such as a HyperTerminal, enter the AT↵ command. The response of the Fastrack Supreme must be OK displayed in the HyperTerminal window. • If the communication cannot be established with the Fastrack Supreme, do the following: 􀂃 Check the RS232 connection between the DTE and the Fastrack Supreme (DCE), 􀂃 Check the configuration of the port COM used on the DTE. • Example of AT commands which can be used after getting started the Fastrack Supreme: 􀂃 AT+CGMI: Fastrack Supreme answer is "WAVECOM MODEM" when serial link is OK. 􀂃 AT+CPIN=xxxx: to enter a PIN code xxxx (if activated). 􀂃 AT+CSQ: to verify the received signal strength. 􀂃 AT+CREG?: to verify the registration of the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play on the network. 􀂃 ATD: to initiate a voice call. 􀂃 ATH: to hang up (end of call). Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 39 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 For further information on these AT commands and their associated parameters, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. 5.1.5 Reset the Fastrack Supreme To reset the Fastrack Supreme, a hardware reset signal is available on pin 14 of the Sub HD 15-pin connector (RESET). The Fastrack Supreme reset is carried out when this pin is low for at least 200 μs. Warning This signal has to be considered as an emergency reset only. For further details on the Fastrack Supreme reset, refer to Section 7.7. 5.2 Specific Recommendations when Using the Fastrack Supreme on Trucks Warning: The power supply connection of the Fastrack Supreme must NEVER be directly connected to the truck battery. 5.2.1 Recommended Power Supply Connection on Trucks All trucks have a circuit breaker on the exterior of the cabin. The circuit breaker is used for safety reasons: if a fire blazes in the trucks, (for example, on the wiring trunk) the driver may cut the current source to avoid any damage (explosion). The circuit breaker is connected to the truck ground, most often associated with the fuse box. Most of truck circuit breakers do not cut the Positive Supply line of the battery, but cut the ground line of the later. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 40 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 FASTRACK Supreme Figure 15: Recommended power supply connection on trucks Figure 15 gives the recommended power supply connection where the ground connection of the Fastrack Supreme is not directly connected to the battery but is connected after the Circuit Breaker (on the truck ground or the fuse box). 5.2.2 Technical Constraints on Trucks It is highly not recommended to connect directly the power supply on the battery rather than on the circuit breaker. The Fastrack Supreme may be damaged when starting the truck if the circuit breaker is switched OFF (in this case, the truck ground and the battery ground will be connected through the Fastrack Supreme as shown in the Figure 16). Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 41 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 FASTRACK Supreme Figure 16: Example of electrical connection which may dramatically damage the Fastrack Supreme Figure 16 gives an example of electrical connection which may dramatically damage the Fastrack Supreme when its ground connection is directly connected to the battery ground. In this example, when the circuit breaker is switched OFF, the current flows through the Fastrack Supreme and powers the electrical circuit of the truck (for example, dashboard). Furthermore, when the Starter Engine command will be used, it will destroy the cables or the Fastrack Supreme. Since the internal tracks are not designed to support high current (up to 60 A when starting the truck), they will be destroyed. 5.3 Fastrack Supreme Operational Status The Fastrack Supreme operational status is given by the red LED status located next to the SIM connector on the Fastrack Supreme panel. The Table 5 below gives the meaning of the various statuses available. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 42 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 5: Fastrack Supreme operational status LED Status LED light activity Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play status LED ON permanent Fastrack Supreme is switched ON but not registered on the network LED Flashing slowly Fastrack Supreme is switched ON and registered on the network, but no communication is in progress (Idle mode) ON LED Flashing rapidly Fastrack Supreme is switched ON and registered on the network, and a communication is in progress OFF LED OFF Fastrack Supreme is switched OFF, or Flash LED is disabled* by the user. *: Flash LED can be disabled by user when in Slow Standby mode in order to save power consumption. For detail, please refer to Section 7.10. 5.4 Echo Function Disabled If no echo is displayed when entering an AT command, that means: • The "local echo" parameter of your communication software (such as HyperTerminal) is disabled. • The Fastrack Supreme echo function is disabled. To enable the Fastrack Supreme echo function, enter the ATE1. When sending AT commands to the Fastrack Supreme by using a communication software, it is recommended: • to disable the "local echo" parameter of your communication software (such as HyperTerminal), • to enable the Fastrack Supreme echo function (ATE1 command). In a Machine To Machine communication with the Fastrack Supreme, it is recommended to disable the Fastrack Supreme echo function (ATE0 command) in order to avoid useless CPU processing. For further information on ATE0 and ATE1 commands, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 43 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 5.5 Verify the Received Signal Strength The Fastrack Supreme establishes a call only if the received signal is sufficiently strong. To verify the received signal strength, do the following operations: • Using a communication software such as HyperTerminal, enter the AT command AT+CSQ. The response returned has the following format: +CSQ: , with: • = received signal strength indication, • = channel bit error rate. • Verify the value returned using the Table 6 below. Table 6: Values of received signal strength Value of received signal strength indication () Interpretation of the received signal strength 0 - 10 Insufficient(*) 11 - 31 Sufficient(*) 32 - 98 Not defined 99 No measure available (*) Based on general observations. For further information on AT commands, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. 5.6 Check the Pin Code Status To check that the pin code has been entered, use a communication software such as a HyperTerminal, then enter AT+CPIN? command. The table below gives the main responses returned: Table 7: AT+CPIN Responses AT+CPIN response (*) Interpretation +CPIN: READY Code PIN has been entered +CPIN: SIM PIN Code PIN has not been entered (*)For further information on the other possible responses and their meaning, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 44 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 5.7 Switch between EU/US Band(s) To switch between EU/US band(s) for the Fastrack Supreme, use a communication software such as a HyperTerminal, then enter AT+WMBS=[,] command. The table below gives the commands for various band(s) selection: Table 8: AT+WMBS Band Selection AT+WMBS response (*) Interpretation AT+WMBS=0,x Select mono band mode 850MHz. AT+WMBS=1,x Select mono band mode extended 900MHz AT+WMBS=2,x Select mono band mode 1800MHz AT+WMBS=3,x Select mono band mode 1900MHz AT+WMBS=4,x Select dual band mode 850/1900MHz AT+WMBS=5,x Select dual band mode extended 900MHz/1800MHz AT+WMBS=6,x Select dual band mode extended 900MHz/1900MHz (*)For further information on the other possible responses and their meaning, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. Remark: x=0 : The Plug & Play will have to be reset to start on specified band(s). x=1 : The change is effective immediately. This mode is forbidden while in communication and during Plug & Play initialization. Refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further information on AT commands. 5.8 Check the Band(s) Selection To check the band selection for the Fastrack Supreme, use a communication software such as a HyperTerminal, then enter AT+WMBS? command. The table below gives the main responses returned: Table 9: AT+WMBS Responses AT+WMBS response (*) Interpretation +WMBS: 0,x Mono band mode 850MHz is selected +WMBS: 1,x Mono band mode extended 900MHz is selected +WMBS: 2,x Mono band mode 1800MHz is selected +WMBS: 3,x Mono band mode 1900MHz is selected Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 45 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 AT+WMBS response (*) Interpretation +WMBS: 4,x Dual band mode 850/1900MHz are selected +WMBS: 5,x Dual band mode extended 900MHz/1800MHz are selected +WMBS: 6,x Dual band mode extended 900MHz/1900MHz are selected (*)For further information on the other possible responses and their meaning, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. 5.9 Verify the Fastrack Supreme Network Registration 1. Make sure a valid SIM card has been previously inserted and locked in the Fastrack Supreme SIM card holder. 2. Using a communication software such as a HyperTerminal, enter the following AT commands: a. AT+CPIN=xxxx to enter PIN code xxxx. b. AT+WMBS? To check the current band setting in the Plug & Play c. AT+WMBS=[,] To switch band/mode when needed d. AT+CREG?. To ascertain the registration status. The format of the returned response is as follows: +CREG: , with: • = unsolicited registration message configuration, • = registration state. 3. Verify the state of registration according the returned value given in the table below. Table 10: Values of network registration Returned Value (*) , Network registration +CREG: 0,0 No (not registered) +CREG: 0,1 Yes (registered, home network) +CREG: 0,5 Yes (registered, roaming) (*)For further information on the other returned values and their meaning, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 46 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 If the Fastrack Supreme is not registered, perform the following procedure: • Check the connection between the Fastrack Supreme and the antenna. • Verify the signal strength to determine the received signal strength (refer to Section 5.5). Note: For information on AT command relating to the network registration in GPRS mode, and in particular: CGREG, CGCLASS, CGATT, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. 5.10 Main AT Commands for the Plug & Play The table below lists the main AT commands required for starting the Plug & Play. For other AT commands available or further information on the AT commands, refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. Table 11: Main usual AT commands for the Plug & Play Description AT commands Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play response Comment Check for selected band(s) AT+WMBS? +WMBS:, OK Current selected band mode is return AT+WMBS= OK Band switch is accepted, Plug & Play has to be reset for change to be effective AT+WMBS=,0 OK Band switch is accepted, Plug & Play has to be reset for change to be effective AT+WMBS=,1 OK Band switch is accepted and GSMS stack restarted Band(s) switch AT+WMBS= +CME ERROR: 3 Band not allowed Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 47 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Description AT commands Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play response Comment OK PIN Code accepted. +CME ERROR: 16 Incorrect PIN Code (with +CMEE = 1 mode) (1*) Enter PIN Code AT+CPIN=xxxx (xxxx = PIN code) +CME ERROR: 3 PIN code already entered (with +CMEE = 1 mode) (1*) +CREG: 0,1 Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play registered on the network. +CREG: 0,2 Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play not registered on the network, registration attempt. Network registration checking AT+CREG? +CREG: 0,0 Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play not registered on the network, no registration attempt. Receiving an incoming call ATA OK Answer the call. OK Communication established. +CME ERROR: 11 PIN code not entered (with +CMEE = 1 mode). Initiate a call ATD; (Don’t forget the « ; » at the end for « voice » call) +CME ERROR: 3 AOC credit exceeded or a communication is already established. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Using the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play © Restricted Page: 48 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Description AT commands Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play response Comment Initiate an emergency call ATD112; (Don’t forget the « ; » at the end for « voice » call) OK Communication established. Communication loss NO CARRIER Hang up ATH OK Store the parameters in EEPROM AT&W OK The configuration settings are stored in EEPROM. (1*) The command "AT+CMEE=1" switch to a mode enabling more complete error diagnostics. 5.11 Firmware Upgrade Procedure The firmware upgrade procedure is used to update the firmware embedded into the Fastrack Supreme. That procedure consists in downloading the firmware into internal memories through the RS232 serial link available on the SUB-D 15-pin connector. Refer to "Firmware upgrade procedure" document for a detailed description of this procedure. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Troubleshooting © Restricted Page: 49 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 6 Troubleshooting This section of the document describes possible problems encountered when using the Fastrack Supreme and their solutions. To review other troubleshooting information, refer the ‘FAQs’ (Frequently Asked Questions) page at www.wavecom.com/fastracksupreme. 6.1 No Communication with the Fastrack Supreme through the Serial Link If the Fastrack Supreme does not answer to AT commands through the serial link, refer to the table below for possible causes and solutions. Table 12: Solutions for no connection with Fastrack Supreme through serial link If the Supreme returns then ask Action Is the Fastrack Supreme powered correctly? Make sure the external power supply is connected to the Fastrack Supreme and provides a voltage in the range of 5.5 V to 32 V. Is the serial cable connected at both sides? Check the serial cable connection Nothing Does the serial cable follow correctly pin assignment shown in paragraph 3.2.1.2. Connect the cable by following pin assignment given in paragraph 3.2.1.1. Is the communication program properly configured on PC? Ensure the setting of the communication program is fit to setting of Fastrack Supreme. Fastrack Supreme factory setting is: Data bits = 8 Parity = none Stop bits = 1 Baud = 115 200 bps. Flow control = hardware Nothing or nonsignificant characters Is there another program interfering with the communication program (i.e. Conflict on communication port access) Close the interfering program. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Troubleshooting © Restricted Page: 50 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 6.2 Receiving "ERROR" Message The Fastrack Supreme returns an "ERROR" message (in reply to an AT command) in the following cases: • AT command syntax is incorrect: check the command syntax (refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]), • AT command syntax is correct, but transmitted with wrong parameters: • Enter the AT+CMEE=1 command in order to change the error report method to the verbose method, which includes the error codes. • Enter again the AT command which previously caused the reception of "ERROR" message in order to get the Mobile Equipment error code. When the verbose error report method is enabled, the response of the Fastrack Supreme in case of error is as follows: • Either +CME ERROR: , • Or +CMS ERROR: . Refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for error result code description and further details on the AT +CMEE command. Note: It is strongly recommended to always enable the verbose error report method to get the Mobile Equipment error code (enter AT +CMEE=1 command). 6.3 Receiving "NO CARRIER" Message If the Fastrack Supreme returns a "NO CARRIER" message upon an attempted call (voice or data), then refer to the table below for possible causes and solutions. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Troubleshooting © Restricted Page: 51 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 13: Solutions for "NO CARRIER" message If the Supreme returns… Then ask… Action… Is the received signal strong enough? Refer to section 5.5 to verify the strength of the received signal. Is the Fastrack Supreme registered on the network? Refer to section 5.9 to verify the registration. Is the antenna properly connected? Refer to section 8.2.7.3 for antenna requirements. "NO CARRIER" Is the band selection correction? Refer to Section 7.2 for band switch "NO CARRIER" (when trying to issue a voice communication) Is the semicolon (;) entered immediately after the phone number in the AT command? Ensure that the semicolon (;) is entered immediately after the phone number in the AT command. e.g. ATD######; Is the SIM card configured for data / fax calls? Configure the SIM card for data / fax calls (Ask your network provider if necessary). Is the selected bearer type supported by the called party? Ensure that the selected bearer type is supported by the called party. "NO CARRIER" (when trying to issue a data communication) Is the selected bearer type supported by the network? Ensure that the selected bearer type is supported by the network. If no success, try bearer selection type by AT command: AT+CBST=0,0,3 If the Fastrack Supreme returns a "NO CARRIER" message, you may have the extended error code by using AT command AT+CEER. Refer to the table below for interpretation of extended error code. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Troubleshooting © Restricted Page: 52 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 14: Interpretation of extended error code Error Code Diagnostic Hint 1 Unallocated phone number 16 Normal call clearing 17 User busy 18 No user responding 19 User alerting, no answer 21 Call rejected 22 Number changed 31 Normal, unspecified 50 Requested facility not subscribed Check your subscription (data subscription available?). 68 ACM equal or greater than ACMmax Credit of your pre-paid SIM card expired. 252 Call barring on outgoing calls 253 Call barring on incoming calls 3, 6, 8, 29, 34, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 49, 57, 58, 63, 65, 69, 70, 79, 254 Network causes See "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further details or call network provider. Note: For all other codes, and/or details, see AT commands documentation [7]. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 53 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7 Functional Description 7.1 Architecture Internal Quik Q26 series RS232 Interface SMA Audio Interface DC / DC Power Supply BOOT RESET V+BATT GROUND Micro-FIT 4 pins SUB HD 15 pins VCC Microphone Microphone Speaker Speaker VCC VCC SIM card Holder Operating Status FASTRACK Supreme Plug & Play GPIO-21 GPIO-25 50 pin IES Interface Figure 17: Functional architecture Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 54 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.2 EU and US Bands 7.2.1 General Presentation The Fastrack Supreme is a quad band Plug & Play. It supports either EU bands (EGSM900/DCS1800) or US bands (GSM850/ PCS1900), depending on the band setting within the Plug & Play. Users are free to switch between EU bands and US bands by simple AT commands when the selected bands are supported. 7.2.2 AT COMMAND for Bands Switch EU/US band is easily switched/checked by AT command AT+WMBS. For detail, please refer to Section 5.7 and 5.8. 7.3 Power Supply 7.3.1 General Presentation The Fastrack Supreme is supplied by an external DC voltage (V+BATTERY) from +5.5 V to +32 V at 2.2 A. Main regulation is made with an internal DC/DC converter in order to supply all the internal functions with a DC voltage. Correct operation of the Fastrack Supreme in communication mode is not guaranteed if input voltage (V+BATTERY) falls below 5.5 V. Note: The minimum input voltage specified here is at the Fastrack Supreme input. Be careful of the input voltage decrease caused by the power cable. See paragraph 8.2.1 for more information. 7.3.2 Protections The Fastrack Supreme is protected by a 800 mA / 250 V fuse directly bonded on the power supply cable. The Fastrack Supreme is also protected against voltage over +32 V. Filtering guarantees: • EMI/RFI protection in input and output, • Signal smoothing. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 55 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.4 RS232 Serial Link 7.4.1 General Presentation The RS232 interface performs the voltage level adaptation (V24/CMOS ⇔ V24/V28) between the internal Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play (DCE) and the external world (DTE). The RS232 interface is internally protected (by ESD protection) against electrostatic surges on the RS232 lines. Filtering guarantees: • EMI/RFI protection in input and output, • Signal smoothing. Signals available on the RS232 serial link are: • TX data (CT103/TX), • RX data (CT104/RX), • Request To Send (CT105/RTS), • Clear To Send (CT106/CTS), • Data Terminal Ready (CT108-2/DTR), • Data Set Ready (CT107/DSR), • Data Carrier Detect (CT109/DCD), • Ring Indicator (CT125/RI). FASTRACK Supreme (DCE) DTE CT103 / TX CT108-2 / DTR CT105 / RTS CT104 / RX CT106 / CTS CT107 / DSR CT109 / DCD CT125 / RI Figure 18: RS232 Serial Link signals RS232 interface has been designed to allow flexibility in the use of the serial interface signals. However, the use of TX, RX, CTS and RTS signals is mandatory, which is not the case for DTR, DSR, DCD and RI signals which can be not used. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 56 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.4.2 Autobauding Mode The autobauding mode allows the Fastrack Supreme to detect the baud rate used by the DTE connected to the RS232 serial link. Autobauding mode is controlled by AT commands. See "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for details on this function. 7.4.3 Pin Description Signal Sub HD connector Pin number I/O I/O type RS232 STANDARD Description CTXD/CT103 2 I TX Transmit serial data CRXD/CT104 6 O RX Receive serial data CRTS/CT105 12 I RTS Request To Send CCTS/CT106 11 O CTS Clear To Send CDSR/CT107 7 O DSR Data Set Ready CDTR/CT108-2 8 I DTR Data Terminal Ready CDCD/CT109 1 O DCD Data Carrier Detect CRI/CT125 13 O RI Ring Indicator CT102/GND 9 GND Ground 7.4.4 Serial Port Auto shut down Feature The UART1 can be shut down when there is no activity between the DTE and the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play. This can help for improving power consumption performance. Serial Port Auto shut down feature is easily controlled by AT command AT+WASR. 􀂃 AT+WASR=1 for entering the serial port auto shut down mode 􀂃 AT+WASR=0 for exiting the serial port auto shut down mode Refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further information on AT commands. CAUTION: GPIO24 is reserved for serial port auto shut down feature. It is prohibited for customer use. Improper access to GPIO24 by customer may lead to unexpected behavior on UART1 performance. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 57 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.5 General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) The Fastrack Supreme provides two General Purpose Input / Output lines available for external use: GPIO21 and GPIO25. These GPIOs may be controlled by AT commands: • AT+WIOW for a write access to the GPIO value, when the GPIO is used as an output, • AT+WIOR for a read access to the GPIO value, when the GPIO is used as an input. Refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further information on AT commands. After reset, both GPIOs are configured as inputs. The AT+WIOM command has to be used to change this configuration (refer to "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further details). Pin description Signal Power Supply connector (4-pin Micro-Fit) I/O I/O Voltage Reset state Description Mulitplex with GPIO21 3 I/O 2V8 Undefine d General Purpose I/O No mux GPIO25 4 I/O 2V8 Z General Purpose I/O INT1 Notes: • The power supply cable may need to be modified due to the GPIO signals (GPIO21 & GPIO25) available on the 4-pin Micro-FIT connector of the Fastrack Supreme. • The previous generation M1306B have GPIO4 and GPIO5 being replaced by GPIO21 and GPIO25 respectively, for which both are of LOW level at reset state. 7.6 BOOT This signal must not be connected. Its use is strictly reserved to Wavecom or competent retailers. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 58 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 7.7 RESET 7.7.1 General Presentation This signal is used to force a reset procedure by providing low level during at least 200 μs. This signal must be considered as an emergency reset only. A reset procedure is automatically driven by an internal hardware during the power-up sequence. This signal may also be used to provide a reset to an external device. It then behaves as an output. If no external reset is necessary, this input may be left open, if used (emergency reset), it has to be driven either by an open collector or an open drain output: • RESET pin 14 = 0, for Fastrack Supreme Reset, • RESET pin 14 = 1, for normal mode. Pin description Signal Sub HD 15-Pin connector Pin number I/O I/O type Voltage Description RESET 14 I/O Open Drain 1V8 Fastrack Supreme Reset Additional comments on RESET: The RESET process is activated either by the external RESET signal or by an internal signal (coming from a RESET generator). This automatic reset is activated at Powerup. The Fastrack Supreme remains in RESET mode as long as the RESET signal is held low. Caution: This signal should be used only for "emergency" reset. A software reset is always preferred to a hardware reset. Note: See "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7] for further information on software reset. 7.7.2 Reset Sequence To activate the "emergency" reset sequence, the RESET signal has to be set to low for 200 μs minimum. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 59 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 As soon as the reset is done, the AT interface answers "OK" to the application. For this, the application must send AT↵. If the application manages hardware flow control, the AT command may be sent during the initialization phase. Another solution is to use the AT+WIND command to get an unsolicited status from the Fastrack Supreme. For further details, refer to AT commands "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]. RESET mode IBB+RF=20 to 40mA ~RESET STATE OF THE Wireless CPU® Wireless CPU® READY Rt = Min1:200μs or Typ2 = 40ms AT answers “OK” Wireless CPU® READY SIM and network dependent Wireless CPU® ON IBB+RF<120mA without loc update Ct = Typ:34ms Figure 19: Reset sequence diagram 7.8 Audio Audio interface is a standard one for connecting a phone handset. Echo cancellation and noise reduction features are also available to improve the audio quality in case of hand-free application. 7.8.1 Microphone Inputs The microphone inputs are differential ones in order to reject common mode noise and TDMA noise. They already include the convenient biasing for an electret microphone (0.5 mA and 2 Volts) and are ESD protected. This electret microphone may be directly connected to these inputs allowing an easy connection to a handset. The microphone impedance must be around 2 kΩ. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 60 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 AC coupling is already embedded in the Wireless CPU®. The gain of the microphone inputs is internally adjusted and may be tuned from 7 dB to 35 dB using an AT +VGT command (refer to AT commands documentation [7]). Pin description Signal Sub D 15-pin Pin # I/O I/O type Description CMIC2P 4 I Analog Microphone positive input CMIC2N 5 I Analog Microphone negative input 7.8.2 Speaker Outputs This connection is differential to reject common mode noise and TDMA noise. Speaker outputs are connected to internal push-pull amplifiers and may be loaded down between 32 to 150 Ohms and up to 1 nF (see details in table Speaker gain vs Max output voltage, in "AT Commands Interface Guide" [7]). These outputs may be directly connected to a speaker. The output power may be adjusted by step of 2 dB. The gain of the speaker outputs is internally adjusted and may be tuned using an AT +VGR command (refer to AT commands documentation [7]). Pin description Signal Sub D 15-pin Pin # I/O I/O type Description CSPK2P 10 O Analog Speaker positive output CSPK2N 15 O Analog Speaker negative output 7.9 Real Time Clock (RTC) The Fastrack Supreme has now implemented the Real Time Clock for saving date and time when the Plug & Play is unplugged from the DC power supply through the DC power cable. Item Min Typical Max Charging Time start from fully discharged to fully charged 940 min Guarantee 2475 min RTC Time Period* Nonguarantee 5225 min Fastrack Supreme User Guide Functional Description © Restricted Page: 61 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Remark: 1. This RTC time period is measured when the RTC battery is fully charged before the Fastrack Supreme is being unplugged from the DC power source. 2. This RTC time period is for temperature from -20°C to +60°C. Once the operating/storage temperature is beyond this range, this time period is not guaranteed. Caution: When the Fastrack Supreme is shipped out, the charging voltage of the RTC battery is not guaranteed. Once the Fastrack Supreme is on power, the RTC battery will start charging and the RTC feature can then be resumed. 7.10 FLASH LED The Fastrack Supreme has a red LED indicator to show the status of the GSM network. For detail description of the various status, please refer to Section 5.3. However, during operation mode of Slow Standby, there will be no network registration and so the red LED indicator will always be ON. It is possible for user to deactivate the LED indication during Slow Standby mode, in order to reduce power consumption. The Flash LED can be deactivated by AT command at+whcnf=1,0 The Flash LED can be activated by AT command at+whcnf=1,1 However, the new setting will be taken into account only after a restart. For detail, please refer to Document [7]. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 62 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8 Technical Characteristics 8.1 Mechanical Characteristics Table 15: Mechanical characteristics Dimensions 73 x 54.5 x 25.5 mm (excluding connectors) Overall Dimension 88 x 54.5 x 25.5 mm Weight ≈ 89 grams (Fastrack Supreme only) ≈ 126 grams (Fastrack Supreme + bridles + power supply cable) Volume 101.5 cm3 Housing Aluminum profiled The next page gives the dimensioning diagram of the Fastrack Supreme including the clearance areas to take into account for the Fastrack Supreme installation. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 63 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Figure 20: Dimensioning diagram Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 64 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.2 Electrical Characteristics 8.2.1 Power Supply Table 16: Electrical characteristics Operating Voltage ranges 5.5 V to 32 V DC, nominal at 13.2V DC. Maximum current 500 mA Average at 5.5V. 2.5 A Peak at 5.5 V. Note: The Fastrack Supreme is permanently powered once the power supply is connected. The following table describes the consequences of over-voltage and under-voltage with the Fastrack Supreme. Warning: All the input voltages specification described in this Section are at the Fastrack Supreme input. While powering the Fastrack Supreme, take into account the input drop caused by the power cable. With the delivered cable, this input drop is around 700 mV at 5.5 V and 220 mV at 32V. Table 17: Effects of power supply defect If the voltage then falls below 5.5 V, the GSM communication is not guaranteed. is over 32 V (Transient peaks), the Fastrack Supreme guarantees its own protection. Is over 32 V (continuous overvoltage) the protection of the Fastrack Supreme is done by the fuse (the supply voltage is disconnected). The fuse is a 800 mA / 250 V FAST-ACTING 5*20mm. See Section 10 for recommended references. The following table provides information on power consumption of the Fastrack Supreme, assuming an operating temperature of +25 °C and using a 3 V SIM card. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 65 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.2.2 Power Consumption The following table provides information on power consumption of the Fastrack Supreme, assuming an operating temperature of +25 °C and using a 3 V SIM card. Table 18: Power consumption in connected modes (1*) Power Consumption in E-GSM 900/DCS 1800 MHz - GPRS class 10 (Serial Port ON) GSM 850 E-GSM 900 DCS 1800 PCS 1900 @ 5.5V 2500 / 309 2338 / 328 2224 / 325 2210 / 334 I peak GSM850 / E-GSM900: During TX bursts @ PCL5 / PCL19 DCS1800 / PCS1900 : During TX bursts @ PCL0 / PCL15 @ 13.2V 953 / 133 794 / 100 755 / 137 722 / 139 @ 5.5V 267 / 98 237 / 100 227 / 100 226 / 100 @ 13.2V 117 / 50 106 / 52 111 / 52 102 / 51 GSM I avg GSM850 / E-GSM900: Average @ PCL5 / PCL19 DCS1800 / PCS1900 : Average @ PCL0 / PCL15 @ 32V 52 / 23 47 / 23 45 / 23 45 / 23 @ 5.5V 2485 / 288 2314 / 307 2195 / 307 2211 / 311 I peak GSM850 / E-GSM900: During 1TX bursts @ PCL5(Gamma 3) / PCL19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900 : During 1TX bursts @ PCL0(Gamma 2) / PCL15(Gamma 18) @ 13.2V 943 / 124 784 / 132 737 / 139 724 / 131 @ 5.5V 255 / 94 228 / 96 218 / 96 219 / 97 @ 13.2V 112 / 48 102 / 50 99 / 50 99 / 51 GPRS Class 2 I avg GSM850 / E-GSM900 : Average 1TX/1RX @PCL5(Gamma 3) / PCL19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: Average 1TX/1RX @PCL0(Gamma 2) / PCL15(Gamma 18) @ 32V 49 / 22 45 / 23 44 / 23 44 / 23 @ 5.5V 2418 / 294 1269 / 315 2215 / 317 2240 / 320 I peak GSM850 / E-GSM900: During 2TX bursts @ PCL5(Gamma 3) / PCL19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: During 2TX bursts @ PCL0(Gamma 2) / PCL15(Gamma 18) @ 13.2V 950 / 125 790 / 135 750 / 142 733 / 131 @ 5.5V 459 / 126 396 / 129 375 / 129 377 / 130 @ 13.2V 191 / 62 170 / 65 163 / 65 163 / 64 GPRS Class 10 I avg GSM850 / E-GSM900 : Average 2TX/3RX @ PCL5 (Gamma 3) / PCL19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: Average 2TX/3RX @ PCL0 (Gamma 2) / PCL15(Gamma 18) @ 32V 84 / 29 75 / 30 71 / 29 71 / 30 Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 66 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Power Consumption in E-GSM 900/DCS 1800 MHz - GPRS class 10 (Serial Port ON) GSM 850 E-GSM 900 DCS 1800 PCS 1900 @ 5.5V 2493 / 361 2334 / 391 2211 / 387 2225 / 389 I peak GSM850 / E-GSM900: During 1TX bursts @ PCL8 (Gamma 6) / PCL19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: During 1TX bursts @ PCL2 (Gamma 5) / PCL15(Gamma 18) @ 13.2V 958 / 150 801 / 161 744 / 162 743 / 158 @ 5.5V 170 / 100 163 / 102 173 / 103 176 / 103 @ 13.2V 79 / 51 77 / 53 82 / 53 82 / 52 EGPRS Class 2 I avg GSM850 / E-GSM900 : Average 1TX/1RX @ PCL8 (Gamma 6) / PCL 19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: Average 1TX/1RX @ PCL2 (Gamma 5) / PCL 15(Gamma 18) @ 32V 36 / 23 34 / 24 36 / 24 36 / 24 @ 5.5V 2492 / 367 2328 / 395 2206 / 390 2218 / 394 I peak GSM850 / E-GSM900: During 2TX bursts @ PCL8 (Gamma 6) / PCL 19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: During 2TX bursts @ PCL2 (Gamma 5) / PCL 15(Gamma 18) @ 13.2V 961 / 568 802 / 162 735 / 166 743 / 160 @ 5.5V 280 / 137 264 / 142 287 / 142 295 / 143 @ 13.2V 125 / 73 119 / 69 129 / 70 130 / 70 EGPRS Class 10 I avg GSM 850 / E-GSM900 : Average 2TX/3RX @ PCL8 (Gamma 6) / PCL 19(Gamma 17) DCS1800 / PCS1900: Average 2TX/3RX @ PCL2 (Gamma 5) / PCL 15(Gamma 18) @ 32V 55 / 31 52 / 32 58 / 32 57 / 32 Table 19: Power consumption in non-connected modes(1*) Non-connected mode Serial Port status Voltage Current (mA) @ 5.5V 34.3 ON @ 13.2V 17.8 @ 32V 9.2 @ 5.5V 16.5 @ 13.2V 9.4 I avg in Fast Idle mode Page 9 (2*) OFF @ 32V 5.2 @ 5.5V 23.5 ON @ 13.2V 13.4 @ 32V 6.9 @ 5.5V 5.1 @ 13.2V 3.5 I avg in Slow Idle mode Page 9 (3*) OFF @ 32V 2.8 Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 67 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Non-connected mode Serial Port status Voltage Current (mA) @ 5.5V 51.4 ON @ 13.2V 25.9 @ 32V 13.2 @ 5.5V 33.9 @ 13.2V 18.0 I avg in Fast Standby mode (4*) OFF @ 32V 9.3 @ 5.5V 24.2 ON @ 13.2V 13.8 @ 32V 7.0 @ 5.5V 6.6 @ 13.2V 3.9 I avg in Slow Standby mode (with FLASH LED activated) (4*) OFF @ 32V 3.0 @ 5.5V 22.8 ON @ 13.2V 13.0 @ 32V 6.7 @ 5.5V 4.1 @ 13.2V 3.1 I avg in Slow Standby mode (with FLASH LED deactivated) (4*) OFF @ 32V 2.7 (1*):The power consumption might vary by 5 % over the whole operating temperature range (- 20 °C to +55 °C). (2*): In this Mode, the RF function is active and the Fastrack Supreme synchronized with the network, but there is no communication. (3*): In this Mode, the RF function is disabled, but regularly activated to keep the synchronization with the network. This Mode works only when the DTE send AT command to shut down the serial link by software approach (DTE turns DTR in inactive state). (4*): In this Mode, the RF function is disabled, and there is no synchronization with the network. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 68 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.2.3 Audio Interface The audio interface is available through the Sub HD 15-pin connector. Table 20: Audio parameters caracteristics Audio parameters Min Typ Max Unit Comments Microphone input current @2 V/2 kΩ 0.5 mA Absolute microphone input voltage 100 mVpp AC voltage Speaker output current 150 Ω //1 nF 16 mA Absolute speaker impedance 32 50 Ω Impedance of the speaker amplifier output in differential mode 1 Ω +/-10 % Table 21: Microphone inputs internal audio filter characteristics Frequency Gain 0-150 Hz < -22 dB 150-180 Hz < -11 dB 180-200 Hz < -3 dB 200-3700 Hz 0 dB >4000 Hz < -60 dB Table 22: Recommended characteristics for the microphone: Feature Value Type Electret 2 V / 0.5 mA Impedance Z = 2 kΩ Sensitivity -40 dB to –50 dB SNR > 50 dB Frequency response compatible with the GSM specifications Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 69 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 23: Recommended characteristics for the speaker: Feature Value Type 10 mW, electro-magnetic Impedance Z = 32 to 50 Ω Sensitivity 110 dB SPL min. (0 dB = 20 μPa) Frequency response compatible with the GSM specifications 8.2.4 General Purpose Input/Output Both GPIO21 and GPIO25 may be interfaced with a component that comply with 3 Volts CMOS levels. Table 24: Operating conditions Parameter I/O type Min Typ Max Condition VIL CMOS 0.84 V VIH CMOS 1.96 V VOL CMOS 0.4 V IOL = -4 mA VOH CMOS 2.4 V IOH = 4 mA IOH 4mA IOL -4mA Clamping diodes are present on I/O pads. 8.2.5 SIM Interface Table 25: SIM card characteristics SIM card 1.8V / 3 V 8.2.6 RESET Signal Table 26: Electrical characteristics Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Input Impedance ( R )* 330K kΩ Input Impedance ( C ) 10n nF *Internal pull-up Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 70 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 27: Operating conditions Parameter Minimum Typ Maximum Unit ~RESET time (Rt) 1 200 μs ~RESET time (Rt) 2 at power up only 20 40 100 ms Cancellation time (Ct) 34 ms VH 0.57 V VIL 0 0.57 V VIH 1.33 V * VH: Hysterisis Voltage 1 This reset time is the minimum to be carried out on the ~RESET signal when the power supply is already stabilized. 2 This reset time is internally carried out by the Wireless CPU® power supply supervisor only when the Wireless CPU® power supplies are powered ON. 8.2.7 RF Characteristics 8.2.7.1 Frequency Ranges Table 28: Frequency ranges Characteristic GSM 850 E-GSM 900 DCS 1800 PCS 1900 Frequency TX 824 to 849 MHz 880 to 915 MHz 1710 to 1785 MHz 1850 to 1910 MHz Frequency RX 869 to 894 MHz 925 to 960 MHz 1805 to 1880 MHz 1930 to 1990 MHz Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 71 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.2.7.2 RF Performances RF performances are compliant with the ETSI recommendation GSM 05.05. The RF performances for receiver and transmitter are given in the table below. Table 29: Receiver and transmitter RF performances Receiver E-GSM900/GSM850 Reference Sensitivity -104 dBm Static & TUHigh DCS1800/PCS1900 Reference Sensitivity -102 dBm Static & TUHigh Selectivity @ 200 kHz > +9 dBc Selectivity @ 400 kHz > +41 dBc Linear dynamic range 63 dB Co-channel rejection >= 9 dBc Transmitter Maximum output power (E-GSM 900/GSM850) at ambient temperature 33 dBm +/- 2 dB Maximum output power (DCS1800/PCS1900) at ambient temperature 30 dBm +/- 2 dB Minimum output power (E-GSM 900/GSM850) at ambient temperature 5 dBm +/- 5 dB Minimum output power (DCS1800/PCS1900) at ambient temperature 0 dBm +/- 5 dB 8.2.7.3 External Antenna The external antenna is connected to the Fastrack Supreme via the SMA connector. The external antenna must fulfill the characteristics listed in the table below. Table 30: External antenna characteristics Antenna frequency range Quad-band GSM 850/GSM900/DCS1800/PCS1900 MHz Impedance 50 Ohms nominal DC impedance 0 Ohm Gain (antenna + cable) 0 dBi VSWR (antenna + cable) 2 Note: Refer to Section 10 for recommended antenna. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 72 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.3 Environmental Characteristics The Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play is compliant with the following operating class. To ensure the proper operation of the Fastrack Supreme, the temperature of the environment must be within a specific range as described in the table below. Table 31: Ranges of temperature No IESM Current Drain Conditions Temperature Range Operating / Class A -20°C ~ +55°C Operating / Class B Note1 -30°C ~ +75°C Operating / Class C Note1 -30°C ~ +85°C Storage Note1 -40°C ~ +85°C Note1: Please refer to the Remark in Section 7.9 for RTC battery related issue. Function Status Classification: Class A: The Fastrack Supreme remains fully functional, meeting GSM performance criteria in accordance with ETSI requirements, across the specified temperature range. Class B: The Fastrack Supreme remains fully functional, across the specified temperature range. Some GSM parameters may occasionally deviate from the ETSI/PTCRB specified requirements and this deviation does not affect the ability of the Fastrack Supreme to connect to the cellular network and function fully, as it does within the Class A range. Class C: The functional requirements will not be fulfilled during external influence, but will return to fully functional automatically, after the external influence has been removed. