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Final Cut Studio Flux de travaux K Apple Computer, Inc. © 2006 Apple Computer, Inc. Tous droits réservés. Le logo Apple est une marque d’Apple Computer Inc. déposée aux États-Unis et dans d’autres pays. En l’absence du consentement écrit d’Apple, l’utilisation à des fins commerciales de ce logo via le clavier (Option + 1) pourra constituer un acte de contrefaçon et/ou de concurrence déloyale. Tout a été mis en oeuvre pour garantir l’exactitude des informations de ce manuel. Apple Computer, Inc. n’est pas responsable des erreurs d’impression. Apple Computer, Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014-2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com AppleScript, DVD Studio Pro, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, Logic, QuickTime, Shake et Soundtrack sont des marques d’Apple Computer Inc., déposées aux États-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Cinema Tools, Finder et LiveType sont des marques d’Apple Computer, Inc. Adobe et Photoshop sont des marques ou des marques déposées d’Adobe Systems Incorporated déposées aux États-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Dolby est une marque déposée de Dolby Laboratories. D’autres noms d’entreprises et de produits mentionnés dans ce document sont des marques de leurs propriétaires respectifs. Les produits commercialisés par des entreprises tierces ne sont mentionnés qu’à titre d’information, sans aucune intention de préconisation ni de recommandation. Apple ne se porte pas garant de ces produits et décline toute responsabilité quant à leur utilisation et à leur fonctionnement. 3 1 Table des matières 5 Introduction aux applications de postproduction Apple 6 Vue d’ensemble des applications de postproduction Apple 11 Utilisation de ce document 11 Exemple de flux de travaux Final Cut Studio 12 Montage de la séquence 15 Encodage de la séquence 16 Création du DVD 19 Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets Final Cut Pro 19 Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro avec Final Cut Pro 20 Utilisation d’un plan unique à partir de Final Cut Pro 23 Utilisation de plusieurs pistes audio à partir de Final Cut Pro 25 Exportation d’un plan ou d’une séquence à partir de Final Cut Pro vers Soundtrack Pro 26 Utilisation de Motion avec Final Cut Pro 26 Exportation d’un plan ou d’une séquence à partir de Final Cut Pro vers Motion 28 Importation d’un projet Motion dans un projet Final Cut Pro 29 Apporter des modifications à un projet Motion déjà importé dans Final Cut Pro 30 Utilisation de Compressor avec Final Cut Pro 30 Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor 31 Conversion de la norme vidéo d’un plan vidéo 32 Utilisation de LiveType avec Final Cut Pro 32 Importation d’un projet LiveType dans un projet Final Cut Pro 33 Apporter des modifications à un projet LiveType déjà importé dans Final Cut Pro 33 Exportation d’une séquence partielle pour LiveType 34 Utilisation de Shake avec Final Cut Pro 35 Organisation des plans importés dans Shake 36 Envoi de plans à partir de Final Cut Pro 38 Renvoi de données à Final Cut Pro 38 Utilisation de Logic Pro avec Final Cut Pro 38 Importation de fichiers XML Final Cut Pro dans Logic Pro 39 Exportation d’un fichier XML Final Cut Pro à partir de Logic Pro 4 41 Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets DVD Studio Pro 41 Conversion d’un projet Final Cut Pro en DVD 42 Importation de votre projet Final Cut Pro dans DVD Studio Pro 42 Création d’un DVD HD à partir de votre projet Final Cut Pro 44 Utilisation de Motion dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro 44 Importation d’un projet Motion pour un menu d’animation 44 Apport de modifications à un projet Motion déjà importé dans DVD Studio Pro 45 Création et importation d’un projet Motion sous forme de transition alpha 50 Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro 50 Enregistrement de projets Soundtrack Pro pour DVD Studio Pro 51 Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro avec des projets Motion 52 Exportation d’audio AIFF à partir de Soundtrack Pro 53 Exportation à partir de Soundtrack Pro avec Compressor 54 Utilisation de Compressor dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro 55 À propos des méthodes de flux de travaux de Compressor 55 Pourquoi créer des fichiers AC-3 ? 56 Création de fichiers AC-3 avec Compressor 58 Utilisation de LiveType dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro 58 Importation d’un projet LiveType dans DVD Studio Pro 59 Apporter des modifications à un projet LiveType déjà importé dans DVD Studio Pro 5 1 Introduction aux applications de postproduction Apple Apple a conçu une gamme d’applications audio et vidéo professionnelles qui collaborent de façon homogène, même en cas de flux de travaux des plus exigeants. Les applications de postproduction Apple offrent de puissants outils de montage, une conception audio révolutionnaire, des animations en temps réel, la création de DVD nouvelle génération, ainsi que des outils de compositing maintes fois primés. Ce document décrit le rôle de chaque application dans le processus de production de séquences de Final Cut Pro et le processus de création de DVD de DVD Studio Pro. Toutes ces applications, à l’exception de Shake et de Logic Pro, sont incluses dans Final Cut Studio, un ensemble de postproduction complet et intégré. Fonction de postproduction Application Description Montage Final Cut Pro Cinema Tools  Montage en temps réel pour DV, SD, HD et film  Outils avancés pour film et HD 24p Audio Soundtrack Pro Logic Pro  Postproduction audio de qualité professionnelle  Fonctions avancées de création musicale et de production audio Compositing et animations Motion LiveType Shake  Conception d’animations en temps réel  Création d’effets de titres animés dynamiques  Composition d’effets numériques avancés Diffusion DVD Studio Pro Compressor  Création complète de DVD pour les séquences SD et HD  Encodage SD et HD polyvalent et haute qualité 6 Vue d’ensemble des applications de postproduction Apple Chacune des applications de postproduction Apple comporte des outils de postproduction les plus modernes qui vous donnent toute la puissance dont vous avez besoin pour réaliser les projets les plus complexes. Final Cut Pro Le caractère évolutif et les performances de Final Cut Pro en font l’application de montage vidéo la plus aboutie. Vous pouvez travailler avec quasiment n’importe quel format, de DV et HDV à HD DVCPRO en passant par la vidéo HD 10 bits non compressée. Final Cut Pro comprend de nombreuses fonctionnalités professionnelles, telles que des outils de montage multicaméra, des filtres avancés de correction de couleur et de manipulation d’image en temps réel, ainsi que la prise en charge des surfaces de contrôle audio. Final Cut Pro constitue l’application centrale permettant de relier tous les éléments de votre séquence. Final Cut Pro vous permet de :  capturer des données vidéo et audio à partir d’une bande ;  importer des fichiers de données QuickTime ;  monter de la vidéo HDV de manière native ;  monter des projets à une ou plusieurs caméras ;  monter votre film en utilisant Cinema Tools ;  incorporer en mode natif des animations créées dans Motion et des titres créés dans LiveType ;  mixer, monter et fixer l’audio à l’aide de l’intégration à Soundtrack Pro. Une fois votre film terminé, l’intégralité de votre projet peut être :  généré dans un large éventail de formats de bande de définition standard (SD) et haute définition (HD) ;  exporté dans un fichier de séquence QuickTime ;  converti en fichier H.264, MPEG-2 ou MPEG-1 à l’aide de Compressor en vue de la distribution sur DVD via DVD Studio Pro ;  converti au format MPEG-1 ou MPEG-4 avec Compressor en vue d’une diffusion Web en ligne. 7 Soundtrack Pro Il est essentiel que l’audio de votre séquence complète parfaitement la vidéo. Soundtrack Pro offre les outils permettant de gérer chaque aspect de la création d’une piste audio :  Un puissant Éditeur de forme d’onde permettant le montage graphique de vos fichiers audio et leur traitement à l’aide d’actions destructives ou non destructives. L’Éditeur de forme d’onde peut également analyser et réparer vos fichiers audio, et il prend en charge les scripts AppleScript pour automatiser les tâches courantes.  Une Timeline qui offre des fonctions complètes de montage et d’organisation multipiste.  Un Mélangeur de type console pour le mixage de vos projets multipiste.  L’intégration de la fonction “aller-retour” vers les applications Final Cut Pro et Motion, qui facilite le travail sur les données audio d’un projet.  Un ensemble de modules d’effets audio professionnels que vous pouvez utiliser pour manipuler l’audio, y compris l’égalisation, la compression, la réverbération, etc.  Une bibliothèque étendue de boucles Apple Loops que vous pouvez utiliser pour créer la bande-son de votre projet, y compris les effets sonores et les signaux musicaux.  Un affichage vidéo intégré, ainsi que la prise en charge d’un affichage vidéo externe, qui facilite l’affichage de la vidéo lorsque vous travaillez sur l’audio. Motion Motion est un logiciel graphique d’animation en temps réel qui permet aux artistes et monteurs d’animer du texte, des séquences et des graphismes pour le cinéma, la vidéo ou les menus d’animation de DVD. Utilisez Motion pour créer en toute simplicité des animations, des graphismes et des titres animés pour vos films Final Cut Pro. En outre, l’intégration entre DVD Studio Pro et Motion, ainsi que l’intégration entre Soundtrack Pro et Motion, facilitent la création de menus et de transitions pour vos projets de DVD. Voici quelques-unes des fonctionnalités de Motion :  Fonctionnalités de conception en temps réel, qui vous permettent de créer des effets saisissants avec plusieurs flux de vidéo, des filtres, du texte et des particules, sans rendu.  Comportements que vous pouvez utiliser pour créer des animations naturelles et fluides, sans images clés.  Puissants effets de particules personnalisés, tels que fumée et poussière, ainsi que des animations que vous pouvez appliquer aux éléments de votre projet.  Fonctionnalités de couche et de compositing qui vous permettent d’organiser les éléments de votre projet en un nombre illimité de couches.  Prise en charge HDV native, qui préserve la qualité de la vidéo au format HDV sans nécessiter le transcodage dans un format différent. 8 DVD Studio Pro Le logiciel DVD Studio Pro permet de créer des titres DVD-Vidéo. La vidéo exportée depuis Final Cut Pro et Motion, la musique et les autres éléments audio créés dans Soundtrack Pro, ainsi que les images fixes provenant d’applications telles qu’Adobe Photoshop peuvent être facilement organisés dans un DVD que vous pouvez lire sur un lecteur de DVD de salon ou sur un ordinateur équipé d’un lecteur de DVD. Vous pouvez créer des DVD répondant exactement à vos spécifications :  long-métrages avec sous-titres et angles de prise de vue multiples ;  événements spéciaux, tels que vidéos de mariage, de concert et de foires-expositions ;  bornes interactives présentant de nombreux menus de navigation et liens d’adresses URL ;  rushes et transferts vidéo ;  installations artistiques avec boucles automatiques et sélection de scène aléatoire. Vous pouvez utiliser les modèles, styles et fonctions de transition inclus dans DVD Studio Pro pour créer rapidement un projet de DVD, ou vous pouvez choisir de créer manuellement votre DVD, en contrôlant de manière précise chaque aspect du projet. Voici quelques-unes des fonctionnalités incluses :  Prise en charge de la création de DVD standard et de DVD contenant des données HD, ce qui vous permet de choisir le type de DVD le mieux adapté à la diffusion prévue.  Interface utilisateur évolutive pouvant être configurée en fonction de vos besoins, ce qui vous permet de décider des outils et affichages dont vous avez besoin.  Prise en charge de fonctionnalités sophistiquées, notamment les angles vidéo et flux audio multiples, les sous-titres, ainsi que la possibilité de créer des DVD en plusieurs langues.  Outils de création avancés, tels qu’un éditeur VTS qui vous permet de définir précisément la structure de votre DVD, ainsi que la prise en charge de scripts sophistiqués, notamment la possibilité de partitionner les GPRM en autant de registres que le nécessitent vos scripts.  Intégration à Motion et LiveType, ce qui simplifie la création de votre projet, en vous permettant de tester différentes variantes d’un menu d’animation ou d’un effet de texte animé. 9 Compressor Compressor est un élément essentiel du processus de compression vidéo (transcodage) auquel il confère rapidité, efficacité et commodité tout en vous offrant davantage d’options de préréglages de compression, de réglages et de formats de sortie. Compressor inclut également une fonction de conversion haute qualité de normes, pouvant être utilisée pour :  Créer un transcodage haute qualité d’un plan vidéo à partir de son format natif vers le format de la séquence du projet. Par exemple, vous pouvez disposer d’un plan PAL que vous devez utiliser dans un projet NTSC ; Compressor peut ainsi créer une version NTSC haute qualité du plan PAL.  Créer deux versions d’un projet. Par exemple, vous pouvez monter votre séquence à l’aide de sources vidéo HD, puis utiliser Compressor pour exporter les versions HD et SD de la séquence, de sorte à pouvoir créer un DVD en résolution SD et un DVD en résolution HD. Lorsqu’il est utilisé sur des ordinateurs sur lesquels DVD Studio Pro ou Final Cut Studio est installé, Compressor inclut également des fonctions d’encodage distribué et AC-3.  L’encodeur AC-3 est utilisé pour encoder un large éventail de configurations de canaux audio, tels que la stéréo ou le son surround 5.1, en flux audio Dolby Digital adaptés à une utilisation avec DVD Studio Pro.  L’encodage distribué, qui répartit les tâches d’encodage sur plusieurs systèmes, réduit le temps nécessaire pour les tâches d’encodage. LiveType LiveType vous permet de créer facilement des titres élaborés de qualité professionnelle pour les utiliser dans vos projets Final Cut Pro et DVD Studio Pro. Il inclut des modèles de projet et du contenu animé de qualité diffusion, libre de droit, que vous pouvez personnaliser afin de créer rapidement et facilement des effets de texte dynamique. Vous pouvez importer directement un projet LiveType à la fois dans Final Cut Pro et dans DVD Studio Pro. Une fois un projet LiveType importé dans Final Cut Pro et DVD Studio Pro, vous pouvez l’ouvrir de nouveau dans LiveType pour le modifier, et Final Cut Pro et DVD Studio Pro mettent automatiquement à jour les projets avec les modifications apportées. Cinema Tools Cinema Tools offre des outils de montage de projets film et 24p dans Final Cut Pro. Cinema Tools étend les fonctionnalités de Final Cut Pro, en offrant des fonctions précédemment réservées aux systèmes de montage haut de gamme ou très spécialisés. Consultez la documentation de Cinema Tools pour savoir comment utiliser les listes télécinéma, supprimer le pulldown 3:2 lors de la capture de plans, ou encore exporter des listes de films. 10 Shake Shake est une application de composition et d’effets visuels haute qualité qui utilise les noeuds, pour le cinéma et la vidéo. Shake prend en charge la plupart des formats graphiques standard et gère facilement les séquences d’images haute résolution et avec une profondeur de bits élevée, de même que les fichiers QuickTime. Parmi les nombreux outils intégrés de Shake, citons les incrusteurs standard permettant l’affichage d’écrans bleus et verts, une suite complète d’outils de correction de couleur, des fonctionnalités pour la resynchronisation d’animations et la remasterisation de format, les fonctionnalités de suivi, d’adoucissement et de stabilisation des animations, des outils intégrés de peinture procédurale, ainsi qu’un environnement de rotoscoping et de masquage permettant le contrôle complet des caches animés et fixes. Final Cut Pro inclut la possibilité d’envoyer un ou plusieurs plans (également appelés “clips”) vers Shake, où ils peuvent être traités et, une fois rendus, mis à jour dans Final Cut Pro. Remarque : Shake est commercialisé séparément et n’est pas inclus dans Final Cut Studio. Logic Pro Logic Pro est un studio musical complet que vous pouvez utiliser pour enregistrer, arranger, mixer et produire des projets musicaux. Logic Pro vous permet de créer des arrangements musicaux à l’aide d’instruments MIDI et logiciels, ainsi que des enregistrements audio d’instruments acoustiques et de voix, des boucles Apple Loops et d’autres fichiers audio préenregistrés. Logic Pro peut importer et exporter des fichiers audio individuels dans différents formats. Pour les projets plus complexes impliquant Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro inclut également la possibilité d’importer et d’exporter des groupes de clips audio et des informations associées, à l’aide du format d’échange XML de Final Cut Pro. Le format d’échange XML de Final Cut Pro prend en charge les images clés, les marqueurs, la position, les filtres et les données d’automatisation. Remarque : Logic Pro est commercialisé séparément et n’est pas inclus dans Final Cut Studio. 11 Utilisation de ce document Ce document contient des informations générales sur chacune des applications de postproduction Apple, ainsi que des informations spécifiques sur les situations les plus courantes dans lesquelles vous utiliserez plusieurs des différentes applications à la fois.  La section “Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets Final Cut Pro” à la page 19 traite des flux de travaux qu’il est possible d’utiliser lors de la génération d’une séquence.  La section “Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets DVD Studio Pro” à la page 41 traite des flux de travaux qu’il est possible d’utiliser lors de la création d’un DVD à partir d’une séquence. Remarque : les manuels d’utilisation de toutes les applications, y compris celles livrées sans manuel papier, se trouvent dans le dossier Documentation des disques d’installation, ou dans le menu Aide de chaque application. Reportez-vous à ces documents pour des instructions détaillées sur l’utilisation des applications. Pour accéder au manuel d’utilisation à l’écran d’une application : m Dans l’application, choisissez le manuel d’utilisation de l’application dans le menu Aide. Exemple de flux de travaux Final Cut Studio Cette section présente un exemple de flux de travaux pour un projet de séquence à distribuer sur DVD. Elle comprend les situations les plus courantes que vous serez amené à rencontrer. Consultez les chapitres suivants pour plus d’informations sur les options de flux de travaux. À propos des “allers-retours” entre projets Les allers-retours entre projets font référence à la possibilité d’intégrer et d’ouvrir des fichiers de projet d’une application alors que vous travaillez dans une autre application. De nombreuses applications de postproduction Apple peuvent directement importer des fichiers de projet les unes à partir des autres. Par exemple, vous pouvez importer un projet de titre créé dans LiveType dans un projet Final Cut Pro. Cette opération est beaucoup plus efficace que d’afficher la séquence LiveType et de l’exporter sous forme de séquence QuickTime chaque fois que vous apportez des modifications. Si vous vous rendez compte qu’il est nécessaire de modifier un projet LiveType alors que vous êtes en train de travailler dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez ouvrir le projet dans LiveType en procédant directement à partir de Final Cut Pro. Une fois le projet LiveType enregistré, toutes les modifications effectuées apparaissent automatiquement dans Final Cut Pro. Important : l’utilisation du projet d’une application dans une autre application nécessite que la version la plus récente des deux applications soit installée sur l’ordinateur. 12 L’utilisation des applications de postproduction Apple pour créer une séquence destinée à être distribuée sur DVD implique trois étapes principales :  Montage de la séquence : vous pouvez utiliser nombre des applications pour créer la séquence.  Final Cut Pro : capturez les images et montez la séquence.  LiveType : créez les titres d’ouverture.  Motion : ajoutez un effet de compositing.  Soundtrack Pro : nettoyez l’audio et ajoutez des effets sonores.  Compressor : convertissez la norme vidéo d’un plan vidéo.  Encodage de la séquence : vous pouvez utiliser Compressor pour encoder la vidéo et l’audio dans des ressources compatibles avec le format DVD.  Création du DVD : vous pouvez utiliser plusieurs applications pour créer le DVD utilisé pour distribuer la séquence.  DVD Studio Pro : configurez les menus et les pistes.  Motion : créez des arrière-plans de menu d’animation.  Soundtrack Pro : créez l’audio d’arrière-plan pour les menus. Montage de la séquence La première partie de la création de cet exemple de projet consiste à monter la séquence. Lors du montage de votre séquence dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez utiliser les autres applications de postproduction Apple pour améliorer votre projet. Étape 1 : Capture et montage dans Final Cut Pro La capture et le montage de la vidéo et de l’audio de votre projet occupent la plus grande partie de votre temps. La familiarisation avec les sources avant de démarrer ce processus permet de limiter la quantité de vidéo et d’audio inutilisée que vous capturez, ce qui permet de gagner en temps et en espace disque. Étape 2 : Création des titres d’ouverture dans LiveType Vous pouvez tirer parti de LiveType pour créer des graphismes animés attractifs pour les titres de vos séquences. Bien que vous puissiez utiliser les outils de texte intégrés de Final Cut Pro pour créer les titres d’ouverture de votre séquence, vous pouvez choisir d’appliquer aux titres un effet animé particulier. L’utilisation de LiveType pour créer les titres d’ouverture vous permet d’utiliser un large éventail d’effets sur le texte et permet le contrôle complet de l’aspect des titres. 13 L’importation de projets LiveType dans Final Cut Pro a lieu de la même façon que l’importation des autres ressources ; le projet LiveType se comporte comme n’importe quel autre plan (ou “clip”) pouvant être utilisé dans votre projet. Si vous devez apporter des modifications au projet LiveType alors que vous travaillez dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez facilement ouvrir le projet dans LiveType, apporter les modifications, puis enregistrer le projet et revenir à Final Cut Pro ; le plan du projet LiveType est automatiquement mis à jour afin d’inclure les modifications apportées au projet LiveType. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Utilisation de LiveType avec Final Cut Pro” à la page 32. Étape 3 : Ajout d’un effet de compositing dans Motion Final Cut Pro permet l’ajout d’un large éventail d’effets à votre séquence. Cependant, si vous avez besoin d’un contrôle précis sur un effet multicouche complexe ou si vous souhaitez ajouter une animation sophistiquée ou des effets de particule, l’utilisation de Motion peut faire toute la différence. Par exemple, si votre séquence comporte une section contenant un groupe d’images fixes que vous devez faire apparaître, puis disparaître sur un arrière-plan synchronisé, vous pouvez utiliser Motion pour créer les effets. Vous pouvez définir les points d’entrée et de sortie dans la Timeline de Final Cut Pro afin d’identifier la zone dans laquelle l’effet apparaît, puis exporter cette section de votre séquence vers Motion afin de l’utiliser comme arrière-plan. Dans Motion, vous pouvez facilement ajouter et configurer tous les aspects des couches, même l’ajout d’effets de particules, et voir la lecture en temps réel. Une fois que vous êtes satisfait du résultat, enregistrez-le en tant que projet Motion sans l’arrière-plan. Lorsque vous revenez à Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez importer le projet Motion et le placer dans la Timeline. Vous pouvez ensuite revenir au projet Motion et apporter des modifications ; Final Cut Pro est automatiquement mis à jour afin d’inclure les modifications apportées. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Utilisation de Motion avec Final Cut Pro” à la page 26. Étape 4 : Nettoyage de l’audio et ajout d’effets dans Soundtrack Pro Outre l’utilisation de Soundtrack Pro pour créer une bande-son originale pour votre séquence, vous pouvez l’utiliser pour travailler avec l’audio existant de différentes façons. Deux des plus courantes sont le nettoyage de l’audio d’un clip (ou “plan”) et l’ajout d’un effet à une séquence. 14 Nettoyage de l’audio d’un clip Soundtrack Pro inclut un Éditeur de forme d’onde pour l’utilisation de l’audio d’un clip. L’Éditeur de forme d’onde vous permet d’appliquer, de manière destructive ou non, un large éventail d’actions à l’audio, ce qui facilite sa réparation ou l’amélioration d’un clip audio. Les actions peuvent inclure les effets audio, tels que l’égalisation, la compression ou la réverbération, ainsi que les processus tels que la réduction du bruit, l’ajout de bruit ambiant, l’insertion de silence ou la conversion d’un fichier stéréo en mono. Vous pouvez monter les clips audio de manière destructive ou non dans Soundtrack Pro. Pour les tâches répétitives, vous pouvez également utiliser l’un des scripts inclus dans Soundtrack Pro ou créer vos propres scripts dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Utilisation d’un plan unique à partir de Final Cut Pro” à la page 20. Ajout d’effets à un plan ou une séquence Vous pouvez également utiliser Soundtrack Pro pour ajouter des effets audio sophistiqués à votre séquence. Vous pouvez par exemple améliorer le son ambiant d’une prise, modifier l’égalisation ou ajouter de la compression ou de la réverbération. Vous pouvez traiter un plan individuel, un ensemble de plans que vous sélectionnez dans la Timeline de Final Cut Pro ou la séquence entière. À partir de Final Cut Pro, vous envoyez le ou les plans sélectionnés, ou la séquence, vers Soundtrack Pro où vous travaillerez sur les données audio dans la Timeline et le Mélangeur. Une fois que vous avez terminé, vous enregistrez le projet Soundtrack Pro et vous exportez un mixage à utiliser à la place de l’audio Final Cut Pro exportée à l’origine. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Utilisation de plusieurs pistes audio à partir de Final Cut Pro” à la page 23. Étape 5 : Conversion de la norme vidéo d’un plan vidéo Vous pouvez parfois être amené à intégrer un plan vidéo dans une séquence avec une norme vidéo différente. Par exemple, si vous montez un projet HD 1080i et que vous devez inclure un plan NTSC 480i, le plan NTSC doit être mis à l’échelle à la taille d’image 1080i. Vous pouvez faire cela dans Final Cut Pro en ajoutant le plan à la séquence puis en le rendant, mais pour obtenir la meilleure qualité, vous devez utiliser Compressor pour mettre la vidéo à l’échelle. 15 Pour utiliser Compressor pour mettre à l’échelle un plan vidéo, vous devez l’ajouter à un lot Compressor et affecter un préréglage correspondant aux réglages vidéo de la séquence (taille d’image vidéo, fréquence d’images et format). Vous devez également configurer la sous-fenêtre Contrôles d’images dans l’Inspecteur Compressor, laquelle configure Compressor pour qu’il effectue un changement d’échelle haute qualité sur la vidéo. Une fois les opérations Compressor terminées, vous pouvez importer le plan mis à l’échelle dans votre projet Final Cut Pro et l’ajouter à la séquence sans qu’il soit nécessaire de le rendre. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Conversion de la norme vidéo d’un plan vidéo” à la page 31. Encodage de la séquence Une fois que vous avez terminé la séquence, vous devez encoder la vidéo et l’audio dans des formats compatibles avec DVD. Compressor constitue la méthode préférée d’exportation de la séquence, car il offre le plus d’options et la qualité la plus élevée. Un autre avantage de l’exportation avec Compressor réside dans le fait que vous n’avez pas besoin de rendre d’abord la séquence ; elle est automatiquement rendue si nécessaire lors de l’exportation. La clé de l’exportation avec Compressor consiste à sélectionner et à configurer les préréglages appropriés. Les préréglages définissent la façon dont la vidéo et l’audio sont encodées. Compressor inclut divers préréglages que vous pouvez utiliser ; vous pouvez également créer vos propres préréglages personnalisés, ou modifier la configuration d’un préréglage existant. Vous pouvez même appliquer plusieurs préréglages à la séquence, ce qui permet de générer plusieurs versions de la vidéo et de l’audio. Par exemple, si votre séquence utilise des ressources HD, vous pouvez choisir un préréglage afin de fournir une sortie SD (pour la création d’un DVD standard) et une sortie HD (pour la création d’un DVD à l’aide de résolutions vidéo HD). Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor” à la page 30. 16 Création du DVD La création d’un DVD commence par la planification de ce que doit contenir le DVD et de la façon dont il sera lu par l’utilisateur. Une fois que vous avez exporté votre séquence Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez rapidement créer des DVD simples ; il n’est même pas nécessaire d’inclure un menu. Pour la plupart des projets de DVD, vous ajouterez au moins un menu d’ouverture et, le plus souvent, des bonus et des diaporamas. Si vous prévoyez de créer à la fois une version SD et une version HD de votre projet, vous devez commencer par créer la version SD. Étant donné que la version HD peut contenir des ressources SD, vous pouvez simplement enregistrer la version SD en tant que version HD, puis remplacer tout ou partie des ressources SD par des ressources HD. Vous pouvez créer les éléments de votre projet de DVD dans l’ordre qui vous convient ; cependant, commencer par créer les menus présente des avantages. Étant donné que les menus offrent la majeure partie des options de navigation, le fait de les mettre en place permet de s’assurer que les pistes (qui contiennent les séquences) et les diaporamas sont accessibles et configurés correctement lorsqu’ils atteignent la fin. Étape 1 : Création d’arrière-plans de menu d’animation dans Motion Les menus de votre DVD peuvent être des images statiques simples ou de la vidéo d’animation. Dans les deux cas, vous pouvez également ajouter de l’audio aux menus. La seule exigence d’un menu est qu’il comporte les boutons nécessaires pour clarifier l’accès aux pistes, diaporamas et autres menus du DVD. Par exemple, vous pouvez utiliser Motion pour créer un arrière-plan de menu d’animation à partir d’une petite partie de la séquence. Vous pouvez y ajouter des filtres, tels que des effets d’adoucissement et de colorisation, ainsi que du texte et des boutons. Une approche courante consiste à faire commencer le menu par une introduction, par exemple en faisant arriver les boutons et le texte dans le désordre, puis en les positionnant afin de permettre à l’utilisateur d’effectuer une sélection. Dans Motion, vous pouvez configurer un marqueur qui définit un point de bouclage, de sorte que lorsque le menu s’affiche, plutôt que de boucler au début du menu une fois la fin atteinte, il revient au point de bouclage que vous avez défini, ce qui évite une nouvelle lecture de la section d’introduction. Une fois que vous avez créé un menu d’animation dans Motion, vous pouvez importer le projet Motion dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro. Vous traitez alors le projet comme n’importe quelle autre ressource, par exemple en le faisant glisser vers un menu afin de le définir comme arrière-plan. Si vous devez apporter des modifications au projet Motion, vous pouvez double-cliquer dessus dans DVD Studio Pro afin de l’ouvrir dans Motion. Une fois que vous avez apporté les modifications et enregistré le projet, ce dernier est automatiquement mis à jour dans le projet DVD Studio Pro. 17 Consultez la section “Utilisation de Motion dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro” à la page 44 pour plus d’informations, notamment sur la création de transitions alpha avec Motion. Étape 2 : Création des pistes principales dans DVD Studio Pro La création d’une piste dans DVD Studio Pro peut simplement consister à importer les ressources vidéo et audio dans votre projet, puis à les faire glisser sur le menu qui comportera le bouton permettant d’accéder à la piste. DVD Studio Pro peut automatiquement créer la piste, placer un bouton sur le menu et lier le bouton à la piste. Vous pouvez configurer la piste de différentes façons, par exemple en ajoutant des marqueurs de chapitre afin de faciliter la navigation, ou en définissant ce qui se passe lorsque l’utilisateur appuie sur les boutons de la télécommande. Étape 3 : Création de l’audio d’un menu dans Soundtrack Pro L’ajout d’audio à vos menus, même ceux qui utilisent des arrière-plans fixes, est un moyen simple de rendre le DVD plus attractif. Soundtrack Pro comprend un ensemble étendu de boucles Apple Loops à partir desquelles vous pouvez rapidement créer des clips audio libres de droit, parfaits pour l’audio d’un menu. Vous pouvez également ajouter des effets à l’audio, lesquels peuvent être utiles pour les menus d’animation qui nécessitent que l’audio coïncide avec des actions telles que les boutons qui se positionnent à leur place. Vous pouvez exporter l’audio directement à partir de Soundtrack Pro sous forme de fichiers audio AIFF ou, lors de l’exportation avec Compressor, sous forme de fichiers Dolby Digital AC-3. En outre, vous pouvez tirer parti de l’intégration de Soundtrack Pro à Motion afin de coordonner facilement l’audio du menu avec sa vidéo et garantir ainsi une complémentarité parfaite. Pour plus d’informations, consultez les sections “Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro” à la page 50 et “Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro avec des projets Motion” à la page 51. Étape 4 : Gravure du DVD à l’aide de DVD Studio Pro Une fois que vous avez terminé le projet, vous êtes prêt à le graver sur un disque. Au cours du processus de création, vous pouvez simuler le projet afin de vous assurer que ses éléments fonctionnent comme prévu. Cependant, la lecture des fichiers compilés réels constitue le meilleur test du projet. Vous pouvez utiliser DVD Studio Pro pour créer le projet sans graver réellement un disque, puis lire le projet avec le Lecteur DVD d’Apple afin de le tester. Une fois que vous êtes satisfait du projet, vous pouvez le graver sur un DVD. 19 1 Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets Final Cut Pro Les applications de postproduction Apple offrent des outils précieux pour vous permettre d’améliorer vos projets Final Cut Pro. Final Cut Pro en soi est une solution de montage complète. Elle inclut :  le compositing de graphismes avec des fonctions d’animation ;  des fonctions de création de titres textuels ;  des fonctions de montage et de mixage audio. Les applications de postproduction Apple améliorent cependant considérablement ces fonctions, et permettent la création de séquences très sophistiquées et complexes avec Final Cut Pro. Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro avec Final Cut Pro Vous pouvez utiliser Soundtrack Pro avec vos projets Final Cut Pro de deux façons élémentaires : pour la création d’audio et pour la réparation, l’amélioration et le mixage audio. Vous pouvez utiliser Soundtrack Pro pour chaque aspect de la création d’audio pour un projet, de l’enregistrement au traitement et au mixage audio avancés. Soundtrack Pro vous permet d’ouvrir des clips audio directement à partir de Final Cut Pro puis, lorsque vous avez terminé de travailler sur l’audio dans Soundtrack Pro et enregistré le projet, ce dernier est automatiquement mis à jour dans Final Cut Pro, ce qui rend l’aller-retour entre les deux applications rapide et simple. 20 Vous pouvez utiliser différentes approches de l’utilisation de l’audio du projet Final Cut Pro dans Soundtrack Pro ; la méthode choisie dépend de votre situation :  Avez-vous besoin de travailler sur un plan unique ? Final Cut Pro offre plusieurs méthodes permettant d’ouvrir un plan dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro, dans lequel vous pouvez analyser et traiter l’audio avec un large éventail d’outils puissants.  Devez-vous travailler sur l’audio à partir de plusieurs pistes ou ajouter du contenu tel que des effets sonores ou une voix-off ? Vous pouvez ouvrir un plan, un groupe de plans Final Cut Pro ou encore une séquence entière dans la Timeline de Soundtrack Pro, dans laquelle vous pouvez ajouter des pistes supplémentaires d’effets sonores, des bruitages, des voix-off et de la musique, ainsi qu’analyser et traiter les clips audio provenant de Final Cut Pro. Vous pouvez ensuite effectuer un mixage final avec Soundtrack Pro.  Devez-vous appliquer le même processus à plusieurs fichiers audio ? Vous pouvez envoyer un ou plusieurs clips audio Final Cut Pro à un script Soundtrack Pro, lequel peut effectuer un large éventail d’actions sur l’audio, par exemple ajouter de la réverbération ou supprimer les bruits parasites. Utilisation d’un plan unique à partir de Final Cut Pro Vous pouvez utiliser trois méthodes courantes pour ouvrir un plan (ou “clip”) dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro : envoi à l’éditeur, ouverture dans l’éditeur et envoi à un script Soundtrack Pro.  Si vous envoyez le plan vers l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro, un projet Soundtrack Pro est créé, vous permettant d’apporter des modifications non destructives à l’audio dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde.  Si vous ouvrez le fichier dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde, toute modification est appliquée de manière non destructive au fichier audio lorsque vous l’enregistrez.  Si vous envoyez le plan vers un script Soundtrack Pro, le plan s’ouvre dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde, les actions du script sont exécutées, le plan est enregistré avec les modifications et l’Éditeur de forme d’onde passe à l’arrière-plan afin que vous puissiez continuer d’utiliser Final Cut Pro. Ce processus est non destructif lorsque les clips sont des projets Soundtrack Pro ; il est destructif lorsque les clips sont des fichiers audio bruts. Envoi d’un clip audio de Final Cut Pro vers l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro L’envoi d’un clip audio de Final Cut Pro vers l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro crée un projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro, avec l’extension de fichier “.stap”, laquelle contient les modifications que vous avez apportées à l’audio. Le clip audio original n’est pas affecté par ce que vous faites dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Soundtrack Pro doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. 21 Pour envoyer un clip vers l’Éditeur de forme d’onde : 1 Maintenez la touche Contrôle enfoncée et cliquez sur le clip dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline de Final Cut Pro, puis choisissez Envoyer à > “Projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro” dans le menu contextuel. Une zone de dialogue vous invite à enregistrer le clip en tant que projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro. 2 Tapez un nom ou utilisez le nom par défaut et cliquez sur Enregistrer. Le projet s’ouvre dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro. 3 Modifiez l’audio en fonction de vos besoins. 4 Choisissez Fichier > Enregistrer afin d’enregistrer le projet avec les modifications. Une zone de dialogue apparaît pour vous permettre de choisir si le projet doit inclure une copie du clip audio source ou une référence à ce dernier.  L’introduction du clip audio source rend le projet autonome (indépendant du clip audio source original), mais a pour effet d’augmenter la taille du fichier de projet.  L’introduction d’une référence au clip audio source permet de créer un fichier de projet plus petit, mais le projet risque de ne plus être lisible si le fichier source original est déplacé ou supprimé. 5 Sélectionnez la méthode audio source à utiliser pour le projet, puis cliquez sur OK. Ce projet Soundtrack Pro apparaît à présent dans le Navigateur Final Cut Pro et remplace le plan dans la Timeline (si vous l’avez sélectionné à cet endroit à l’origine). Pour effectuer des modifications supplémentaires, vous devez cliquer sur le plan en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis choisir Envoyer à > “Projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro” dans le menu contextuel (même si le projet est déjà ouvert dans Soundtrack Pro). Cela permet de s’assurer que le projet Soundtrack Pro reste connecté au projet Final Cut Pro. Important : si le plan contient à la fois des données vidéo et audio, la version de Final Cut Pro utilisée a une incidence sur votre capacité à effectuer des modifications supplémentaires. Dans Final Cut Pro 5.0 et 5.0.1, vous devez supprimer le lien entre la vidéo et l’audio afin de pouvoir à nouveau utiliser la commande “Envoyer au projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro”. Dans Final Cut Pro 5.0.2 ou ultérieur, le lien entre la vidéo et l’audio est automatiquement supprimé après l’utilisation de la commande “Envoyer au projet de fichier audio Soundtrack Pro”. 22 Ouverture d’un clip audio Final Cut Pro directement dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro L’ouverture d’un clip audio à partir de Final Cut Pro dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde de Soundtrack Pro, à l’aide de la commande Ouvrir dans l’Éditeur, ouvre le clip audio original dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde. Toute modification que vous apportez entraîne une modification destructive du fichier lorsque vous l’enregistrez. Remarque : le réglage Fichiers audio sous l’onglet Éditeurs externes de la fenêtre Réglages système de Final Cut Pro détermine quelle application s’ouvre lorsque vous utilisez la commande Ouvrir dans l’éditeur. Assurez-vous que ce réglage est configuré sur Soundtrack Pro pour la procédure qui suit. En outre, si le plan comporte à la fois de la vidéo et de l’audio, vous devez d’abord dissocier la vidéo et l’audio, ou configurer le réglage Fichiers vidéo de l’onglet Éditeurs externes sur Soundtrack Pro. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Soundtrack Pro doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour ouvrir un clip audio Final Cut Pro directement dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde : 1 Tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, cliquez sur le clip audio dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline de Final Cut Pro, puis choisissez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. Le clip audio s’ouvre dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro. 2 Modifiez l’audio en fonction de vos besoins. 3 Choisissez Fichier > Enregistrer afin d’enregistrer le fichier avec les modifications. Lorsque vous revenez à Final Cut Pro, le plan inclut les modifications que vous avez apportées dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde. Important : il s’agit d’un processus destructif qui modifie le fichier original. Application d’un script Soundtrack Pro à un plan dans Final Cut Pro Vous pouvez appliquer un script Soundtrack Pro à vos clips audio lors de l’utilisation de Final Cut Pro. Lorsque vous envoyez un plan au script Soundtrack Pro, il s’ouvre dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde, les actions du script sont exécutées et le plan est enregistré avec les modifications. Ce processus est non destructif lorsque les plans (ou “clips”) sont des projets Soundtrack Pro ; il est destructif lorsque les plans sont des fichiers audio bruts. Les scripts Soundtrack Pro sont des droplets AppleScript qui peuvent être créés dans Soundtrack Pro et modifiés dans l’Éditeur de script, ce qui facilite la création et la personnalisation des scripts. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Soundtrack Pro doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. 23 Pour modifier un plan à l’aide d’un script Soundtrack Pro : m Tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, cliquez sur le plan dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline de Final Cut Pro, choisissez Envoyer à > Script Soundtrack Pro dans le menu contextuel, puis choisissez dans le sous-menu le script que vous souhaitez utiliser. Vous pouvez sélectionner dans Final Cut Pro plusieurs plans à modifier avec le script. Lorsque vous envoyez plusieurs plans à un script Soundtrack Pro, chaque plan est ouvert, modifié, enregistré et fermé. Vous pouvez également répéter le dernier script que vous avez utilisé pour modifier un plan, ce qui facilite la modification de plusieurs plans avec les mêmes actions. Pour modifier un plan avec le dernier script utilisé : m Tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, cliquez sur le plan dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline de Final Cut Pro, puis choisissez Envoyer à > “Dernier script Soundtrack Pro” dans le menu contextuel. Utilisation de plusieurs pistes audio à partir de Final Cut Pro Vous pouvez envoyer un groupe de plans ou une séquence à la Timeline de Soundtrack Pro, ce qui vous permet de créer un mixage multipiste complet avec automatisation des effets, niveaux et balance. Ce processus implique :  Dans Final Cut Pro, la création d’un projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro à partir d’un groupe de plans ou d’une séquence.  La modification du projet dans Soundtrack Pro.  L’exportation à partir de Soundtrack Pro d’un clip audio que vous pouvez importer dans votre projet Final Cut Pro afin de l’utiliser à la place de l’audio dans le groupe original de plans ou de séquences. Remarque : lorsque vous créez un projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro à partir d’un groupe de plans ou d’une séquence dans Final Cut Pro, le niveau de volume des plans ainsi que les images clés ou les fondus enchaînés éventuels sont envoyés avec le plan. Pour les clips mono, la position de balance est également envoyée. Les effets Final Cut Pro basés sur des plans (tels que les filtres et les enveloppes de modification de vitesse) ainsi que les générateurs Final Cut Pro ne sont pas inclus dans le projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Soundtrack Pro doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. 24 Pour envoyer un groupe de plans ou une séquence vers l’Éditeur multipiste : 1 Sélectionnez la séquence dans le Navigateur Final Cut Pro ou sélectionnez les plans dans la Timeline. 2 Cliquez sur la sélection en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis choisissez Envoyer à > “Projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro” dans le menu contextuel. Une zone de dialogue apparaît avec plusieurs réglages. 3 Sélectionnez “Ouvrir dans l’Éditeur multipiste Soundtrack Pro” afin d’ouvrir le projet dans Soundtrack Pro une fois qu’il est enregistré. 4 Sélectionnez Inclure la vidéo d’arrière-plan afin d’inclure la vidéo d’arrière-plan de la séquence avec le projet. 5 Tapez un nom pour le projet ou utilisez le nom par défaut, puis cliquez sur Enregistrer. Un fichier de projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro portant l’extension “.stmp” est alors enregistré. Remarque : il s’agit d’un petit fichier qui fait référence aux ressources utilisées par Final Cut Pro. Ces ressources doivent être disponibles lorsque ce fichier s’ouvre dans Soundtrack Pro. Si vous sélectionnez “Ouvrir dans l’Éditeur multipiste de Soundtrack Pro”, la sélection s’ouvre dans la Timeline de Soundtrack Pro. 6 Modifiez l’audio en fonction de vos besoins. 7 Choisissez Fichier > Enregistrer afin d’enregistrer le projet avec les modifications. Exportez ensuite le clip audio que vous allez utiliser dans votre projet Final Cut Pro. 8 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Exporter le mixage. 9 Tapez un nom et cliquez sur Exporter. Cette opération exporte un fichier audio que vous pouvez à présent importer dans votre projet Final Cut Pro afin de l’utiliser à la place de l’audio dans les plans ou la séquence sélectionné(e)s. Un fichier audio exporté à partir d’un projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro fait référence au fichier de projet à partir duquel il a été exporté. Cela s’avère utile si vous devez modifier ultérieurement le fichier audio. Pour apporter des modifications au fichier audio à partir de Final Cut Pro : 1 Cliquez sur le fichier audio tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis sélectionnez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. Une zone de dialogue apparaît pour vous permettre de choisir s’il faut ouvrir le fichier audio comme un fichier audio normal ou bien ouvrir le fichier de projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro à partir duquel ce fichier audio a été exporté. 25 Remarque : le réglage Fichiers audio sous l’onglet Éditeurs externes de la fenêtre Réglages système de Final Cut Pro détermine quelle application s’ouvre lorsque vous utilisez la commande Ouvrir dans l’éditeur. Assurez-vous que ce réglage est configuré sur Soundtrack Pro dans les étapes précédentes. 2 Choisissez Ouvrir le projet. Le projet Soundtrack Pro original s’ouvre. Une fois que vous avez effectué vos modifications, enregistrez le projet et utilisez la commande Exporter le mixage pour exporter un nouveau clip audio (en utilisant le même nom et le même emplacement que celui ouvert dans le projet Final Cut Pro). Cela permet de garantir que cette nouvelle version du fichier audio apparaîtra automatiquement dans le projet Final Cut Pro. Exportation d’un plan ou d’une séquence à partir de Final Cut Pro vers Soundtrack Pro Final Cut Pro inclut la possibilité d’exporter un plan ou une séquence en vue d’une utilisation dans Soundtrack Pro. Cette procédure est surtout utile lorsque vous ne prévoyez pas d’ouvrir le plan ou la séquence ultérieurement dans Final Cut Pro. L’exportation de cette façon crée une séquence QuickTime contenant la vidéo (le cas échéant) et l’audio. Pour exporter des séquences ou des plans de Final Cut Pro pour les utiliser dans Soundtrack Pro : 1 Dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline, sélectionnez la séquence ou le plan à exporter vers Soundtrack Pro. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Pour Soundtrack. 3 Choisissez une destination et tapez un nom de fichier pour la séquence QuickTime. Par défaut, les marqueurs audio sont exportés avec la séquence ou le plan lors de l’exportation vers Soundtrack Pro. Vous pouvez cependant choisir de ne pas exporter les marqueurs en sélectionnant Aucun dans le menu local Marqueurs. Vous pouvez également choisir d’exporter d’autres types de marqueurs. Toutefois, les marqueurs audio sont les seuls types de marqueurs visibles lorsque vous ouvrez la séquence ou le plan dans Soundtrack Pro. 4 Cliquez sur Enregistrer. 26 Utilisation de Motion avec Final Cut Pro Final Cut Pro prend en charge l’échange de plans et de séquences entre Final Cut Pro et Motion. Les applications sont étroitement intégrées de telle façon que lorsque vous utilisez Motion et Final Cut Pro sur le même ordinateur, vous avez la possibilité de travailler sur votre projet Motion dans les deux applications à la fois, sans avoir à vous soucier du transfert des fichiers entre les applications. Vous pouvez également exporter des plans afin de les confier à une autre personne qui se chargera de la création d’animations professionnelles pendant que vous continuez à monter votre film avant d’importer le projet Motion terminé dans votre séquence. Exportation d’un plan ou d’une séquence à partir de Final Cut Pro vers Motion Vous pouvez exporter des plans et des séquences Final Cut Pro dans des projets Motion en sélectionnant la commande Envoyer vers un projet Motion. Cette commande est utile pour :  transférer les données capturés vers Motion depuis le Navigateur Final Cut Pro ;  transférer des éléments ou une séquence depuis un projet Final Cut Pro vers Motion dans le but de créer une animation. Pour envoyer des plans ou des séquences de Final Cut Pro vers un projet Motion : 1 Sélectionnez les éléments ou la séquence à exporter vers Motion en effectuant l’une des opérations suivantes :  Sélectionnez un ou plusieurs éléments dans le Navigateur (au moins un élément doit être un plan).  Sélectionnez une séquence dans le Navigateur.  Sélectionnez plusieurs éléments dans la Timeline (celle-ci doit être active). 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Envoyer à > Projet Motion. 3 Dans la zone de dialogue qui apparaît : a Choisissez un emplacement et saisissez un nom pour le nouveau projet Motion. b Vous pouvez également sélectionner les options suivantes :  Lancer Motion : lorsque vous sélectionnez cette option, les plans ou les séquences que vous exportez s’ouvrent sous forme de projet dans Motion (Final Cut Pro reste ouvert également).  Incorporer le contenu de Motion : lorsque vous sélectionnez cette option, Final Cut Pro ouvre le projet Motion sous forme de plan dans Final Cut Pro. Le plan situé dans Final Cut Pro est automatiquement mis à jour pour refléter les modifications apportées au plan dans Motion. Si les deux applications sont ouvertes et que vous visualisez le plan Motion dans Final Cut Pro, vous remarquerez que le contenu a été mis à jour avec les modifications apportées et enregistrées dans Motion. 27 Remarque : lorsque des projets Motion sont incorporés dans Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Pro reflète tout changement apporté au projet dans Motion, mais Motion ne reflète pas les changements apportés (par exemple, l’utilisation de filtres et de titres) au plan d’un projet Motion dans Final Cut Pro. 4 Cliquez sur Enregistrer. Si vous ne sélectionnez pas l’option Incorporer le contenu de Motion, tout élément exporté apparaît sous forme de séquence imbriquée dans le Navigateur et tout élément de la Timeline reste inchangé. Exportation des propriétés Lorsque vous sélectionnez les plans à envoyer à Motion, les propriétés suivantes sont conservées avec le projet exporté. Lors de l’exportation vers Motion, Final Cut Pro n’envoie pas les propriétés omises de la liste ci-dessus, telles que les filtres, les générateurs, les changements de vitesse ou de time remap, et les images fixes. Résultats de l’exportation dans Final Cut Pro Dans le Navigateur, la séquence ou le groupe d’éléments exporté vers Motion devient le plan d’un projet Motion unique et porte l’extension d’un nom de fichier Motion. Si l’élément était sélectionné dans la Timeline au moment où vous l’avez exporté et que l’option Incorporer le contenu de Motion était sélectionnée, le nouveau plan de projet Motion apparaît également dans la Timeline. En outre, le contenu du plan de projet Motion est mis à jour à mesure que les modifications y sont enregistrées dans Motion. Si l’option Incorporer le contenu de Motion n’était pas sélectionné, le contenu de la Timeline reste identique. Propriétés exportées Vidéo  Données.  Toute information de temps, notamment les fréquences d’image et les points d’entrée et de sortie.  Marqueurs .  Toutes les caractéristiques standard d’animation, notamment l’échelle, la position, la rotation, les modes de compositing et l’opacité, ainsi que le type d’image clé pour chacun de ces paramètres (linéaire ou non linéaire). Audio1  Données.  Marqueurs.  Images clés. 1 L’audio exporté vers Motion n’est pas importé lorsque vous transférez à nouveau le projet Motion dans Final Cut Pro. En effet, l’audio dans Motion n’est destiné qu’à la lecture et aux marqueurs. Pour cette raison, veillez à conserver les clips audio. 28 L’audio associé au plan de projet Motion demeure exactement comme il était avant l’exportation. Ainsi, si vous avez exporté des plans sélectionnés dans la Timeline, l’audio demeure sur les mêmes pistes audio. Veillez à conserver cet audio dans votre film, car il ne sera pas réimporté dans Final Cut Pro avec le projet Motion. Importation d’un projet Motion dans un projet Final Cut Pro Que l’application Motion soit installée ou pas sur votre ordinateur, vous pouvez importer des projets Motion dans Final Cut Pro de la même façon que n’importe quelles autres données. Pour importer un projet Motion dans Final Cut Pro, procédez de l’une des façons suivantes : m Faites glisser le projet Motion dans le Navigateur ou la Timeline de Final Cut Pro. m Choisissez Fichier > Importer > Fichiers, puis sélectionnez le projet Motion dans la zone de dialogue qui apparaît et cliquez sur Choisir. Remarque : n’oubliez pas qu’il est inutile d’importer à nouveau des projets Motion dans Final Cut Pro si l’option Incorporer le contenu de Motion est sélectionnée lors de l’exportation. Dans ce cas, le projet Motion qui apparaît dans Final Cut Pro reflète automatiquement toute modification apportée et enregistrée dans Motion. Même si vous ne pouvez pas éditer le contenu du plan d’un projet Motion importé ou incorporé dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez le prévisualiser dans votre film, le placer dans votre séquence, l’ajuster, lui ajouter des transitions et lui appliquer des titres et des filtres. Lorsqu’un projet Motion est importé ou incorporé dans Final Cut Pro :  Final Cut Pro affiche le projet sous forme de plan avec toutes les couches du projet Motion superposées. Le plan de projet Motion apparaît dans le Navigateur avec une extension Motion. Si le projet est incorporé et se trouve déjà dans la Timeline, il apparaît également dans la Timeline.  L’audio dans Motion n’est pas importé dans Final Cut Pro. 29  Si les propriétés du projet (par exemple, la largeur et la hauteur de l’image) ont été modifiées dans Motion, les nouvelles propriétés sont reflétées dans le projet Motion dans Final Cut Pro. Apporter des modifications à un projet Motion déjà importé dans Final Cut Pro Lorsque vous travaillez dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez ouvrir le plan d’un projet Motion depuis le Navigateur ou la Timeline afin de le modifier dans Motion. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Motion doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour ouvrir le plan d’un projet Motion dans Motion depuis Final Cut Pro : m Sélectionnez le plan, cliquez dessus tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis sélectionnez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. Le plan du projet Motion et l’audio associé à celui-ci dans Final Cut Pro s’ouvrent dans Motion. Une fois que vous avez modifié et enregistré le projet dans Motion, Final Cut Pro utilise automatiquement la nouvelle version. Important : si vous utilisez une autre méthode pour ouvrir le projet dans Motion, il ne sera plus connecté au projet Final Cut Pro. Remarque : si vous utilisez le Gestionnaire de données dans Final Cut Pro, sachez qu’il ne peut pas déplacer vers un nouvel emplacement les fichiers de données source référencés par le plan d’un projet Motion. À propos du codec Animation Vous serez souvent amené à utiliser Motion pour créer des projets dotés de canaux alpha. Le codec Animation est un codec sans perte conçu pour être utilisé avec des images générées par ordinateur, mais qui fonctionne également avec des images vidéo normales. Cela permet d’obtenir un excellent niveau de qualité au détriment des performances (les plans utilisant le codec Animation ne sont souvent pas lisibles en temps réel). L’un des avantages principaux du codec Animation provient du fait qu’il prend en charge un canal alpha que Final Cut Pro peut utiliser pour contrôler la transparence du plan. 30 Utilisation de Compressor avec Final Cut Pro Il existe différentes situations dans lesquelles Compressor peut contribuer à votre projet Final Cut Pro :  Exportation de la séquence : Compressor offre différents formats pour l’exportation d’une séquence, notamment ceux spécialement conçus pour la distribution Web et DVD.  Mise à l’échelle d’images vidéo : Compressor inclut une fonction de mise à l’échelle et de conversion de normes de haute qualité, qui permet de convertir de la vidéo afin de la faire correspondre à une séquence. Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor Compressor convertit les séquences QuickTime aux formats suivants :  Pour les DVD : MPEG-1, MPEG-2 SD et HD, H.264 et AC-3 (pour l’audio).  Pour la diffusion sur le Web : diffusion QuickTime à l’aide des formats H.264, MPEG-1 et MPEG-4. Compressor vous permet de générer des ressources audio et vidéo de haute qualité à importer dans DVD Studio Pro. Les marqueurs de chapitre et de compression ajoutés à votre séquence Final Cut Pro peuvent être inclus dans les fichiers MPEG résultants. Vous pouvez également ajouter ces marqueurs dans Compressor. Une fois importés dans DVD Studio Pro, les marqueurs de chapitre apparaissent automatiquement dans l’éditeur de piste. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Compressor doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour exporter à partir de Final Cut Pro dans Compressor : 1 Dans le Navigateur, sélectionnez une séquence à exporter. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Compressor. Compressor s’ouvre avec la séquence que vous avez exportée depuis Final Cut Pro en tant que source dans sa fenêtre Lot. 3 Sélectionnez un préréglage à appliquer à la séquence. Dans certains cas, vous pourrez utiliser un préréglage correspondant exactement à vos besoins, tandis que dans d’autres cas, vous devrez soit modifier un préréglage, soit en créer un personnalisé. Le préréglage définit tous les aspects de la conversion. Vous pouvez également affecter plusieurs préréglages à une séquence. Par exemple, vous pouvez souhaiter disposer d’une version AIFF et d’une version AC-3 de l’audio. 4 Configurez le réglage de destination. Tant que la destination est réglée sur la valeur par défaut (source), le nouveau fichier est enregistré au premier niveau du disque système. 31 5 Configurez le nom du fichier de sortie si vous préférez autre chose que le nom par défaut. 6 Cliquez sur Soumettre. Conversion de la norme vidéo d’un plan vidéo Vous pouvez parfois être amené à intégrer un plan vidéo dans une séquence ayant une norme vidéo différente. Par exemple, si vous montez un projet HD 1080i et que vous devez inclure un plan NTSC 480i, le plan NTSC doit être mis à l’échelle à la taille d’image 1080i. Vous pouvez faire cela dans Final Cut Pro en ajoutant le plan à la séquence puis en le rendant, mais pour obtenir la meilleure qualité, vous devez utiliser Compressor pour mettre la vidéo à l’échelle. Pour utiliser Compressor afin de mettre un plan vidéo à l’échelle : 1 Ouvrez Compressor. 2 Pour importer le plan dans la fenêtre Lot, effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes :  Cliquez sur le bouton Importer un fichier et choisissez le fichier dans la zone de dialogue de sélection.  Faites glisser le fichier d’une fenêtre du Finder vers la fenêtre Lot. 3 Sélectionnez un préréglage à appliquer au plan. Dans certains cas, vous pourrez utiliser un préréglage correspondant exactement à vos besoins, tandis que dans d’autres cas, vous devrez soit modifier un préréglage, soit en créer un personnalisé. Le préréglage définit la taille de l’image vidéo, la fréquence d’images et le format d’encodage utilisé lors de la conversion. L’Inspecteur de Compressor contient une sous-fenêtre Contrôles d’images qui vous permet de définir le niveau de qualité de la conversion. 4 Configurez le réglage de destination. Par défaut, le nouveau fichier est enregistré dans le même emplacement que l’original. 5 Configurez le nom du fichier de sortie si vous préférez autre chose que le nom par défaut. 6 Cliquez sur Soumettre. Une fois les opérations Compressor terminées, vous pouvez importer le plan mis à l’échelle dans votre projet Final Cut Pro et l’ajouter à la séquence sans qu’il soit nécessaire de le rendre. 32 Utilisation de LiveType avec Final Cut Pro Comme Motion, Final Cut Pro inclut la prise en charge de l’échange de plans et de séquences entre Final Cut Pro et LiveType. Les applications sont étroitement intégrées de telle façon que lorsque vous utilisez LiveType et Final Cut Pro sur le même ordinateur, vous avez la possibilité de travailler sur votre projet LiveType dans les deux applications à la fois, sans avoir à vous soucier du transfert des fichiers entre les applications. Vous pouvez également exporter des plans afin de les confier à une autre personne qui se chargera de la création d’animations professionnelles pendant que vous continuez à monter votre film avant d’importer le projet LiveType terminé dans votre séquence. Importation d’un projet LiveType dans un projet Final Cut Pro Grâce à l’importation de fichiers de projets LiveType dans Final Cut Pro, vous n’avez plus besoin de rendre une séquence QuickTime de votre titre LiveType chaque fois que vous souhaitez l’utiliser dans Final Cut Pro. Pour importer un projet LiveType dans Final Cut Pro, procédez de l’une des façons suivantes : m Sélectionnez Fichier > Importer (ou appuyez sur Commande + I) et sélectionnez le projet LiveType à importer dans Final Cut Pro, puis cliquez sur Choisir. m Dans le Finder, faites glisser un fichier de projet LiveType dans le Navigateur de Final Cut Pro. Le fichier de projet LiveType apparaît sous forme de plan dans le Navigateur de Final Cut Pro. Un fichier de projet LiveType dans Final Cut Pro ressemble à n’importe quel autre plan de votre séquence. Au besoin, vous pouvez reconnecter le média (dans ce cas, le fichier de projet LiveType réel sur le disque) au projet LiveType de votre séquence, comme vous le feriez avec n’importe quel autre plan Final Cut Pro. Les projets LiveType dans Final Cut Pro peuvent être organisés dans le Navigateur, ouverts dans le Visualiseur, montés en séquences, ajustés, copiés et collés. Les projets LiveType conservent des relations normales entre le plan master et le plan associé. Les projets LiveType peuvent être lus dans Final Cut Pro comme les autres plans. Cependant, lorsqu’ils sont montés en séquences, les projets LiveType apparaissent avec une barre de rendu rouge dans la Timeline, ce qui vous oblige à rendre ces portions de séquence pour pouvoir les lire. 33 Apporter des modifications à un projet LiveType déjà importé dans Final Cut Pro Bien que vous puissiez effectuer des tâches de montage normales avec un projet LiveType dans Final Cut Pro, le contenu du titre LiveType ne peut pas être modifié à partir de Final Cut Pro (les réglages de titre LiveType peuvent uniquement être modifiés dans l’application LiveType). Final Cut Pro permet d’ouvrir rapidement des plans LiveType directement dans l’application LiveType en vue d’en modifier le titre. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et LiveType doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour ouvrir et modifier un projet LiveType dans LiveType, à partir de Final Cut Pro : 1 Dans le Navigateur de Final Cut Pro ou dans une séquence, appuyez sur Contrôle et cliquez sur le plan du projet LiveType dont vous souhaitez modifier les réglages de titre, puis choisissez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. Le fichier de projet LiveType est ouvert dans l’application LiveType. 2 Dans LiveType, apportez toutes les modifications nécessaires au titre LiveType. 3 Enregistrez le fichier de projet LiveType. 4 Retournez à Final Cut Pro. Final Cut Pro rétablit automatiquement les liens des plans de projet LiveType qui font référence au projet LiveType modifié. Dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez immédiatement observer les modifications apportées au titre LiveType. Grâce à cette méthode, il est inutile de vous reconnecter au fichier de projet LiveType chaque fois que vous le modifiez dans une application autre que Final Cut Pro. Remarque : la colonne Créateur du Navigateur de Final Cut Pro indique l’application qui sera lancée si vous choisissez “Ouvrir dans l’éditeur” dans le menu contextuel d’un plan. Pour afficher la colonne Créateur, tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, cliquez sur un en-tête de colonne du Navigateur à droite de la colonne Nom, puis choisissez Afficher le créateur dans le menu contextuel. Pour les plans LiveType, le créateur est automatiquement défini sur LiveType. Exportation d’une séquence partielle pour LiveType Vous pouvez utiliser LiveType pour créer des titres que Final Cut Pro peut disposer sur la vidéo d’arrière-plan d’une séquence. Cependant, ce processus est beaucoup plus facile si, lors de la création du titre dans LiveType, vous pouvez voir la vidéo d’arrière-plan sur laquelle il sera placé. Vous pouvez exporter une section de votre séquence Final Cut Pro, définie par des points d’entrée et de sortie, en vue d’une utilisation en tant que vidéo d’arrière-plan lors de la création du titre dans LiveType. 34 Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et LiveType doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour exporter une séquence partielle pour LiveType et créer un titre dessus : 1 Dans la Timeline de Final Cut Pro, définissez les points d’entrée et de sortie afin de définir la section de vidéo sur laquelle le titre LiveType doit apparaître. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Pour LiveType. 3 Nommez la portion de séquence que vous exportez, puis cliquez sur Enregistrer. 4 Dans LiveType, choisissez Fichier > “Placer un film en fond” afin d’importer la séquence exportée à partir de Final Cut Pro et la placer dans la deuxième piste. 5 Dans la Timeline de LiveType, sélectionnez la première piste et créez votre effet de titre. 6 Une fois l’effet terminé, enregistrez le projet. Assurez-vous que le réglage Rendre le fond dans la fenêtre Propriétés du projet n’est pas sélectionné lorsque vous enregistrez le projet LiveType. Par défaut, ce réglage n’est pas sélectionné. Vous pouvez vérifier cela en choisissant Édition > Propriétés du projet. 7 Importez le projet LiveType dans le projet Final Cut Pro original et placez-le dans la piste V2 de la Timeline, à l’emplacement défini par les points d’entrée et de sortie. Le titre apparaît sur la vidéo d’arrière-plan exactement comme lors de la création du projet LiveType. Utilisation de Shake avec Final Cut Pro Le fait de tirer parti des puissantes fonctions de compositing et d’effets visuels de Shake lors du montage d’une séquence dans Final Cut Pro peut faire la différence, en particulier lors de l’utilisation d’une vidéo difficile à incruster ou lorsque vous avez besoin du suivi d’animation ou du rotoscoping. Final Cut Pro inclut une méthode spécialement conçue pour rendre efficace et simple l’envoi de plans à Shake. Par exemple, vous pouvez utiliser Final Cut Pro pour superposer un groupe de plans que vous souhaitez convertir en composition simple à l’aide de Shake. Final Cut Pro facilite la configuration de points d’entrée et de sortie pour chaque plan, via la détermination de la façon dont ils se chevauchent. Vous pouvez ensuite envoyer les données à Shake avec les informations de timing, ce qui vous évite d’avoir à recréer l’organisation des données dans Shake. 35 Organisation des plans importés dans Shake Indépendamment de la façon dont vous déplacez les plans Final Cut Pro dans Shake, la façon dont ils sont assemblés dans le script Shake nouvellement créé varie selon qu’ils ont été organisés de manière séquentielle dans une même piste vidéo, ou superposés verticalement à l’aide de plusieurs pistes vidéo. Les plans Final Cut Pro importés sont organisés dans l’arborescence des noeuds à l’aide des noeuds Select et MultiLayer :  Les plans montés de manière séquentielle dans la même piste vidéo sont connectés à un noeud Select unique. Le noeud Select est responsable de la configuration du timing de chaque plan, notamment le point d’entrée des données, le point de sortie des données et la position dans la Timeline de Shake.  Les plans à l’origine superposés sur plusieurs pistes vidéo entraînent la création d’un noeud Select correspondant dans le script Shake pour chaque piste vidéo contenant un plan. Remarque : les points de montage réels de chaque noeud FileIn associé au noeud Select sont stockés dans le paramètre de branche. Les données stockées dans ce paramètre ne sont pas modifiables ; toute tentative de les modifier peut entraîner des résultats imprévisibles.  Chaque noeud Select est connecté à un noeud MultiLayer unique, qui détermine les plans qui se trouvent au premier plan de la composition et ceux qui se trouvent à l’arrière-plan. Si vous souhaitez modifier la position temporelle des plans importés à partir de Final Cut Pro dans Shake, vous devez utiliser l’onglet Contrôle du temps. 36 Important : les clips et pistes audio des fichiers QuickTime originaux ne sont pas importés dans Shake. Tout changement de timing que vous effectuez dans Shake entraîne la désynchronisation des données des plans ajustés par rapport à l’audio du fichier de projet Final Cut Pro original. Envoi de plans à partir de Final Cut Pro Pour envoyer un ou plusieurs plans sélectionnés (ou une séquence unique) de Final Cut Pro vers Shake, vous devez utiliser la commande Envoyer à Shake (dans Final Cut Pro). Pour envoyer un ou plusieurs plans, ou une séquence, de Final Cut Pro vers Shake : 1 Organisez la Timeline du projet de façon à pouvoir sélectionner uniquement les plans que vous prévoyez d’envoyer. 2 Effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes :  Sélectionnez un ou plusieurs plans à exporter dans la Timeline.  Sélectionnez une séquence dans le Navigateur. 3 Effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes :  Sélectionnez Fichier > Envoyer à > Shake.  Cliquez sur les plans ou la séquence sélectionné(e)s en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis choisissez Envoyer à > Shake dans le menu contextuel. Données et effets non pris en charge Bien que QuickTime soit le format de fichier utilisé pour tous les échanges de données entre Final Cut Pro et Shake, tous les aspects de QuickTime ne sont pas pris en charge. Les données et réglages suivants ne sont pas importés dans Shake à partir de Final Cut Pro :  Pistes audio QuickTime  Fichiers audio autonomes  Fichiers d’image fixe  Générateurs  Modes de compositing  Les effets d’animation  Filtres  Transitions 37 4 Lorsque la zone de dialogue Envoyer à Shake apparaît, sélectionnez les options appropriées :  Nom de la séquence résultante : nommez la séquence créée dans le fichier de projet Final Cut Pro pour contenir les données sélectionnées lorsque vous cliquez sur Exporter. Cela n’est applicable que si vous avez sélectionné un ou plusieurs plans dans la Timeline ; aucune nouvelle séquence n’est créée si vous sélectionnez une séquence dans le Navigateur.  Enregistrer comme script Shake : tapez un nom et choisissez un emplacement pour la création du script Shake.  Enregistrer l’espace réservé pour séquence QuickTime (FileOut) sous : tapez un nom et choisissez un emplacement pour l’espace réservé de la séquence QuickTime qui correspondra au noeud FileOut dans le script Shake nouvellement créé. 5 Cochez la case Lancer Shake si vous souhaitez ouvrir automatiquement le script Shake nouvellement créé et commencer à l’utiliser. Important : pour cela, Final Cut Pro et Shake doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. 6 Cliquez sur Exporter. Lorsque vous cliquez sur Exporter, plusieurs actions se produisent :  Si vous avez sélectionné un plan ou un groupe de plans dans la Timeline, une nouvelle séquence contenant des copies des données sélectionnées apparaît dans votre projet Final Cut Pro.  Un script Shake est créé sur le disque.  Un fichier d’espace réservé QuickTime est créé sur le disque.  Si vous avez sélectionné un plan ou un groupe de plans dans la Timeline, le fichier d’espace réservé QuickTime apparaît sous la forme d’un plan sur une nouvelle piste vidéo (désactivée) créée dans la piste située la plus en haut de votre séquence (les données originales restent à leur place). Le plan d’espace réservé QuickTime de votre projet Final Cut Pro correspond aux données qui seront finalement rendues par Shake, en particulier à partir du noeud FileOut qui apparaît à la fin du script Shake généré. Plage de temps des scripts générés à partir de Final Cut Pro Le paramètre global de plage de temps du script Shake créé par la commande Envoyer à Shake est automatiquement réglé sur la plage d’images appropriée pour les données auxquelles elle fait référence. Important : il est déconseillé de cliquer sur le bouton Auto pour mettre à jour la plage de temps. Cela peut entraîner le référencement de davantage d’images que prévu, en fonction de la durée totale des fichiers de données source. 38 Renvoi de données à Final Cut Pro Lorsque vous avez terminé d’utiliser le script Shake généré par Final Cut Pro, vous devez rendre le noeud FileOut créé initialement. Le fichier de données nouvellement rendu prend la place du fichier d’espace réservé QuickTime, prêt à être utilisé par le projet Final Cut Pro original. Lorsque vous rouvrez le fichier de projet Final Cut Pro contenant le fichier d’espace réservé QuickTime original, vous devez utiliser la commande Relier les données afin de relier le plan de votre séquence aux données rendues par Shake. Utilisation de Logic Pro avec Final Cut Pro Logic Pro inclut de nombreux outils que vous pouvez utiliser lors de la création de la musique de vos projets Final Cut Pro. Logic Pro peut importer et exporter des fichiers audio individuels dans différents formats. Pour les projets plus complexes impliquant Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez utiliser le format d’échange XML Final Cut Pro afin d’importer et d’exporter des morceaux avec plusieurs pistes audio, en conservant toutes les informations de position de région, de nom de région, ainsi que les données d’automatisation du volume et de la balance. Importation de fichiers XML Final Cut Pro dans Logic Pro Vous pouvez exporter une séquence ou un groupe de plans à partir de Final Cut Pro en tant que fichier XML, puis importer le fichier XML dans Logic Pro. Pour exporter une séquence Final Cut Pro en tant que fichier XML : 1 Sélectionnez une séquence à exporter dans le Navigateur Final Cut Pro. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > XML. 3 Choisissez le format XML à utiliser dans le menu local Format, puis cliquez sur OK. Le choix par défaut est “Apple XML Interchange Format, version 2”. 4 Nommez le fichier, choisissez sa destination, puis cliquez sur Enregistrer. Pour importer un fichier XML dans Logic Pro : 1 Dans Logic Pro, choisissez Fichier > Importer. 2 Localisez le fichier XML, puis cliquez sur Choisir. L’audio de la séquence s’ouvre dans Logic Pro. 39 Exportation d’un fichier XML Final Cut Pro à partir de Logic Pro Vous pouvez exporter l’audio du morceau actuel en tant que fichier au format d’échange XML de Final Cut Pro, que vous pouvez ensuite importer dans un projet Final Cut Pro. Pour exporter le morceau actuel vers Logic Pro en tant que fichier XML : 1 Dans Logic Pro, choisissez Fichier > Exporter > Morceau vers Final Cut Pro/XML. 2 Nommez le fichier, choisissez sa destination, puis cliquez sur Exporter. Pour importer un fichier XML dans Final Cut Pro : 1 Dans Final Cut Pro, choisissez Fichier > Importer > XML. 2 Localisez le fichier XML, puis cliquez sur Choisir. Une séquence contenant l’audio exportée apparaît dans le Navigateur de Final Cut Pro. Remarque : les pistes d’instruments audio sont toujours renvoyées vers les fichiers audio. Les pistes MIDI sont ignorées. Si nécessaire, le rebond bascule automatiquement en mode temps réel (comme lorsqu’un mode E/S ou Instrument externe est utilisé). 41 1 Utilisation d’applications Apple pour vos projets DVD Studio Pro Peu importe la qualité de votre séquence si personne ne peut la voir. Les applications de postproduction Apple offrent des outils précieux pour vous aider à créer votre propre projet DVD Studio Pro. DVD Studio Pro permet de créer rapidement et facilement des DVD professionnels de différents styles. La création de votre projet est entièrement personnalisable mais vous pouvez, si vous êtes pressé par le temps, modifier un des modèles fournis pour terminer votre DVD encore plus vite. Conversion d’un projet Final Cut Pro en DVD Une fois que vous avez terminé le montage de votre séquence dans Final Cut Pro, vous pouvez commencer à créer un DVD basé sur cette séquence. Bien que la création d’un simple DVD à partir de la séquence soit une opération rapide et facile, vous devrez tenir compte de différents problèmes :  Vous devez convertir la séquence en ressources compatibles avec le format DVD. À l’exception d’une séquence HDV, la vidéo et l’audio d’une séquence doivent être transcodées en ressources compatibles avec le format DVD. Il existe plusieurs approches ; cependant, le plus souvent, la meilleure méthode consiste à exporter à partir de Final Cut Pro via Compressor. Vous disposez ainsi du maximum d’options et du contrôle le plus étendu sur le processus.  Si votre séquence est au format HD, vous devez choisir une norme DVD. Vous pouvez choisir de créer un DVD traditionnel à l’aide de ressources en définition standard (SD), ce qui nécessite la conversion de la vidéo en résolutions d’images SD, ou un DVD spécialisé utilisant des ressources haute définition (HD). L’avantage de la création d’un DVD SD est qu’il peut être lu dans les lecteurs de DVD actuels. L’avantage de la création d’un DVD HD est que vous pouvez conserver la qualité HD ; en revanche, les méthodes de lecture seront limitées (l’une des options de lecture est le Lecteur DVD d’Apple). Une réponse consiste à utiliser Compressor pour encoder les ressources appropriées, de façon à pouvoir créer des supports avec les deux normes DVD. 42  Vous devez déterminer les autres éléments qui seront contenus dans le DVD. Pour un DVD simple, vous souhaiterez probablement qu’un menu soit le premier élément à apparaître lors de la lecture du disque. Vous pouvez également décider d’ajouter des scènes supprimées ou d’autres séquences complémentaires pouvant nécessiter un montage supplémentaire avant la création du DVD. Importation de votre projet Final Cut Pro dans DVD Studio Pro L’exportation de vos séquences de Final Cut Pro vers Compressor pour créer des ressources compatibles avec le format DVD de haute qualité pour DVD Studio Pro, notamment la conversion de sources HD, vous offre davantage de flexibilité d’encodage que l’importation directe de la séquence dans DVD Studio Pro. Compressor crée de la vidéo MPEG-2, à la fois pour les projets SD et HD, de la vidéo H.264 pour les projets HD et de l’audio Dolby Digital AC-3. Consultez la section “Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor” à la page 30 pour plus d’informations sur l’exportation à partir de Final Cut Pro avec Compressor. Consultez la section “Création de fichiers AC-3 à partir d’audio Final Cut Pro” à la page 57 pour plus d’informations sur la création d’audio stéréo et 5.1 surround. Une fois que vous avez exporté la séquence à l’aide de Compressor, vous pouvez importer les fichiers encodés dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro. Il existe différentes façons de faire cela. Les méthodes les plus courantes sont détaillées ici. Pour importer des fichiers encodés dans DVD Studio Pro, effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes : m Faites glisser les fichiers d’une fenêtre du Finder vers l’onglet Ressources de DVD Studio Pro. m Cliquez sur Importer sous l’onglet Ressources de DVD Studio Pro, puis choisissez les fichiers dans la zone de dialogue Importer les ressources. Une fois les fichiers importés, vous pouvez les affecter aux menus et pistes en fonction des besoins. Création d’un DVD HD à partir de votre projet Final Cut Pro Il existe trois formats d’acquisition HD courants qui sont utilisés avec les projets HD : HD DVCPRO, HD non compressé et HDV. Le format que vous utilisez affecte le déroulement du montage jusqu’à la distribution du projet. Utilisation du format HD DVCPRO ou de sources non compressées Étant donné que le format HD DVCPRO et la vidéo HD non compressée donnent des tailles de fichier supérieures, les fichiers dans ces formats doivent être encodés selon un format approprié pour pouvoir être utilisés. DVD Studio Pro prend en charge deux formats pour l’utilisation dans les projets HD : HD MPEG-2 et H.264. 43  Le format HD MPEG-2 présente la même structure élémentaire que le format MPEG-2 utilisé avec les DVD SD, à ceci près qu’il utilise une gamme de débits plus élevée et qu’il prend en charge les tailles d’image du format vidéo HD.  Le format H.264, également connu sous le nom de AVC ou MPEG-4 partie 10, utilise un processus d’encodage deux fois plus efficace que le processus d’encodage MPEG-2. En comparaison avec l’encodage MPEG-2, cela signifie qu’avec l’encodeur H.264 vous pouvez :  utiliser un débit inférieur pour obtenir la même qualité, ce qui donne des fichiers plus petits ;  utiliser le même débit et obtenir une qualité supérieure avec la même taille de fichier. Vous pouvez exporter votre projet HD DVCPRO à partir de Final Cut Pro à l’aide de Compressor (comme cela est décrit dans la section “Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor” à la page 30) ou exporter une séquence QuickTime du projet et l’importer directement dans DVD Studio Pro. Comme dans le cas des projets SD Final Cut Pro, l’avantage de passer par Compressor est que vous contrôlez davantage le processus d’encodage. Vous pouvez décider si vous souhaitez créer des fichiers HD MPEG-2 ou H.264, et vous pouvez même utiliser l’encodage distribué pour réduire la durée du processus d’encodage. Important : l’encodage distribué est disponible uniquement sur les ordinateurs sur lesquels Final Cut Studio, DVD Studio Pro ou Shake est installé. Si vous choisissez d’importer votre séquence HD DVCPRO QuickTime directement dans DVD Studio Pro, l’encodeur MPEG intégré encode automatiquement la vidéo au format HD MPEG-2. Utilisation de sources HDV Le format HDV est basé sur une configuration du format MPEG-2 prise en charge par DVD Studio Pro. Cela signifie que si vous procédez à l’acquisition et au montage de la vidéo au format HDV, aucun transcodage n’est nécessaire pour une utilisation dans un projet HD. Non seulement cela permet de gagner du temps, mais cela réduit également le risque d’introduire des défauts dans la vidéo au cours du transcodage. La capacité de Final Cut Pro à monter de manière native des sources HDV fait de ce flux de travaux un moyen attractif de créer des projets DVD à l’aide de ressources HD. 44 Utilisation de Motion dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro Dans Motion, vous pouvez facilement créer des plans utilisables dans DVD Studio Pro. Les projets Motion peuvent être utilisés comme menus d’animation complexes (notamment un marqueur pour définir le point de bouclage du menu), comme graphismes animés dans les zones de dépôt et comme transitions entre des éléments tels que les boutons et leurs cibles, ou les diapositives d’un diaporama. DVD Studio Pro peut importer et prévisualiser des projets Motion non rendus. Une fois un projet Motion importé dans DVD Studio Pro, vous pouvez l’ouvrir de nouveau dans Motion pour le modifier et DVD Studio Pro met automatiquement à jour les projets avec les modifications apportées. Importation d’un projet Motion pour un menu d’animation Vous importez les projets Motion dans DVD Studio Pro de la même façon que vous importez la plupart des ressources. Pour importer un projet Motion dans DVD Studio Pro, procédez de l’une des façons suivantes : m Faites glisser le projet Motion dans l’onglet Ressources ou l’éditeur de menu de DVD Studio Pro. Lorsque vous faites glisser le projet Motion dans l’éditeur de menu, vous pouvez alors choisir la façon dont DVD Studio Pro l’utilise dans la Drop Palette qui apparaît. m Choisissez Fichier > Importer > Ressource, puis sélectionnez le projet Motion dans la zone de dialogue. m Ajoutez le dossier contenant votre projet Motion à l’onglet Vidéo de la palette DVD Studio Pro. Vous pouvez ensuite ajouter le projet en le faisant glisser dans l’emplacement adéquat, par exemple dans l’éditeur de menu, l’onglet Ressources ou la Timeline. Apport de modifications à un projet Motion déjà importé dans DVD Studio Pro Une fois le projet Motion importé, vous pouvez l’ouvrir à nouveau dans Motion à partir de l’onglet Ressources de DVD Studio Pro. Cela permet d’apporter plus rapidement et plus facilement des modifications à votre projet. Important : pour cela, DVD Studio Pro et Motion doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour ouvrir un projet Motion dans Motion, à partir de DVD Studio Pro, effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes : m Sélectionnez le projet dans l’onglet Ressources, puis choisissez Fichier > Ressource > Ouvrir dans l’éditeur. 45 m Cliquez sur le projet sous l’onglet Ressources tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis sélectionnez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. m Double-cliquez sur le projet dans l’onglet Ressources. Si vous modifiez le projet dans Motion et que vous l’enregistrez, DVD Studio Pro se met automatiquement à jour afin d’inclure ces modifications. Création et importation d’un projet Motion sous forme de transition alpha DVD Studio Pro comprend une fonction Transition alpha. Cela vous permet de créer des transitions personnalisées pour vos menus, pistes et diaporamas. Toutes les transitions ont une image de début et de fin en fonction de leur emplacement. Les transitions standard ont la capacité de transformer les images vidéo de début et de fin, permettant ainsi d’ajouter une grande variété d’effets, tels que les effets de rotation ou de flou, directement à la vidéo. Une transition alpha ne transforme pas directement les images vidéo de début et de fin ; elle effectue simplement la transition entre le début et la fin en se basant sur des séquences QuickTime que vous créez. La création d’une transition alpha requiert une à trois séquences QuickTime, en fonction du type de transition que vous souhaitez créer.  Souhaitez-vous remplacer les images de début et de fin par une séquence vidéo au cours de la transition ? Si vous souhaitez par exemple afficher une transition dans laquelle un disque DVD traverse l’écran en tournant sur lui-même, vous devez disposer d’une ressource vidéo contenant de telles images.  Souhaitez-vous que les images de début et de fin apparaissent en même temps au cours de la transition ? Dans l’exemple du DVD tournant sur lui-même, vous pouvez choisir d’afficher l’image de début autour du DVD et l’image de fin au centre de ce dernier. Pour afficher les images de début et de fin en même temps, vous avez besoin d’un cache vidéo d’arrière-plan.  Souhaitez-vous une transition par simple balayage utilisant une forme personnalisée ? Vous pouvez utiliser un cache vidéo d’arrière-plan pour créer une transition par balayage dont vous pouvez choisir la forme et l’apparence des bords (nets ou adoucis). La transition alpha contient les éléments suivants :  le dossier de ressources ;  la ressource vidéo ;  la ressource de cache vidéo ; 46  le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan. Chaque composant est décrit dans l’une des sections suivantes. Dossier de ressources Les projets et les séquences vidéo Motion utilisés en tant que transitions alpha dans DVD Studio Pro sont traités différemment des projets et des séquences vidéo Motion utilisés dans les menus et les pistes. Une fois ouvert, DVD Studio Pro recherche les dossiers de ressources de transition situés dans des zones spécifiques de votre disque dur. Tout dossier contenant des projets ou des séquences vidéo Motion appropriés est automatiquement ajouté en tant que transitions alpha et devient disponible pour vos projets DVD. Outre le fait de contenir les séquences vidéo à l’origine des transitions alpha, le dossier de ressources donne son nom à la transition. Tous les fichiers du dossier doivent porter le même nom que le dossier, suivi de “_cache” s’il s’agit de ressources de cache vidéo et de “_cache_arrière-plan” s’il s’agit de caches vidéo d’arrière-plan, afin de les distinguer. Lorsque vous ouvrez DVD Studio Pro, il recherche les dossiers de ressources dans deux emplacements :  À la racine de votre disque dur, dans : /Bibliothèque/Application Support/ DVD Studio Pro/Transitions/  Dans votre dossier Départ, dans : Utilisateurs/nom d’utilisateur/Bibliothèque/Application Support/DVD Studio Pro/Transitions/ Remarque : si vous ajoutez un dossier de ressources lorsque DVD Studio Pro est ouvert, il n’est pris en compte qu’à la prochaine ouverture de DVD Studio Pro. L’image DVD provient de la ressource vidéo et une ressource de cache vidéo détermine à quel endroit la vidéo d’arrièreplan apparaît. Image de début (en rouge dans cet exemple) Image de fin (en bleu dans cet exemple) Le cache vidéo d’arrièreplan (non visible) détermine si l’arrière-plan affiche la vidéo de début ou de fin. 47 Ressource vidéo La ressource vidéo est nécessaire si vous souhaitez remplacer les images de début et de fin par n’importe quelle séquence vidéo au cours de la transition. Si vous souhaitez, par exemple, afficher une transition pendant laquelle un DVD traverse l’écran en tournant sur lui-même, l’image du DVD volant sera fournie par la ressource vidéo. La ressource vidéo doit porter le même nom que celui du dossier des ressources et elle peut avoir une extension de fichier. Si le nom du dossier contenant les ressources est “DVD tournant“, le nom de fichier de la ressource vidéo sera par exemple “DVD tournant.mov”. Il existe deux aspects facultatifs pour la ressource vidéo : un canal alpha et un point de commutation. Dans l’exemple du DVD tournant sur lui-même, vous pouvez faire en sorte que les images vidéo de début et de fin soient visibles à travers le centre du DVD et autour du bord extérieur. Pour cela, vous devez utiliser un canal alpha afin que DVD Studio Pro sache quelle partie de la ressource vidéo il doit afficher et quelle partie il doit masquer. Ce canal alpha peut être fourni de deux manières : soit en l’incorporant à la ressource vidéo, soit en tant que ressource de cache vidéo distincte (voir “Ressource de cache vidéo”, ci-après). Important : lorsque le canal alpha est incorporé à la ressource vidéo, assurez-vous que la sortie vidéo est prémultipliée. Si votre transition ne nécessite pas que les images vidéo de début et de fin se trouvent à l’écran simultanément, vous pouvez ajouter un marqueur de point de commutation à la ressource vidéo afin de contrôler à quel moment la transition passe de l’affichage de l’image de début à celui de l’image de fin. Si vous souhaitez que les images vidéo de début et de fin s’affichent simultanément à l’écran, vous devez utiliser un cache vidéo d’arrière-plan (voir section “Cache vidéo d’arrière-plan” à la page 49). La ressource vidéo fournit une transition vidéo en plus des images de début et de fin. La ressource vidéo peut contenir un canal alpha pour déterminer l’endroit où doit apparaître l’arrière-plan. 48 Si le dossier des ressources de transition ne contient pas de cache vidéo d’arrière-plan, DVD Studio Pro effectue les opérations suivantes pour définir le point de commutation :  DVD Studio Pro commence par examiner la ressource vidéo afin de voir s’il y a un marqueur nommé TransitionSwitchPoint. S’il est présent, ce marqueur est utilisé comme point de commutation. Vous pouvez ajouter ce marqueur à la ressource vidéo dans Motion en sélectionnant Transition DVD Alpha dans le menu local Type du menu Modifier le marqueur.  S’il n’est pas présent, DVD Studio Pro recherche la présence de marqueurs dans la ressource vidéo. S’il est présent, le premier marqueur est utilisé comme point de commutation.  Si aucun marqueur n’est présent dans la ressource vidéo, le point de commutation est configuré sur le point milieu de la ressource vidéo. Ressource de cache vidéo La ressource de cache vidéo n’est nécessaire que lorsqu’une ressource vidéo sans canal alpha est utilisée par la transition. Le fait de disposer d’une ressource de cache vidéo distincte peut s’avérer particulièrement utile lorsque la ressource vidéo est une séquence normale plutôt qu’une animation. La ressource de cache vidéo doit porter le même nom que le dossier des ressources, suivi de “_cache” et éventuellement d’une extension de fichier. Si le nom du dossier contenant les ressources vidéo est “DVD tournant”, le nom de fichier de la ressource de cache vidéo sera par exemple “DVD tournant_cache.mov”. La ressource de cache vidéo doit être monochrome. Les blancs permettent d’identifier la ressource vidéo à utiliser et les noirs servent à identifier l’emplacement des images vidéo de début et de fin. Vous pouvez également utiliser des niveaux intermédiaires entre le blanc et le noir pour définir une transparence et ajouter des bords adoucis. Les zones blanches définissent l’endroit où la ressource vidéo apparaît. Les zones noires définissent l’endroit où apparaît la vidéo d’arrière-plan (image de début ou de fin, en fonction du point d’alternance ou du cache vidéo d’arrière-plan). Les zones grises définissent également l’endroit où la ressource vidéo apparaît, mais en transparence. 49 Cache vidéo d’arrière-plan Le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan peut être utilisé de deux façons :  Vous pouvez l’utiliser conjointement avec la ressource vidéo pour contrôler les parties de l’écran devant afficher l’image vidéo de début et les parties devant afficher l’image vidéo de fin.  Vous pouvez également l’utiliser comme seule séquence vidéo du dossier des ressources de la transition afin de fournir une transition par balayage. Comme lorsqu’il est utilisé avec la ressource vidéo, le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan contrôle les parties de l’écran devant afficher l’image vidéo de début et les parties devant afficher l’image vidéo de fin. Le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan doit porter le même nom que le dossier des ressources de la transition suivi de “_cache_arrière-plan” et d’une extension de fichier. Si le nom du dossier contenant les ressources vidéo de la transition est “DVD tournant”, le nom de fichier de la ressource de cache vidéo sera par exemple “DVD tournant_cache_arrière-plan.mov”. Le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan doit être monochrome. Les blancs permettent d’identifier l’image vidéo de début et les noirs servent à identifier l’emplacement de l’image vidéo de fin. De façon générale, le cache vidéo d’arrière-plan doit débuter avec un écran entièrement blanc et terminer avec un écran entièrement noir. Vous pouvez également utiliser des niveaux intermédiaires entre le blanc et le noir pour définir une transparence et ajouter des bords adoucis. Les zones blanches définissent l’emplacement de l’image de début de la vidéo d’arrière-plan. Les zones noires définissent l’emplacement de l’image de fin de la vidéo d’arrière-plan. 50 Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro La création d’un DVD impose diverses exigences audio complexes parfaitement gérées par Soundtrack Pro :  Audio destiné aux menus : une façon simple de rendre vos menus DVD plus attrayants consiste à leur ajouter du son. Vous pouvez ajouter du son à vos menus animés et à la plupart de vos menus fixes. Lorsque vous créez vos menus à l’aide de Motion, l’intégration entre Soundtrack Pro et Motion facilite la création de sons correspondant aux actions du menu, notamment des effets sonores tels qu’un souffle ou un bruit sourd lors du passage ou de l’atterrissage des éléments de menu.  Audio destiné aux diaporamas : vous pouvez rendre vos diaporamas plus accrocheurs en y ajoutant un fond musical. Vous pouvez en effet créer des clips audio individuels pour chaque diapo ou un seul clip audio pour l’ensemble du diaporama.  Audio compatible avec le format DVD : les projets DVD imposent des exigences audio spécifiques. Soundtrack Pro peut créer des fichiers audio AIFF non compressés compatibles avec le format DVD, que vous pouvez utiliser directement dans vos projets DVD. Ces fichiers requièrent une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kilohertz (kHz) et un codage 16 ou 24 bits. En outre, Soundtrack Pro inclut la possibilité d’exporter via Compressor, ce qui facilite la création de tout élément, de la simple stéréo aux fichiers audio Dolby Digital AC-3 au format 5.1 surround. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Exportation à partir de Soundtrack Pro avec Compressor” à la page 53. Il existe différentes méthodes permettant d’enregistrer un projet Soundtrack Pro en vue d’une utilisation dans DVD Studio Pro. En général, le choix consiste à déterminer si vous souhaitez enregistrer un projet avec des liens intégrés qui facilitent sa réouverture et sa modification, ou si vous souhaitez effectuer un simple enregistrement. Enregistrement de projets Soundtrack Pro pour DVD Studio Pro Voici la description d’une méthode d’enregistrement d’un projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro qui facilite le retour au projet Soundtrack Pro original si des modifications doivent être effectuées ultérieurement. Pour enregistrer et exporter un projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro : 1 Configurez l’audio dans la Timeline et le Mélangeur. 2 Choisissez Fichier > Enregistrer sous. 3 Tapez un nom pour le fichier. 4 Cliquez sur Enregistrer. Les réglages actuels sont ainsi enregistrés sous forme de projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro avec l’extension de fichier “.stmp”. Ensuite, exportez le fichier audio que vous allez importer dans DVD Studio Pro. 51 5 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Exporter le mixage. 6 Tapez un nom pour le fichier. 7 Configurez la profondeur de bits sur 16 bits ou 24 bits, et la fréquence d’échantillonnage sur 48 kHz. 8 Cliquez sur Exporter. Cela permet d’enregistrer un fichier audio lié au fichier de projet précédemment enregistré, ce qui peut s’avérer utile si vous devez apporter ultérieurement des modifications au fichier audio. Important : la procédure suivante nécessite que DVD Studio Pro et Soundtrack Pro soient installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour apporter des modifications au fichier audio lié à partir de DVD Studio Pro : 1 Cliquez sur le fichier audio dans l’onglet Ressources tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis sélectionnez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel. Une zone de dialogue apparaît pour vous permettre de choisir s’il faut ouvrir le fichier audio comme un fichier audio normal ou bien ouvrir le fichier de projet multipiste Soundtrack Pro du projet. 2 Cliquez sur Ouvrir le projet. Le projet Soundtrack Pro original s’ouvre. Une fois que vous avez effectué vos modifications, enregistrez le projet et utilisez la commande Exporter le mixage pour exporter un nouveau clip audio (en utilisant le même nom et le même emplacement que celui ouvert dans le projet DVD Studio Pro). Cela permet de garantir que cette nouvelle version du fichier audio apparaîtra automatiquement dans le projet DVD Studio Pro. Utilisation de Soundtrack Pro avec des projets Motion L’intégration entre Soundtrack Pro et Motion facilite la création d’audio qui vient en complément des effets que vous pouvez ajouter à votre projet Motion. La capacité d’aller-retour est particulièrement utile si vous devez modifier le timing des effets du projet et que vous avez besoin de modifier également l’audio. Il arrive fréquemment que le menu d’animation soit basé sur une séquence d’arrière-plan incluant déjà de l’audio, par exemple un court plan de la séquence principale. Important : pour cela, Soundtrack Pro et Motion doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. 52 Pour envoyer l’audio d’un projet Motion vers Soundtrack Pro : 1 Cliquez sur l’onglet Audio dans la sous-fenêtre Projet de Motion. 2 Sélectionnez la piste audio à envoyer à Soundtrack Pro. 3 Choisissez Édition > Envoyer l’audio vers Soundtrack. 4 Tapez un nom de fichier, choisissez une destination, puis cliquez sur “Enregistrer sous Audio Soundtrack”. Un projet audio Soundtrack Pro est ainsi créé, avec l’extension de fichier “.stap”, qui s’ouvre automatiquement dans l’Éditeur de forme d’onde Soundtrack Pro avec la vidéo Motion, de sorte que vous puissiez appliquer des actions et coller les effets sonores comme nécessaire. Une fois que vous avez terminé l’audio, il vous suffit d’enregistrer le projet audio dans Soundtrack Pro. Lorsque vous revenez dans Motion, l’audio est automatiquement mis à jour afin d’inclure les modifications. Il s’agit d’un processus non destructif (le fichier audio original n’est pas modifié). Exportation d’audio AIFF à partir de Soundtrack Pro Vous pouvez choisir d’exporter vers un projet un mixage de toutes les pistes pour lesquelles vous n’avez pas coupé le son ou d’exporter individuellement des pistes stéréo. Pour exporter un mixage à partir d’un projet Soundtrack Pro multipiste : 1 Configurez les pistes et le Mélangeur. Cela consiste notamment à désactiver l’audio des pistes que vous ne souhaitez pas exporter. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Exporter le mixage. Une zone de dialogue s’ouvre pour indiquer les réglages du fichier audio exporté. 3 Configurez les réglages d’exportation. S’il s’agit d’un projet DVD, sélectionnez le réglage de profondeur de bits audio de 16 bits ou 24 bits et une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kHz. 4 Cliquez sur Exporter. Pour exporter une seule piste Soundtrack Pro : 1 Sélectionnez la piste à exporter. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Exporter la piste sélectionnée. Une zone de dialogue s’ouvre pour indiquer les réglages de la piste exportée. 3 Configurez les réglages d’exportation. S’il s’agit d’un projet DVD, sélectionnez le réglage de profondeur de bits audio de 16 bits ou 24 bits et une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kHz. 4 Cliquez sur Exporter. Si aucune piste n’est sélectionnée, vous pouvez exporter la totalité des pistes, des bus et des sorties en une seule étape. 53 Pour exporter simultanément l’ensemble des pistes, bus et sorties Soundtrack Pro : 1 Assurez-vous qu’aucune piste n’est sélectionnée. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Exporter tous les objets du mélangeur. Une zone de dialogue s’ouvre pour indiquer les réglages des pistes exportées. 3 Configurez les réglages d’exportation. S’il s’agit d’un projet DVD, sélectionnez le réglage de profondeur de bits audio de 16 bits ou 24 bits et une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kHz. 4 Cliquez sur Exporter. Un fichier AIFF individuel est exporté pour chaque piste, chaque bus et chaque sortie dont le son n’est pas désactivé. Exportation à partir de Soundtrack Pro avec Compressor L’exportation à partir de Soundtrack Pro avec Compressor offre des options supplémentaires, notamment la possibilité d’exporter des fichiers audio AC-3. Consultez la section “Pourquoi créer des fichiers AC-3 ?” à la page 55 pour plus d’informations sur les avantages des fichiers audio au format AC-3 dans vos projets DVD. Il existe deux types courants de fichiers AC-3 que vous pouvez créer avec Soundtrack Pro : stéréo et son surround 5.1. Les fichiers stéréo AC-3 sont généralement les plus faciles à créer, en particulier si les canaux de gauche et de droite sont déjà configurés. Dans ce cas, vous devez simplement choisir un préréglage Compressor à utiliser ; l’association des canaux est gérée automatiquement. Les fichiers audio Surround 5.1 nécessitent l’association des canaux de sortie physiques Soundtrack Pro avec les canaux de son surround. Vous devez d’abord configurer vos sorties afin qu’elles génèrent l’audio adéquat sur les canaux physiques appropriés. Important : pour cela, Compressor et Soundtrack Pro doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour exporter depuis Soundtrack Pro via Compressor : 1 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Avec Compressor. 2 Tapez un nom pour le fichier de sortie dans le champ Enregistrer sous. 3 Sélectionnez Conserver la vidéo ou Encoder la vidéo.  Si vous sélectionnez Conserver la vidéo, la vidéo n’est pas transcodée ; elle est simplement copiée vers le nouveau fichier.  Si vous sélectionnez Encoder la vidéo, la vidéo est transcodée avec le préréglage sélectionné. 54 4 Choisissez un préréglage à utiliser dans le menu local Conserver la vidéo ou Encoder la vidéo (en fonction de l’option sélectionnée). Vous pouvez modifier le préréglage ou en créer un nouveau personnalisé en cliquant sur Modifier les préréglages. Compressor s’ouvre. 5 Si vous exportez un fichier audio multicanal, cliquez sur “Modifier la présentation des canaux” pour ouvrir la zone de dialogue d’affectation de canal, choisissez le canal de sortie physique pour chaque canal du fichier exporté, puis cliquez sur OK. 6 Cliquez sur Exporter. Utilisation de Compressor dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro Même si vous pouvez importer directement des séquences QuickTime dans DVD Studio Pro et utiliser son encodeur MPEG intégré pour créer de la vidéo MPEG à partir des séquences, Compressor permet de bénéficier d’une plus grande souplesse lors de l’encodage. Les avantages offerts par Compressor pour coder vos ressources DVD Studio Pro incluent notamment :  Réglages d’encodage supplémentaires : Compressor contient plusieurs réglages d’encodage MPEG qui ne sont pas disponibles avec l’encodeur MPEG intégré, notamment plusieurs réglages de structure GOP (groupe d’images).  Encodage de sources 24p et HD pour les projets DVD SD : Compressor peut encoder des flux MPEG 24 ips au format NTSC. En outre, Compressor vous permet de réaliser une conversion vers le bas haute qualité de sources HD, facilitant ainsi la création de projets SD traditionnels de haute qualité à partir de séquences Final Cut Pro.  Encodage de sources HD pour les projets de DVD HD : Compressor peut encoder de la vidéo HD non compressée et DVCPRO dans les flux vidéo MPEG-2 ou H.264 requis par DVD Studio Pro.  Encodage de séquences audio AC-3 : Compressor peut encoder de l’audio dans des flux audio Dolby Digital AC-3. L’utilisation d’audio compressée dans vos projets DVD réduit l’espace disque requis. Étant donné que les fichiers AC-3 nécessitent un débit nettement inférieur aux fichiers audio AIFF créés par l’encodeur audio intégré à DVD Studio Pro, cela vous permet d’utiliser un débit supérieur pour les ressources vidéo.  Vidéo MPEG-1 : même si le format MPEG-2 permet d’obtenir des projets DVD SD de qualité optimale, le format MPEG-1 peut constituer une solution de remplacement satisfaisante lorsque vous devez faire tenir plus de vidéo sur le DVD. La résolution et le débit inférieurs du format MPEG-1 permettent d’obtenir des fichiers moins volumineux qu’avec le format MPEG-2. Compressor peut créer des fichiers vidéo MPEG-1 que DVD Studio Pro peut importer et utiliser en tant que ressources pour les pistes de vos projets SD. 55 À propos des méthodes de flux de travaux de Compressor Vous pouvez utiliser deux flux de travaux dans Compressor :  Méthode normale : utilisez les fenêtres de Compressor pour configurer tous les aspects du codage. Vous pouvez choisir parmi des réglages préconfigurés, appelés préréglages, ou créer des réglages personnalisés. Vous pouvez également configurer un lot de fichiers pour l’encodage. Le lot peut inclure de multiples fichiers de données source ou un seul fichier de données et les résultats codés peuvent adopter de nombreux formats. Consultez la section “Exportation d’une séquence avec Compressor” à la page 30 pour plus d’informations sur le processus.  Méthode avec droplet : vous pouvez créer des droplets qui serviront de raccourcis pour effectuer le codage. Les droplets facilitent grandement l’encodage de routine en imposant de faire glisser les fichiers à encoder sur l’icône de Droplet, sans qu’il soit nécessaire d’ouvrir d’abord Compressor. Ce dernier est créé à partir d’un préréglage ou d’un groupe de préréglages et d’une destination. Consultez la documentation de Compressor pour en savoir plus sur ces méthodes. Pourquoi créer des fichiers AC-3 ? Lors de la création de projets DVD, il arrive souvent que la quantité de ressources soit supérieure à la capacité de votre DVD. Une solution consiste à utiliser des données audio compressées plutôt que des données audio PCM et AIFF non compressées. L’utilisation de données audio compressées peut :  Réduire la quantité d’espace disque de DVD requise par vos ressources audio.  Réduire la bande passante dédiée à l’audio lors de la lecture du DVD, ce qui permet d’utiliser un débit vidéo plus élevé.  Permettre d’inclure du son surround Dolby Digital dans votre projet. Compressor inclut un encodeur Dolby Digital AC-3 capable de créer des fichiers audio contenant un à six canaux (son surround 5.1). L’encodeur AC-3 contient toutes les fonctions nécessaires à la création d’audio AC-3 compatible avec le format DVD à partir de fichiers audio non compressés. Important : l’encodeur AC-3 peut uniquement créer des fichiers surround 5.1 à partir des sources appropriées. Il ne peut pas créer du son surround 5.1 à partir d’une source stéréo. Idéalement, les fichiers source sont de l’audio non compressé (format AIFF ou PCM par exemple) avec une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kHz. Cependant, Compressor peut utiliser des fichiers audio déjà compressés. Il est possible d’avoir des fichiers source distincts pour chaque canal, ce qui est souvent le cas pour le codage 5.1, ou d’utiliser des fichiers source contenant un ou plusieurs canaux audio. 56 Création de fichiers AC-3 avec Compressor La façon dont vous créez le fichier AC-3 varie selon que vous utilisez un fichier audio unique comme source ou plusieurs fichiers audio (comme c’est souvent le cas pour le son surround). Utilisation d’un fichier audio unique Vous pouvez utiliser les méthodes décrites dans la section “À propos des méthodes de flux de travaux de Compressor” à la page 55 pour encoder un flux AC-3 à partir d’un fichier source unique, avec Compressor qui affecte automatiquement les canaux audio. Lorsque vous sélectionnez un préréglage AC-3, Compressor associe automatiquement les canaux gauche et droit. Utilisation de plusieurs fichiers audio source L’encodage d’un fichier AC-3 à partir de plusieurs fichiers source est un peu différent de l’encodage à partir d’un fichier audio unique, car Compressor ne peut pas savoir automatiquement quel fichier affecter à quel canal. En outre, avec l’exception étudiée dans la section “Utilisation de plusieurs fichiers source avec des codes d’identification de canal” à la page 57, lorsque vous faites glisser plusieurs fichiers audio vers la fenêtre Lot, Compressor crée une tâche distincte pour chaque fichier. Pour encoder un fichier AC-3 à partir de plusieurs fichiers source : 1 Cliquez sur le bouton “Importer un groupe de sons Surround” de la fenêtre Lot. La zone de dialogue d’association audio apparaît. 2 Cliquez sur une icône représentant un haut-parleur afin d’ouvrir la zone de dialogue de sélection, puis sélectionnez le fichier pour ce canal audio. 3 Continuez avec les autres icônes de haut-parleur jusqu’à ce que vous ayez affecté des fichiers à chaque canal que vous souhaitez utiliser dans le fichier AC-3. 4 Cliquez sur OK afin de fermer la zone de dialogue d’association audio. 5 Configurez les réglages AC-3 dans l’Inspecteur. 6 Cliquez sur Soumettre dans la fenêtre Lot. 57 Utilisation de plusieurs fichiers source avec des codes d’identification de canal Compressor inclut la possibilité d’affecter automatiquement des fichiers audio aux canaux de son surround si leur nom de fichier contient des codes d’identification de canaux. Les codes d’identification des canaux apparaissent avant l’extension du fichier (si elle est présente), comme illustré dans l’exemple suivant : En faisant glisser un ensemble de fichiers avec les codes d’identification de canaux vers la fenêtre Lot de Compressor, vous pouvez créer une entrée de lot unique qui associe automatiquement les fichiers aux canaux appropriés pour un encodage de son surround. Création de fichiers AC-3 à partir d’audio Final Cut Pro Lorsque vous devez encoder de l’audio à partir de Final Cut Pro pour une utilisation dans un DVD, vous pouvez soit exporter l’audio directement vers Compressor, soit exporter les fichiers audio AIFF afin de les ouvrir dans Compressor. L’exportation de l’audio directement vers Compressor est le même processus que l’exportation de la vidéo directement vers Compressor. La différence est que vous sélectionnez un préréglage AC-3 à la place (ou en plus) d’un préréglage vidéo. Cette méthode fonctionne uniquement lorsque vous utilisez un fichier audio unique pour l’audio AC-3 et que vous pouvez vous baser sur Compressor pour affecter les canaux audio. Pour plus d’informations, consultez la section “Utilisation de Compressor avec Final Cut Pro” à la page 30. L’exportation de fichiers audio AIFF séparés est nécessaire lorsque vous devez pouvoir affecter les fichiers aux canaux audio, par exemple avec le son surround (5.1). Pour exporter des fichiers audio adaptés au codage en son surround 5.1, vous devez passer plusieurs fois par la phase d’exportation. Vous pouvez par exemple exporter un fichier stéréo contenant le son pour les canaux avant droit et gauche, un deuxième fichier contenant le son pour les canaux arrière droit et gauche, un troisième fichier contenant le son pour le canal central et un quatrième fichier contenant le son pour le canal LFE (Low Frequency Effects). Exemples de noms de fichiers Canal Identificateur MonFilm-L.aif Avant gauche -L MonFilm-R.aif Avant droit -R MonFilm-C.aif Avant centre -C MonFilm-RL.aif Surround gauche -RL MonFilm-RR.aif Surround droit -RR MonFilm-RC.aif Surround centre -RC MonFilm-LFE.aif Effets basse fréquence (subwoofer) -LFE 58 Pour exporter plusieurs fichiers audio Final Cut Pro pour l’encodage AC-3 : 1 Activez les pistes audio à exporter. Pensez à désactiver les pistes que vous ne souhaitez pas exporter car Final Cut Pro fusionne toutes les pistes activées en un seul fichier stéréo. 2 Sélectionnez Fichier > Exporter > Audio vers AIFF. 3 Configurez le fichier de sortie et cliquez sur Enregistrer. Remarque : avant de lancer l’exportation, veillez à sélectionner une fréquence d’échantillonnage de 48 kHz. Utilisation de LiveType dans votre projet DVD Studio Pro Vous pouvez utiliser LiveType pour créer des arrière-plans avec du texte pour les menus d’animation ou pour créer des titres vidéo que vous pouvez placer dans des zones de dépôt. Cela facilite la création de titres passionnants, avec un large éventail d’effets, notamment le rebond, l’étirement et le grincement. DVD Studio Pro tire automatiquement parti de l’arrière-plan transparent si votre projet LiveType en utilise un. Cela permet à DVD Studio Pro de composer les caractères de texte sur les autres éléments de menu lorsque votre projet LiveType est ajouté à une zone de dépôt. Vous pouvez même configurer la zone de dépôt à la même taille que la taille d’image vidéo du menu, de sorte que le texte apparaisse exactement comme dans LiveType. Importation d’un projet LiveType dans DVD Studio Pro Grâce à l’importation de fichiers de projets LiveType dans DVD Studio Pro, vous n’avez plus besoin de rendre une séquence QuickTime de votre titre LiveType chaque fois que vous souhaitez l’utiliser dans DVD Studio Pro. Pour importer un projet LiveType dans DVD Studio Pro, procédez de l’une des façons suivantes : m Faites glisser le projet LiveType dans l’onglet Ressources ou l’éditeur de menu de DVD Studio Pro. Lorsque vous faites glisser le projet LiveType dans l’éditeur de menu, vous pouvez alors choisir la façon dont DVD Studio Pro l’utilise dans la Drop Palette qui apparaît. m Choisissez Fichier > Importer > Ressource, puis sélectionnez le projet LiveType dans la zone de dialogue qui apparaît et cliquez sur Choisir. m Ajoutez le dossier contenant votre projet LiveType à l’onglet Vidéo de la palette DVD Studio Pro. Vous pouvez ensuite ajouter le projet en le faisant glisser dans l’emplacement adéquat, par exemple dans l’éditeur de menu, l’onglet Ressources ou la Timeline. 59 Apporter des modifications à un projet LiveType déjà importé dans DVD Studio Pro Bien que vous puissiez effectuer des tâches normales de création de DVD avec un projet LiveType, le contenu des titres LiveType ne peut pas être modifié dans DVD Studio Pro. Les réglages de titre LiveType ne peuvent être en effet modifiés que dans l’application LiveType. DVD Studio Pro permet d’ouvrir rapidement des plans LiveType directement dans l’application LiveType en vue d’en modifier le titre. Important : pour cela, DVD Studio Pro et LiveType doivent être installés sur le même ordinateur. Pour ouvrir et modifier un projet LiveType dans LiveType, à partir de DVD Studio Pro : 1 Effectuez l’une des opérations suivantes :  Sélectionnez le projet LiveType dans l’onglet Ressources, puis choisissez Fichier > Ressource > Ouvrir dans l’éditeur.  Cliquez sur le projet LiveType sous l’onglet Ressources tout en maintenant la touche Contrôle enfoncée, puis sélectionnez Ouvrir dans l’éditeur dans le menu contextuel.  Double-cliquez sur le projet LiveType dans l’onglet Ressources. 2 Dans LiveType, apportez toutes les modifications nécessaires au titre LiveType. 3 Enregistrez le fichier de projet LiveType. 4 Retournez à DVD Studio Pro. Toute modification apportée au projet dans LiveType est automatiquement reflétée dans DVD Studio Pro. Apple Loops Utility User Manual  Apple Computer, Inc. © 2005 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the written consent of Apple. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple Computer, Inc. is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Apple Computer, Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014-2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, the Apple logo, AppleScript, DVD Studio Pro, iTunes, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, FireWire, Logic, Mac, Mac OS, Macintosh, QuickTime, and Soundtrack are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Care is a service mark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Production stills from the films “Koffee House Mayhem” and “A Sus Ordenes” provided courtesy of Refuge Films. “Koffee House Mayhem” © 2004 Jean-Paul Bonjour; “A Sus Ordenes” © 2004 Eric Escobar. http://www.refugefilms.com Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. 3 1 Using Apple Loops Utility Some audio files you use in Soundtrack Pro can include metadata called tags. Tags provide information about the audio recorded in a file. Soundtrack Pro uses tags in one of two ways:  To help locate files using the Search feature in Soundtrack Pro  To provide information that Soundtrack Pro uses when matching the file’s tempo and key to the project tempo and key, for the best possible playback quality Both AIFF and WAV file formats can include tags. Libraries of audio files created for use with loop-based music software are usually tagged, and Soundtrack Pro recognizes the tags used in most popular file formats. What Is Apple Loops Utility? Apple Loops Utility is a companion application to Soundtrack Pro that you can use to view and manage tags in audio files. You can add and change tags using Apple Loops Utility; you can also tag multiple files, a process known as batch tagging . Apple Loops Utility can read both AIFF and WAV file formats. When you save changes you make to either type of file, the file is saved as an AIFF file, the default file format for Soundtrack Pro. The set of tags you can work with using Apple Loops Utility includes all of the tags in WAV files tagged for use with Sony’s ACID music application, as well as additional tags. Tagged audio files can also contain information about transients. Transients indicate where beats occur in the file, and Soundtrack Pro uses transients to play back audio files at the highest level of quality. Apple Loops Utility can detect transients present in an audio file, and you can use Apple Loops Utility to add markers for additional transients and move them to new locations. 4 The Apple Loops Utility Interface The interface consists of a window with two tabs: the Tags tab and the Transients tab. The bottom of the window includes a set of playback controls and file management buttons. Apple Loops Utility also includes an Assets drawer, located to the right of the main window, where you manage open files. Playback controls Assets drawer Tabs Main window 5 Tags Tab The Tags tab includes areas for different types of tags, and also includes a set of playback controls you can use to listen to a file open in Apple Loops Utility. Listening to a file can help you decide which tags are appropriate for the file. Property Tags  Number of Beats field: Displays the number of beats in the file.  File Type buttons: Set the file type, which can be Non-looping or Looping.  Key pop-up menu: Sets the key of the file.  Scale Type pop-up menu: Sets the file’s scale type. The choices are Major, Minor, Good for Both, and Neither.  Time Signature pop-up menu: Sets the file’s time signature. The choices are 4/4, 3/4, 5/4, 6/8, and 7/8.  Author field: Displays the name of the file’s author. You can enter a new name by typing in the field.  Copyright field: Displays the file’s copyright data, if it exists. You can enter new data by typing in the field.  Comment field: Displays any comments about the file. You can enter comments by typing in the field. 6 Search Tags These tags are used by the Search feature in Soundtrack Pro when you search for files matching specific criteria.  Genre pop-up menu: Displays choices for the musical genre of the file.  Instrumentation list: Displays choices for the musical instrument or instrument category recorded in the file. Selecting an instrument category in the left column displays the list of instruments in that category in the right column. File Info This area of the Tags tab includes rows with Kind, Length, Date Modified, Sample Rate, Channels, Tempo, and File Location information. This information is for viewing only, and cannot be edited in the Tags tab. Descriptors Descriptors are complementary pairs of keywords describing the mood or character of the music recorded in the file. Each pair of keywords has a row of buttons, allowing you to choose either one keyword from the pair, or neither keyword. Transients Tab The Transients tab contains a large waveform display, with a Beat ruler and a horizontal scroll bar. Markers indicate the position of transients in the file. Typically, transients correspond to the peaks or most pronounced amplitude changes in a sound’s waveform. The Transients tab includes controls for the beat division and sensitivity with which Apple Loops Utility detects transients in the file. You can also listen to the file using the playback controls to help determine where transients occur. Waveform of audio file Transient marker Sensitivity slider Transient Division pop-up menu 7 The Transients tab includes the following controls:  Transient Division pop-up menu: Sets the beat value at which Apple Loops Utility detects transients.  Sensitivity slider: Sets the degree of sensitivity at which Apple Loops Utility detects transients. Assets Drawer The Assets drawer lists the files open in Apple Loops Utility. The drawer, which is open when you open Apple Loops Utility, contains a Name column with the name of each open file, and a Changes column, which indicates any files to which you have applied changes. Add File and Remove File buttons Changes column 8 Playback and File Management Controls The bottom of the Apple Loops Utility window contains a set of playback controls so that you can listen to the file in Apple Loops Utility. The playback controls do not affect the file’s tags, only the playback of the selected file.  Go to Beginning button: Starts playback from the beginning of the selected file.  Play button: Plays back the selected file.  Stop button: Stops playback of the selected file.  Key pop-up menu: Transposes the selected file to a new key for playback.  Tempo slider: Sets the playback tempo of the selected file. You can also enter a value in the field.  Volume slider: Sets the playback volume of the selected file. You can also enter a value in the field. When multiple files are selected, the playback controls are not available. You cannot play more than one file at a time. There are two additional buttons at the bottom of the window, the Assets button and the Save button.  Assets button: Shows and hides the Assets drawer.  Save button: Saves your changes to the currently selected files in the Assets drawer. Play button Stop button Assets button Go to Beginning button Tempo slider Volume slider Key pop-up menu 9 Opening Files in Apple Loops Utility You can open audio files from within Apple Loops Utility, or directly from a Soundtrack Pro project. You can have up to 2000 files open at the same time. When you open files in Apple Loops Utility, the files are displayed in the File list of the Assets drawer. To open an audio file in Apple Loops Utility, do one of the following: m Choose File > Open, then select the file in the Open dialog. m Choose File > Open Recent, then choose a file from the submenu. m Click the Add File button in the Assets drawer. m Drag files from the Finder to the Assets drawer. To open an audio file from Soundtrack Pro into Apple Loops Utility: m Control-click the file in Soundtrack Pro, then choose Open in Apple Loops Utility from the shortcut menu. To open multiple files in Apple Loops Utility, do one of the following: m Choose File > Open, then Shift-click the files in the Open dialog. m Drag the volume or folder containing the files from the Finder to the Assets drawer. You can have multiple Apple Loops Utility windows open at the same time so that you can compare different files. Each time you open an Apple Loops Utility window, an Open dialog appears, letting you choose the file or files to open in that window. You can change the open window behavior in the Apple Loops Utility Preferences window. See “Apple Loops Utility Preferences” on page 14 for more information. 10 Tagging Files in Apple Loops Utility To tag files, you select the files in the Assets drawer, and then make changes to the selected files’ tags in the Tags tab. When you change the settings in the Tags tab, the changes are applied only to the currently selected files. When you make changes to a file’s tags, a dot appears in the Changes column next to the filename to indicate that the file has been changed. You can select a file or group of files and make one or several changes, and then select another file or group of files and make different changes. Apple Loops Utility remembers all the changes you make as you work with different files. When you finish making changes, you can save changes to only the currently selected files, or save changes to all files marked in the Changes column of the Assets drawer. Note: Changing a file’s tags has no effect on the actual audio data recorded in the file. Changing the tag for the number of beats, for example, only changes the information used when Soundtrack Pro searches for files, not the actual number of beats recorded in the audio file. Similarly, changing the tag for key has no effect on the actual musical key of the audio file. To tag a single audio file: 1 Select the file in the Assets drawer. (If the drawer is closed, click the Assets button to open it.) Note: When a single file is selected, you can use the Up and Down Arrow keys to move up and down the files in the Assets drawer. You can listen to the file using the playback controls. 2 Make the changes you want to the file’s tags in the Tags tab. See “Tags Tab” on page 5 for information about the options in the Tags tab. 3 Click Save to save changes to the selected file, or click Save All to save all changes. 11 Tagging Multiple Files When multiple files are selected, only the tags that apply to all the selected files can be changed. Items in the Tags tab that do not apply to all the currently selected files are dimmed and unavailable. Each tag has a checkbox. Select the checkbox next to the tags for which you want to save changes. To tag multiple files: 1 Select the files in one of the following ways:  Shift-click to select adjacent files in the Assets drawer.  Command-click to select nonadjacent files in the Assets drawer.  Press Command-Shift-A to select all files in the Assets drawer. 2 Make the changes you want to the available tags for the selected files in the Tags tab. See “Tags Tab” on page 5 for information about the options in the Tags tab. 3 Select the checkboxes next to the tags for which you want to save changes. 4 Click Save to save changes to the selected files, or click Save All to save all changes. There are many keyboard shortcuts to simplify the task of tagging files. For a complete list of keyboard shortcuts, see “Apple Loops Utility Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 15. Working With Transients Transients are the points in an audio file where beats occur. Typically, transients occur at the widest areas of a waveform in the waveform display. During playback, Soundtrack Pro adjusts looping files using a technique called stretching to achieve the best audio quality, based on the loop’s transients. Non-looping files are not affected by stretching. When you open a file in Apple Loops Utility, it looks for transients at every 16th note position, based on the file’s tags for tempo and the number of beats. You can change the beat value at which Apple Loops Utility detects transients using the Transient Division pop-up menu. To display a file in the Transients tab: m Select the file in the Assets drawer, then click the Transients tab. The Transients window can display only one file. If multiple files are selected, no waveform is displayed in the window. The waveform display in the Transients tab displays both the transients detected by Apple Loops Utility and transients you add to the file. You can add transients and move existing transients in the Transients tab. To add a new transient: m Click in the darker area above the Beat ruler in the waveform display. 12 To move a transient marker: m Drag the marker by its handle in the area above the Beat ruler. To change the beat value of detected transients: m Choose a beat value from the Transient Division pop-up menu. Choosing a larger beat value results in fewer transients being detected. Choosing a smaller beat value results in more transients being detected, if they are present in the audio recorded in the file. Sometimes transients occur at points in the audio file other than on a beat value. You can have Apple Loops Utility detect additional transients in the file using the Sensitivity slider. When you increase the sensitivity of transient detection, Apple Loops Utility considers points of higher amplitude in the waveform as transients, regardless of whether or not they occur at a beat value. To change the sensitivity of transient detection: m Drag the Sensitivity slider to the left to decrease the sensitivity, or to the right to increase the sensitivity of transient detection. To remove a transient, do one of the following: m Click the transient’s handle in the area above the Beat ruler, then press the Delete key. m Drag the transient out of the area above the Beat ruler. 13 Saving Changes to Files When you save changes in Apple Loops Utility, you can save changes to only the currently selected files, or to all files marked in the Changes column of the Assets drawer. Any other file tags are unchanged. This is especially useful when working with a large group of files. When saving multiple files, the checkbox next to the tag must be selected if changes to that tag are to be saved. For information about tagging multiple files, see “Tagging Files in Apple Loops Utility” on page 10. To save changes to the currently selected files: m Click the Save button. Saving changes to a large number of files may take several minutes. To save all changes: m Click the Save All button in the Assets drawer. To save multiple files to the same directory: 1 Choose File > Save As. 2 Navigate to the directory where you want to save the files, then click Save. When you save multiple files using the Save As dialog, the files are saved to the selected directory, and their names are unchanged. When you save changes to files in the WAV format, by default they are converted to the AIFF format and saved in the same location as the original WAV files. The new AIFF files have the same name as the WAV files, but with the .aiff file suffix. You can change this default behavior in the Apple Loops Utility Preferences window. See the following section, “Apple Loops Utility Preferences,” for more information. Removing Files From the Assets Drawer You can remove files from the Assets drawer. To remove files: m Select the file or files in the Assets drawer, then click the Remove File button at the top of the drawer (or press the Delete key). If you remove files to which you have applied changes, a dialog appears letting you choose whether to save or discard your changes. 14 Apple Loops Utility Preferences You can set preferences for the startup behavior and default file saving behavior in the Apple Loops Utility Preferences window. Startup  Show Open Panel On Launch: When selected, an Open dialog appears each time you open Apple Loops Utility. Saving  When Converting a WAV to AIFF:  Show Conversion Alert: Shows the conversion alert dialog when you try to save a WAV file.  Close WAV and Edit AIFF: Automatically converts the WAV to an AIFF, closes the WAV file, and opens the AIFF for editing.  Keep Working in WAV: Leaves the WAV file open. 15 Apple Loops Utility Keyboard Shortcuts General and File Navigation Key command Function Creates a new, blank Apple Loops Utility window and opens the Open dialog. Opens the Open dialog, from which you open files in Apple Loops Utility. Closes the current window. Closes the selected files. Saves changes to the currently selected files. If any of the files are WAV files, a dialog appears asking if you want to continue editing the files as WAV files or save them as AIFF files. Opens the Save As dialog to save the currently selected file with a new name. Saves all open files. Selects the file above the current file in the Assets drawer. Selects the file below the current file in the Assets drawer. Selects all files in the Assets drawer. x + N x + O x + W x + shift + W x + S x + shift + S x + option + S x + shift + A Key command Function Makes the Tags tab active. Makes the Transients tab active. Makes the Assets drawer active. F1 F2 F3 16 Key and Scale Type Tagging Key command Function Turns on keyboard tagging. Sets the key to A. Sets the key to A# (A-sharp). Sets the key to B. Sets the key to C. Sets the key to C# (C-sharp). Sets the key to D. Sets the key to D# (D-sharp). Sets the key to E. Sets the key to F. Sets the key to F# (F-sharp). Sets the key to G. Sets the key to G# (G-sharp). Sets the scale type to Major. Sets the scale type to Minor. Sets the scale type to Both. Sets the scale type to Neither. esc A shift + A B C shift + C D shift + D E F shift + F G shift + G M shift + M shift + B N 17 Descriptor Tagging For the following descriptor keyboard shortcuts, pressing the key once selects the first (left) item, pressing the key again selects the second (right) item, and pressing the key a third time selects Neither (the center button). Key command Function Single/Ensemble Part/Fill Acoustic/Electric Dry/Processed Clean/Distorted Cheerful/Dark Relaxed/Intense Grooving/Arrhythmic Melodic/Dissonant Sets Batch Tagging to All. Sets Batch Tagging to None. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 F5 F6 18 Transients Key command Function Increases sensitivity. Decreases sensitivity. Increases sensitivity five times. Decreases sensitivity five times. Nudges the selected marker by one pixel to the left. Nudges the selected marker by one pixel to the right. Selects the previous marker. Selects the next marker. DVD Studio Pro 4 User Manual Copyright © 2009 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of Final Cut Studio software may reproduce this publication for the purpose of learning to use such software. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this publication or for providing paid for support services. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Shift-Option-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its system software, applications, and Internet sites, images shown in this manual may be slightly different from what you see on your screen. Apple 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, the Apple logo, Apple Cinema Display, DVD Studio Pro, Exposé, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Studio, FireWire, GarageBand, iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, Keynote, LiveType, Logic, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Panther, PowerBook, QuickTime, Soundtrack, SuperDrive, and Tiger are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. DVD@CCESS and Finder are trademarks of Apple Inc. AppleCare and iTunes Store are service marks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Adobe and Photoshop are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the U.S. and/or other countries. “Dolby,” “Pro Logic,” and the double-D symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories. Confidential Unpublished Works, © 1992–1997 Dolby Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. Preface 11 Welcome to DVD Studio Pro 11 About DVD Studio Pro 11 About DVD Studio Pro Documentation 11 Additional Resources Chapter 1 13 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 13 Moving from iDVD to DVD Studio Pro 14 About Standard and High Definition DVDs 15 About DVD Studio Pro and HD Resolution DVDs 17 HD Video Assets 19 Brief Overview of the DVD Creation Process 25 What Makes a DVD Authoring System? 25 Hard Disk Storage 25 SCSI Devices 26 DVD Burners 29 DLT Drives 29 External Video and Audio Monitoring 31 Audio and Video Assets Chapter 2 33 Planning Your Project 33 Investigating Existing DVDs 34 Determining Your Target Audience and Playback Device 34 Deciding Which DVD Standard to Use 35 Deciding Which Video Standard to Use 35 Deciding What Content to Include 35 Creating a Storyboard 37 Designing the Menus and Buttons 37 Making Sure Your Content Will Fit 42 General DVD Limitations Chapter 3 45 How Do You Do That? 45 Creating a Simple DVD 47 Creating a Play One or Play All Project 50 Grabbing a Still Image from Your Movie 3 Contents 51 Adding Easter Eggs to Your Menus Chapter 4 53 Preparing Video Assets 53 Introduction to Preparing Video Sources 54 NTSC or PAL? 55 Using 24 fps Video 56 Choosing an Aspect Ratio 60 About MPEG Video 61 Encoding Video Materials for DVD 68 Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder 74 Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks 76 Adding Markers to Your Video 80 About H.264 Video 81 About HDV Video 82 DVD Video Source Settings Summary Chapter 5 87 Preparing Audio Assets 87 Introduction to Preparing Audio Sources 88 Audio Formats Not Supported by the DVD Specification 88 Audio Formats Supported by the DVD Specification and DVD Studio Pro 91 Using Multiple Audio Formats in Your Project 91 Required Audio Formats for SD Projects 92 DVD Audio Source Settings Summary Chapter 6 95 Preparing Menu Assets 95 Introduction to Preparing Menu Sources 96 What Is a Menu? 96 Creating a Menu 97 Creating Graphics to Use in Menus 101 Creating Overlays 106 Creating a Layered Menu 106 Creating Video for Motion Menus 107 Defining the Menu Loop Point 108 Creating Shapes 112 Creating Graphics for Drop Zones and Buttons Chapter 7 113 Preparing Slideshow Assets 113 Slideshow File Formats 114 Aspect Ratio and Resolution 114 Colors 114 Audio Chapter 8 115 Preparing Alpha Transitions 115 Introduction to Preparing Alpha Transitions 4 Contents 116 Transition Asset Folder 117 Asset Movie 118 Asset Matte Movie 119 Background Matte Movie 119 About Alpha Transition Durations 120 About NTSC and PAL Alpha Transitions Chapter 9 121 Starting a Project 121 Opening DVD Studio Pro 124 Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences 138 Creating a New Project 143 Opening an Existing Project 145 Video Standards of the World 145 Changing a Project’s Video Standard 146 Changing a Project’s DVD Standard Chapter 10 149 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 150 Introduction to the DVD Studio Pro Interface 152 Configuring the Interface 154 Working with the Quadrants 157 Working with the Tabs 161 Overview of the Quadrant Tabs 167 Inspector 168 Palette 174 Toolbar 177 Drop Palette 177 Comparing the Outline and Graphical Project Views 178 Using the Outline Tab 180 Using the Graphical Tab 190 Managing Elements Using the Outline and Graphical Tabs Chapter 11 195 Importing and Managing Assets 195 How DVD Studio Pro Manages Assets 201 About the Assets Tab 207 Importing Assets 213 Removing Selected Assets 213 Renaming Assets 214 Refreshing Still and QuickTime Assets 216 Opening Assets in Their Editor 216 Identifying an Asset 216 Previewing Assets 218 Asset Inspector Contents 5 Chapter 12 219 Introduction to Creating Menus 219 About Menus 224 About the Menu Editor 231 Starting and Working with a Menu Chapter 13 241 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 242 About Standard Menus 243 Choosing the Menu’s Background 246 Choosing the Menu’s Overlay 248 Understanding Color Mapping 256 Configuring the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus 265 Adding Buttons to Your Menu 281 Configuring Button Navigation 285 Adding Drop Zones to Your Menu 288 Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones 288 Adding Text Objects to a Menu 291 Adding Audio to a Menu 292 Configuring the Menu’s Drop Shadow Settings 293 Configuring Motion Menu Settings 296 Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus 296 Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Assets 304 Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Project Elements 309 Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Templates and Styles Chapter 14 313 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 313 Introduction to Templates, Styles, and Shapes 314 What Are Templates and Styles? 316 Templates and Styles in the Palette 321 Applying a Template or Style 323 Setting Default Styles 324 Creating a Template or Style 326 Importing Templates and Styles 327 Deleting Templates and Styles 329 Managing Shapes Chapter 15 335 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 335 About Layered Menus 336 Choosing the Menu’s Background 338 Choosing the Menu’s Overlay 338 About the Menu Inspector for Layered Menus 343 Adding Buttons to Your Layered Menu 344 About Layered Menu Button Properties 6 Contents 348 Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus 349 Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Assets 353 Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Project Elements Chapter 16 357 Using Advanced Menu Features 357 Adding Intro and Transition Clips to Menus 364 Using Languages with Menus Chapter 17 369 Creating and Editing Tracks 370 About Track Limits in a DVD 370 Working with a Track’s Assets 371 How Many Tracks Should You Have? 371 About Subtitle Streams 371 DVD Studio Pro Tools for Working with Tracks 372 Creating Tracks 373 Opening Tracks 373 Setting Track Properties 377 About the Track Editor 377 Configuring the Track Editor 380 Understanding Time Information in the Track Editor 384 Supported Asset Types 386 Adding Video and Audio Assets 390 Editing Video and Audio Clips 392 Setting Stream Properties 393 Exporting an MPEG Clip 393 Working with Markers 394 About Marker Placement 395 Creating and Editing Markers 397 Adding Markers to a Track Without a Video Clip Assigned 397 Importing Markers from an Editor 399 Importing Markers from a Text List 399 About the Marker Types 401 Setting Marker Properties 403 Introduction to Stories 404 Creating a Story for a Track 404 Using the Story Editor 405 Setting Story Properties 407 Setting Story Entry Properties 407 Simulating a Story 408 Adding Alternate Video Streams 410 Using Still Clip Transitions 413 Viewing a Track Contents 7 Chapter 18 417 Creating Slideshows 417 Introduction to Slideshows 418 Want Your Slideshows to Do More? 418 File Formats for Slideshows 419 Adding a Slideshow to Your Project 420 Creating a Slideshow Using the Menu Editor 421 Working with Slides in a Slideshow 424 Adding Audio to Your Slideshow 427 Working with Slideshows 437 Setting Slideshow Properties 440 Setting Slide Properties 441 Previewing a Slideshow 442 Simulating a Slideshow Chapter 19 443 Creating Subtitles 443 Introduction to Subtitles 445 Importing Older DVD Studio Pro Subtitles 445 Subtitles and Overlays 445 About Subtitles and Closed Captions 446 Subtitle Stream Basics 448 Subtitle Inspector 454 What Happens with Different Aspect Ratios? 455 Viewing Subtitles 457 Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro 463 Importing Graphics Files for Subtitles 464 Creating and Importing Subtitle Files 465 Importing a Subtitle File 467 Creating an STL Format Subtitle File 471 Creating Buttons over Video 473 Configuring a Button over Video Subtitle Clip Chapter 20 477 Creating Scripts 477 Introduction to Scripts 478 Pre-Scripts 479 Scripting Overview 480 The Scripting User Interface 481 About the Script Tab 484 About the Script Inspector 485 About the Script Command Inspector 486 Creating and Testing Scripts 489 Script Command Details 499 System Parameter Register Memories List 8 Contents 500 System Parameter Register Memories Details 511 Using Bit-Wise Operations 512 General Purpose Register Memories 517 Scripting Examples 525 Language Code Table Chapter 21 531 Establishing Connections 531 About Connections 532 Connections Tab 533 Connection Items 537 Making Connections 540 Connection Details 540 Source Details 547 Target Details Chapter 22 549 Finishing a Project 549 About the Final Steps of DVD Creation 550 Should You Burn, Build, Format, or Build and Format? 552 Options for Testing Your Project 552 Simulating Your Project 559 Setting Disc Properties 566 Building Your Project 575 Emulating Your Project Using DVD Player 577 Setting Disc Format Properties 577 About DVD-ROM Discs 580 About Dual-Layer Discs 584 About Two-Sided Discs 584 Formatting Your Project 590 Reading a DLT Drive Chapter 23 591 Using Advanced Features 591 VTS Editor 598 DVD@CCESS 602 User Operations 607 Display Condition 612 Remote Control Settings 614 Line 21 Settings for Closed Captions Appendix A 617 Keyboard Shortcuts 618 General Interface and Application Controls 619 General Project Controls 620 Adding Project Elements 621 Scrolling Through Lists Contents 9 622 Assets Tab 622 Connections Tab 623 Graphical Tab 624 Log Tab 624 Menu Tab (Menu Editor) 626 Outline Tab 627 Palette 627 Script Tab (Script Editor) 627 Simulator 628 Slideshow Tab (Slideshow Editor) 628 Story Tab (Story Editor) 628 Subtitle Editor 629 Track Tab (Track Editor) 631 Viewer Tab Appendix B 633 Importing Other Projects 633 Importing DVD Studio Pro 2 and DVD Studio Pro 3 Projects into DVD Studio Pro 4 Appendix C 635 Calculating Disc Space Requirements 635 Calculating a Project’s Disc Space Requirements 640 Using the Calculated Bit Rate Appendix D 641 Transition Parameters 641 Transition Duration 641 Video Transition 642 Alpha Transitions 642 Standard Transitions Glossary 647 10 Contents DVD Studio Pro is software for authoring DVD-Video titles. It is both powerful and easy to use. This preface covers the following: • About DVD Studio Pro (p. 11) • About DVD Studio Pro Documentation (p. 11) • Additional Resources (p. 11) About DVD Studio Pro DVD Studio Pro lets you work with audio, video, graphics, and text materials that you have already created and edited and orchestrate them into a DVD that can be played on a DVD player or a suitably equipped computer. If you have used such production tools as Final Cut Pro, Adobe Photoshop, Media 100, or Discreet cleaner, DVD Studio Pro will be easy for you to learn. You can use DVD Studio Pro for everything from constructing sophisticated training materials, corporate presentations, sales tools with web links, or high-quality event videos, to preparing a motion picture for release on DVD. About DVD Studio Pro Documentation DVD Studio Pro comes with documentation that will help you get started as well as provide detailed information about the application. • DVD Studio Pro User Manual: This is a comprehensive document that describes the DVD Studio Pro interface, commands, and menus, and gives step-by-step instructions for creating DVD Studio Pro projects and for accomplishing specific tasks. It is written for users of all levels of experience. Additional Resources Along with the documentation that comes with DVD Studio Pro, there are a variety of other resources you can use to find out more about the application. 11 Welcome to DVD Studio Pro Preface DVD Studio Pro Website For general information and updates, as well as the latest news on DVD Studio Pro, go to: • http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/dvdstudiopro Apple Service and Support Websites For software updates and answers to the most frequently asked questions for all Apple products, go to the general Apple Support web page. You’ll also have access to product specifications, reference documentation, and Apple and third-party product technical articles. • http://www.apple.com/support For software updates, documentation, discussion forums, and answers to the most frequently asked questions for DVD Studio Pro, go to: • http://www.apple.com/support/dvdstudiopro For discussions forums for all Apple products from around the world, where you can search for an answer, post your question, or answer other users’ questions, go to: • http://discussions.apple.com 12 Preface Welcome to DVD Studio Pro DVD Studio Pro plays a key part in delivering your video projects to your viewers. This chapter covers many of the basics you need to know about to author and burn successful DVDs. This chapter covers the following: • Moving from iDVD to DVD Studio Pro (p. 13) • About Standard and High Definition DVDs (p. 14) • About DVD Studio Pro and HD Resolution DVDs (p. 15) • HD Video Assets (p. 17) • Brief Overview of the DVD Creation Process (p. 19) • What Makes a DVD Authoring System? (p. 25) • Hard Disk Storage (p. 25) • SCSI Devices (p. 25) • DVD Burners (p. 26) • DLT Drives (p. 29) • External Video and Audio Monitoring (p. 29) • Audio and Video Assets (p. 31) Moving from iDVD to DVD Studio Pro The Apple entry-level DVD authoring application is iDVD. It allows you to create simple DVD-Video titles with some of the most popular features found in Hollywood-style releases, without having to know any technical details about the process. The interface and feature set are configured to make the process nearly foolproof. Eventually, however, you will find yourself requiring features beyond those that iDVD offers. DVD Studio Pro gives you access to a wide range of professional features outlined in the DVD specification: • Support for multiple video, audio, and subtitle streams, making it easy to create discs that support multiple languages or add features such as a director’s commentary 13 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 1 • Additional menu functionality. For example, you can create and add up to 36 buttons, control the navigation between them, and have more flexibility when assigning their functions. • Alternate ways to play back movies. You can use the DVD Studio Pro story feature to control how a movie plays. • Support for web interactivity. You can embed links to websites or other documents into your DVD title. • Many advanced features supported by the DVD specification, such as dual-layer discs and copy protection DVD Studio Pro offers several workflows and work styles for creating DVD projects, including templates and the drag-and-drop method used within iDVD. This makes DVD Studio Pro easy to learn while still providing the advanced features you need. About Standard and High Definition DVDs Standard definition (SD) DVDs provided most viewers with their first digital video experience. The great video quality, interactive menus, and surround sound audio found on current DVDs set a high standard for viewer expectations. Meanwhile, the establishment of high definition (HD) video format standards and the increasing availability of HD broadcasts have led to more and more viewers having HD video monitors, and even higher expectations for DVDs. These expectations, along with the development of improved compression technologies and a blue laser technology that greatly increases a disc’s storage capacity, have led to the ability of recording HD video onto a DVD. 14 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro But Aren’t DVDs Already High Definition? In addition to traditional 4:3 aspect ratio video, traditional DVDs support widescreen 16:9 video, which is often mistaken for being high definition. The 16:9 video used on current DVDs, however, is the same resolution as the 4:3 video, which is the same as the standard NTSC and PAL broadcast resolutions. The 16:9 video must be anamorphic, which makes it appear horizontally squashed when viewed on a 4:3 monitor. This leads to a logical next question—what constitutes high definition video? While most HD video formats use a 16:9 aspect ratio, what generally defines whether or not they are HD is the resolution. Video resolutions that result in more pixels per frame than are used in SD-based DVDs are considered high definition. There are two common HD vertical resolutions: 720 lines and 1080 lines (used for both NTSC and PAL). These compare to NTSC’s 480 lines and PAL’s 576 lines for SD video. As with SD-based DVDs, the scanning method used on HD-based DVDs can be interlaced, with a video frame containing one field with the odd lines and another field with the even lines, or progressive, where each frame is complete. Not all HD formats support progressive scanning, however. See Supported Video Resolutions for details on supported SD and HD video formats, including frame rates and scanning methods. See About DVD Studio Pro and HD Resolution DVDs and HD Video Assets for more information about creating HD projects in DVD Studio Pro. About DVD Studio Pro and HD Resolution DVDs In addition to supporting standard definition (SD) format video DVDs, DVD Studio Pro supports creating high definition (HD) format video DVDs. With the exception of support for HD video resolutions and the number of buttons on menus and button over video subtitles, HD projects in DVD Studio Pro have the same limits as SD projects. There are two aspects to creating DVDs with HD content: what you can put into the DVD video zone and the DVD disc media. DVD Video Zone with HD Content While the contents of the DVD video zone for an HD-based DVD (HVDVD_TS) are similar to those of an SD-based DVD video zone (VIDEO_TS), there are some important differences: • HD-based DVDs support a broad range of video resolutions, including most of those used in SD-based DVDs. See Supported Video Resolutions for a complete list of supported resolutions. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 15 • In addition to supporting SD MPEG-2 video encodes, HD-based DVDs support HD MPEG-2 and H.264 video encodes. These are discussed in HD Video Assets. Blue Laser Disc Media Due to the improved video resolution possible with HD video, the encoded video files for HD resolution DVDs can be larger than those used with SD resolution DVDs. For that reason, a media format based on a blue laser was designed specifically for DVD projects containing HD video. See the following table for a comparison of SD and HD disc sizes. Disc Red laser capacity Blue laser capacity Single-sided, single-layer 4.7 GB 15 GB Single-sided, dual-layer 8.54 GB 30 GB In addition to blue laser based DVD media, an HD project’s DVD video zone can be written to DVD media based on the red lasers used by traditional DVDs. (The obvious limitation is that you will not be able to fit as much video data on the disc.) Important: SD-based DVD players are not able to play DVD projects containing HD content, whether they are on red or blue laser media. Additionally, only HD projects on special 3x DVD-ROM red laser media are officially supported in the HD DVD specification. You can burn HD projects to traditional red laser media on your system; however, the discs might not play in all HD DVD players. Supported Video Resolutions All video resolutions supported by SD-based DVDs are also supported by HD-based DVDs. This means that an HD-based DVD can use an HD video resolution for the main feature, then use an SD video resolution for extras. The following list includes the SD and HD video resolutions supported by DVD Studio Pro. Note: MPEG-1 encoded video files are not supported in HD projects. NTSC Frame rates with an “i” indicate the interlaced scanning method; those with a “p” indicate the progressive scanning method. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 240 29.97i 4:3 Also known as SIF format 352 x 480 29.97i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 480 59.94p 16:9 HD only, also known as 480p; is anamorphic 1280 x 720 59.94p 16:9 HD only, also known as 720p 1440 x 1080 29.97i 16:9 HD only; 16:9 is anamorphic 16 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 1920 x 1080 29.97i 16:9 HD only, also known as 1080i PAL Frame rates with an “i” indicate the interlaced scanning method; those with a “p” indicate the progressive scanning method. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 288 25i 4:3 Also known as SIF format 352 x 576 25i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 576 50p 16:9 HD only, also known as 576p; is anamorphic 1280 x 720 50p 16:9 HD only, also known as 720p 1440 x 1080 25i 16:9 HD only; 16:9 is anamorphic 1920 x 1080 25i 16:9 HD only, also known as 1080i Using 24P Video Formats Both SD and HD projects can use assets encoded at 24 fps, as long as they are encoded specifically with NTSC or PAL flags set. Note: For NTSC, 24 fps is actually 23.976 fps, although it is most often referred to as 23.98 fps Video at 24 fps has two main advantages: it matches the film frame rate, and, in the case of NTSC, provides much smaller files due to having six fewer frames per second. See Importing 24 fps Assets for more information. HD Video Assets There are a variety of sources for HD video assets to use in your HD projects, with the most common being DVCPRO HD and HDV camcorders. • With DVCPRO HD, once you have finished editing the video, the result will need to be encoded to the HD MPEG-2 or H.264 video format. • With HDV, which is already compliant MPEG-2 HD video, you can edit the video in Final Cut Pro and import the result directly in your HD projects. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 17 DVD Studio Pro supports HD video encoded using the HD MPEG-2 codec and the H.264 codec. Both of these formats are playable with the Apple DVD Player. You can use Compressor to encode video to either of these formats. When you import HD resolution QuickTime video, such as DVCPRO HD video, into DVD Studio Pro, it is HD MPEG-2 encoded using the integrated MPEG encoder. Using HDV Assets The HDV format uses MPEG-2 encoding to store HD video on a standard DV or Mini DV tape. Two video resolutions supported by the HDV format: • 1280 x 720 (720p) at 19 Mbps • 1440 x 1080 (1080i or 1080p) at 25 Mbps (which is anamorphic 16:9) Imported HDV assets have the video and audio separated into elementary streams (the HDV format combines the video and audio into a single file), but are not otherwise processed or converted. Important: The HD DVD specification does not support all HDV frame rates. See About HDV Video for more information. Using H.264 Assets You can use the H.264 for HD DVD presets included with Compressor to encode several supported HD and SD video resolutions for use in your HD projects. The H.264 encoder is twice as efficient as the standard MPEG-2 encoder. When compared to encoding with MPEG-2, this means that with the H.264 encoder: • You can use a lower bit rate to get the same quality, resulting in smaller files. • You can use the same bit rate and get better quality with the same file size. See About H.264 Video for more information. Using DVCPRO HD and Uncompressed HD Assets Another source of HD assets for your HD projects is video encoded with the DVCPRO HD compression types or uncompressed video. DVCPRO HD video, like DVCPRO SD video, and uncompressed video cannot be used directly in your DVD Studio Pro projects. You can import them, however, and DVD Studio Pro will automatically encode them to compatible HD MPEG-2 assets using the integrated MPEG encoder. You can also encode them to HD MPEG-2 or H.264 using Compressor or QuickTime. Note: Using the Animation codec with HD resolution video can significantly reduce your computer’s performance and should be avoided if possible. An alternative is to use the Apple Intermediate Codec. 18 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro Brief Overview of the DVD Creation Process You can create many different styles of DVDs with DVD Studio Pro, from corporate presentations to training materials to event videos to feature films. While the content and structure of each style may vary considerably, they all use the same basic DVD creation process. Edit raw sources • iMovie • Final Cut Pro • Final Cut Express Author the DVD with DVD Studio Pro DVD burner (SuperDrive) DLT drive Replication facility Encode assets. Create menus, tracks, slideshows. Build and format the project. Duplication facility Other sources • Compressor • Motion • Soundtrack Pro • Color • LiveType • Logic Pro • GarageBand • iTunes • iPhoto • Keynote There are four stages to the DVD creation process: Stage 1: Creating Your Source Material The first part of the DVD creation process is to create or assemble your source material. See Creating Source Material for more information. Stage 2: Encoding Audio and Video to Compatible Formats Once you have created your source materials, they must be encoded to comply with the DVD specification. See Encoding Video and Audio for more information. Stage 3: Authoring Your DVD Title You use DVD Studio Pro to orchestrate your video, audio, and graphics material into an interactive DVD-Video title, complete with menus, buttons, subtitles, and alternate languages or soundtracks. See Authoring with DVD Studio Pro for more information. Stage 4: Building the Project and Creating Your Disc Creating a disc involves two steps: building the DVD-formatted video zone and formatting it for how you intend to deliver it. See Creating a Disc for more information. It’s important to understand the entire process, and how DVD Studio Pro is used in the process, before you begin your DVD projects. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 19 Creating Source Material The first part of the DVD creation process is to create or assemble your source material. This might mean shooting video, recording voice or music tracks, designing graphics to be included, and planning the general functionality of your project. If you are converting an existing video program into a DVD, you may only need to gather your original video and audio material and design graphics for the menus that will weave them together. You can use whatever tools you prefer for creating your video and audio material, as long as the resulting files are compatible with the MPEG or H.264 encoder that you plan to use. In most cases, your video and audio assets will be created and saved as QuickTime movie files or in standard sound file formats like AIFF, WAVE, or SoundDesigner II. Your program material should be completely edited, including any special effects, audio fades, and scene transitions, before you encode it. Menu graphics can be still image files, multilayer Photoshop files, or full-motion video. To create the menu graphics, you can use virtually any graphics program. DVD Studio Pro includes extra support for Adobe Photoshop (PSD) files, taking advantage of Photoshop’s “layers” feature to simplify the creation of backgrounds and overlays. Also included is support for the menu loop point you can set in Motion. If you plan to include alternate-language subtitles in your DVD project, you will want to have your soundtrack transcribed and translated. The most important thing you can do when preparing your assets is to use the highest-quality settings available. Any flaws in your material will be revealed on DVD much more quickly than in any other medium. Once they are encoded into a DVD-compliant format, DVD Studio Pro does not improve or degrade the quality of your source material in any way; if you use high-quality source materials, you’ll get high-quality results. Here are some guidelines to help you maintain high quality. • Capture and edit your video material at the same resolution that you will use on the DVD (typically 720 x 480 at 29.97 frames per second [fps] for NTSC or 720 x 576 at 25 fps for PAL for SD-based DVDs). • When recording and editing audio, use a 48 kilohertz (kHz) sample rate and no compression. This assures the best quality whether you use the uncompressed audio on the DVD or decide to use the Compressor AC-3 encoder to compress it. Important: When creating DVDs, your audio must have either a 48 kHz or 96 kHz sample rate. You cannot use the 44.1 kHz sample rate found on standard audio CDs. In most cases, the DVD Studio Pro embedded AIFF encoder will convert your audio to the correct sample rate if necessary. 20 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro • When saving video material to the QuickTime format, either specify no compression (which requires a lot of disk space) or use a high-quality compression codec like DV or Motion JPEG. Encoding Video and Audio Once you have created your source materials, they must be encoded to comply with the DVD specification. DVD Studio Pro can use materials encoded using its integrated MPEG and AIFF encoders, as well as materials encoded using the Apple Compressor application and other methods. What Is Needed for DVD? Before video or audio material can be used on a DVD, it must be prepared in one of the formats defined in the DVD specification. This usually means MPEG-2 format for video and Dolby AC-3 format for audio files (although you can also use standard PCM audio formats, such as AIFF files, DTS format files, and MPEG-1 Layer 2 formatted files). SD projects also accept the older MPEG-1 video format, most commonly seen in web-based applications. Because MPEG-1 is about one quarter the resolution of MPEG-2 (352 x 240 as opposed to 720 x 480 for NTSC or 352 x 288 versus 720 x 576 for PAL) and utilizes much lower data rates, the quality is significantly lower. However, MPEG-1 is useful for very long programs if the picture quality is not of primary importance. Using MPEG-1 encoding, you can fit many hours of material on a single DVD. Important: You cannot use MPEG-1 formatted video assets in HD projects. MPEG encoding performs extremely complex calculations on your source material to determine what can be safely “thrown away” with minimal impact on the visual quality. As a result, MPEG encoding can produce files that are less than ten percent the size of the source files, while still looking great. Using the DVD Studio Pro Tools DVD Studio Pro includes integrated MPEG and AIFF encoders. When you add a QuickTime asset directly to your DVD Studio Pro project, it is automatically encoded to be DVD-compliant. You can choose whether the asset is encoded in the background while you continue authoring or whether the encode waits until you build your project. Also included with Final Cut Studio is Compressor, an encoding tool that provides additional MPEG encoding configurations and can process batches of video and audio clips in one step. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 21 For many projects you will probably want to use a Dolby-certified AC-3 encoder (such as the AC-3 encoder included with Compressor). An AC-3 encoder can be used to encode multichannel surround soundtracks for inclusion on a DVD, as well as for stereo or mono soundtracks. Using AC-3 encoded audio results in smaller files and a lower playback bit rate. Uncompressed PCM audio formats (WAV or AIFF) have significantly larger file sizes and generally do not support specialized soundtrack formats, such as surround channels. Using Pre-Encoded Sources Many other available tools, including software and hardware encoders, produce MPEG streams. You can use any MPEG encoder you prefer, as long as it creates DVD-compliant elementary streams. This means that the audio and video information is contained in separate files (the streams). Important: DVD Studio Pro cannot use MPEG multiplexed System, Program, or Transport streams for DVD projects. See About MPEG Video for more information on DVD-compliant requirements. Authoring with DVD Studio Pro You use DVD Studio Pro to orchestrate your video, audio, and graphics material into an interactive DVD-Video title, complete with menus, buttons, subtitles, and alternate languages or soundtracks. DVD Studio Pro gives you complete control over every aspect of your DVD and lets you view its elements and simulate your DVD in real time as you create it. You can easily create menus, add buttons, and specify the actions that occur when the buttons are activated. You can define powerful linking and scripting functionality with just a few clicks. And the Inspector gives you a complete picture of all the characteristics of any item in your project. Authoring in DVD Studio Pro consists of these basic steps: Stage 1: Setting the DVD and Video Standard You can use DVD Studio Pro to author traditional SD-based DVDs or HD-based DVDs using either NTSC or PAL frame rates. It is important to set this before importing your assets because these settings control what happens when QuickTime assets are imported. Stage 2: Importing Assets Import your video, audio, graphics, and subtitle assets into DVD Studio Pro. If they are not already DVD-compliant, the integrated MPEG encoder automatically encodes them. Stage 3: Creating Menus Create one or more menus to define the structure and navigation of your DVD. The menus can rely completely on the supplied templates and styles or can use your own graphics. 22 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro Stage 4: Adding Buttons to the Menus Add one or more buttons to your menus. The display mode (4:3, 16:9 Letterbox, and so on) and DVD standard (SD DVD or HD DVD) determine the maximum number of buttons each menu can have. Each button can initiate a wide variety of actions, the most common being to open a different menu, play a track, or run a script. This hierarchy of menus and buttons gives you tremendous flexibility in constructing an “interactive” program in which the viewer has numerous options to choose from. Stage 5: Creating Tracks and Slideshows Create one or more tracks, each consisting of one or more video streams, audio streams, subtitle streams, chapter markers, and stories. Create one or more slideshows, each consisting of still images and, optionally, audio. Tracks and slideshows can also be created by dragging assets to the Menu Editor and choosing options from the Drop Palette. Stage 6: Linking the Project Elements Set up the various actions and links that will make your project work as it should when viewed. For example, you can set what happens when a DVD player first starts playing the disc, what happens when a track finishes playing, and what happens if the player sits idle at a menu for a specific amount of time. Stage 7: Simulating Your Project View your elements and test your project as you go using the real-time DVD Simulator built in to DVD Studio Pro. This process allows you to verify the links between the project elements. Stage 8: Building and Burning Your Project Build the completed project and either send it to a replication facility or burn a DVD on your own system. Creating a Disc Creating a disc involves two steps: building the DVD-formatted video zone (VIDEO_TS for SD-based DVDs and HVDVD_TS for HD-based DVDs) and formatting it for how you intend to deliver it. Building the Video Zone When you build your SD-based DVD project, a set of files is created and stored on your hard disk in a folder named “VIDEO_TS” (video title set). The contents and structure of this folder are strictly defined by the DVD specification. HD projects store their files in a folder named “HVDVD_TS.” When you build your project within DVD Studio Pro, it combines all the material you’ve included (video, audio, and subtitles for the menus and tracks) into a single stream and writes it to this special folder. Using DVD Player, which is included with your operating system, you can open and play the contents of this folder, just as if it were on a DVD disc. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 23 Formatting and Burning Depending on the quantity of DVD discs you need, you can: • Burn one or more DVDs on your system (if properly equipped): This is a quick way to create a test disc. Note: You cannot add high-end features such as copy protection. • Send a burned disc to a duplicator who can burn additional copies for you: This allows you to create more discs than you would want to burn on your own system at a lower cost than using a replicator. Because the copies are based on a disc you burn on your system, the duplicated discs have the same restrictions as when you burn on your system. • Prepare suitable files to send to a DVD replication facility: Use a replicator to make copies that are compatible with all DVD players, to create larger quantities of discs, and to include specialized features not supported by your system’s DVD burner. If you are using a DVD replication facility, you can deliver your project to the facility in several ways: • DLT: Digital Linear Tape (DLT) is the preferred method for sending an SD DVD project to a DVD replication facility. DVD Studio Pro supports writing directly to a DLT drive. DLT is well suited to transporting DVD projects because of its reliability and very high capacity. Important: You cannot write HD DVD projects to a DLT drive. • Burned DVD: Many DVD replicators accept DVD discs that you’ve burned on your system for replication. There are special requirements if you want to include high-end features such as dual-layer and copy protection. See DVD Burners for more information on using burned DVD discs for replication, including information about the Cutting Master Format (CMF). • Hard Disk: You can format your SD or HD project to an external hard disk and send the hard disk to your replicator. By selecting a CMF or DDP format, you can also include advanced features such as copy protection. This method works especially well for large HD projects. • Electronic Copy: Some replicators have provisions that allow you to transfer the project’s build files directly to their server using the Internet. See Output Devices for information on using these methods for delivering projects to replicators. 24 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro What Makes a DVD Authoring System? The DVD Studio Pro installation booklet lists the minimum hardware and software requirements for using DVD Studio Pro to build DVD titles. However, you may find you need additional items beyond the minimum requirements to make up your DVD authoring system. Depending on the types of DVD titles you intend to create, your DVD authoring system can be an off-the-shelf Mac Pro with a SuperDrive or a specialized system with additional drives and hardware. See the following for more information: • Hard Disk Storage • SCSI Devices • DVD Burners • DLT Drives • External Video and Audio Monitoring Hard Disk Storage No matter what sort of titles you intend to create, you will be working with very large files. You should have at least twice as much hard disk storage space as the size of your project. (For DVD-5, for example, which can hold about 4.4 GB, you need 4.4 GB for the MPEG-2 encoded asset files and another 4.4 GB to hold the built, or compiled, project. An HD project can require about 60 GB to hold the asset and built project. Original asset files, such as DV format video, require much more space than the MPEG-2 encoded versions used in your DVD project.) For best build performance, dedicate two or three Ultra Wide A/V or FireWire hard disks to your project. (Make sure they contain only your media and no other programs that might fragment the disk and decrease performance.) If you have three disks, use one for video assets, one for audio assets, and the third for the finished files. If you have two disks, use one for source assets and one for final files. SCSI Devices Depending on your needs, you may need to add external devices—such as hard disks and DLT drives—that require SCSI support. To use SCSI devices, you must either have your Mac properly equipped when ordering it or add a third-party SCSI PCI card to your existing desktop computer. Contact your Apple Authorized Reseller or see the Support area of the Apple website for a list of suggested SCSI cards and devices. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 25 DVD Burners Being able to burn a DVD is useful for both proofing your titles on set-top DVD players and burning the finished project (when only a small number of discs are required). You can also burn a disc for a duplication or replication facility to use as a master when larger quantities are needed. You cannot burn discs that support Macrovision copy-protection or Content Scrambling System (CSS) encryption. These must be created at a replication facility. Note: For best results, it is recommended that you supply the replication facility with a DLT tape or hard disk instead of a burned DVD disc. Be sure to confirm with the facility what formats it supports. Choosing a DVD Burner When choosing a DVD burner for your system, you have the option of using an Apple SuperDrive or other drives. Your choice depends in part on which media you want to use: whether you intend to burn on red laser or blue laser media and, in the case of red laser burners, whether to use general or authoring media. Note: You cannot burn SD projects to blue laser media. General Versus Authoring Media The first drives created to write DVD-R discs used a special red laser and expensive media and are known as authoring media drives. The most common DVD drives, however, use a less expensive red laser and media. Such drives are known as general media drives. Red laser DVD drives can write to either general or authoring media—not both. The SuperDrive supplied with many Apple systems supports only general media. To use authoring media, you need to connect a special DVD-R drive. Important: Be sure you write only to media supported by your drive. If the media is not labeled either general or authoring, it was likely manufactured before the existence of general drives and can be assumed to be authoring-compatible. The type of media you use only affects the writing of the disc. Both types of DVD drives and most DVD-ROM drives and set-top DVD players can read and play both general and authoring media. For most projects, there is no significant difference between a DVD created using general or authoring drives and discs. However, if you intend to use a replicator and require high-end features such as Macrovision copy-protection and CSS data encryption, you must use authoring media with an authoring drive. 