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 73 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 The detailed climatic and mechanics standard environmental constraints applicable to the Fastrack Supreme are listed in the table below: Table 32: Environmental standard constraints Environmental Tests (IEC TR 60721-4) Environmental Classes (IEC 60721-3) Operation Tests Standards Storage (IEC 60721- 3-1) Class IE13 Transportation (IEC 60721-3-2) Class IE23 Stationary (IEC 60721-3- 3) Class IE35 Non-Stationary (IEC 60721-3-7) Class IE73 Cold IEC 60068-2-1 : Ab/Ad -25°C, 16 h -40°C, 16 h -5°C, 16 h -5°C, 16 h Dry heat IEC 60068-2-2 : Bb/Bd +70°C, 16 h +70°C, 16 h +55°C, 16 h +55°C, 16 h Change of temperature IEC 60068-2-14 : Na/Nb -33°C to ambient 2 cycles, t1=3 h 1 °C.min-1 -40°C to ambient 5 cycles, t1=3 h t2<3 min -5°C to ambient 2 cycles, t1=3 h 0,5 °C.min-1 -5°C to ambient 5 cycles, t1=3 h t2<3 min Damp heat IEC 60068-2-56 : Cb +30°C, 93% RH 96 h +40°C, 93% RH 96 h minimum +30°C, 93% RH, 96 h +30°C, 93% RH, 96 h Damp heat, cyclic 60068-2-30 : Db Variant 1 or 2 +40°C, 90% to 100% RH One cycle Variant 2 +55°C, 90% to 100% RH Two cycles Variant 2 +30°C, 90% to 100% RH Two cycles Variant 2 +40°C, 90% to 100% RH Two cycles Variant 1 Vibration (sinusoidal) IEC 60068-2-6 : Fc 1-200 Hz 2 m.s-2 0,75 mm 3 axes 10 sweep cycles 1-500 Hz 10 m.s-2 3,5 mm 3 axes 10 sweep cycles 1-150 Hz 2 m.s-2 0,75 mm 3 axes 5 sweep cycles 1-500 Hz 10 m.s-2 3,5 mm 3 axes 10 sweep cycles Vibration (random) IEC 60068-2-64 : Fh - 10-100 Hz / 1,0 m2.s-3 100-200 Hz / -3 dB.octave-1 200-2000 Hz / 0,5 m2.s-3 3 axes 30 min - - Shock (half-sine) IEC 60068-2-27 : Ea - - 50 m.s-2 6 ms 3 shocks 6 directions 150 m.s-2 11 ms 3 shocks 6 directions Bump IEC 60068-2-29 : Eb - 250 m.s-2 6 ms 50 bumps vertical direction - - Free fall ISO 4180-2 - Two falls in each specified attitude - 2 falls in each specified attitude 0,025 m (<1kg) Drop and topple IEC 60068-2-31 : Ec - One drop on relevant corner One topple about each bottom edge - One drop on each relevant corner One topple on each of 4 bottom edges Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 74 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Notes: Short description of Class IE13 (For more information see standard IEC 60721-3-1) "Locations without controlled temperature and humidity, where heating may be used to raise low temperatures, locations in buildings providing minimal protection against daily variations of external climate, prone to receiving rainfall from carrying wind". Short description of Class IE23 (For more information, see standard IEC 60721-3-2) "Transportation in unventilated compartments and in conditions without protection against bad weather, in all sorts of trucks and trailers in areas of well developed road network, in trains equipped with buffers specially designed to reduce shocks and by boat". Short description of Class IE35 (For more information see standard IEC 60721-3-3) "Locations with no control on heat or humidity where heating may be used to raise low temperatures, to places inside a building to avoid extremely high temperatures, to places such as hallways, building staircases, cellars, certain workshops, equipment stations without surveillance". Short description of Class IE73 (For more information see standard IEC 60721-3-7) "Transfer to places where neither temperature nor humidity are controlled but where heating may be used to raise low temperatures, to places exposed to water droplets, products can be subjected to ice formation, these conditions are found in hallways and building staircases, garages, certain workshops, factory building and places for industrial processes and hardware stations without surveillance". Warning: The specification in the above table applies to the Fastrack Supreme product only. Customers are advised to verify that the environmental specification of the SIM Card used is compliant with the Fastrack Supreme environmental specifications. Any application must be qualified by the customer with the SIM Card in storage, transportation and operation. The use of standard SIM cards may drastically reduce the environmental conditions in which the Product can be used. These cards are particularly sensible to humidity and temperature changes. These conditions may produce oxidation of the SIM card metallic layers and cause, in the long term, electrical discontinuities. This is particularly true in left alone applications, where no frequent extraction/insertion of the SIM card is performed. In case of mobility when the application is moved through different environments with temperature variations, some condensation may appear. These events have a negative impact on the SIM and may favor oxidation. If the use of standard SIM card, with exposition to the environmental conditions described above, can not be avoided, special care must be taken in the integration of the final application in order to minimize the impact of these conditions. The solutions that may be proposed are: • Lubrication of the SIM card to protect the SIM Contact from oxidation. • Putting the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play in a waterproof enclosure with desiccant bags. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 75 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Lubrication of the SIM card had been tested by Wavecom (using Tutela Fluid 43EM from MOLYDUVAL) and gives very good results. If waterproof enclosure with a desiccant solution is used, check with your desiccant retailer the quantity that must be used according to the enclosure dimensions. Ensure humidity has been removed before sealing the enclosure. Any solution selected must be qualified by the customer on the final application. To minimize oxidation problem on the SIM card, its manipulation must be done with the greatest precautions. In particular, the metallic contacts of the card must never be touched with bare fingers or any matter which may contain polluted materials liable to produce oxidation (such as, e.g. substances including chlorine). In case a cleaning of the Card is necessary, a dry cloth must be used (never use any chemical substance). 8.4 Conformity The complete product complies with the essential requirements of article 3 of R&TTE 1999/5/EC Directive and satisfied the following standards: Domain Applicable standard Safety standard EN 60950 (ed.1999) Efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum EN 301 419-(v 4.1.1) EN 301 511 (V 9.0.2) EMC EN 301 489–1 (edition 2002) EN 301 489-7 (edition 2002) Global Certification Forum – Certification Criteria GCF-CC V3.26.0 PTCRB NAPRD.03 V3.11.0 FCC FCC Part 15 FCC Part 22, 24 IC RSS-132 Issue 2 RSS-133 Issue 3 8.5 Protections 8.5.1 Power Supply The Fastrack Supreme is protected by a 800 mA / 250 V fuse directly bonded on the power supply cable. The model of fuse used is: FSD 800 mA / 250 V FAST-ACTING. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Technical Characteristics © Restricted Page: 76 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 8.5.2 Overvoltage The Fastrack Supreme is protected against voltage over +32 V. When input voltages exceed +32 V, the supply voltage is disconnected in order to protect the internal electronic components from an overvoltage. 8.5.3 Electrostatic Discharge The Fastrack Supreme withstands ESD according to IEC 1000-4-2 requirements for all accessible parts of the Fastrack Supreme except the RF part: • 8 kV of air discharge, • 4 kV of contact discharge. 8.5.4 Miscellaneous Filtering guarantees: • EMI/RFI protection in input and output, • Signal smoothing. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Safety Recommendations © Restricted Page: 77 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 9 Safety Recommendations 9.1 General Safety It is important to follow any special regulations regarding the use of radio equipment due in particular to the possibility of radio frequency (RF) interference. Please follow the safety advice given below carefully. Switch OFF your Wireless CPU®: • When in an aircraft. The use of cellular telephones in an aircraft may endanger the operation of the aircraft, disrupt the cellular network and is illegal. Failure to observe this instruction may lead to suspension or denial of cellular telephone services to the offender, or legal action or both, • When at a refueling point, • When in any area with a potentially explosive atmosphere which could cause an explosion or fire, • In hospitals and any other place where medical equipment may be in use. Respect restrictions on the use of radio equipment in: • Fuel depots, • Chemical plants, • Places where blasting operations are in progress, • Any other area where signalization reminds that the use of cellular telephone is forbidden or dangerous. • Any other area where you would normally be advised to turn off your vehicle engine. There may be a hazard associated with the operation of your Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play close to inadequately protected personal medical devices such as hearing aids and pacemakers. Consult the manufacturers of the medical device to determine if it is adequately protected. Operation of your Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play close to other electronic equipment may also cause interference if the equipment is inadequately protected. Observe any warning signs and manufacturers’ recommendations. The Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play is designed for and intended to be used in "fixed" and "mobile" applications: 􀂃 "Fixed" means that the device is physically secured at one location and is not able to be easily moved to another location. 􀂃 "Mobile" means that the device is designed to be used in other than fixed locations and generally in such a way that a separation distance of at least 20 cm (8 inches) is normally maintained between the transmitter’s antenna and the body of the user or nearby persons. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Safety Recommendations © Restricted Page: 78 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 The Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play is not designed for and intended to be used in portable applications (within 20 cm or 8 inches of the body of the user) and such uses are strictly prohibited. 9.2 Vehicle Safety Do not use your Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play while driving, unless equipped with a correctly installed vehicle kit allowing ’Hands-Free’ Operation. Respect national regulations on the use of cellular telephones in vehicles. Road safety always comes first. If incorrectly installed in a vehicle, the operation of Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play telephone could interfere with the correct functioning of vehicle electronics. To avoid such problems, make sure that the installation has been performed by a qualified personnel. Verification of the protection of vehicle electronics should form part of the installation. The use of an alert device to operate a vehicle’s lights or horn on public roads is not permitted. 9.3 Care and Maintenance Your Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play is the product of advanced engineering, design and craftsmanship and should be treated with care. The suggestion below will help you to enjoy this product for many years. Do not expose the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play to any extreme environment where the temperature or humidity is high. Do not use or store the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play in dusty or dirty areas. Its moving parts (SIM holder for example) can be damaged. Do not attempt to disassemble the Wireless CPU®. There are no user serviceable parts inside. Do not expose the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play to water, rain or spilt beverages. It is not waterproof. Do not abuse your Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play by dropping, knocking, or violently shaking it. Rough handling can damage it. Do not place the Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play alongside computer discs, credit or travel cards or other magnetic media. The information contained on discs or cards may be affected by the Wireless CPU®. The use of third party equipment or accessories, not made or authorized by Wavecom may invalidate the warranty of the Wireless CPU®. Do contact an authorized Service Center in the unlikely event of a fault in the Wireless CPU®. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Safety Recommendations © Restricted Page: 79 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 9.4 Your Responsibility This Fastrack Supreme Plug & Play is under your responsibility. Please treat it with care respecting all local regulations. It is not a toy. Therefore, keep it in a safe place at all times and out of the reach of children. Try to remember your Unlock and PIN codes. Become familiar with and use the security features to block unauthorized use and theft. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Recommended Accessories © Restricted Page: 80 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 10 Recommended Accessories Accessories recommended by Wavecom for the Fastrack Supreme are given in the table below. Table 33: List of recommended accessories Designation Part number Supplier 1140.26 ALLGON Quad-band antenna MA112VX00 MAT Equipment MCA1890 MH/PB/SMA m HIRSCHMANN SMA/FME Antenna adaptor PROCOM Power adaptor (Europe) EGSTDW P2 EF9W3 24W Out:12 V - 2A In: 100 to 240 V – 50/60 Hz – 550 mA Mounted with micro-fit connector EGSTDW (for power adaptor) MOLEX (for micro-fit connector)* Fuse F800L250V Shanghai Fullness IESM GPS + USB FSUE01 WAVECOM IESM IO + USB FSUE02 WAVECOM IESM IO + USB + GPS FSUE03 WAVECOM IESM Ethernet FSUE04 WAVECOM * Information not available for this preliminary version. Fastrack Supreme User Guide Recommended Accessories © Restricted Page: 81 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 Table 34: Fastrack Supreme Family Designation Part number Supplier Fastrack Supreme 10 FSU001 WAVECOM Fastrack Supreme 20 FSU002 WAVECOM IESM GPS + USB FSUE01 WAVECOM IESM IO + USB FSUE02 WAVECOM IESM IO + USB + GPS FSUE03 WAVECOM IESM Ethernet FSUE04 WAVECOM FSU 10 IESM GPS+USB FSUP01 WAVECOM FSU 20 IESM GPS+USB FSUP02 WAVECOM FSU 10 IESM IO+USB FSUP03 WAVECOM FSU 20 IESM IO+USB FSUP04 WAVECOM FSU 10 IESM IO+USB+GPS FSUP05 WAVECOM FSU 20 IESM IO+USB+GPS FSUP06 WAVECOM FSU 10 IESM Ethernet FSUP07 WAVECOM FSU 20 IESM Ethernet FSUP08 WAVECOM Fastrack Supreme User Guide Online Support © Restricted Page: 82 / 82 This document is the sole and exclusive property of Wavecom. Not to be distributed or divulged without prior written agreement. WA_DEV_Fastrk_UGD_001-003 November 5, 2007 11 Online Support Wavecom provides an extensive range on online support which includes the following areas of Wavecom’s wireless expertise: • the latest version of this document • new versions of our Operating System user guides • comprehensive support for Open AT® • regulatory certifications • carrier certifications • application notes To gain access to this support, simply visit our web site at http://www.wavecom.com/fastracksupreme or click on the desire link in Page. Privileged access via user login is provided to Wavecom authorized distributors. WAVECOM S.A. - 3 esplanade du Foncet - 92442 Issy-les-Moulineaux Cedex - France - Tel: +33(0)1 46 29 08 00 - Fax: +33(0)1 46 29 08 08 Wavecom, Inc. - 4810 Eastgate Mall - Second Floor - San Diego, CA 92121 - USA - Tel: +1 858 362 0101 - Fax: +1 858 558 5485 WAVECOM Asia Pacific Ltd. - Unit 201-207, 2nd Floor, Bio-Informatics Centre – No.2 Science Park West Avenue - Hong Kong Science Park, Shatin - New Territories, Hong Kong  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00001658B-page 1 Product Features • High Performance 32-bit Embedded Controller • Low power ~4mA in active mode • System in deep sleep consumes 0.26mA • 3.3-Volt I/O • Package - 6mm x 6mm body, 84-TFBGA Sensor Firmware • Sensor fusion firmware is licensed from Bosch or Movea. Common features include: - Self-contained 9-axis sensor fusion - Sensor data pass-through - Fast in-use background calibration of all sensors and calibration monitor - Magnetic immunity: Enhanced magnetic distortion, detection and suppression - Gyroscope drift cancellation - Ambient Light Sensor Support • Windows 8/8.1 certification (HID over I2C) • Easy to implement complete turnkey sensor fusion solution • Sensor power management • Sensor agnostic • Refer to Bosch and Movea sensor fusion firmware addendums for additional sensor fusion details and supported sensors Hardware Features The hardware features in the SSC7102 device include the following: • Two SMB/I2C Controllers - Supports I2C bus speeds to 400kHz - Multi-master Capable - Supports Clock Stretching • Windows 8 HID over I2C Support • LPC Interface - HID over LPC Support • Low Power Modes Target Markets • PCs: Ultrabooks and 2-in-1 Convertibles • Mobile: Tablets, Smartphones • Remote Controls, Gaming • Fitness Monitoring Description The SSC7102 sensor fusion hub is a Windows 8.1 certified, HID over I2C, low-power, flexible, turnkey solution. SSC7102 makes implementing sensor fusion easy for ultrabooks, tablets, and smartphones. Microchip partnered with multiple industry-leading sensor manufacturers and sensor-fusion specialists to create this solution, enabling faster time to market without the need for sensor-fusion expertise. The SSC7102 is extremely efficient. It consumes ~4mA while running complex sensor-fusion algorithms, resulting in longer battery life for Windows 8.1 tablet, laptop, ultrabook, and smart phone applications. SSC7102 Sensor Hub Product Brief SSC7102 DS00001658B-page 2  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced. If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via E-mail at docerrors@microchip.com. We welcome your feedback. Most Current Data Sheet To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at: http://www.microchip.com You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page. The last character of the literature number is the version number, (e.g., DS30000000A is version A of document DS30000000). Errata An errata sheet, describing minor operational differences from the data sheet and recommended workarounds, may exist for current devices. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision of silicon and revision of document to which it applies. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following: • Microchip’s Worldwide Web site; http://www.microchip.com • Your local Microchip sales office (see last page) When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include -literature number) you are using. Customer Notification System Register on our web site at www.microchip.com to receive the most current information on all of our products.  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00001658B-page 3 SSC7102 PACKAGE OUTLINE 84-pin TFBGA Package Outline Note: For the most current package drawings, see the Microchip Packaging Specification at http://www.microchip.com/packaging. SSC7102 DS00001658B-page 4  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00001658B-page 5 SSC7102 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision Section/Figure/Entry Correction REV B Features Product Identification System Wording of first bullet under Product Features modified for clarity. URL in Note 2 modified. REV A Document release SSC7102 DS00001658B-page 6  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means to make files and information easily available to customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the following information: • Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes and sample programs, design resources, user’s guides and hardware support documents, latest software releases and archived software • General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), technical support requests, online discussion groups, Microchip consultant program member listing • Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases, listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION SERVICE Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers will receive e-mail notification whenever there are changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of interest. To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com. Under “Support”, click on “Customer Change Notification” and follow the registration instructions. CUSTOMER SUPPORT Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through several channels: • Distributor or Representative • Local Sales Office • Field Application Engineer (FAE) • Technical Support Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer (FAE) for support. Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is included in the back of this document. Technical support is available through the web site at: http://microchip.com/support  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00001658B-page 7 SSC7102 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO.(1) XXX(2) XXX Package Sensor Fusion Device Device: SSC7102(1) Package: GQ = 84 pin TFBGA(2) Sensor Fusion Firmware: AA0 = Bosch 9-axis Sensor Fusion BA0 = Movea 9-axis Sensor Fusion Tape and Reel Option: Blank = Tray packaging TR = Tape and Reel(3) Examples: a) SSC7102-GQ-AA0 = 84-TFBGA, Bosch 9-axis sensor fusion. b) SSC7102-GQ-BA0 = 84-TFBGA, Movea 9-axis sensor fusion. Note 3: Tape and Reel identifier only appears in the catalog part number description. This identifier is used for ordering purposes and is not printed on the device package. Check with your Microchip Sales Office for package availability with the Tape and Reel option. [X](3) Tape and Reel Option Firmware - - - Series Note 2: All package options are RoHS compliant. For RoHS compliance and environmental information, please visit http://www.microchip. com/pagehandler/en-us/aboutus/ Note 1: These products meet the halogen maximum concentration values per IEC61249-2-21. SSC7102 DS00001658B-page 8  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, FlashFlex, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC, SST, SST Logo, SuperFlash and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MTP, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Silicon Storage Technology is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology Inc. in other countries. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, BodyCom, chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPF, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, SQI, Serial Quad I/O, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock, ZENA and ZScale are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. GestIC and ULPP are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Germany II GmbH & Co. KG, a subsidiary of Microchip Technology Inc., in other countries. A more complete list of registered trademarks and common law trademarks owned by Standard Microsystems Corporation (“SMSC”) is available at: www.smsc.com. The absence of a trademark (name, logo, etc.) from the list does not constitute a waiver of any intellectual property rights that SMSC has established in any of its trademarks. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2014, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. ISBN: 9781620778326 Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.  2014 Microchip Technology Inc. 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� Leaded transient voltage / RFI suppressors (also called SHCV varistors) are leaded devices in a single component for combined overvoltage protection and RFI noise suppression on DC lines of small electric motors in industrial and automotive applications � SHVC varistors are a combination of high capacitance multilayer capacitor with X7R characteristic for RF filtering and a multilayer varistor for transient protection Construction of leaded transient voltage / RFI suppressors (SHCVs) Benefits for customer applications � Combined protection against overvoltage transients and RFI suppression in a bidirectional single component � Reliable protection against automotive transients such as load dump and jump start � Maximum surge current capability (8/20 µs) up to 1200 A � High capacitance of up to 4.7 µF � Automotive series approval based on AEC-Q200 Rev-C � No temperature derating up to 125 °C Important information: Some parts of this publication contain statements about the suitability of our products for certain areas of application. These statements are based on our knowledge of typical requirements that are often placed on our products. We expressly point out that these statements cannot be regarded as binding statements about the suitability of our products for a particular customer application. It is incumbent on the customer to check and decide whether a product is suitable for use in a particular application. This publication is only a brief product survey which may be changed from time to time. Our products are described in detail in our data sheets. The Important notes (www.epcos.com /ImportantNotes) and the product-specific Cautions and warnings must be observed. All relevant information is available through our sales offices. Ordering code EPCOS type VDC. max l surge, max WLD Vjump VV Vclamp, max l clamp Cnom @ 8/20 µs 10 pulses @ 5 min @ 1 mA @ 8/20 µs [V] [A] [J] [V] [V] [V] [A] [nF] Automotive series B72527G3200K000 SR6K20M105X 26 200 1.5 – 33 ±10% 54 1 1000 ±20% B72527E3350K000 SR6K35M474X 45 100 1.5 – 56 ±10% 90 1 470 ±20% B72587E3200K000 SR1K20M474X 26 800 6 26 33±10% 58 10 470 ±20% B72587G3200K000 SR1K20M105X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 1000 ±20% B72587H3200K000 SR1K20M155X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 1500 ±20% B72587J3200K000 SR1K20M225X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 2200 ±20% B72547L3140S200 SR2S14BM475X 16 1200 12 24.5 22 +23/-0% 40 10 4700 ±20% B72547E3200K000 SR2K20M474X 26 1200 12 26 33 ±10% 58 10 470 ±20% B72547G3200K000 SR2K20M105X 26 1200 12 26 33 ±10% 58 10 1000 ±20% Leaded Transient Voltage/ RFI Suppressors (SHCVs) for Combined Overvoltage and RFI Suppression in Electric Motors www.epcos.com © EPCOS AG 2011, SR6 K20M105X SR6 K35M474X SR1 K20M474X SR1 K20M105X SR1 K20M155X SR1 K20M225X SR2 S14BM475X SR2 K20M474X SR2 K20M105X Product Range Electrical parameters of leaded transient voltage / RFI suppressors in the sample kit What are leaded transient voltage/ RFI suppressors (SHCVs)? � Leaded transient voltage / RFI suppressors (also called SHCV varistors) are leaded devices in a single component for combined overvoltage protection and RFI noise suppression on DC lines of small electric motors in industrial and automotive applications � SHVC varistors are a combination of high capacitance multilayer capacitor with X7R characteristic for RF filtering and a multilayer varistor for transient protection Construction of leaded transient voltage / RFI suppressors (SHCVs) Benefits for customer applications � Combined protection against overvoltage transients and RFI suppression in a bidirectional single component � Reliable protection against automotive transients such as load dump and jump start � Maximum surge current capability (8/20 µs) up to 1200 A � High capacitance of up to 4.7 µF � Automotive series approval based on AEC-Q200 Rev-C � No temperature derating up to 125 °C Important information: Some parts of this publication contain statements about the suitability of our products for certain areas of application. These statements are based on our knowledge of typical requirements that are often placed on our products. We expressly point out that these statements cannot be regarded as binding statements about the suitability of our products for a particular customer application. It is incumbent on the customer to check and decide whether a product is suitable for use in a particular application. This publication is only a brief product survey which may be changed from time to time. Our products are described in detail in our data sheets. The Important notes (www.epcos.com /ImportantNotes) and the product-specific Cautions and warnings must be observed. All relevant information is available through our sales offices. Ordering code EPCOS type VDC. max l surge, max WLD Vjump VV Vclamp, max l clamp Cnom @ 8/20 µs 10 pulses @ 5 min @ 1 mA @ 8/20 µs [V] [A] [J] [V] [V] [V] [A] [nF] Automotive series B72527G3200K000 SR6K20M105X 26 200 1.5 – 33 ±10% 54 1 1000 ±20% B72527E3350K000 SR6K35M474X 45 100 1.5 – 56 ±10% 90 1 470 ±20% B72587E3200K000 SR1K20M474X 26 800 6 26 33±10% 58 10 470 ±20% B72587G3200K000 SR1K20M105X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 1000 ±20% B72587H3200K000 SR1K20M155X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 1500 ±20% B72587J3200K000 SR1K20M225X 26 800 6 26 33 ±10% 58 5 2200 ±20% B72547L3140S200 SR2S14BM475X 16 1200 12 24.5 22 +23/-0% 40 10 4700 ±20% B72547E3200K000 SR2K20M474X 26 1200 12 26 33 ±10% 58 10 470 ±20% B72547G3200K000 SR2K20M105X 26 1200 12 26 33 ±10% 58 10 1000 ±20%www.epcos.com EPCOS Leaded Transient Voltage/RFI Suppressors (SHCVs) 2011 © EPCOS AG · A Member of TDK-EPC Corporation 4th Edition 08/2011 · Ordering No. B72482S9999X2 · Printed in Germany · SO 0811.5 Sample Kit 2011 Leaded Transient Voltage/ RFI Suppressors (SHCVs) for Combined Overvoltage and RFI Suppression in Electric Motors © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 1 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 Device Selection Table Features: • Single Supply with Operation from 1.7V to 5.5V for 24AA024/24AA025 Devices, 2.5V for 24LC024/24LC025 Devices • Low-Power CMOS Technology: - Read current 1 mA, typical - Standby current 1 μA, typical • 2-Wire Serial Interface, I2C™ Compatible • Cascadable up to Eight Devices • Schmitt Trigger Inputs for Noise Suppression • Output Slope Control to Eliminate Ground Bounce • 100 kHz and 400 kHz Clock Compatibility • Page Write Time 5 ms Maximum • Self-timed Erase/Write Cycle • 16-Byte Page Write Buffer • Hardware Write-Protect on 24XX024 Devices • ESD Protection >4,000V • More than 1 Million Erase/Write Cycles • Data Retention >200 years • Factory Programming Available • Packages include 8-lead PDIP, SOIC, TSSOP, DFN, TDFN and MSOP • 6-Lead SOT-23 Package, 24XX025 only • Pb-Free and RoHS Compliant • Temperature Ranges: - Industrial (I): -40°C to +85°C - Automotive (E): -40°C to +125°C Description: The Microchip Technology Inc. 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025 is a 2 Kbit Serial Electrically Erasable PROM with a voltage range of 1.7V to 5.5V. The device is organized as a single block of 256 x 8-bit memory with a 2-wire serial interface. Low current design permits operation with typical standby and active currents of only 1 μA and 1 mA, respectively. The device has a page write capability for up to 16 bytes of data. Functional address lines allow the connection of up to eight 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025 devices on the same bus for up to 16K bits of contiguous EEPROM memory. The device is available in the standard 8-pin PDIP, 8-pin SOIC (3.90 mm), TSSOP, 2x3 DFN and TDFN and MSOP packages. The 24AA025/24LC025 is also available in the 6-lead SOT-23 package. Package Types Block Diagram Part Number VCC Range Max Clock Temp. Range Write Protect 24AA024 1.7V-5.5V 400 kHz(1) I Yes 24AA025 1.7V-5.5V 400 kHz(1) I No 24LC024 2.5V-5.5V 400 kHz I, E Yes 24LC025 2.5V-5.5V 400 kHz I, E No Note 1: 100 kHz for VCC < 2.5V Note: WP pin is not internally connected on the 24XX025. A0 A1 A2 VSS VCC WP SCL SDA 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 PDIP/SOIC/TSSOP/MSOP A0 A1 A2 VSS WP SCL SDA 8 VCC 7 6 5 1 2 3 4 SOT-23 SCL VCC SDA VSS A0 A1 DFN/TDFN 1 2 3 4 5 6 I/O Control Logic Memory Control Logic XDEC HV Generator EEPROM Array Write-Protect Circuitry YDEC VCC VSS Sense Amp. R/W Control SDA SCL A0 A1 A2 WP* 2K I2C™ Serial EEPROM 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 2 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings(†) VCC.............................................................................................................................................................................6.5V All inputs and outputs w.r.t. VSS ......................................................................................................... -0.3V to VCC +1.0V Storage temperature ...............................................................................................................................-65°C to +150°C Ambient temperature with power applied................................................................................................-40°C to +125°C ESD protection on all pins ......................................................................................................................................................≥ 4 kV † NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. TABLE 1-1: DC SPECIFICATIONS DC CHARACTERISTICS Industrial (I): TA = -40°C to +85°C, VCC = +1.7V to +5.5V Automotive (E): TA = -40°C to +125°C, VCC = +2.5V to +5.5V Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min. Typ. Max. Units Conditions — A0, A1, A2, SCL, SDA and WP pins — — — — — D1 VIH High-level input voltage 0.7 VCC — — V — D2 VIL Low-level input voltage — — 0.3 VCC V 0.2 VCC for VCC < 2.5V D3 VHYS Hysteresis of Schmitt Trigger inputs 0.05 VCC — — V (Note) D4 VOL Low-level output voltage — — 0.40 V IOL = 3.0 mA, VCC = 2.5V D5 ILI Input leakage current — — ±1 μA VIN = VSS or VCC D6 ILO Output leakage current — — ±1 μA VOUT = VSS or VCC D7 CIN, COUT Pin capacitance (all inputs/outputs) — — 10 pF VCC = 5.5V (Note) TA = 25°C, FCLK = 1 MHz D8 ICC write Operating current — 0.1 3 mA VCC = 5.5V, SCL = 400 kHz D9 ICC read — 0.05 1 mA — D10 ICCS Standby current —— 0.01 — 15 μA μA Industrial Automotive SDA = SCL = VCC A0, A1, A2, WP = VSS Note: This parameter is periodically sampled and not 100% tested. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 3 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 TABLE 1-2: AC CHARACTERISTICS AC CHARACTERISTICS Industrial (I): TA = -40°C to +85°C, VCC = +1.7V to +5.5V Automotive (E): TA = -40°C to +125°C, VCC = +2.5V to +5.5V Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min. Max. Units Conditions 1 FCLK Clock frequency — — 100 400 kHz 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 2 THIGH Clock high time 4000 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 3 TLOW Clock low time 4700 1300 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 4 TR SDA and SCL rise time (Note 1) —— 1000 300 ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 5 TF SDA and SCL fall time (Note 1) —— 1000 300 ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 6 THD:STA Start condition hold time 4000 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 7 TSU:STA Start condition setup time 4700 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 8 THD:DAT Data input hold time 0 — ns (Note 2) 9 TSU:DAT Data input setup time 250 100 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 10 TSU:STO Stop condition setup time 4000 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 11 TSU:WP WP setup time 4000 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 12 THD:WP WP hold time 4700 600 —— ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 13 TAA Output valid from clock (Note 2) —— 3500 900 ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 14 TBUF Bus free time: Time the bus must be free before a new transmission can start 1300 4700 ——ns 1.7V ≤ VCC < 1.8V 1.8V ≤ VCC ≤ 5.5V 16 TSP Input filter spike suppression (SDA and SCL pins) — 50 ns (Note 1 and Note 3) 17 TWC Write cycle time (byte or page) — 5 ms — 18 — Endurance 1M — cycles 25°C, VCC = 5.5V, Block mode (Note 4) Note 1: Not 100% tested. CB = total capacitance of one bus line in pF. 2: As a transmitter, the device must provide an internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (minimum 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of Start or Stop conditions. 3: The combined TSP and VHYS specifications are due to new Schmitt Trigger inputs, which provide improved noise spike suppression. This eliminates the need for a TI specification for standard operation. 4: This parameter is not tested but ensured by characterization. For endurance estimates in a specific application, please consult the Total Endurance™ Model which can be obtained from Microchip’s web site at www.microchip.com. 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 1-1: BUS TIMING DATA (unprotected) (protected) SCL SDA In SDA Out WP 5 7 6 16 3 2 8 9 13 D4 4 10 11 12 14 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 5 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS Pin Function Table 2.1 SDA Serial Data SDA is a bidirectional pin used to transfer addresses and data into and out of the device. It is an open-drain terminal; therefore, the SDA bus requires a pull-up resistor to VCC (typical 10 kΩ for 100 kHz, 2 kΩ for 400 kHz). For normal data transfer, SDA is allowed to change only during SCL low. Changes during SCL high are reserved for indicating the Start and Stop conditions. 2.2 SCL Serial Clock The SCL input is used to synchronize the data transfer from and to the device. 2.3 A0, A1, A2 The levels on the A0, A1 and A2 inputs are compared with the corresponding bits in the slave address. The chip is selected if the compare is true. For the SOT-23 package only, pin A2 is not connected. Up to eight 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 devices (four for the SOT-23 package) may be connected to the same bus by using different Chip Select bit combinations. These inputs must be connected to either VCC or VSS. 2.4 WP (24XX024 Only) WP is the hardware write-protect pin. It must be tied to VCC or VSS. If tied to Vcc, hardware write protection is enabled. If WP is tied to Vss, the hardware write protection is disabled. Note that the WP pin is available only on the 24XX024. This pin is not internally connected on the 24LC025. 2.5 Noise Protection The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 employs a VCC threshold detector circuit which disables the internal erase/write logic if the VCC is below 1.5V at nominal conditions. The SCL and SDA inputs have Schmitt Trigger and filter circuits which suppress noise spikes to assure proper device operation, even on a noisy bus. 3.0 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 supports a bidirectional, 2-wire bus and data transmission protocol. A device that sends data onto the bus is defined as transmitter, while a device receiving data is defined as receiver. The bus has to be controlled by a master device that generates the Serial Clock (SCL), controls the bus access and generates the Start and Stop conditions, while the 24AA024/ 24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 works as slave. Both master and slave can operate as transmitter or receiver, but the master device determines which mode is activated. Name PDIP SOIC TSSOP DFN/TDFN MSOP SOT-23 Description A0 1 1 1 1 1 5 Address Pin AO A1 2 2 2 2 2 4 Address Pin A1 A2 3 3 3 3 3 — Address Pin A2 VSS 4 4 4 4 4 2 Ground SDA 5 5 5 5 5 3 Serial Address/Data I/O SCL 6 6 6 6 6 1 Serial Clock WP 7 7 7 7 7 — Write-Protect Input VCC 8 8 8 8 8 6 +1.7 to 5.5V Power Supply 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 6 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.0 BUS CHARACTERISTICS The following bus protocol has been defined: • Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy. • During data transfer, the data line must remain stable whenever the clock line is high. Changes in the data line while the clock line is high will be interpreted as a Start or Stop condition. Accordingly, the following bus conditions have been defined (Figure 4-1). 4.1 Bus Not Busy (A) Both data and clock lines remain high. 4.2 Start Data Transfer (B) A high-to-low transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is high determines a Start condition. All commands must be preceded by a Start condition. 4.3 Stop Data Transfer (C) A low-to-high transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is high determines a Stop condition. All operations must be ended with a Stop condition. 4.4 Data Valid (D) The state of the data line represents valid data when, after a Start condition, the data line is stable for the duration of the high period of the clock signal. The data on the line must be changed during the low period of the clock signal. There is one bit of data per clock pulse. Each data transfer is initiated with a Start condition and terminated with a Stop condition. The number of the data bytes transferred between the Start and Stop conditions is determined by the master device and is, theoretically, unlimited (though only the last sixteen will be stored when performing a write operation). When an overwrite does occur, it will replace data in a first-in first-out fashion. 4.5 Acknowledge Each receiving device, when addressed, is required to generate an acknowledge after the reception of each byte. The master device must generate an extra clock pulse, which is associated with this Acknowledge bit. The device that acknowledges has to pull down the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse in such a way that the SDA line is stable low during the high period of the acknowledge-related clock pulse. Of course, setup and hold times must be taken into account. A master must signal an end of data to the slave by not generating an Acknowledge bit on the last byte that has been clocked out of the slave. In this case, the slave must leave the data line high to enable the master to generate the Stop condition (Figure 4-2). FIGURE 4-1: DATA TRANSFER SEQUENCE ON THE SERIAL BUS CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE 4-2: ACKNOWLEDGE TIMING Note: The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 does not generate any Acknowledge bits if an internal programming cycle is in progress. SCL (A) (B) (C) (D) (C) (A) SDA Start Condition Address or Acknowledge Valid Data Allowed to Change Stop Condition SCL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 Transmitter must release the SDA line at this point allowing the Receiver to pull the SDA line low to acknowledge the previous eight bits of data. Receiver must release the SDA line at this point so the Transmitter can continue sending data. SDA Acknowledge Bit Data from transmitter Data from transmitter © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 7 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 5.0 DEVICE ADDRESSING A control byte is the first byte received following the Start condition from the master device (Figure 5-1). The control byte consists of a four-bit control code. For the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025, this is set as ‘1010’ binary for read and write operations. The next three bits of the control byte are the Chip Select bits (A2, A1, A0). The Chip Select bits allow the use of up to eight 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 devices on the same bus and are used to select which device is accessed. The Chip Select bits in the control byte must correspond to the logic levels on the corresponding A2, A1 and A0 pins for the device to respond. These bits are in effect the three Most Significant bits of the word address. For the SOT-23 package, the A2 address pin is not available. During device addressing, the A2 Chip Select bit should be set to ‘0’. The last bit of the control byte defines the operation to be performed. When set to a one, a read operation is selected. When set to a zero, a write operation is selected. Following the Start condition, the 24AA024/ 24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 monitors the SDA bus checking the control byte being transmitted. Upon receiving a ‘1010’ code and appropriate Chip Select bits, the slave device outputs an Acknowledge signal on the SDA line. Depending on the state of the R/W bit, the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 will select a read or write operation. FIGURE 5-1: CONTROL BYTE FORMAT 5.1 Contiguous Addressing Across Multiple Devices The Chip Select bits A2, A1 and A0 can be used to expand the contiguous address space for up to 16K bits by adding up to eight 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/ 24LC025 devices on the same bus. In this case, software can use A0 of the control byte as address bit A8, A1 as address bit A9 and A2 as address bit A10. It is not possible to sequentially read across device boundaries. For the SOT-23 package, up to four 24AA025/24LC025 devices can be added for up to 8K bits of address space. In this case, software can use A0 of the control byte as address bit A8, and A1 as address bit A9. It is not possible to sequentially read across device boundaries. S 1 0 1 0 A2 A1 A0 R/W ACK Control Code Chip Select Bits Slave Address Start Bit Acknowledge Bit Read/Write Bit 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 8 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.0 WRITE OPERATIONS 6.1 Byte Write Following the Start signal from the master, the device code(4 bits), the Chip Select bits (3 bits) and the R/W bit (which is a logic-low) is placed onto the bus by the master transmitter. The device will acknowledge this control byte during the ninth clock pulse. The next byte transmitted by the master is the word address and will be written into the Address Pointer of the 24AA024/ 24LC024/24AA025/24LC025. After receiving another Acknowledge signal from the 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025, the master device will transmit the data word to be written into the addressed memory location. The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 acknowledges again and the master generates a Stop condition. This initiates the internal write cycle and, during this time, the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/ 24LC025 will not generate Acknowledge signals (Figure 6-1). If an attempt is made to write to the protected portion of the array when the hardware write protection (24XX024 only) has been enabled, the device will acknowledge the command, but no data will be written. The write cycle time must be observed even if write protection is enabled. 6.2 Page Write The write control byte, word address and the first data byte are transmitted to the 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025 in the same way as in a byte write. However, instead of generating a Stop condition, the master transmits up to 15 additional data bytes to the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025, which are temporarily stored in the on-chip page buffer and will be written into the memory once the master has transmitted a Stop condition. Upon receipt of each word, the four lower-order Address Pointer bits are internally incremented by one. The higher-order four bits of the word address remain constant. If the master should transmit more than 16 bytes prior to generating the Stop condition, the address counter will roll over and the previously received data will be overwritten. As with the byte-write operation, once the Stop condition is received, an internal write cycle will begin (Figure 6-2). If an attempt is made to write to the protected portion of the array when the hardware write protection has been enabled, the device will acknowledge the command, but no data will be written. The write cycle time must be observed even if write protection is enabled. 