26 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro Even with authoring media, you cannot burn a DVD that supports any of these high-end features on your own system. However, authoring media supports the Cutting Master Format (CMF), which can be used to add information required by the replicator to put these features on your discs. General media does not support CMF. See The Cutting Master Format for more information on the CMF standard. An Alternative Way to Use General Media While you cannot use the CMF format directly on general media discs, you can still use general media discs to deliver DVD projects with high-end features to your replicator by using them as data discs. In general, you format your project to your hard disk using a CMF or DDP format. You can then copy the resultant Layer 0 and Layer 1 folders to your DVD media (each layer to its own disc). While these discs are not DVD-Video discs and cannot be played in a DVD player, they do contain all the information the replicator needs to create the final discs. See Output Devices for more information about formatting to your hard disk. Important: Be sure to check with your replicator before making the discs. About the Different Types of General DVD Media There are several types of DVD media available that DVD Studio Pro can use. The type you should use depends on your requirements. For example, • If playback compatibility is a primary concern: Burning discs that can be played back on most set-top DVD players is often a high priority. Several variables affect this, including the media type, the brand of media, and the DVD player itself. In general, newer DVD players can play a wider variety of media types; however, there are exceptions to this. You should always test your burned DVDs on a variety of DVD players to verify compatibility. • If rewritable media is more efficient for you: Using rewritable DVD media can be very useful when you want to burn a test disc of a project to verify various aspects of it. For example, you might want to burn a disc just to verify that a menu or script works correctly on a set-top DVD player or to see the video quality of a clip on a variety of external monitors. Being able to make a change to the project and then reuse the disc to burn it saves having to use a new disc each time. • If you need to burn a dual-layer project: Being able to burn a dual-layer project to a DVD disc can be very useful. You should be aware, though, that there are big differences between DVD+R double-layer and DVD-R dual-layer media. Following is some general information on the types of media you are able to choose from. DVD-R and DVD+R These are “write-once” discs that tend to be the most widely compatible with DVD players. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 27 DVD-RW and DVD+RW These rewritable discs can be erased and reused multiple times. While they cost a bit more than “write-once” discs, the ability to use them multiple times to verify various aspects of your project as you work on it can be very useful. However, rewritable discs tend to not be as compatible with DVD players as “write-once” discs. When you use DVD-RW and DVD+RW media, DVD Studio Pro first checks to see if the disc contains any files. If it is empty, the format proceeds. If there are files on the disc, an alert appears warning you that the disc will be erased if the format continues—you can then continue or cancel the format process. DVD+R Double-Layer You can use DVD+R double-layer media, often referred to as DVD+R DL, for burning your dual-layer projects. With DVD+R double-layer media, DVD Studio Pro places the layer break point and sets the switch point to be nonseamless as specified in your project. DVD+R double-layer discs require you to use the Opposite Track Path (OTP) direction setting when burning the disc. This means that the first layer must be larger than the second layer. See Setting the Dual-Layer Direction for more information. While DVD+R double-layer discs allow you to burn your dual-layer projects, they tend to have more compatibility issues than the other types of DVD media. DVD-R Dual-Layer If your system contains a DVD drive that can write to the new DVD-R dual-layer media, you can burn your DVD project to it with DVD Studio Pro. However, there are several issues: • Because currently DVD Studio Pro has no way to identify DVD-R dual-layer media as having two layers, burning a dual-layer project to it results in the appearance of an alert message telling you that the DVD media may have insufficient room to hold the project. This message is based on the assumption that the disc is single layer. Both layers of the disc will be written to as needed, however, when you click Continue. • If you are burning a dual-layer project, the break point you set will not affect where the layer break actually occurs. Instead, the first layer is written to until filled, at which point the drive switches to writing to the second layer. • The switch between layers is a seamless layer change not supported by some DVD players, which may stop playing the disc when the switch point is reached. Important: Do not use DVD-R dual-layer media unless these issues do not impact your project. Determining Which Media Types Your DVD Drive Supports Before using any of the media types described in About the Different Types of General DVD Media, you should verify that your DVD drive supports that type. 28 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro To verify the media types supported by your DVD drive 1 Choose Apple menu > About This Mac. 2 Click the More Info button in the About This Mac window. 3 Click the disclosure triangle next to Hardware to show the list of hardware devices. 4 Select the Disc Burning item in the hardware list. The DVD-Write line that appears in the information pane lists the supported media types. DLT Drives Digital Linear Tape (DLT) drives are the most reliable way to deliver SD DVD content to a replicator. They are also a good way to back up completed projects so that you can remove them from your hard disks and make room for your next project. SD DVD data written to DLT drives with DVD Studio Pro can use Data Description Protocol (DDP) version 2.0 or version 2.1. You can also write using CMF version 1.0. Important: You cannot write HD DVD projects to a DLT drive. External Video and Audio Monitoring You can configure your system to support external video and audio monitors. This makes it possible to more closely simulate a viewer’s environment before you build the project and burn a test DVD. When using external monitors, keep the following in mind: • External video monitors are only used during simulation. • External audio monitors are active during simulation and while playing from the Assets tab or any of the editors (Track, Story, Slideshow, and Menu Editors). • When you are using an external video monitor, the Simulator window on your computer is inactive. • You cannot use the pointer to click buttons on the external video monitor. You must control the simulation by using the Simulator window’s controls. • Depending on your system and the video being simulated, frames may be skipped during playback to maintain synchronized playback with the audio. The Simulator pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains settings that control whether the external video and audio monitors are used. Additionally, the Simulator contains settings that allow you to change the display mode (4:3 Pan-Scan, 4:3 Letterbox, or 16:9) and resolution (SD, HD 720, or HD 1080). See Simulator Preferences and Simulating with an External Video and Audio Monitor for more information. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 29 Connecting an External Video Monitor When simulating your project on your computer’s video monitor, you do not see video exactly as a viewer would when playing the video using a set-top DVD player connected to an NTSC or PAL monitor. There are two primary differences: • Pixel aspect ratio: Computer monitors always use square pixels, while SD video uses rectangular pixels. When viewed on the computer’s monitor, the Simulator scales the pixels to make them fit the 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio, which can affect the video appearance. • Color space: Computer monitors generally use RGB color space for their displays while most monitors used to view DVDs use the YUV color space. The advantage of connecting an external video monitor is that, depending on the monitor you connect and whether your project’s assets are already encoded for use on a DVD, you are able to see the video as the viewer would see it. The external video monitor uses the second monitor as configured in the Displays pane of System Preferences. You must set the resolution and refresh rate to match the external monitor. There are two common approaches to connecting an external video monitor: • Connecting a video monitor to your computer’s S-Video output (if present) • Connecting a second monitor to your system (if supported) For example, you could connect an NTSC or PAL monitor to the S-Video output of a PowerBook G4 system. Note: When connected to an NTSC or PAL monitor, this video output provides only an approximation of what the video will look like when burned to a disc and played on a DVD player. Due to rendering, rescaling, and interlacing issues, you should not rely on this output as a true representation of the video quality, especially with SD projects. Connecting an External Audio Monitor There are two primary issues with monitoring your project’s audio using the computer’s built-in audio system: • The built-in system cannot play surround sound audio. The audio is first downmixed to stereo, then played. • The built-in system cannot play DTS audio. There are two common approaches to connecting an external audio monitor: • Connecting a suitable AC-3 or DTS decoder to the computer’s optical digital audio output (also known as an S/PDIF output) • Connecting a suitable AC-3 or DTS decoder to the computer’s FireWire or USB port 30 Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro Audio and Video Assets Audio and video assets can come from a wide variety of analog and digital sources. You must have an equally wide variety of ways to capture these sources on your authoring system. When bringing your assets into DVD Studio Pro, you should keep in mind the following issues. Have the Assets Been Edited Yet? DVD Studio Pro is not an editor. You can use it to link assets together on a timeline, as with an editor, and even trim an asset’s start and end, but you cannot add effects, such as dissolves and text credits, or perform any audio mixing. Your assets need to be already edited using an application such as Final Cut Pro. If you are editing the assets on your authoring computer, you need to capture them in a format required by your editing software. Once edited, the assets can be imported into DVD Studio Pro (if they are in a QuickTime-supported format) or encoded into DVD-compliant MPEG and audio formats, using either Compressor or third-party applications. Capturing from an Audio or Video Player Often your assets will be edited at a post-production facility and you will capture them directly from a video- or audiotape player. In this case, you must have a third-party capture card that supports the video and audio formats used. This video must be captured using Final Cut Pro (or a similar application) in a QuickTime format that the DVD Studio Pro integrated MPEG encoder can convert to DVD-compliant formats, or captured directly as DVD-compliant MPEG and audio sources. Chapter 1 Overview of Using DVD Studio Pro 31 Before you start authoring your DVD title, it is highly recommended that you set aside time to plan your project. Spending time in the beginning to outline the various aspects of the project will lead to a smoother production with minimal surprises. This chapter covers the following: • Investigating Existing DVDs (p. 33) • Determining Your Target Audience and Playback Device (p. 34) • Deciding Which DVD Standard to Use (p. 34) • Deciding Which Video Standard to Use (p. 35) • Deciding What Content to Include (p. 35) • Creating a Storyboard (p. 35) • Designing the Menus and Buttons (p. 37) • Making Sure Your Content Will Fit (p. 37) • General DVD Limitations (p. 42) Investigating Existing DVDs A very effective way to start planning your project is to spend some time viewing existing DVDs. This process provides you with examples of ways others approached various aspects of their DVD projects, such as using slideshows or providing language selections. It can also help you understand how frustrating the viewing experience can be when a disc has poorly conceived menus or confusing interactivity. Not all DVD titles are Hollywood releases—be sure to look at a variety of titles, especially those that best match the goals of your project. Keep in mind that, while DVD Studio Pro provides the tools needed to create highly complex DVDs, most Hollywood-style titles have teams of specialists who work on each project. Before you set out to create a complicated DVD, make sure you understand all aspects of what is involved, and are prepared to deal with them. 33 Planning Your Project 2 Determining Your Target Audience and Playback Device As with any media project, you must have a clear idea of who the viewers are and what their expectations will be. You may need to create a title that simply plays a movie as soon as the DVD is loaded, with no viewer interaction at all. Or, you may need to create a title with highly customizable languages or display types. Another major consideration is whether your DVD will be played on a computer. When a DVD is played on a set-top DVD player, the arrow buttons on the remote control provide the primary navigation controls. However, when a DVD is played on a computer, viewers typically use the pointer for navigation. This distinction affects menu designs because you need to make it obvious where viewers should click to activate the buttons. Additionally, if you need the title to play on older computers, you may need to set the bit rate as low as possible, to increase the chances that the title will play without stuttering. Deciding Which DVD Standard to Use DVD Studio Pro gives you the choice of authoring a traditional DVD using standard definition (SD) assets or a DVD using high definition (HD) assets. There are several factors to take into account when deciding which DVD format to use: • While an HD-based DVD can provide an excellent HD video output, it can only be played on devices designed specifically to support it, such as the Apple DVD Player. SD-based DVDs can be played on all DVD players, including those that play HD-based DVDs. • An HD project can be written on either a red laser disc (as is used by SD projects) or on a blue laser disc. While SD-based DVD players can read red laser discs, they cannot play HD content from them. Important: Only HD projects on special 3x DVD-ROM red laser media are officially supported in the HD DVD specification. You can burn HD projects to traditional red laser media on your system; however, the discs might not play in all HD DVD players. • Blue laser discs can hold about three times the data that a red laser disc can hold (a single-layer red laser disc can hold 4.7 GB—a single-layer blue laser disc can hold 15 GB). Because you can use SD video in your HD project, writing on a blue laser disc allows you to get much more content on the disc. • You may need to author both SD-based and HD-based DVD versions of your project. The easiest way to do this is to first author the SD-based DVD version of the project. You can then set the DVD standard to HD DVD—DVD Studio Pro automatically converts the project—and you can then choose which QuickTime assets to encode to the HD format. Alternatively, you can swap SD assets with HD assets as needed. 34 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project Deciding Which Video Standard to Use In addition to choosing the DVD standard you want to use, you must also choose the video standard to use. You can choose between NTSC and PAL. This choice affects the video resolutions and frame rates that are supported. Important: You cannot use both NTSC and PAL assets in the same project. Also, be careful not to confuse the video standard setting with the region code setting. The region code setting allows you to specify the regions that can play your DVD—choosing a region that primarily contains PAL countries does not force you to use the PAL video standard, though in most cases you would want to. See Video Standards of the World for information on which countries support each video standard. It is also useful to keep in mind that DVD players that can play both NTSC and PAL are becoming more common and are most common in PAL countries. However, in most cases, while the DVD player can output either video standard, it assumes the video monitor it is connected to can display either standard (which is less likely to be true). Deciding What Content to Include The audio, video, and still-image files used by DVD Studio Pro in authoring DVD projects are known as assets. Often you’ll have a good idea of what primary assets you want to include when you start your project, but you may think of additional items once it is too late to create them. For example, providing a second language may greatly increase the value of a corporate title but may require you to create new menus to support it. Additionally, including nontraditional items on a DVD, such as PDF files and web links, can add a great deal of value to titles that will be viewed on computers. You may also have the opposite problem—you may have too much content for a DVD title. Be sure you know which content is required and which is optional. Explore the feasibility of creating a dual-layer DVD or double-sided DVD. Some content may be suitable for encoding at lower bit rates or as MPEG-1 streams. Perhaps instead of using uncompressed AIFF audio, you can use Dolby Digital AC-3 to save space. See Making Sure Your Content Will Fit for more information. Creating a Storyboard Even simple DVD titles with only a few menus can benefit from the time you spend in the planning stages.Storyboarding includes planning the interaction between the menus, tracks, slideshows, and stories. It helps you visualize what the viewing experience will be and ensures that there are minimal surprises during the authoring process. Chapter 2 Planning Your Project 35 You’ll find that storyboarding can give you the overarching view of your project needed to plan fairly complex interactivity. Product Slideshow 1 Track 1 Customer Interview Track 3 Company Background Track 4 Main Presentation Track 2 End Jump Menu (disable) Stills Main Menu Menu 1 Extras Menu Menu 2 First Play Track 1 Extras Play Button press Press Menu on remote End jump Interviews Background Main Storyboarding helps you to sort out a variety of navigational issues: • What should play first: By default the first play is set to the first menu, but for many projects you may want something else to be the first thing viewers see when they start playing the DVD. • What should be each element’s end jump setting: You may know that you want the DVD to go back to the main menu once a track plays, but have you thought about which button on that menu to highlight? 36 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project • What should the remote control’s Menu button do: It’s worth planning what should happen with all of the remote control buttons, but especially the Menu button because its action can vary from element to element. These and many other decisions need to be made. Drawing them out as a storyboard before starting the project can help eliminate errors or delays while waiting for a decision to be made. Designing the Menus and Buttons DVD Studio Pro provides tools that make it easy to create menus without relying heavily on outside graphics applications. For simple titles whose main focus is to provide information, you may be able to rely on the basic button-and-text capability of DVD Studio Pro to create your menus. For custom titles, you’ll need to create your own graphics. Creating graphics for use with video is a bit different from creating graphics for print. Be sure to see Creating Graphics to Use in Menus for information on creating graphics for your title. In either case, because menus and the buttons on them are the viewers’ primary way of interacting with your title, it is important to spend time making sure that they are straightforward, with logical button navigation and clear highlights that let viewers know where they are in the menu. Making Sure Your Content Will Fit Be sure to allow time in the planning process to determine whether all of your assets will fit on the type of DVD you are using. You don’t want to be surprised when you are finished authoring the title—that is a bad time to find out that the assets won’t fit. What Do You Mean a 4.7 GB DVD Won’t Hold 4.7 Gigabytes? With computers, memory and disk size are commonly expressed in terms such as kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte. Technically, a kilobyte should represent 1000 bytes, but due to the binary numbering system computers use, a kilobyte actually represents 1024 bytes. Similarly, a megabyte represents 1,048,576 bytes (and not 1,000,000 bytes) and a gigabyte represents 1,073,741,824 bytes (and not 1,000,000,000 bytes). Unfortunately, with DVD discs the terms megabyte and gigabyte do not use the same binary-based standard; they literally refer to the technically accurate 1,000,000 bytes for a megabyte and 1,000,000,000 bytes for a gigabyte. This means that a 4.7 GB DVD disc will actually hold only 4.37 binary-based gigabytes. While the difference is not large (relatively speaking), it must be accounted for if you intend to come close to filling the disc. Chapter 2 Planning Your Project 37 Important: When displaying estimated sizes, DVD Studio Pro uses the “1000 bytes equals a kilobyte” system. This means that the estimated sizes refer to the amount of space they will require on the DVD and will be a bit larger than the file sizes shown in the Finder. While the Finder shows binary-based file sizes, you can use its File > Get Info command to see both the binary-based file size and, in parentheses, the “1000 bytes equals a kilobyte” size. Disc Options You have a variety of DVD discs to choose from. The one you choose depends on your content, your budget, and whether you intend to use a DVD replication facility. DVD sizes are typically referred to with names such as DVD-5 and DVD-9. While the number in the name is intended to provide general guidance as to the capacity of the disc, it should not be relied on too strictly. (Note that a DVD-4 disc has a higher capacity than a DVD-5 disc.) The following tables list the common sizes used. Red Laser Discs The following table lists the names for discs based on red lasers. DVD name Disc size Type Capacity 1.46 GB (1.36 binary gigabytes) Single-sided, single-layer DVD-1 8 cm 2.66 GB (2.47 binary gigabytes) DVD-2 8 cm Single-sided, dual-layer 2.92 GB (2.72 binary gigabytes) Dual-sided, both sides single-layer DVD-3 8 cm 5.32 GB (4.95 binary gigabytes) Dual-sided, both sides dual-layer DVD-4 8 cm 4.7 GB (4.38 binary gigabytes) Single-sided, single-layer DVD-5 12 cm 8.54 GB (7.95 binary gigabytes) DVD-9 12 cm Single-sided, dual-layer 9.4 GB (8.75 binary gigabytes) Dual-sided, both sides single-layer DVD-10 12 cm 13.24 GB (12.32 binary gigabytes) Dual-sided, one side dual-layer DVD-14 12 cm 17.08 GB (15.9 binary gigabytes) Dual-sided, both sides dual-layer DVD-18 12 cm If you intend to burn your own discs using your system’s DVD burner, you can only use DVD-5 and DVD-9 discs. To use any of the other sizes, you must use a DVD replication facility. Blue Laser Discs The following table lists the names for discs based on blue lasers. 38 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project DVD name Disc size Type Capacity 4.5 GB (4.19 binary gigabytes) Single-sided, single-layer HD DVD-4 8 cm 9.0 GB (8.38 binary gigabytes) HD DVD-9 8 cm Single-sided, dual-layer 15.0 GB (13.97 binary gigabytes) Single-sided, single-layer HD DVD-15 12 cm 30.0 GB (27.94 binary gigabytes) HD DVD-30 12 cm Single-sided, dual-layer Estimating Whether Your Content Will Fit While you will often hear that a DVD-5 (or a 4.7 GB disc) can hold two hours of video content, this is really only a rough guideline. The actual amount of video a DVD-5 disc can hold depends on the bit rate the video is encoded at. Often overlooked is the size of audio files—if you plan to use uncompressed AIFF (PCM) audio, you must also take the additional space requirements into account when calculating whether all your content will fit. If your project needs to fit on a DVD-5 disc that you can burn on your SuperDrive, you need to choose an appropriate bit rate. There is a simple formula you can use. See Fitting Your Project on a DVD-5 Disc for more information. If you are flexible as to the DVD disc type you can use, you can experiment with different bit rates and determine the disc space required by each. This process is more detailed and includes more variables, such as taking into account additional audio streams and DVD-ROM content. See Calculating Disc Space Requirements for details on precisely determining your disc space requirements. Fitting Your Project on a DVD-5 Disc You can use this simple formula to estimate the bit rate you should use to fit your video on a DVD-5 disc: 560/x = bit rate The “x” represents the length of the video (in minutes) and the resulting bit rate is in megabits per second (Mbps). This formula assumes you are using compressed audio, such as AC-3. If you are using uncompressed audio, you need to subtract 1.5 Mbps (assuming you are using 16-bit stereo at a 48 kHz sample rate) from the bit rate value. For example, if you have 120 minutes of video, you get a suggested bit rate of 4.67 Mbps (560/120 = 4.67). If you are using uncompressed audio (such as the AIFF format the embedded AIFF encoder supplies), you need to reduce the bit rate to 3.17 Mbps to ensure the video and audio will fit on the disc. Chapter 2 Planning Your Project 39 Beware of Setting Your Bit Rate Too High You will find that with some DVD projects, the content easily fits on the disc, and you may be tempted to use the highest video bit rate available. While higher bit rates produce better quality, you must take into account other factors before deciding to use the maximum allowable value. The maximum video bit rate allowed on SD-based DVDs is 9.8 Mbps, but rarely is that practical to use because DVD players support combined video, audio, and subtitle bit rates of up to 10.08 Mbps. For HD-based DVDs, the maximum video bit rate is 29.4 Mbps for HD assets and 15.0 Mbps for any SD assets used in an HD project, with an overall maximum bit rate of 30.24 Mbps. In practice, you should be conservative when determining how high of a bit rate to allow for. Trying to squeeze out the highest possible bit rate for your project can lead to player compatibility and disc space issues.A general recommendation is to not exceed 9.2 Mbps for the combined video and audio bit rates when authoring SD projects or 29 Mbps when authoring HD projects. Important: If you are building your project and DVD Studio Pro detects that the bit rate of the multiplexed stream is too high, the build stops and an error message appears. Using PCM or AC-3 Audio A single PCM audio stream using typical settings (as produced with the embedded AIFF encoder) requires 1.536 Mbps, which leaves an absolute maximum bit rate for the video in an SD project of around 8.54 Mbps. If there are two PCM audio streams, 3.07 Mbps must be allowed for the audio, leaving just 7.01 Mbps for the video. Note: Even though you can only play one audio stream at a time, the bit rates of all audio streams must be added together when determining the overall bit rate for a track. Similarly, all subtitle streams must be added together and added to the overall bit rate. Using AC-3 audio in place of the PCM audio leaves far more room for the video bit rate. Stereo AC-3 audio using typical settings requires only about 224 kbps—using two stereo AC-3 streams in place of the PCM audio leaves about 9.6 Mbps for the video. See Calculating a Project’s Disc Space Requirements for more information about allowances for other audio formats. Subtitle Allowances Subtitles generally use a very small bit rate—about 10 kbps per stream. Larger subtitles that change frequently or use graphics can have a significant impact though and can affect the maximum bit rate you can use for the video. 40 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project Multiple Video Angles Using multiple video angles in a track also affects the maximum allowable video bit rate you can use. Due to the way the DVD specification requires video streams to be multiplexed together, the number of video streams determines the maximum video bit rate you can use in SD projects. The maximum combined bit rates (highest bit rate video stream + all audio streams + all subtitle streams) you can use for each multi- and mixed-angle track in an SD project is from 8.0 Mbps with two streams to 7.0 Mbps with nine streams. See Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks for more information. HD projects using multiple video angles in a track are limited to 24.0 Mbps for the maximum combined bit rates, regardless of the number of video angles. Transitions When you add a transition to a menu, to a still clip in a track, or to slides in a slideshow, you need to account for the additional video it creates. • In the case of menus, the transitions become short rendered video clips stored in the same video object (VOB) file as the menus. This means that, in addition to the overall amount of disc space menu transitions require, you must also consider their impact on the 1 GB menu VOB file size limit. See Standard SD DVD Video Zone Files for more information. You must also take into account that a transition video clip is rendered for each menu button that has transitions enabled—a menu with 18 buttons can require 18 transition video clips. • In the case of still clips in a track and slides in a slideshow, adding transitions increases the amount of disc space each requires even if the transition does not increase the length of the track or slideshow. This is because stills and slides use much less disc space than the motion video created by the transitions, even if the transition is from one slide to another. The amount of disc space required by each transition varies depending on their length and type. In general, for SD projects, which use a bit rate of 6 Mbps for transitions, you should allow 750 KB of disc space for every second of transition time in the project. For HD projects, which use a bit rate of 20 Mbps for transitions, you should allow 2.5 MB of disc space per second. Using the Video Bit Rate The video bit rates you calculate can be used as the bit rate entry of your encoder, regardless of the encoding method you intend to use (one pass, one-pass variable bit rate [VBR], or two-pass VBR). When using one of the VBR encoding methods in the integrated MPEG encoder, the “Bit rate” setting affects the amount of disc space that the MPEG video file requires, while the “Max bit rate” setting sets the highest video bit rate that is allowed in the file (but does not affect the file size). See MPEG Encoding Methods for more information. Chapter 2 Planning Your Project 41 General DVD Limitations Following are some general limitations you may run into while authoring your DVD project with DVD Studio Pro. Most of these limitations are due to DVD-Video specification requirements. Note: With the exception of the number of buttons on a menu, the same limits apply to both SD and HD projects. Project Following are the limitations within a DVD Studio Pro project. • Maximum number of tracks, stories, and slideshows in a project: 99 • Minimum number of menus in a project: 0 • Minimum number of tracks or slideshows in a project: 1 Menus Following are the menu-related limitations. • Maximum number of menus in a project: 10,000 • Menu aspect ratio support: 4:3 and 16:9 menus can be used in the same project. • Maximum number of buttons on an SD-based DVD 4:3 menu: 36 • Maximum number of buttons on an SD-based DVD 16:9 menu: 18, unless Pan Scan & Letterbox is selected, which then sets the maximum to 12 • Maximum number of buttons on an HD-based DVD 4:3 menu: 48 • Maximum number of buttons on an HD-based DVD 16:9 menu: 24, unless Pan Scan & Letterbox is selected, which then sets the maximum to 16 Tracks Following are the track-related limitations. • Maximum number of video streams in a track: 9 • Minimum number of video streams in a track: 1 • Maximum number of audio streams in a track: 8 • Maximum number of subtitle streams in a track: 32 • Maximum number of cell markers in a track: 255 • Maximum number of chapter markers in a track: 99 (Each chapter marker is also a cell marker.) • Maximum combined number of chapter markers and individual chapter end jump settings in a track: 106 (See Setting Chapter Marker End Jumps for more information.) • Maximum number of buttons on an SD-based DVD 4:3 track’s button highlight marker: 36 42 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project • Maximum number of buttons on an SD-based DVD 16:9 track’s button highlight marker: 18, unless Pan Scan & Letterbox is selected, which then sets the maximum to 12 • Maximum number of buttons on an HD-based DVD 4:3 track’s button highlight marker: 48 • Maximum number of buttons on an HD-based DVD 16:9 track’s button highlight marker: 24, unless Pan Scan & Letterbox is selected, which then sets the maximum to 16 Stories Following is the story-related limitation. • Maximum number of segments: 98 (must all be from the same track) Slideshows Following are the slideshow-related limitations. • Maximum number of slides in a slideshow: 99 • Minimum number of slides in a slideshow: 1 Scripts Following are the script-related limitations. • Maximum number of scripts in a project: 10,000 • Maximum number of command lines in a script: 124 • Minimum number of command lines in a script: 1 Chapter 2 Planning Your Project 43 While investigating other DVDs, you may decide to include similar specialized features in yours. This chapter covers the following: • Creating a Simple DVD (p. 45) • Creating a Play One or Play All Project (p. 47) • Grabbing a Still Image from Your Movie (p. 50) • Adding Easter Eggs to Your Menus (p. 51) Creating a Simple DVD While DVD Studio Pro is capable of creating complex projects, you may find yourself needing to create a very simple project that does nothing more than start playing when you insert the DVD into a DVD player—with no menus and no viewer interaction at all. This could be a disc that plays in a standalone kiosk or a DVD daily whose only purpose is to distribute a video track for approval. To create a simple DVD 1 Choose File > New (or press Command-N) to create a new project. By default a new project contains Menu 1 and Track 1. 2 Select the Menu 1 tile in the Graphics tab and press Delete. 3 Control-click the Track 1 tile, then choose First Play from the shortcut menu. This sets the project to automatically start playing this track once the DVD is inserted into a DVD player. (By default, DVD Studio Pro sets Menu 1 as the First Play element.) 4 Drag the movie from the Library or a Finder window to the Track 1 tile in the Graphics tab. This not only imports the movie but assigns it to Track 1. 5 Select the Track 1 tile in the Graphics tab so that the Track Inspector appears. 45 How Do You Do That? 3 6 Do one of the following to control what happens when the movie finishes playing: • To have nothing happen when the movie finishes playing, leave End Jump (in the top section of the Track Inspector) set to Not Set. Once the movie finishes playing, the DVD player will stop. The viewer can press Play to play it again. • To have the track play again in an infinite loop, choose the track from the End Jump pop-up menu. And that’s it. You might want to consider adding a few additional elements to the project that would improve the viewer’s experience. Adding Chapter Markers Depending on the length of the movie, it can be very helpful for the viewer to be able to use the DVD player’s Previous and Next buttons to quickly skip through the movie to points you define with chapter markers. If the movie was edited in Final Cut Pro, you can add the chapter markers at each scene change or at other significant points in the movie. These chapter markers will automatically import into DVD Studio Pro. See Adding and Configuring Markers in Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express for more information. You can also manually add the markers in the DVD Studio Pro Track Editor. Even just placing markers every five or ten minutes can help the viewer locate specific parts of the movie. See Working with Markers for more information. Adding a Menu This goes a bit against the general idea of a simple DVD project, but it might be worth adding a simple menu so that the viewing experience once the movie finishes playing is a bit better. For example, you could leave the track set as the First Play element but have the track jump to a menu once it finishes playing. The menu could have a single button that says “Play Again?” Or the menu could have a credit list. If You’re Using Multiple Movies You may have a situation where you have more than one movie to put on the DVD. You can handle that in a couple of ways: • You can put each movie in its own track: If you do not want to have a menu, you can have the End Jump of the first track set to the next track, linking the tracks together. This assures that the viewer will watch the movies in the order you specify. • You can concatentate the movies in a single track: This is a bit easier than placing each movie in its own track because you do not have to set the End Jumps for each, and it also ensures that the movies will be watched in a specific order. This does require that each movie uses the same video and audio formats. 46 Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? In most cases with multiple movies, you will want to create a menu where the viewer can choose which movie to watch. You may even want to have a menu where the viewer can choose to play a specific movie or to play all of them. See Creating a Play One or Play All Project for information on setting up this situation. Creating a Play One or Play All Project You may have a project with a track that contains several sections that a viewer either might want to watch individually or all at once, one after the other, from the start to the end. It’s actually fairly easy to set this up using stories. Once it is set up, you can optionally add additional functionality to polish the project. Stories in a Nutshell Stories allow you to configure alternative ways to play the movie in a track. Stories use chapter markers to divide the movie into sections (cells) that you can then configure to play, skip, or even play more than once. You can also choose to play these sections in a different order than they appear in the track. Stories are elements you can add to your project that are tied to a specific track—a story can only contain content from a single track. However, a track can have multiple stories. An advantage of stories is that because they only redefine how to play an existing track’s movie, they do not require any additional disc space on the DVD. They do count against the 99 track and slideshow limit that DVD Studio Pro projects have. See Introduction to Stories for more information about stories. Creating the Basic Project You follow three primary steps to create this project: Stage 1: Creating the Track and Adding Chapter Markers to It The chapter markers define the sections that you can use for your stories. You can manually add the markers in DVD Studio Pro, import the chapter markers you added in Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express, or import chapter markers from a text file. Stage 2: Creating and Configuring the Stories For this project, you create a story for each individually playable section of the movie. Each story contains one chapter marker to define the section of the movie to play. Each story also has an End Jump setting that takes the viewer back to the menu. Stage 3: Creating and Configuring the Menus Once you have the stories defined, you can create the one or more menus needed to access them. Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? 47 Creating the Track and Adding Chapter Markers to It How you create the track depends on your movies: • If you have a single movie that contains all of the sections edited together: This is the ideal situation because, assuming you edited them together in Final Cut Pro, you could also have added the chapter markers needed to set up the stories. You can manually add the chapter markers in DVD Studio Pro; however, most often you will not be able to place them on the exact frame you would like to use because the markers must be on an I-frame or a key frame. • If you have multiple movies, with each containing one or more sections: In this situation, you place all of the movies in the same track (in the order they should play for the “play all” button). This situation also requires you to manually add the chapter markers. Note: Having multiple movies makes it tempting to skip using stories and just create a separate track for each section. You could then create buttons to play each of the tracks. The difficulty in this is creating the “play all” button, because each track’s End Jump would need to be set to go back to the menu. Even if you managed to use scripts to get each track to jump to the next track, you would almost always have a short pause during the jump while the DVD player located the next track. Using stories makes it possible to have seamless playback between the sections for the “play all” button while retaining the ability to play each section individually—all without using scripts. To create and configure the track 1 Click the Add Track tool in the DVD Studio Pro toolbar to add a new track. You can also use the track that is automatically added to new projects. 2 Import the movie or movies into the project. 3 Do one of the following: • If you have a single movie, drag it to the track in the Track Editor. • If you have multiple movies, drag each to the Track Editor, in the order that you want them to play. 4 Add the chapter markers to the track by positioning the Track Editor’s playhead on the first frame of each section and pressing M. The markers are placed on the nearest I-frame or key frame. You can move the marker forward or backward to try to locate a better frame if needed. Note: If you used a single movie that had the chapter markers added in Final Cut Pro, the chapter markers should already be present and you can skip this step. You can also name the chapter markers to help identify them later when creating your stories. See Importing Assets and Working with Markers for additional information. 48 Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? Creating and Configuring the Stories Once you have the track configured with chapter markers to identify each section, you are ready to create the stories. For this project, you need a story for each section of the movie that you want the viewer to be able to play individually. Once you create the story, you need to choose the chapter marker that defines the section of the track that that story should play. To create and configure the stories 1 Click the Add Story tool in the Toolbar. This adds a new story, related to the currently selected track, to your project. 2 Double-click the new story’s icon in the Graphical tab to open it in the Story Editor. The entry list. Drag markers to this list to create your story. The source list. Drag markers from this side to the other side to create your story. Choose a story from the current track to edit. The left side of the Story Editor lists the chapter markers in the track. The right side lists the markers that have been assigned to this story (which is empty at the moment). 3 Locate the chapter marker on the left side that you want this story to play and drag it to the right side. Note: If there are additional chapter markers in the section of the movie you want this story to play, you need to drag them to the right side as well, in the order that they are placed in the track. 4 Repeat the above steps for each section of the movie. As mentioned previously, naming the chapter markers makes this process much easier. Naming the stories, especially if there are a lot of them, can also help the process. Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? 49 Creating and Configuring the Menus Once you have created your stories, you are ready to create the menu (or menus, depending on how many stories you created and how many buttons you want to have on each menu). The basic concept for the menu is to have a Play All button that plays the entire track and separate buttons that play each of the stories. You can use any of the normal menu creation methods. See Introduction to Creating Menus for information on the types of menus you can create. Grabbing a Still Image from Your Movie DVD Studio Pro includes a feature that allows you to export a still image from a movie in a track. The still image is saved as a TIFF file that you can use as a menu background or open in a graphics program. The file matches the movie’s resolution. Anamorphic 16:9 video results in an anamorphic still image using a 4:3 aspect ratio (which works fine as a 16:9 menu background). This feature works with SD as well as HD projects. The one issue is that the still image must be from an I-frame (MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 video) or a key frame (H.264 video). This means you may not be able to get a still from the exact frame you would like. To create a still image from a movie 1 In the Track Editor, move the playhead to the frame you would like to have a still image made from. 2 Press M. This adds a marker to the timeline. The exact position of the marker depends on how close you are to an I-frame or key frame as well as the Snap To setting in the Track pane of the DVD Studio Pro Preferences window. You can drag the marker left and right to see if either of those positions would produce a better still image. (This is easier to do if you zoom into the timeline.) 3 Click Save Still in the Marker Inspector. A dialog appears for saving the file. 4 Enter a name for the file (the default name is the marker’s name) and choose the location to save it to (the default location is in the same folder as the video file). 5 Click Save. You can import the still image file into this project or open it in a graphics application to add effects or text. 50 Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? Adding Easter Eggs to Your Menus It is becoming increasingly popular to add hidden items to DVD projects. For example, you may include a track or menu that you only want people to find if they know the right buttons to push. Most often, invisible buttons on less-used menus are used to access these items. Depending on how elaborate you want to be, you can configure the button navigation so that the viewer can only get to the invisible button by pressing non-obvious arrow buttons on the remote control. For example, if you have a menu with a column of six buttons, you could set the button navigation so that the invisible button is reached only by pressing the left arrow button when on the fourth button in the column. (Most viewers would not think to press the left arrow button if the menu’s buttons are arranged in an obvious up/down fashion.) You can make it even harder to find by using multiple invisible buttons, with each requiring the correct arrow button presses to get to the next, with incorrect presses jumping back to the visible buttons. About Invisible Buttons You can set an overlay button to be invisible by selecting Invisible in the Advanced tab of the Button Inspector. In this case, making a button invisible means that the highlight colors do not appear when the button is selected and activated. This can be confusing when combined with visible buttons on a menu because it can lead to a condition where nothing appears to be selected. Instead of using a true invisible button, you may want to use a button whose normal state is invisible, but which acts as a visible button when selected and activated. To do this, you only have to make sure the button has no normal state graphics on the menu’s background (making the button invisible when not selected), but does have supporting graphics, such as a star or happy face, in the overlay file that will show the selected and activated highlight colors. Note that if you do this, a viewer playing the DVD on a computer may be able to find the button just by waving the pointer over the menu. See Advanced Tab in the Button Inspector for information on invisible buttons. Important: While using invisible buttons can make it difficult for viewers to accidentally find hidden features, you should not assume this is entirely secure. Determined viewers can use a variety of methods to find hidden content on a DVD disc. Chapter 3 How Do You Do That? 51 Before you can begin building a DVD project, you must have correctly prepared video source material. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Preparing Video Sources (p. 53) • NTSC or PAL? (p. 54) • Using 24 fps Video (p. 55) • Choosing an Aspect Ratio (p. 56) • About MPEG Video (p. 60) • Encoding Video Materials for DVD (p. 61) • Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder (p. 68) • Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks (p. 74) • Adding Markers to Your Video (p. 76) • About H.264 Video (p. 80) • About HDV Video (p. 81) • DVD Video Source Settings Summary (p. 82) Introduction to Preparing Video Sources After you have captured and edited your source material, you need to encode it to make it DVD-compliant. Compressor is a full-featured video and audio compression application included with Final Cut Studio that you can use to create DVD-compliant assets for use in DVD Studio Pro. DVD Studio Pro is integrated with Compressor to provide easy access to the commonly used MPEG, AIFF, and Dolby Digital AC-3 encoding functions for converting QuickTime video to DVD-compliant assets. The DVD Studio Pro integration with Compressor allows you to directly import QuickTime sources into a project—the encoders work with the sources while you continue authoring the project. 53 Preparing Video Assets 4 You can also use Compressor as a standalone application to get more options and control over the encoding process. Compressor also integrates well with Final Cut Pro, providing exceptionally high-quality MPEG-2 streams directly from Final Cut Pro sequences. This chapter describes how to prepare video source material for use in DVD Studio Pro and how to use the integrated MPEG encoder. For more information on DVD-compliant material, see About MPEG Video. There are three areas in a DVD project that can use video sources: • Tracks: This is the primary area that uses video sources. • Menus: This area uses video sources when you are creating motion menus. Menus can also assign video sources to buttons and drop zones. For the most part, video sources used for motion menus must follow the same rules as video sources used for tracks. See Preparing Menu Assets for more information. • Alpha Transitions: You can use specialized video sources as alpha transitions in your menus, tracks, and slideshows. See Preparing Alpha Transitions for more information. The DVD-Video specification has strict requirements for several aspects of the sources used. For best results, you should create and capture your video and audio using the settings required for DVD. See DVD Video Source Settings Summary for a complete list of settings required for a source to be DVD-compliant. NTSC or PAL? A DVD-Video title must contain either all NTSC or all PAL sources. If you intend to create a title that can be played on either NTSC or PAL DVD players, you must create two titles and two versions of the sources (including all graphics and video, which will require significant effort), one for each standard. About the Terms “NTSC” and “PAL” The terms “NTSC” and “PAL” are technically incorrect when used with respect to DVDs. These terms specify a variety of things with respect to an SD composite video signal. When you refer to a video asset as NTSC or PAL with respect to SD-based DVDs, you are defining the asset’s frame rate and resolution. With most HD assets, the terms NTSC and PAL refer only to the frame rate, because the resolution is far different than an SD video asset. 54 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Many DVD players in PAL countries can also play NTSC DVD-Video titles. It’s important to understand that these players often do not convert NTSC video to PAL—they simply output the NTSC sources. You must connect an NTSC or dual-standard video monitor to view the output. Additionally, be aware that all DVD players have a region code that prevents them from playing DVD-Video titles not intended for the player’s region. Using 24 fps Video Often the video content for a DVD project originates from film shot at 24 frames per second (for NTSC this is actually 23.976 fps, which is more commonly referred to as 23.98 fps). The DVD specification allows you to include 24 fps MPEG-2 assets as long as they are properly flagged so the DVD player can decode them by either using a 3:2 pulldown (for NTSC DVD players) or playing them 4% faster (for PAL DVD players). The video resolution also must match those allowed for the intended video standard. See Choosing a Video Resolution for details on supported video resolutions. This means that there are NTSC and PAL versions of 24 fps MPEG-2 assets, and you can only use NTSC 24 fps assets in NTSC projects and PAL 24 fps assets in PAL projects. Encoding video that originates with a 24 fps rate as a 24 fps MPEG asset has two primary advantages: • Less time is spent on the encoding process. • Smaller files are produced. These advantages are due to fewer frames being encoded, especially when compared to NTSC frame rates. Important: MPEG-2 assets that include 23.98 frames to play at 29.97 fps show as 29.97 fps assets in QuickTime, Compressor, and DVD Studio Pro. Importing 24 fps Assets How DVD Studio Pro handles your 24 fps assets depends on whether or not they are already MPEG-2 encoded: • If you import 24 fps MPEG-2 assets: They are handled correctly and remain 24 fps when you build the project. Note: 24 fps assets show as their display rate setting when viewed in the Track Editor. This makes them appear as if they were at the NTSC or PAL frame rate. You can confirm they are actually 24 fps by selecting them in the Assets tab and verifying the frame rate in the Asset Inspector. • If you import 24 fps QuickTime assets: They are encoded as either 29.97 fps or 25 fps MPEG-2 files, based on your project’s video standard, and are no longer 24 fps when you build the project. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 55 To create a 24 fps MPEG-2 asset, you need to use Compressor (included with DVD Studio Pro) or a third-party encoder that supports encoding 24 fps MPEG-2 assets. Using 24 fps Video in Tracks You can use 24 fps video assets in tracks just like you would use regular 29.97 fps or 25 fps video assets, as long as they match the project’s video standard (NTSC or PAL). You can also combine 24 fps assets with regular video assets within a track, as long as they use the same resolution. Using 24 fps Video in Menus You can use 24 fps assets in menus as backgrounds or assets for buttons and drop zones. You can also combine 24 fps assets with regular video assets within a menu. If the menu must be rendered because it contains shapes, drop zones, or text objects, it is rendered at the project’s frame rate, even if the menu’s background is 24 fps. Choosing an Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio is the ratio of the width of the visible area of the video frame to the height of the visible area. Standard NTSC and PAL monitors have a picture aspect ratio of 4:3 (or 1.33, which is the width divided by the height). Some High Definition Television (HDTV) formats have a picture aspect ratio of 16:9, or 1.78. The DVD specification supports both 4:3 and 16:9 sources, but it does not support HD video. Most HD video formats use a combination of features to create the high definition image, including a much larger frame size than DVD-Video supports. HD-based DVDs also support both 4:3 and 16:9 sources, as well SD and HD video formats. Using 16:9 sources in your project raises a number of issues that you need to be aware of. Your main goal is to ensure that 16:9 assets play back correctly on 16:9 monitors and as expected on 4:3 monitors (and that 4:3 assets play correctly on both monitor types as well). Incorrect settings can lead to distorted video. For example, the video may appear horizontally compressed (objects look “skinny”) or expanded (objects look “fat”). 56 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets This illustration shows the viewing options for a 16:9 asset. 16:9 monitor 16:9 aspect ratio 16:9 anamorphic (The dashed line shows the circle’s original size.) 16:9 letterbox 16:9 pan-scan 16:9 video on 4:3 monitors This illustration shows the viewing options for a 4:3 asset. 4:3 monitor 4:3 aspect ratio 4:3 stretched (The dashed line shows the circle’s original size.) 4:3 video on 16:9 monitors 4:3 pillar box Read the following sections to find out more about using 16:9 assets in your projects. What Exactly Is a 16:9 Asset? When you decide to use 16:9 assets in a DVD Studio Pro project, it is crucial that you understand exactly what attributes your 16:9 media should have. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 57 16:9 and SD Projects The DVD specification and DVD Studio Pro require 16:9 video to be anamorphic. An anamorphic 16:9 video frame has the same number of pixels as a 4:3 video frame. When displayed on a 16:9 monitor, the frame is horizontally stretched to fit the screen, and the content appears normal. When viewed on a 4:3 monitor, however, the video content appears horizontally compressed (see the illustrations in Choosing an Aspect Ratio). The most common error is to letterbox your 16:9 video assets before bringing them into DVD Studio Pro. Once a 16:9 asset has been letterboxed, it becomes a 4:3 asset with black bars along the top and bottom of the video image. If you flag letterboxed source video as 16:9 video when encoding it, you will have problems when you play it back later. 16:9 and HD Projects HD projects can use a wide variety of video resolutions. Several of these are true 16:9 (1280 x 720p and 1920 x 1080i) while several others use the same anamorphic method used in SD projects (720 x 480p, 720 x 576p, and 1440 x 1080i). Using Pan-Scan to Display 16:9 Video The pan-scan method of displaying 16:9 video on a 4:3 monitor was developed as a compromise between letterbox, which displays all the video content but with black areas at the top and bottom, and the only other alternative: filling the entire 4:3 screen, but cropping some of the content. With pan-scan, you can choose which bits of the 16:9 content to crop, ensuring the action is not lost by displaying the center of the screen only. The pan-scan method can result in sudden jumps from one side of the screen to the other (for example, to follow a conversation’s dialogue), which may make your video look as if edits have been made. To make pan-scan work, you must have a pan-scan vector, a frame-based value that controls which part of the content to use. Someone watching the video creates the vector, deciding which parts should be seen. This vector must be available when the video is MPEG-encoded. The MPEG encoder included with DVD Studio Pro does not support pan-scan vector information. However, if the information is already part of an MPEG-encoded video stream, created with an encoder that supports the vector information, DVD Studio Pro passes this information along. Virtually all movies shown on TV have been through the pan-scan process; however, pan-scan vectors are rarely used for movies released on DVD. Instead, a version of the movie is made using the 4:3 pan-scanned source and is not intended to be played as a 16:9 video on 16:9 monitors. The other side of the disc often contains the true 16:9 version, set to display as letterboxed video on 4:3 monitors. Important: Do not use pan-scan if your video does not actually support it. If you do, only the center part of the frame will appear. 58 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets MPEG Encoding and 16:9 Video It’s important to correctly identify your source video as either 4:3 or 16:9 before encoding it. At this point, you are only identifying it—you are not defining how it should be handled when played back. When using the integrated MPEG encoder, you can select the video’s aspect ratio in the Encoding pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Using 16:9 Assets in Tracks Each track within a DVD Studio Pro project has an aspect ratio setting. This setting lets the DVD player know how to display the video when playing back the title. With a 16:9 track, you specify how it will play back on a 4:3 monitor: Pan-Scan, Letterbox, or Pan Scan & Letterbox (allowing the viewer to choose). As mentioned previously, pan-scan is rarely used and should never be selected unless the encoded video contains pan-scan vector information. Mixing 16:9 and 4:3 Assets in a Track Keep in mind that a track’s aspect ratio setting applies to the entire track. If you mix 16:9 assets with 4:3 assets in a track, you will have problems when playing it back. For example, if you set the aspect ratio to 16:9 Letterbox, the 4:3 video will also be letterboxed and end up looking vertically compressed. To be safe, do not mix 16:9 and 4:3 assets in the same track. Instead, create separate tracks for each. You can use the Connections tab in DVD Studio Pro to control the playback order of the tracks. Some Players Cheat! Unfortunately, not all players handle 16:9 video correctly. The aspect ratio setting for each track is stored in the track’s video title set file (vts_01_1.vob, for example). Most DVD players read the setting and process it correctly, but some DVD players ignore this setting and instead look at the aspect ratio setting of the video itself. For the most part, this works out, but it can result in inconsistencies when playing the title on different DVD players, particularly if you are not careful while encoding and authoring. Buttons over 16:9 Video Tracks To place a button over a video track, you add a menu overlay to a subtitle stream in the track. These overlays are not processed in the same way as the video, so you must create a separate overlay for each display mode (16:9, 4:3 letterbox, and 4:3 pan-scan). You then need to create a script that selects the correct subtitle stream to display based on the DVD player’s settings. See What Happens with Different Aspect Ratios? for information on using subtitle streams to place buttons over a video track, and see Creating Scripts for information on creating scripts. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 59 Using 16:9 Assets in Menus Typically you’ll want to use 16:9 menus with 16:9 tracks. Most of the same concerns with video apply to menus as well—specifically how the 16:9 menu is displayed on a 4:3 monitor. With a 16:9 menu, you specify how it will play back on a 4:3 monitor: Pan-Scan, Letterbox, or Pan Scan & Letterbox (allowing the viewer to choose). As mentioned previously, pan-scan is rarely used, and should never be selected unless the encoded video contains pan-scan vector information. See Understanding Pixel Differences in Graphics and Video for information on the image size settings you should use when creating 16:9 menus. Issues with Film Aspect Ratios While 16:9 is a fairly wide aspect ratio, it is not wide enough to contain an entire frame from a typical Hollywood movie. Two film aspect ratios are widely used now: Normal is 1.85:1 and Widescreen is 2.40:1 (for comparison, 16:9 is 1.78:1). For normal titles (those that use the 1.85:1 aspect ratio), a small amount of letterboxing or pan-scan cropping is required to transfer the title to DVD, but for Panavision titles significant letterboxing or pan-scan cropping is necessary. This processing must be done before the video is MPEG-encoded. The DVD specification supports only 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios. 2.40:1 (Widescreen) 1.85:1 (Normal film) 1.78:1 (16:9) 1.33:1 (4:3) You should not be surprised to see some letterboxing when playing a Panavision movie on a 16:9 monitor. About MPEG Video MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) is a family of video and audio compression formats that make high-quality titles possible on DVD. There are a broad range of MPEG types and settings; use care to select those that are DVD-compliant with the DVD standard (SD or HD) you are using. DVD Studio Pro imports MPEG assets created with a wide variety of third-party products. The following section, Encoding Video Materials for DVD, provides a general overview of MPEG, as well as details that relate specifically to DVD Studio Pro and its integrated MPEG encoder. 60 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Encoding Video Materials for DVD The DVD specification requires video movies to be in a DVD-compliant MPEG format. There are a number of methods for converting video from its current format to MPEG. DVD Studio Pro includes an integrated MPEG encoder, which can quickly encode your QuickTime movies into DVD-compliant MPEG-2 files. See Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for more information. For analog sources, you need a hardware video capture card to digitize your video. Depending on the card’s output format, you may then need a transcoder to convert it to MPEG. Elementary and Multiplexed MPEG Files There are two common types of MPEG file structures: elementary and multiplexed. Elementary files contain only one stream of data, either the video or the audio. Multiplexed MPEG files, also known as system, transport, or program files, have the video and audio combined into a single file. MPEG files that are imported directly into DVD Studio Pro must be elementary MPEG files. You can use an MPEG utility to convert multiplexed MPEG files into elementary streams. The integrated MPEG encoder converts QuickTime files into elementary MPEG streams. When creating an HD project, you can import HDV and H.264 streams, both of which are multiplexed QuickTime streams. Choosing Between MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 The DVD specification allows for the use of either MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 encoded video. In general, MPEG-1 provides for smaller file sizes but reduced picture quality (by scaling a half-screen image to full screen), while MPEG-2 provides for better quality with larger file sizes. • MPEG-1 is generally used for titles for which file size is critical and that will be played back on a computer (not a set-top DVD player). • MPEG-2 is usually used for DVD titles on DVD media. The integrated MPEG encoder encodes video into MPEG-2. DVD Studio Pro works with both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video assets in your SD project tracks, as long as they are DVD-compliant. MPEG-1 video used as menu backgrounds is rendered to full D1 MPEG-2 when the project is built. Important: HD projects cannot use MPEG-1 video. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 61 Choosing a Bit Rate for SD Projects Bit rate directly determines file size, and thus how many minutes of material you can fit onto a DVD disc. SD-based DVD players support combined bit rates of up to 10.08 megabits per second (Mbps), but this must include the audio and subtitles as well. The maximum video bit rate is 9.8 Mbps. Note: Some DVD players have trouble playing video that uses sustained high bit rates. On such players, you may see dropped frames during playback. Typical maximum bit rates used for video are around 8 Mbps. The maximum MPEG-1 bit rate is 1.856 Mbps, while 1.15 Mbps is most typical. The actual video content determines how low a bit rate you can use and still get acceptable quality. Video with little movement works well at lower bit rates, while higher bit rates are best at handling video with a lot of movement (a quick camera pan, for example). For more information on choosing a bit rate that ensures all the content in your project will fit on a DVD, see Making Sure Your Content Will Fit. Choosing a Bit Rate for HD Projects Choosing a bit rate for use in HD projects is similar to doing so for SD projects, but there are some differences. The maximum overall bit rate for HD projects is 30.24 Mbps. While an HD project can use both SD and HD video assets, the maximum bit rate you can use is different for each: • HD assets: 29.4 Mbps Note: HD assets include the 480p and 576p resolutions. • SD assets: 15.0 Mbps MPEG Encoding Methods There are three common methods of encoding video: CBR (constant bit rate, also known as one-pass), one-pass VBR (variable bit rate), and two-pass VBR. • CBR (one-pass) method: You choose a bit rate and it is used for the entire video, regardless of its content. The advantage of this method is that you can reliably predict the final encoded file size. By adjusting the bit rate, you can ensure the video will fit on the DVD. The disadvantage is that the same bit rate gets applied to all of the video, regardless of the motion content. You must choose a high enough bit rate to provide acceptable results for the scenes with motion, even if they are only a small part of the movie. 62 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets • One-pass VBR method: You choose a basic bit rate and a maximum bit rate. The encoder detects the amount of motion present in the video as it encodes and adjusts the bit rate appropriately—scenes with motion use higher bit rates (up to the maximum setting you choose) and scenes with little motion use the lower, basic bit rate. The disadvantage of this method is that the quality will not be as good as with the two-pass VBR method. • Two-pass VBR method: You choose a basic bit rate and a maximum bit rate, just as with the one-pass VBR method. The difference is that the encoder makes two passes through the video to encode it. The first pass examines the video to learn about its motion content. The second pass performs the encode, varying the bit rate to provide better results in scenes with motion (as compared to the one-pass VBR method). The disadvantage of this method is that it takes twice as long as the one-pass VBR method. Important: With the VBR methods, the basic bit rate setting determines the encoded file size. The maximum bit rate setting does not affect the file size. Additionally, the VBR methods are most effective when the maximum bit rate is about double the basic bit rate, or at least 1 to 3 Mbps higher than the basic bit rate. The integrated MPEG encoder allows you to select which of these methods you want to use. Choosing a Video Resolution The resolution determines the number of pixels processed within a frame. The more pixels used, the sharper the details in the image. Note that regardless of the resolution you choose, most DVD players play back at full screen. The following is a list of common resolutions used with MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video with DVD Studio Pro. Note: Menus must use full D1 resolution MPEG-2 video. If you assign any other resolution or an MPEG-1 asset, the video will be transcoded to full D1 MPEG-2 when you build the project. SD Projects SD projects can use the resolutions shown in the following tables. NTSC All frame rates use the interlaced scanning method (as indicated with an “i”). With the exception of 352 x 240, all resolutions are MPEG-2 only. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 240 29.97i 4:3 Also known as SIF format; MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 352 x 480 29.97i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 63 PAL All frame rates use the interlaced scanning method (as indicated with an “i”). With the exception of 352 x 288, all resolutions are MPEG-2 only. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 288 25i 4:3 Also known as SIF format; MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 352 x 576 25i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic HD Projects HD projects can use the resolutions shown in the following tables. Note: MPEG-1 video is not supported. NTSC Frame rates with an “i” indicate the interlaced scanning method; those with a “p” indicate the progressive scanning method. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 240 29.97i 4:3 Also known as SIF format 352 x 480 29.97i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 480 29.97i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 480 59.94p 16:9 HD only, also known as 480p; is anamorphic 1280 x 720 59.94p 16:9 HD only, also known as 720p 1440 x 1080 29.97i 16:9 HD only; 16:9 is anamorphic 1920 x 1080 29.97i 16:9 HD only, also known as 1080i PAL Frame rates with an “i” indicate the interlaced scanning method; those with a “p” indicate the progressive scanning method. Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 352 x 288 25i 4:3 Also known as SIF format 352 x 576 25i 4:3 Also known as 1/2 D1 704 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Cropped D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 576 25i 4:3, 16:9 Also known as Full D1; 16:9 is anamorphic 720 x 576 50p 16:9 HD only, also known as 576p; is anamorphic 1280 x 720 50p 16:9 HD only, also known as 720p 1440 x 1080 25i 16:9 HD only; 16:9 is anamorphic 64 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Resolution Frame rate Aspect ratio Notes 1920 x 1080 25i 16:9 HD only, also known as 1080i Picture Frame Rate DVD Studio Pro NTSC projects support the NTSC frame rate (29.97 fps) and 23.976 fps assets that use NTSC video resolutions. PAL projects support the PAL frame rate (25 fps) and 23.976 fps assets that use PAL video resolutions. You can set a project’s video standard in the General tab in the Disc Inspector or in the Project pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Warning: You cannot mix NTSC and PAL MPEG assets in a project. Working with GOP Settings A major function of MPEG encoding is to identify redundancy not only within a frame, but also among a group of frames. A scene with no movement except a car driving by has a lot of redundancy over time. In this case, a single complete frame could provide the majority of the video; subsequent frames only need to provide for the areas that change. Each MPEG stream contains three types of frames that define the video. A Group of Pictures (GOP) setting defines the pattern of the three frame types used: Intra (I) frames, Bi-directional (B) frames, and Predicted (P) frames. • I-frames: Also known as reference or key frames, I-frames contain the complete image of the current frame, without reference to frames that precede or follow it. The I-frame is the only type of MPEG frame that can stand by itself, without requiring information from other frames in the GOP. Every GOP contains one I-frame, although it does not have to be the first frame of the GOP. I-frames are the least efficient MPEG frame type, requiring the most disc space. Markers on a DVD track can be placed only at I-frames. • P-frames: P-frames are encoded from a “predicted” picture based on the closest preceding I- or P-frame. P-frames are also known as reference frames, because neighboring B- and P-frames can reference them. P-frames typically require much less disc space than I-frames. • B-frames: B-frames are encoded based on an interpolation from I- and P-frames that come before and after them. B-frames are the most efficient MPEG frame type, requiring the least amount of disc space. While a GOP can begin with a B-frame, it cannot end with one. The goal of encoding video to MPEG is to reduce the video file size as much as possible while maintaining good quality. The B- and P-frames are what make MPEG so good at compressing video into such small files. Because they only contain information about what has changed in the images, they use much less disc space than I-frames. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 65 There are three aspects to choosing a GOP setting: the GOP pattern, the GOP length, and whether the GOP is “open” or “closed.” :04 :05 :06 :07 :08 :09 :10 :11 :12 :13 :14 :15 :16 :17 :18 Closed GOP (IBBP, 15 Frames) I B B P B B P B B P B B P B P GOP Pattern The GOP pattern determines the ratio of P- to B-frames within a GOP. The most common patterns used for DVD are IBP and IBBP. All three frame types do not have to be used in a pattern; an IP pattern is also used in special circumstances. IBP and IBBP GOP patterns, in conjunction with longer GOP lengths, produce the most efficient encodes. Smaller GOP patterns with shorter GOP lengths work better with video that has quick movements. Some encoders can force I-frames to be added sporadically throughout a stream’s GOPs. These I-frames can be placed manually by someone watching for sudden video changes or automatically by an encoder detecting scene changes. You can place markers in Final Cut Pro to identify specific frames to have an I-frame, either for use as a chapter marker or to manually identify high motion areas. See Adding Markers to Your Video for more information. The integrated MPEG encoder uses a GOP pattern of IBBP. GOP Length Longer GOP lengths produce more efficient encodes by reducing the number of I-frames but are less desirable during short-duration effects such as quick fades and quick camera pans. • SD-Based DVDs: The maximum GOP length for SD projects is 18 frames for NTSC or 15 frames for PAL. The minimum GOP length depends on the GOP pattern. For example, an IP pattern can have a length as short as two frames. The integrated MPEG encoder uses a GOP length of 15 frames for NTSC and 12 frames for PAL SD assets. • HD-Based DVDs: Because HD projects can use both interlaced and progressive video assets, they have different GOP length maximums. • NTSC interlaced assets: 18 frames per GOP • NTSC progressive assets: 36 frames per GOP • PAL interlaced assets: 15 frames per GOP • PAL progressive assets: 30 frames per GOP 66 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Note: 24p assets have their GOP structure based on their display rate, not the encoded rate. A 24p asset encoded to play in an NTSC project has a display rate of 29.97 interlaced frames (with an 18 frames per GOP maximum) or 59.94 progressive frames (with a 36 frames per GOP maximum). The integrated MPEG encoder uses a GOP length of 15 frames for NTSC and 12 frames for PAL HD assets. Open or Closed GOPs An open GOP allows the B-frames from one GOP to look at an I- or P-frame from an adjacent GOP. Open GOPs are more efficient, but cannot be used with multi-angle or mixed-angle titles. A closed GOP keeps all references within itself, standing alone with respect to other GOPs. DVD Studio Pro works with either type in single-angle titles and requires closed GOPs with multi-angle and mixed-angle titles. It is important to know that the same pattern can provide different results when used with an open or closed GOP. For example, the integrated MPEG encoder uses a closed GOP type, and it starts its IBBP pattern with an I-frame. Other encoders using an open GOP may start with a B-frame. In this case, starting with a B-frame is a little more efficient; if you start with an I-frame, an extra P-frame must be added to the end (a GOP cannot end with a B-frame). General Quality Issues The quality of the MPEG encoding determines the quality of the title. It is well worth putting some effort into getting the best possible MPEG encoding environment. For example, start with the best quality source material you can. An uncompressed digital source is the best, followed by a DV source, and then an analog Component source. Of the other analog formats, S-Video (Y/C) is much preferable to Composite. Noisy Video Because a large portion of MPEG’s compression power depends on its ability to locate areas of the image that do not change between successive frames, “noisy” video can reduce the efficiency of MPEG encoding. While the actual video may be identical between two frames, if there are noise artifact differences between the two frames, they are detected as a change in video and require more bits to encode. A lot of noise causes poor encodes, because the encoding resources are tied up trying to faithfully reproduce the noise. Transcoding Artifacts Every time video is transcoded from one format to another—for example, from analog to digital, or DV to MPEG-2—artifacts are introduced into it. The visibility of these artifacts depends on the quality of the transcoding device and the content. While transcoding cannot be avoided, its effects can be minimized. Use the highest quality equipment and software you can, and choose products that work well together and support each other’s formats. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 67 Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder When QuickTime assets that are not DVD-compliant are imported into a DVD Studio Pro project, they must be made DVD-compliant. DVD Studio Pro uses its integration with Compressor to encode these assets. This integration with Compressor provides simplified encoding functionality, with the more advanced attributes automatically set. Note: If you would like to encode the assets using more advanced Compressor functionality or to take advantage of distributed encoding, you can encode the assets directly in Compressor. For video assets, the integrated MPEG encoder outputs an MPEG-2 video stream with a closed GOP pattern and a fixed GOP size (15 frames for NTSC and 12 frames for PAL). The exported MPEG video stream can be used for multi-angle tracks. The file type is “.m2v.” See Settings in the MPEG-2 SD and MPEG-2 HD Tabs for information on configuring other aspects of the integrated encoder. If the file to be encoded has audio multiplexed together with the video, the audio is encoded as a PCM audio file and given the same name as the video file, but with an “.aiff” extension. See Preparing Audio Assets for more information on audio formats. Transcoding with the Integrated MPEG Encoder If you import a QuickTime asset whose video standard is different from the project’s current setting, the integrated MPEG encoder automatically transcodes the asset to the project’s video standard while encoding it. For example, if you are working on a PAL project and accidentally import an NTSC QuickTime file, the NTSC file is encoded as a PAL asset and is imported into the project. Similarly, if you import an HD asset into an SD project, the HD asset is automatically transcoded to SD. You should be aware, though, that the integrated encoder uses the default Compressor Frame Controls settings (which control the quality of frame size and rate conversions), and the results you get may not be suitable for use in a project. Using Compressor directly or any of a variety of third-party products can provide good transcoding results. You may also choose to have a facility that specializes in video standards conversion transcode the video. Configuring the Integrated MPEG Encoder DVD Studio Pro Preferences contain the settings that determine how DVD Studio Pro uses the integrated MPEG encoder. 68 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets To configure the integrated MPEG encoder 1 Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences. 2 Click Encoding to open the Encoding pane. 3 Configure the settings in the Encoding pane. See Encoding Preferences for information about the options in this pane. 4 Click Apply to enable the settings, then click OK to close the Preferences window. Encoding Preferences The Encoding pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains two tabs: MPEG-2 SD and MPEG-2 HD. Each tab has the same settings, with the exception of the higher bit rate settings allowed in the MPEG-2 HD tab. The settings in the MPEG-2 SD tab are automatically applied to all QuickTime video assets added to an SD project (including those with an HD video resolution) and assets with an SD video resolution added to an HD project. The MPEG-2 HD tab’s settings are applied to QuickTime video assets with an HD video resolution added to an HD project. (An exception are H.264 and HDV QuickTime assets, which are already properly encoded.) Settings in the MPEG-2 SD and MPEG-2 HD Tabs • Aspect Ratio: Select the aspect ratio to use. • 4:3: This aspect ratio is only available for SD video assets. • 16:9: This aspect ratio is supported by both SD and HD video assets. Note that selecting 16:9 does not convert the video to the 16:9 aspect ratio. The file to be encoded must already be in a 16:9 anamorphic format. See What Exactly Is a 16:9 Asset? for more information. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 69 • Start: Sets the starting timecode of the encoded MPEG stream. This is most often set to match the timecode of the original video, ensuring that any timecode-based lists you have, such as a chapter list, marker positioning file, or subtitle file, match the encoded video. • Drop Frame: Select this checkbox to use drop frame timecode for assets using the NTSC frame rate. • Field Order: Choose the field order (Top or Bottom) that matches the video being encoded. This is also known as the field dominance setting in other products. Each interlaced NTSC and PAL video frame is comprised of two fields, each containing every other video line. The top field is also known as field two, the upper field, or the odd field. The bottom field is also known as field one, the lower field, or the even field. If the field order is set incorrectly, any motion in the video will appear very jagged when played back. Most professional and DV sources are field one dominant, and should use the Bottom setting. If you are unsure of the field order of your source video, choose Auto to let the encoder attempt to determine the field order. Note: The Field Order setting does not apply to progressive scan video. • Mode: You can choose from three encoding modes, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. See MPEG Encoding Methods for more information on the encoding methods. • One Pass: With this option chosen, the encoder uses a one-pass encoding method with a constant bit rate (CBR). Note that the integrated MPEG encoder One Pass mode actually varies the bit rate a small amount. • One Pass VBR: With this option chosen, the encoder uses the one-pass variable bit rate (VBR) encoding method. • Two Pass VBR: With this option chosen, the encoder uses the two-pass VBR encoding method (one pass to create a motion profile of the video and a second pass to perform the encode). • Bit Rate: Set the bit rate for the One Pass encoding method and the basic bit rate for the One Pass VBR and Two Pass VBR encoding methods. When using one of the VBR encoding methods, you cannot set Bit Rate any higher than 85% of the Max Bit Rate setting. See Choosing a Bit Rate for SD Projects for more information. • Max Bit Rate: Set the maximum bit rate that can be used during a One Pass VBR or Two Pass VBR encode. You cannot set the Max Bit Rate setting lower than the Bit Rate setting or 5 Mbps (whichever is higher). Because the VBR methods are most effective when the maximum bit rate is about double the basic bit rate, or at least 1 to 3 Mbps higher than the basic bit rate, the Max Bit Rate setting is forced to be higher than the Bit Rate setting. Note: The Max Bit Rate setting does not affect the size of the encoded file—it only sets the upper limit that can be used during the encode. 70 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets • Motion Estimation: Choose a Motion Estimation setting that provides a balance between quality and speed of encoding. This setting controls how much time is spent determining the motion between video frames. • Good: The fastest Motion Estimation setting. This mode does well even with significant amounts of motion between frames, if the motion has minimal interfield motion within frames. For example, footage that has been exposed to frame-rate conversion or other effects processes tends to have little interfield motion. In general, use Good with the One Pass encoding mode. • Better: A good general purpose Motion Estimation setting. The Better mode provides good results even with complex interlaced motion. Better works well for almost all types of interlaced video sources, even shaky footage from hand-held consumer camcorders. In general, use Better with One Pass VBR and Two Pass VBR. • Best: This is the highest quality Motion Estimation setting and should be used for the most demanding and complex motion for interlaced sources. It is slower than the Better mode. In general, use the Best mode to maximize quality when using One Pass VBR or Two Pass VBR. • Reset to Factory Defaults: Click this to restore the current tab’s settings to the default settings. Settings Outside of the Tabs • Method: Select when you want the asset to be encoded. Note: An advantage of selecting “Background encoding” is that, once the assets are encoded, the encoded versions of them appear in the Simulator and the Viewer when playing a track. This makes it possible to see the video as it will appear on the DVD, and not the QuickTime version. See Is That the QuickTime or MPEG Encoded Version? for more information. • Background encoding: The encoding begins as soon as you import the asset. The encoding takes place in the background, allowing you to continue working on your project. A progress bar appears in the Status column of the Assets tab. Once the encoding process finishes, the Status column displays Done. See Default Columns in the Assets Tab for more information. • Encode on build: The encoding does not start until you complete your project and build the VIDEO_TS or HVDVD_TS files. Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder Depending on the Method setting in Encoding Preferences, video assets can either begin encoding as soon as you add them to your project, or they can wait until you perform a build of the project. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 71 Is That the QuickTime or MPEG Encoded Version? When you import QuickTime assets and assign them to elements in your project, it can be important to know whether you are seeing the original QuickTime version of the asset or the MPEG encoded version in the Viewer or Simulator. Seeing the MPEG encoded version has the advantage of allowing you to see the video as it will appear when the DVD is played. The disadvantage of seeing the MPEG encoded version is that the video must be encoded first. The Method setting in the Encoding pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences controls whether the encoded versions of the assets can be available while you are authoring the project. With “Background encoding” selected, you will be able to see the encoded versions of the assets as soon as they are encoded. With “Encode on build” selected, you will not be able to see the encoded versions until you build the project. There are some guidelines DVD Studio Pro uses to determine whether to show the original QuickTime version of the asset or the MPEG encoded version: • When you view an asset from the Assets tab in the Viewer, you will see the QuickTime version, whether the encoded version is available or not. • When you view an asset from the Track Editor, you will see the encoded version (if available). This is also true when you view the track in the Simulator. • When you view an asset in the Menu Editor, you will see the QuickTime version, whether or not the encoded version is available. This is also true when you view the menu in the Simulator. When you import a QuickTime video asset into DVD Studio Pro, the current Encoding Preferences settings are assigned to it. If you change the Encoding Preferences settings after you have imported a QuickTime video asset, those changes are applied only to new assets you import—they are not applied to existing assets. Verifying and Changing Encoding Settings If your project contains a mixture of 4:3 and 16:9 assets or has some assets you want to encode differently than others, you must be sure to set the Encoding Preferences settings before you import the assets. You can use the Encoder Settings dialog to verify and change the encoding settings on assets that have been imported. To change the encoding settings after importing an asset Do one of the following: μ Select the asset and choose File > Encoder Settings (or press Command-E). μ Control-click the asset in the Assets tab, then choose Encoder Settings from the shortcut menu. 72 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets The Encoder Settings dialog appears with the same settings found in the Encoding Preferences pane, with HD projects getting an added Resolution setting. When you have the “Background encoding” method selected and you make any changes in the Encoder Settings dialog, one of two things happens: • If you change the bit rate setting: The current file, whether a complete or partially complete file, is left as is and the encoder starts encoding a new file. This allows you to compare the quality of the two bit rates. If you decide to continue the encoding of the partially completed file, you can set the bit rate (and all other settings, if you have made changes) to the value it used, and the encoder will continue encoding it. Note: If the encoded files are being written to the project bundle, they are deleted regardless of whether or not you change the bit rate setting. • If you do not change the bit rate setting: The original asset is deleted, whether a complete or partially complete file, and a new encoded file is created. For example, if you want to see the difference between one-pass VBR and two-pass VBR encoding and want to keep the files from both encoding sessions, you need to rename or move the completed one-pass VBR encoded file before re-encoding with the two-pass VBR setting. If you have the “Encode on build” method selected, these changes will apply once you build your project. Encoding Settings in HD Projects Because an HD project can use assets with a wide variety of video resolutions, the Encoder Settings dialog contains a Resolution pop-up menu that shows the asset’s resolution. You are also able to change an asset’s video resolution by choosing a setting from the Resolution pop-up menu. SD resolution assets (720 x 480i and 720 x 576i) in HD projects can use a bit rate up to 15 Mbps. The Bit Rate setting in the Encoder Settings dialog will not go beyond 15 Mbps when an SD resolution is chosen. Important: Encoding an asset at a resolution other than its native resolution may result in unacceptable artifacts appearing in the video. How the Encoded Files Are Named When you import QuickTime video assets into DVD Studio Pro, the integrated MPEG encoder names the encoded files as follows: • The first half is the complete original filename, including its extension. • The second half has three parts—the video standard (NTSC or PAL), the encoding bit rate (shown as a four-digit number), and the “.m2v” extension. For example, if you import an asset named “Main Program.mov,” use the NTSC standard and a bit rate of 5.5 Mbps, the MPEG-encoded filename will be “Main Program.mov_NTSC_5500.m2v.” Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 73 Audio files created by the embedded AIFF encoder use the original filename with an added “.aiff” extension. Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks DVD Studio Pro supports multi-angle and mixed-angle video. With multi-angle video, a track can contain up to eight alternate video streams that last the entire length of the main stream (for a total of nine video streams per track). With mixed-angle video, the alternate streams do not last the entire length of the main stream, so you can have alternate streams in only those locations where they are needed, saving disc space. In either case, the viewer can switch among angles using the Angle button on the remote control. Because different MPEG encoders can produce slightly different GOP structures, you should use the same encoder for all streams. Note: Switching angles while playing a DVD affects only the video playback. The audio remains on the currently selected stream. Considerations for Mixed-Angle Tracks Mixed-angle tracks provide the possibility of interesting playback scenarios. The illustration below shows a track that has two sections with three alternate angles, with playback set to angle 3. Angle 1 2 3 4 Mixed-angle track with stream 3 playing There are some additional considerations when creating a mixed-angle track: • Within a track, you can use markers to define multiple sections to use additional angles, but each section must have the same number of streams. For example, you cannot have one section early in the track with two alternate streams and a section later in the track with three alternate streams—both sections must have either two or three streams. • Each alternate angle section can be a different length, but all streams within a section must be the same length. For example, you can have one mixed-angle section early in the track that is 10 seconds long and a second mixed-angle section that is 20 seconds long. All alternate streams in the first mixed-angle section must be 10 seconds long; all alternate streams in the second mixed-angle section must be 20 seconds long. 74 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets • You cannot use still images in the V2 through V9 streams. You can use still images in the V1 stream as long as they are outside of the mixed-angle areas (places where video is present in the V2 through V9 streams). Requirements for MPEG Streams in Multi- and Mixed-Angle Video The integrated MPEG encoder produces streams that meet the criteria for multi- and mixed-angle use: • With multi-angle tracks, all streams must be the same length. With mixed-angle tracks, all alternate streams in each mixed-angle section must be the same length. • All streams must have the same resolution and frame rate. • The length and pattern of GOPs (Group of Pictures) must be the same for all streams (angles). If you are not using the integrated MPEG encoder, use an encoder that allows you to turn scene detection off. • All GOPs should be closed. You will not be able to cleanly switch between the streams if you use open GOPs. Using Final Cut Pro and Compressor In addition to the chapter and compression markers you can manually add to a video clip in Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express, compression markers are automatically added at each edit point. The manually added chapter and compression markers (also known as named markers) are processed by the integrated MPEG encoder and by Compressor when used directly. Be sure to add identically placed chapter and compression markers to each video clip you intend to use in a mixed- or multi-angle track. The integrated MPEG encoder ignores the automatic compression markers, because they can alter the GOP structure and make the clip unusable for mixed- and multi-angle tracks. You can either set Compressor to process the automatic compression markers or ignore them. The Extras pane of the Compressor MPEG-2 presets includes an “Include chapter markers only” checkbox. Select the checkbox to force Compressor to ignore the automatic compression markers if you are encoding clips for use in a mixed- or multi-angle track. See Using Compression Markers to Improve the MPEG Encode for more information about compression markers. Maximum Bit Rates for Multi- and Mixed-Angle Tracks The maximum bit rate for a multi- or mixed-angle track is different from other tracks. Due to the way the DVD specification requires video streams to be multiplexed together, the number of video streams determines the maximum video bit rate you can use. Following is a list of maximum combined bit rates (highest bit rate video stream + all audio streams + all subtitle streams) you can use for each multi- and mixed-angle track. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 75 Important: When calculating the combined bit rate for a track, you only need to add in the bit rate of one video stream, but it needs to be the stream with the highest bit rate. SD Projects • 5 angles or fewer: 8 Mbps maximum for the track’s combined bit rate • 6–8 angles: 7.5 Mbps maximum for the track’s combined bit rate • 9 angles: 7 Mbps maximum for the track’s combined bit rate HD Projects • 2 to 9 angles: 24 Mbps maximum for the track’s combined bit rate Note: 1080i HDV video uses a bit rate of 25 Mbps, which is higher than the maximum allowable multi-angle bit rate. 720p HDV video uses a bit rate of 19 Mbps, which, depending on the number and type of audio and subtitle streams, can be used in a multi-angle project. Adding Markers to Your Video You can add markers to your tracks in the DVD Studio Pro Track Editor. You can use these markers in a variety of ways—the most common usage is to provide a place in a track to which a button on a chapter index menu can connect. Apple video editing applications—Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express—let you add markers while you edit the video. You can also add markers with Compressor. There are two types of markers that are important to DVD Studio Pro: • Chapter markers: DVD Studio Pro can import these markers and display them in the Track Editor. • Compression markers: The integrated MPEG encoder uses these markers to place custom I-frames in the MPEG-encoded file. Because DVD Studio Pro can import chapter markers added within Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Express, and Compressor, you can choose to create the markers in the editing, compressing, or DVD authoring process. When you import video with chapter markers into DVD Studio Pro, you see the marker position and marker name you set appear in the Track Editor. The markers can then be edited within DVD Studio Pro exactly as if you had manually created them there. Note: The markers embedded in MPEG files encoded with the DVD Studio Pro 4 version of the integrated MPEG encoder are not compatible with 1.X versions of DVD Studio Pro. Placing Chapter Markers Exactly Where You Want Them Adding markers in Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Express, or Compressor offers the potentially large advantage of allowing you to position them on the exact frame where you want them to appear. 76 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets When adding markers to a track in DVD Studio Pro, you can only place them at GOP boundaries. This means that you will often not be able to place them exactly where you want them. When you place the markers with a video editor, the integrated MPEG encoder automatically forces an I-frame at that position, placing a GOP boundary exactly at every marker and providing perfect marker placement. Markers placed in Compressor before it is used to encode the video are also perfectly placed. Using Compression Markers to Improve the MPEG Encode MPEG encoding is based on the placement of I-frames, P-frames, and B-frames within a GOP (see Working with GOP Settings). The I-frames encode a complete frame, while the P-frames and B-frames only encode the parts of the video that change between the I-frames. When there is a sudden change in the video content on a P-frame or B-frame, such as a cut to a new scene, the output of the MPEG encoder can have significant artifacts until it reaches the next I-frame. The integrated MPEG encoder uses compression markers to force an I-frame into the encode at a specific frame, modifying the surrounding GOP structure to keep the encode DVD-compliant. Adding compression markers at places in the video where sudden transitions occur can produce better MPEG encodes when you use the integrated MPEG encoder. You can manually place compression markers in Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express. As with chapter markers, an I-frame is forced at their position. The difference is that compression markers do not import into DVD Studio Pro as chapter markers and do not count against the 99 chapter marker limit for a track. Note: Final Cut Pro automatically adds compression markers at each edit point. These are not processed when encoding the video with the integrated MPEG encoder. Only compression markers you manually add in Final Cut Pro are processed. See Using Final Cut Pro and Compressor for information on these markers and Compressor. About the Markers You Add in an External Editor There are several issues to be aware of when adding chapter and compression markers in an external video editor: • DVD tracks can support a maximum of 99 chapter markers. Because compression markers are only used in the MPEG encoding process, they do not count as chapter markers and do not count against the 99-marker limit. Because you can add several video assets to a single track in DVD Studio Pro, you must keep in mind that the 99-marker limit applies to the total markers of all assets on the track. • You cannot place markers closer than one second to each other or within one second of the clip’s start or end in the editor. This gives the encoder the flexibility to modify the GOP structures in that area to accommodate the added I-frame. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 77 • If you are going to use a video asset to create a mixed-angle or multi-angle track, all video streams must have identical MPEG structures. If you add chapter or compression markers to one stream, you must add them at the exact same place in the other streams. Adding and Configuring Markers in Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express Using Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express, you can add markers to a clip or to a sequence. If you intend to export the markers for use with DVD Studio Pro, it is important that you place the markers correctly. • If you export a clip by selecting it in the Browser: The chapter and compression markers can be exported. • If you export a sequence by selecting it in either the Browser or the Timeline: Only markers in the sequence are exported—markers in any clips in the sequence are ignored. For details on adding markers to clips and sequences, see the Final Cut Pro User Manual. The following instructions assume you are familiar with Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express. Note: The following instructions are for Final Cut Pro 4 through Final Cut Pro 5, and all versions of Final Cut Express. If you are using a different version of Final Cut Pro, you may have different choices. To configure a marker in Final Cut Pro 1 Select the marker and open the Edit Marker dialog. 2 Enter a name for the marker. This is the name that appears in the Track Editor in DVD Studio Pro and can be used as button text. 3 Click either Add Chapter Marker or Add Compression Marker. Text is added to the Comment area. Only chapter markers appear in DVD Studio Pro. Because each chapter marker forces an I-frame at that location, it is unnecessary for you to add both marker types. 78 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets To export a Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express movie with markers 1 Do one of the following: • If exporting a clip with markers: Select the clip in the Browser. • If exporting a sequence with markers: Select the sequence in either the Browser or the Timeline. 2 Choose File > Export > QuickTime Movie. The Save dialog appears. 3 Choose the type of markers to export from the Markers pop-up menu. Choose DVD Studio Pro Markers to export both compression and chapter markers, or choose the type (compression or chapter) you want to export. 4 Ensure all other settings are correct, then click Save. Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 79 About H.264 Video You can use the H.264 video format, also known as MPEG-4 part 10 and the Advanced Video Codec (AVC), in your HD projects. The H.264 encoder is twice as efficient as the standard MPEG-2 encoder. When compared to encoding with MPEG-2, this means that with the H.264 encoder: • You can use a lower bit rate to get the same quality, resulting in smaller files. • You can use the same bit rate and get better quality with the same file size. While DVD Studio Pro does not include an embedded H.264 encoder, Compressor includes presets specifically for use in HD projects. You are able to modify these presets to suit your specific needs. Important: You must use H.264 for HD DVD presets in Compressor to encode H.264 video assets for native use in DVD Studio Pro HD projects. Natively Supported H.264 Formats DVD Studio Pro natively supports the following H.264 formats. Native support means that the files are not reencoded when they are imported into the appropriate NTSC or PAL HD project. In some cases, however, frames may be set to repeat during playback to create the HD DVD specification’s required frame rate. NTSC HD projects natively support the following formats: • 720p24 • 720p30 • 720p60 • 1080p24 • 1080p30 PAL HD projects natively support the following formats: • 720p25 • 720p50 • 1080p25 H.264 Bit Rates The process of choosing a bit rate for H.264 video is similar to choosing a bit rate for MPEG-2 video—the higher the bit rate the better the quality, but the more disc space that is required. In general, you are able to use lower bit rates than you would use with an MPEG-2 encoder. While the maximum bit rates you can use are identical to MPEG-2 video, the minimum bit rates are lower. 80 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Video format MPEG-2 range H.264 range Standard definition 2.0 Mbps to 15.0 Mbps 0.5 Mbps to 15 Mbps High definition 2.0 Mbps to 29.4 Mbps 1.5 Mbps to 29.4 Mbps Important: It is strongly suggested that you use H.264 bit rates of 18 Mbps or less to ensure DVD compatibility. H.264 Frame Sync Setting The H.264 encoder in Compressor contains a Frame Sync setting. This setting defines how often the encoder places a key frame, similar to an MPEG-2 I-frame, in the stream. The value is in seconds, with one half second increments. The range is from 0.5 seconds to 5.0 seconds. The smaller the Frame Sync value is, the more key frames are placed in the stream, which results in better quality but with a larger file size. Higher values result in a smaller file but with reduced quality. The Frame Sync setting does not affect where you can place markers in the Track Editor. Due to the structure of the H.264 stream, you are able to place a marker about every half second. About HDV Video DVD Studio Pro natively supports many of the HDV video formats currently in use. Native support means that the files are not reencoded when they are imported into the appropriate NTSC or PAL HD project. In some cases, however, frames may be set to repeat during playback to create the HD DVD specification’s required frame rate. You can edit the following HDV video formats directly in Final Cut Pro and use them directly in your HD DVD Studio Pro projects without the need to transcode them. Note: None of these formats are supported in SD DVD projects. For the best results, use Compressor to convert any unsupported HDV formats to supported HDV, MPEG-2, or H.264 formats. You can use Compressor to convert these formats (and any other HD-format video) to an SD format that you can use in your SD projects. NTSC HD projects natively support the following formats: • 720p24 • 720p30 • 720p60 • 1080p24 • 1080p30 • 1080i60 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 81 PAL HD projects natively support the following formats: • 720p25 • 720p50 • 1080p25 • 1080i50 Note: You can import 24 fps and 23.98 fps HDV-format video into PAL projects, but they are not treated natively and are reencoded to a supported MPEG-2 format. Using HDV Video from the Final Cut Pro Capture Scratch Folder The HDV video clips that Final Cut Pro captures from some HDV sources cannot be imported directly into DVD Studio Pro. Only HDV video clips exported from Final Cut Pro are formatted correctly for use in an HD DVD project. When the clips are captured, they may not have legal opening and closing GOP structures. When HDV clips are exported from Final Cut Pro, the opening and closing GOP structures are made legal. DVD Video Source Settings Summary The following sections, DVD Video Settings for SD Projects and DVD Video Settings for HD Projects, summarize the required settings for MPEG and other sources that can be used with DVD Studio Pro. Note: All assets within a project must use the same video standard (all NTSC or all PAL). For the other settings, such as encoding format, resolution, and bit rates, you can mix assets with different settings. DVD Video Settings for SD Projects The following settings work with SD projects. With the exception of MPEG-1 video, these same settings can also be used in HD projects. MPEG Type Both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are supported, at the video resolutions listed below. MPEG Structure Only elementary streams are supported. MPEG Bit Rates Multi-angle and mixed-angle tracks have stricter requirements. See Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks for details. • MPEG-1 Video: Up to 1.856 Mbps (1.15 Mbps is typical.) • MPEG-2 Video: Up to 9.8 Mbps (The typical maximum used is 8 Mbps.) 82 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets Video Resolution DVD Studio Pro supports a variety of resolutions. See Choosing a Video Resolution for more information. • MPEG-1: The following resolution is supported: • SIF (Standard Interface Format): 352 x 240 NTSC; 352 x 288 PAL • MPEG-2: The following resolutions are supported: • SIF: 352 x 240 NTSC; 352 x 288 PAL • 1/2 D1: 352 x 480 NTSC; 352 x 576 PAL • Cropped D1: 704 x 480 NTSC; 704 x 576 PAL (matches analog blanking) • Full D1: 720 x 480 NTSC; 720 x 576 PAL Frame Rate There are three supported frame rates: • NTSC with 525 lines (29.97 fps) • PAL with 625 lines (25 fps) • Versions of 23.976 fps video using either the NTSC or PAL video resolutions Aspect Ratio 4:3 and anamorphic 16:9 are supported. (See What Exactly Is a 16:9 Asset?) Chroma Format The DVD specification requires a 4:2:0 chroma format. GOP Size (Maximum) 18 frames NTSC; 15 frames PAL GOP Size (Typical) 15 frames NTSC; 12 frames PAL DVD Video Settings for HD Projects The following settings work with HD projects. MPEG Type MPEG-2, HDV, and H.264 are supported, at the video resolutions listed below. MPEG Structure Only elementary streams are supported. MPEG Bit Rates Multi-angle and mixed-angle tracks have stricter requirements. See Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks for details. • SD MPEG-2 Video: From 2.0 Mbps to 15.00 Mbps Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 83 • HD MPEG-2 Video: From 2.0 Mbps to 29.40 Mbps (The typical maximum used is 27 Mbps.) Note: HD assets include the 480p and 576p resolutions. • HDV Video: HDV video is MPEG-2 encoded. The bit rate depends on the video resolution: • 1280 x 720p: 19 Mbps • 1920 x 1080i: 25 Mbps H.264 Bit Rates Multi-angle and mixed-angle tracks have stricter requirements. See Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks for details. • SD H.264 Video: From 0.5 Mbps to 15.00 Mbps • HD H.264 Video: From 1.5 Mbps to 29.40 Mbps (The typical maximum used is 27 Mbps.) Note: HD assets include the 480p and 576p resolutions. Video Resolution DVD Studio Pro supports a variety of resolutions. See Choosing a Video Resolution for more information. • SIF: 352 x 240 NTSC; 352 x 288 PAL • 1/2 D1: 352 x 480 NTSC; 352 x 576 PAL • Cropped D1: 704 x 480 NTSC; 704 x 576 PAL (matches analog blanking, only the interlaced version is supported) • Full D1: 720 x 480 NTSC; 720 x 576 PAL (both interlaced and progressive versions) • 720p: 1280 x 720 (NTSC and PAL, progressive) • Anamorphic 1080i: 1440 x 1080 (NTSC and PAL, interlaced, anamorphic 16:9) • 1080i: 1920 x 1080 (NTSC and PAL, interlaced) Frame Rate There are three supported frame rates: • NTSC with 525 lines (29.97 fps) • PAL with 625 lines (25 fps) • Versions of 23.976 fps video using either the NTSC or PAL video resolutions Aspect Ratio 4:3, anamorphic 16:9, and true 16:9 are supported. Chroma Format The DVD specification requires a 4:2:0 chroma format. 84 Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets GOP Size (Maximum) 18 interlaced frames or 36 progressive frames NTSC; 15 interlaced frames or 30 progressive frames PAL GOP Size (Typical) 15 frames NTSC; 12 frames PAL Chapter 4 Preparing Video Assets 85 Before you can begin building a DVD project, you must have correctly prepared audio source material. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Preparing Audio Sources (p. 87) • Audio Formats Not Supported by the DVD Specification (p. 88) • Audio Formats Supported by the DVD Specification and DVD Studio Pro (p. 88) • Using Multiple Audio Formats in Your Project (p. 91) • Required Audio Formats for SD Projects (p. 91) • DVD Audio Source Settings Summary (p. 92) Introduction to Preparing Audio Sources The DVD specification restricts the types of audio formats that you can include on a DVD. There are also restrictions on mixing audio of different types within a track or set of menus. There are also required audio formats to make a DVD-compliant disc. Three areas in a DVD project can use audio sources: • Tracks: This is the primary area that uses audio sources. • Slideshows: This area can use a single audio source for the entire slideshow or individual audio sources for each slide. See Preparing Slideshow Assets for more information. • Menus: This area uses audio sources when you are creating motion menus. For the most part, audio sources used for motion menus must follow the same rules as audio sources used for tracks. See Preparing Menu Assets for more information. See DVD Audio Source Settings Summary for a complete list of settings required for an audio source to be DVD-compliant. 87 Preparing Audio Assets 5 Audio Formats Not Supported by the DVD Specification If you import an audio format that is not supported by the DVD specification, DVD Studio Pro automatically uses the embedded AIFF encoder to transcode the audio file into an uncompressed AIFF format file. For example, if you import an MP-3 file (a file format that is not supported by the DVD specification), DVD Studio Pro creates an AIFF file from the MP-3 file and that is what is used by your project. Note: Because an AIFF file is not compressed, its file size will be substantially larger than the original MP-3 file. If disc space is an issue, you can use the AC-3 encoder in the Compressor application to transcode the AIFF file to the Dolby Digital AC-3 format. See Dolby Digital AC-3 Audio for more information. Using AAC Audio Files from the iTunes Store DVD Studio Pro is able to import and use AAC format audio files purchased from the iTunes Store as long as the computer you are using them on is authorized to use them. If you import iTunes Store files that the computer is not authorized to use, DVD Studio Pro plays silence when it encounters those files. Additionally, if you select and try to play an iTunes Store file that the computer is not authorized to play in the Audio tab in the Palette, DVD Studio Pro plays silence. As with MP-3 files, AAC files are converted to AIFF files. Audio Formats Supported by the DVD Specification and DVD Studio Pro The following audio formats are supported by the DVD specification and can be imported into DVD Studio Pro without using the embedded AIFF encoder. • MPEG-1 Layer 2 audio • Dolby Digital (AC-3) audio (mono up to six channels) • DTS multichannel audio (preview not supported) • PCM audio (pulse code modulation audio; used by the AIFF and WAVE formats) Note: When importing DVD-compliant audio files, DVD Studio Pro imports only elementary files (not multiplexed). See Elementary and Multiplexed MPEG Files for more information. Uncompressed PCM Audio Uncompressed audio is typically referred to as PCM, although the files usually have a “.wav” or “.aif” extension. The DVD specification supports uncompressed PCM audio at sample sizes of 16 bits and 24 bits and sample rates of 48 kHz or 96 kHz. Audio in this format is completely compatible with DVD players worldwide and is of higher fidelity than data-compressed audio. The disadvantage of PCM audio is the relatively large file sizes, compared to compressed audio formats. 