6.3 Write Protection The WP pin (available on 24XX024 only) must be tied to VCC or VSS. If tied to VCC, the entire array will be write-protected. If the WP pin is tied to VSS, write operations to all address locations are allowed. The WP pin is not available on the SOT-23 package. FIGURE 6-1: BYTE WRITE FIGURE 6-2: PAGE WRITE Note: Page write operations are limited to writing bytes within a single physical page, regardless of the number of bytes actually being written. Physical page boundaries start at addresses that are integer multiples of the page buffer size (or ‘page size’) and end at addresses that are integer multiples of [page size – 1]. If a Page Write command attempts to write across a physical page boundary, the result is that the data wraps around to the beginning of the current page (overwriting data previously stored there), instead of being written to the next page, as might be expected. It is therefore necessary for the application software to prevent page write operations that would attempt to cross a page boundary. S P BUS ACTIVITY MASTER SDA LINE BUS ACTIVITY ST A RT ST OP Control Byte Word Address Data A CK A CK A CK S P BUS ACTIVITY MASTER SDA LINE BUS ACTIVITY ST A RT Control Byte Word Address (n) Data (n) Data (n + 15) ST OP A CK A CK A CK A CK A CK Data (n +1) © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 9 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 7.0 ACKNOWLEDGE POLLING Since the device will not acknowledge during a write cycle, this can be used to determine when the cycle is complete (this feature can be used to maximize bus throughput). Once the Stop condition for a Write command has been issued from the master, the device initiates the internally-timed write cycle, with ACK polling being initiated immediately. This involves the master sending a Start condition followed by the control byte for a Write command (R/W = 0). If the device is still busy with the write cycle, no ACK will be returned. If no ACK is returned, the Start bit and control byte must be re-sent. If the cycle is complete, the device will return the ACK and the master can then proceed with the next Read or Write command. See Figure 7-1 for a flow diagram of this operation. FIGURE 7-1: ACKNOWLEDGE POLLING FLOW Send Write Command Send Stop Condition to Initiate Write Cycle Send Start Send Control Byte with R/W = 0 Did Device Acknowledge (ACK = 0)? Next Operation No Yes 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 10 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 8.0 READ OPERATIONS Read operations are initiated in the same way as write operations, with the exception that the R/W bit of the slave address is set to ‘1’. There are three basic types of read operations: current address read, random read and sequential read. 8.1 Current Address Read The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 contains an address counter that maintains the address of the last word accessed, internally incremented by one. Therefore, if the previous read access was to address n, the next current address read operation would access data from address n + 1. Upon receipt of the slave address with the R/W bit set to ‘1’, the 24AA024/ 24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 issues an acknowledge and transmits the 8-bit data word. The master will not acknowledge the transfer, but does generate a Stop condition and the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/ 24LC025 discontinues transmission (Figure 8-1). 8.2 Random Read Random read operations allow the master to access any memory location in a random manner. To perform this type of read operation, the word address must first be set. This is accomplished by sending the word address to the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 as part of a write operation. Once the word address is sent, the master generates a Start condition following the acknowledge. This terminates the write operation, but not before the internal Address Pointer is set. The master then issues the control byte again, but with the R/W bit set to a ‘1’. The 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/ 24LC025 will then issue an acknowledge and transmits the eight bit data word. The master will not acknowledge the transfer but does generate a Stop condition and the 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 discontinues transmission (Figure 8-2). After this command, the internal address counter will point to the address location following the one that was just read. 8.3 Sequential Read Sequential reads are initiated in the same way as a random read except that after the 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025 transmits the first data byte, the master issues an acknowledge (as opposed to a Stop condition in a random read). This directs the 24AA024/ 24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 to transmit the next sequentially-addressed 8-bit word (Figure 8-3). To provide sequential reads, the 24AA024/24LC024/ 24AA025/24LC025 contains an internal Address Pointer that is incremented by one upon completion of each operation. This Address Pointer allows the entire memory contents to be serially read during one operation. The internal Address Pointer will automatically roll over from address 0FFh to address 000h. FIGURE 8-1: CURRENT ADDRESS READ BUS ACTIVITY MASTER SDA LINE BUS ACTIVITY S P STOP Control Byte START Data A C K NOACK © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 11 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 FIGURE 8-2: RANDOM READ FIGURE 8-3: SEQUENTIAL READ S S P BUS ACTIVITY MASTER SDA LINE BUS ACTIVITY ST A RT STOP Control Byte ACK Word Address (n) Control Byte START Data (n) ACK ACK NO ACK BUS ACTIVITY MASTER SDA LINE BUS ACTIVITY Control Byte Data (n) Data (n + 1) Data (n + 2) Data (n + x) N OA CK A CK A CK A CK A CK STOP P 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 12 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 9.1 Package Marking Information XXXXXXXX T/XXXNNN YYWW 8-Lead PDIP (300 mil) Example: 8-Lead SOIC (3.90 mm) Example: 8-Lead TSSOP Example: 24LC024 I/P 13F 0519 24LC024I SN 0519 13F 8-Lead MSOP Example: XXXX TYWW NNN XXXXT YWWNNN 4L24 I519 13F 4L24I 51913F XXXXXXXT XXXXYYWW NNN 8-Lead 2x3 DFN Example: e3 e3 XXX YWW NN 2P4 519 13 8-Lead 2x3 TDFN Example: XXX YWW NN AP4 519 13 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 13 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 Part Number 1st Line Marking Codes TSSOP MSOP DFN TDFN SOT-23 I-TEMP E-TEMP I-TEMP E-TEMP I-TEMP E-TEMP 24AA024 4A24 4A24T 2P1 — AP1 — — — 24LC024 4L24 4L24T 2P4 AP5 AP4 2P5 — — 24AA025 4A25 4A25T 2R1 — AR1 — HQNN HRNN 24LC025 4L25 4L25T 2R4 AR5 AR4 2R5 HMNN HPNN Note: T = Temperature grade (I, E) 6-Lead SOT-23 XXNN HQEC Example: Legend: XX...X Part number or part number code T Temperature (I, E) Y Year code (last digit of calendar year) YY Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) WW Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) NNN Alphanumeric traceability code (2 characters for small packages) Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) Note: For very small packages with no room for the Pb-free JEDEC designator , the marking will only appear on the outer carton or reel label. Note: In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. e3 e3 Note: Please visit www.microchip.com/Pbfree for the latest information on Pb-free conversion. *Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, and traceability code. 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 14 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.              !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   +%&,  & !& - '! !#.#  &"#' #%!   & "! ! #%!   & "! !!  &$#/  !#  '! #&    .0 1,21!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  !   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 7,8. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  1, & &  = =   ##4 4!!   -  1!& &   = =  "# &  "# >#& .  - -  ##4>#& .   < :  9&  -< -?   & & 9  -  9# 4!!  <   6  9#>#& )  ?  9 * 9#>#& )  <  :   * + 1 = = - N E1 NOTE 1 D 1 2 3 A A1 A2 L b1 b e E eB c         * ,<1 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page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e E E1 NOTE 1 1 2 3 b A A1 A2 L L1 c h h φ β α         * ,1 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 16 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.     !  ""#$%& !'   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 17 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025   () )"*  !  (+%+( !       !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   '! !#.#  &"#' #%!   & "! ! #%!   & "! !!  &$#''  !# - '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  ! .32 % '! ("!"*& "&&  (% % '&  " !!    3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  ?1, :  8 &  = =   ##4 4!!  <   &# %%   =  :  >#& . ?1,  ##4>#& . -    ##49&   - - 3 &9& 9  ?  3 & & 9 .3 3 &  B = #& )  = - D N E E1 NOTE 1 1 2 b e c A A1 A2 L1 L φ         * ,#& . 1,  ##4>#& . -1, :  9&  -1, 3 &9& 9  ? < 3 & & 9 .3 3 &  B = #& )  =  D N E E1 NOTE 1 1 2 e b A A1 A2 c L1 L φ         * ,1 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 19 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025    .  $ *-,'/00%&.      !"#$%&" '  ()"&'"!&) &#*& &  & #   4'    ' $ !#&) !&#! - 4!!*!"&#  '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  ! .32 % '! ("!"*& "&&  (% % '&  " !!    3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 < &  1, :  8 &  <   &# %%     , && 4!! - .3 :  9&  1, :  >#& . -1, .$ !##9&  - =  .$ !##>#& .  =  , &&>#& )   - , &&9& 9 -   , &&& .$ !## C  = = D N E NOTE 1 1 2 EXPOSED PAD NOTE 1 2 1 D2 K L E2 N e b A3 A1 A NOTE 2 TOP VIEW BOTTOM VIEW         * ,-, 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 20 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.    .  $ *-,'/00%&.   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 21 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025    .  $ *-,/00%12(.   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 22 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.    .  $ *-,/00%12(.   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 23 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 3    ! (" "!( !(/     '! !#.#  &"#' #%!   & "! ! #%!   & "! !!  &$#''  !#  '! #&    .0 1,2 1!'!   &$& "! **& "&&  !   3 & ' !&" & 4# *!( !!&    4 %&  &#& && 255***'    '5 4 6&! 99.. '! 9'&! 7 7: ; 7"')  %! 7 ? &  1, :"&!#9#&  1, :  8 &   =   ##4 4!!  < = - &# %%   =  :  >#& .  = -  ##4>#& . - = < :  9&   = - 3 &9& 9  = ? 3 & & 9 - = < 3 &  B = -B 9# 4!!  < = ? 9#>#& )  =  b E N 4 E1 PIN 1 ID BY LASER MARK D 1 2 3 e e1 A A1 A2 c L L1 φ         * ,<1 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 24 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision F Corrections to Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. Revision G Added part number 24AA025 to document. Correction to Section 1.0, Ambient Temperature. Revision H Added DFN package. Revision J (02/2007) Revised Features section; Revised Pin Function Table; Changed 1.8V to 1.7V, Table 1-1 and Table 1-2; Replaced Package Drawings; Replaced On-line Support page; Revised Product ID section. Revision K (03/2007) Replaced Package Drawings (Rev. AM). Revision L (04/2008) Replaced Package Drawings; Added TDFN package; Revised Product ID section. Revision M (10/2009) Added E-temp; Revised Section 1.0; Table 1-2; Figure 1-1; 1st Line Marking Codes table in Section 9.1; Product ID section. Revision N (10/2009) Added 6-lead SOT-23 Package. Revised Sections 5.0, 5.1 and 6.3. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 25 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means to make files and information easily available to customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the following information: • Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes and sample programs, design resources, user’s guides and hardware support documents, latest software releases and archived software • General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), technical support requests, online discussion groups, Microchip consultant program member listing • Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases, listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION SERVICE Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers will receive e-mail notification whenever there are changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of interest. To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com, click on Customer Change Notification and follow the registration instructions. CUSTOMER SUPPORT Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through several channels: • Distributor or Representative • Local Sales Office • Field Application Engineer (FAE) • Technical Support • Development Systems Information Line Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer (FAE) for support. Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is included in the back of this document. Technical support is available through the web site at: http://support.microchip.com 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 26 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. READER RESPONSE It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 792-4150. Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document. To: Technical Publications Manager RE: Reader Response Total Pages Sent ________ From: Name Company Address City / State / ZIP / Country Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________ Application (optional): Would you like a reply? Y N Device: Literature Number: Questions: FAX: (______) _________ - _________ 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N 1. What are the best features of this document? 2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs? 3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why? 4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject? 5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness? 6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)? 7. How would you improve this document? © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 27 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. Device: 24AA024: 1.7V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM with WP pin. 24AA024T:1.7V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM (Tape and Reel) with WP pin. 24LC024: 2.5V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM with WP pin. 24LC024T:2.5V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM (Tape and Reel) with WP pin. 24AA025: 1.7V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM with no WP pin. 24AA025T:1.7V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM (Tape and Reel) with no WP pin. 24LC025: 2.5V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM (Tape and Reel) with no WP pin. 24LC025T:2.5V, 2 Kbit Addressable Serial EEPROM (Tape and Reel) with no WP pin. Temperature Range: I = -40°C to +85°C E = -40°C to +125°C Package: OT = Plastic Small Outline (SOT-23), (Tape and Reel only), (24XX025 only), 6-lead P = Plastic DIP, (300 mil Body), 8-lead SN = Plastic SOIC, (3.90 mm Body) ST = TSSOP, 8-lead MS = MSOP, 8-lead MC = 2x3 DFN, 8-lead MNY(1) = Plastic Dual Flat (TDFN), No lead package, 2x3 mm body, 8-lead PART NO. X /XX Temperature Package Range Device Examples: a) 24AA024-I/P: Industrial Temperature, 1.7V, PDIP Package b) 24AA024-I/SN: Industrial Temperature, 1.7V, SOIC Package c) 24AA025T-I/ST: Industrial Temperature, 1.7V, TSSOP Package, Tape and Reel d) 24LC024-I/P: Industrial Temperature, 2.5V, PDIP Package e) 24LC024-E/MS: Automotive Temperature, 2.5V, MSOP Package, Tape and Reel f) 24LC025T-I/OT: Industrial Temperature, 2.5V, SOT-23 Package, Tape and Reel Note 1: “Y” indicates a Nickel, Palladium, Gold (NiPdAu) finish. 24AA024/24LC024/24AA025/24LC025 DS21210N-page 28 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21210N-page 29 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. DS21210N-page 30 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 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APPLICATIONS •Industrial and consumer switching applications. DESCRIPTION PNP switching transistor in a SOT23 plastic package. NPN complement: PMBT4401. MARKING Note 1.* = p : Made in Hong Kong. * = t : Made in Malaysia. * = W : Made in China. PINNING TYPE NUMBER MARKING CODE(1) PMBT4403 *2T PIN DESCRIPTION 1 base 2 emitter 3 collector Fig.1 Simplified outline (SOT23) and symbol.handbook, halfpage213MAM256Top view231 ORDERING INFORMATION LIMITING VALUES In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134). Note 1.Transistor mounted on an FR4 printed-circuit board. TYPE NUMBER PACKAGE NAME DESCRIPTION VERSION PMBT4403 − plastic surface mounted package; 3 leads SOT23 SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN. MAX. UNIT VCBO collector-base voltage open emitter − −40 V VCEO collector-emitter voltage open base − −40 V VEBO emitter-base voltage open collector − −5 V IC collector current (DC) − −600 mA ICM peak collector current − −800 mA IBM peak base current − −200 mA Ptot total power dissipation Tamb ≤ 25 °C; note 1 − 250 mW Tstg storage temperature −65 +150 °C Tj junction temperature − 150 °C Tamb operating ambient temperature −65 +150 °C 2004 Jan 21 3 NXP Semiconductors Product data sheet PNP switching transistor PMBT4403 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS Note 1.Transistor mounted on an FR4 printed-circuit board. CHARACTERISTICS Tamb = 25 °C unless otherwise specified. SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS VALUE UNIT Rth(j-a) thermal resistance from junction to ambient note 1 500 K/W SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN. MAX. UNIT ICBO collector-base cut-off current IE = 0; VCB = −40 V − −50 nA IEBO emitter-base cut-off current IC = 0; VEB = −5 V − −50 nA hFE DC current gain VCE = −1 V; (see Fig.2) IC = −0.1 mA 30 − IC = −1 mA 60 − IC = −10 mA 100 − VCE = −2 V IC = −150 mA 100 300 IC = −500 mA 20 − VCEsat collector-emitter saturation voltage IC = −150 mA; IB = −15 mA − −400 mV IC = −500 mA; IB = −50 mA − −750 mV VBEsat base-emitter saturation voltage IC = −150 mA; IB = −15 mA − −950 mV IC = −500 mA; IB = −50 mA − −1.3 V Cc collector capacitance IE = Ie = 0; VCB = −10 V; f = 1 MHz − 8.5 pF Ce emitter capacitance IC = Ic = 0; VEB = −500 mV; f = 1 MHz − 35 pF fT transition frequency IC = −20 mA; VCE = −10 V; f = 100 MHz 200 − MHz Switching times (between 10% and 90% levels); (see Fig.3) ton turn-on time ICon = −150 mA; IBon = −15 mA; IBoff = 15 mA − 40 ns td delay time − 15 ns tr rise time − 30 ns toff turn-off time − 350 ns ts storage time − 300 ns tf fall time − 50 ns 2004 Jan 21 4 NXP Semiconductors Product data sheet PNP switching transistor PMBT4403 Fig.2 DC current gain; typical values.ndbook, full pagewidth0300100200MGD812−10−1−1−10−102−103hFEIC mAVCE = −1 V Fig.3 Test circuit for switching times.handbook, full pagewidthRCR2R1DUTMGD624VoRB(probe)450 Ω(probe)450 ΩoscilloscopeoscilloscopeVBBViVCCVi = −9.5 V; T = 500 μs; tp = 10 μs; tr = tf ≤ 3 ns.R1 = 68 Ω; R2 = 325 Ω; RB = 325 Ω; RC = 160 Ω.VBB = 3.5 V; VCC = −29.5 V.Oscilloscope: input impedance Zi = 50 Ω. 2004 Jan 21 5 NXP Semiconductors Product data sheet PNP switching transistor PMBT4403 PACKAGE OUTLINEUNITA1max.bpcDE e1HELpQwv REFERENCESOUTLINEVERSIONEUROPEANPROJECTIONISSUE DATE04-11-0406-03-16 IEC JEDEC JEITAmm0.10.480.380.150.093.02.81.41.20.95e1.92.52.10.550.450.10.2DIMENSIONS (mm are the original dimensions)0.450.15 SOT23TO-236ABbpDe1eAA1LpQdetail XHEEwMvMABAB012 mmscaleA1.10.9cX123Plastic surface-mounted package; 3 leadsSOT23 2004 Jan 21 6 NXP Semiconductors Product data sheet PNP switching transistor PMBT4403 DATA SHEET STATUS Notes 1.Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design. 2.The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this document was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.nxp.com. DOCUMENTSTATUS(1) PRODUCT STATUS(2) DEFINITION Objective data sheet Development This document contains data from the objective specification for product development. Preliminary data sheet Qualification This document contains data from the preliminary specification. Product data sheet Production This document contains the product specification. DISCLAIMERS General ⎯ Information in this document is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such information. Right to make changes ⎯ NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes to information published in this document, including without limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior to the publication hereof. Suitability for use ⎯ NXP Semiconductors products are not designed, authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in medical, military, aircraft, space or life support equipment, nor in applications where failure or malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental damage. NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk. Applications ⎯ Applications that are described herein for any of these products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the specified use without further testing or modification. Limiting values ⎯ Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in the Absolute Maximum Ratings System of IEC 60134) may cause permanent damage to the device. Limiting values are stress ratings only and operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics sections of this document is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability. Terms and conditions of sale ⎯ NXP Semiconductors products are sold subject to the general terms and conditions of commercial sale, as published at http://www.nxp.com/profile/terms, including those pertaining to warranty, intellectual property rights infringement and limitation of liability, unless explicitly otherwise agreed to in writing by NXP Semiconductors. In case of any inconsistency or conflict between information in this document and such terms and conditions, the latter will prevail. No offer to sell or license ⎯ Nothing in this document may be interpreted or construed as an offer to sell products that is open for acceptance or the grant, conveyance or implication of any license under any copyrights, patents or other industrial or intellectual property rights. Export control ⎯ This document as well as the item(s) described herein may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior authorization from national authorities. Quick reference data ⎯ The Quick reference data is an extract of the product data given in the Limiting values and Characteristics sections of this document, and as such is not complete, exhaustive or legally binding. NXP Semiconductors Contact information For additional information please visit: http://www.nxp.com For sales offices addresses send e-mail to: salesaddresses@nxp.com © NXP B.V. 2009 All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner. The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed without notice. No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequence of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license under patent- or other industrial or intellectual property rights. Customer notification This data sheet was changed to reflect the new company name NXP Semiconductors, including new legal definitions and disclaimers. No changes were made to the technical content, except for package outline drawings which were updated to the latest version. Printed in The Netherlands R75/04/pp7 Date of release: 2004 Jan 21 Document order number: 9397 750 12501 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Data Sheet 28/40/44-Pin, High-Performance, Enhanced Flash, USB Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology DS39632E-page ii © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 1 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Universal Serial Bus Features: • USB V2.0 Compliant • Low Speed (1.5 Mb/s) and Full Speed (12 Mb/s) • Supports Control, Interrupt, Isochronous and Bulk Transfers • Supports up to 32 Endpoints (16 bidirectional) • 1 Kbyte Dual Access RAM for USB • On-Chip USB Transceiver with On-Chip Voltage Regulator • Interface for Off-Chip USB Transceiver • Streaming Parallel Port (SPP) for USB streaming transfers (40/44-pin devices only) Power-Managed Modes: • Run: CPU on, Peripherals on • Idle: CPU off, Peripherals on • Sleep: CPU off, Peripherals off • Idle mode Currents Down to 5.8 μA Typical • Sleep mode Currents Down to 0.1 μA Typical • Timer1 Oscillator: 1.1 μA Typical, 32 kHz, 2V • Watchdog Timer: 2.1 μA Typical • Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up Flexible Oscillator Structure: • Four Crystal modes, including High-Precision PLL for USB • Two External Clock modes, Up to 48 MHz • Internal Oscillator Block: - 8 user-selectable frequencies, from 31 kHz to 8 MHz - User-tunable to compensate for frequency drift • Secondary Oscillator using Timer1 @ 32 kHz • Dual Oscillator Options allow Microcontroller and USB module to Run at Different Clock Speeds • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: - Allows for safe shutdown if any clock stops Peripheral Highlights: • High-Current Sink/Source: 25 mA/25 mA • Three External Interrupts • Four Timer modules (Timer0 to Timer3) • Up to 2 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules: - Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution 5.2 ns (TCY/16) - Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution 83.3 ns (TCY) - PWM output: PWM resolution is 1 to 10-bit • Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) module: - Multiple output modes - Selectable polarity - Programmable dead time - Auto-shutdown and auto-restart • Enhanced USART module: - LIN bus support • Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module Supporting 3-Wire SPI (all 4 modes) and I2C™ Master and Slave modes • 10-Bit, Up to 13-Channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) module with Programmable Acquisition Time • Dual Analog Comparators with Input Multiplexing Special Microcontroller Features: • C Compiler Optimized Architecture with Optional Extended Instruction Set • 100,000 Erase/Write Cycle Enhanced Flash Program Memory Typical • 1,000,000 Erase/Write Cycle Data EEPROM Memory Typical • Flash/Data EEPROM Retention: > 40 Years • Self-Programmable under Software Control • Priority Levels for Interrupts • 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier • Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT): - Programmable period from 41 ms to 131s • Programmable Code Protection • Single-Supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) via Two Pins • In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via Two Pins • Optional Dedicated ICD/ICSP Port (44-pin, TQFP package only) • Wide Operating Voltage Range (2.0V to 5.5V) Device Program Memory Data Memory I/O 10-Bit A/D (ch) CCP/ECCP (PWM) SPP MSSP EUSART Comparators Timers Flash 8/16-Bit (bytes) # Single-Word Instructions SRAM (bytes) EEPROM (bytes) SPI Master I2C™ PIC18F2455 24K 12288 2048 256 24 10 2/0 No Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F2550 32K 16384 2048 256 24 10 2/0 No Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F4455 24K 12288 2048 256 35 13 1/1 Yes Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F4550 32K 16384 2048 256 35 13 1/1 Yes Y Y 1 2 1/3 28/40/44-Pin, High-Performance, Enhanced Flash, USB Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 2 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Pin Diagrams 40-Pin PDIP PIC18F2455 28-Pin PDIP, SOIC PIC18F2550 10 11 2 345 6 1 8 7 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 22 21 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT VSS OSC1/CLKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)/UOE RC2/CCP1 VUSB RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/AN11/KBI0 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1)/VPO RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA VDD VSS RC7/RX/DT/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VP RC4/D-/VM RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP RB3/AN9/CCP2(1)/VPO RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA VDD VSS RD7/SPP7/P1D RD6/SPP6/P1C RD5/SPP5/P1B RD4/SPP4 RC7/RX/DT/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VP RC4/D-/VM RD3/SPP3 RD2/SPP2 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RE0/AN5/CK1SPP RE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE2/AN7/OESPP VDD VSS OSC1/CLKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)/UOE RC2/CCP1/P1A VUSB RD0/SPP0 RD1/SPP1 12 34 56789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 PIC18F4455 PIC18F4550 Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 3 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Pin Diagrams (Continued) PIC18F4455 44-Pin TQFP 44-Pin QFN PIC18F4455 PIC18F4550 PIC18F4550 10 11 23 6 1 18 19 20 21 22 12 13 14 15 38 8 7 44 43 42 41 40 39 16 17 29 30 31 32 33 23 24 25 26 27 28 36 34 35 9 37 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 MCLR/VPP/RE3 NC/ICCK(2)/ICPGC(2) RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP NC/ICDT(2)/ICPGD(2) RC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VP RC4/D-/VM RD3/SPP3 RD2/SPP2 RD1/SPP1 RD0/SPP0 VUSB RC2/CCP1/P1A RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)/UOE NC/ICPORTS(2) NC/ICRST(2)/ICVPP(2) RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC1/CLKI VSS VDD RE2/AN7/OESPP RE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE0/AN5/CK1SPP RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RC7/RX/DT/SDO RD4/SPP4 RD5/SPP5/P1B RD6/SPP6/P1C VSS VDD RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB3/AN9/CCP2(1)/VPO RD7/SPP7/P1D 5 4 10 11 23 6 1 18 19 20 21 22 12 13 14 15 38 8 7 44 43 42 41 40 39 16 17 29 30 31 32 33 23 24 25 26 27 28 36 34 35 9 37 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP NC RC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VP RC4/D-/VM RD3/SPP3 RD2/SPP2 RD1/SPP1 RD0/SPP0 VUSB RC2/CCP1/P1A RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)/UOE RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC1/CLKI VSS VDD RE2/AN7/OESPP RE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE0/AN5/CK1SPP RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RC7/RX/DT/SDO RD4/SPP4 RD5/SPP5/P1B RD6/SPP6/P1C VSS VDD RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB3/AN9/CCP2(1)/VPO RD7/SPP7/P1D 5 4 VSS VDD VDD Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. 2: Special ICPORT features available in select circumstances. See Section 25.9 “Special ICPORT Features (44-Pin TQFP Package Only)” for more information. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Table of Contents 1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.0 Oscillator Configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 23 3.0 Power-Managed Modes ............................................................................................................................................................. 35 4.0 Reset .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 5.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 59 6.0 Flash Program Memory.............................................................................................................................................................. 81 7.0 Data EEPROM Memory ............................................................................................................................................................. 91 8.0 8 x 8 Hardware Multiplier............................................................................................................................................................ 97 9.0 Interrupts .................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 10.0 I/O Ports ................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 11.0 Timer0 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 127 12.0 Timer1 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 131 13.0 Timer2 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 137 14.0 Timer3 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 139 15.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules ................................................................................................................................. 143 16.0 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module................................................................................................................ 151 17.0 Universal Serial Bus (USB) ...................................................................................................................................................... 165 18.0 Streaming Parallel Port ............................................................................................................................................................ 191 19.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module .................................................................................................................... 197 20.0 Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) ............................................................... 243 21.0 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ..................................................................................................................... 265 22.0 Comparator Module.................................................................................................................................................................. 275 23.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module................................................................................................................................... 281 24.0 High/Low-Voltage Detect (HLVD)............................................................................................................................................. 285 25.0 Special Features of the CPU.................................................................................................................................................... 291 26.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 313 27.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 363 28.0 Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 367 29.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables....................................................................................................................... 407 30.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 409 Appendix A: Revision History............................................................................................................................................................. 419 Appendix B: Device Differences......................................................................................................................................................... 419 Appendix C: Conversion Considerations ........................................................................................................................................... 420 Appendix D: Migration From Baseline to Enhanced Devices............................................................................................................. 420 Appendix E: Migration From Mid-Range to Enhanced Devices ......................................................................................................... 421 Appendix F: Migration From High-End to Enhanced Devices............................................................................................................ 421 Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 423 The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 433 Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 433 Customer Support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 433 Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 434 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Product Identification System ............................................................................................................ 435 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 5 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced. If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via E-mail at docerrors@microchip.com or fax the Reader Response Form in the back of this data sheet to (480) 792-4150. We welcome your feedback. Most Current Data Sheet To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at: http://www.microchip.com You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page. 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PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 6 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 7 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW This document contains device-specific information for the following devices: This family of devices offers the advantages of all PIC18 microcontrollers – namely, high computational performance at an economical price – with the addition of high-endurance, Enhanced Flash program memory. In addition to these features, the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family introduces design enhancements that make these microcontrollers a logical choice for many high-performance, power sensitive applications. 1.1 New Core Features 1.1.1 nanoWatt TECHNOLOGY All of the devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family incorporate a range of features that can significantly reduce power consumption during operation. Key items include: • Alternate Run Modes: By clocking the controller from the Timer1 source or the internal oscillator block, power consumption during code execution can be reduced by as much as 90%. • Multiple Idle Modes: The controller can also run with its CPU core disabled but the peripherals still active. In these states, power consumption can be reduced even further, to as little as 4%, of normal operation requirements. • On-the-Fly Mode Switching: The power-managed modes are invoked by user code during operation, allowing the user to incorporate power-saving ideas into their application’s software design. • Low Consumption in Key Modules: The power requirements for both Timer1 and the Watchdog Timer are minimized. See Section 28.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for values. 1.1.2 UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB) Devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family incorporate a fully featured Universal Serial Bus communications module that is compliant with the USB Specification Revision 2.0. The module supports both low-speed and full-speed communication for all supported data transfer types. It also incorporates its own on-chip transceiver and 3.3V regulator and supports the use of external transceivers and voltage regulators. 1.1.3 MULTIPLE OSCILLATOR OPTIONS AND FEATURES All of the devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family offer twelve different oscillator options, allowing users a wide range of choices in developing application hardware. These include: • Four Crystal modes using crystals or ceramic resonators. • Four External Clock modes, offering the option of using two pins (oscillator input and a divide-by-4 clock output) or one pin (oscillator input, with the second pin reassigned as general I/O). • An internal oscillator block which provides an 8 MHz clock (±2% accuracy) and an INTRC source (approximately 31 kHz, stable over temperature and VDD), as well as a range of 6 user-selectable clock frequencies, between 125 kHz to 4 MHz, for a total of 8 clock frequencies. This option frees an oscillator pin for use as an additional general purpose I/O. • A Phase Lock Loop (PLL) frequency multiplier, available to both the High-Speed Crystal and External Oscillator modes, which allows a wide range of clock speeds from 4 MHz to 48 MHz. • Asynchronous dual clock operation, allowing the USB module to run from a high-frequency oscillator while the rest of the microcontroller is clocked from an internal low-power oscillator. Besides its availability as a clock source, the internal oscillator block provides a stable reference source that gives the family additional features for robust operation: • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: This option constantly monitors the main clock source against a reference signal provided by the internal oscillator. If a clock failure occurs, the controller is switched to the internal oscillator block, allowing for continued low-speed operation or a safe application shutdown. • Two-Speed Start-up: This option allows the internal oscillator to serve as the clock source from Power-on Reset, or wake-up from Sleep mode, until the primary clock source is available. • PIC18F2455 • PIC18LF2455 • PIC18F2550 • PIC18LF2550 • PIC18F4455 • PIC18LF4455 • PIC18F4550 • PIC18LF4550 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 8 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 1.2 Other Special Features • Memory Endurance: The Enhanced Flash cells for both program memory and data EEPROM are rated to last for many thousands of erase/write cycles – up to 100,000 for program memory and 1,000,000 for EEPROM. Data retention without refresh is conservatively estimated to be greater than 40 years. • Self-Programmability: These devices can write to their own program memory spaces under internal software control. By using a bootloader routine, located in the protected Boot Block at the top of program memory, it becomes possible to create an application that can update itself in the field. • Extended Instruction Set: The PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family introduces an optional extension to the PIC18 instruction set, which adds 8 new instructions and an Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode. This extension, enabled as a device configuration option, has been specifically designed to optimize re-entrant application code originally developed in high-level languages such as C. • Enhanced CCP Module: In PWM mode, this module provides 1, 2 or 4 modulated outputs for controlling half-bridge and full-bridge drivers. Other features include auto-shutdown for disabling PWM outputs on interrupt or other select conditions, and auto-restart to reactivate outputs once the condition has cleared. • Enhanced Addressable USART: This serial communication module is capable of standard RS-232 operation and provides support for the LIN bus protocol. The TX/CK and RX/DT signals can be inverted, eliminating the need for inverting buffers. Other enhancements include Automatic Baud Rate Detection and a 16-bit Baud Rate Generator for improved resolution. When the microcontroller is using the internal oscillator block, the EUSART provides stable operation for applications that talk to the outside world without using an external crystal (or its accompanying power requirement). • 10-Bit A/D Converter: This module incorporates programmable acquisition time, allowing for a channel to be selected and a conversion to be initiated, without waiting for a sampling period and thus, reducing code overhead. • Dedicated ICD/ICSP Port: These devices introduce the use of debugger and programming pins that are not multiplexed with other microcontroller features. Offered as an option in select packages, this feature allows users to develop I/O intensive applications while retaining the ability to program and debug in the circuit. 1.3 Details on Individual Family Members Devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family are available in 28-pin and 40/44-pin packages. Block diagrams for the two groups are shown in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. The devices are differentiated from each other in six ways: 1. Flash program memory (24 Kbytes for PIC18FX455 devices, 32 Kbytes for PIC18FX550 devices). 2. A/D channels (10 for 28-pin devices, 13 for 40/44-pin devices). 3. I/O ports (3 bidirectional ports and 1 input only port on 28-pin devices, 5 bidirectional ports on 40/44-pin devices). 4. CCP and Enhanced CCP implementation (28-pin devices have two standard CCP modules, 40/44-pin devices have one standard CCP module and one ECCP module). 5. Streaming Parallel Port (present only on 40/44-pin devices). All other features for devices in this family are identical. These are summarized in Table 1-1. The pinouts for all devices are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3. Like all Microchip PIC18 devices, members of the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family are available as both standard and low-voltage devices. Standard devices with Enhanced Flash memory, designated with an “F” in the part number (such as PIC18F2550), accommodate an operating VDD range of 4.2V to 5.5V. Low-voltage parts, designated by “LF” (such as PIC18LF2550), function over an extended VDD range of 2.0V to 5.5V. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 9 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 TABLE 1-1: DEVICE FEATURES Features PIC18F2455 PIC18F2550 PIC18F4455 PIC18F4550 Operating Frequency DC – 48 MHz DC – 48 MHz DC – 48 MHz DC – 48 MHz Program Memory (Bytes) 24576 32768 24576 32768 Program Memory (Instructions) 12288 16384 12288 16384 Data Memory (Bytes) 2048 2048 2048 2048 Data EEPROM Memory (Bytes) 256 256 256 256 Interrupt Sources 19 19 20 20 I/O Ports Ports A, B, C, (E) Ports A, B, C, (E) Ports A, B, C, D, E Ports A, B, C, D, E Timers 4 4 4 4 Capture/Compare/PWM Modules 2 2 1 1 Enhanced Capture/ Compare/PWM Modules 0 0 1 1 Serial Communications MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART Universal Serial Bus (USB) Module 1 1 1 1 Streaming Parallel Port (SPP) No No Yes Yes 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Module 10 Input Channels 10 Input Channels 13 Input Channels 13 Input Channels Comparators 2 2 2 2 Resets (and Delays) POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT Programmable Low-Voltage Detect Yes Yes Yes Yes Programmable Brown-out Reset Yes Yes Yes Yes Instruction Set 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set enabled Packages 28-Pin PDIP 28-Pin SOIC 28-Pin PDIP 28-Pin SOIC 40-Pin PDIP 44-Pin QFN 44-Pin TQFP 40-Pin PDIP 44-Pin QFN 44-Pin TQFP PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 10 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 1-1: PIC18F2455/2550 (28-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM Data Latch Data Memory (2 Kbytes) Address Latch Data Address<12> 12 BSR Access 4 4 PCH PCL PCLATH 8 31 Level Stack Program Counter PRODH PRODL 8 x 8 Multiply 8 8 8 ALU<8> Address Latch Program Memory (24/32 Kbytes) Data Latch 20 8 8 Table Pointer<21> inc/dec logic 21 8 Data Bus<8> Table Latch 8 IR 12 3 ROM Latch PCLATU PCU PORTE MCLR/VPP/RE3(1) Note 1: RE3 is multiplexed with MCLR and is only available when the MCLR Resets are disabled. 2: OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO are only available in select oscillator modes and when these pins are not being used as digital I/O. Refer to Section 2.0 “Oscillator Configurations” for additional information. 3: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. W Instruction Bus <16> STKPTR Bank 8 8 8 BITOP FSR0 FSR1 FSR2 inc/dec Address 12 Decode logic Comparator MSSP EUSART 10-Bit ADC HLVD Timer0 Timer1 Timer2 Timer3 CCP2 BOR Data EEPROM USB Instruction Decode & Control State Machine Control Signals Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer OSC1(2) OSC2(2) VDD, Brown-out Reset Internal Oscillator Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Reference Band Gap VSS MCLR(1) Block INTRC Oscillator 8 MHz Oscillator Single-Supply Programming In-Circuit Debugger T1OSI T1OSO USB Voltage VUSB Regulator PORTB PORTC RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(3)/UOE RC2/CCP1 RC4/D-/VM RC5/D+/VP RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT/SDO RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB3/AN9/CCP2(3)/VPO RB4/AN11/KBI0 RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD PORTA RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 OSC2/CLKO/RA6 CCP1 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 11 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 FIGURE 1-2: PIC18F4455/4550 (40/44-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM Instruction Decode & Control Data Latch Data Memory (2 Kbytes) Address Latch Data Address<12> 12 BSR Access 4 4 PCH PCL PCLATH 8 31 Level Stack Program Counter PRODH PRODL 8 x 8 Multiply 8 BITOP 8 8 ALU<8> Address Latch Program Memory (24/32 Kbytes) Data Latch 20 8 8 Table Pointer<21> inc/dec logic 21 8 Data Bus<8> Table Latch 8 IR 12 3 ROM Latch PORTD RD0/SPP0:RD4/SPP4 PCLATU PCU PORTE MCLR/VPP/RE3(1) RE2/AN7/OESPP RE0/AN5/CK1SPP RE1/AN6/CK2SPP Note 1: RE3 is multiplexed with MCLR and is only available when the MCLR Resets are disabled. 2: OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO are only available in select oscillator modes and when these pins are not being used as digital I/O. Refer to Section 2.0 “Oscillator Configurations” for additional information. 3: These pins are only available on 44-pin TQFP packages under certain conditions. Refer to Section 25.9 “Special ICPORT Features (44-Pin TQFP Package Only)” for additional information. 4: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. Comparator MSSP EUSART 10-Bit ADC Timer0 Timer1 Timer2 Timer3 CCP2 HLVD ECCP1 BOR Data EEPROM W Instruction Bus <16> STKPTR Bank 8 State Machine Control Signals 8 8 Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer OSC1(2) OSC2(2) VDD, VSS Brown-out Reset Internal Oscillator Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Reference Band Gap MCLR(1) Block INTRC Oscillator 8 MHz Oscillator Single-Supply Programming In-Circuit Debugger T1OSI T1OSO RD5/SPP5/P1B RD6/SPP6/P1C RD7/SPP7/P1D PORTA PORTB PORTC RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(4)/UOE RC2/CCP1/P1A RC4/D-/VM RC5/D+/VP RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT/SDO RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB3/AN9/CCP2(4)/VPO OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD USB FSR0 FSR1 FSR2 inc/dec Address 12 Decode logic USB Voltage Regulator VUSB ICRST(3) ICPGC(3) ICPGD(3) ICPORTS(3) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 12 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2455/2550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP, SOIC MCLR/VPP/RE3 MCLR VPP RE3 1 I PI ST ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (input). Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to the device. Programming voltage input. Digital input. OSC1/CLKI OSC1 CLKI 9 II Analog Analog Oscillator crystal or external clock input. Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. External clock source input. Always associated with pin function OSC1. (See OSC2/CLKO pin.) OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC2 CLKO RA6 10 O O I/O — — TTL Oscillator crystal or clock output. Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In select modes, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate. General purpose I/O pin. Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 13 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port. RA0/AN0 RA0 AN0 2 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 0. RA1/AN1 RA1 AN1 3 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 1. RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA2 AN2 VREFCVREF 4 I/O IIO TTL Analog Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 2. A/D reference voltage (low) input. Analog comparator reference output. RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA3 AN3 VREF+ 5 I/O II TTL Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 3. A/D reference voltage (high) input. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV RA4 T0CKI C1OUT RCV 6 I/O IOI ST ST — TTL Digital I/O. Timer0 external clock input. Comparator 1 output. External USB transceiver RCV input. RA5/AN4/SS/ HLVDIN/C2OUT RA5 AN4 SS HLVDIN C2OUT 7 I/O IIIO TTL Analog TTL Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 4. SPI slave select input. High/Low-Voltage Detect input. Comparator 2 output. RA6 — — — See the OSC2/CLKO/RA6 pin. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2455/2550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP, SOIC Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 14 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs. RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/ SDI/SDA RB0 AN12 INT0 FLT0 SDI SDA 21 I/O IIII I/O TTL Analog ST ST ST ST Digital I/O. Analog input 12. External interrupt 0. PWM Fault input (CCP1 module). SPI data in. I2C™ data I/O. RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/ SCL RB1 AN10 INT1 SCK SCL 22 I/O II I/O I/O TTL Analog ST ST ST Digital I/O. Analog input 10. External interrupt 1. Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode. Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C mode. RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB2 AN8 INT2 VMO 23 I/O IIO TTL Analog ST — Digital I/O. Analog input 8. External interrupt 2. External USB transceiver VMO output. RB3/AN9/CCP2/VPO RB3 AN9 CCP2(1) VPO 24 I/O I I/O O TTL Analog ST — Digital I/O. Analog input 9. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. External USB transceiver VPO output. RB4/AN11/KBI0 RB4 AN11 KBI0 25 I/O II TTL Analog TTL Digital I/O. Analog input 11. Interrupt-on-change pin. RB5/KBI1/PGM RB5 KBI1 PGM 26 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Low-Voltage ICSP™ Programming enable pin. RB6/KBI2/PGC RB6 KBI2 PGC 27 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming clock pin. RB7/KBI3/PGD RB7 KBI3 PGD 28 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2455/2550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP, SOIC Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 15 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC0 T1OSO T13CKI 11 I/O OI ST — ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator output. Timer1/Timer3 external clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2/UOE RC1 T1OSI CCP2(2) UOE 12 I/O I I/O O ST CMOS ST — Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator input. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. External USB transceiver OE output. RC2/CCP1 RC2 CCP1 13 I/O I/O ST ST Digital I/O. Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output. RC4/D-/VM RC4 DVM 15 I I/O I TTL — TTL Digital input. USB differential minus line (input/output). External USB transceiver VM input. RC5/D+/VP RC5 D+ VP 16 I I/O O TTL — TTL Digital input. USB differential plus line (input/output). External USB transceiver VP input. RC6/TX/CK RC6 TX CK 17 I/O O I/O ST — ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous transmit. EUSART synchronous clock (see RX/DT). RC7/RX/DT/SDO RC7 RX DT SDO 18 I/O I I/O O ST ST ST — Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous receive. EUSART synchronous data (see TX/CK). SPI data out. RE3 — — — See MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin. VUSB 14 P — Internal USB 3.3V voltage regulator output, positive supply for internal USB transceiver. VSS 8, 19 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 20 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2455/2550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP, SOIC Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 16 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP MCLR/VPP/RE3 MCLR VPP RE3 1 18 18 I PI ST ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (input). Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to the device. Programming voltage input. Digital input. OSC1/CLKI OSC1 CLKI 13 32 30 II Analog Analog Oscillator crystal or external clock input. Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. External clock source input. Always associated with pin function OSC1. (See OSC2/CLKO pin.) OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC2 CLKO RA6 14 33 31 O O I/O — — TTL Oscillator crystal or clock output. Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate. General purpose I/O pin. Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 17 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port. RA0/AN0 RA0 AN0 2 19 19 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 0. RA1/AN1 RA1 AN1 3 20 20 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 1. RA2/AN2/VREF-/ CVREF RA2 AN2 VREFCVREF 4 21 21 I/O IIO TTL Analog Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 2. A/D reference voltage (low) input. Analog comparator reference output. RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA3 AN3 VREF+ 5 22 22 I/O II TTL Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 3. A/D reference voltage (high) input. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/ RCV RA4 T0CKI C1OUT RCV 6 23 23 I/O IOI ST ST — TTL Digital I/O. Timer0 external clock input. Comparator 1 output. External USB transceiver RCV input. RA5/AN4/SS/ HLVDIN/C2OUT RA5 AN4 SS HLVDIN C2OUT 7 24 24 I/O IIIO TTL Analog TTL Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 4. SPI slave select input. High/Low-Voltage Detect input. Comparator 2 output. RA6 — — — — — See the OSC2/CLKO/RA6 pin. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 18 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs. RB0/AN12/INT0/ FLT0/SDI/SDA RB0 AN12 INT0 FLT0 SDI SDA 33 9 8 I/O IIII I/O TTL Analog ST ST ST ST Digital I/O. Analog input 12. External interrupt 0. Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP1 module). SPI data in. I2C™ data I/O. RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/ SCL RB1 AN10 INT1 SCK SCL 34 10 9 I/O II I/O I/O TTL Analog ST ST ST Digital I/O. Analog input 10. External interrupt 1. Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode. Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C mode. RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB2 AN8 INT2 VMO 35 11 10 I/O IIO TTL Analog ST — Digital I/O. Analog input 8. External interrupt 2. External USB transceiver VMO output. RB3/AN9/CCP2/VPO RB3 AN9 CCP2(1) VPO 36 12 11 I/O I I/O O TTL Analog ST — Digital I/O. Analog input 9. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. External USB transceiver VPO output. RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPP RB4 AN11 KBI0 CSSPP 37 14 14 I/O IIO TTL Analog TTL — Digital I/O. Analog input 11. Interrupt-on-change pin. SPP chip select control output. RB5/KBI1/PGM RB5 KBI1 PGM 38 15 15 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Low-Voltage ICSP™ Programming enable pin. RB6/KBI2/PGC RB6 KBI2 PGC 39 16 16 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming clock pin. RB7/KBI3/PGD RB7 KBI3 PGD 40 17 17 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 19 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC0 T1OSO T13CKI 15 34 32 I/O OI ST — ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator output. Timer1/Timer3 external clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2/ UOE RC1 T1OSI CCP2(2) UOE 16 35 35 I/O I I/O O ST CMOS ST — Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator input. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. External USB transceiver OE output. RC2/CCP1/P1A RC2 CCP1 P1A 17 36 36 I/O I/O O ST ST TTL Digital I/O. Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output. Enhanced CCP1 PWM output, channel A. RC4/D-/VM RC4 DVM 23 42 42 I I/O I TTL — TTL Digital input. USB differential minus line (input/output). External USB transceiver VM input. RC5/D+/VP RC5 D+ VP 24 43 43 I I/O I TTL — TTL Digital input. USB differential plus line (input/output). External USB transceiver VP input. RC6/TX/CK RC6 TX CK 25 44 44 I/O O I/O ST — ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous transmit. EUSART synchronous clock (see RX/DT). RC7/RX/DT/SDO RC7 RX DT SDO 26 1 1 I/O I I/O O ST ST ST — Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous receive. EUSART synchronous data (see TX/CK). SPI data out. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 20 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port or a Streaming Parallel Port (SPP). These pins have TTL input buffers when the SPP module is enabled. RD0/SPP0 RD0 SPP0 19 38 38 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. RD1/SPP1 RD1 SPP1 20 39 39 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. RD2/SPP2 RD2 SPP2 21 40 40 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. RD3/SPP3 RD3 SPP3 22 41 41 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. RD4/SPP4 RD4 SPP4 27 2 2 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. RD5/SPP5/P1B RD5 SPP5 P1B 28 3 3 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. Enhanced CCP1 PWM output, channel B. RD6/SPP6/P1C RD6 SPP6 P1C 29 4 4 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. Enhanced CCP1 PWM output, channel C. RD7/SPP7/P1D RD7 SPP7 P1D 30 5 5 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Streaming Parallel Port data. Enhanced CCP1 PWM output, channel D. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 21 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port. RE0/AN5/CK1SPP RE0 AN5 CK1SPP 8 25 25 I/O IO ST Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 5. SPP clock 1 output. RE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE1 AN6 CK2SPP 9 26 26 I/O IO ST Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 6. SPP clock 2 output. RE2/AN7/OESPP RE2 AN7 OESPP 10 27 27 I/O IO ST Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 7. SPP output enable output. RE3 — — — — — See MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin. VSS 12, 31 6, 30, 31 6, 29 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 11, 32 7, 8, 28, 29 7, 28 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. VUSB 18 37 37 P — Internal USB 3.3V voltage regulator output, positive supply for the USB transceiver. NC/ICCK/ICPGC(3) ICCK ICPGC — — 12 I/O I/O ST ST No Connect or dedicated ICD/ICSP™ port clock. In-Circuit Debugger clock. ICSP programming clock. NC/ICDT/ICPGD(3) ICDT ICPGD — — 13 I/O I/O ST ST No Connect or dedicated ICD/ICSP port clock. In-Circuit Debugger data. ICSP programming data. NC/ICRST/ICVPP(3) ICRST ICVPP — — 33 IP —— No Connect or dedicated ICD/ICSP port Reset. Master Clear (Reset) input. Programming voltage input. NC/ICPORTS(3) ICPORTS — — 34 P — No Connect or 28-pin device emulation. Enable 28-pin device emulation when connected to VSS. NC — 13 — — — No Connect. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4455/4550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared. 2: Default assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. 3: These pins are No Connect unless the ICPRT Configuration bit is set. For NC/ICPORTS, the pin is No Connect unless ICPRT is set and the DEBUG Configuration bit is cleared. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 22 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 23 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 2.0 OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS 2.1 Overview Devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family incorporate a different oscillator and microcontroller clock system than previous PIC18F devices. The addition of the USB module, with its unique requirements for a stable clock source, make it necessary to provide a separate clock source that is compliant with both USB low-speed and full-speed specifications. To accommodate these requirements, PIC18F2455/ 2550/4455/4550 devices include a new clock branch to provide a 48 MHz clock for full-speed USB operation. Since it is driven from the primary clock source, an additional system of prescalers and postscalers has been added to accommodate a wide range of oscillator frequencies. An overview of the oscillator structure is shown in Figure 2-1. Other oscillator features used in PIC18 enhanced microcontrollers, such as the internal oscillator block and clock switching, remain the same. They are discussed later in this chapter. 2.1.1 OSCILLATOR CONTROL The operation of the oscillator in PIC18F2455/2550/ 4455/4550 devices is controlled through two Configuration registers and two control registers. Configuration registers, CONFIG1L and CONFIG1H, select the oscillator mode and USB prescaler/postscaler options. As Configuration bits, these are set when the device is programmed and left in that configuration until the device is reprogrammed. The OSCCON register (Register 2-2) selects the Active Clock mode; it is primarily used in controlling clock switching in power-managed modes. Its use is discussed in Section 2.4.1 “Oscillator Control Register”. The OSCTUNE register (Register 2-1) is used to trim the INTRC frequency source, as well as select the low-frequency clock source that drives several special features. Its use is described in Section 2.2.5.2 “OSCTUNE Register”. 2.2 Oscillator Types PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices can be operated in twelve distinct oscillator modes. In contrast with previous PIC18 enhanced microcontrollers, four of these modes involve the use of two oscillator types at once. Users can program the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits to select one of these modes: 1. XT Crystal/Resonator 2. HS High-Speed Crystal/Resonator 3. HSPLL High-Speed Crystal/Resonator with PLL Enabled 4. EC External Clock with FOSC/4 Output 5. ECIO External Clock with I/O on RA6 6. ECPLL External Clock with PLL Enabled and FOSC/4 Output on RA6 7. ECPIO External Clock with PLL Enabled, I/O on RA6 8. INTHS Internal Oscillator used as Microcontroller Clock Source, HS Oscillator used as USB Clock Source 9. INTIO Internal Oscillator used as Microcontroller Clock Source, EC Oscillator used as USB Clock Source, Digital I/O on RA6 10. INTCKO Internal Oscillator used as Microcontroller Clock Source, EC Oscillator used as USB Clock Source, FOSC/4 Output on RA6 2.2.1 OSCILLATOR MODES AND USB OPERATION Because of the unique requirements of the USB module, a different approach to clock operation is necessary. In previous PIC® devices, all core and peripheral clocks were driven by a single oscillator source; the usual sources were primary, secondary or the internal oscillator. With PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices, the primary oscillator becomes part of the USB module and cannot be associated to any other clock source. Thus, the USB module must be clocked from the primary clock source; however, the microcontroller core and other peripherals can be separately clocked from the secondary or internal oscillators as before. Because of the timing requirements imposed by USB, an internal clock of either 6 MHz or 48 MHz is required while the USB module is enabled. Fortunately, the microcontroller and other peripherals are not required to run at this clock speed when using the primary oscillator. There are numerous options to achieve the USB module clock requirement and still provide flexibility for clocking the rest of the device from the primary oscillator source. These are detailed in Section 2.3 “Oscillator Settings for USB”. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 24 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 2-1: PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 CLOCK DIAGRAM PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 FOSC3:FOS C0 Secondary Oscillator T1OSCEN Enable Oscillator T1OSO T1OSI Clock Source Option for Other Modules OSC1 OSC2 Sleep Primary Oscillator XT, HS, EC, ECIO T1OSC CPU Peripherals IDLEN INTOSC Postscaler MUX MUX 8 MHz 4 MHz 2 MHz 1 MHz 500 kHz 125 kHz 250 kHz OSCCON<6:4> 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 31 kHz 000 INTRC Source Internal Oscillator Block WDT, PWRT, FSCM 8 MHz Internal Oscillator (INTOSC) Clock Control Source OSCCON< 1:0> 8 MHz 31 kHz (INTRC) 0 1 OSCTUNE<7> and Two-Speed Start-up 96 MHz PLL PLLDIV CPUDIV 0 1 0 ÷ 2 1 PLL Prescaler MUX 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 ÷ 1 ÷ 2 ÷ 3 ÷ 4 ÷ 5 ÷ 6 ÷ 10 ÷ 12 11 10 01 00 PLL Postscaler ÷ 2 ÷ 3 ÷ 4 ÷ 6 USB USBDIV FOSC3:FOSC0 HSPLL, ECPLL, 11 10 01 00 Oscillator Postscaler ÷ 1 ÷ 2 ÷ 3 ÷ 4 CPUDIV 1 0 Peripheral FSEN ÷ 4 USB Clock Source XTPLL, ECPIO Primary Clock (4 MHz Input Only) © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 25 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 2.2.2 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC RESONATORS In HS, HSPLL, XT and XTPLL Oscillator modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1 and OSC2 pins to establish oscillation. Figure 2-2 shows the pin connections. The oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. FIGURE 2-2: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC RESONATOR OPERATION (XT, HS OR HSPLL CONFIGURATION) TABLE 2-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR CERAMIC RESONATORS Note: Use of a series cut crystal may give a frequency out of the crystal manufacturer’s specifications. Note 1: See Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 for initial values of C1 and C2. 2: A series resistor (RS) may be required for AT strip cut crystals. 3: RF varies with the oscillator mode chosen. C1(1) C2(1) XTAL OSC2 OSC1 RF(3) Sleep To Logic PIC18FXXXX RS(2) Internal Typical Capacitor Values Used: Mode Freq OSC1 OSC2 XT 4.0 MHz 33 pF 33 pF HS 8.0 MHz 16.0 MHz 27 pF 22 pF 27 pF 22 pF Capacitor values are for design guidance only. These capacitors were tested with the resonators listed below for basic start-up and operation. These values are not optimized. Different capacitor values may be required to produce acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test the performance of the oscillator over the expected VDD and temperature range for the application. See the notes following Table 2-2 for additional information. Resonators Used: 4.0 MHz 8.0 MHz 16.0 MHz When using ceramic resonators with frequencies above 3.5 MHz, HS mode is recommended over XT mode. HS mode may be used at any VDD for which the controller is rated. If HS is selected, the gain of the oscillator may overdrive the resonator. Therefore, a series resistor should be placed between the OSC2 pin and the resonator. As a good starting point, the recommended value of RS is 330 Ω. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 26 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 2-2: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR An internal postscaler allows users to select a clock frequency other than that of the crystal or resonator. Frequency division is determined by the CPUDIV Configuration bits. Users may select a clock frequency of the oscillator frequency, or 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 of the frequency. An external clock may also be used when the microcontroller is in HS Oscillator mode. In this case, the OSC2/CLKO pin is left open (Figure 2-3). FIGURE 2-3: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (HS OSC CONFIGURATION) 2.2.3 EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT The EC, ECIO, ECPLL and ECPIO Oscillator modes require an external clock source to be connected to the OSC1 pin. There is no oscillator start-up time required after a Power-on Reset or after an exit from Sleep mode. In the EC and ECPLL Oscillator modes, the oscillator frequency divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin. This signal may be used for test purposes or to synchronize other logic. Figure 2-4 shows the pin connections for the EC Oscillator mode. FIGURE 2-4: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (EC AND ECPLL CONFIGURATION) The ECIO and ECPIO Oscillator modes function like the EC and ECPLL modes, except that the OSC2 pin becomes an additional general purpose I/O pin. The I/O pin becomes bit 6 of PORTA (RA6). Figure 2-5 shows the pin connections for the ECIO Oscillator mode. FIGURE 2-5: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (ECIO AND ECPIO CONFIGURATION) The internal postscaler for reducing clock frequency in XT and HS modes is also available in EC and ECIO modes. Osc Type Crystal Freq Typical Capacitor Values Tested: C1 C2 XT 4 MHz 27 pF 27 pF HS 4 MHz 27 pF 27 pF 8 MHz 22 pF 22 pF 20 MHz 15 pF 15 pF Capacitor values are for design guidance only. These capacitors were tested with the crystals listed below for basic start-up and operation. These values are not optimized. Different capacitor values may be required to produce acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test the performance of the oscillator over the expected VDD and temperature range for the application. See the notes following this table for additional information. Crystals Used: 4 MHz 8 MHz 20 MHz Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability of oscillator but also increases the start-up time. 2: When operating below 3V VDD, or when using certain ceramic resonators at any voltage, it may be necessary to use the HS mode or switch to a crystal oscillator. 3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components. 4: Rs may be required to avoid overdriving crystals with low drive level specification. 5: Always verify oscillator performance over the VDD and temperature range that is expected for the application. OSC1 Open OSC2 Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX (HS Mode) OSC1/CLKI FOSC/4 OSC2/CLKO Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX OSC1/CLKI RA6 I/O (OSC2) Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 27 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 2.2.4 PLL FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER PIC18F2455/2550/4255/4550 devices include a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) circuit. This is provided specifically for USB applications with lower speed oscillators and can also be used as a microcontroller clock source. The PLL is enabled in HSPLL, XTPLL, ECPLL and ECPIO Oscillator modes. It is designed to produce a fixed 96 MHz reference clock from a fixed 4 MHz input. The output can then be divided and used for both the USB and the microcontroller core clock. Because the PLL has a fixed frequency input and output, there are eight prescaling options to match the oscillator input frequency to the PLL. There is also a separate postscaler option for deriving the microcontroller clock from the PLL. This allows the USB peripheral and microcontroller to use the same oscillator input and still operate at different clock speeds. In contrast to the postscaler for XT, HS and EC modes, the available options are 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 of the PLL output. The HSPLL, ECPLL and ECPIO modes make use of the HS mode oscillator for frequencies up to 48 MHz. The prescaler divides the oscillator input by up to 12 to produce the 4 MHz drive for the PLL. The XTPLL mode can only use an input frequency of 4 MHz which drives the PLL directly. FIGURE 2-6: PLL BLOCK DIAGRAM (HS MODE) 2.2.5 INTERNAL OSCILLATOR BLOCK The PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices include an internal oscillator block which generates two different clock signals; either can be used as the microcontroller’s clock source. If the USB peripheral is not used, the internal oscillator may eliminate the need for external oscillator circuits on the OSC1 and/or OSC2 pins. The main output (INTOSC) is an 8 MHz clock source which can be used to directly drive the device clock. It also drives the INTOSC postscaler which can provide a range of clock frequencies from 31 kHz to 4 MHz. The INTOSC output is enabled when a clock frequency from 125 kHz to 8 MHz is selected. The other clock source is the internal RC oscillator (INTRC) which provides a nominal 31 kHz output. INTRC is enabled if it is selected as the device clock source; it is also enabled automatically when any of the following are enabled: • Power-up Timer • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor • Watchdog Timer • Two-Speed Start-up These features are discussed in greater detail in Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU”. The clock source frequency (INTOSC direct, INTRC direct or INTOSC postscaler) is selected by configuring the IRCF bits of the OSCCON register (page 33). 2.2.5.1 Internal Oscillator Modes When the internal oscillator is used as the microcontroller clock source, one of the other oscillator modes (External Clock or External Crystal/Resonator) must be used as the USB clock source. The choice of the USB clock source is determined by the particular internal oscillator mode. There are four distinct modes available: 1. INTHS mode: The USB clock is provided by the oscillator in HS mode. 2. INTXT mode: The USB clock is provided by the oscillator in XT mode. 3. INTCKO mode: The USB clock is provided by an external clock input on OSC1/CLKI; the OSC2/ CLKO pin outputs FOSC/4. 4. INTIO mode: The USB clock is provided by an external clock input on OSC1/CLKI; the OSC2/ CLKO pin functions as a digital I/O (RA6). Of these four modes, only INTIO mode frees up an additional pin (OSC2/CLKO/RA6) for port I/O use. MUX VCO Loop Filter and Prescaler OSC2 OSC1 PLL Enable FIN FOUT SYSCLK Phase Comparator HS/EC/ECIO/XT Oscillator Enable ÷24 (from CONFIG1H Register) Oscillator PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 28 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.2.5.2 OSCTUNE Register The internal oscillator’s output has been calibrated at the factory but can be adjusted in the user’s application. This is done by writing to the OSCTUNE register (Register 2-1). The tuning sensitivity is constant throughout the tuning range. The INTOSC clock will stabilize within 1 ms. Code execution continues during this shift. There is no indication that the shift has occurred. The OSCTUNE register also contains the INTSRC bit. The INTSRC bit allows users to select which internal oscillator provides the clock source when the 31 kHz frequency option is selected. This is covered in greater detail in Section 2.4.1 “Oscillator Control Register”. 2.2.5.3 Internal Oscillator Output Frequency and Drift The internal oscillator block is calibrated at the factory to produce an INTOSC output frequency of 8.0 MHz. However, this frequency may drift as VDD or temperature changes, which can affect the controller operation in a variety of ways. The low-frequency INTRC oscillator operates independently of the INTOSC source. Any changes in INTOSC across voltage and temperature are not necessarily reflected by changes in INTRC and vice versa. REGISTER 2-1: OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER R/W-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 INTSRC — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 INTSRC: Internal Oscillator Low-Frequency Source Select bit 1 = 31.25 kHz device clock derived from 8 MHz INTOSC source (divide-by-256 enabled) 0 = 31 kHz device clock derived directly from INTRC internal oscillator bit 6-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 TUN4:TUN0: Frequency Tuning bits 01111 = Maximum frequency • • • • 00001 00000 = Center frequency. Oscillator module is running at the calibrated frequency. 11111 • • • • 10000 = Minimum frequency © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 29 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 2.2.5.4 Compensating for INTOSC Drift It is possible to adjust the INTOSC frequency by modifying the value in the OSCTUNE register. This has no effect on the INTRC clock source frequency. Tuning the INTOSC source requires knowing when to make the adjustment, in which direction it should be made and in some cases, how large a change is needed. When using the EUSART, for example, an adjustment may be required when it begins to generate framing errors or receives data with errors while in Asynchronous mode. Framing errors indicate that the device clock frequency is too high; to adjust for this, decrement the value in OSCTUNE to reduce the clock frequency. On the other hand, errors in data may suggest that the clock speed is too low; to compensate, increment OSCTUNE to increase the clock frequency. It is also possible to verify device clock speed against a reference clock. Two timers may be used: one timer is clocked by the peripheral clock, while the other is clocked by a fixed reference source, such as the Timer1 oscillator. Both timers are cleared but the timer clocked by the reference generates interrupts. When an interrupt occurs, the internally clocked timer is read and both timers are cleared. If the internally clocked timer value is greater than expected, then the internal oscillator block is running too fast. To adjust for this, decrement the OSCTUNE register. Finally, a CCP module can use free-running Timer1 (or Timer3), clocked by the internal oscillator block and an external event with a known period (i.e., AC power frequency). The time of the first event is captured in the CCPRxH:CCPRxL registers and is recorded for use later. When the second event causes a capture, the time of the first event is subtracted from the time of the second event. Since the period of the external event is known, the time difference between events can be calculated. If the measured time is much greater than the calculated time, the internal oscillator block is running too fast; to compensate, decrement the OSCTUNE register. If the measured time is much less than the calculated time, the internal oscillator block is running too slow; to compensate, increment the OSCTUNE register. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 30 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.3 Oscillator Settings for USB When these devices are used for USB connectivity, they must have either a 6 MHz or 48 MHz clock for USB operation, depending on whether Low-Speed or Full-Speed mode is being used. This may require some forethought in selecting an oscillator frequency and programming the device. The full range of possible oscillator configurations compatible with USB operation is shown in Table 2-3. 2.3.1 LOW-SPEED OPERATION The USB clock for Low-Speed mode is derived from the primary oscillator chain and not directly from the PLL. It is divided by 4 to produce the actual 6 MHz clock. Because of this, the microcontroller can only use a clock frequency of 24 MHz when the USB module is active and the controller clock source is one of the primary oscillator modes (XT, HS or EC, with or without the PLL). This restriction does not apply if the microcontroller clock source is the secondary oscillator or internal oscillator block. 2.3.2 RUNNING DIFFERENT USB AND MICROCONTROLLER CLOCKS The USB module, in either mode, can run asynchronously with respect to the microcontroller core and other peripherals. This means that applications can use the primary oscillator for the USB clock while the microcontroller runs from a separate clock source at a lower speed. If it is necessary to run the entire application from only one clock source, full-speed operation provides a greater selection of microcontroller clock frequencies. TABLE 2-3: OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION OPTIONS FOR USB OPERATION Input Oscillator Frequency PLL Division (PLLDIV2:PLLDIV0) Clock Mode (FOSC3:FOSC0) MCU Clock Division (CPUDIV1:CPUDIV0) Microcontroller Clock Frequency 48 MHz N/A(1) EC, ECIO None (00) 48 MHz ÷2 (01) 24 MHz ÷3 (10) 16 MHz ÷4 (11) 12 MHz 48 MHz ÷12 (111) EC, ECIO None (00) 48 MHz ÷2 (01) 24 MHz ÷3 (10) 16 MHz ÷4 (11) 12 MHz ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 40 MHz ÷10 (110) EC, ECIO None (00) 40 MHz ÷2 (01) 20 MHz ÷3 (10) 13.33 MHz ÷4 (11) 10 MHz ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 24 MHz ÷6 (101) HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 24 MHz ÷2 (01) 12 MHz ÷3 (10) 8MHz ÷4 (11) 6MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz Legend: All clock frequencies, except 24 MHz, are exclusively associated with full-speed USB operation (USB clock of 48 MHz). Bold is used to highlight clock selections that are compatible with low-speed USB operation (system clock of 24 MHz, USB clock of 6 MHz). Note 1: Only valid when the USBDIV Configuration bit is cleared. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 31 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 20 MHz ÷5 (100) HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 20 MHz ÷2 (01) 10 MHz ÷3 (10) 6.67 MHz ÷4 (11) 5MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 16 MHz ÷4 (011) HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 16 MHz ÷2 (01) 8MHz ÷3 (10) 5.33 MHz ÷4 (11) 4MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 12 MHz ÷3 (010) HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 12 MHz ÷2 (01) 6MHz ÷3 (10) 4MHz ÷4 (11) 3MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 8 MHz ÷2 (001) HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 8MHz ÷2 (01) 4MHz ÷3 (10) 2.67 MHz ÷4 (11) 2MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz 4 MHz ÷1 (000) XT, HS, EC, ECIO None (00) 4MHz ÷2 (01) 2MHz ÷3 (10) 1.33 MHz ÷4 (11) 1MHz HSPLL, ECPLL, XTPLL, ECPIO ÷2 (00) 48 MHz ÷3 (01) 32 MHz ÷4 (10) 24 MHz ÷6 (11) 16 MHz TABLE 2-3: OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION OPTIONS FOR USB OPERATION (CONTINUED) Input Oscillator Frequency PLL Division (PLLDIV2:PLLDIV0) Clock Mode (FOSC3:FOSC0) MCU Clock Division (CPUDIV1:CPUDIV0) Microcontroller Clock Frequency Legend: All clock frequencies, except 24 MHz, are exclusively associated with full-speed USB operation (USB clock of 48 MHz). Bold is used to highlight clock selections that are compatible with low-speed USB operation (system clock of 24 MHz, USB clock of 6 MHz). Note 1: Only valid when the USBDIV Configuration bit is cleared. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 32 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.4 Clock Sources and Oscillator Switching Like previous PIC18 enhanced devices, the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family includes a feature that allows the device clock source to be switched from the main oscillator to an alternate, low-frequency clock source. These devices offer two alternate clock sources. When an alternate clock source is enabled, the various power-managed operating modes are available. Essentially, there are three clock sources for these devices: • Primary oscillators • Secondary oscillators • Internal oscillator block The primary oscillators include the External Crystal and Resonator modes, the External Clock modes and the internal oscillator block. The particular mode is defined by the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits. The details of these modes are covered earlier in this chapter. The secondary oscillators are those external sources not connected to the OSC1 or OSC2 pins. These sources may continue to operate even after the controller is placed in a power-managed mode. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices offer the Timer1 oscillator as a secondary oscillator. This oscillator, in all power-managed modes, is often the time base for functions such as a Real-Time Clock (RTC). Most often, a 32.768 kHz watch crystal is connected between the RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI and RC1/T1OSI/ UOE pins. Like the XT and HS Oscillator mode circuits, loading capacitors are also connected from each pin to ground. The Timer1 oscillator is discussed in greater detail in Section 12.3 “Timer1 Oscillator”. In addition to being a primary clock source, the internal oscillator block is available as a power-managed mode clock source. The INTRC source is also used as the clock source for several special features, such as the WDT and Fail-Safe Clock Monitor. 2.4.1 OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER The OSCCON register (Register 2-2) controls several aspects of the device clock’s operation, both in full-power operation and in power-managed modes. The System Clock Select bits, SCS1:SCS0, select the clock source. The available clock sources are the primary clock (defined by the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits), the secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator) and the internal oscillator block. The clock source changes immediately after one or more of the bits is written to, following a brief clock transition interval. The SCS bits are cleared on all forms of Reset. The Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits, IRCF2:IRCF0, select the frequency output of the internal oscillator block to drive the device clock. The choices are the INTRC source, the INTOSC source (8 MHz) or one of the frequencies derived from the INTOSC postscaler (31 kHz to 4 MHz). If the internal oscillator block is supplying the device clock, changing the states of these bits will have an immediate change on the internal oscillator’s output. On device Resets, the default output frequency of the internal oscillator block is set at 1 MHz. When an output frequency of 31 kHz is selected (IRCF2:IRCF0 = 000), users may choose which internal oscillator acts as the source. This is done with the INTSRC bit in the OSCTUNE register (OSCTUNE<7>). Setting this bit selects INTOSC as a 31.25 kHz clock source by enabling the divide-by-256 output of the INTOSC postscaler. Clearing INTSRC selects INTRC (nominally 31 kHz) as the clock source. This option allows users to select the tunable and more precise INTOSC as a clock source, while maintaining power savings with a very low clock speed. Regardless of the setting of INTSRC, INTRC always remains the clock source for features such as the Watchdog Timer and the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor. The OSTS, IOFS and T1RUN bits indicate which clock source is currently providing the device clock. The OSTS bit indicates that the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) has timed out and the primary clock is providing the device clock in primary clock modes. The IOFS bit indicates when the internal oscillator block has stabilized and is providing the device clock in RC Clock modes. The T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) indicates when the Timer1 oscillator is providing the device clock in secondary clock modes. In power-managed modes, only one of these three bits will be set at any time. If none of these bits are set, the INTRC is providing the clock or the internal oscillator block has just started and is not yet stable. The IDLEN bit determines if the device goes into Sleep mode, or one of the Idle modes, when the SLEEP instruction is executed. The use of the flag and control bits in the OSCCON register is discussed in more detail in Section 3.0 “Power-Managed Modes”. Note 1: The Timer1 oscillator must be enabled to select the secondary clock source. The Timer1 oscillator is enabled by setting the T1OSCEN bit in the Timer1 Control register (T1CON<3>). If the Timer1 oscillator is not enabled, then any attempt to select a secondary clock source will be ignored. 2: It is recommended that the Timer1 oscillator be operating and stable prior to switching to it as the clock source; otherwise, a very long delay may occur while the Timer1 oscillator starts. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 33 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 2.4.2 OSCILLATOR TRANSITIONS PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices contain circuitry to prevent clock “glitches” when switching between clock sources. A short pause in the device clock occurs during the clock switch. The length of this pause is the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to four cycles of the new clock source. This formula assumes that the new clock source is stable. Clock transitions are discussed in greater detail in Section 3.1.2 “Entering Power-Managed Modes”. REGISTER 2-2: OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R(1) R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 IDLEN IRCF2 IRCF1 IRCF0 OSTS IOFS SCS1 SCS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IDLEN: Idle Enable bit 1 = Device enters Idle mode on SLEEP instruction 0 = Device enters Sleep mode on SLEEP instruction bit 6-4 IRCF2:IRCF0: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits 111 = 8 MHz (INTOSC drives clock directly) 110 = 4 MHz 101 = 2 MHz 100 = 1 MHz(3) 011 = 500 kHz 010 = 250 kHz 001 = 125 kHz 000 = 31 kHz (from either INTOSC/256 or INTRC directly)(2) bit 3 OSTS: Oscillator Start-up Time-out Status bit(1) 1 = Oscillator Start-up Timer time-out has expired; primary oscillator is running 0 = Oscillator Start-up Timer time-out is running; primary oscillator is not ready bit 2 IOFS: INTOSC Frequency Stable bit 1 = INTOSC frequency is stable 0 = INTOSC frequency is not stable bit 1-0 SCS1:SCS0: System Clock Select bits 1x = Internal oscillator 01 = Timer1 oscillator 00 = Primary oscillator Note 1: Depends on the state of the IESO Configuration bit. 2: Source selected by the INTSRC bit (OSCTUNE<7>), see text. 3: Default output frequency of INTOSC on Reset. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 34 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.5 Effects of Power-Managed Modes on the Various Clock Sources When PRI_IDLE mode is selected, the designated primary oscillator continues to run without interruption. For all other power-managed modes, the oscillator using the OSC1 pin is disabled. Unless the USB module is enabled, the OSC1 pin (and OSC2 pin if used by the oscillator) will stop oscillating. In secondary clock modes (SEC_RUN and SEC_IDLE), the Timer1 oscillator is operating and providing the device clock. The Timer1 oscillator may also run in all power-managed modes if required to clock Timer1 or Timer3. In internal oscillator modes (RC_RUN and RC_IDLE), the internal oscillator block provides the device clock source. The 31 kHz INTRC output can be used directly to provide the clock and may be enabled to support various special features regardless of the power-managed mode (see Section 25.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”, Section 25.3 “Two-Speed Start-up” and Section 25.4 “Fail-Safe Clock Monitor” for more information on WDT, Fail-Safe Clock Monitor and Two-Speed Start-up). The INTOSC output at 8 MHz may be used directly to clock the device or may be divided down by the postscaler. The INTOSC output is disabled if the clock is provided directly from the INTRC output. Regardless of the Run or Idle mode selected, the USB clock source will continue to operate. If the device is operating from a crystal or resonator-based oscillator, that oscillator will continue to clock the USB module. The core and all other modules will switch to the new clock source. If the Sleep mode is selected, all clock sources are stopped. Since all the transistor switching currents have been stopped, Sleep mode achieves the lowest current consumption of the device (only leakage currents). Sleep mode should never be invoked while the USB module is operating and connected. The only exception is when the device has been issued a “Suspend” command over the USB. Once the module has suspended operation and shifted to a low-power state, the microcontroller may be safely put into Sleep mode. Enabling any on-chip feature that will operate during Sleep will increase the current consumed during Sleep. The INTRC is required to support WDT operation. The Timer1 oscillator may be operating to support a Real-Time Clock. Other features may be operating that do not require a device clock source (i.e., MSSP slave, PSP, INTx pins and others). Peripherals that may add significant current consumption are listed in Section 28.2 “DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current”. 2.6 Power-up Delays Power-up delays are controlled by two timers so that no external Reset circuitry is required for most applications. The delays ensure that the device is kept in Reset until the device power supply is stable under normal circumstances and the primary clock is operating and stable. For additional information on power-up delays, see Section 4.5 “Device Reset Timers”. The first timer is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a fixed delay on power-up (parameter 33, Table 28-12). It is enabled by clearing (= 0) the PWRTEN Configuration bit. The second timer is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep the chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is stable (XT and HS modes). The OST does this by counting 1024 oscillator cycles before allowing the oscillator to clock the device. When the HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected, the device is kept in Reset for an additional 2 ms following the HS mode OST delay, so the PLL can lock to the incoming clock frequency. There is a delay of interval, TCSD (parameter 38, Table 28-12), following POR, while the controller becomes ready to execute instructions. This delay runs concurrently with any other delays. This may be the only delay that occurs when any of the EC or internal oscillator modes are used as the primary clock source. TABLE 2-4: OSC1 AND OSC2 PIN STATES IN SLEEP MODE Oscillator Mode OSC1 Pin OSC2 Pin INTCKO Floating, pulled by external clock At logic low (clock/4 output) INTIO Floating, pulled by external clock Configured as PORTA, bit 6 ECIO, ECPIO Floating, pulled by external clock Configured as PORTA, bit 6 EC Floating, pulled by external clock At logic low (clock/4 output) XT and HS Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent voltage level Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent voltage level Note: See Table 4-2 in Section 4.0 “Reset” for time-outs due to Sleep and MCLR Reset. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 35 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 3.0 POWER-MANAGED MODES PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices offer a total of seven operating modes for more efficient power management. These modes provide a variety of options for selective power conservation in applications where resources may be limited (i.e., battery-powered devices). There are three categories of power-managed modes: • Run modes • Idle modes • Sleep mode These categories define which portions of the device are clocked and sometimes, what speed. The Run and Idle modes may use any of the three available clock sources (primary, secondary or internal oscillator block); the Sleep mode does not use a clock source. The power-managed modes include several power-saving features offered on previous PIC® devices. One is the clock switching feature, offered in other PIC18 devices, allowing the controller to use the Timer1 oscillator in place of the primary oscillator. Also included is the Sleep mode, offered by all PIC devices, where all device clocks are stopped. 3.1 Selecting Power-Managed Modes Selecting a power-managed mode requires two decisions: if the CPU is to be clocked or not and the selection of a clock source. The IDLEN bit (OSCCON<7>) controls CPU clocking, while the SCS1:SCS0 bits (OSCCON<1:0>) select the clock source. The individual modes, bit settings, clock sources and affected modules are summarized in Table 3-1. 3.1.1 CLOCK SOURCES The SCS1:SCS0 bits allow the selection of one of three clock sources for power-managed modes. They are: • The primary clock, as defined by the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits • The secondary clock (the Timer1 oscillator) • The internal oscillator block (for RC modes) 3.1.2 ENTERING POWER-MANAGED MODES Switching from one power-managed mode to another begins by loading the OSCCON register. The SCS1:SCS0 bits select the clock source and determine which Run or Idle mode is to be used. Changing these bits causes an immediate switch to the new clock source, assuming that it is running. The switch may also be subject to clock transition delays. These are discussed in Section 3.1.3 “Clock Transitions and Status Indicators” and subsequent sections. Entry to the power-managed Idle or Sleep modes is triggered by the execution of a SLEEP instruction. The actual mode that results depends on the status of the IDLEN bit. Depending on the current mode and the mode being switched to, a change to a power-managed mode does not always require setting all of these bits. Many transitions may be done by changing the oscillator select bits, or changing the IDLEN bit, prior to issuing a SLEEP instruction. If the IDLEN bit is already configured correctly, it may only be necessary to perform a SLEEP instruction to switch to the desired mode. TABLE 3-1: POWER-MANAGED MODES Mode OSCCON<7,1:0> Module Clocking Available Clock and Oscillator Source IDLEN(1) SCS1:SCS0 CPU Peripherals Sleep 0 N/A Off Off None – all clocks are disabled PRI_RUN N/A 00 Clocked Clocked Primary – all oscillator modes. This is the normal full-power execution mode. SEC_RUN N/A 01 Clocked Clocked Secondary – Timer1 oscillator RC_RUN N/A 1x Clocked Clocked Internal oscillator block(2) PRI_IDLE 1 00 Off Clocked Primary – all oscillator modes SEC_IDLE 1 01 Off Clocked Secondary – Timer1 oscillator RC_IDLE 1 1x Off Clocked Internal oscillator block(2) Note 1: IDLEN reflects its value when the SLEEP instruction is executed. 2: Includes INTOSC and INTOSC postscaler, as well as the INTRC source. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 36 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.1.3 CLOCK TRANSITIONS AND STATUS INDICATORS The length of the transition between clock sources is the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to four cycles of the new clock source. This formula assumes that the new clock source is stable. Three bits indicate the current clock source and its status. They are: • OSTS (OSCCON<3>) • IOFS (OSCCON<2>) • T1RUN (T1CON<6>) In general, only one of these bits will be set while in a given power-managed mode. When the OSTS bit is set, the primary clock is providing the device clock. When the IOFS bit is set, the INTOSC output is providing a stable, 8 MHz clock source to a divider that actually drives the device clock. When the T1RUN bit is set, the Timer1 oscillator is providing the clock. If none of these bits are set, then either the INTRC clock source is clocking the device, or the INTOSC source is not yet stable. If the internal oscillator block is configured as the primary clock source by the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits, then both the OSTS and IOFS bits may be set when in PRI_RUN or PRI_IDLE modes. This indicates that the primary clock (INTOSC output) is generating a stable 8 MHz output. Entering another power-managed RC mode at the same frequency would clear the OSTS bit. 3.1.4 MULTIPLE SLEEP COMMANDS The power-managed mode that is invoked with the SLEEP instruction is determined by the setting of the IDLEN bit at the time the instruction is executed. If another SLEEP instruction is executed, the device will enter the power-managed mode specified by IDLEN at that time. If IDLEN has changed, the device will enter the new power-managed mode specified by the new setting. Upon resuming normal operation after waking from Sleep or Idle, the internal state machines require at least one TCY delay before another SLEEP instruction can be executed. If two back to back SLEEP instructions will be executed, the process shown in Example 3-1 should be used. EXAMPLE 3-1: EXECUTING BACK TO BACK SLEEP INSTRUCTIONS 3.2 Run Modes In the Run modes, clocks to both the core and peripherals are active. The difference between these modes is the clock source. 3.2.1 PRI_RUN MODE The PRI_RUN mode is the normal, full-power execution mode of the microcontroller. This is also the default mode upon a device Reset unless Two-Speed Start-up is enabled (see Section 25.3 “Two-Speed Start-up” for details). In this mode, the OSTS bit is set. The IOFS bit may be set if the internal oscillator block is the primary clock source (see Section 2.4.1 “Oscillator Control Register”). 3.2.2 SEC_RUN MODE The SEC_RUN mode is the compatible mode to the “clock switching” feature offered in other PIC18 devices. In this mode, the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. This gives users the option of lower power consumption while still using a high-accuracy clock source. Note 1: Caution should be used when modifying a single IRCF bit. If VDD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speed than is supported by the low VDD. Improper device operation may result if the VDD/FOSC specifications are violated. 2: Executing a SLEEP instruction does not necessarily place the device into Sleep mode. It acts as the trigger to place the controller into either the Sleep mode, or one of the Idle modes, depending on the setting of the IDLEN bit. SLEEP NOP ;Wait at least 1 Tcy before executing another sleep instruction SLEEP © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 37 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 SEC_RUN mode is entered by setting the SCS1:SCS0 bits to ‘01’. The device clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator (see Figure 3-1), the primary oscillator is shut down, the T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) is set and the OSTS bit is cleared. On transitions from SEC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN, the peripherals and CPU continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator while the primary clock is started. When the primary clock becomes ready, a clock switch back to the primary clock occurs (see Figure 3-2). When the clock switch is complete, the T1RUN bit is cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is providing the clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up; the Timer1 oscillator continues to run. FIGURE 3-1: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SEC_RUN MODE FIGURE 3-2: TRANSITION TIMING FROM SEC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE (HSPLL) Note: The Timer1 oscillator should already be running prior to entering SEC_RUN mode. If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the SCS1:SCS0 bits are set to ‘01’, entry to SEC_RUN mode will not occur. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled but not yet running, device clocks will be delayed until the oscillator has started. In such situations, initial oscillator operation is far from stable and unpredictable operation may result. Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program Q1 T1OSI Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 1 2 3 n-1 n Clock Transition(1) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 PC + 4 Note 1: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. Q1 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC T1OSI PLL Clock Q1 PC + 4 Q2 Output Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock PC + 2 Clock Counter Q2 Q2 Q3 Note 1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. 2: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. SCS1:SCS0 bits Changed TPLL(1) 1 2 n-1 n Clock(2) OSTS bit Set Transition TOST(1) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 38 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.2.3 RC_RUN MODE In RC_RUN mode, the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the internal oscillator block using the INTOSC multiplexer; the primary clock is shut down. When using the INTRC source, this mode provides the best power conservation of all the Run modes while still executing code. It works well for user applications which are not highly timing sensitive or do not require high-speed clocks at all times. If the primary clock source is the internal oscillator block (either INTRC or INTOSC), there are no distinguishable differences between the PRI_RUN and RC_RUN modes during execution. However, a clock switch delay will occur during entry to and exit from RC_RUN mode. Therefore, if the primary clock source is the internal oscillator block, the use of RC_RUN mode is not recommended. This mode is entered by setting SCS1 to ‘1’. Although it is ignored, it is recommended that SCS0 also be cleared; this is to maintain software compatibility with future devices. When the clock source is switched to the INTOSC multiplexer (see Figure 3-3), the primary oscillator is shut down and the OSTS bit is cleared. The IRCF bits may be modified at any time to immediately change the clock speed. If the IRCF bits and the INTSRC bit are all clear, the INTOSC output is not enabled and the IOFS bit will remain clear; there will be no indication of the current clock source. The INTRC source is providing the device clocks. If the IRCF bits are changed from all clear (thus, enabling the INTOSC output), or if INTSRC is set, the IOFS bit becomes set after the INTOSC output becomes stable. Clocks to the device continue while the INTOSC source stabilizes after an interval of TIOBST. If the IRCF bits were previously at a non-zero value or if INTSRC was set before setting SCS1 and the INTOSC source was already stable, the IOFS bit will remain set. On transitions from RC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN mode, the device continues to be clocked from the INTOSC multiplexer while the primary clock is started. When the primary clock becomes ready, a clock switch to the primary clock occurs (see Figure 3-4). When the clock switch is complete, the IOFS bit is cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is providing the device clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the switch. The INTRC source will continue to run if either the WDT or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled. Note: Caution should be used when modifying a single IRCF bit. If VDD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speed than is supported by the low VDD. Improper device operation may result if the VDD/FOSC specifications are violated. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 39 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 FIGURE 3-3: TRANSITION TIMING TO RC_RUN MODE FIGURE 3-4: TRANSITION TIMING FROM RC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program Q1 INTRC Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 1 2 3 n-1 n Clock Transition(1) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 PC + 4 Note 1: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. Q1 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC INTOSC PLL Clock Q1 PC + 4 Q2 Output Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock PC + 2 Clock Counter Q2 Q2 Q3 Note 1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. 2: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. SCS1:SCS0 bits Changed TPLL(1) 1 2 n-1 n Clock(2) OSTS bit Set Transition Multiplexer TOST(1) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 40 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.3 Sleep Mode The power-managed Sleep mode in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices is identical to the legacy Sleep mode offered in all other PIC devices. It is entered by clearing the IDLEN bit (the default state on device Reset) and executing the SLEEP instruction. This shuts down the selected oscillator (Figure 3-5). All clock source status bits are cleared. Entering the Sleep mode from any other mode does not require a clock switch. This is because no clocks are needed once the controller has entered Sleep. If the WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue to operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also continue to run. When a wake event occurs in Sleep mode (by interrupt, Reset or WDT time-out), the device will not be clocked until the clock source selected by the SCS1:SCS0 bits becomes ready (see Figure 3-6), or it will be clocked from the internal oscillator block if either the Two-Speed Start-up or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor are enabled (see Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU”). In either case, the OSTS bit is set when the primary clock is providing the device clocks. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. 3.4 Idle Modes The Idle modes allow the controller’s CPU to be selectively shut down while the peripherals continue to operate. Selecting a particular Idle mode allows users to further manage power consumption. If the IDLEN bit is set to ‘1’ when a SLEEP instruction is executed, the peripherals will be clocked from the clock source selected using the SCS1:SCS0 bits; however, the CPU will not be clocked. The clock source status bits are not affected. Setting IDLEN and executing a SLEEP instruction provides a quick method of switching from a given Run mode to its corresponding Idle mode. If the WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue to operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also continue to run. Since the CPU is not executing instructions, the only exits from any of the Idle modes are by interrupt, WDT time-out or a Reset. When a wake event occurs, CPU execution is delayed by an interval of TCSD (parameter 38, Table 28-12) while it becomes ready to execute code. When the CPU begins executing code, it resumes with the same clock source for the current Idle mode. For example, when waking from RC_IDLE mode, the internal oscillator block will clock the CPU and peripherals (in other words, RC_RUN mode). The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. While in any Idle mode or Sleep mode, a WDT time-out will result in a WDT wake-up to the Run mode currently specified by the SCS1:SCS0 bits. FIGURE 3-5: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SLEEP MODE FIGURE 3-6: TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM SLEEP (HSPLL) Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Sleep Program Q1 Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC PLL Clock Q3 Q4 Output CPU Clock Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Clock Counter PC + 4 PC + 6 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Wake Event Note1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. TOST(1) TPLL(1) OSTS bit Set PC + 2 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 41 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 3.4.1 PRI_IDLE MODE This mode is unique among the three low-power Idle modes in that it does not disable the primary device clock. For timing sensitive applications, this allows for the fastest resumption of device operation, with its more accurate primary clock source, since the clock source does not have to “warm up” or transition from another oscillator. PRI_IDLE mode is entered from PRI_RUN mode by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, set IDLEN first, then clear the SCS bits and execute SLEEP. Although the CPU is disabled, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the primary clock source specified by the FOSC3:FOSC0 Configuration bits. The OSTS bit remains set (see Figure 3-7). When a wake event occurs, the CPU is clocked from the primary clock source. A delay of interval TCSD is required between the wake event and when code execution starts. This is required to allow the CPU to become ready to execute instructions. After the wake-up, the OSTS bit remains set. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up (see Figure 3-8). 3.4.2 SEC_IDLE MODE In SEC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the peripherals continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. This mode is entered from SEC_RUN by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, set IDLEN first, then set SCS1:SCS0 to ‘01’ and execute SLEEP. When the clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator, the primary oscillator is shut down, the OSTS bit is cleared and the T1RUN bit is set. When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. After an interval of TCSD following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the Timer1 oscillator. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up; the Timer1 oscillator continues to run (see Figure 3-8). FIGURE 3-7: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO IDLE MODE FIGURE 3-8: TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM IDLE TO RUN MODE Note: The Timer1 oscillator should already be running prior to entering SEC_IDLE mode. If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the SLEEP instruction is executed, the SLEEP instruction will be ignored and entry to SEC_IDLE mode will not occur. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled but not yet running, peripheral clocks will be delayed until the oscillator has started. In such situations, initial oscillator operation is far from stable and unpredictable operation may result. Q1 Peripheral Program PC PC + 2 OSC1 Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock Clock Counter Q2 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC CPU Clock Q1 Q3 Q4 Clock Counter Q2 Wake Event TCSD PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 42 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.4.3 RC_IDLE MODE In RC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the peripherals continue to be clocked from the internal oscillator block using the INTOSC multiplexer. This mode allows for controllable power conservation during Idle periods. From RC_RUN, this mode is entered by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, first set IDLEN, then set the SCS1 bit and execute SLEEP. Although its value is ignored, it is recommended that SCS0 also be cleared; this is to maintain software compatibility with future devices. The INTOSC multiplexer may be used to select a higher clock frequency by modifying the IRCF bits before executing the SLEEP instruction. When the clock source is switched to the INTOSC multiplexer, the primary oscillator is shut down and the OSTS bit is cleared. If the IRCF bits are set to any non-zero value, or the INTSRC bit is set, the INTOSC output is enabled. The IOFS bit becomes set after the INTOSC output becomes stable, after an interval of TIOBST (parameter 39, Table 28-12). Clocks to the peripherals continue while the INTOSC source stabilizes. If the IRCF bits were previously at a non-zero value, or INTSRC was set before the SLEEP instruction was executed and the INTOSC source was already stable, the IOFS bit will remain set. If the IRCF bits and INTSRC are all clear, the INTOSC output will not be enabled, the IOFS bit will remain clear and there will be no indication of the current clock source. When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the INTOSC multiplexer. After a delay of TCSD following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. The INTRC source will continue to run if either the WDT or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled. 3.5 Exiting Idle and Sleep Modes An exit from Sleep mode or any of the Idle modes is triggered by an interrupt, a Reset or a WDT time-out. This section discusses the triggers that cause exits from power-managed modes. The clocking subsystem actions are discussed in each of the power-managed modes (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes”, Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode” and Section 3.4 “Idle Modes”). 3.5.1 EXIT BY INTERRUPT Any of the available interrupt sources can cause the device to exit from an Idle mode or Sleep mode to a Run mode. To enable this functionality, an interrupt source must be enabled by setting its enable bit in one of the INTCON or PIE registers. The exit sequence is initiated when the corresponding interrupt flag bit is set. On all exits from Idle or Sleep modes by interrupt, code execution branches to the interrupt vector if the GIE/GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) is set. Otherwise, code execution continues or resumes without branching (see Section 9.0 “Interrupts”). A fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event is required when leaving Sleep and Idle modes. This delay is required for the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction execution resumes on the first clock cycle following this delay. 3.5.2 EXIT BY WDT TIME-OUT A WDT time-out will cause different actions depending on which power-managed mode the device is in when the time-out occurs. If the device is not executing code (all Idle modes and Sleep mode), the time-out will result in an exit from the power-managed mode (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes” and Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode”). If the device is executing code (all Run modes), the time-out will result in a WDT Reset (see Section 25.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”). The WDT timer and postscaler are cleared by executing a SLEEP or CLRWDT instruction, the loss of a currently selected clock source (if the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled) and modifying the IRCF bits in the OSCCON register if the internal oscillator block is the device clock source. 3.5.3 EXIT BY RESET Normally, the device is held in Reset by the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) until the primary clock becomes ready. At that time, the OSTS bit is set and the device begins executing code. If the internal oscillator block is the new clock source, the IOFS bit is set instead. The exit delay time from Reset to the start of code execution depends on both the clock sources before and after the wake-up and the type of oscillator if the new clock source is the primary clock. Exit delays are summarized in Table 3-2. Code execution can begin before the primary clock becomes ready. If either the Two-Speed Start-up (see Section 25.3 “Two-Speed Start-up”) or Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (see Section 25.4 “Fail-Safe Clock Monitor”) is enabled, the device may begin execution as soon as the Reset source has cleared. Execution is clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer driven by the internal oscillator block. Execution is clocked by the internal oscillator block until either the primary clock becomes ready or a power-managed mode is entered before the primary clock becomes ready; the primary clock is then shut down. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 43 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 3.5.4 EXIT WITHOUT AN OSCILLATOR START-UP DELAY Certain exits from power-managed modes do not invoke the OST at all. There are two cases: • PRI_IDLE mode, where the primary clock source is not stopped; and • the primary clock source is not any of the XT or HS modes. In these instances, the primary clock source either does not require an oscillator start-up delay, since it is already running (PRI_IDLE), or normally does not require an oscillator start-up delay (EC and any internal oscillator modes). However, a fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event is still required when leaving Sleep and Idle modes to allow the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction execution resumes on the first clock cycle following this delay. TABLE 3-2: EXIT DELAY ON WAKE-UP BY RESET FROM SLEEP MODE OR ANY IDLE MODE (BY CLOCK SOURCES) Microcontroller Clock Source Exit Delay Clock Ready Status Before Wake-up After Wake-up Bit (OSCCON) Primary Device Clock (PRI_IDLE mode) XT, HS None XTPLL, HSPLL OSTS EC INTOSC(3) IOFS T1OSC or INTRC(1) XT, HS TOST(4) XTPLL, HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (4) EC TCSD(2) INTOSC(3) TIOBST(5) IOFS INTOSC(3) XT, HS TOST(4) XTPLL, HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (4) EC TCSD(2) INTOSC(3) None IOFS None (Sleep mode) XT, HS TOST(4) XTPLL, HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (4) EC TCSD(2) INTOSC(3) TIOBST(5) IOFS Note 1: In this instance, refers specifically to the 31 kHz INTRC clock source. 2: TCSD (parameter 38, Table 28-12) is a required delay when waking from Sleep and all Idle modes and runs concurrently with any other required delays (see Section 3.4 “Idle Modes”). 3: Includes both the INTOSC 8 MHz source and postscaler derived frequencies. 4: TOST is the Oscillator Start-up Timer period (parameter 32, Table 28-12). trc is the PLL lock time-out (parameter F12, Table 28-9); it is also designated as TPLL. 5: Execution continues during TIOBST (parameter 39, Table 28-12), the INTOSC stabilization period. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 44 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 45 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 4.0 RESET The PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices differentiate between various kinds of Reset: a) Power-on Reset (POR) b) MCLR Reset during normal operation c) MCLR Reset during power-managed modes d) Watchdog Timer (WDT) Reset (during execution) e) Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR) f) RESET Instruction g) Stack Full Reset h) Stack Underflow Reset This section discusses Resets generated by MCLR, POR and BOR and covers the operation of the various start-up timers. Stack Reset events are covered in Section 5.1.2.4 “Stack Full and Underflow Resets”. WDT Resets are covered in Section 25.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”. A simplified block diagram of the on-chip Reset circuit is shown in Figure 4-1. 4.1 RCON Register Device Reset events are tracked through the RCON register (Register 4-1). The lower five bits of the register indicate that a specific Reset event has occurred. In most cases, these bits can only be cleared by the event and must be set by the application after the event. The state of these flag bits, taken together, can be read to indicate the type of Reset that just occurred. This is described in more detail in Section 4.6 “Reset State of Registers”. The RCON register also has control bits for setting interrupt priority (IPEN) and software control of the BOR (SBOREN). Interrupt priority is discussed in Section 9.0 “Interrupts”. BOR is covered in Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. FIGURE 4-1: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT S R Q External Reset MCLR VDD OSC1 WDT Time-out VDD Rise Detect OST/PWRT INTRC(1) POR Pulse OST 10-Bit Ripple Counter PWRT Chip_Reset 11-Bit Ripple Counter Enable OST(2) Enable PWRT Note 1: This is the low-frequency INTRC source from the internal oscillator block. 2: See Table 4-2 for time-out situations. Brown-out Reset BOREN RESET Instruction Stack Pointer Stack Full/Underflow Reset Sleep ( )_IDLE 1024 Cycles 32 μs 65.5 ms MCLRE PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 46 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 4-1: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1(1) U-0 R/W-1 R-1 R-1 R/W-0(2) R/W-0 IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit 1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts 0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode) bit 6 SBOREN: BOR Software Enable bit(1) If BOREN1:BOREN0 = 01: 1 = BOR is enabled 0 = BOR is disabled If BOREN1:BOREN0 = 00, 10 or 11: Bit is disabled and read as ‘0’. bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit 1 = The RESET instruction was not executed (set by firmware only) 0 = The RESET instruction was executed causing a device Reset (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) bit 3 TO: Watchdog Time-out Flag bit 1 = Set by power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction 0 = A WDT time-out occurred bit 2 PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit 1 = Set by power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction 0 = Set by execution of the SLEEP instruction bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit(2) 1 = A Power-on Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only) 0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs) bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit 1 = A Brown-out Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only) 0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) Note 1: If SBOREN is enabled, its Reset state is ‘1’; otherwise, it is ‘0’. 2: The actual Reset value of POR is determined by the type of device Reset. See the notes following this register and Section 4.6 “Reset State of Registers” for additional information. Note 1: It is recommended that the POR bit be set after a Power-on Reset has been detected so that subsequent Power-on Resets may be detected. 2: Brown-out Reset is said to have occurred when BOR is ‘0’ and POR is ‘1’ (assuming that POR was set to ‘1’ by software immediately after POR). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 47 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 4.2 Master Clear Reset (MCLR) The MCLR pin provides a method for triggering an external Reset of the device. A Reset is generated by holding the pin low. These devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path which detects and ignores small pulses. The MCLR pin is not driven low by any internal Resets, including the WDT. In PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices, the MCLR input can be disabled with the MCLRE Configuration bit. When MCLR is disabled, the pin becomes a digital input. See Section 10.5 “PORTE, TRISE and LATE Registers” for more information. 4.3 Power-on Reset (POR) A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip whenever VDD rises above a certain threshold. This allows the device to start in the initialized state when VDD is adequate for operation. To take advantage of the POR circuitry, tie the MCLR pin through a resistor (1 kΩ to 10 kΩ) to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create a Power-on Reset delay. A minimum rise rate for VDD is specified (parameter D004, Section 28.1 “DC Characteristics”). For a slow rise time, see Figure 4-2. When the device starts normal operation (i.e., exits the Reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must be held in Reset until the operating conditions are met. POR events are captured by the POR bit (RCON<1>). The state of the bit is set to ‘0’ whenever a POR occurs; it does not change for any other Reset event. POR is not reset to ‘1’ by any hardware event. To capture multiple events, the user manually resets the bit to ‘1’ in software following any POR. FIGURE 4-2: EXTERNAL POWER-ON RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW VDD POWER-UP) Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is required only if the VDD power-up slope is too slow. The diode D helps discharge the capacitor quickly when VDD powers down. 2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure that the voltage drop across R does not violate the device’s electrical specification. 3: R1 ≥ 1 kΩ will limit any current flowing into MCLR from external capacitor C, in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown, due to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) or Electrical Overstress (EOS). C R1 D R VDD MCLR PIC18FXXXX VDD PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 48 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.4 Brown-out Reset (BOR) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices implement a BOR circuit that provides the user with a number of configuration and power-saving options. The BOR is controlled by the BORV1:BORV0 and BOREN1:BOREN0 Configuration bits. There are a total of four BOR configurations which are summarized in Table 4-1. The BOR threshold is set by the BORV1:BORV0 bits. If BOR is enabled (any values of BOREN1:BOREN0 except ‘00’), any drop of VDD below VBOR (parameter D005, Section 28.1 “DC Characteristics”) for greater than TBOR (parameter 35, Table 28-12) will reset the device. A Reset may or may not occur if VDD falls below VBOR for less than TBOR. The chip will remain in Brown-out Reset until VDD rises above VBOR. If the Power-up Timer is enabled, it will be invoked after VDD rises above VBOR; it then will keep the chip in Reset for an additional time delay, TPWRT (parameter 33, Table 28-12). If VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up Timer will be initialized. Once VDD rises above VBOR, the Power-up Timer will execute the additional time delay. BOR and the Power-on Timer (PWRT) are independently configured. Enabling BOR Reset does not automatically enable the PWRT. 4.4.1 SOFTWARE ENABLED BOR When BOREN1:BOREN0 = 01, the BOR can be enabled or disabled by the user in software. This is done with the control bit, SBOREN (RCON<6>). Setting SBOREN enables the BOR to function as previously described. Clearing SBOREN disables the BOR entirely. The SBOREN bit operates only in this mode; otherwise, it is read as ‘0’. Placing the BOR under software control gives the user the additional flexibility of tailoring the application to its environment without having to reprogram the device to change BOR configuration. It also allows the user to tailor device power consumption in software by eliminating the incremental current that the BOR consumes. While the BOR current is typically very small, it may have some impact in low-power applications. 4.4.2 DETECTING BOR When BOR is enabled, the BOR bit always resets to ‘0’ on any BOR or POR event. This makes it difficult to determine if a BOR event has occurred just by reading the state of BOR alone. A more reliable method is to simultaneously check the state of both POR and BOR. This assumes that the POR bit is reset to ‘1’ in software immediately after any POR event. IF BOR is ‘0’ while POR is ‘1’, it can be reliably assumed that a BOR event has occurred. 4.4.3 DISABLING BOR IN SLEEP MODE When BOREN1:BOREN0 = 10, the BOR remains under hardware control and operates as previously described. Whenever the device enters Sleep mode, however, the BOR is automatically disabled. When the device returns to any other operating mode, BOR is automatically re-enabled. This mode allows for applications to recover from brown-out situations, while actively executing code, when the device requires BOR protection the most. At the same time, it saves additional power in Sleep mode by eliminating the small incremental BOR current. TABLE 4-1: BOR CONFIGURATIONS Note: Even when BOR is under software control, the BOR Reset voltage level is still set by the BORV1:BORV0 Configuration bits. It cannot be changed in software. BOR Configuration Status of SBOREN (RCON<6>) BOR Operation BOREN1 BOREN0 0 0 Unavailable BOR disabled; must be enabled by reprogramming the Configuration bits. 0 1 Available BOR enabled in software; operation controlled by SBOREN. 1 0 Unavailable BOR enabled in hardware in Run and Idle modes, disabled during Sleep mode. 1 1 Unavailable BOR enabled in hardware; must be disabled by reprogramming the Configuration bits. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 49 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 4.5 Device Reset Timers PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices incorporate three separate on-chip timers that help regulate the Power-on Reset process. Their main function is to ensure that the device clock is stable before code is executed. These timers are: • Power-up Timer (PWRT) • Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • PLL Lock Time-out 4.5.1 POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT) The Power-up Timer (PWRT) of the PIC18F2455/2550/ 4455/4550 devices is an 11-bit counter which uses the INTRC source as the clock input. This yields an approximate time interval of 2048 x 32 μs = 65.6ms. While the PWRT is counting, the device is held in Reset. The power-up time delay depends on the INTRC clock and will vary from chip to chip due to temperature and process variation. See DC parameter 33 (Table 28-12) for details. The PWRT is enabled by clearing the PWRTEN Configuration bit. 4.5.2 OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER (OST) The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides a 1024 oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the PWRT delay is over (parameter 33, Table 28-12). This ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and stabilized. The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, HS and HSPLL modes and only on Power-on Reset or on exit from most power-managed modes. 4.5.3 PLL LOCK TIME-OUT With the PLL enabled in its PLL mode, the time-out sequence following a Power-on Reset is slightly different from other oscillator modes. A separate timer is used to provide a fixed time-out that is sufficient for the PLL to lock to the main oscillator frequency. This PLL lock time-out (TPLL) is typically 2 ms and follows the oscillator start-up time-out. 4.5.4 TIME-OUT SEQUENCE On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows: 1. After the POR condition has cleared, PWRT time-out is invoked (if enabled). 2. Then, the OST is activated. The total time-out will vary based on oscillator configuration and the status of the PWRT. Figure 4-3, Figure 4-4, Figure 4-5, Figure 4-6 and Figure 4-7 all depict time-out sequences on power-up, with the Power-up Timer enabled and the device operating in HS Oscillator mode. Figures 4-3 through 4-6 also apply to devices operating in XT mode. For devices in RC mode and with the PWRT disabled, on the other hand, there will be no time-out at all. Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR is kept low long enough, all time-outs will expire. Bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately (Figure 4-5). This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC18FXXXX device operating in parallel. TABLE 4-2: TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS Oscillator Configuration Power-up(2) and Brown-out Exit from PWRTEN = 0 PWRTEN = 1 Power-Managed Mode HS, XT 66 ms(1) + 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC HSPLL, XTPLL 66 ms(1) + 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) EC, ECIO 66 ms(1) — — ECPLL, ECPIO 66 ms(1) + 2 ms(2) 2 ms(2) 2 ms(2) INTIO, INTCKO 66 ms(1) — — INTHS, INTXT 66 ms(1) + 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC Note 1: 66 ms (65.5 ms) is the nominal Power-up Timer (PWRT) delay. 