88 Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets There are two common PCM audio formats: • AIFF audio (Audio Interchange File Format-uncompressed PCM audio; the most common Macintosh audio format) • WAVE audio (Windows uncompressed PCM audio; the most common Windows audio format, also referred to as WAV) The DVD Studio Pro integrated MPEG encoder creates AIFF format files. In most cases, DVD Studio Pro converts WAVE files into AIFF files. Compressed Audio Formats The DVD medium uses data-compressed (as opposed to sonically compressed) audio for two purposes: • To deliver discrete surround audio (5.1) • To conserve bandwidth and disc space, allowing more room for video. This is especially applicable in long-form material such as feature films, notably when the smaller DVD-5 medium is the target. Data-compressed audio for DVD comes in a few forms, described next. MPEG-1 Layer 2 Audio For DVD products in PAL, MPEG-1 Layer 2 audio is compatible with all players. For NTSC markets (North America, Japan), most (but not all) DVD players support playback of MPEG-1 Layer 2 audio. If you create NTSC titles using MPEG audio, be aware that there may be problems in playback on some players. If you want to ensure that your data-compressed audio is compatible with all players for NTSC, using the AC-3 format is recommended. See the next section for information on encoding and authoring with AC-3 format audio. Dolby Digital AC-3 Audio There are two good reasons to use AC-3 format audio in your DVD production: • To take advantage of 5.1 surround audio (five main speakers and a subwoofer—six channels of audio total), which is supported by AC-3 but not by MPEG-1 Layer 2 • To produce stereo data-compressed audio that is fully compatible with every DVD player in the NTSC markets of North America and Japan. You may run into some compatibility issues with older DVD players in PAL countries. You can use the AC-3 encoder in Compressor to encode everything from stereo to 5.1 surround audio. See Previewing AC-3 and DTS Audio for information on listening to surround audio. Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets 89 DTS Audio DTS (Digital Theatre Systems) is an alternative format for surround audio. DVD Studio Pro can import and use DTS audio files. DVD Studio Pro supports DTS ES audio that can have up to 6.1 channels as well as audio that uses either a 48 kHz or a 96 kHz sample rate and a 24-bit sample size. Important: All DTS audio imported into DVD Studio Pro must use the compacted file format, with a “.cpt” file extension. Additionally, DTS audio using a 44.1 kHz sample rate will produce unusable results. See Previewing AC-3 and DTS Audio for information on listening to surround audio. Previewing AC-3 and DTS Audio In most cases, the best way to verify AC-3 and DTS audio is to burn a disc that you can play on a DVD player with suitable audio support. If you play the audio on your computer using its built-in audio support, the following happens: • When you play AC-3 audio from the Assets tab, one of the editors (Track, Story, Slideshow, or Menu Editor), or the Simulator, the audio is automatically converted to two-channel stereo for playback through your computer. • Because there is no DTS decoder on your computer, you cannot hear DTS audio when played from the Assets tab, one of the editors (Track, Story, Slideshow, or Menu Editor), or the Simulator. You are able to add an external AC-3 or DTS decoder to your computer to listen to your surround sound audio from the Assets tab, one of the editors (Track, Story, Slideshow, or Menu Editor), or the Simulator. To configure DVD Studio Pro to use an external audio monitor 1 Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences. 2 Click the Simulator icon to show the Simulator preferences. 3 Choose your external audio monitor device from the Playback Output section’s Audio pop-up menu. Common choices include Built-in Audio, for normal system audio, and Built-in Audio (S/PDIF), which uses your system’s optical digital audio output (if available) to output the audio to an external AC-3 or DTS decoder. 4 Click Apply. See External Video and Audio Monitoring for more information. Another option is to build your project and use the Apple DVD Player. Similar to DVD Studio Pro, you can configure DVD Player to use an external audio monitor. 90 Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets To configure DVD Player for external audio decoder support 1 Open DVD Player. 2 Choose DVD Player > Preferences. 3 Click the Disc Setup icon to show the Disc Setup pane. 4 Choose the external audio device to use from the Audio Output pop-up menu. 5 Click OK. Using Multiple Audio Formats in Your Project A project can contain audio in a variety of formats; however, there are some restrictions regarding mixing formats within an element or group of elements, such as menus. When you are required to have the same audio format within an element or group of elements, all settings must be the same: • Audio type: AIFF, WAVE, PCM, AC-3, or MPEG-1 Layer 2 • Number of channels: This is especially true with the AC-3 audio format, because it commonly supports a variety of channel configurations. • Sample size: 16 bits or 24 bits • Sample rate: 48 kHz or 96 kHz • Bit rate: 64 kbps to 4608 kbps, depending on the audio type Tracks Each audio stream within a track can be in a different format. Within an audio stream, however, the audio format must be the same for all clips. Menus All menus within a video title set (VTS) must use the same audio format. DVD Studio Pro automatically creates additional VTS blocks as needed to support menus with different audio formats. See VTS Editor for additional information. Slideshows When adding individual audio clips to each slide or when using multiple audio clips for overall audio, all clips must use the same audio format. Required Audio Formats for SD Projects To ensure that a DVD will play on all SD-based DVD players, there is a DVD specification requirement that at least one stream of audio for each element be in a specific format. • For NTSC DVDs: At least one of the audio streams must be either PCM or AC-3. • For PAL DVDs: At least one of the audio streams must be either PCM or MPEG compressed audio. Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets 91 Note: HD projects can use any supported audio format and do not require specific ones to be present. DVD Studio Pro verifies your project during the build process to ensure it is DVD-compliant. The build log shows any issues that are found; however, the build will continue and you can write your project to disc. DVD Audio Source Settings Summary Following is a summary of the required settings for MPEG and other audio sources that can be used with DVD Studio Pro. Note: All assets within a project must use the same video standard (all NTSC or all PAL). For the other settings, such as encoding format, resolution, and bit rates, you can mix assets with different settings. DVD Audio Settings for SD Projects The following settings work with SD projects. These same settings can also be used in HD projects. Bit Rates The audio bit rate depends on the format and quality level you need (higher bit rates provide better quality, but reduce the bit rate you can use with the video). • MPEG-1 Layer 2 Audio: 64 to 384 kbps (192 kbps and 224 kbps are typical.) • Dolby Digital AC-3: 64 to 448 kbps (192 kbps, 224 kbps, and 448 kbps [for 5.1] are typical.) • DTS ES: 754.5 kbps or 1509.75 kbps • Stereo PCM @ 16 Bits/48 kHz: 1536 kbps • Stereo PCM @ 24 Bits/96 kHz: 4608 kbps Audio Sample Rate There are two supported audio sample rates: • 16 bits or 24 bits • 48 kHz or 96 kHz DVD Audio Settings for HD Projects The following settings work with HD projects. Bit Rates The audio bit rate depends on the format and quality level you need (higher bit rates provide better quality, but reduce the bit rate you can use with the video). • MPEG-1 Layer 2 Audio: 64 to 384 kbps (192 kbps and 224 kbps are typical.) • Dolby Digital AC-3: 64 to 448 kbps (192 kbps, 224 kbps, and 448 kbps [for 5.1] are typical.) 92 Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets • DTS ES: 754.5 kbps or 1509.75 kbps • Stereo PCM @ 16 Bits/48 kHz: 1536 kbps • Stereo PCM @ 24 Bits/96 kHz: 4608 kbps Audio Sample Rate There are two supported audio sample rates: • 16 bits or 24 bits • 48 kHz or 96 kHz Chapter 5 Preparing Audio Assets 93 Before you can begin building a DVD project, you must have correctly prepared menu source material. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Preparing Menu Sources (p. 95) • What Is a Menu? (p. 96) • Creating a Menu (p. 96) • Creating Graphics to Use in Menus (p. 97) • Creating Overlays (p. 101) • Creating a Layered Menu (p. 106) • Creating Video for Motion Menus (p. 106) • Defining the Menu Loop Point (p. 107) • Creating Shapes (p. 108) • Creating Graphics for Drop Zones and Buttons (p. 112) Introduction to Preparing Menu Sources This chapter describes the various components, such as backgrounds, overlays, buttons, and drop zones, and strategies you can use to create menus in DVD Studio Pro. The types of menu sources you need for your DVD project depend on the types of menus you want to use: • Will the backgrounds be still images or contain full-motion videos? • Will you use the provided shapes for your buttons or create your own? • Will you use the standard method of creating menus or the layered method? Before you can know how to prepare your menu sources, you need to understand how DVD Studio Pro uses them. Following is an overview of what makes up a menu and how menus are used. 95 Preparing Menu Assets 6 What Is a Menu? Most DVD-Videos have at least one menu. The menu allows the viewer to choose what to see. If no choices need to be made, such as with a looping movie at a sales kiosk, the disc can be configured to immediately begin playing the movie, and no menu is required. For DVDs that have a number of viewing options—such as multiple movies, chapter selections, and bonus items—menus that are clear and logical can greatly enhance the viewing experience. Menus that are cluttered, clumsy, and confusing may cause viewers to become frustrated and give up trying to watch the title. A menu consists of a background and one or more buttons. The background can be a simple still image or a full-motion video (a motion menu). The background may or may not contain content that relates to the buttons; it may be a scenic mountain view or a multilayered graphic including images for each button. Some menus may also have audio. Creating a Menu Creating a menu involves two basic steps: selecting the background graphic or video, and setting up the buttons. Selecting the background graphic or video is fairly simple; the only challenge is when you use multilayer Photoshop files. Setting up the buttons involves identifying where they are located by drawing boxes over them, and then setting up their actions (what happens when they are activated) and the colors to display for their different states. DVD Studio Pro gives you two ways to create menus: the standard method, which uses overlays and allows you to use shapes, templates, and add text; and the layered method. • The standard method: The standard method is usually preferred. It is the most flexible, allowing you to mix overlays with shapes, to use either stills or videos as the menu background, and to include audio. You can also use the templates and styles included with DVD Studio Pro for quick and consistent menu creation. • For more information on overlays, see Creating Overlays. • For a description of shapes, see Creating Shapes. • For information on the templates and styles feature, see Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus. • For information on motion menus and setting the loop point, see Creating Video for Motion Menus. • The layered method: The layered method uses layers in a Photoshop (PSD) file to describe each button’s possible states. Layered menus can also use overlays in addition to the Photoshop layers. This method cannot be used with motion menus and cannot include audio. • For more information on overlays, see Creating Overlays. 96 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets • For a description of creating layered menus, see Creating a Layered Menu. An easy source for menu backgrounds are frames grabbed from a track’s video. By setting a marker on the frame you want, you can choose to save that frame as a TIFF file that can then be imported and used as a menu background. You can also open the file in a graphics program and add effects and text before using it as your menu’s background. See Grabbing a Still Image from Your Movie for more information. Creating Graphics to Use in Menus When creating graphics for menus, you need to be aware of several considerations. Some of these apply to all menu types, and some are specific to certain menu types, such as layered menus, menus with a still background, or menus using an overlay. Using Your Graphics Program DVD Studio Pro is designed to import a wide variety of graphics formats, allowing you to use almost any graphics program to create the menus and overlays. Supported formats include: • Adobe Photoshop PSD files • PICT format files • BMP format files • JPEG format files • QuickTime image files • Targa (TGA) format files • TIFF (TIF) format files Additional support is also included for files that conform to the Adobe Photoshop (PSD) format. DVD Studio Pro can recognize individual layers and allows you to assign them to separate functions in a menu. You can even use the same file for several menus by selecting the appropriate layers to use for each menu. • Layers for standard overlay menus: When creating graphics for standard overlay menus, you can select the layer (or layers, as is often the case) to use as the background and the overlay. In this way, a single file can be used in several menus, even sharing elements (such as a background image). To avoid confusion, assign clear names to each of the layers. • Layers for layered menus: When creating graphics for use as layered menus, in addition to the layer (or layers) that make up the background, you must create at least two layers for each button, one showing the selected state and the other showing the activated state. To show the normal state of each button, you can either build it into the background layer or create a third layer. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 97 Tips for Creating Menu Graphics Most of the following tips apply to all graphics programs. Several apply specifically to Adobe Photoshop, although similar issues may exist in other graphics programs. • Make horizontal lines a minimum of three pixels thick so they won’t flicker on TV screens. For the same reason, avoid using typefaces with narrow lines. Serif fonts tend to be more prone to flicker than sans serif fonts. • Be sure to use a filter that constricts the colors in the graphic to NTSC or PAL color space. To support broadcast bandwidths, NTSC and PAL video must use colors that are substantially limited compared to those your graphics program can create. Highly saturated colors create the biggest problems and produce the biggest disappointments when viewed on a video monitor. • Photoshop’s effects layers, transfer modes, and layer styles do not work with DVD Studio Pro. Be sure to flatten any of these before using them in DVD Studio Pro. Flattening a Photoshop Layer When creating graphics within Adobe Photoshop, you may want to add effects such as bevels, glows, and shadows to a layer, use the transfer modes, or configure layer styles. These Photoshop effects and modes are not supported by DVD Studio Pro. However, you can “flatten” them in Photoshop so that they appear in DVD Studio Pro. Note: Flattening effects is not the same as using the Flatten Image command, which combines all contents of all layers of a Photoshop file (including effects) into a single layer. It’s a good idea to use this procedure on a copy of the original file, just in case something goes wrong. To flatten a layer of a Photoshop file 1 Add a new empty layer immediately below the layer with the effects you want to flatten. 2 Either merge or stamp the layer with the effects into the empty layer. Merging deletes the effects layer, and stamping leaves the effects layer in place (which can be a good idea if you need to make changes to the layer later on). • To merge the layer: Select it and choose Layers > Merge Layers (or press Command-E). • To stamp the layer: Select it and press Command-Option-E. A bitmap image of the effects layer is placed in the new layer. 98 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Understanding Pixel Differences in Graphics and Video The term square pixel actually refers to the horizontal and vertical distance from a pixel to its neighbors. With a square pixel, the distance is the same in both directions. This distance is a function of the sampling rates, both horizontal and vertical, and the aspect ratio the graphic will be displayed in. Given the right aspect ratio, virtually any combination of horizontal and vertical sampling rates could produce square pixels. Computer graphics programs are optimized to work with square pixels: When you draw a square, it has the same number of pixels in all four of its sides and looks like a square on the display. Unfortunately, SD video is different. Video Pixels Standard definition video uses a 4:3 aspect ratio. No matter what the size of the display, the height is always 75 percent of the width. This is true for both NTSC, which has 525 lines in each frame (480 of these active with DVDs), and PAL, which has 625 lines per frame (576 active). Both standards also have 720 pixels per line when converted to MPEG. To fit the 4:3 aspect ratio perfectly using square pixels and 720 pixels per line, there would have to be 540 lines in each frame. So for NTSC, which has 480 lines, the lines must be spaced slightly apart to fill the same area, resulting in rectangular pixels. For PAL, with 576 lines, they must be squeezed together slightly to fit. The Settings pop-up menu in the DVD Studio Pro Menu Editor has a square/rectangular pixel selection that allows you to choose whether to view menu graphics as rectangular pixels (forcing a 4:3 aspect ratio) or as square pixels while creating menus. The Viewer tab also has the same settings. The Simulator always shows rectangular pixels, simulating what the viewer will see. The real problem arises when you create your menu graphics. Square Pixels in Graphics Graphics programs use square pixels. If you set the dimensions of a graphic to 720 x 480 pixels (the NTSC frame size), you will notice that the drawing area of the graphic in the graphics program is not a 4:3 aspect ratio (it is a bit short). If you set a graphic to PAL dimensions (720 x 576 pixels), the drawing area you see in your graphics program is taller than 4:3. Anything you put in the graphic will be distorted (either vertically stretched or compressed, depending on your video standard) when viewed on a video monitor. If you draw a square, it will look like a rectangle. In some cases, the distortion is not great enough to worry about, but in most cases you should build your graphics with the distortion in mind. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 99 To compensate for pixel differences between graphics and video, you need to build the graphics at one size and then rescale them to the appropriate video dimensions, as shown in the following table. Aspect ratio Starting dimension Rescale dimension NTSC 4:3 720 x 534 pixels 720 x 480 pixels NTSC 16:9 864 x 480 pixels 720 x 480 pixels PAL 4:3 768 x 576 pixels 720 x 576 pixels PAL 16:9 1024 x 576 pixels 720 x 576 pixels Important: While DVD Studio Pro automatically rescales graphics that use the starting dimensions above, it is strongly recommended that you rescale the graphics in your graphics program. (Graphics that already use the rescale dimensions are imported without any rescaling.) If you rescale the graphics in your graphics program, they will appear distorted in the graphics program but will be correct when viewed in DVD Studio Pro as rectangular pixels. Using Later Versions of Adobe Photoshop Later versions of Adobe Photoshop, including the CS versions, have presets that automatically set Photoshop to display the graphic with 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratios using nonsquare pixels. Even better, these presets include title and action safe guides. For SD assets, these presets include: • NTSC DV 720 x 480 (with guides) • NTSC DV Widescreen 720 x 480 (with guides) • PAL D1/DV 720 x 576 (with guides) • PAL D1/DV Widescreen 720 x 576 (with guides) You can turn this feature off by choosing View > Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction (a checkmark next to this indicates when the feature is active). Note: See Shape Aspect Ratios for information on how DVD Studio Pro works with graphics used in shapes, buttons, and drop zones. HD Video Pixels There are a variety of video resolutions supported by HD projects: Resolution Square pixels Starting dimension Rescale dimension 480p (NTSC; 16:9) No (anamorphic) 864 x 480 pixels 720 x 480 pixels 576p (PAL; 16:9) No (anamorphic) 1024 x 576 pixels 720 x 576 pixels 720p (NTSC, PAL; 16:9) Yes 1280 x 720 pixels 1280 x 720 pixels 1080i (NTSC, PAL; 16:9) Yes (anamorphic) 1920 x 1080 pixels 1440 x 1080 pixels 100 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Resolution Square pixels Starting dimension Rescale dimension 1080i (NTSC, PAL; 16:9) Yes 1920 x 1080 pixels 1920 x 1080 pixels Note: HD projects can also use SD assets, which should use the same starting and rescale dimensions as in SD projects. For the 480p and 576p resolutions, you use the same process that you would use with NTSC 16:9 and PAL 16:9. The 720p and the non-anamorphic 1080i resolutions both use square pixels. The anamorphic 1080i resolution is based on square pixels that are rescaled to 1920 x 1080. Note: Later versions of Adobe Photoshop include presets with guides for most of these HD resolutions. Important: You should always try to have the menu’s resolution match the resolution of the items it links to. This includes the two versions of 1080i (anamorphic and non-anamorphic). A noticeable hesitation can occur during playback because HD playback equipment needs to change its resolution to match each asset. Creating Overlays As viewers use the arrow buttons on the DVD player’s remote control to cycle through the buttons on a menu, they need some sort of indication as to which button is currently selected. If they activate the button, they need an indication of that, too. An overlay’s primary function is to show the viewer which button is currently selected or activated. Note: If you intend to use shapes for your menu buttons, you do not need to create overlays. Overlays are still images that contain the graphics used to show each button’s three states (normal, selected, and activated). One overlay file contains all of the buttons. Part of the menu creation process in DVD Studio Pro is to identify each button and set its function. The overlay is almost always used in conjunction with the background image. For example, the normal button art may be in the background, while the overlay supplies only the selected and activated highlights, such as a halo or checkmark. About Simple and Advanced Overlays DVD Studio Pro allows you to choose whether to work with simple overlays that use a single overlay color, or advanced overlays that use up to four colors. Simple overlays are easier to create and configure but are not as flexible when creating complex menus. Advanced overlays give you the ability to use multiple colors for a button’s selected and activated states. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 101 About the Overlay Colors Overlays can contain up to four colors. A peculiar feature of overlays is that the colors used to create them are not the colors that are displayed when viewers see the menu. The overlay only identifies the areas on the screen where highlights are to be applied—not the color or transparency of the highlights. You define the actual colors viewers see when you create the menu. When you use the simple overlay method, everything in the overlay graphic must be one of two colors: the white background that is set to be transparent and the black highlight graphic to which you assign a color and transparency. If you add an element to the overlay that has a soft glow around it or has been anti-aliased, the areas of the element that are not white or black will appear with additional highlight colors (controlled by the advanced overlay color mapping settings). In this case, you should either correct the graphic or use the advanced overlay method which allows you to control all of the highlight colors. The elements in an advanced overlay use up to four different colors. This gives you the ability to use multiple highlight colors for a button or create pseudo-soft edges and to take advantage of anti-aliased edges. See Creating Advanced Overlays for more information. About Overlay Files Whether you create simple or advanced overlays, the overlay must be a single flattened layer, either as part of a Photoshop (PSD) format file or as a separate file. It is common to have a single PSD file supply both the menu’s background and overlay. The DVD Studio Pro Menu Editor allows you to select as many layers as you want to use as the background, but you can only select a single layer as the overlay. Note: Don’t confuse a PSD file with layers (used to supply the background and overlay) with the type of PSD file used when creating layered menus. Standard menus contain all buttons’ selected and activated states within a single layer of the file; layered menus contain a separate layer in the PSD file for each button’s state (normal, selected, and activated). These layers are not overlays that you assign colors to—they are full-color images of the button in one of the three states. See Creating a Layered Menu for more information. Creating Simple Overlays With simple overlays, you must use only white and black to create the graphics. To create a simple overlay 1 Create a full-screen white background. See Square Pixels in Graphics for information on the frame size to use. 2 Choose black and add the highlight elements to the background. 102 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Be sure to disable anti-aliasing and avoid using soft edges. Depending on your graphics application, choose to use a 1-bit or bitmap mode. 3 Depending on the graphics application you use, you may need to flatten the overlay elements into a single layer. Creating Advanced Overlays To create advanced overlays, you first need to understand how they are used and the difference between the chroma and grayscale methods. The Four Colors in an Advanced Overlay When creating an advanced overlay, you create your highlights by using up to four specific colors. You can use a chroma method (using red, blue, black, and white as the four overlay colors) or a grayscale method (using black, dark gray, light gray, and white as the four overlay colors). You don’t have to use all four colors when creating an overlay, but you will most likely use at least two. Is White 0% or 100%? Depending on your graphics background, you may assume white to be either 0% or 100%, with black being the opposite (100% or 0%, respectively). Previous versions of DVD Studio Pro considered white to be 0%, while most video people would consider white to be 100%. For the purposes of creating the light gray and dark gray colors used by the grayscale method, you need to use the following values: • If you consider white to be 0%: Use 33% for light gray and 66% for dark gray. • If you consider white to be 100%: Use 66% for light gray and 33% for dark gray. White is commonly used as the overlay’s background color. When creating the menu, white’s transparency is usually set to 0. Any of the other three overlay colors can be used for any aspect of the overlay. For example, if you had a menu background with a group of buttons that were actually just text, such as “Play Movie” and “Select Chapter,” initially your overlay would start as all white. If you wanted the button text to change to green when each button was selected, you’d need to add the text to the overlay and make it an overlay color such as light gray (or dark gray or black—remember that you will set the green color as the “selected” highlight color when you create the menu in DVD Studio Pro). If you wanted the text to change to orange when each button was activated, you wouldn’t have to do anything more to the overlay—you would just set the “activated” highlight color to orange when you created the menu. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 103 If you also wanted a checkmark to appear next to each text button as it was selected, but you wanted the checkmarks to be yellow when they were selected, you’d need to add the checkmarks to the overlay graphic and set them to be a different overlay color than the text (in this case, dark gray) so that you could apply a different highlight color (in this case, yellow). In the same way, you could add the word “OK!” after each text button and show it only when the button was activated. Simply add the text to the overlay and set it to be black; in DVD Studio Pro, you can set black to be transparent for the normal and selected states but visible with a green color in the activated state. Play Movie OK! Light gray checkmark Dark gray name Black “OK!” White background To create an advanced overlay 1 Create a full-screen white background. See Square Pixels in Graphics for information on the frame size to use. Note: You don’t have to use white as the background color, as you do with simple overlays, but it is a good idea to use white, because the default color mapping settings assume it is the background. 2 Depending on whether you intend to use the chroma or grayscale method, add elements using the three leftover overlay colors (white having been used for the background). 3 Depending on the graphics application you use, you may need to flatten the overlay elements into a single layer. If you use colors other than the four that are specified by the method you chose (chroma or grayscale), they are mapped to their closest equivalent when you use the overlay. In many cases, this produces surprising (but not useful) results. Note: Following is the mapping used for each overlay color with the grayscale method: 100% to 80% is white, 79% to 58% is light gray, 57% to 32% is dark gray, and 31% to 0% is black. 104 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Pseudo-Soft Overlay Edges Instead of using the advanced overlay’s four colors to create multiple color highlights, you can use them to create pseudo-soft edges and take advantage of anti-aliased graphics. This requires you to use the grayscale method, using either white elements on a black background or black elements on a white background. The soft or anti-aliased edges are mapped to the dark and light gray overlay colors. By mapping the same color to each overlay color, but at reduced opacities on the dark and light gray overlay colors that occur at the edges, you can effectively simulate soft or anti-aliased edges. Keeping Each Button’s Elements Together When creating your menu in DVD Studio Pro, you draw a single box around all of the elements for each button. The box identifies that button’s highlight area. In the above example, you would draw a box around each button that includes its checkmark, the main text, and the word “OK!” When you draw this box, no parts of any of the other buttons should be included, or they will also appear with this button. For example, instead of having an “OK!” after each line, you might want a single large “OK!” on the right side. There’s no way to draw a box that would include both the button name (“Play Movie,” for example) and the large “OK!” without including some of the other button text, making this arrangement unusable. Note: The Menu Editor has three color mapping sets that, in some cases, you can use to work around this problem. See Understanding Color Mapping for more information. You also need to make sure none of the boxes overlap, because this can cause navigation problems, especially when using a pointer to select the buttons while playing the disc on a computer. Active area overlap Play Movie Scene Select Slideshow Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 105 Creating a Layered Menu Layered menus can provide greater flexibility in showing a button’s selected and activated states, compared to standard overlay menus. In addition to the background image (which may contain the buttons in their normal states), a layered menu has two separate layers for each button (or three, if the button’s normal states are not part of the background). For example, a menu with 12 buttons would need 24 layers just to show the selected and activated states of each button, plus 12 more if their normal state is not part of the background. (A Photoshop file can have up to 99 layers.) There are several issues to be aware of when deciding whether to use layered menus: • You cannot add an audio stream to them. • You cannot include a full-motion video in them. • When viewers make selections, they will notice a slower reaction time to button presses. • Layered menus can also use overlays in the same way that standard menus do. Using the Photoshop Layers When you configure a PSD file for use as a layered menu, you select the layer or layers that provide the menu’s background. The background can include all of the buttons’ normal state, but it doesn’t have to. If the background includes the normal state, the selected and activated states must be configured to take into account that the normal state is always present. If you want the button to change significantly when switching to the selected and activated states, you may need to have the normal state on its own layer so that it can be hidden when the other states appear. Using PSD Files to Create Layered Menus There are some issues to be aware of when using PSD files to create layered menus: • Each button’s active area is created the same way as it is when you work with overlays. This means you need to be able to draw a single box around each button’s elements. See Keeping Each Button’s Elements Together for more information. • In addition to the layered buttons, you can use overlay-based buttons. The overlay can be another layer in the PSD file or a separate file. Creating Video for Motion Menus The video used for motion menus must follow the same DVD-compliance rules as video used in tracks. There are a few additional considerations you should be aware of: • If you add any shapes, text items, or drop zones to a menu, the menu will be rendered when you build the project. See About Menu Rendering for more information. Important: If you know your menus will need to be rendered, you should avoid using highly compressed video (MPEG-2 for example) as the background video because it will get compressed again, potentially with visible artifacts. 106 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets • If you want to include button art beyond the capabilities of what an overlay can provide, you need to edit these over the video with an application such as Motion or Final Cut Pro. You can create the button art and associated overlay with your graphics program, then superimpose the button art over the video with your video editor, and use the overlay in DVD Studio Pro to set up the buttons. Note: An alternative is to use shapes to provide buttons over motion video. • You can set the video to loop once it reaches its end. There will be a short pause in the playback as the menu moves from the end back to the beginning. This can be minimized or eliminated by carefully selecting the video to use. For example, a car driving by a mostly static background can be looped cleanly. If you are creating an animation for use as the background, be sure to keep looping in mind. • Don’t create excessively long video for motion menus. The videos can take up a lot of disc space, and if you use a lot of them, you can have problems building your title. See Standard SD DVD Video Zone Files for menu size limitations. • Menus in SD projects can only use full-frame MPEG-2 video as a background. If you use an MPEG-1, 1/2 D1 MPEG-2, or a cropped D1 MPEG-2 file as the background, it will be encoded to full D1 MPEG-2 when you build the project. Menus in HD projects can use either full D1 MPEG-2 video or any of the supported HD video resolutions as the background. Defining the Menu Loop Point When you configure a looping menu, you have the option of setting the loop point (the point playback jumps to once the end of the menu’s video is reached) to be different than the menu’s first frame of video. For example, the menu’s video may have an introduction that plays before the buttons become active—you would not want the introduction to play each time the menu loops. In addition to setting the loop point manually in the Menu Inspector, you can add a chapter marker, named “MenuLoopPoint,” to the background video while you are editing it in Motion or Final Cut Pro. DVD Studio Pro automatically sets the menu’s loop point to match this marker when you assign the video to the menu’s background using one of the dragging methods, such as dragging the video to the Menu Editor and choosing Set Background from the Drop Palette. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for more information. In Final Cut Pro, you add the chapter marker exactly as you would add a chapter marker for use in a track. The only requirement is that it be named “MenuLoopPoint.” See Adding Markers to Your Video for more information. In Motion, you need to select the Menu Loop Point option when you add the marker to the video. See the Motion documentation for more information. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 107 Creating Shapes Shapes provide an easy way to create a standard menu using a simple background image (still or moving) without an overlay. These shapes can be either the ones supplied with DVD Studio Pro or shapes that you create. Shapes can be used for buttons and for drop zones. (Drop zones are graphic elements that get added to the menu background and have no effect on the buttons.) You can position the shapes and change their size freely, and even have full-motion video play in them (motion buttons). See Adding Shapes to a Menu for information on using shapes with the Menu Editor. See Importing a Shape for information on importing shapes into the Palette. Creating a Shape A shape is a Photoshop PSD file with up to four layers. DVD Studio Pro uses the layer order to determine which layer serves each function. Layers in a Photoshop PSD file • First (bottom) layer: Contains the mask for the thumbnail image used when you assign an asset to a button or drop zone. This layer should have a grayscale image to control the thumbnail’s appearance. White areas are completely opaque (you see all of the thumbnail image), gray levels are partially transparent, and black levels are completely transparent (you see none of the thumbnail image). The mask can use an irregular shape—the asset is scaled to fill it completely. Any part of the asset that falls outside the mask then gets removed. If you don’t want a thumbnail image, you must still have this layer present, but you can draw a black square or any simple image. When you activate drop shadows on a button or drop zone using a shape, DVD Studio Pro uses this layer, along with the second layer, to define the shape of the drop shadow. 108 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Note: If you make the image mask layer (the first layer) of a shape the same size as the shape’s graphics layer (the second layer), you may see some of the mask layer around the edges of the graphics layer. This is because the shape’s graphics layer is processed differently than the mask layer. You can work around this issue by making the mask layer slightly smaller than the graphics layer. • Second layer: Contains the shape’s visible graphic. When used as a button, this is the layer that determines how the button looks in its normal state. DVD Studio Pro uses the RGB values for the shape. See Setting a Shape’s Opacity if you want this layer to be partially transparent. Be sure to flatten any effects you apply to the layer. (See Flattening a Photoshop Layer for details.) Because this layer has a higher priority than the first layer, it must provide a “window” to the thumbnail mask (if used). When you activate drop shadows on a button or drop zone using a shape, DVD Studio Pro uses this layer, along with the first layer, to define the shape of the drop shadow. • Third layer: Contains the highlight mask. This layer defines where the highlight colors appear when you use the shape as a button and the button is selected or activated. The actual image color does not matter, because it is this layer’s opacity that defines the highlight, with 100% opacity selecting the black highlight color and 0% selecting the white highlight color. This layer is ignored if you use the shape in a drop zone. Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 109 Important: If you use this layer’s opacity to create pseudo-soft or anti-aliased edges or to have multiple highlight colors appear at once, you can only use the shape in menus set to use the advanced grayscale overlay method. In these cases, the opacity values map to the overlay colors as follows: 100% maps to black, 99% to 67% maps to dark gray, 66% to 17% maps to light gray, and 16% to 0% maps to white. • Fourth layer: Contains the shape’s icon, which appears in the Shapes tab in the Palette and shape selector in the Button and Drop Zone Inspectors. This is an optional layer—the second layer provides this function if this layer is not present. The disadvantage of using the second layer is that often the shape alone does not provide a good indication of what the button will look like once you assign an asset to it. DVD Studio Pro uses the RGB values for the icon. Note: Do not include the fourth layer in the file unless you are adding a graphic to be used as the thumbnail. Adding an empty fourth layer results in a shape that you cannot use in DVD Studio Pro. Setting a Shape’s Opacity DVD Studio Pro does not use the opacity settings you can apply to the layers within Photoshop. As a result, you cannot use the second layer’s opacity setting to control the transparency of the shape’s visible graphic. As an alternative, you can use Photoshop’s merge capability to get the desired effect. To set a shape’s opacity 1 Create the shape in Photoshop as usual. It’s a good idea to save the shape at this point so that you can go back to it if you later need to adjust the opacity or content. 2 Set the opacity for the second layer (the shape’s visible graphic). 3 Add a new layer to the graphic, and place it below the second layer. (It becomes the second layer, and the second layer becomes the third layer.) 110 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 4 Select the original second layer (which is now the third layer). 5 Press Command-E to merge the selected layer with the new empty layer. The two layers merge into a new second layer, and the original second layer is deleted. When this shape is imported into DVD Studio Pro, this new second layer will use the opacity you set before the merge. General Shape Information When creating a shape in Photoshop, set the new image settings to the following: • Width and Height: Set to values that will hold the shape at the largest size it will ever be used at in DVD Studio Pro (quality tends to suffer much more when you make a shape larger than the original than it does when making the shape smaller). Be sure the shape’s graphics come as close to the edges of the canvas as possible—the canvas defines the button’s active area. A typical button size is 200 pixels wide by 150 pixels high. • Resolution: Set to 72 pixels per inch. DVD Studio Pro bases the image size on the number of pixels there are—the resolution does not affect its size when used on a menu. • Mode: Set to RGB Color. • Contents: Set to Transparent. Keep these additional points in mind when creating your shapes: • It does not matter which layers are visible when you save the shape’s file. • You do not have to rasterize layers with text. You do have to flatten them if you apply an effect to them. • Be sure that the colors you use are within broadcast limits. You can create shapes that look great in the graphics program but look a lot different once you use them in a DVD project. • You may want to design shapes with the specific intention of using them for drop zones. This allows you to have drop zones with irregular edges. You need to use the layers exactly as you do when creating a button’s shape, except that the highlight layer is not used with drop zones. Shapes created for buttons can also be used for drop zones. See Adding Drop Zones to Your Menu for more information. Shape Aspect Ratios Shape graphics are automatically scaled to maintain their aspect ratio. If you create a square graphic and import it as a shape, it will be scaled so that it remains a square graphic in DVD Studio Pro (as long as you add it to a menu by dragging it to an empty area). Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets 111 While the rescaling makes the graphic look correct in the Menu Editor, the shape’s dimensions look incorrect as shown in the Button Inspector or Drop Zone Inspector. For example, if you create a square shape that is 200 pixels wide by 200 pixels high, its size will appear as either 200 pixels wide by 180 high (if applied to an NTSC menu) or 187 pixels wide by 200 pixels high (if applied to a PAL menu), when added to a menu as a button or drop zone. Creating Graphics for Drop Zones and Buttons Assets used in drop zones and buttons do not need to conform to video aspect ratios because drop zones and buttons can be resized independently in the horizontal and vertical directions. Additionally, drop zones and buttons support a graphic’s transparency. This means you can create a graphic with irregular edges, such as a logo, and when it is assigned as the asset for a drop zone or button, the transparency will control how the graphic appears. Similar to graphics used for shapes, drop zone and button graphics are automatically scaled to maintain their aspect ratio. If you create a square graphic and import it as an asset for a drop zone or button, it is scaled so that it remains a square graphic in DVD Studio Pro. See Shape Aspect Ratios for more information. Note: To force the drop zone or button active area to match the graphic’s aspect ratio, press Shift while dragging one of its corners. Getting Good Results Using Assets That Include an Alpha Channel A video asset, either still or with motion, that includes an alpha channel can be very effective when assigned as a drop zone’s asset. DVD Studio Pro composites the asset over the menu background using the alpha channel to control the compositing. For best results, be sure the video is premultiplied (also known as shaped). Premultiplied video will have correct soft and anti-aliased edges when used in the Menu Editor. A video channel that is straight (also known as unshaped) will have incorrect edges when composited in the Menu Editor. If the application you are using to create your assets provides a choice, it is best to choose premultiplied video. 112 Chapter 6 Preparing Menu Assets Before you can add a slideshow to a DVD project, you must have correctly prepared slideshow source material. This chapter covers the following: • Slideshow File Formats (p. 113) • Aspect Ratio and Resolution (p. 114) • Colors (p. 114) • Audio (p. 114) Slideshow File Formats When preparing still images for use in DVD Studio Pro slideshows, most of the same rules for preparing menu backgrounds apply. These same considerations apply if you intend to add slides to a track. DVD Studio Pro lets you use most common image formats in slideshows: • Photoshop PSD files using the 8-bit RGB mode Slideshows do not support layer selection, as menus do. The layers visible when the file was last saved become the visible image of the graphic. • PICT files • BMP files • JPEG files • QuickTime image files • Targa (TGA) format files • TIFF (TIF) format files Once a still is imported into DVD Studio Pro and you build the project it is assigned to, it is converted into an MPEG image and, if necessary, automatically scaled to fit the frame size defined by the slideshow’s resolution and display mode settings. 113 Preparing Slideshow Assets 7 Aspect Ratio and Resolution You can create 4:3 and 16:9 slideshows. In HD projects, you can also choose a resolution for the slideshow. Note: In HD projects, the 720 x 480p, 720 x 576p, 1280 x 720p, and 1920 x 1080i resolutions do not support the 4:3 aspect ratio. When creating 16:9 slideshows, you are able to choose the display mode (pan and scan, letterbox, or pan and scan and letterbox) used when viewed on a 4:3 monitor. For the best results, you should make sure your slides match the resolution of your slideshow. Slides that are smaller or larger than the slideshow’s resolution are automatically scaled to fit it. Slides whose aspect ratio does not match the slideshow’s aspect ratio have a background color added to fill in the gaps. The background color is part of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. See Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences for more information. Colors The DVD specification requires all video, including stills and menu graphics, to conform to the NTSC or PAL video broadcast standard for allowable colors. In order to support broadcast bandwidths, NTSC and PAL video must use colors that are substantially restricted compared to those your graphics program can create. It’s important to work within the broadcast standard, because pictures and graphics that look fantastic when viewed in a graphics application can look very different when viewed on a DVD. Highly saturated colors create the biggest problems and produce the biggest disappointments when viewed on a video monitor. Before importing your pictures and graphics, be sure to open them in a graphics application and use a filter to constrict the colors to NTSC or PAL color space. Audio Slideshows can have either an individual audio clip assigned to one or more of the stills or one or more audio clips for the overall slideshow. Important: If you assign an audio clip to the individual stills or use multiple audio clips as the overall slideshow audio, all audio clips in the slideshow must be in the same format (AC-3, AIFF, and so on), have the same bit rate, and have identical resolution. 114 Chapter 7 Preparing Slideshow Assets Alpha Transitions make it possible for you to create customized transitions for use in your DVD Studio Pro menus, tracks, and slideshows. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Preparing Alpha Transitions (p. 115) • Transition Asset Folder (p. 116) • Asset Movie (p. 117) • Asset Matte Movie (p. 118) • Background Matte Movie (p. 119) • About Alpha Transition Durations (p. 119) • About NTSC and PAL Alpha Transitions (p. 120) Introduction to Preparing Alpha Transitions All DVD Studio Pro transitions have a start and end frame, based on where the transition is being used. The standard transitions are able to transform the start and end frame video, providing the ability to have a variety of effects, such as rotating or blurring, directly applied to the video. An Alpha Transition does not directly transform the start and end frame video—it simply transitions from the start to the end based on QuickTime movies you create. Creating an Alpha Transition requires from one to three QuickTime movies, depending on the type of transition you want to create. Some features to consider include: • Do you want any kind of video other than the start and end frames to appear during the transition? For example, if you want a spinning DVD to fly across the screen during the transition, you must have an asset movie that provides the flying DVD image. • Do you want to see the start and end frames on the screen at the same time during the transition? In the example with the spinning DVD, maybe you want to see the start frame around the outside edge of the DVD and the end frame in the DVD’s center. To see the start and end frames at the same time, you must have a background matte movie. 115 Preparing Alpha Transitions 8 • Do you want a simple wipe transition that uses a custom shape? You can use a background matte movie to create a wipe transition with hard or soft edges in any shape you like. An Alpha Transition has several components: • The transition asset folder: Contains the transition’s assets. Additionally, the name of this folder is the name of the transition. Each Alpha Transition requires a separate transition asset folder. • The asset movie: Required if you want any kind of video other than the start and end frames to appear during the transition. • The asset matte movie: Required if your asset movie does not include an alpha channel. • The background matte movie: Required if you want to see the start and end frame video at the same time or if you want to create a wipe transition. The DVD image is from the asset movie, with an asset matte movie controlling where the background video appears. Start frame (red in this example) End frame (blue in this example) The background matte movie (not visible) controls whether the background shows the start or end video. Important: For best results, be sure to use progressive (non-interlaced) video in your movies at either 60 fps for NTSC or 50 fps for PAL. Also, make sure to create movies that match the aspect ratio (4:3 or 16:9) and, in the case of HD projects, the resolution of the elements you will use the transitions with. DVD Studio Pro will scale the movies to match the element if necessary; however, there will be a loss in quality. Transition Asset Folder The transition asset folder contains the movies that make up the Alpha Transition. The name of this folder becomes the name of the transition. The names of the files within the folder must include the folder name, with additional text to distinguish the file’s purpose. 116 Chapter 8 Preparing Alpha Transitions When you open DVD Studio Pro, it looks in two locations for transition asset folders: • At the root of your disk, in this location: [root]/Library/Application Support/Final Cut Studio/DVD Studio Pro/Transitions/ • In your home folder, in this location: [user]/Library/Application Support/Final Cut Studio/DVD Studio Pro/Transitions/ Note: If you add a transition folder while DVD Studio Pro is open, it is ignored until the next time you open DVD Studio Pro. Asset Movie The asset movie is required if you want any kind of video other than the start and end frames to appear during the transition. For example, if you want a spinning DVD to fly across the screen during the transition, it is the asset movie that provides the flying DVD image. The asset movie must have the same name as the transition asset folder and can have an extension. For example, if the transition asset folder’s name is Spinning DVD, the asset movie could be named Spinning DVD.mov. The asset movie provides transition video in addition to the start and end frames. The asset movie can contain an alpha channel to control where the background appears. There are two optional aspects to the asset movie: an alpha channel and a switch point. Alpha Channels In the example with the spinning DVD flying by discussed in the previous section, Asset Movie, you would most likely want to be able to see the start or end frame video through the DVD’s hole and around its edges. For this to happen, there must be an alpha channel for DVD Studio Pro to know which parts of the asset movie video should appear and which should be ignored. There are two ways to provide this alpha channel: embedded with the asset movie or as a separate asset matte movie (described in Asset Matte Movie). Chapter 8 Preparing Alpha Transitions 117 Important: When the alpha channel is embedded with the asset movie, be sure the video output is premultiplied. Switch Points If your transition does not require the start and end frame video to be on the screen at the same time, you can add a switch point marker to the asset movie to control when the transition switches from showing the start frame to showing the end frame. If you do want to have both the start and end frame video on the screen at the same time, you must use a background matte movie (described in Background Matte Movie). If the transition asset folder does not contain a background matte movie, DVD Studio Pro does the following to set the switch point: • DVD Studio Pro first looks in the asset movie to see if it includes a marker named TransitionSwitchPoint. If present, this marker is used as the switch point. • If not present, DVD Studio Pro looks to see if there are any markers in the asset movie. If present, the first marker is used as the switch point. • If no markers are present in the asset movie, the switch point is set to the asset movie’s halfway point. Asset Matte Movie The asset matte movie is required only when an asset movie that does not include an alpha channel is used by the transition. Having a separate asset matte movie is particularly useful when the asset movie is normal video (as opposed to an animation). The asset matte movie must have the same name as the transition asset folder, followed by “-matte” and can have an extension. For example, if the transition asset folder’s name is Spinning DVD, the asset matte movie could be named Spinning DVD-matte.mov. The white areas define where the asset movie video appears. The black areas define where the background video (start or end frame, depending on the switch point or background matte movie) appears. The gray areas define where the asset movie video appears, but is transparent. 118 Chapter 8 Preparing Alpha Transitions The asset matte movie needs to be monochrome, with white identifying the asset movie video to use, and black identifying the places where the start or end frame video appears. You can also use levels in between white and black to set a transparency and add soft edges. Background Matte Movie The background matte movie can be used in one of two different ways: • It can be used in conjunction with the asset movie to control which areas of the screen should show the start frame video and which should show the end frame video. • It can be used as the only movie in the transition assets folder to provide a wipe transition. As when used with the asset movie, the background matte movie controls which areas of the screen should show the start frame video and which should show the end frame video. The background matte movie must have the same name as the transition asset folder, followed by “-backgroundMatte” and can have an extension. For example, if the transition asset folder’s name is Spinning DVD, the background matte movie could be named Spinning DVD-backgroundMatte.mov. The white areas define where the start frame background video appears. The black areas define where the end frame background video appears. The background matte movie needs to be monochrome, with white identifying where the start frame video appears, and black identifying where the end frame video appears. As a general rule, the background matte movie should start with a full white screen and end with a full black screen. You can also use levels in between white and black to set a transparency and add soft edges. About Alpha Transition Durations The asset movie (if present) or the background matte movie (if the asset movie is not present) determine the default duration of the Alpha Transition. When configuring the transition in DVD Studio Pro, you are able to set the duration from one half the default (but not less than one second) to twice the default duration. Chapter 8 Preparing Alpha Transitions 119 About NTSC and PAL Alpha Transitions Each Alpha Transition is either NTSC or PAL. DVD Studio Pro uses the frame rate of the transition assets to determine whether they are NTSC or PAL. Only those appropriate to the current project’s video standard are available in DVD Studio Pro. Note: Alpha Transitions using a frame rate of 24 fps can be used only in NTSC projects, though they may show undesirable artifacts when the frame rate is scaled to match the project. 