2: 2 ms is the nominal time required for the PLL to lock. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 50 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 4-3: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE < TPWRT) FIGURE 4-4: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1 FIGURE 4-5: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2 TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET TPWRT TOST © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 51 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 FIGURE 4-6: SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE > TPWRT) FIGURE 4-7: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POR w/PLL ENABLED (MCLR TIED TO VDD) VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET 0V 1V 5V TPWRT TOST TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET PLL TIME-OUT TPLL Note: TOST = 1024 clock cycles. TPLL ≈ 2 ms max. First three stages of the Power-up Timer. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 52 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.6 Reset State of Registers Most registers are unaffected by a Reset. Their status is unknown on POR and unchanged by all other Resets. The other registers are forced to a “Reset state” depending on the type of Reset that occurred. Most registers are not affected by a WDT wake-up, since this is viewed as the resumption of normal operation. Status bits from the RCON register, RI, TO, PD, POR and BOR, are set or cleared differently in different Reset situations as indicated in Table 4-3. These bits are used in software to determine the nature of the Reset. Table 4-4 describes the Reset states for all of the Special Function Registers. These are categorized by Power-on and Brown-out Resets, Master Clear and WDT Resets and WDT wake-ups. TABLE 4-3: STATUS BITS, THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND THE INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR RCON REGISTER Condition Program Counter RCON Register STKPTR Register RI TO PD POR BOR STKFUL STKUNF Power-on Reset 0000h 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 RESET instruction 0000h 0 u u u u u u Brown-out Reset 0000h 1 1 1 u 0 u u MCLR Reset during power-managed Run modes 0000h u 1 u u u u u MCLR Reset during power-managed Idle modes and Sleep mode 0000h u 1 0 u u u u WDT time-out during full power or power-managed Run modes 0000h u 0 u u u u u MCLR Reset during full-power execution 0000h u u u u u u u Stack Full Reset (STVREN = 1) 0000h u u u u u 1 u Stack Underflow Reset (STVREN = 1) 0000h u u u u u u 1 Stack Underflow Error (not an actual Reset, STVREN = 0) 0000h u u u u u u 1 WDT time-out during power-managed Idle or Sleep modes PC + 2 u 0 0 u u u u Interrupt exit from power-managed modes PC + 2(1) u u 0 u u u u Legend: u = unchanged Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEH or GIEL bits are set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (008h or 0018h). 2: Reset state is ‘1’ for POR and unchanged for all other Resets when software BOR is enabled (BOREN1:BOREN0 Configuration bits = 01 and SBOREN = 1); otherwise, the Reset state is ‘0’. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 53 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt TOSU 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---0 uuuu(1) TOSH 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(1) TOSL 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(1) STKPTR 2455 2550 4455 4550 00-0 0000 uu-0 0000 uu-u uuuu(1) PCLATU 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu PCLATH 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PCL 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 PC + 2(3) TBLPTRU 2455 2550 4455 4550 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu TBLPTRH 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TBLPTRL 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TABLAT 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PRODH 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PRODL 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INTCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 000x 0000 000u uuuu uuuu(2) INTCON2 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 -1-1 1111 -1-1 uuuu -u-u(2) INTCON3 2455 2550 4455 4550 11-0 0-00 11-0 0-00 uu-u u-uu(2) INDF0 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC0 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC0 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PREINC0 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW0 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A FSR0H 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR0L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu WREG 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INDF1 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC1 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC1 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PREINC1 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW1 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A FSR1H 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR1L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu BSR 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: PORTA<6>, LATA<6> and TRISA<6> are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 54 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. INDF2 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC2 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC2 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PREINC2 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW2 2455 2550 4455 4550 N/A N/A N/A FSR2H 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR2L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu STATUS 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---x xxxx ---u uuuu ---u uuuu TMR0H 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TMR0L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T0CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu OSCCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0100 q000 0100 00q0 uuuu uuqu HLVDCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0-00 0101 0-00 0101 u-uu uuuu WDTCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- ---0 ---- ---0 ---- ---u RCON(4) 2455 2550 4455 4550 0q-1 11q0 0q-q qquu uq-u qquu TMR1H 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR1L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T1CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 u0uu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PR2 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 T2CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu SSPBUF 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu SSPADD 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPSTAT 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPCON1 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPCON2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ADRESH 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADRESL 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADCON0 2455 2550 4455 4550 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu ADCON1 2455 2550 4455 4550 --00 0qqq --00 0qqq --uu uuuu ADCON2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 u-uu uuuu TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: PORTA<6>, LATA<6> and TRISA<6> are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 55 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 CCPR1H 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR1L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP1CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CCPR2H 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR2L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP2CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu BAUDCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0100 0-00 0100 0-00 uuuu u-uu ECCP1DEL 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ECCP1AS 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CVRCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CMCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0111 0000 0111 uuuu uuuu TMR3H 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR3L 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T3CON 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu SPBRGH 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SPBRG 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu RCREG 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TXREG 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TXSTA 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0010 0000 0010 uuuu uuuu RCSTA 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 000x 0000 000x uuuu uuuu EEADR 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu EEDATA 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu EECON2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 EECON1 2455 2550 4455 4550 xx-0 x000 uu-0 u000 uu-0 u000 TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: PORTA<6>, LATA<6> and TRISA<6> are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 56 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. IPR2 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu PIR2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(2) PIE2 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu IPR1 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu 2455 2550 4455 4550 -111 1111 -111 1111 -uuu uuuu PIR1 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(2) 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu PIE1 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu OSCTUNE 2455 2550 4455 4550 0--0 0000 0--0 0000 u--u uuuu TRISE 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- -111 ---- -111 ---- -uuu TRISD 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISC 2455 2550 4455 4550 11-- -111 11-- -111 uu-- -uuu TRISB 2455 2550 4455 4550 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISA(5) 2455 2550 4455 4550 -111 1111(5) -111 1111(5) -uuu uuuu(5) LATE 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu ---- -uuu LATD 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu LATC 2455 2550 4455 4550 xx-- -xxx uu-- -uuu uu-- -uuu LATB 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu LATA(5) 2455 2550 4455 4550 -xxx xxxx(5) -uuu uuuu(5) -uuu uuuu(5) PORTE 2455 2550 4455 4550 0--- x000 0--- x000 u--- uuuu PORTD 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTC 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx -xxx uuuu -uuu uuuu -uuu PORTB 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTA(5) 2455 2550 4455 4550 -x0x 0000(5) -u0u 0000(5) -uuu uuuu(5) TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: PORTA<6>, LATA<6> and TRISA<6> are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 57 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 UEP15 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP14 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP13 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP12 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP11 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP10 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP9 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP8 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP7 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP6 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP5 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP4 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP3 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP2 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP1 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UEP0 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu UCFG 2455 2550 4455 4550 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu UADDR 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu UCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 -0x0 000- -0x0 000- -uuu uuu- USTAT 2455 2550 4455 4550 -xxx xxx- -xxx xxx- -uuu uuu- UEIE 2455 2550 4455 4550 0--0 0000 0--0 0000 u--u uuuu UEIR 2455 2550 4455 4550 0--0 0000 0--0 0000 u--u uuuu UIE 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu UIR 2455 2550 4455 4550 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu UFRMH 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- -xxx ---- -xxx ---- -uuu UFRML 2455 2550 4455 4550 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu SPPCON 2455 2550 4455 4550 ---- --00 ---- --00 ---- --uu SPPEPS 2455 2550 4455 4550 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu SPPCFG 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SPPDATA 2455 2550 4455 4550 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: PORTA<6>, LATA<6> and TRISA<6> are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 58 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 59 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION There are three types of memory in PIC18 enhanced microcontroller devices: • Program Memory • Data RAM • Data EEPROM As Harvard architecture devices, the data and program memories use separate busses; this allows for concurrent access of the two memory spaces. The data EEPROM, for practical purposes, can be regarded as a peripheral device, since it is addressed and accessed through a set of control registers. Additional detailed information on the operation of the Flash program memory is provided in Section 6.0 “Flash Program Memory”. Data EEPROM is discussed separately in Section 7.0 “Data EEPROM Memory”. 5.1 Program Memory Organization PIC18 microcontrollers implement a 21-bit program counter which is capable of addressing a 2-Mbyte program memory space. Accessing a location between the upper boundary of the physically implemented memory and the 2-Mbyte address will return all ‘0’s (a NOP instruction). The PIC18F2455 and PIC18F4455 each have 24 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 12,288 single-word instructions. The PIC18F2550 and PIC18F4550 each have 32 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 16,384 single-word instructions. PIC18 devices have two interrupt vectors. The Reset vector address is at 0000h and the interrupt vector addresses are at 0008h and 0018h. The program memory maps for PIC18FX455 and PIC18FX550 devices are shown in Figure 5-1. FIGURE 5-1: PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK PC<20:0> Stack Level 1 • Stack Level 31 Reset Vector Low-Priority Interrupt Vector •• CALL, RCALL, RETURN, RETFIE, RETLW, CALLW, 21 0000h 0018h On-Chip Program Memory High-Priority Interrupt Vector 0008h User Memory Space 1FFFFFh 6000h 5FFFh Read ‘0’ 200000h PC<20:0> Stack Level 1 • Stack Level 31 Reset Vector Low-Priority Interrupt Vector •• CALL, RCALL, RETURN, RETFIE, RETLW, CALLW, 21 0000h 0018h 8000h 7FFFh On-Chip Program Memory High-Priority Interrupt Vector 0008h User Memory Space Read ‘0’ 1FFFFFh 200000h 24 Kbyte Devices 32 Kbyte Device ADDULNK, SUBULNK ADDULNK, SUBULNK PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 60 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.1.1 PROGRAM COUNTER The Program Counter (PC) specifies the address of the instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 21 bits wide and is contained in three separate 8-bit registers. The low byte, known as the PCL register, is both readable and writable. The high byte, or PCH register, contains the PC<15:8> bits; it is not directly readable or writable. Updates to the PCH register are performed through the PCLATH register. The upper byte is called PCU. This register contains the PC<20:16> bits; it is also not directly readable or writable. Updates to the PCU register are performed through the PCLATU register. The contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are transferred to the program counter by any operation that writes PCL. Similarly, the upper two bytes of the program counter are transferred to PCLATH and PCLATU by an operation that reads PCL. This is useful for computed offsets to the PC (see Section 5.1.4.1 “Computed GOTO”). The PC addresses bytes in the program memory. To prevent the PC from becoming misaligned with word instructions, the Least Significant bit of PCL is fixed to a value of ‘0’. The PC increments by 2 to address sequential instructions in the program memory. The CALL, RCALL and GOTO program branch instructions write to the program counter directly. For these instructions, the contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are not transferred to the program counter. 5.1.2 RETURN ADDRESS STACK The return address stack allows any combination of up to 31 program calls and interrupts to occur. The PC is pushed onto the stack when a CALL or RCALL instruction is executed or an interrupt is Acknowledged. The PC value is pulled off the stack on a RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction. PCLATU and PCLATH are not affected by any of the RETURN or CALL instructions. The stack operates as a 31-word by 21-bit RAM and a 5-bit Stack Pointer, STKPTR. The stack space is not part of either program or data space. The Stack Pointer is readable and writable and the address on the top of the stack is readable and writable through the Top-of-Stack Special Function Registers. Data can also be pushed to, or popped from the stack, using these registers. A CALL type instruction causes a push onto the stack. The Stack Pointer is first incremented and the location pointed to by the Stack Pointer is written with the contents of the PC (already pointing to the instruction following the CALL). A RETURN type instruction causes a pop from the stack. The contents of the location pointed to by the STKPTR are transferred to the PC and then the Stack Pointer is decremented. The Stack Pointer is initialized to ‘00000’ after all Resets. There is no RAM associated with the location corresponding to a Stack Pointer value of ‘00000’; this is only a Reset value. Status bits indicate if the stack is full, has overflowed or has underflowed. 5.1.2.1 Top-of-Stack Access Only the top of the return address stack (TOS) is readable and writable. A set of three registers, TOSU:TOSH:TOSL, hold the contents of the stack location pointed to by the STKPTR register (Figure 5-2). This allows users to implement a software stack if necessary. After a CALL, RCALL or interrupt, the software can read the pushed value by reading the TOSU:TOSH:TOSL registers. These values can be placed on a user-defined software stack. At return time, the software can return these values to TOSU:TOSH:TOSL and do a return. The user must disable the global interrupt enable bits while accessing the stack to prevent inadvertent stack corruption. FIGURE 5-2: RETURN ADDRESS STACK AND ASSOCIATED REGISTERS 00011 001A34h 11111 11110 11101 00010 00001 00000 00010 Return Address Stack<20:0> Top-of-Stack 000D58h TOSU TOSH TOSL 00h 1Ah 34h STKPTR<4:0> Top-of-Stack Registers Stack Pointer © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 61 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.1.2.2 Return Stack Pointer (STKPTR) The STKPTR register (Register 5-1) contains the Stack Pointer value, the STKFUL (Stack Full) status bit and the STKUNF (Stack Underflow) status bit. The value of the Stack Pointer can be 0 through 31. The Stack Pointer increments before values are pushed onto the stack and decrements after values are popped off the stack. On Reset, the Stack Pointer value will be zero. The user may read and write the Stack Pointer value. This feature can be used by a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) for return stack maintenance. After the PC is pushed onto the stack 31 times (without popping any values off the stack), the STKFUL bit is set. The STKFUL bit is cleared by software or by a POR. The action that takes place when the stack becomes full depends on the state of the STVREN (Stack Overflow Reset Enable) Configuration bit. (Refer to Section 25.1 “Configuration Bits” for a description of the device Configuration bits.) If STVREN is set (default), the 31st push will push the (PC + 2) value onto the stack, set the STKFUL bit and reset the device. The STKFUL bit will remain set and the Stack Pointer will be set to zero. If STVREN is cleared, the STKFUL bit will be set on the 31st push and the Stack Pointer will increment to 31. Any additional pushes will not overwrite the 31st push and the STKPTR will remain at 31. When the stack has been popped enough times to unload the stack, the next pop will return a value of zero to the PC and sets the STKUNF bit, while the Stack Pointer remains at zero. The STKUNF bit will remain set until cleared by software or until a POR occurs. 5.1.2.3 PUSH and POP Instructions Since the Top-of-Stack is readable and writable, the ability to push values onto the stack and pull values off the stack, without disturbing normal program execution, is a desirable feature. The PIC18 instruction set includes two instructions, PUSH and POP, that permit the TOS to be manipulated under software control. TOSU, TOSH and TOSL can be modified to place data or a return address on the stack. The PUSH instruction places the current PC value onto the stack. This increments the Stack Pointer and loads the current PC value onto the stack. The POP instruction discards the current TOS by decrementing the Stack Pointer. The previous value pushed onto the stack then becomes the TOS value. Note: Returning a value of zero to the PC on an underflow has the effect of vectoring the program to the Reset vector, where the stack conditions can be verified and appropriate actions can be taken. This is not the same as a Reset, as the contents of the SFRs are not affected. REGISTER 5-1: STKPTR: STACK POINTER REGISTER R/C-0 R/C-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 STKFUL(1) STKUNF(1) — SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: C = Clearable bit R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 STKFUL: Stack Full Flag bit(1) 1 = Stack became full or overflowed 0 = Stack has not become full or overflowed bit 6 STKUNF: Stack Underflow Flag bit(1) 1 = Stack underflow occurred 0 = Stack underflow did not occur bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 SP4:SP0: Stack Pointer Location bits Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 62 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.1.2.4 Stack Full and Underflow Resets Device Resets on stack overflow and stack underflow conditions are enabled by setting the STVREN bit in Configuration Register 4L. When STVREN is set, a full or underflow condition will set the appropriate STKFUL or STKUNF bit and then cause a device Reset. When STVREN is cleared, a full or underflow condition will set the appropriate STKFUL or STKUNF bit but not cause a device Reset. The STKFUL or STKUNF bits are cleared by user software or a Power-on Reset. 5.1.3 FAST REGISTER STACK A Fast Register Stack is provided for the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers to provide a “fast return” option for interrupts. Each stack is only one level deep and is neither readable nor writable. It is loaded with the current value of the corresponding register when the processor vectors for an interrupt. All interrupt sources will push values into the stack registers. The values in the registers are then loaded back into their associated registers if the RETFIE, FAST instruction is used to return from the interrupt. If both low and high-priority interrupts are enabled, the stack registers cannot be used reliably to return from low-priority interrupts. If a high-priority interrupt occurs while servicing a low-priority interrupt, the stack register values stored by the low-priority interrupt will be overwritten. In these cases, users must save the key registers in software during a low-priority interrupt. If interrupt priority is not used, all interrupts may use the Fast Register Stack for returns from interrupt. If no interrupts are used, the Fast Register Stack can be used to restore the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers at the end of a subroutine call. To use the Fast Register Stack for a subroutine call, a CALL label, FAST instruction must be executed to save the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers to the Fast Register Stack. A RETURN, FAST instruction is then executed to restore these registers from the Fast Register Stack. Example 5-1 shows a source code example that uses the Fast Register Stack during a subroutine call and return. EXAMPLE 5-1: FAST REGISTER STACK CODE EXAMPLE 5.1.4 LOOK-UP TABLES IN PROGRAM MEMORY There may be programming situations that require the creation of data structures, or look-up tables, in program memory. For PIC18 devices, look-up tables can be implemented in two ways: • Computed GOTO • Table Reads 5.1.4.1 Computed GOTO A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to the program counter. An example is shown in Example 5-2. A look-up table can be formed with an ADDWF PCL instruction and a group of RETLW nn instructions. The W register is loaded with an offset into the table before executing a call to that table. The first instruction of the called routine is the ADDWF PCL instruction. The next instruction executed will be one of the RETLW nn instructions that returns the value ‘nn’ to the calling function. The offset value (in WREG) specifies the number of bytes that the program counter should advance and should be multiples of 2 (LSb = 0). In this method, only one data byte may be stored in each instruction location and room on the return address stack is required. EXAMPLE 5-2: COMPUTED GOTO USING AN OFFSET VALUE 5.1.4.2 Table Reads and Table Writes A better method of storing data in program memory allows two bytes of data to be stored in each instruction location. Look-up table data may be stored two bytes per program word by using table reads and writes. The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register specifies the byte address and the Table Latch (TABLAT) register contains the data that is read from or written to program memory. Data is transferred to or from program memory one byte at a time. Table read and table write operations are discussed further in Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”. CALL SUB1, FAST ;STATUS, WREG, BSR ;SAVED IN FAST REGISTER ;STACK • • SUB1 • • RETURN, FAST ;RESTORE VALUES SAVED ;IN FAST REGISTER STACK MOVF OFFSET, W CALL TABLE ORG nn00h TABLE ADDWF PCL RETLW nnh RETLW nnh RETLW nnh . . . © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 63 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.2 PIC18 Instruction Cycle 5.2.1 CLOCKING SCHEME The microcontroller clock input, whether from an internal or external source, is internally divided by four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature clocks (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4). Internally, the program counter is incremented on every Q1; the instruction is fetched from the program memory and latched into the Instruction Register (IR) during Q4. The instruction is decoded and executed during the following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction execution flow are shown in Figure 5-3. 5.2.2 INSTRUCTION FLOW/PIPELINING An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles: Q1 through Q4. The instruction fetch and execute are pipelined in such a manner that a fetch takes one instruction cycle, while the decode and execute takes another instruction cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction causes the program counter to change (e.g., GOTO), then two cycles are required to complete the instruction (Example 5-3). A fetch cycle begins with the Program Counter (PC) incrementing in Q1. In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched into the Instruction Register (IR) in cycle Q1. This instruction is then decoded and executed during the Q2, Q3 and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2 (operand read) and written during Q4 (destination write). FIGURE 5-3: CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE EXAMPLE 5-3: INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 PC OSC2/CLKO (RC mode) PC PC + 2 PC + 4 Fetch INST (PC) Execute INST (PC – 2) Fetch INST (PC + 2) Execute INST (PC) Fetch INST (PC + 4) Execute INST (PC + 2) Internal Phase Clock Note: All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed. TCY0 TCY1 TCY2 TCY3 TCY4 TCY5 1. MOVLW 55h Fetch 1 Execute 1 2. MOVWF PORTB Fetch 2 Execute 2 3. BRA SUB_1 Fetch 3 Execute 3 4. BSF PORTA, BIT3 (Forced NOP) Fetch 4 Flush (NOP) 5. Instruction @ address SUB_1 Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 64 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.3 INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY The program memory is addressed in bytes. Instructions are stored as two bytes or four bytes in program memory. The Least Significant Byte of an instruction word is always stored in a program memory location with an even address (LSb = 0). To maintain alignment with instruction boundaries, the PC increments in steps of 2 and the LSb will always read ‘0’ (see Section 5.1.1 “Program Counter”). Figure 5-4 shows an example of how instruction words are stored in the program memory. The CALL and GOTO instructions have the absolute program memory address embedded into the instruction. Since instructions are always stored on word boundaries, the data contained in the instruction is a word address. The word address is written to PC<20:1>, which accesses the desired byte address in program memory. Instruction #2 in Figure 5-4 shows how the instruction, GOTO 0006h, is encoded in the program memory. Program branch instructions, which encode a relative address offset, operate in the same manner. The offset value stored in a branch instruction represents the number of single-word instructions that the PC will be offset by. Section 26.0 “Instruction Set Summary” provides further details of the instruction set. FIGURE 5-4: INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY 5.2.4 TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS The standard PIC18 instruction set has four two-word instructions: CALL, MOVFF, GOTO and LSFR. In all cases, the second word of the instructions always has ‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits; the other 12 bits are literal data, usually a data memory address. The use of ‘1111’ in the 4 MSbs of an instruction specifies a special form of NOP. If the instruction is executed in proper sequence, immediately after the first word, the data in the second word is accessed and used by the instruction sequence. If the first word is skipped for some reason and the second word is executed by itself, a NOP is executed instead. This is necessary for cases when the two-word instruction is preceded by a conditional instruction that changes the PC. Example 5-4 shows how this works. EXAMPLE 5-4: TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS Word Address LSB = 1 LSB = 0 ↓ Program Memory Byte Locations → 000000h 000002h 000004h 000006h Instruction 1: MOVLW 055h 0Fh 55h 000008h Instruction 2: GOTO 0006h EFh 03h 00000Ah F0h 00h 00000Ch Instruction 3: MOVFF 123h, 456h C1h 23h 00000Eh F4h 56h 000010h 000012h 000014h Note: See Section 5.5 “Program Memory and the Extended Instruction Set” for information on two-word instruction in the extended instruction set. CASE 1: Object Code Source Code 0110 0110 0000 0000 TSTFSZ REG1 ; is RAM location 0? 1100 0001 0010 0011 MOVFF REG1, REG2 ; No, skip this word 1111 0100 0101 0110 ; Execute this word as a NOP 0010 0100 0000 0000 ADDWF REG3 ; continue code CASE 2: Object Code Source Code 0110 0110 0000 0000 TSTFSZ REG1 ; is RAM location 0? 1100 0001 0010 0011 MOVFF REG1, REG2 ; Yes, execute this word 1111 0100 0101 0110 ; 2nd word of instruction 0010 0100 0000 0000 ADDWF REG3 ; continue code © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 65 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.3 Data Memory Organization The data memory in PIC18 devices is implemented as static RAM. Each register in the data memory has a 12-bit address, allowing up to 4096 bytes of data memory. The memory space is divided into as many as 16 banks that contain 256 bytes each. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices implement eight complete banks, for a total of 2048 bytes. Figure 5-5 shows the data memory organization for the devices. The data memory contains Special Function Registers (SFRs) and General Purpose Registers (GPRs). The SFRs are used for control and status of the controller and peripheral functions, while GPRs are used for data storage and scratchpad operations in the user’s application. Any read of an unimplemented location will read as ‘0’s. The instruction set and architecture allow operations across all banks. The entire data memory may be accessed by Direct, Indirect or Indexed Addressing modes. Addressing modes are discussed later in this subsection. To ensure that commonly used registers (SFRs and select GPRs) can be accessed in a single cycle, PIC18 devices implement an Access Bank. This is a 256-byte memory space that provides fast access to SFRs and the lower portion of GPR Bank 0 without using the BSR. Section 5.3.3 “Access Bank” provides a detailed description of the Access RAM. 5.3.1 USB RAM Banks 4 through 7 of the data memory are actually mapped to special dual port RAM. When the USB module is disabled, the GPRs in these banks are used like any other GPR in the data memory space. When the USB module is enabled, the memory in these banks is allocated as buffer RAM for USB operation. This area is shared between the microcontroller core and the USB Serial Interface Engine (SIE) and is used to transfer data directly between the two. It is theoretically possible to use the areas of USB RAM that are not allocated as USB buffers for normal scratchpad memory or other variable storage. In practice, the dynamic nature of buffer allocation makes this risky at best. Additionally, Bank 4 is used for USB buffer management when the module is enabled and should not be used for any other purposes during that time. Additional information on USB RAM and buffer operation is provided in Section 17.0 “Universal Serial Bus (USB)”. 5.3.2 BANK SELECT REGISTER (BSR) Large areas of data memory require an efficient addressing scheme to make rapid access to any address possible. Ideally, this means that an entire address does not need to be provided for each read or write operation. For PIC18 devices, this is accomplished with a RAM banking scheme. This divides the memory space into 16 contiguous banks of 256 bytes. Depending on the instruction, each location can be addressed directly by its full 12-bit address, or an 8-bit low-order address and a 4-bit Bank Pointer. Most instructions in the PIC18 instruction set make use of the Bank Pointer, known as the Bank Select Register (BSR). This SFR holds the 4 Most Significant bits of a location’s address; the instruction itself includes the eight Least Significant bits. Only the four lower bits of the BSR are implemented (BSR3:BSR0). The upper four bits are unused; they will always read ‘0’ and cannot be written to. The BSR can be loaded directly by using the MOVLB instruction. The value of the BSR indicates the bank in data memory. The eight bits in the instruction show the location in the bank and can be thought of as an offset from the bank’s lower boundary. The relationship between the BSR’s value and the bank division in data memory is shown in Figure 5-6. Since up to sixteen registers may share the same low-order address, the user must always be careful to ensure that the proper bank is selected before performing a data read or write. For example, writing what should be program data to an 8-bit address of F9h, while the BSR is 0Fh, will end up resetting the program counter. While any bank can be selected, only those banks that are actually implemented can be read or written to. Writes to unimplemented banks are ignored, while reads from unimplemented banks will return ‘0’s. Even so, the STATUS register will still be affected as if the operation was successful. The data memory map in Figure 5-5 indicates which banks are implemented. In the core PIC18 instruction set, only the MOVFF instruction fully specifies the 12-bit address of the source and target registers. This instruction ignores the BSR completely when it executes. All other instructions include only the low-order address as an operand and must use either the BSR or the Access Bank to locate their target registers. Note: The operation of some aspects of data memory are changed when the PIC18 extended instruction set is enabled. See Section 5.6 “Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set” for more information. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 66 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 5-5: DATA MEMORY MAP Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 14 Bank 15 BSR<3:0> Data Memory Map = 0000 = 0001 = 1111 060h 05Fh F60h FFFh 00h 5Fh 60h FFh Access Bank When a = 0: The BSR is ignored and the Access Bank is used. The first 96 bytes are general purpose RAM (from Bank 0). The remaining 160 bytes are Special Function Registers (from Bank 15). When a = 1: The BSR specifies the bank used by the instruction. F5Fh F00h EFFh 1FFh 100h 0FFh Access RAM 000h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h GPR GPR SFR Access RAM High Access RAM Low Bank 2 = 0110 = 0010 (SFRs) 2FFh 200h 3FFh 300h 4FFh 400h 5FFh 500h 6FFh 600h 7FFh 700h 800h Bank 3 Bank 4 Bank 5 Bank 6 Bank 7 Bank 8 FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h 00h GPR GPR(1) GPR GPR(1) GPR(1) GPR(1) FFh = 0011 = 0100 = 0101 = 0111 = 1000 Unused to Read as 00h = 1110 Note 1: These banks also serve as RAM buffer for USB operation. See Section 5.3.1 “USB RAM” for more information. Unused © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 67 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 FIGURE 5-6: USE OF THE BANK SELECT REGISTER (DIRECT ADDRESSING) 5.3.3 ACCESS BANK While the use of the BSR, with an embedded 8-bit address, allows users to address the entire range of data memory, it also means that the user must always ensure that the correct bank is selected. Otherwise, data may be read from or written to the wrong location. This can be disastrous if a GPR is the intended target of an operation but an SFR is written to instead. Verifying and/or changing the BSR for each read or write to data memory can become very inefficient. To streamline access for the most commonly used data memory locations, the data memory is configured with an Access Bank, which allows users to access a mapped block of memory without specifying a BSR. The Access Bank consists of the first 96 bytes of memory (00h-5Fh) in Bank 0 and the last 160 bytes of memory (60h-FFh) in Block 15. The lower half is known as the “Access RAM” and is composed of GPRs. The upper half is where the device’s SFRs are mapped. These two areas are mapped contiguously in the Access Bank and can be addressed in a linear fashion by an 8-bit address (Figure 5-5). The Access Bank is used by core PIC18 instructions that include the Access RAM bit (the ‘a’ parameter in the instruction). When ‘a’ is equal to ‘1’, the instruction uses the BSR and the 8-bit address included in the opcode for the data memory address. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, however, the instruction is forced to use the Access Bank address map; the current value of the BSR is ignored entirely. Using this “forced” addressing allows the instruction to operate on a data address in a single cycle without updating the BSR first. For 8-bit addresses of 60h and above, this means that users can evaluate and operate on SFRs more efficiently. The Access RAM below 60h is a good place for data values that the user might need to access rapidly, such as immediate computational results or common program variables. Access RAM also allows for faster and more code efficient context saving and switching of variables. The mapping of the Access Bank is slightly different when the extended instruction set is enabled (XINST Configuration bit = 1). This is discussed in more detail in Section 5.6.3 “Mapping the Access Bank in Indexed Literal Offset Mode”. 5.3.4 GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE PIC18 devices may have banked memory in the GPR area. This is data RAM which is available for use by all instructions. GPRs start at the bottom of Bank 0 (address 000h) and grow upwards towards the bottom of the SFR area. GPRs are not initialized by a Power-on Reset and are unchanged on all other Resets. Note 1: The Access RAM bit of the instruction can be used to force an override of the selected bank (BSR<3:0>) to the registers of the Access Bank. 2: The MOVFF instruction embeds the entire 12-bit address in the instruction. Data Memory Bank Select(2) 7 0 From Opcode(2) 0 0 0 0 000h 100h 200h 300h F00h E00h FFFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 14 Bank 15 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh Bank 3 through Bank 13 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 0 BSR(1) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 68 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.3.5 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers (SFRs) are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM in the data memory space. SFRs start at the top of data memory and extend downward to occupy the top segment of Bank 15, from F60h to FFFh. A list of these registers is given in Table 5-1 and Table 5-2. The SFRs can be classified into two sets: those associated with the “core” device functionality (ALU, Resets and interrupts) and those related to the peripheral functions. The Reset and interrupt registers are described in their respective chapters, while the ALU’s STATUS register is described later in this section. Registers related to the operation of a peripheral feature are described in the chapter for that peripheral. The SFRs are typically distributed among the peripherals whose functions they control. Unused SFR locations are unimplemented and read as ‘0’s. TABLE 5-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER MAP Address Name Address Name Address Name Address Name Address Name FFFh TOSU FDFh INDF2(1) FBFh CCPR1H F9Fh IPR1 F7Fh UEP15 FFEh TOSH FDEh POSTINC2(1) FBEh CCPR1L F9Eh PIR1 F7Eh UEP14 FFDh TOSL FDDh POSTDEC2(1) FBDh CCP1CON F9Dh PIE1 F7Dh UEP13 FFCh STKPTR FDCh PREINC2(1) FBCh CCPR2H F9Ch —(2) F7Ch UEP12 FFBh PCLATU FDBh PLUSW2(1) FBBh CCPR2L F9Bh OSCTUNE F7Bh UEP11 FFAh PCLATH FDAh FSR2H FBAh CCP2CON F9Ah —(2) F7Ah UEP10 FF9h PCL FD9h FSR2L FB9h —(2) F99h —(2) F79h UEP9 FF8h TBLPTRU FD8h STATUS FB8h BAUDCON F98h —(2) F78h UEP8 FF7h TBLPTRH FD7h TMR0H FB7h ECCP1DEL F97h —(2) F77h UEP7 FF6h TBLPTRL FD6h TMR0L FB6h ECCP1AS F96h TRISE(3) F76h UEP6 FF5h TABLAT FD5h T0CON FB5h CVRCON F95h TRISD(3) F75h UEP5 FF4h PRODH FD4h —(2) FB4h CMCON F94h TRISC F74h UEP4 FF3h PRODL FD3h OSCCON FB3h TMR3H F93h TRISB F73h UEP3 FF2h INTCON FD2h HLVDCON FB2h TMR3L F92h TRISA F72h UEP2 FF1h INTCON2 FD1h WDTCON FB1h T3CON F91h —(2) F71h UEP1 FF0h INTCON3 FD0h RCON FB0h SPBRGH F90h —(2) F70h UEP0 FEFh INDF0(1) FCFh TMR1H FAFh SPBRG F8Fh —(2) F6Fh UCFG FEEh POSTINC0(1) FCEh TMR1L FAEh RCREG F8Eh —(2) F6Eh UADDR FEDh POSTDEC0(1) FCDh T1CON FADh TXREG F8Dh LATE(3) F6Dh UCON FECh PREINC0(1) FCCh TMR2 FACh TXSTA F8Ch LATD(3) F6Ch USTAT FEBh PLUSW0(1) FCBh PR2 FABh RCSTA F8Bh LATC F6Bh UEIE FEAh FSR0H FCAh T2CON FAAh —(2) F8Ah LATB F6Ah UEIR FE9h FSR0L FC9h SSPBUF FA9h EEADR F89h LATA F69h UIE FE8h WREG FC8h SSPADD FA8h EEDATA F88h —(2) F68h UIR FE7h INDF1(1) FC7h SSPSTAT FA7h EECON2(1) F87h —(2) F67h UFRMH FE6h POSTINC1(1) FC6h SSPCON1 FA6h EECON1 F86h —(2) F66h UFRML FE5h POSTDEC1(1) FC5h SSPCON2 FA5h —(2) F85h —(2) F65h SPPCON(3) FE4h PREINC1(1) FC4h ADRESH FA4h —(2) F84h PORTE F64h SPPEPS(3) FE3h PLUSW1(1) FC3h ADRESL FA3h —(2) F83h PORTD(3) F63h SPPCFG(3) FE2h FSR1H FC2h ADCON0 FA2h IPR2 F82h PORTC F62h SPPDATA(3) FE1h FSR1L FC1h ADCON1 FA1h PIR2 F81h PORTB F61h —(2) FE0h BSR FC0h ADCON2 FA0h PIE2 F80h PORTA F60h —(2) Note 1: Not a physical register. 2: Unimplemented registers are read as ‘0’. 3: These registers are implemented only on 40/44-pin devices. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 69 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 TABLE 5-2: REGISTER FILE SUMMARY File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page TOSU — — — Top-of-Stack Upper Byte (TOS<20:16>) ---0 0000 53, 60 TOSH Top-of-Stack High Byte (TOS<15:8>) 0000 0000 53, 60 TOSL Top-of-Stack Low Byte (TOS<7:0>) 0000 0000 53, 60 STKPTR STKFUL STKUNF — SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 00-0 0000 53, 61 PCLATU — — — Holding Register for PC<20:16> ---0 0000 53, 60 PCLATH Holding Register for PC<15:8> 0000 0000 53, 60 PCL PC Low Byte (PC<7:0>) 0000 0000 53, 60 TBLPTRU — — bit 21(1) Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>) --00 0000 53, 84 TBLPTRH Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>) 0000 0000 53, 84 TBLPTRL Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>) 0000 0000 53, 84 TABLAT Program Memory Table Latch 0000 0000 53, 84 PRODH Product Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 53, 97 PRODL Product Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 53, 97 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 0000 000x 53, 101 INTCON2 RBPU INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 — TMR0IP — RBIP 1111 -1-1 53, 102 INTCON3 INT2IP INT1IP — INT2IE INT1IE — INT2IF INT1IF 11-0 0-00 53, 103 INDF0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 53, 75 POSTINC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 POSTDEC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 PREINC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 PLUSW0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR0 offset by W N/A 53, 76 FSR0H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 High Byte ---- 0000 53, 75 FSR0L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 53, 75 WREG Working Register xxxx xxxx 53 INDF1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 53, 75 POSTINC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 POSTDEC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 PREINC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 53, 76 PLUSW1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR1 offset by W N/A 53, 76 FSR1H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 High Byte ---- 0000 53, 75 FSR1L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 53, 75 BSR — — — — Bank Select Register ---- 0000 54, 65 INDF2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 54, 75 POSTINC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 54, 76 POSTDEC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 54, 76 PREINC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 54, 76 PLUSW2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR2 offset by W N/A 54, 76 FSR2H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 High Byte ---- 0000 54, 75 FSR2L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 75 STATUS — — — N OV Z DC C ---x xxxx 54, 73 TMR0H Timer0 Register High Byte 0000 0000 54, 129 TMR0L Timer0 Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 129 T0CON TMR0ON T08BIT T0CS T0SE PSA T0PS2 T0PS1 T0PS0 1111 1111 54, 127 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Bit 21 of the TBLPTRU allows access to the device Configuration bits. 2: The SBOREN bit is only available when BOREN<1:0> = 01; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 3: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 4: RA6 is configured as a port pin based on various primary oscillator modes. When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’. 5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0). 7: I2C™ Slave mode only. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 70 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. OSCCON IDLEN IRCF2 IRCF1 IRCF0 OSTS IOFS SCS1 SCS0 0100 q000 54, 33 HLVDCON VDIRMAG — IRVST HLVDEN HLVDL3 HLVDL2 HLVDL1 HLVDL0 0-00 0101 54, 285 WDTCON — — — — — — — SWDTEN --- ---0 54, 304 RCON IPEN SBOREN(2) — RI TO PD POR BOR 0q-1 11q0 54, 46 TMR1H Timer1 Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 136 TMR1L Timer1 Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 136 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 54, 131 TMR2 Timer2 Register 0000 0000 54, 138 PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 54, 138 T2CON — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 54, 137 SSPBUF MSSP Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx 54, 198, 207 SSPADD MSSP Address Register in I2C™ Slave mode. MSSP Baud Rate Reload Register in I2C™ Master mode. 0000 0000 54, 207 SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 0000 0000 54, 198, 208 SSPCON1 WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 54, 199, 209 SSPCON2 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT/ ADMSK5(7) ACKEN/ ADMSK4(7) RCEN/ ADMSK3(7) PEN/ ADMSK2(7) RSEN/ ADMSK1(7) SEN 0000 0000 54, 210 ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 274 ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 54, 274 ADCON0 — — CHS3 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON --00 0000 54, 265 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --00 0qqq 54, 266 ADCON2 ADFM — ACQT2 ACQT1 ACQT0 ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 0-00 0000 54, 267 CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 144 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 144 CCP1CON P1M1(3) P1M0(3) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0000 0000 55, 143, 151 CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 High Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 144 CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 144 CCP2CON — — DC2B1 DC2B0 CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 55, 143 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 0100 0-00 55, 246 ECCP1DEL PRSEN PDC6(3) PDC5(3) PDC4(3) PDC3(3) PDC2(3) PDC1(3) PDC0(3) 0000 0000 55, 160 ECCP1AS ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1(3) PSSBD0(3) 0000 0000 55, 161 CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 0000 0000 55, 281 CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 0000 0111 55, 275 TMR3H Timer3 Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 141 TMR3L Timer3 Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 55, 141 T3CON RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON 0000 0000 55, 139 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 0000 0000 55, 247 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 0000 0000 55, 247 RCREG EUSART Receive Register 0000 0000 55, 256 TXREG EUSART Transmit Register 0000 0000 55, 253 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 0010 55, 244 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 55, 245 TABLE 5-2: REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Bit 21 of the TBLPTRU allows access to the device Configuration bits. 2: The SBOREN bit is only available when BOREN<1:0> = 01; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 3: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 4: RA6 is configured as a port pin based on various primary oscillator modes. When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’. 5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0). 7: I2C™ Slave mode only. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 71 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 EEADR EEPROM Address Register 0000 0000 55, 91 EEDATA EEPROM Data Register 0000 0000 55, 91 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 0000 0000 55, 82 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD xx-0 x000 55, 83 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP USBIP EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 1111 1111 56, 109 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF USBIF EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 0000 0000 56, 105 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE USBIE EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 0000 0000 56, 107 IPR1 SPPIP(3) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 1111 1111 56, 108 PIR1 SPPIF(3) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 56, 104 PIE1 SPPIE(3) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 56, 106 OSCTUNE INTSRC — — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 0--0 0000 56, 28 TRISE(3) — — — — — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 ---- -111 56, 126 TRISD(3) TRISD7 TRISD6 TRISD5 TRISD4 TRISD3 TRISD2 TRISD1 TRISD0 1111 1111 56, 124 TRISC TRISC7 TRISC6 — — — TRISC2 TRISC1 TRISC0 11-- -111 56, 121 TRISB TRISB7 TRISB6 TRISB5 TRISB4 TRISB3 TRISB2 TRISB1 TRISB0 1111 1111 56, 118 TRISA — TRISA6(4) TRISA5 TRISA4 TRISA3 TRISA2 TRISA1 TRISA0 -111 1111 56, 115 LATE(3) — — — — — LATE2 LATE1 LATE0 ---- -xxx 56, 126 LATD(3) LATD7 LATD6 LATD5 LATD4 LATD3 LATD2 LATD1 LATD0 xxxx xxxx 56, 124 LATC LATC7 LATC6 — — — LATC2 LATC1 LATC0 xx-- -xxx 56, 121 LATB LATB7 LATB6 LATB5 LATB4 LATB3 LATB2 LATB1 LATB0 xxxx xxxx 56, 118 LATA — LATA6(4) LATA5 LATA4 LATA3 LATA2 LATA1 LATA0 -xxx xxxx 56, 115 PORTE RDPU(3) — — — RE3(5) RE2(3) RE1(3) RE0(3) 0--- x000 56, 125 PORTD(3) RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 xxxx xxxx 56, 124 PORTC RC7 RC6 RC5(6) RC4(6) — RC2 RC1 RC0 xxxx -xxx 56, 121 PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 xxxx xxxx 56, 118 PORTA — RA6(4) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 -x0x 0000 56, 115 UEP15 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP14 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP13 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP12 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP11 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP10 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP9 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP8 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP7 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP6 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP5 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP4 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP3 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP2 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP1 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 UEP0 — — — EPHSHK EPCONDIS EPOUTEN EPINEN EPSTALL ---0 0000 57, 172 TABLE 5-2: REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Bit 21 of the TBLPTRU allows access to the device Configuration bits. 2: The SBOREN bit is only available when BOREN<1:0> = 01; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 3: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 4: RA6 is configured as a port pin based on various primary oscillator modes. When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’. 5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0). 7: I2C™ Slave mode only. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 72 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. UCFG UTEYE UOEMON — UPUEN UTRDIS FSEN PPB1 PPB0 00-0 0000 57, 168 UADDR — ADDR6 ADDR5 ADDR4 ADDR3 ADDR2 ADDR1 ADDR0 -000 0000 57, 173 UCON — PPBRST SE0 PKTDIS USBEN RESUME SUSPND — -0x0 000- 57, 166 USTAT — ENDP3 ENDP2 ENDP1 ENDP0 DIR PPBI — -xxx xxx- 57, 171 UEIE BTSEE — — BTOEE DFN8EE CRC16EE CRC5EE PIDEE 0--0 0000 57, 185 UEIR BTSEF — — BTOEF DFN8EF CRC16EF CRC5EF PIDEF 0--0 0000 57, 184 UIE — SOFIE STALLIE IDLEIE TRNIE ACTVIE UERRIE URSTIE -000 0000 57, 183 UIR — SOFIF STALLIF IDLEIF TRNIF ACTVIF UERRIF URSTIF -000 0000 57, 181 UFRMH — — — — — FRM10 FRM9 FRM8 ---- -xxx 57, 173 UFRML FRM7 FRM6 FRM5 FRM4 FRM3 FRM2 FRM1 FRM0 xxxx xxxx 57, 173 SPPCON(3) — — — — — — SPPOWN SPPEN ---- --00 57, 191 SPPEPS(3) RDSPP WRSPP — SPPBUSY ADDR3 ADDR2 ADDR1 ADDR0 00-0 0000 57, 195 SPPCFG(3) CLKCFG1 CLKCFG0 CSEN CLK1EN WS3 WS2 WS1 WS0 0000 0000 57, 192 SPPDATA(3) DATA7 DATA6 DATA5 DATA4 DATA3 DATA2 DATA1 DATA0 0000 0000 57, 196 TABLE 5-2: REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Bit 21 of the TBLPTRU allows access to the device Configuration bits. 2: The SBOREN bit is only available when BOREN<1:0> = 01; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 3: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 4: RA6 is configured as a port pin based on various primary oscillator modes. When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’. 5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’. 6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0). 7: I2C™ Slave mode only. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 73 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.3.6 STATUS REGISTER The STATUS register, shown in Register 5-2, contains the arithmetic status of the ALU. As with any other SFR, it can be the operand for any instruction. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z, DC, C, OV or N bits, the results of the instruction are not written; instead, the STATUS register is updated according to the instruction performed. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as its destination may be different than intended. As an example, CLRF STATUS will set the Z bit and leave the remaining Status bits unchanged (‘000u u1uu’). It is recommended that only BCF, BSF, SWAPF, MOVFF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register because these instructions do not affect the Z, C, DC, OV or N bits in the STATUS register. For other instructions that do not affect Status bits, see the instruction set summaries in Table 26-2 and Table 26-3. Note: The C and DC bits operate as the Borrow and Digit Borrow bits, respectively, in subtraction. REGISTER 5-2: STATUS REGISTER U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x — — — N OV Z DC(1) C(2) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 N: Negative bit This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates whether the result was negative (ALU MSB = 1). 1 = Result was negative 0 = Result was positive bit 3 OV: Overflow bit This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates an overflow of the 7-bit magnitude which causes the sign bit (bit 7 of the result) to change state. 1 = Overflow occurred for signed arithmetic (in this arithmetic operation) 0 = No overflow occurred bit 2 Z: Zero bit 1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero 0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero bit 1 DC: Digit Carry/Borrow bit(1) For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions: 1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result bit 0 C: Carry/Borrow bit(2) For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions: 1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred Note 1: For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either bit 4 or bit 3 of the source register. 2: For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low-order bit of the source register. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 74 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.4 Data Addressing Modes While the program memory can be addressed in only one way – through the program counter – information in the data memory space can be addressed in several ways. For most instructions, the addressing mode is fixed. Other instructions may use up to three modes, depending on which operands are used and whether or not the extended instruction set is enabled. The addressing modes are: • Inherent • Literal • Direct • Indirect An additional addressing mode, Indexed Literal Offset, is available when the extended instruction set is enabled (XINST Configuration bit = 1). Its operation is discussed in greater detail in Section 5.6.1 “Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset”. 5.4.1 INHERENT AND LITERAL ADDRESSING Many PIC18 control instructions do not need any argument at all; they either perform an operation that globally affects the device or they operate implicitly on one register. This addressing mode is known as Inherent Addressing. Examples include SLEEP, RESET and DAW. Other instructions work in a similar way but require an additional explicit argument in the opcode. This is known as Literal Addressing mode because they require some literal value as an argument. Examples include ADDLW and MOVLW, which respectively, add or move a literal value to the W register. Other examples include CALL and GOTO, which include a 20-bit program memory address. 5.4.2 DIRECT ADDRESSING Direct Addressing mode specifies all or part of the source and/or destination address of the operation within the opcode itself. The options are specified by the arguments accompanying the instruction. In the core PIC18 instruction set, bit-oriented and byte-oriented instructions use some version of Direct Addressing by default. All of these instructions include some 8-bit literal address as their Least Significant Byte. This address specifies either a register address in one of the banks of data RAM (Section 5.3.4 “General Purpose Register File”) or a location in the Access Bank (Section 5.3.3 “Access Bank”) as the data source for the instruction. The Access RAM bit ‘a’ determines how the address is interpreted. When ‘a’ is ‘1’, the contents of the BSR (Section 5.3.2 “Bank Select Register (BSR)”) are used with the address to determine the complete 12-bit address of the register. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, the address is interpreted as being a register in the Access Bank. Addressing that uses the Access RAM is sometimes also known as Direct Forced Addressing mode. A few instructions, such as MOVFF, include the entire 12-bit address (either source or destination) in their opcodes. In these cases, the BSR is ignored entirely. The destination of the operation’s results is determined by the destination bit ‘d’. When ‘d’ is ‘1’, the results are stored back in the source register, overwriting its original contents. When ‘d’ is ‘0’, the results are stored in the W register. Instructions without the ‘d’ argument have a destination that is implicit in the instruction; their destination is either the target register being operated on or the W register. 5.4.3 INDIRECT ADDRESSING Indirect Addressing allows the user to access a location in data memory without giving a fixed address in the instruction. This is done by using File Select Registers (FSRs) as pointers to the locations to be read or written to. Since the FSRs are themselves located in RAM as Special Function Registers, they can also be directly manipulated under program control. This makes FSRs very useful in implementing data structures, such as tables and arrays in data memory. The registers for Indirect Addressing are also implemented with Indirect File Operands (INDFs) that permit automatic manipulation of the pointer value with auto-incrementing, auto-decrementing or offsetting with another value. This allows for efficient code, using loops, such as the example of clearing an entire RAM bank in Example 5-5. EXAMPLE 5-5: HOW TO CLEAR RAM (BANK 1) USING INDIRECT ADDRESSING Note: The execution of some instructions in the core PIC18 instruction set are changed when the PIC18 extended instruction set is enabled. See Section 5.6 “Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set” for more information. LFSR FSR0, 100h ; NEXT CLRF POSTINC0 ; Clear INDF ; register then ; inc pointer BTFSS FSR0H, 1 ; All done with ; Bank1? BRA NEXT ; NO, clear next CONTINUE ; YES, continue © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 75 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.4.3.1 FSR Registers and the INDF Operand At the core of Indirect Addressing are three sets of registers: FSR0, FSR1 and FSR2. Each represents a pair of 8-bit registers: FSRnH and FSRnL. The four upper bits of the FSRnH register are not used, so each FSR pair holds a 12-bit value. This represents a value that can address the entire range of the data memory in a linear fashion. The FSR register pairs, then, serve as pointers to data memory locations. Indirect Addressing is accomplished with a set of Indirect File Operands, INDF0 through INDF2. These can be thought of as “virtual” registers; they are mapped in the SFR space but are not physically implemented. Reading or writing to a particular INDF register actually accesses its corresponding FSR register pair. A read from INDF1, for example, reads the data at the address indicated by FSR1H:FSR1L. Instructions that use the INDF registers as operands actually use the contents of their corresponding FSR as a pointer to the instruction’s target. The INDF operand is just a convenient way of using the pointer. Because Indirect Addressing uses a full 12-bit address, data RAM banking is not necessary. Thus, the current contents of the BSR and the Access RAM bit have no effect on determining the target address. FIGURE 5-7: INDIRECT ADDRESSING FSR1H:FSR1L 7 0 Data Memory 000h 100h 200h 300h F00h E00h FFFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 14 Bank 15 Bank 3 through Bank 13 ADDWF, INDF1, 1 7 0 Using an instruction with one of the indirect addressing registers as the operand.... ...uses the 12-bit address stored in the FSR pair associated with that register.... ...to determine the data memory location to be used in that operation. In this case, the FSR1 pair contains ECCh. This means the contents of location ECCh will be added to that of the W register and stored back in ECCh. x x x x 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 76 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.4.3.2 FSR Registers and POSTINC, POSTDEC, PREINC and PLUSW In addition to the INDF operand, each FSR register pair also has four additional indirect operands. Like INDF, these are “virtual” registers that cannot be indirectly read or written to. Accessing these registers actually accesses the associated FSR register pair, but also performs a specific action on it stored value. They are: • POSTDEC: accesses the FSR value, then automatically decrements it by ‘1’ afterwards • POSTINC: accesses the FSR value, then automatically increments it by ‘1’ afterwards • PREINC: increments the FSR value by ‘1’, then uses it in the operation • PLUSW: adds the signed value of the W register (range of -127 to 128) to that of the FSR and uses the new value in the operation. In this context, accessing an INDF register uses the value in the FSR registers without changing them. Similarly, accessing a PLUSW register gives the FSR value offset by that in the W register; neither value is actually changed in the operation. Accessing the other virtual registers changes the value of the FSR registers. Operations on the FSRs with POSTDEC, POSTINC and PREINC affect the entire register pair; that is, rollovers of the FSRnL register, from FFh to 00h, carry over to the FSRnH register. On the other hand, results of these operations do not change the value of any flags in the STATUS register (e.g., Z, N, OV, etc.). The PLUSW register can be used to implement a form of Indexed Addressing in the data memory space. By manipulating the value in the W register, users can reach addresses that are fixed offsets from pointer addresses. In some applications, this can be used to implement some powerful program control structure, such as software stacks, inside of data memory. 5.4.3.3 Operations by FSRs on FSRs Indirect Addressing operations that target other FSRs or virtual registers represent special cases. For example, using an FSR to point to one of the virtual registers will not result in successful operations. As a specific case, assume that FSR0H:FSR0L contains FE7h, the address of INDF1. Attempts to read the value of INDF1, using INDF0 as an operand, will return 00h. Attempts to write to INDF1, using INDF0 as the operand, will result in a NOP. On the other hand, using the virtual registers to write to an FSR pair may not occur as planned. In these cases, the value will be written to the FSR pair but without any incrementing or decrementing. Thus, writing to INDF2 or POSTDEC2 will write the same value to the FSR2H:FSR2L. Since the FSRs are physical registers mapped in the SFR space, they can be manipulated through all direct operations. Users should proceed cautiously when working on these registers, particularly if their code uses Indirect Addressing. Similarly, operations by Indirect Addressing are generally permitted on all other SFRs. Users should exercise the appropriate caution that they do not inadvertently change settings that might affect the operation of the device. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 77 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.5 Program Memory and the Extended Instruction Set The operation of program memory is unaffected by the use of the extended instruction set. Enabling the extended instruction set adds eight additional two-word commands to the existing PIC18 instruction set: ADDFSR, ADDULNK, CALLW, MOVSF, MOVSS, PUSHL, SUBFSR and SUBULNK. These instructions are executed as described in Section 5.2.4 “Two-Word Instructions”. 5.6 Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set (XINST Configuration bit = 1) significantly changes certain aspects of data memory and its addressing. Specifically, the use of the Access Bank for many of the core PIC18 instructions is different. This is due to the introduction of a new addressing mode for the data memory space. This mode also alters the behavior of Indirect Addressing using FSR2 and its associated operands. What does not change is just as important. The size of the data memory space is unchanged, as well as its linear addressing. The SFR map remains the same. Core PIC18 instructions can still operate in both Direct and Indirect Addressing mode; inherent and literal instructions do not change at all. Indirect Addressing with FSR0 and FSR1 also remains unchanged. 5.6.1 INDEXED ADDRESSING WITH LITERAL OFFSET Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set changes the behavior of Indirect Addressing using the FSR2 register pair and its associated file operands. Under the proper conditions, instructions that use the Access Bank – that is, most bit-oriented and byte-oriented instructions – can invoke a form of Indexed Addressing using an offset specified in the instruction. This special addressing mode is known as Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset or Indexed Literal Offset mode. When using the extended instruction set, this addressing mode requires the following: • The use of the Access Bank is forced (‘a’ = 0); and • The file address argument is less than or equal to 5Fh. Under these conditions, the file address of the instruction is not interpreted as the lower byte of an address (used with the BSR in Direct Addressing), or as an 8-bit address in the Access Bank. Instead, the value is interpreted as an offset value to an Address Pointer specified by FSR2. The offset and the contents of FSR2 are added to obtain the target address of the operation. 5.6.2 INSTRUCTIONS AFFECTED BY INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE Any of the core PIC18 instructions that can use Direct Addressing are potentially affected by the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode. This includes all byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions, or almost one-half of the standard PIC18 instruction set. Instructions that only use Inherent or Literal Addressing modes are unaffected. Additionally, byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions are not affected if they do not use the Access Bank (Access RAM bit is ‘1’) or include a file address of 60h or above. Instructions meeting these criteria will continue to execute as before. A comparison of the different possible addressing modes when the extended instruction set is enabled in shown in Figure 5-8. Those who desire to use byte-oriented or bit-oriented instructions in the Indexed Literal Offset mode should note the changes to assembler syntax for this mode. This is described in more detail in Section 26.2.1 “Extended Instruction Syntax”. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 78 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 5-8: COMPARING ADDRESSING OPTIONS FOR BIT-ORIENTED AND BYTE-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS (EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET ENABLED) EXAMPLE INSTRUCTION: ADDWF, f, d, a (Opcode: 0010 01da ffff ffff) When a = 0 and f ≥ 60h: The instruction executes in Direct Forced mode. ‘f’ is interpreted as a location in the Access RAM between 060h and 0FFh. This is the same as the SFRs or locations F60h to 0FFh (Bank 15) of data memory. Locations below 60h are not available in this addressing mode. When a = 0 and f ≤ 5Fh: The instruction executes in Indexed Literal Offset mode. ‘f’ is interpreted as an offset to the address value in FSR2. The two are added together to obtain the address of the target register for the instruction. The address can be anywhere in the data memory space. Note that in this mode, the correct syntax is now: ADDWF [k], d where ‘k’ is the same as ‘f’. When a = 1 (all values of f): The instruction executes in Direct mode (also known as Direct Long mode). ‘f’ is interpreted as a location in one of the 16 banks of the data memory space. The bank is designated by the Bank Select Register (BSR). The address can be in any implemented bank in the data memory space. 000h 060h 100h F00h F60h FFFh Valid range 00h 60h FFh Data Memory Access RAM Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs 000h 080h 100h F00h F60h FFFh Data Memory Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs FSR2H FSR2L 001001da ffffffff 001001da ffffffff 000h 080h 100h F00h F60h FFFh Data Memory Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs for ‘f’ BSR 00000000 080h © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 79 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 5.6.3 MAPPING THE ACCESS BANK IN INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE The use of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode effectively changes how the lower portion of Access RAM (00h to 5Fh) is mapped. Rather than containing just the contents of the bottom half of Bank 0, this mode maps the contents from Bank 0 and a user-defined “window” that can be located anywhere in the data memory space. The value of FSR2 establishes the lower boundary of the addresses mapped into the window, while the upper boundary is defined by FSR2 plus 95 (5Fh). Addresses in the Access RAM above 5Fh are mapped as previously described (see Section 5.3.3 “Access Bank”). An example of Access Bank remapping in this addressing mode is shown in Figure 5-9. Remapping of the Access Bank applies only to operations using the Indexed Literal Offset mode. Operations that use the BSR (Access RAM bit is ‘1’) will continue to use Direct Addressing as before. Any indirect or indexed operation that explicitly uses any of the indirect file operands (including FSR2) will continue to operate as standard Indirect Addressing. Any instruction that uses the Access Bank, but includes a register address of greater than 05Fh, will use Direct Addressing and the normal Access Bank map. 5.6.4 BSR IN INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE Although the Access Bank is remapped when the extended instruction set is enabled, the operation of the BSR remains unchanged. Direct Addressing, using the BSR to select the data memory bank, operates in the same manner as previously described. FIGURE 5-9: REMAPPING THE ACCESS BANK WITH INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET ADDRESSING Data Memory 000h 100h 200h F60h F00h FFFh Bank 1 Bank 15 Bank 2 through Bank 14 SFRs ADDWF f, d, a FSR2H:FSR2L = 120h Locations in the region from the FSR2 Pointer (120h) to the pointer plus 05Fh (17Fh) are mapped to the bottom of the Access RAM (000h-05Fh). Special Function Registers at F60h through FFFh are mapped to 60h through FFh as usual. Bank 0 addresses below 5Fh are not available in this mode. They can still be addressed by using the BSR. Access Bank 00h 60h FFh Bank 0 SFRs Bank 1 “Window” Window Example Situation: 120h 17Fh 5Fh PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 80 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 81 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 6.0 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY The Flash program memory is readable, writable and erasable, during normal operation over the entire VDD range. A read from program memory is executed on one byte at a time. A write to program memory is executed on blocks of 32 bytes at a time. Program memory is erased in blocks of 64 bytes at a time. A Bulk Erase operation may not be issued from user code. Writing or erasing program memory will cease instruction fetches until the operation is complete. The program memory cannot be accessed during the write or erase, therefore, code cannot execute. An internal programming timer terminates program memory writes and erases. A value written to program memory does not need to be a valid instruction. Executing a program memory location that forms an invalid instruction results in a NOP. 6.1 Table Reads and Table Writes In order to read and write program memory, there are two operations that allow the processor to move bytes between the program memory space and the data RAM: • Table Read (TBLRD) • Table Write (TBLWT) The program memory space is 16 bits wide, while the data RAM space is 8 bits wide. Table reads and table writes move data between these two memory spaces through an 8-bit register (TABLAT). Table read operations retrieve data from program memory and place it into the data RAM space. Figure 6-1 shows the operation of a table read with program memory and data RAM. Table write operations store data from the data memory space into holding registers in program memory. The procedure to write the contents of the holding registers into program memory is detailed in Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. Figure 6-2 shows the operation of a table write with program memory and data RAM. Table operations work with byte entities. A table block containing data, rather than program instructions, is not required to be word-aligned. Therefore, a table block can start and end at any byte address. If a table write is being used to write executable code into program memory, program instructions will need to be word-aligned. FIGURE 6-1: TABLE READ OPERATION Table Pointer(1) Table Latch (8-bit) Program Memory TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TABLAT TBLPTRU Instruction: TBLRD* Note 1: Table Pointer register points to a byte in program memory. Program Memory (TBLPTR) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 82 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 6-2: TABLE WRITE OPERATION 6.2 Control Registers Several control registers are used in conjunction with the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These include the: • EECON1 register • EECON2 register • TABLAT register • TBLPTR registers 6.2.1 EECON1 AND EECON2 REGISTERS The EECON1 register (Register 6-1) is the control register for memory accesses. The EECON2 register is not a physical register; it is used exclusively in the memory write and erase sequences. Reading EECON2 will read all ‘0’s. The EEPGD control bit determines if the access will be a program or data EEPROM memory access. When clear, any subsequent operations will operate on the data EEPROM memory. When set, any subsequent operations will operate on the program memory. The CFGS control bit determines if the access will be to the Configuration/Calibration registers or to program memory/data EEPROM memory. When set, subsequent operations will operate on Configuration registers regardless of EEPGD (see Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU”). When clear, memory selection access is determined by EEPGD. The FREE bit, when set, will allow a program memory erase operation. When FREE is set, the erase operation is initiated on the next WR command. When FREE is clear, only writes are enabled. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is set in hardware when the WREN bit is set and cleared when the internal programming timer expires and the write operation is complete. The WR control bit initiates write operations. The bit cannot be cleared, only set, in software; it is cleared in hardware at the completion of the write operation. Table Pointer(1) Table Latch (8-bit) TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TABLAT Program Memory (TBLPTR) TBLPTRU Instruction: TBLWT* Note 1: Table Pointer actually points to one of 32 holding registers, the address of which is determined by TBLPTRL<4:0>. The process for physically writing data to the program memory array is discussed in Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. Holding Registers Program Memory Note: During normal operation, the WRERR is read as ‘1’. This can indicate that a write operation was prematurely terminated by a Reset or a write operation was attempted improperly. Note: The EEIF interrupt flag bit (PIR2<4>) is set when the write is complete. It must be cleared in software. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 83 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 REGISTER 6-1: EECON1: DATA EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1 R/W-x R/W-x U-0 R/W-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR(1) WREN WR RD bit 7 bit 0 Legend: S = Settable bit R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 EEPGD: Flash Program or Data EEPROM Memory Select bit 1 = Access Flash program memory 0 = Access data EEPROM memory bit 6 CFGS: Flash Program/Data EEPROM or Configuration Select bit 1 = Access Configuration registers 0 = Access Flash program or data EEPROM memory bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 FREE: Flash Row Erase Enable bit 1 = Erase the program memory row addressed by TBLPTR on the next WR command (cleared by completion of erase operation) 0 = Perform write-only bit 3 WRERR: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Error Flag bit(1) 1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any Reset during self-timed programming in normal operation or an improper write attempt) 0 = The write operation completed bit 2 WREN: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM 0 = Inhibits write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM bit 1 WR: Write Control bit 1 = Initiates a data EEPROM erase/write cycle or a program memory erase cycle or write cycle (The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.) 0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete bit 0 RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (Read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. RD bit cannot be set when EEPGD = 1 or CFGS = 1.) 0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read Note 1: When a WRERR occurs, the EEPGD and CFGS bits are not cleared. This allows tracing of the error condition. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 84 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.2.2 TABLE LATCH REGISTER (TABLAT) The Table Latch (TABLAT) is an 8-bit register mapped into the SFR space. The Table Latch register is used to hold 8-bit data during data transfers between program memory and data RAM. 6.2.3 TABLE POINTER REGISTER (TBLPTR) The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register addresses a byte within the program memory. The TBLPTR is comprised of three SFR registers: Table Pointer Upper Byte, Table Pointer High Byte and Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTRU:TBLPTRH:TBLPTRL). These three registers join to form a 22-bit wide pointer. The low-order 21 bits allow the device to address up to 2 Mbytes of program memory space. The 22nd bit allows access to the Device ID, the user ID and the Configuration bits. The Table Pointer, TBLPTR, is used by the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These instructions can update the TBLPTR in one of four ways based on the table operation. These operations are shown in Table 6-1. These operations on the TBLPTR only affect the low-order 21 bits. 6.2.4 TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES TBLPTR is used in reads, writes and erases of the Flash program memory. When a TBLRD is executed, all 22 bits of the TBLPTR determine which byte is read from program memory into TABLAT. When a TBLWT is executed, the five LSbs of the Table Pointer register (TBLPTR<4:0>) determine which of the 32 program memory holding registers is written to. When the timed write to program memory begins (via the WR bit), the 16 MSbs of the TBLPTR (TBLPTR<21:6>) determine which program memory block of 32 bytes is written to. For more detail, see Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. When an erase of program memory is executed, the 16 MSbs of the Table Pointer register (TBLPTR<21:6>) point to the 64-byte block that will be erased. The Least Significant bits (TBLPTR<5:0>) are ignored. Figure 6-3 describes the relevant boundaries of the TBLPTR based on Flash program memory operations. TABLE 6-1: TABLE POINTER OPERATIONS WITH TBLRD AND TBLWT INSTRUCTIONS FIGURE 6-3: TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES BASED ON OPERATION Example Operation on Table Pointer TBLRD* TBLWT* TBLPTR is not modified TBLRD*+ TBLWT*+ TBLPTR is incremented after the read/write TBLRD*- TBLWT*- TBLPTR is decremented after the read/write TBLRD+* TBLWT+* TBLPTR is incremented before the read/write 21 16 15 8 7 0 TABLE ERASE TABLE READ – TBLPTR<21:0> TBLPTRU TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TBLPTR<21:6> TABLE WRITE – TBLPTR<21:5> © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 85 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 6.3 Reading the Flash Program Memory The TBLRD instruction is used to retrieve data from program memory and places it into data RAM. Table reads from program memory are performed one byte at a time. TBLPTR points to a byte address in program space. Executing TBLRD places the byte pointed to into TABLAT. In addition, TBLPTR can be modified automatically for the next table read operation. The internal program memory is typically organized by words. The Least Significant bit of the address selects between the high and low bytes of the word. Figure 6-4 shows the interface between the internal program memory and the TABLAT. FIGURE 6-4: READS FROM FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY EXAMPLE 6-1: READING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WORD (Even Byte Address) Program Memory (Odd Byte Address) TBLRD TABLAT TBLPTR = xxxxx1 FETCH Instruction Register (IR) Read Register TBLPTR = xxxxx0 MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; Load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the word MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL READ_WORD TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT and increment MOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVWF WORD_EVEN TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT and increment MOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVF WORD_ODD PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 86 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.4 Erasing Flash Program Memory The minimum erase block is 32 words or 64 bytes. Only through the use of an external programmer, or through ICSP control, can larger blocks of program memory be Bulk Erased. Word Erase in the Flash array is not supported. When initiating an erase sequence from the microcontroller itself, a block of 64 bytes of program memory is erased. The Most Significant 16 bits of the TBLPTR<21:6> point to the block being erased. TBLPTR<5:0> are ignored. The EECON1 register commands the erase operation. The EEPGD bit must be set to point to the Flash program memory. The WREN bit must be set to enable write operations. The FREE bit is set to select an erase operation. For protection, the write initiate sequence for EECON2 must be used. A long write is necessary for erasing the internal Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a long write cycle. The long write will be terminated by the internal programming timer. 6.4.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ERASE SEQUENCE The sequence of events for erasing a block of internal program memory is: 1. Load Table Pointer register with address of row being erased. 2. Set the EECON1 register for the erase operation: • set EEPGD bit to point to program memory; • clear the CFGS bit to access program memory; • set WREN bit to enable writes; • set FREE bit to enable the erase. 3. Disable interrupts. 4. Write 55h to EECON2. 5. Write 0AAh to EECON2. 6. Set the WR bit. This will begin the Row Erase cycle. 7. The CPU will stall for duration of the erase (about 2 ms using internal timer). 8. Re-enable interrupts. EXAMPLE 6-2: ERASING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ROW MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL ERASE_ROW BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BSF EECON1, FREE ; enable Row Erase operation BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts Required MOVLW 55h Sequence MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start erase (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 87 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 6.5 Writing to Flash Program Memory The minimum programming block is 16 words or 32 bytes. Word or byte programming is not supported. Table writes are used internally to load the holding registers needed to program the Flash memory. There are 32 holding registers used by the table writes for programming. Since the Table Latch (TABLAT) is only a single byte, the TBLWT instruction may need to be executed 32 times for each programming operation. All of the table write operations will essentially be short writes because only the holding registers are written. At the end of updating the 32 holding registers, the EECON1 register must be written to in order to start the programming operation with a long write. The long write is necessary for programming the internal Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a long write cycle. The long write will be terminated by the internal programming timer. The EEPROM on-chip timer controls the write time. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump, rated to operate over the voltage range of the device. FIGURE 6-5: TABLE WRITES TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY 6.5.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE SEQUENCE The sequence of events for programming an internal program memory location should be: 1. Read 64 bytes into RAM. 2. Update data values in RAM as necessary. 3. Load Table Pointer register with address being erased. 4. Execute the Row Erase procedure. 5. Load Table Pointer register with address of first byte being written. 6. Write 32 bytes into the holding registers with auto-increment. 7. Set the EECON1 register for the write operation: • set EEPGD bit to point to program memory; • clear the CFGS bit to access program memory; • set WREN to enable byte writes. 8. Disable interrupts. 9. Write 55h to EECON2. 10. Write 0AAh to EECON2. 11. Set the WR bit. This will begin the write cycle. 12. The CPU will stall for duration of the write (about 2 ms using internal timer). 13. Re-enable interrupts. 14. Repeat steps 6 through 14 once more to write 64 bytes. 15. Verify the memory (table read). This procedure will require about 8 ms to update one row of 64 bytes of memory. An example of the required code is given in Example 6-3. Note: The default value of the holding registers on device Resets and after write operations is FFh. A write of FFh to a holding register does not modify that byte. This means that individual bytes of program memory may be modified, provided that the change does not attempt to change any bit from a ‘0’ to a ‘1’. When modifying individual bytes, it is not necessary to load all 32 holding registers before executing a write operation. TBLPTR = xxxx00 TBLPTR = xxxx01 TBLPTR = xxxx02 TBLPTR = xxxx1F Program Memory Holding Register Holding Register Holding Register Holding Register 8 8 8 8 TABLAT Write Register Note: Before setting the WR bit, the Table Pointer address needs to be within the intended address range of the 32 bytes in the holding register. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 88 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY MOVLW D'64’ ; number of bytes in erase block MOVWF COUNTER MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; Load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL READ_BLOCK TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT, and inc MOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVWF POSTINC0 ; store data DECFSZ COUNTER ; done? BRA READ_BLOCK ; repeat MODIFY_WORD MOVLW DATA_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW DATA_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L MOVLW NEW_DATA_LOW ; update buffer word MOVWF POSTINC0 MOVLW NEW_DATA_HIGH MOVWF INDF0 ERASE_BLOCK MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BSF EECON1, FREE ; enable Row Erase operation BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts MOVLW 55h Required MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start erase (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts TBLRD*- ; dummy read decrement MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L MOVLW D’2’ MOVWF COUNTER1 WRITE_BUFFER_BACK MOVLW D’32’ ; number of bytes in holding register MOVWF COUNTER WRITE_BYTE_TO_HREGS MOVF POSTINC0, W ; get low byte of buffer data MOVWF TABLAT ; present data to table latch TBLWT+* ; write data, perform a short write ; to internal TBLWT holding register. DECFSZ COUNTER ; loop until buffers are full BRA WRITE_WORD_TO_HREGS © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 89 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY (CONTINUED) 6.5.2 WRITE VERIFY Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the memory should be verified against the original value. This should be used in applications where excessive writes can stress bits near the specification limit. 6.5.3 UNEXPECTED TERMINATION OF WRITE OPERATION If a write is terminated by an unplanned event, such as loss of power or an unexpected Reset, the memory location just programmed should be verified and reprogrammed if needed. If the write operation is interrupted by a MCLR Reset or a WDT Time-out Reset during normal operation, the user can check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location(s) as needed. 6.5.4 PROTECTION AGAINST SPURIOUS WRITES To protect against spurious writes to Flash program memory, the write initiate sequence must also be followed. See Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for more detail. 6.6 Flash Program Operation During Code Protection See Section 25.5 “Program Verification and Code Protection” for details on code protection of Flash program memory. TABLE 6-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY PROGRAM_MEMORY BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts MOVLW 55h Required MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start program (CPU stall) DECFSZ COUNTER1 BRA WRITE_BUFFER_BACK BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts BCF EECON1, WREN ; disable write to memory Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page TBLPTRU — — bit 21(1) Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>) 53 TBLPTRH Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>) 53 TBLPTRL Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>) 53 TABLAT Program Memory Table Latch 53 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 53 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 55 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD 55 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP USBIP EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 56 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF USBIF EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 56 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE USBIE EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 56 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash/EEPROM access. Note 1: Bit 21 of the TBLPTRU allows access to the device Configuration bits. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 90 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 91 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 7.0 DATA EEPROM MEMORY The data EEPROM is a nonvolatile memory array, separate from the data RAM and program memory, that is used for long-term storage of program data. It is not directly mapped in either the register file or program memory space, but is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers (SFRs). The EEPROM is readable and writable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. Four SFRs are used to read and write to the data EEPROM as well as the program memory. They are: • EECON1 • EECON2 • EEDATA • EEADR The data EEPROM allows byte read and write. When interfacing to the data memory block, EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write and the EEADR register holds the address of the EEPROM location being accessed. The EEPROM data memory is rated for high erase/write cycle endurance. A byte write automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer; it will vary with voltage and temperature as well as from chip to chip. Please refer to parameter D122 (Table 28-1 in Section 28.0 “Electrical Characteristics”) for exact limits. 7.1 EECON1 and EECON2 Registers Access to the data EEPROM is controlled by two registers: EECON1 and EECON2. These are the same registers which control access to the program memory and are used in a similar manner for the data EEPROM. The EECON1 register (Register 7-1) is the control register for data and program memory access. Control bit, EEPGD, determines if the access will be to program or data EEPROM memory. When clear, operations will access the data EEPROM memory. When set, program memory is accessed. Control bit, CFGS, determines if the access will be to the Configuration registers or to program memory/data EEPROM memory. When set, subsequent operations access Configuration registers. When CFGS is clear, the EEPGD bit selects either Flash program or data EEPROM memory. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is set in hardware when the WREN bit is set and cleared when the internal programming timer expires and the write operation is complete. The WR control bit initiates write operations. The bit cannot be cleared, only set, in software; it is cleared in hardware at the completion of the write operation. Control bits, RD and WR, start read and erase/write operations, respectively. These bits are set by firmware and cleared by hardware at the completion of the operation. The RD bit cannot be set when accessing program memory (EEPGD = 1). Program memory is read using table read instructions. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes” regarding table reads. The EECON2 register is not a physical register. It is used exclusively in the memory write and erase sequences. Reading EECON2 will read all ‘0’s. Note: During normal operation, the WRERR is read as ‘1’. This can indicate that a write operation was prematurely terminated by a Reset or a write operation was attempted improperly. Note: The EEIF interrupt flag bit (PIR2<4>) is set when the write is complete. It must be cleared in software. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 92 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 7-1: EECON1: DATA EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1 R/W-x R/W-x U-0 R/W-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR(1) WREN WR RD bit 7 bit 0 Legend: S = Settable bit R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 EEPGD: Flash Program or Data EEPROM Memory Select bit 1 = Access Flash program memory 0 = Access data EEPROM memory bit 6 CFGS: Flash Program/Data EEPROM or Configuration Select bit 1 = Access Configuration registers 0 = Access Flash program or data EEPROM memory bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 FREE: Flash Row Erase Enable bit 1 = Erase the program memory row addressed by TBLPTR on the next WR command (cleared by completion of erase operation) 0 = Perform write-only bit 3 WRERR: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Error Flag bit(1) 1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any Reset during self-timed programming in normal operation or an improper write attempt) 0 = The write operation completed bit 2 WREN: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM 0 = Inhibits write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM bit 1 WR: Write Control bit 1 = Initiates a data EEPROM erase/write cycle or a program memory erase cycle or write cycle (The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.) 0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete bit 0 RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (Read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. RD bit cannot be set when EEPGD = 1 or CFGS = 1.) 0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read Note 1: When a WRERR occurs, the EEPGD and CFGS bits are not cleared. This allows tracing of the error condition. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 93 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 7.2 Reading the Data EEPROM Memory To read a data memory location, the user must write the address to the EEADR register, clear the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>) and then set control bit, RD (EECON1<0>). The data is available on the very next instruction cycle; therefore, the EEDATA register can be read by the next instruction. EEDATA will hold this value until another read operation or until it is written to by the user (during a write operation). The basic process is shown in Example 7-1. 7.3 Writing to the Data EEPROM Memory To write an EEPROM data location, the address must first be written to the EEADR register and the data written to the EEDATA register. The sequence in Example 7-2 must be followed to initiate the write cycle. The write will not begin if this sequence is not exactly followed (write 55h to EECON2, write 0AAh to EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. It is strongly recommended that interrupts be disabled during this code segment. Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to enable writes. This mechanism prevents accidental writes to data EEPROM due to unexpected code execution (i.e., runaway programs). The WREN bit should be kept clear at all times except when updating the EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared by hardware. After a write sequence has been initiated, EECON1, EEADR and EEDATA cannot be modified. The WR bit will be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set. The WREN bit must be set on a previous instruction. Both WR and WREN cannot be set with the same instruction. At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is cleared in hardware and the EEPROM Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. The user may either enable this interrupt, or poll this bit. EEIF must be cleared by software. 7.4 Write Verify Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the memory should be verified against the original value. This should be used in applications where excessive writes can stress bits near the specification limit. EXAMPLE 7-1: DATA EEPROM READ EXAMPLE 7-2: DATA EEPROM WRITE MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ; Lower bits of Data Memory Address to read BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to DATA memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Access EEPROM BSF EECON1, RD ; EEPROM Read MOVF EEDATA, W ; W = EEDATA MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ; Lower bits of Data Memory Address to write MOVLW DATA_EE_DATA ; MOVWF EEDATA ; Data Memory Value to write BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to DATA memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Access EEPROM BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes BCF INTCON, GIE ; Disable Interrupts MOVLW 55h ; Required MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; Set WR bit to begin write BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable Interrupts ; User code execution BCF EECON1, WREN ; Disable writes on write complete (EEIF set) PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 94 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 7.5 Operation During Code-Protect Data EEPROM memory has its own code-protect bits in Configuration Words. External read and write operations are disabled if code protection is enabled. The microcontroller itself can both read and write to the internal data EEPROM regardless of the state of the code-protect Configuration bit. Refer to Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for additional information. 7.6 Protection Against Spurious Write There are conditions when the device may not want to write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have been implemented. On power-up, the WREN bit is cleared. In addition, writes to the EEPROM are blocked during the Power-up Timer period (TPWRT, parameter 33, Table 28-12). The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together help prevent an accidental write during brown-out, power glitch or software malfunction. 7.7 Using the Data EEPROM The data EEPROM is a high-endurance, byteaddressable array that has been optimized for the storage of frequently changing information (e.g., program variables or other data that are updated often). Frequently changing values will typically be updated more often than specification D124 or D124A. If this is not the case, an array refresh must be performed. For this reason, variables that change infrequently (such as constants, IDs, calibration, etc.) should be stored in Flash program memory. A simple data EEPROM refresh routine is shown in Example 7-3. EXAMPLE 7-3: DATA EEPROM REFRESH ROUTINE Note: If data EEPROM is only used to store constants and/or data that changes rarely, an array refresh is likely not required. See specification D124 or D124A. CLRF EEADR ; Start at address 0 BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Set for memory BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Set for Data EEPROM BCF INTCON, GIE ; Disable interrupts BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes Loop ; Loop to refresh array BSF EECON1, RD ; Read current address MOVLW 55h ; Required MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; Set WR bit to begin write BTFSC EECON1, WR ; Wait for write to complete BRA $-2 INCFSZ EEADR, F ; Increment address BRA LOOP ; Not zero, do it again BCF EECON1, WREN ; Disable writes BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable interrupts © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 95 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 TABLE 7-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM MEMORY Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 53 EEADR EEPROM Address Register 55 EEDATA EEPROM Data Register 55 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 55 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD 55 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP USBIP EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 56 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF USBIF EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 56 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE USBIE EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 56 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash/EEPROM access. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 96 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 97 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 8.0 8 x 8 HARDWARE MULTIPLIER 8.1 Introduction All PIC18 devices include an 8 x 8 hardware multiplier as part of the ALU. The multiplier performs an unsigned operation and yields a 16-bit result that is stored in the product register pair, PRODH:PRODL. The multiplier’s operation does not affect any flags in the STATUS register. Making multiplication a hardware operation allows it to be completed in a single instruction cycle. This has the advantages of higher computational throughput and reduced code size for multiplication algorithms and allows the PIC18 devices to be used in many applications previously reserved for digital signal processors. A comparison of various hardware and software multiply operations, along with the savings in memory and execution time, is shown in Table 8-1. 8.2 Operation Example 8-1 shows the instruction sequence for an 8 x 8 unsigned multiplication. Only one instruction is required when one of the arguments is already loaded in the WREG register. Example 8-2 shows the sequence to do an 8 x 8 signed multiplication. To account for the sign bits of the arguments, each argument’s Most Significant bit (MSb) is tested and the appropriate subtractions are done. EXAMPLE 8-1: 8 x 8 UNSIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE EXAMPLE 8-2: 8 x 8 SIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE TABLE 8-1: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR VARIOUS MULTIPLY OPERATIONS MOVF ARG1, W ; MULWF ARG2 ; ARG1 * ARG2 -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF ARG1, W MULWF ARG2 ; ARG1 * ARG2 -> ; PRODH:PRODL BTFSC ARG2, SB ; Test Sign Bit SUBWF PRODH, F ; PRODH = PRODH ; - ARG1 MOVF ARG2, W BTFSC ARG1, SB ; Test Sign Bit SUBWF PRODH, F ; PRODH = PRODH ; - ARG2 Routine Multiply Method Program Memory (Words) Cycles (Max) Time @ 40 MHz @ 10 MHz @ 4 MHz 8 x 8 unsigned Without hardware multiply 13 69 6.9 μs 27.6 μs 69 μs Hardware multiply 1 1 100 ns 400 ns 1 μs 8 x 8 signed Without hardware multiply 33 91 9.1 μs 36.4 μs 91 μs Hardware multiply 6 6 600 ns 2.4 μs 6 μs 16 x 16 unsigned Without hardware multiply 21 242 24.2 μs 96.8 μs 242 μs Hardware multiply 28 28 2.8 μs 11.2 μs 28 μs 16 x 16 signed Without hardware multiply 52 254 25.4 μs 102.6 μs 254 μs Hardware multiply 35 40 4.0 μs 16.0 μs 40 μs PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 98 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Example 8-3 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16 unsigned multiplication. Equation 8-1 shows the algorithm that is used. The 32-bit result is stored in four registers (RES3:RES0). EQUATION 8-1: 16 x 16 UNSIGNED MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM EXAMPLE 8-3: 16 x 16 UNSIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE Example 8-4 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16 signed multiply. Equation 8-2 shows the algorithm used. The 32-bit result is stored in four registers (RES3:RES0). To account for the sign bits of the arguments, the MSb for each argument pair is tested and the appropriate subtractions are done. EQUATION 8-2: 16 x 16 SIGNED MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM EXAMPLE 8-4: 16 x 16 SIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE RES3:RES0 = ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L = (ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) + (ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2L) MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1L * ARG2L-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES1 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES0 ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1H * ARG2H-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES3 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES2 ; ; MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1L * ARG2H-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1H * ARG2L-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; RES3:RES0 = ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L = (ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) + (ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2L) + (-1 • ARG2H<7> • ARG1H:ARG1L • 216) + (-1 • ARG1H<7> • ARG2H:ARG2L • 216) MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1L * ARG2L -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES1 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES0 ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1H * ARG2H -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES3 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES2 ; ; MOVF ARG1L,W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1L * ARG2H -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1H * ARG2L -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; BTFSS ARG2H, 7 ; ARG2H:ARG2L neg? BRA SIGN_ARG1 ; no, check ARG1 MOVF ARG1L, W ; SUBWF RES2 ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; SUBWFB RES3 ; SIGN_ARG1 BTFSS ARG1H, 7 ; ARG1H:ARG1L neg? BRA CONT_CODE ; no, done MOVF ARG2L, W ; SUBWF RES2 ; MOVF ARG2H, W ; SUBWFB RES3 ; CONT_CODE : © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 99 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 9.0 INTERRUPTS The PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices have multiple interrupt sources and an interrupt priority feature that allows each interrupt source to be assigned a highpriority level or a low-priority level. The high-priority interrupt vector is at 000008h and the low-priority interrupt vector is at 000018h. High-priority interrupt events will interrupt any low-priority interrupts that may be in progress. There are ten registers which are used to control interrupt operation. These registers are: • RCON • INTCON • INTCON2 • INTCON3 • PIR1, PIR2 • PIE1, PIE2 • IPR1, IPR2 It is recommended that the Microchip header files supplied with MPLAB® IDE be used for the symbolic bit names in these registers. This allows the assembler/ compiler to automatically take care of the placement of these bits within the specified register. Each interrupt source has three bits to control its operation. The functions of these bits are: • Flag bit to indicate that an interrupt event occurred • Enable bit that allows program execution to branch to the interrupt vector address when the flag bit is set • Priority bit to select high priority or low priority The interrupt priority feature is enabled by setting the IPEN bit (RCON<7>). When interrupt priority is enabled, there are two bits which enable interrupts globally. Setting the GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit set (high priority). Setting the GIEL bit (INTCON<6>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit cleared (low priority). When the interrupt flag, enable bit and appropriate global interrupt enable bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately to address 000008h or 000018h, depending on the priority bit setting. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits. When the IPEN bit is cleared (default state), the interrupt priority feature is disabled and interrupts are compatible with PIC® mid-range devices. In Compatibility mode, the interrupt priority bits for each source have no effect. INTCON<6> is the PEIE bit which enables/disables all peripheral interrupt sources. INTCON<7> is the GIE bit which enables/disables all interrupt sources. All interrupts branch to address 000008h in Compatibility mode. When an interrupt is responded to, the global interrupt enable bit is cleared to disable further interrupts. If the IPEN bit is cleared, this is the GIE bit. If interrupt priority levels are used, this will be either the GIEH or GIEL bit. High-priority interrupt sources can interrupt a lowpriority interrupt. Low-priority interrupts are not processed while high-priority interrupts are in progress. The return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector address (000008h or 000018h). Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bits must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine and sets the GIE bit (GIEH or GIEL if priority levels are used) which re-enables interrupts. For external interrupt events, such as the INTx pins or the PORTB input change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be three to four instruction cycles. The exact latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding enable bit or the GIE bit. 9.1 USB Interrupts Unlike other peripherals, the USB module is capable of generating a wide range of interrupts for many types of events. These include several types of normal communication and status events and several module level error events. To handle these events, the USB module is equipped with its own interrupt logic. The logic functions in a manner similar to the microcontroller level interrupt funnel, with each interrupt source having separate flag and enable bits. All events are funneled to a single device level interrupt, USBIF (PIR2<5>). Unlike the device level interrupt logic, the individual USB interrupt events cannot be individually assigned their own priority. This is determined at the device level interrupt funnel for all USB events by the USBIP bit. For additional details on USB interrupt logic, refer to Section 17.5 “USB Interrupts”. Note: Do not use the MOVFF instruction to modify any of the interrupt control registers while any interrupt is enabled. Doing so may cause erratic microcontroller behavior. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 100 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 9-1: INTERRUPT LOGIC TMR0IE GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL Wake-up if in Sleep Mode Interrupt to CPU Vector to Location 0008h INT2IF INT2IE INT2IP INT1IF INT1IE INT1IP TMR0IF TMR0IE TMR0IP RBIF RBIE RBIP IPEN TMR0IF TMR0IP INT1IF INT1IE INT1IP INT2IF INT2IE INT2IP RBIF RBIE RBIP INT0IF INT0IE PEIE/GIEL Interrupt to CPU Vector to Location IPEN IPEN 0018h Peripheral Interrupt Flag bit Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit Peripheral Interrupt Priority bit Peripheral Interrupt Flag bit Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit Peripheral Interrupt Priority bit TMR1IF TMR1IE TMR1IP USBIF USBIE USBIP Additional Peripheral Interrupts TMR1IF TMR1IE TMR1IP High-Priority Interrupt Generation Low-Priority Interrupt Generation USBIF USBIE USBIP Additional Peripheral Interrupts GIE/GIEH From USB Interrupt Logic From USB Interrupt Logic © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 101 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 9.2 INTCON Registers The INTCON registers are readable and writable registers which contain various enable, priority and flag bits. Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global interrupt enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling. REGISTER 9-1: INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-x GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GIE/GIEH: Global Interrupt Enable bit When IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts When IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all high-priority interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts bit 6 PEIE/GIEL: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit When IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts When IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all low-priority peripheral interrupts (if GIE/GIEH = 1) 0 = Disables all low-priority peripheral interrupts bit 5 TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR0 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR0 overflow interrupt bit 4 INT0IE: INT0 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT0 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT0 external interrupt bit 3 RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt 0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt bit 2 TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR0 register did not overflow bit 1 INT0IF: INT0 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT0 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT0 external interrupt did not occur bit 0 RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software) 0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state Note 1: A mismatch condition will continue to set this bit. Reading PORTB, and then waiting one additional instruction cycle, will end the mismatch condition and allow the bit to be cleared. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 102 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 9-2: INTCON2: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 2 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 RBPU INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 — TMR0IP — RBIP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit 1 = All PORTB pull-ups are disabled 0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values bit 6 INTEDG0: External Interrupt 0 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 5 INTEDG1: External Interrupt 1 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 4 INTEDG2: External Interrupt 2 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 TMR0IP: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 0 RBIP: RB Port Change Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global interrupt enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 103 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 REGISTER 9-3: INTCON3: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 3 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 INT2IP INT1IP — INT2IE INT1IE — INT2IF INT1IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 INT2IP: INT2 External Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 INT1IP: INT1 External Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 INT2IE: INT2 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT2 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT2 external interrupt bit 3 INT1IE: INT1 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT1 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT1 external interrupt bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 INT2IF: INT2 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT2 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT2 external interrupt did not occur bit 0 INT1IF: INT1 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT1 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT1 external interrupt did not occur Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global interrupt enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 104 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.3 PIR Registers The PIR registers contain the individual flag bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Request (Flag) registers (PIR1 and PIR2). Note 1: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). 2: User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are cleared prior to enabling an interrupt and after servicing that interrupt. REGISTER 9-4: PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 SPPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SPPIF: Streaming Parallel Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software) 0 = No read or write has occurred bit 6 ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit 1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software) 0 = The A/D conversion is not complete bit 5 RCIF: EUSART Receive Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The EUSART receive buffer, RCREG, is full (cleared when RCREG is read) 0 = The EUSART receive buffer is empty bit 4 TXIF: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The EUSART transmit buffer, TXREG, is empty (cleared when TXREG is written) 0 = The EUSART transmit buffer is full bit 3 SSPIF: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software) 0 = Waiting to transmit/receive bit 2 CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode. bit 1 TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred bit 0 TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR1 register did not overflow Note 1: This bit is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 105 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 REGISTER 9-5: PIR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 2 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 OSCFIF CMIF USBIF EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIF: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Flag bit 1 = System oscillator failed, clock input has changed to INTOSC (must be cleared in software) 0 = System clock operating bit 6 CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit 1 = Comparator input has changed (must be cleared in software) 0 = Comparator input has not changed bit 5 USBIF: USB Interrupt Flag bit 1 = USB has requested an interrupt (must be cleared in software) 0 = No USB interrupt request bit 4 EEIF: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The write operation is complete (must be cleared in software) 0 = The write operation is not complete or has not been started bit 3 BCLIF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A bus collision has occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No bus collision occurred bit 2 HLVDIF: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A high/low-voltage condition occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No high/low-voltage event has occurred bit 1 TMR3IF: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR3 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR3 register did not overflow bit 0 CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 or TMR3 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 or TMR3 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 or TMR3 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 or TMR3 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode. PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 106 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.4 PIE Registers The PIE registers contain the individual enable bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Enable registers (PIE1 and PIE2). When IPEN = 0, the PEIE bit must be set to enable any of these peripheral interrupts. REGISTER 9-6: PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 SPPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SPPIE: Streaming Parallel Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the SPP read/write interrupt 0 = Disables the SPP read/write interrupt bit 6 ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the A/D interrupt 0 = Disables the A/D interrupt bit 5 RCIE: EUSART Receive Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the EUSART receive interrupt 0 = Disables the EUSART receive interrupt bit 4 TXIE: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the EUSART transmit interrupt 0 = Disables the EUSART transmit interrupt bit 3 SSPIE: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the MSSP interrupt 0 = Disables the MSSP interrupt bit 2 CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt bit 1 TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt bit 0 TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt Note 1: This bit is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 107 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 REGISTER 9-7: PIE2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 2 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 OSCFIE CMIE USBIE EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIE: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 6 CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 5 USBIE: USB Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 4 EEIE: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 3 BCLIE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 2 HLVDIE: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 1 TMR3IE: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 0 CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 108 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.5 IPR Registers The IPR registers contain the individual priority bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Priority registers (IPR1 and IPR2). Using the priority bits requires that the Interrupt Priority Enable (IPEN) bit be set. REGISTER 9-8: IPR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 SPPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SPPIP: Streaming Parallel Port Read/Write Interrupt Priority bit(1) 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 ADIP: A/D Converter Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 RCIP: EUSART Receive Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 4 TXIP: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 3 SSPIP: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 2 CCP1IP: CCP1 Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 TMR2IP: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 0 TMR1IP: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority Note 1: This bit is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 109 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 REGISTER 9-9: IPR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 2 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 OSCFIP CMIP USBIP EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIP: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 CMIP: Comparator Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 USBIP: USB Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 4 EEIP: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 3 BCLIP: Bus Collision Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 2 HLVDIP: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 TMR3IP: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 0 CCP2IP: CCP2 Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 110 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.6 RCON Register The RCON register contains flag bits which are used to determine the cause of the last Reset or wake-up from Idle or Sleep modes. RCON also contains the IPEN bit which enables interrupt priorities. REGISTER 9-10: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1(1) U-0 R/W-1 R-1 R-1 R/W-0(2) R/W-0 IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit 1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts 0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode) bit 6 SBOREN: BOR Software Enable bit(1) For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 3 TO: Watchdog Time-out Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 2 PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit(2) For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. Note 1: If SBOREN is enabled, its Reset state is ‘1’; otherwise, it is ‘0’. See Register 4-1 for additional information. 2: The actual Reset value of POR is determined by the type of device Reset. See Register 4-1 for additional information. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 111 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 9.7 INTx Pin Interrupts External interrupts on the RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/ SDA, RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL and RB2/AN8/INT2/ VMO pins are edge-triggered. If the corresponding INTEDGx bit in the INTCON2 register is set (= 1), the interrupt is triggered by a rising edge; if the bit is clear, the trigger is on the falling edge. When a valid edge appears on the RBx/INTx pin, the corresponding flag bit, INTxIF, is set. This interrupt can be disabled by clearing the corresponding enable bit, INTxIE. Flag bit, INTxIF, must be cleared in software in the Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling the interrupt. All external interrupts (INT0, INT1 and INT2) can wakeup the processor from the power-managed modes if bit, INTxIE, was set prior to going into the power-managed modes. If the Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE, is set, the processor will branch to the interrupt vector following wake-up. Interrupt priority for INT1 and INT2 is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bits, INT1IP (INTCON3<6>) and INT2IP (INTCON3<7>). There is no priority bit associated with INT0. It is always a high-priority interrupt source. 9.8 TMR0 Interrupt In 8-bit mode (which is the default), an overflow in the TMR0 register (FFh → 00h) will set flag bit, TMR0IF. In 16-bit mode, an overflow in the TMR0H:TMR0L register pair (FFFFh → 0000h) will set TMR0IF. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Interrupt priority for Timer0 is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bit, TMR0IP (INTCON2<2>). See Section 11.0 “Timer0 Module” for further details on the Timer0 module. 9.9 PORTB Interrupt-on-Change An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit, RBIF (INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, RBIE (INTCON<3>). Interrupt priority for PORTB interrupt-on-change is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bit, RBIP (INTCON2<0>). 9.10 Context Saving During Interrupts During interrupts, the return PC address is saved on the stack. Additionally, the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers are saved on the Fast Return Stack. If a fast return from interrupt is not used (see Section 5.3 “Data Memory Organization”), the user may need to save the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers on entry to the Interrupt Service Routine. Depending on the user’s application, other registers may also need to be saved. Example 9-1 saves and restores the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers during an Interrupt Service Routine. EXAMPLE 9-1: SAVING STATUS, WREG AND BSR REGISTERS IN RAM MOVWF W_TEMP ; W_TEMP is in virtual bank MOVFF STATUS, STATUS_TEMP ; STATUS_TEMP located anywhere MOVFF BSR, BSR_TEMP ; BSR_TMEP located anywhere ; ; USER ISR CODE ; MOVFF BSR_TEMP, BSR ; Restore BSR MOVF W_TEMP, W ; Restore WREG MOVFF STATUS_TEMP, STATUS ; Restore STATUS PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 DS39632E-page 112 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39632E-page 113 PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 10.0 I/O PORTS Depending on the device selected and features enabled, there are up to five ports available. Some pins of the I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function from the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. Each port has three registers for its operation. These registers are: • TRIS register (data direction register) • PORT register (reads the levels on the pins of the device) • LAT register (output latch) The Data Latch register (LATA) is useful for readmodify- write operations on the value driven by the I/O pins. A simplified model of a generic I/O port, without the interfaces to other peripherals, is shown in Figure 10-1. FIGURE 10-1: GENERIC I/O PORT OPERATION 10.1 PORTA, TRISA and LATA Registers PORTA is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins; writing to it will write to the port latch. The Data Latch register (LATA) is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATA register read and write the latched output value for PORTA. The RA4 pin is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA6 pin is multiplexed with the main oscillator pin; it is enabled as an oscillator or I/O pin by the selection of the main oscillator in Configuration Register 1H (see Section 25.1 “Configuration Bits” for details). When not used as a port pin, RA6 and its associated TRIS and LAT bits are read as ‘0’. RA4 is also multiplexed with the USB module; it serves as a receiver input from an external USB transceiver. For details on configuration of the USB module, see Section 17.2 “USB Status and Control”. Several PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs, the analog VREF+ and VREF- inputs and the comparator voltage reference output. The operation of pins RA5 and RA3:RA0 as A/D converter inputs is selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register 1). All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. EXAMPLE 10-1: INITIALIZING PORTA Data Bus WR LAT WR TRIS RD PORT Data Latch TRIS Latch RD TRIS Input Buffer I/O pin(1) D Q CK D Q CK EN Q D EN RD LAT or PORT Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. Note: On a Power-on Reset, RA5 and RA3:RA0 are configured as analog inputs and read as ‘0’. RA4 is configured as a digital inp