120 Chapter 8 Preparing Alpha Transitions When you start a new DVD project, especially if it’s the first project you’ve created on a particular system, you need to set certain preferences and disc properties before you begin working with your assets. DVD Studio Pro includes a number of views and windows that you use while building your DVD. See The DVD Studio Pro Interface for a complete description. This chapter covers the following: • Opening DVD Studio Pro (p. 121) • Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences (p. 124) • Creating a New Project (p. 138) • Opening an Existing Project (p. 143) • Video Standards of the World (p. 145) • Changing a Project’s Video Standard (p. 145) • Changing a Project’s DVD Standard (p. 146) Opening DVD Studio Pro The first time you open DVD Studio Pro, a dialog appears where you choose the user interface configuration, the video standard, the DVD standard, and the default language to use. When opened after this, DVD Studio Pro uses the configuration, video standard, and DVD standard in use when it was last closed. Note: The choices you make in this dialog are not permanent; all of these can be changed in either DVD Studio Pro Preferences or, in the case of the configurations, in the Window menu. To open DVD Studio Pro the first time 1 Start up your computer. 2 Double-click the DVD Studio Pro icon (in the Applications folder) to open the application. 121 Starting a Project 9 The Choose Application Defaults dialog appears. 3 Select the configuration that best fits your needs. • Basic: Use this configuration if you intend to use the templates and styles provided by DVD Studio Pro, and intend to rely on dragging and dropping assets to create your projects. This configuration is intended for users familiar with iDVD and users new to creating DVDs. 122 Chapter 9 Starting a Project • Extended: Use this configuration if you are familiar with the DVD creation process and require easy access to more of the features of DVD Studio Pro. The extended configuration displays three quadrants to provide access to additional tabs, and the Inspector. • Advanced: Use this configuration to gain access to all of the capabilities of DVD Studio Pro. Use this configuration if you are authoring complex titles. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 123 Note: Once DVD Studio Pro opens, you can choose from these three configurations and others suitable for specific monitors. In addition, you can create and save your own configurations. See Configuring the Interface for more information on selecting, creating, and saving configurations. 4 Select the video standard, NTSC or PAL, that you will use for your projects. If you are unsure of which standard to use, see Video Standards of the World. 5 Select the default project resolution, SD DVD (Standard Definition DVD) or HD DVD (High Definition DVD), that you will use for your projects. 6 Select the default language for your projects. 7 Select the “Show at startup” checkbox to have this dialog appear each time you open DVD Studio Pro. 8 Click OK to confirm your choices and continue opening DVD Studio Pro. An untitled project opens, using the selected configuration and defaults. See The DVD Studio Pro Interface for information on working with the quadrants, tearing off tabs into their own windows, and configuring the toolbar. Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences The DVD Studio Pro Preferences window contains settings that you can use to configure its default operations. These settings affect all projects you create, although most of them can be overridden for individual projects within the DVD Studio Pro editors and Inspectors. Taking some time now to select these settings can make creating your projects faster and easier. To open DVD Studio Pro Preferences μ Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences, or press Command-Comma (,). 124 Chapter 9 Starting a Project The Preferences window opens, displaying the last selected pane. The Preferences window includes ten panes, each containing settings related to specific areas of DVD Studio Pro. To use the Preferences window Do one of the following: μ Click an icon along the top to open its pane. μ Click Apply to apply the current settings and leave the Preferences window open. μ Click OK to apply the current settings and close the Preferences window. μ Click Cancel to close the Preferences window without applying the current settings. Project Preferences The Project pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains settings used to define basic aspects of new projects. Note: These settings do not affect the currently open project. • DVD Standard: Choose to define whether new projects are SD DVD (Standard Definition DVD) or HD DVD (High Definition DVD). • Video Standard: Select the video standard to use. • NTSC: Select this to set new projects to use the NTSC video standard. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 125 • PAL: Select this to set new projects to use the PAL video standard. • Default Language: Choose to set the default menu language for new projects. General Preferences The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains settings used in a variety of areas in DVD Studio Pro. Slideshows and Tracks • Default Slide Length: Enter a value, in seconds, that is used as the duration of still images added to slideshows and to a track’s video stream. • Background Color: You can set the color used as a background by the Slideshow Editor. Normally, this color is not seen because it is covered by the slide. It is seen if the still image is not the correct size to fit in the video frame. In that case, this background color fills the gaps that exist. This color is also used by the Track Editor if you add still images that are not the correct size to fit in the video frame. Important: This setting is not saved as part of the project. If you change this setting, it will affect all projects, including previously saved ones, that have this color visible. SD DVD Menus, Tracks, and Slideshows • Display Mode: Choose the default aspect ratio to use when creating menus, tracks, and slideshows in SD projects. You can choose from 4:3, 16:9 Pan-Scan, 16:9 Letterbox, and 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox. HD DVD Menus, Tracks, and Slideshows • Resolution: Choose the default video resolution to use when creating menus, tracks, and slideshows in HD projects. You can choose from 720 x 480i, 720 x 480p, 1280 x 720p, 1440 x 1080i, and 1920 x 1080i. 126 Chapter 9 Starting a Project • Display Mode: Choose the default aspect ratio to use when creating menus, tracks, and slideshows in HD projects. You can choose from 4:3, 16:9 Pan-Scan, 16:9 Letterbox, and 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox. Note: The 4:3 setting is not available if you choose a Resolution setting that does not support it (720 x 480p, 720 x 576p, 1280 x 720p, and 1920 x 1080i). Thumbnail Size • Palette: Select a thumbnail size. • Small: Select this to use small thumbnails in the Palette. • Large: Select this to use large thumbnails in the Palette. • Slideshow: Select a thumbnail size to use in slideshows. • Small: Select this to use small thumbnails in the Slideshow Editor. • Large: Select this to use large thumbnails in the Slideshow Editor. Subtitle • Fade In: Enter a value, in frames, that controls whether a subtitle, by default, appears instantly (0 frames) or fades on over a number of frames. • Length: Enter a value, in seconds, that controls the default length of new subtitles you create. • Fade Out: Enter a value, in frames, that controls whether a subtitle, by default, disappears instantly (0 frames) or fades off over a number of frames. Menu Preferences The Menu preferences allow you to set a variety of defaults used when creating menus. • Motion Duration: Enter a default duration, in seconds, to use when you create a motion menu. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for more information. • Auto Assign Button Navigation: See Right-to-Left Reading Mode for more information. • Left to right: Set the Auto Assign feature to wrap button navigation for left-to-right reading. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 127 • Right to left: Set the Auto Assign feature to wrap button navigation for right-to-left reading. • Final Rendering: Because menus can contain a variety of elements layered over the background, such as buttons, drop zones, and text, they must be rendered into a single layer, similar to flattening a multiple layer graphic file. With still menus, this takes little time, but with motion menus, where each frame must be rendered, this can be a time-consuming process. Additionally, all transitions you add to your project must be rendered. See About Menu Rendering for more information. The Final Rendering settings allow you to select how the menus and transitions are rendered: • Hardware based: This setting provides the fastest rendering. However, because the quality is dependent on your system’s video card, the quality might not be as good as when using the “Software based” setting and may not be consistent between different systems. • Software based: This setting provides consistent, good-quality rendering on all systems. However, depending on your system, it may take substantially longer than the “Hardware based” setting. • Drop Palette Delay: Position the slider to control how long of a delay there is before the Drop Palette appears over the Menu Editor when you drag an asset to it. • Video Background Color: You can set the color used as a background by the Menu Editor when no asset has been assigned as the menu’s background. Normally, this color is not seen because it is covered by the menu background. It is seen if the background image is not the correct size to fit in the video frame. In that case, this background color fills the gaps that exist. Important: This setting is not saved as part of the project. If you change this setting, it will affect all projects, including previously saved ones, that have this color visible. 128 Chapter 9 Starting a Project Track Preferences The Track preferences allow you to set a variety of defaults used when creating tracks. • Marker Prefix (Root) Name: Enter the name that all new markers use as their prefix. The Generate Marker Names setting, below, controls whether this root name is followed by a number of timecode value. • Check for unique name: Select this checkbox to ensure you will not have two markers with the same name within a track. • Generate Marker Names: You can select how markers are named when you create them. Note: You can rename the markers in the Marker Inspector. • Automatically: This setting names new markers with the prefix followed by a number that increments each time you add a marker. (You set the prefix below.) An advantage of this option is that you can easily tell how many markers have been added (although the number does not take into account any markers that you may have deleted). A disadvantage is that, because you can add markers between existing ones, the numerical order of the markers is not necessarily the same as their order in the timeline—the numerical order is based on the order the markers are created, not on their position. • Timecode based: This setting names new markers with the prefix followed by the timecode of the video asset. (You set the prefix below.) An advantage of this option is that the marker names are always in the order they appear in the timeline. A disadvantage is that you cannot easily tell how many markers you have in the track. When you select “Timecode based,” the “Auto update” checkbox becomes available. Selecting this checkbox causes the timecode value assigned to a marker’s name to update if you move the marker. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 129 • Snap To: This setting controls what happens when you place a marker in the timeline. In DVD Studio Pro, markers can only be placed on I-frames, which occur once per group of pictures (GOP). A GOP is typically 12 to 15 frames long, which means that when you place a marker, you generally will not be able to place it on the exact frame you would like. This setting allows you to control how DVD Studio Pro chooses the frame to use. See Working with GOP Settings for more information on GOPs. • Previous GOP: This setting places the marker on the GOP occurring before the selected location. • Next GOP: This setting places the marker on the GOP occurring after the selected location. • Nearest GOP: This setting places the marker on the GOP closest to the selected location, either before or after it. • Thumbnail Offset: A thumbnail image of the video asset, representing its first frame, appears in the Video tab in the Palette, in the Video Asset Inspector that appears when you select a video asset in the Assets tab, and at the first frame of the video stream in the Track Editor. This setting allows you to determine whether the thumbnail used in those places is based on the video frame at the start of the video asset or on a frame up to five seconds later in the asset. Because video assets often start at black and fade up, this setting allows you to set the thumbnail to a frame that has video that better represents the asset. • Default Language: You can choose a language that is automatically assigned to all audio and subtitle streams in new tracks. Choose Not Specified to have no language assigned to the streams. • Space bar toggles between play/pause: This setting controls what happens when you press the Space bar while viewing a track. When you play a track, the timeline’s playhead follows along. With the checkbox next to “Space bar toggles between play/pause” selected, the playhead in the track’s timeline remains at its current position when you press the Space bar. When the checkbox is not selected, the playhead jumps back to where you started playing from when you press the Space bar. Note: This setting does not affect the pause and stop controls in the Viewer tab—only what happens when you use the Space bar while playing a track. • Fix invalid markers on build: While creating your tracks, it is possible to end up with markers that either are not positioned on GOP boundaries or fall outside of the V1 stream. When this checkbox is not selected, a build operation stops if any invalid markers are detected. With the checkbox selected, a build operation automatically repositions any markers that are not placed on GOP boundaries and removes any markers that are outside the V1 stream. 130 Chapter 9 Starting a Project • Find matching audio when dragging: Select this checkbox to have DVD Studio Pro automatically try to locate an audio file with the same name as the video file you have dragged to an element, such as a menu or the Assets tab, of your project. DVD Studio Pro only checks the folder the video file was dragged from. DVD Studio Pro does not try to find matching audio if you drag a mixture of video and audio files. You can press the Command key after you start dragging a video asset to temporarily override this setting. Alignment Preferences The Alignment preferences apply to the Menu and Subtitle Editors, allowing you to customize the rulers, guides, and snapping actions. • Rulers: These settings allow you to customize the rulers that appear in the Menu Editor. Note: Alignment guides can only be dragged onto the Menu Editor if the rulers are visible. • Show: Select this to show the rulers in the Menu Editor. • Hide: Select this to hide the rulers in the Menu Editor. • Units: Choose the units for the rulers from the pop-up menu. • Pixels: The rulers show the number of pixels. • Centimeters: The rulers show the number of centimeters, based on 28.35 pixels per centimeter. • Inches: The rulers show the number of inches, based on 72 pixels per inch. • Percentage: The rulers show the percentage of the frame. • Center ruler origin: Select this checkbox to have the rulers start at the center of the frame. This places “0” at the center of the rulers, with the units counting up from there in both directions. When this checkbox is not selected, the ruler’s origin is the frame’s upper-left corner. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 131 • Show ruler guide tooltips measurements: Select this checkbox to have the pointer’s coordinates appear when dragging an alignment guide. The values are in pixels, based on a position of 0, 0 for the upper-left corner. • Guides: These settings apply to the guides that appear in the Menu and Subtitle Editors. Note: You cannot add menu guides in the Subtitle Editor. • Show: Select this to show the guides in the Menu and Subtitle Editors. • Hide: Select this to hide the guides in the Menu and Subtitle Editors. • Guide color: Set the color for the menu guides and the dynamic guides that appear when you move an item in the Menu or Subtitle Editor. Click to open the Colors window. • Show Dynamic Guides at object center: Select this checkbox to have the dynamic guides that appear when you drag an item in the Menu and Subtitle Editors show lines referenced to the item’s center. • Show Dynamic Guides at object edges: Select this checkbox to have the dynamic guides that appear when you drag an item in the Menu and Subtitle Editors show lines referenced to the item’s edges. Text Preferences The Text preferences contain the default settings that apply when adding text to a menu, a menu’s button, and to a subtitle. 132 Chapter 9 Starting a Project All Text Types The following settings apply to all types of text you can configure. • Show: Choose the type of text to configure (subtitle, menu, or menu button). The type you choose determines the other settings available in this pane. • Font: Shows the current settings. • Font Panel: Click to open the Fonts window to configure the font. Subtitle Text Settings The following settings apply to subtitle text. Note: You cannot set the subtitle text color as you can for the menu button and menu text items. • Horizontal: Select the horizontal justification (left, center, or right) to use for your subtitle text. Use this to set the default positioning of text-based subtitles you create in DVD Studio Pro. See Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro for more information. • Horizontal Offset: Enter values to modify the horizontal justification setting. For example, you can enter a horizontal offset value to move the text slightly toward the center when you have selected left justified as the horizontal setting. Negative values move the text to the left and positive values move it to the right. • Vertical: Select the vertical justification (top, center, or bottom) to use for your subtitle text. • Vertical Offset: Enter values to modify the vertical justification setting. For example, you can enter a vertical offset value to move the text slightly toward the center when you have selected bottom justified as the vertical setting. Negative values move the text up and positive values move it down. Menu Button Defaults The following settings apply to menu button text. See Adding Text to a Button for more information. • Color Panel: Click to open the Colors window for configuring the text color. • Position: Select the default position for the button’s text (Bottom, Top, Right, Left, or Center). • Include text in highlight: Select this checkbox to have the text included as part of the button’s highlight area. Menu Text Settings The following setting applies to menu text. See Adding Text Objects to a Menu for more information. • Color Panel: Click to open the Colors window for configuring the text color. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 133 Colors Preferences The Colors pane contains the color mapping settings for the Menu and Subtitle Editors. • Show: Choose whether to show the settings for the Menu Editor or Subtitle Editor. This affects all other settings in this pane. • Mapping Type: Choose the type of overlay mapping, Chroma or Grayscale, you are using. This only applies if you are using advanced overlays. See Using Advanced Overlay Color Mapping for more information. • Selection State: Choose which of the three selection states (Normal, Selected, or Activated) to configure. • Set: Select which of the three color mapping sets to configure. These settings are only active when the Selection State is set to Selected or Activated. See Color Mapping Sets for more information. • Key, Color, and Opacity Settings: Choose the color and opacity setting for each of the overlay’s four colors (shown in the Key column) for each selection state and set. See Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected for more information. Note: Shapes and simple overlays use the black key color (the top one) for their highlights. • Palette: This shows the colors in the color mapping palette. You can change a color by clicking it and selecting a new color in the Colors window. See Setting the Colors in the Color Palette for more information. 134 Chapter 9 Starting a Project Simulator Preferences The Simulator preferences apply to the Simulator you can use to test your project. See Simulating Your Project for more information. Default Language Settings • Audio, Subtitle, and DVD Menu Default Language: Choose the languages to use as the Simulator’s default for menus, audio, and subtitles. This simulates the language settings in a DVD player. If you want any of these elements to use the stream settings in the Disc Inspector in place of the language settings, choose Not Specified. Features • Enable DVD@CCESS Web Links: Select so that the Simulator can process any DVD@CCESS links in the project. This is useful to verify that email and web links work correctly. See Testing DVD@CCESS Links for more information. Region Code • Default Region: Choose the region code to simulate. You can choose All or a specific region. Playback Output • Video: Choose the destination for the Simulator video. The two choices are Simulator Window, which is the default setting, and Digital Cinema Desktop Preview, which actually selects your system’s second monitor, whether it is an S-Video monitor, an Apple Cinema Display, or any other appropriate display. See Simulating with an External Video and Audio Monitor for more information. • Audio: Choose the destination for the Simulator, Assets tab, and any of the editors’ (Track, Story, Slideshow, and Menu Editor) audio. Common choices include Built-in Audio, for normal system audio, and Built-in Audio (S/PDIF), which uses your system’s optical digital audio output (if available) to output the audio to an external AC-3 or DTS decoder. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 135 • Resolution: Choose the monitor resolution to simulate. The choices include SD, HD 720, and HD 1080. • Display Mode: Choose the monitoring situation to simulate. • 4:3 Pan-Scan: This setting simulates a 4:3 aspect ratio monitor with a DVD player configured to use the pan-scan method when showing 16:9 content. • 4:3 Letterbox: This setting simulates a 4:3 aspect ratio monitor with a DVD player configured to use the letterbox method when showing 16:9 content. • 16:9: This setting simulates a 16:9 aspect ratio monitor. Destinations Preferences The Destinations preferences control the location of files created during a variety of processes within DVD Studio Pro. • Show: Choose the process whose path you want to configure. • Encoding: This process specifies the location for the video and audio files that are created by the integrated MPEG and AIFF encoders when you import QuickTime files into your project. See Importing Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant and Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for more information. • Image Encoding: This process specifies the location for the MPEG files that are created when you use non-MPEG still images in your menus, slideshows, and within a track. See Using Still Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant for more information. • MPEG Parsing: This process specifies the location for the parse files that are created when you import MPEG files. See About the Parse Files for more information. • Build/Format: This process contains settings that define the default location to which the AUDIO_TS and VIDEO_TS folders, created during the build process, are saved. See Building Your Project for more information on building your project. • Palette Elements: This process specifies the location for the stock (Apple supplied) and custom items that appear in the Palette. Each setting has its own Choose and Reset buttons. Click Choose to open a dialog to choose the folder to use. Click Reset to revert to the factory default settings. The default location for the stock items is /Library/Application Support/Final Cut Studio/DVD Studio Pro/. 136 Chapter 9 Starting a Project • Location: Select the location to save files to. • Same Folder as the Asset: This is the default setting. It places the files into an MPEG or PAR subfolder (depending on the type of file being created) in the original file’s folder. For QuickTime assets, an MPEG folder is created, with a PAR subfolder. The encoded file is placed in the MPEG folder and, if necessary, the parse file is placed in the PAR folder. For assets that are already MPEG-encoded, a PAR folder is created and the parse file is placed there. If the original files are on a volume that can’t be written to, such as a CD-ROM disc or a disk you do not have Write privileges for, DVD Studio Pro automatically writes to the Specified Folder/Fallback Folder location. • Project Bundle: This setting saves the files to the project file. To see the contents of the project file (the file created when you saved your project), locate the file in the Finder, Control-click it, then choose Show Package Contents from the shortcut menu. If you have not saved your project yet, the files are saved at your Specified Folder/Fallback Folder location. • Specified Folder/Fallback Folder: This setting saves the files to a disk and folder you choose. You can either enter the path directly or click Choose to open a dialog to choose the folder to use. It is also used when DVD Studio Pro is unable to write to the Same Folder as the Asset or Project Bundle locations. The default path is in your home folder at /Library/Caches/DVD Studio Pro Files. If you specify a location that cannot be written to, this default path is used in its place. Encoding Preferences The Encoding pane contains the settings that control the integrated MPEG encoder, which is used when you import a QuickTime asset. See Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for more information on the integrated MPEG encoder and details on these settings. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 137 Creating a New Project When you open DVD Studio Pro, a new project file is automatically created. You can also create a new project at any time. To create a new project 1 Choose File > New (or press Command-N). A dialog asks whether you want to save the currently open project. Once you select an answer, a new, empty project opens. 2 Choose File > Save, specify a name and location for your project file, then click Save. Saving your project early ensures that if any files need to be saved to your project during the authoring process, they have a place to be written to. Once you have created and saved your project, there are four areas you might want to configure before you begin. • Setting the video standard: DVD-Video titles are based on one of two video standards: NTSC or PAL. You cannot create a DVD-Video title that supports both video standards. DVD Studio Pro includes a video standard setting that applies to projects created after the standard has been set. It’s a good idea to confirm this setting if this is the first DVD Studio Pro project you are creating or if you author both NTSC and PAL titles on this system. See Setting the Video Standard for more information. • Setting the DVD standard: You can author either SD or HD projects with DVD Studio Pro. If you are authoring an SD project, you can change it to HD. If you are authoring an HD project, you cannot change it to an SD project just by changing the DVD standard. See Changing a Project’s DVD Standard for more information. • Naming the project: Each project is given a name that can be seen by the viewer when the finished DVD is played on a computer or on some set-top DVD players. DVD Studio Pro automatically uses the project’s filename, created when you saved the project, as the project name. See Naming the Project for information on how to change this. • Setting the disc size: By default, DVD Studio Pro is set to use a 4.7 GB disc. This setting affects not only the disc burning process but also the toolbar’s disc meter. See Setting the Disc Size for information on changing this setting if you intend to work with other disc sizes. • Setting the First Play element: Each project must have an element designated as “first play.” This is the element that appears when the viewer first starts playing the DVD. By default, it is Menu 1. You can set this to be any element in your project. See Setting the Project’s First Play for more information. 138 Chapter 9 Starting a Project Setting the Video Standard The DVD-Video specification supports two video standards: NTSC and PAL. This may appear to leave out those countries that use the SECAM or PAL-M video standards. However, because the MPEG video on DVDs is in a component format, your sources, once MPEG-encoded, only need to conform to the line and frame rates of either the NTSC or PAL standard. • Use the NTSC video standard: If you are in a country that supports either the NTSC or PAL-M video standard. Both standards use a 29.97 fps frame rate with 525 lines per frame. As a general rule, if your country uses 60 Hz AC power, you should use the NTSC video standard. • Use the PAL video standard: If you are in a country that supports either the PAL or SECAM video standard. Both standards use a 25 fps frame rate with 625 lines per frame. As a general rule, if your country uses 50 Hz AC power, you should use the PAL video standard. See Video Standards of the World for a list of countries and the video standards they support. You cannot mix NTSC and PAL assets on a DVD. See NTSC or PAL? for more information. Also see Changing a Project’s Video Standard for information on converting a project from one video standard to the other. Important: If you have any doubts about whether your system is set to the correct standard, you should verify its setting (described next) and change it if necessary before you start adding assets to your project. To set the video standard for the current project in the Disc Inspector 1 Choose View > Show Inspector if the Inspector is not visible. 2 Do one of the following: • Select the project’s name (next to the disc icon) in the Outline tab. (Choose Window > Outline if the Outline tab is not visible.) • Click an empty area in the Graphical tab. The Disc Inspector appears. Select the video standard before adding assets. 3 In the General tab, select either NTSC or PAL to set the project’s video standard. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 139 Note: You cannot change a project’s video standard once you have added motion assets to it. See Changing a Project’s Video Standard for more information. The other Disc Inspector settings can be made later. See Finishing a Project for details on these settings. To set the video standard for DVD Studio Pro in the Preferences window 1 Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences, or press Command-Comma (,) to open the Preferences window. 2 Click the Project icon at the top of the Preferences window to open the Project pane. 3 Choose either the NTSC or PAL video standard. This setting only affects projects created after it is set. Setting the DVD Standard You can choose from two DVD standards when you start your project: the original SD DVD standard based on standard definition video assets and the new HD DVD standard designed to use high definition video assets. Most asset formats supported by SD-based DVDs are also supported by HD-based DVDs. The exception is MPEG-1 video, which is not supported in HD projects. See About Standard and High Definition DVDs for more information. There are two places to set the DVD standard—each is used for different circumstances. Setting the DVD Standard in DVD Studio Pro Preferences You can set the DVD standard for all new projects in the Project pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. This setting does not affect the current project. To set the DVD standard for new projects 1 Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences, or press Command-Comma (,) to open the Preferences window: 2 Click the Project icon at the top of the Preferences window to open the Project pane. 3 Choose either SD DVD or HD DVD from the DVD Standard pop-up menu. Setting the DVD Standard in the Disc Inspector The General tab in the Disc Inspector contains a setting that shows the DVD standard for the currently open project. • If SD DVD is selected: You can change the project to HD DVD. • If HD DVD is selected: The settings are deactivated and you cannot change the project to SD DVD. 140 Chapter 9 Starting a Project Note: If you create a new project and it has HD DVD selected when you actually intend to create an SD project, you must change the DVD Standard setting in the Project pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. To change the DVD standard for the current project using the Disc Inspector 1 Choose View > Show Inspector if the Inspector is not visible. 2 Do one of the following: • Select the project’s name (next to the disc icon) in the Outline tab. • Click an empty area in the Graphical tab. The Disc Inspector appears. 3 Select the General tab (if it’s not already selected). 4 Note the DVD Standard setting. • If SD DVD is selected: You can change the project to HD DVD. A warning appears saying that you will not be able to change the project back to the SD DVD standard. • If HD DVD is selected: The settings are deactivated and you cannot change the project to SD DVD. See Changing a Project’s DVD Standard for more information. Naming the Project By default, each DVD disc you create is automatically given the same name as the project’s file, entered when you saved it. The disc’s name can be seen by the viewer when the finished DVD is played on a computer or on some set-top DVD players. In most cases, the name of the project’s file is suitable to use as the disc’s name. However, there are some cases in which you might want to set the disc’s name independently of the project’s filename. For example, you may have several versions of a project, such as Bicycles 1, Bicycles 2, and Bicycles 3, that you will choose from for the final project. In this case, if you choose the Bicycles 2 version of the project, you would not want the final disc to appear as Bicycles 2 when the viewer plays the title—you would want it to say simply Bicycles. The name of the disc is restricted to uppercase letters, numbers, and the underscore character. There is a maximum of 32 characters. The project’s filename is automatically converted to work with these restrictions when it is used as the disc’s name. For example, a project filename of Bicycle 2 is converted to a disc name of BICYCLE2. To name the disc in the Disc Inspector 1 Do one of the following: • Select the disc’s name (next to the disc icon) in the Outline tab. • Click an empty area in the Graphical tab. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 141 The Disc Inspector appears. Note: Choose View > Show Inspector if the Inspector is not visible. 2 Enter the new name for the disc in the Name field at the top of the Disc Inspector, then press Return. Setting the Disc Size The DVD Studio Pro default is set to a 4.7 GB DVD-5. This setting affects both the actual disc burning process when you finish your project and the disc meter icon in the toolbar. In addition to showing the estimated project size numerically, the disc meter also shows how full the disc is getting graphically. The disc meter uses the project’s disc size setting to determine the disc’s capacity. As long as you intend to burn DVD-5 discs, the disc meter is accurate. If you intend to burn a blue laser, dual-layer, or 8 cm disc, you need to set the disc size to the proper format so that the disc meter reflects the changed requirements of your project. To set a project’s disc size 1 Do one of the following: • Select the project’s name (next to the disc icon) in the Outline tab. • Click an empty area in the Graphical tab. The Disc Inspector appears. (Choose Window > Outline if the Outline tab is not visible. Choose View > Show Inspector if the Inspector is not visible.) 2 Click the Disc/Volume tab in the Disc Inspector. Select the disc capacity required for this project. Select the disc size required for this project. Select the disc media required for this project (HD projects only). Based on the other settings, shows the disc capacity. 3 Select Red Laser or Blue Laser as the Disc Media (HD projects only). 4 Select Single or Dual as the Layer Options. 5 Select 8 cm or the standard 12 cm as the Disc Size. 142 Chapter 9 Starting a Project The maximum size for the project appears below the Disc Size setting. The other Disc Inspector settings can be made later. See Finishing a Project for details on these settings. See Disc Options for more information on available DVD sizes. See topics relating to finishing a project for more information on these settings. Setting the Project’s First Play An important consideration when starting a project is deciding which of its elements will be the first to appear when a viewer starts playing the DVD. Some examples might be: • Using the default setting and opening Menu 1 when the DVD starts playing • Setting First Play to a motion menu or track that plays before the main menu appears. This motion menu or track could be a short animated company logo or a disclaimer. • Creating a DVD for continuous kiosk playback. You may want to have a disc that plays a track over and over, with no menus or other viewer interaction. In that case, you would set the track to be the First Play element and set the track’s End Jump setting to be that same track. • Running a script to determine if the DVD should be allowed to play on this player. A script could also be used to configure playback to match the DVD player’s languages or its display’s aspect ratio. The script would end by choosing the first element to play for the viewer. (The viewer would not actually know that a script is the First Play element.) To set the project’s First Play to an element other than Menu 1, you must first create that element. For this reason, you do not have to (and often can’t) set the project’s First Play when you start creating your project, but it is a good idea to have a plan in mind. You can set the project’s First Play in the Disc Inspector, the Connections tab, the Outline tab, and the Graphical tab. See Assigning the First Play Element for information on using the Outline and Graphical tabs to set the First Play. See Settings at the Top of the Disc Inspector for information on using the Disc Inspector to set the First Play. See Source Details for information on using the Connections tab to set the First Play. Opening an Existing Project There are several methods you can use to open an existing DVD Studio Pro 4 project. These methods can also be used to open projects created with earlier versions of DVD Studio Pro. See Importing Other Projects for more information on opening earlier DVD Studio Pro projects. To open an existing project Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Open (or press Command-O). Chapter 9 Starting a Project 143 μ Press Command-O. μ Double-click the project file in a Finder window. If a project is already open in DVD Studio Pro, a dialog appears, prompting you to save it if it has not already been saved. Note: DVD Studio Pro only allows you to have one project open at a time. To open a recently opened project μ Choose File > Open Recent > [name of project]. You can choose File > Open Recent > Clear Menu to remove existing projects from the Open Recent submenu. There are several issues to be aware of when opening an existing project: • If you open a DVD Studio Pro project that uses a font that is not on the computer you are opening it on (either because the font was deleted or the project was created on a different computer), any items using the missing font have a different font substituted with no warning. There are three items in a DVD Studio Pro project that utilize fonts: a menu’s text objects, a button’s text, and text-based subtitles. • When you open a project that uses assets requiring parse files, DVD Studio Pro checks to see if the files are available. If not, it creates them as part of the project-opening process; in these cases, the project takes longer to open. It is not uncommon for the parse files to be left behind when moving a project and its assets from one computer to another. Creating the parse files can take from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the number and length of the assets used in the project. A progress bar indicates the completion status of the parse file. See About the Parse Files for more information about parse files. • When you open a project that DVD Studio Pro is unable to locate assets for, a Missing Files window appears. You can use the window to manually locate the assets. If you choose to open the project with missing assets, those assets are displayed in red in the Assets tab, and any elements that use them are disabled. See Missing or Renamed Assets for more information. • Multiple users can open the same project over a network. This can lead to problems if each user makes changes and resaves the project. When another user opens the same project you are currently working with, an alert appears that names the other user and computer that opened the project. Important: DVD Studio Pro does not prevent multiple users from writing to a project. You must use care to avoid this situation and immediately resolve any alerts that appear. 144 Chapter 9 Starting a Project Video Standards of the World Because you may find yourself needing to know the video standard of a particular country, following is a list of the different continents and regions of the world and the video standards they use. Note: This list is subject to change and should be used as a guideline only. Continents and regions Video standard All countries in the African continent use either the PAL or SECAM video standard. Africa All countries in the Asian continent use either the PAL or SECAM video standard, with the exception of Burma, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, which use the NTSC video standard. Asia All islands in the Caribbean region use the NTSC video standard, with the exception of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which use the SECAM video standard. Caribbean Central America All countries in Central America use the NTSC video standard. All countries in the European continent use either the PAL or SECAM video standard. Europe All countries in the Middle East use either the PAL or SECAM video standard. Middle East All countries in North America use the NTSC video standard, with the exception of Greenland, which uses the PAL video standard. North America All countries in the Oceania region, including Australia and New Zealand, use either the PAL or SECAM video standard, with the exception of American Samoa, Guam, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, the Midway Islands, Palau, and Samoa, which use the NTSC video standard. Oceania All countries in South America use the NTSC video standard, with the exception of Brazil, which uses the PAL-M video standard, and Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and French Guyana, which use either the PAL or SECAM video standard. South America Changing a Project’s Video Standard When you create a project, all assets used in it must be the same video standard (NTSC or PAL). If you want the project to be available in both video standards, you need to create two projects—one for each standard. You can minimize the amount of work involved in re-creating the project in the other video standard by keeping the following rules in mind: • You cannot have any video assets assigned to the project when you try to change the project’s video standard. Before you can remove the assets from the project, they must not be in use by any of the project’s elements. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 145 • Any markers placed in the Track Editor remain behind when you remove the video asset. If you then change the project’s video standard and import a version of the video asset in the new video standard, the markers are applied to the new asset. The timecode values of the markers change to match the new video standard. Depending on the encoding used, the markers may no longer occur at GOP boundaries. Be sure to select the “Fix invalid markers on build” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences to ensure you will be able to build the project. See Track Preferences for more information. • Still assets do not need to be removed before you change a project’s video standard. DVD Studio Pro automatically rescales still assets (except overlays) to the new video standard; however, for the best quality, it is recommended that you remove the original assets and import versions that match the new video standard. • All menu settings, including button connections, drop zones, and text objects, are retained when you change a project’s video standard. This reduces the amount of reconfiguration you have to go through when changing video standards, even if you have to change the menu’s background. Note: An exception is if any buttons or drop zones use motion assets—the assets must be removed from these elements before you change the video standard. • Audio assets can be used with either video standard. • If you add a QuickTime asset whose video standard is different from the project’s current setting, the integrated MPEG encoder automatically transcodes the asset to the project’s video standard while encoding it. For example, if you are working on a PAL project and accidentally import an NTSC QuickTime file, the NTSC file is encoded as a PAL asset and is imported into the project. • Templates and styles are specific to the video standard. If your project relies on custom templates and styles, you will need to create versions in both NTSC and PAL to be able to use them in both standards. Note: Apple templates and styles are supplied in both the NTSC and PAL standards. Shapes are not specific to the video standard. Changing a Project’s DVD Standard DVD Studio Pro makes it easy to convert an SD project to an HD project. However, there is no comparable method to use to convert an HD project to an SD project. For that reason, if you are intending to build both an SD and HD version of the project, you should start by building the SD version first. Note: If you create a new project and it has HD DVD selected when you actually intend to create an SD project, you must change the DVD Standard setting in the Project pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. 146 Chapter 9 Starting a Project To convert an SD project to an HD project 1 Do one of the following: • Select the project’s name (next to the disc icon) in the Outline tab. • Click an empty area in the Graphical tab. The Disc Inspector appears. (Choose Window > Outline if the Outline tab is not visible. Choose View > Show Inspector if the Inspector is not visible.) 2 Click the General tab in the Disc Inspector. 3 Select the HD DVD setting for DVD Standard. A warning appears stating that you will not be able to convert the project back to the SD DVD standard. 4 Save the project using a new project name. This ensures the original SD project will remain as it is and not be overwritten. There are a few things to keep in mind when converting an SD project to an HD project: • HD projects cannot have MPEG-1 video. • When you import QuickTime HD assets into an SD project, DVD Studio Pro automatically creates an SD MPEG-2 format version of them using its integrated MPEG encoder. If you then convert the project to an HD project, the HD project continues to use these SD MPEG-2 assets. You can have the integrated MPEG encoder create MPEG-2 HD versions of those assets by Control-clicking them, choosing Encoder Settings from the shortcut menu, and then choosing new encoder settings for the asset. Once the assets have been reencoded, you can change the resolution of any elements that use them, such as menus or tracks, to match their new HD format. Note: If you choose a new bit rate when reencoding an asset to an HD format, the original SD-encoded asset remains available for use by the SD project. If you do not choose a new bit rate, the SD-encoded asset may be overwritten by the HD-encoded asset. • If your SD project contains QuickTime video assets that use an HD video resolution, you can have the integrated MPEG encoder create MPEG-2 HD versions of those assets by Control-clicking them, choosing Encoder Settings from the shortcut menu, and then choosing new encoder settings for the asset. Chapter 9 Starting a Project 147 The DVD Studio Pro user interface is designed to provide a flexible environment that can be configured easily to fit the needs and skill levels of all users. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to the DVD Studio Pro Interface (p. 150) • Configuring the Interface (p. 152) • Working with the Quadrants (p. 154) • Working with the Tabs (p. 157) • Overview of the Quadrant Tabs (p. 161) • Inspector (p. 167) • Palette (p. 168) • Toolbar (p. 174) • Drop Palette (p. 177) • Comparing the Outline and Graphical Project Views (p. 177) • Using the Outline Tab (p. 178) • Using the Graphical Tab (p. 180) • Managing Elements Using the Outline and Graphical Tabs (p. 190) 149 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 10 Introduction to the DVD Studio Pro Interface A wide variety of users use DVD Studio Pro, from those who are familiar with iDVD and want to access a few more DVD authoring features, to those who have extensive experience with professional DVD authoring applications. Tabs in the lower-right quadrant Toolbar You can arrange the DVD Studio Pro interface to display as much information as you need. The main interface can be arranged to display from one to four quadrants. Each quadrant can contain one or more tabs. Each tab provides access to specific functions. For example, the Menu tab contains the Menu Editor which you use to create menus. Some tabs will be used by all users while others are only used for advanced features. See Overview of the Quadrant Tabs for information on the tabs. The interface also includes a customizable toolbar. You can choose which tools appear and which are hidden. See Toolbar for more information. 150 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface A floating Inspector displays properties for each project element, with its contents changing based on the currently selected element. For example, if you are working on a menu’s buttons, the Inspector displays all properties and settings that apply to buttons. When creating basic DVD Studio Pro projects, you might find it easier to keep the Inspector closed, only opening it when necessary. See Inspector for more information. Inspector A floating Palette provides easy access to features that help you create menus and tracks. These features include: • Templates and styles • Shapes • Media tabs Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 151 See Palette for more information. Palette Configuring the Interface To make it easy to change between different configurations of the DVD Studio Pro interface, DVD Studio Pro lets you save each configuration. For example, once you configure the quadrants so they are optimized for creating subtitles, you can save that configuration for easy recall later. Each configuration includes: • The current arrangement of the quadrants, including their sizes, the tabs assigned to them, and the tab that is currently visible • Any tabs that have been torn off into separate windows. See Tearing Off a Tab into Its Own Window for more information. • The tools in the toolbar • The column configuration in the Assets tab • The Inspector and Palette window arrangements, including whether they are visible, their size, and their position DVD Studio Pro includes several standard configurations you can choose from. These configurations provide three levels of access to the features of DVD Studio Pro—basic, extended, and advanced. You can use these configurations as they are, perhaps adding a new tool to the toolbar or another tab to a quadrant, or as a starting point for creating your own configurations. 152 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface To choose a DVD Studio Pro configuration μ Choose Window > Configurations, then choose a configuration from the submenu. Each standard configuration has a keyboard shortcut assigned. The submenu lists the supplied configurations plus any that you have created. Each of the first three supplied configurations are automatically assigned keyboard shortcuts F1 through F3. You can assign keyboard shortcuts for any custom configurations in the Manage Configurations dialog. Once you select a configuration, the DVD Studio Pro interface changes to the new settings. You can make your own changes to the interface and save it as a new, custom configuration. To save a configuration 1 Configure the interface as needed, including the quadrants and their tabs, the toolbar, the Inspector, and the Palette. See the following for more information: • Working with the Quadrants • Inspector • Palette • Toolbar 2 Choose Window > Save Configuration. The following dialog appears. 3 Enter a name for the configuration. 4 Click Save. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 153 The new configuration is added to the list of configurations available to your system. Note: To update a custom configuration, save the updated version using the original version’s name. To manage your configurations 1 Choose Window > Manage Configurations. A list of existing configurations appears. The Key column lists the “F” key assigned as each configuration’s keyboard shortcut. 2 Do any of the following: • Click the Add (+) button to add a new configuration. • Delete a configuration by selecting it and then clicking the Delete (–) button. • Rename a configuration by double-clicking it and entering a new name. • Assign a keyboard shortcut to a configuration by choosing an “F” key from its Key pop-up menu. Important: F9, F10, and F11 are used by default by the Mac OS X Exposé feature. You can reconfigure them in System Preferences. F14 and F15 are used by Mac OS X to control the monitor brightness. • Apply a configuration by selecting it and then clicking the Apply button. 3 Click Done to close the dialog and save the changes. Working with the Quadrants The main DVD Studio Pro interface can contain from one to four quadrants. Each quadrant contains one or more tabs that contain controls for specific functions. You have great flexibility in customizing what is displayed in each quadrant and how it’s displayed. If you choose the basic configuration, one quadrant appears. With the extended configuration, three quadrants appear. See Adding Quadrants to the Basic and Extended Configurations for details on working with the basic and extended configurations. 154 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface You can adjust each quadrant’s size by dragging its borders, or adjust the size of all four quadrants at once by dragging the point where they intersect. You can “close” a quadrant by dragging its inside edge to the DVD Studio Pro interface edge. Resizing the Quadrants You can resize the quadrants in pairs, either horizontally or vertically, or resize them all at once. When all four quadrants are displayed, making individual horizontal or vertical adjustments affects all four quadrants. For example, dragging the horizontal boundary up causes both lower quadrants to get bigger, while both upper quadrants get smaller. The pointer changes its shape when it is at a quadrant boundary, indicating that you can drag it from there. You can also quickly make the current quadrant expand to full window. To make the current quadrant full window Do one of the following: μ Choose Window > Expand [tab name]. The currently active tab’s name is shown, and its quadrant is the one that becomes full window. μ Press Shift-Space bar. μ Press Command-Option-Grave Accent (`, on the same key as the tilde). In all cases, you can use these same methods to restore the quadrant to its normal size. Note: If you perform a function that requires a different tab to appear, the quadrant is automatically restored to its normal size. To resize the quadrants manually Do one of the following: μ To change only the heights of the upper and lower quadrants, drag the boundary between the upper and lower halves up or down. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 155 μ To change only the widths of the left and right quadrants, drag the boundary between the left and right halves left or right. μ To change both the heights and widths of the four quadrants, drag the point where they intersect. μ To split either the vertical or horizontal boundary, so that you can resize two quadrants while leaving the other two as they are, Option-drag the boundary you want to move. This creates two intersection points, each of which can be dragged as needed. To reconnect the split boundaries, drag one of them so that it aligns with the other, then release it. They are now reconnected and will move as a single boundary. When a horizontal or vertical boundary gets close to an edge of the user interface, the boundary snaps to that edge, instantly hiding the smaller quadrant. This makes it easy to quickly display only one or two of the quadrants. You can display the hidden quadrants by dragging the edge back toward the center of the window. 156 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Adding Quadrants to the Basic and Extended Configurations There are two ways to add quadrants to the basic and extended configurations: Choose a different configuration or drag their edges in toward the center. The basic configuration is actually just the upper-right quadrant with its left and bottom boundaries dragged to the edges of the interface. To add a quadrant to the left half of the interface, drag the left edge toward the center. To add a quadrant to the bottom half, drag the bottom edge toward the center. The extended configuration has the lower-left quadrant hidden. To add it, drag the lower-left edge toward the center. Working with the Tabs The quadrants hold the tabs that contain the primary controls of the DVD Studio Pro interface. You can select a tab to make it active, move the tab to a different quadrant, or “tear off” the tab to make it available in its own window. Viewing a Tab’s Contents When you have multiple tabs in a quadrant, only one is active and can be seen. There are several methods you can use to make a tab active so that it appears in front of the others. To view a tab’s contents Do one of the following: μ Click the tab you want to view. μ Choose Window > [name of tab]. μ Use the tab’s keyboard shortcut. For a compete list of keyboard shortcuts, see Keyboard Shortcuts. Note: If a tab is hidden, choosing it from the Window menu or using the keyboard shortcut makes it appear as a separate window. In many cases, selecting an element in the Outline or Graphical tab automatically activates related tabs (if they are assigned to a quadrant). For example, if you double-click a menu in the Outline tab, the Menu tab becomes active. Rearranging Tabs Within a Quadrant You can change the order in which tabs appear within a quadrant. To change the order of tabs μ Drag a tab to a new position. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 157 Moving a Tab to a Different Quadrant You can move a tab from one quadrant to another. This allows you to group tabs that work best for you. For example, you may group the tabs so that you can reduce the number of quadrants that appear and see just the tabs you use most. To move a tab to a different quadrant by dragging μ Drag a tab to the new quadrant’s tab area. Dragging the Graphical tab to the upper-right quadrant As you drag the tab, an outline surrounds the tab area in the quadrant to which you’re moving the tab. You can drag the tab to a specific position among the quadrant’s current tabs. To move a tab to a quadrant using a shortcut menu μ Control-click an empty part of the tab area in the quadrant you want to add a tab to, then choose the tab to add from the shortcut menu. (Tabs with checkmarks are already part of the quadrant.) The tab you choose is removed from its existing location and added to the end of the quadrant’s current tabs. (If the tab was torn off into a separate window, its window is closed as long as there are no other tabs in the window.) 158 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Tearing Off a Tab into Its Own Window You can “tear off” a tab so that it appears in its own window. This is useful if you have a large computer display or use multiple displays and are able to spread out. It is also useful if you have a small display and a limited workspace, because it allows you to have larger windows without resizing the quadrants. To tear off a tab Do one of the following: μ Drag a tab to a position outside of the immediate tab area. μ Control-click the tab, then choose Tear Off Tab from the shortcut menu. μ Control-click in the area next to the tabs in its quadrant, then choose the tab’s name from the shortcut menu. The tab’s window can be sized and positioned as needed. You can also drag additional tabs to the window. Restoring a Torn-Off Tab to a Quadrant You can add a tab back into a quadrant using several methods. To restore a tab to its quadrant Do one of the following: μ Drag the tab’s name to a quadrant. The tab snaps back into place and its window closes (as long as the window has no other tabs). Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 159 Note: This is different from dragging the window’s title bar, which just repositions the window. Dragging the Graphical window’s tab to add it to the upper-left quadrant μ Control-click an empty area of a quadrant’s tab area, then choose the tab from the shortcut menu. You can also do this if the tab’s window has been closed. What Happens If You Close a Torn-Off Tab’s Window? If you close a tab’s window by clicking the close button in the upper-left corner of the window, the tab does not automatically get added back to a quadrant, and it is no longer displayed. You can either reopen the window or add the tab to one of the quadrants (as described in the previous section, Restoring a Torn-Off Tab to a Quadrant). To reopen the tab in its own window Do one of the following: μ Choose Window > [the tab name]. μ Press the tab’s keyboard shortcut. μ Double-click an element that requires the tab in the Outline or Graphical tab. The tab opens in its window at the same position and size as when it was closed. 160 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Overview of the Quadrant Tabs Following is an alphabetical list of the tabs that can be included in the quadrants. Assets Tab The Assets tab is a central location for managing the assets used in your project. It displays extensive information about each asset in columns that you can configure to see just the information you want. Additionally, you can create folders and subfolders to help organize assets when you are working with large projects. See About the Assets Tab for details on working with the Assets tab. Connections Tab The Connections tab provides a comprehensive tool for linking elements—such as a menu button and a track marker—to each other. While there are a number of ways to make most connections, including directly in the Menu Editor, the Connections tab is the only way to access some advanced features. See Establishing Connections for details on working with the Connections tab. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 161 Graphical Tab The Graphical tab provides a tile-based view of all elements in your project. You are able to arrange the tiles and display lines indicating how they connect to each other. This makes it possible to create a flowchart of your project, which can be printed and used for project planning and approvals. See Using the Graphical Tab for more information. Log Tab You can use the Log tab to see status information for a variety of functions: • Build: Displays messages generated while building your project’s files in preparation for writing them to a DVD disc. • Encode: Displays messages generated by the integrated MPEG and AIFF encoders. • Simulate: Displays messages generated while using the Simulator with your project. 162 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Menu Tab The Menu tab contains the Menu Editor. You use the tools in the Menu Editor to build your project’s menus. The editor contains a display to show the menu’s video contents, along with controls to configure the display. See About the Menu Editor for details on using the Menu Editor. Outline Tab The Outline tab provides an organized list of all project elements. Each element is grouped by type, such as Menus or Tracks, in sections that function a bit like file folders. Next to each section name is a disclosure triangle—clicking the triangle allows you to hide or display the elements listed in that section. See Using the Outline Tab for details on using the Outline tab. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 163 The Outline tab also contains the VTS Editor. The VTS Editor (Video Title Set Editor) allows you to manually place project elements into specific VTS blocks. See VTS Editor for more information. Script Tab The Script tab contains the Script Editor. You use the Script Editor to add and manage commands in your scripts. The editor lists each command and its step number. See The Scripting User Interface for details on using the Script Editor. 164 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Slideshow Tab The Slideshow tab contains the Slideshow Editor. You use the tools in the Slideshow Editor to create and edit slideshows. The editor contains thumbnails of each slide in display order, along with the slide’s duration. You can also add audio to your slideshow in the editor. See Slideshow Editor Settings for details on using the Slideshow Editor. Story Tab The Story tab contains the Story Editor, which you use when creating a story for a track. To create a story, you choose which sections of the track to play, as defined by chapter markers. See Using the Story Editor for details on using the Story Editor. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 165 Track Tab The Track tab contains the Track Editor. The Track Editor displays all streams associated with a track (video, audio, and subtitle) in a linear, timecode-based manner. It provides tools for adding and editing markers. It allows you to trim and combine multiple assets on a single stream. See Configuring the Track Editor for details on using the Track Editor. Viewer Tab The Viewer tab lets you view your project’s elements. See Viewing a Track for details on using the Viewer tab. The Viewer tab is also used when editing subtitles. You use the tools along the bottom to build subtitles within DVD Studio Pro or to view subtitles imported from an external source. The display shows both the subtitle and the first frame of video that it appears over. See Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro. 166 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Inspector The Inspector is a floating window that displays the properties of the element you are currently working with. In some cases, it contains multiple tabs, with the properties grouped by type and function. With the exception of the Palette, the Inspector always has the highest viewing priority of the DVD Studio Pro windows—it is never covered by any other DVD Studio Pro window. (If the Inspector and Palette are in the same area of the screen, the one last selected will cover the other.) Because it is always on top of the other interface elements, you may find it useful to keep the window closed until you need it. You can hide and show the Inspector to suit your needs. To hide the Inspector Do one of the following: μ Choose View > Hide Inspector (or press Command-Option-I). μ Click the close button in the upper-left corner of the window. μ Click Inspector in the toolbar. To show the Inspector Do one of the following: μ Choose View > Show Inspector (or press Command-Option-I). μ Click Inspector in the toolbar. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 167 Palette The Palette provides easy access to the templates, styles, and shapes used to create menus. Additionally, the Palette includes three media tabs—Audio, Stills, and Video—that can make it easier to locate the assets you want to import. Hiding and Showing the Palette With the exception of the Inspector, the Palette always has the highest viewing priority of the DVD Studio Pro windows—it is never covered by any other DVD Studio Pro window. (If the Palette and Inspector are in the same area of the screen, the one last selected will cover the other.) Because it is always on top of the other interface elements, you may find it useful to keep the window closed until you need it. To hide the Palette Do one of the following: μ Choose View > Hide Palette (or press Command-Option-P). μ Click the close button in the upper-left corner of the window. μ Click Palette in the toolbar. To show the Palette Do one of the following: μ Choose View > Show Palette (or press Command-Option-P). μ Click Palette in the toolbar. 168 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Templates and Styles Tabs A template comprises up to five styles that define most aspects of a menu. You can create your own templates and styles or use those that DVD Studio Pro provides. You can apply all or just selected parts of a template or style to a menu or a selected part of a menu. This makes it easy to create a series of menus using an identical button layout and background. See Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus for details on using templates and styles to create your menus. Click to select the category of styles you want to view. Shapes Tab Shapes are graphics elements that you can add to your menu as either a button or a drop zone. You can drag them directly from the Shapes tab to your menu background or choose the shape to use in the Button Inspector’s Style tab or in the Drop Zone Inspector. You can use the shapes that DVD Studio Pro provides, or you can create and import your own. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 169 See Creating Shapes for details on creating shapes and Adding Shapes to a Menu for details on using them in your menus. 170 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Media Tabs The Palette includes a set of three media tabs—labeled Audio, Stills, and Video—that display DVD Studio Pro–compatible assets located in folders that you specify. You can add these assets to your project by dragging them from the Palette to the Assets tab, Menu Editor, or anywhere else you can directly add assets. Select a folder from this list to view its contents. Click this button to play the selected audio or video asset. The assets in the selected folder Drag this separator bar to control how many folders appear. Enter text to search for in the selected folder. Use these to add and delete folders. The media tabs, and the folders assigned to them, are available to all DVD Studio Pro projects. They provide an additional method to organize your assets, and are especially useful for accessing assets you use often. Important: Assets that appear in the media tabs are not automatically part of a project in DVD Studio Pro. You must add them to a project by dragging them to it. You should think of the media tabs as being a specialized Finder window. Adding Folders to the Folder List The folder list appears at the top of the three media tabs. Before you can see your assets in any of the media tabs, you must add one or more folders to the folder list. To add a folder to the folder list 1 Click the tab of the asset type to add a folder to (Audio, Stills, or Video). 2 Add a folder by doing one of the following: • Drag a folder from a Finder window to the folder list. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 171 Note: If you click outside of DVD Studio Pro without dragging a folder to a media tab, the Palette disappears and you will need to reselect DVD Studio Pro to see the Palette again. • Click the Add (+) button. A folder selection dialog appears. Select the folder or folders to add and click Add. • Control-click in the list where you want the added folder to go, then choose Add Folder from the shortcut menu. A folder selection dialog appears. Select the folder or folders to add and click Add. The folder appears in the folder list. You can now select the folder to see a list of its assets. Note: Only assets in the selected folder appear. Assets in subfolders (nested folders) are ignored. Managing the Folder List There are different ways to make the folder list easier to use: • You can change the folder list display order to have folders you use frequently appear at the top. • You can remove folders that are no longer needed, such as those specific to a project that is completed. To change the folder list display order 1 Click the tab whose display order you want to change (Audio, Stills, or Video). 2 Drag the folder to be moved slightly to the right or left, then up or down to its new location. A black line appears to show where the folder will be placed when you release it. Note: Dragging straight up or down does not move the folder—it selects the folders the pointer moves over and shows their contents in the assets area. To remove a folder from the folder list 1 Click the tab to remove the folder from (Audio, Stills, or Video). 2 Select the folder or folders to remove in the folder list. 3 Do one of the following to remove the folder: • Click the Delete button. • Control-click the folder, then choose Remove Folder from the shortcut menu. • Press the Delete key. The folder is removed from the folder list. Note: This does not delete the folder or its assets from your hard disk and has no effect on assets that may have been added to your project from this folder. 172 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Viewing and Using Assets Once you have added folders containing compatible assets, you can show the assets and drag them to your project. To show a folder’s assets μ Select the folder that contains the assets you want to see. You can select multiple folders by dragging the pointer over a group of folders, holding down the Shift key and clicking the folders (if they are contiguous), or holding down the Command key and clicking the folders (if they are not together). You can change the Palette’s size to control how many assets you can see. You can also drag its separator bar to control the sizes of the folder list and assets area. There are five columns in the Audio tab (Name, Artist, Length, Sample, and Type) that show additional information about each asset. Similar to the columns in the Assets tab, you can change the column order and size, and sort the list based on the column heading you click. See Managing Columns in the Assets Tab for more information. To play a folder’s video or audio asset μ Click the Play button in the bottom-right corner of the Audio or Video tab. Click it a second time to stop playback. Audio assets play through your system’s audio setup. Video assets play in their thumbnail image. The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a setting that allows you to choose small or large thumbnail images, which may make viewing the video easier. Also, audio will play along with the video if it is a QuickTime file with video and audio together or an MPEG file with an audio file in the same folder with the same root name. To use the assets in your project μ Drag the asset to the Menu Editor, Assets tab, or to any other project element within DVD Studio Pro that allows you to drag assets in. You can select and drag multiple assets. You can also drag a folder from the folder list to the project element to create a slideshow. Depending on the “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences, when you drag an MPEG video asset to an element, DVD Studio Pro can automatically add the companion audio asset to the element as long as it is in the same folder and has the same root name as the video asset. Press the Command key after you start dragging to override the preferences’ setting for dragging a video file. When you drag a QuickTime asset that also has audio from the Video tab, it is treated like a video/audio pair. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 173 Toolbar The DVD Studio Pro interface includes a toolbar that can be customized to display exactly the tools you need. The toolbar provides one-click access to a variety of functions, such as creating menus and slideshows or simulating your title. You can customize the toolbar in a variety of ways, including selecting the tools to include, rearranging them, and choosing whether both the tool’s icon and text appear. Note: Choosing a new user configuration from the Window menu also changes the toolbar contents. Be sure to save a new user configuration once you are finished customizing the toolbar. Hiding and Showing the Toolbar You can choose to hide the toolbar completely. To hide the toolbar μ Choose View > Hide Toolbar. To show a toolbar that has been hidden μ Choose View > Show Toolbar. Managing the Toolbar DVD Studio Pro provides a simple drag-and-drop interface for managing the toolbar. To manage the toolbar 1 To display the toolbar palette, do one of the following: • Choose View > Customize Toolbar. • Control-click the toolbar, then choose Customize Toolbar from the shortcut menu. 2 To add tools to the toolbar, drag their icons from the toolbar palette to their new position in the toolbar. 3 Do one of the following to remove tools from the toolbar: • Drag the tool you want to remove out of the toolbar. 174 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface • Control-click the tool you want to remove and choose Remove Item from the shortcut menu. 4 To change the order of the tools in the toolbar, drag each tool to its new position. 5 To set the toolbar to a default configuration, drag the default set of tools to the toolbar. 6 Do one of the following to control whether each tool’s icon and text appear in the toolbar: • Choose Text Only, Icon Only, or Icon & Text from the Show pop-up menu in the toolbar palette. • Control-click the toolbar and choose Text Only, Icon Only, or Icon & Text from the shortcut menu. 7 Click Done when you are finished configuring the toolbar. Toolbar Items The following items (listed in alphabetical order) can appear in the toolbar. Note: With the exception of Space, Flexible Space, and Separator, you can have only one of each item in the toolbar. • Add Language: Adds a new menu language to the project. • Add Layered Menu: Adds a new layered menu to the project. • Add Menu: Adds a new standard menu to the project. • Add Slideshow: Adds a new slideshow to the project. • Add Story: Adds a story to the currently selected track (or the first one, if none is currently selected). • Add Script: Adds a new script to the project. • Add Track: Adds a new track to the project. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 175 • Build: Compiles your project and creates a video title set (VIDEO_TS folder) of your project. • Build/Format: First builds the video title set, then writes it to a DVD drive, DLT drive, or as a disk image to a hard disk. • Burn: Builds the video title set and writes it to your DVD burner using the current Disc Inspector settings. • Configurations: Opens the Configuration Manager dialog so that you can manage or apply an interface configuration. • Customize Toolbar: Opens the toolbar palette. • Disc Meter: Displays the disc meter. A progress bar shows both the amount of disc space used and what is still available (based on the Disc Media you select in the Disc/Volume tab in the Disc Inspector). The number underneath the progress bar shows the amount of space used. • Flexible Space: Inserts a space into the toolbar that automatically expands to fill any existing empty space. This ensures that there are tools at the left and right edges of the toolbar. • Format: Writes the video title set to a DVD drive, Digital Linear Tape (DLT) drive, or as a disk image to a hard disk. • Import Asset: Opens the Import Asset dialog, allowing you to select assets to import into the project. • Inspector: Displays the Inspector. • Menu Editor: Displays the Menu Editor. • Palette: Displays the Palette in its last configuration. • Read DLT: If a DLT drive is connected and a DLT tape inserted, reads the tape contents and writes them to the designated drive. • Separator: Inserts a vertical bar into the toolbar, allowing you to group tools. • Show Colors: Opens the Colors window. • Show Fonts: Opens the Fonts window. • Simulate: Opens the project Simulator, allowing you to try out your project before actually building it. • Slideshow Editor: Displays the Slideshow Editor. • Space: Inserts a fixed space into the toolbar. This allows you to group tools by adding a fixed space between them. • Story Editor: Displays the Story Editor. • Track Editor: Displays the Track Editor. • Viewer: Displays the Viewer tab. 176 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Drop Palette The Drop Palette appears in the Menu Editor when you drag an asset or project element to it. Once you stop moving the pointer, the Drop Palette appears, allowing you to choose how to use the asset within the menu. The contents of the Drop Palette vary, depending on the asset or element type, how many assets you drag, and whether you have dragged to an existing button. See Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus and Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus for a complete listing of the options in the Drop Palette. Comparing the Outline and Graphical Project Views DVD Studio Pro includes two tabs you can use to view and work with your project: the Outline tab and the Graphical tab. Each tab has its own advantages, and you will most likely find yourself using both as you create your project. The Outline and Graphical tabs both: • Show all project elements • Allow you to select an element so that you can work on it • Allow you to rename an element • Allow you to add, delete, and duplicate elements • Allow you to show the selected element in the Simulator • Automatically create new elements when assets are dragged to the tabs, or modify existing elements if assets are dragged to an existing element in the tabs • Allow you to drag elements to the Menu Editor to establish connections Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 177 The Outline tab also has these capabilities: • It includes the menu language elements that you use when configuring your menus to support multiple languages. • It includes the VTS Editor that provides extensive control over how your project’s elements are burned to a DVD. The Graphical tab also has these capabilities: • You can choose whether to view all elements or just specific types. • Elements that use the transitions feature are marked. • The element assigned as First Play has a special icon. • You can view connection lines that show which elements have targets set to other elements. • You can arrange the tiles to provide a flowchart view of the project. • You can print the Graphical tab. • You can set a flag on specific elements, making it easy to distinguish them. See Using the Outline Tab and Using the Graphical Tab for detailed information on using each tab. See Managing Elements Using the Outline and Graphical Tabs for information on using the tabs to manage your project’s elements. See Dragging Assets to the Outline and Graphical Tabs for information on what happens when you drag assets directly to the Outline or Graphical tab. Using the Outline Tab The Outline tab provides a simple list view of your project’s elements. It contains two displays: By Type and By VTS. You can click the Alternate View button to switch between the two displays or drag the partition to show both displays at the same time. The elements in the By VTS and By Type displays are very similar and can be used to do many of the same things. For example, double-clicking an element in either display opens it in its editor and inspector. (Selecting an element in one display also selects that same element in the other.) The primary difference is in how they are organized. • By VTS: Lists the elements based on the VTS they belong to. A VTS can have only one track (which can also have stories) or one slideshow, but it can have multiple menus and scripts. The primary use of the By VTS display is to control how your project’s elements are written to a DVD. See VTS Editor for more information. • By Type: Lists the elements based on their type (menus, tracks, slideshows, and scripts). See Using the Outline Tab for more information on using the By Type display. 178 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Note: The Languages section in the By Type display does not represent actual elements—it represents languages that can be used for the menus. It does not appear in the By VTS display because it is not specific to a VTS. Click each section’s disclosure triangle to view its contents. Option-click the Tracks disclosure triangle to also show the stories. Layered menus use a different icon than standard menus. Alternate View button swaps view between By Type and By VTS. Drag this partition to split the tab and show both By Type and By VTS. Adds a new empty VTS (active only in the By VTS view). Selecting Elements The most common way to use the Outline tab is to select a project element so that you can configure it. Selecting an element changes the Inspector and the element’s editor to display settings for that particular element. Double-clicking an element brings the editor to the front of the DVD Studio Pro interface, the same as if you clicked its tab. You can select several elements at once by holding down the Command key while clicking the elements, or select all elements by pressing Command-A. You can delete, duplicate, and save descriptions of a group of elements. If you hold the pointer over an element in the Outline tab, a tooltip appears that shows additional information about the element, such as what type of menu it is or how many streams it has. Moving Elements in the By Type Display You can move an element from one position to another within the same section. Note: The order of the elements in the By Type display does not affect how the elements are written to the DVD. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 179 To change an element’s position in the Outline tab’s By Type display μ Drag the element to its new position. As you drag, a line appears between elements to indicate where the dragged element will be moved when you release it. Using the Graphical Tab The Graphical tab uses a tile-based interface to show a project’s elements. Tile viewing and editing tools Macro view shows entire tile area. Connections, tile size, and snap grid settings Project element tile Connection line Choose tile types to view. 180 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Graphical Tab Introduction The Graphical tab uses tiles to represent each element in your project. Similar to the Outline tab, you can use the Graphical tab to select elements to work with and can rename the elements. Each tile contains a thumbnail image that represents the element. You are able to position the tiles as needed and can choose to view either large or small versions of the tiles. You can also choose to view connection lines between the elements. Graphical Tab Viewing Options Depending on the size of your project, the Graphical tab can have a large number of tiles and not be able to fit in the tab’s window. You can make the tab’s view larger so that more tiles can be seen, zoom out to fit the tiles to the window, or use scrollers to view a portion of the tile area. To make the tab’s view larger Do one of the following: μ With the Graphical tab selected, press Shift–Space bar. The tab’s contents fill the DVD Studio Pro interface. Press Shift–Space bar again to restore the tab to normal size. If you double-click a tile, the tab’s view reverts to normal size so that you can see the editors. Note: If you hold down Shift–Space bar, the large view becomes temporary and will revert back to normal once you release the keys. μ Press Command–Option–Grave Accent (`, on the same key as the tilde). μ Drag an edge of its quadrant. See Resizing the Quadrants for more information. μ Tear the tab off into its own window. See Tearing Off a Tab into Its Own Window for more information. To fit the tiles to the current window size Do one of the following: μ Press Shift-Z. μ Click the Graphical tab’s Zoom to Fit button. Zoom to Fit button Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 181 When there are more tiles than can be displayed in the Graphical tab, scrollers appear that allow you to control which part of the tile area shows. The scrollers also allow you to zoom in or out on the tile area. To use the Graphical tab scrollers Do one of the following: μ Drag them to control which part of the tile area you can see. μ Drag the ends of the horizontal scroller to zoom in or out on the tile area. Drag the scroller ends to zoom in or out on the tile area. There are also several zoom and positioning keyboard shortcuts available. To zoom using keyboard shortcuts Do one of the following: μ Press Z, then click the area of the Graphical tab that you want to zoom in on. Press Option-Z, then click to zoom out. μ Press Z, then drag the pointer across the area that you want to zoom in on. μ Press the Space bar. The pointer changes to a hand that you can use to control which part of the tile area is visible, similar to using the scrollers. μ Press Command–Plus Sign (+) to zoom in and Command–Hyphen (-) to zoom out on the Graphical tab, maintaining its center position. Using the Macro View The Graphical tab includes a macro view capability. The macro view is a small display showing a view of the entire tile area. It includes a visible-view rectangle that indicates the part of the tile area currently showing. You can drag the visible-view rectangle to choose the part of the tile area that shows, and you can change the rectangle’s size to zoom in or out. Displaying the Macro View The macro view floats over the top of the Graphical tab. There are several methods you can use to display or hide the macro view. To display and hide the macro view Do one of the following: μ Press M. 182 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Note: You can temporarily display the macro view by holding down the M key. μ Click the Graphical tab’s macro view button. Shows and hides the macro view. μ Position the pointer over the macro view (which causes the title bar to appear), then click the hide symbol in the macro view’s title bar to hide the macro view. Note: The title bar can appear on the top or bottom of the macro view, depending on where the pointer is. Working with the Macro View You are able to position the macro view anywhere within the tab, but you cannot move it outside the tab’s boundaries. To move the macro view within the Graphical tab μ Position the pointer over the macro view (which causes the title bar to appear), then drag the title bar to the new position. To change the size of the macro view display μ Drag the resize corner of the title bar. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 183 The visible-view rectangle can be moved and resized to control the tile area that shows. To use the visible-view rectangle Do one of the following: μ Click within the rectangle to drag it to a new position. μ Click outside the rectangle to have the rectangle jump to a new position, with the point you clicked being as close as possible to the rectangle’s center. μ Drag a corner of the rectangle to change its size. Making the rectangle bigger zooms out on the tile area, showing more tiles. Making the rectangle smaller zooms in on the tile area, showing fewer tiles. Selecting and Managing Tiles You can use several tools to select and arrange tiles—many are the same as those used with buttons in the Menu Editor. There are also a variety of methods you can use to add, delete, and copy tiles. Selecting Tiles There are several reasons you might want to select one or more tiles: • Selecting a tile makes it the current element, and opens it in its editor. • Selecting one or more tiles allows you to arrange them. • Selecting one or more tiles allows you to delete or copy them. To select one or more tiles Do one of the following: μ Click a tile to select it. Any other selected tiles are deselected. μ Press the Shift or Command key, then click a tile to select it. Any other selected tiles remain selected. μ Drag the pointer over a group of tiles. This creates a selection rectangle that selects all tiles it touches. μ Choose Edit > Select All (or press Command-A) to select all tiles. You can also choose Edit > Deselect All (or press Command-Shift-A) or click an empty part of the Graphical tab to deselect all tiles. Moving Tiles by Dragging You can move a tile or group of tiles once they are selected by simply dragging them. If connections are showing, they move with the tiles. You can also use the arrow keys to move selected tiles. If you move a tile to an edge of the Graphical tab, the tile area scrolls to show its new position. If the edge of the tile area is reached, it is automatically expanded to accommodate the tile’s new position. 184 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface To make it easier to see a larger area while dragging a tile, you can press the Z key after you start dragging the tile to temporarily zoom out. You can enable a snap grid to make it easier to organize the tile in straight lines and columns. To enable the snap grid μ Choose Snap to Grid from the Graphical tab’s Settings pop-up menu. You may want to drag a tile to the Menu Editor. This is an easy way to link either a new or an existing button in the current menu to the element being dragged. To drag an element to the Menu Editor 1 Click the element’s tile and hold down the mouse button for a moment without moving the tile. A transparent tile appears. 2 Drag the transparent tile to the Menu Editor. You can also drag multiple tiles to the Menu Editor by selecting them before holding down the mouse button when the pointer is on one of them. Using Distribute Objects The distribute objects feature allows you to select a group of tiles and evenly space them between each other using one of four methods: • Horizontally: Only active when more than one tile is selected. Tiles in between the tile furthermost to the left and furthermost to the right are positioned evenly horizontally. • Vertically: Only active when more than one tile is selected. Tiles in between the tile furthermost to the top and furthermost to the bottom are positioned evenly vertically. • By Type: With no tiles selected, all tiles are affected; with one or more tiles selected, only the selected tiles are affected. Arranges the tiles in evenly spaced rows and columns based on their types. The type order is: • Menus • Layered menus • Tracks • Stories • Slideshows • Scripts • Autolayout: With no tiles selected, all tiles are affected; with one or more tiles selected, only the selected tiles are affected. The tiles are arranged based on connections, types, and quantity. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 185 To use the distribute objects feature 1 Depending on the distribution method you intend to use, select the group of tiles to distribute. See Selecting and Managing Tiles for details on how to do this. 2 Choose Arrange > Distribute Objects, then choose the distribution method to use (Horizontally, Vertically, By Type, or Autolayout). Locking the Tile Positions You can lock the tile positions and prevent accidentally rearranging them. To lock the tile positions Do one of the following: μ Choose Arrange > Lock All Tiles (or press L). μ Click the Graphical tab’s Lock button. Tile position lock button You can use the same button and keyboard shortcut to unlock the tiles. If you need to move any tiles while they are locked, you can press the Option key, then drag the tiles to the new location. While the tile positions are locked, you are still able to change your view of the tiles by zooming or using the scrollers. You can also change the connections view. About the Tiles There are six different tile types that can appear in the Graphical tab. Each type uses a different color to differentiate it: • Menu: Light blue • Layered menu: Dark blue • Track: Green • Story: Teal • Slideshow: Purple • Script: Brown 186 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface Each tile has a thumbnail image of the element. The aspect ratio of the thumbnail changes to indicate whether the element uses 4:3 or 16:9 assets. A tooltip showing information about the element appears when you position your pointer over it. First Play icon Transitions icon Element name The element designated as First Play has an icon added to it. Elements that are using the transitions feature also have icon indications. Tile Sizes You can choose large or small sizes to view the tiles. To change the tile size μ Choose Small Tiles or Large Tiles from the Graphical tab’s Settings pop-up menu. Flagging Tiles You can flag a tile so that it stands out from the others. For example, you might want to flag tiles for elements that still require assets or use DVD@CCESS. To flag one or more tiles Do one of the following: μ Control-click a tile, then choose Flag from the shortcut menu. This also selects this tile and deselects any others that are selected. μ Shift-Control-click a tile, then choose Flag from the shortcut menu. This also selects this tile and flags any others that are selected. μ Position the pointer over a tile and press F. It does not matter whether the tile is selected or not. μ Select a group of tiles to be flagged, then choose Edit > Flag Tiles (or press F). μ Select a group of tiles to be flagged, Control-click an empty area in the tile display, then choose Flag from the shortcut menu. You can use any of these methods to also turn off the flags on one or more tiles. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 187 Viewing Specific Tile Types You can choose specific tile types to view. For example, you may only want to see the slideshows. Note: If you choose to hide a tile type, all connections to that tile type are also hidden. The Graphical tab’s tile type Show/Hide buttons control which tiles are visible and which are hidden. Story tiles Slideshow tiles Menu tiles Track tiles Script tiles Clicking a button hides its tile type and the button background becomes lighter. Clicking the button again shows its tile type and the button background becomes darker. Viewing Connections You can configure the Graphical tab to show lines indicating which elements are connected to each other. Arrows indicate which element is the target. The connection lines are useful when you want to view the project as a flowchart. They can also be helpful to ensure you have not inadvertently left out an intended connection. Note: You cannot make connections or change existing connections in the Graphical tab. 188 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface You can customize how many connections appear with the Graphical tab’s Settings pop-up menu. • No Connections: No connection lines appear. • Relative Connections: Only the connections relating to the currently selected tile or tiles appear. • All Connections: All tiles show their connections. • Basic, Standard, and Advanced Connections: Control how much connection detail to show. These three levels match a similar setting in the Connections tab. See Sources and Source Details for more information. To configure the Graphical tab’s connections view 1 Open the Graphical tab’s Settings pop-up menu. 2 Choose to show no connections, relative connections for selected tiles only, or all connections. 3 Choose the level of connections to show (basic, standard, or advanced). Printing the Graphical Tab’s Tile Area Printing the Graphical tab’s tile area can be a useful way to show others the basic construction of a project. The contents of the Graphical tab print as they currently appear with respect to tile size and placement and connection view status. You can choose to print the whole tile area on a single sheet of paper or to print the tile area over multiple sheets of paper. To print the Graphical tab’s tile area 1 Choose File > Print Graphical View (or press Command-P). 2 Choose DVD Studio Pro from the print configuration pop-up menu. 3 Select one of the following: • Fit to Page: Prints the entire tile area on one sheet. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 189 • Multiple Pages: Prints the tile area at full size, using as many sheets of paper as necessary. 4 Select the Page Numbers option to add page numbers to each sheet. This is especially useful when you select Multiple Pages. 5 Click Preview to see an example of how the printed document will look, or Print to print the tile area. Managing Elements Using the Outline and Graphical Tabs You can use either the Outline or Graphical tab to manage your project’s elements. Renaming Project Elements In addition to entering an element’s name in its Inspector, you can rename an element in the Outline or Graphical tab. To rename an element in the Outline tab 1 Select the element whose name you want to change. 2 Click the element’s name. 3 Type the new name, then press Return. The element’s name is changed. To rename an element in the Graphical tab 1 Double-click the element’s name. 2 Type the new name, then press Return. The element’s name is changed. Deleting Elements You can delete elements to remove them from your project. To delete an element or group of elements 1 Select the element or group of elements to delete. 190 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key). • Control-click in an empty area of the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Delete from the shortcut menu. Important: If you delete a track that has stories, the stories are also deleted. An alert appears to warn you of this. Duplicating Elements You can duplicate elements within the Outline and Graphical tabs. You can build a chapter index menu, for example, and quickly make duplicates of it that just need to have their connections changed to become functional. To duplicate an element 1 Select the element to duplicate. You can also select multiple elements. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Edit > Duplicate (or press Command-D). • If you have selected a single element, Control-click the element, then choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu. • If you have selected a group of elements, Control-click in an empty area of the tab, then choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu. The new element is named with its type (menu, track, and so on) followed by the next number. For example, if you duplicate a menu when there are already five menus, the new one becomes “Menu 6.” In the Outline tab, the new element appears last in the section. Assigning the First Play Element In addition to using the Disc Inspector or the Connections tab, you can assign your project’s First Play element directly in the Outline or Graphical tab. The First Play element is the one that plays when a DVD player begins playing the project. To assign the First Play element in the Outline tab Do one of the following: μ Control-click the disc element, choose First Play from the shortcut menu, then choose the First Play element from the submenu. This method allows you to select a specific button (menu), slide (slideshow), or chapter marker (track or story) within an element to play from. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 191 μ Control-click an element, then choose First Play from the shortcut menu. This method uses the element’s default button (menu), first slide (slideshow), or first marker (track or story) to play from. To assign the First Play element in the Graphical tab Do one of the following: μ Control-click in an empty area of the Graphical tab, choose First Play from the shortcut menu, then choose the First Play element from the submenu. This method allows you to select a specific button (menu), slide (slideshow), or chapter marker (track or story) within an element to play from. μ Control-click a tile, then choose First Play from the shortcut menu. This method uses the element’s default button (menu), first slide (slideshow), or first marker (track or story) to play from. See Setting the Project’s First Play for more information. Simulating Elements The Simulator provides a way to verify your project before you build the title. Starting the Simulator by clicking Simulate in the toolbar simulates the project from its beginning, at the element designated as “First Play.” However, often you will want to start the Simulator at a specific project element, for example, to verify the navigation of a chapter index menu. You can use the Outline or Graphical tab to start the Simulator at a specific element so that you can quickly verify it is working as planned. To start the Simulator at a specific element Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Simulate Element, where “Element” is the type of element currently selected. μ In the Outline or Graphical tab, Control-click the element at which you want to start the Simulator, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu. μ Select the element to start the Simulator with, then press Command-Option-0 (zero). Note: Clicking Simulate in the toolbar always starts the Simulator with the element assigned as first play. If no first play element has been assigned, the Simulator starts by playing the first track. Using Item Descriptions An item description is an XML text file that lists all the properties of an element. You can save and load an item description, and view the description using TextEdit. You can also load an item description from one project into another. This can make it easy to create menus in multiple projects that all look the same or to copy a script between projects. 192 Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface To save an item description 1 Select the element for which you want to save a description. You can select the element in the Outline or Graphical tab or in any of the editors. Note: You cannot export an item description of a story. Item descriptions of tracks include their stories. 2 Choose File > Export > Item Description. 3 Enter a name for the file and select its destination in the dialog that appears, then click Export. DVD Studio Pro creates the file and saves it in the location you specified. To load an item description 1 Choose File > Import > Item Description. 2 Locate the description file to load and click Import in the dialog that appears. Important: Item descriptions from previous versions of DVD Studio Pro cannot be loaded into DVD Studio Pro 4. An alternative is to open a project in DVD Studio Pro 4 that contains the element you originally made the item description from, then save a new item description from it. With the exception of script item descriptions, you cannot import item descriptions created in one DVD standard (SD DVD or HD DVD) into the other DVD standard. Additionally, you cannot import item descriptions from one video standard (NTSC or PAL) into another video standard. The description file loads and a new element appears in the Outline and Graphical tabs. The description file uses the same name it had when it was saved, unless that name is already in use. If the name already exists, a number is added to the end of its name, or if a number already exists, the number increments to form a unique name. Note: When you load an item description into a project, all of the assets used when the description was saved must still be available. An error message appears if any problems are encountered. Chapter 10 The DVD Studio Pro Interface 193 DVD Studio Pro provides tools and workflow options that give you the flexibility to decide how best to import and manage your assets. This chapter covers the following: • How DVD Studio Pro Manages Assets (p. 195) • About the Assets Tab (p. 201) • Importing Assets (p. 207) • Removing Selected Assets (p. 213) • Renaming Assets (p. 213) • Refreshing Still and QuickTime Assets (p. 214) • Opening Assets in Their Editor (p. 216) • Identifying an Asset (p. 216) • Previewing Assets (p. 216) • Asset Inspector (p. 218) How DVD Studio Pro Manages Assets As you work on your DVD project, it’s important to give some thought as to how best to organize and manage your assets. Even a simple project can use enough assets to make it worth investing the time to plan for them. Moderately ambitious projects can use hundreds of assets, creating a large potential for confusion as you try to keep track of them. Additionally, if you intend to author both SD and HD versions of your project, keeping the assets organized is crucial to avoid confusing an SD version of a video asset with an HD version of it. There are several methods you can use to import an asset into a project, but in all cases the assets are treated the same. 195 Importing and Managing Assets 11 Importing an asset into a DVD project does not actually copy or move the asset file from its current location. The Assets tab simply lists references to the actual asset files. The folder structure you create in the Assets tab does not affect the folder structure of the files on your hard disk; it only helps you manage the asset names while working on your project. Missing or Renamed Assets Once you import an asset into a project, it’s important not to move or rename its source file. A Missing Files window appears if you open a project and DVD Studio Pro cannot locate an asset in its original location. You can manually locate the asset or cancel the dialog. To locate a missing asset when opening a project 1 Select the asset in the Missing Files window. 2 Do one of the following: • Click Locate and use the file location dialog to find the asset. • If the asset is a QuickTime file and its MPEG-2 or AIFF encoded version is available, you can click “Replace with encoded file.” In these cases, the QuickTime version of the asset is not required, and instead its encoded versions are used by the project. See Should You Remove the Original QuickTime Files? for more information. If you open the project without locating the assets, or the assets become missing while the project is open, the names of the missing assets are displayed in red and any elements in which the assets are used are disabled. To reconnect an asset to a project Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Asset > Re-Link. μ In the Assets tab, Control-click the asset’s name, then choose Relink from the shortcut menu. You can only relink assets whose names appear in red. 196 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Any elements that use missing assets are displayed in red in the Outline and Graphical tabs. The elements cannot be opened, either from the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or in their editor. If you select an element with missing assets, a dialog appears with three choices: • Relink: The Missing Files window opens so that you can locate the missing files. • Delete Clips/Slides/Assets: The missing assets are removed from the element. • For tracks: Any clips with missing assets are removed. • For menus: Any item with a missing asset is set to “not set” as its asset (no items are removed—only their asset assignment is changed). • For slideshows: Any missing slides are removed from the slideshow. • Continue: The element shows as being selected in the Outline and Graphical tabs, but it is not opened in its editor. This provides the opportunity to delete the element, which removes it from the project. Using Video and Audio Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant When you import motion assets (video or audio) that are not DVD-compliant into a DVD Studio Pro project, the integrated MPEG encoder converts them to be DVD-compliant (if they are in a supported format). In addition to the general MPEG encoding settings, the Encoding pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a setting that controls whether the encoding begins immediately as a background function or waits until you build the final project into the VIDEO_TS folder. There is also a preferences setting in the Destinations pane to control where the encoded files are saved. See Destinations Preferences for more information. To set the Encoding preferences 1 Choose DVD Studio Pro > Preferences. 2 Click the Encoding icon to open the Encoding pane. 3 Set the encoding method by selecting one of the following: • Background encoding: The encoding begins as soon as you import the asset. The encoding takes place in the background, allowing you to continue working on your project. A progress bar appears in the Status column of the Assets tab. Once the encoding process finishes, the Status column displays Done. See Default Columns in the Assets Tab for more information. • Encode on build: The encoding does not start until you complete your project and build the VIDEO_TS or HVDVD_TS files. 4 Configure the remaining encoding items as needed. See Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for more information. 5 Click Apply to enable the settings and OK to close the Preferences window. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 197 The current encoding settings are applied to assets as soon as they are imported, whether you choose to start encoding them right away or wait to encode them when you build your project. Changes you make to the Encoding preferences only affect assets you import from then on. See Verifying and Changing Encoding Settings for more information. How the Encoded Files Are Named When you import QuickTime video assets into DVD Studio Pro, the integrated MPEG encoder names the encoded files as follows: • The first half is the complete original filename, including its extension. • The second half has three parts—the video standard (NTSC or PAL), the encoding bit rate (shown as a four-digit number), and the “.m2v” extension. For example, if you import an asset named “Main Program.mov,” use the NTSC standard and a bit rate of 5.5 Mbps, the MPEG-encoded filename will be “Main Program.mov_NTSC_5500.m2v.” Audio files created by the embedded AIFF encoder use the original filename with an added “.aiff” extension. See Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for more information on the integrated MPEG encoder. Should You Remove the Original QuickTime Files? When you import motion assets that are not DVD-compliant, the integrated MPEG and AIFF encoders create the files (video and audio) required by the DVD-Video specification. To free up hard disk space, you may decide to remove the original files. Even after the encoders have created the new DVD-compliant files, DVD Studio Pro continues to keep track of the original files. The advantage of this is that you can reencode the files if you decide later to use a different bit rate or encoding mode. For example, you might find that, after the initial encoding, the MPEG-2 video looks great but is a larger file than you planned for. You can decide to re-encode using a lower bit rate and use the slower but higher quality two-pass VBR option. Additionally, if you convert an SD project to an HD project, HD assets imported as QuickTime files can be encoded to HD MPEG-2. If you decide to remove the original file, DVD Studio Pro notices it is missing and presents you with the Missing Files window. If you then click “Replace with encoded file,” the original file will no longer be associated with the project, and DVD Studio Pro will no longer try to find it. See Missing or Renamed Assets for more information. You also will no longer be able to re-encode the asset. 198 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Verifying and Changing Encoding Settings If your project contains a mixture of 4:3 and 16:9 assets or has some assets you want to encode differently than others, you must be sure to set the Encoding preferences settings before you import the assets. You can verify and change the encoding settings on assets that have been imported. You can also re-encode a QuickTime asset if you want to try different encoding settings. To change the encoding settings after importing an asset 1 Do one of the following: • Select the asset and choose File > Encoder Settings (or press Command-E). • Control-click the video asset in the Assets tab, then choose Encoder Settings from the shortcut menu. Note: The Encoder Settings option in the Assets tab shortcut menu is only available if the original QuickTime video file is available. A dialog appears that contains the same settings found in the Encoding preferences pane. 2 Configure the encoder settings and click OK. When you have the “Background encoding” method selected in Encoding preferences and you make any changes in this dialog, one of two things happens: • If you change the bit rate setting: The current file, whether a complete or partially complete file, is left as is and the encoder starts encoding a new file. This allows you to compare the quality of the two bit rates. If you decide to continue the encoding of the partially completed file, you can set the bit rate (and any other settings you might have changed) to the value it used, and the encoder will continue encoding it. Note: If the encoded files are being written to the project bundle, they are deleted whether or not you change the bit rate setting. • If you do not change the bit rate setting: The original asset is deleted, whether a complete or partially completed file, and a new encoded file is created. For example, if you want to see the difference between one-pass VBR and two-pass VBR encoding and want to keep the files from both encoding sessions, you need to rename or move the completed one-pass VBR encoded file before re-encoding with the two-pass VBR setting. If you have the “Encode on build” method selected, these changes will apply once you build your project. Note: Changing the encoding settings for an asset does not affect the encoding settings for other assets. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 199 This method of configuring encoding settings for specific assets allows you to customize how the integrated MPEG encoder gets used in your project. It also makes it possible to have a mixture of assets with different encoding requirements (such as some that use the 4:3 aspect ratio and others that use the 16:9 aspect ratio). Using Still Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant You can add still assets in any format supported by QuickTime to a slideshow or a track. DVD Studio Pro automatically converts them to the MPEG format once you start the build process. It creates an MPEG folder in the location specified in the Destinations pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. See Destinations Preferences for details on setting up this preference. Using DVD-Compliant Assets When you import supported assets that are DVD-compliant, they are left in their original locations with no processing (other than the parse file being created, as described in the next section). About the Parse Files To use an asset in a project, DVD Studio Pro needs to know some general information about it, such as its length, type, and integrity. Video assets encoded within DVD Studio Pro can include this information in the encoded files, or can create separate files for it. Assets encoded by Compressor outside of DVD Studio Pro can include this information if you select the “Add DVD Studio Pro meta-data” option in the Extras pane of the Encoder settings. Assets encoded with other encoders, or with the “Add DVD Studio Pro meta-data” option deselected when using Compressor, must be parsed before DVD Studio Pro can use them. Parsing creates a small file, with the same name as the video asset and a “.par” extension that contains the required information. The parse file can take from several seconds to several minutes to create, depending on the size of the asset file. See Destinations Preferences for details on setting up the parse file preference. About Segmented MPEG Files The segmented MPEG files created by some third-party encoders do not import correctly into DVD Studio Pro. Some encoders segment their large encoded files into 1 GB files. When imported into DVD Studio Pro, only the first 1 GB segment is imported. You need to append the files into a single file before importing the asset into DVD Studio Pro. There are several third-party applications that can be used to append a segmented MPEG file into a single file. 200 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Using Motion, LiveType, and Soundtrack Pro Projects DVD Studio Pro allows you to import Motion, LiveType, and Soundtrack Pro projects directly into your DVD project. This has several benefits: • You do not have to render the projects before importing them. DVD Studio Pro allows you to use them as if you had rendered them and exported a QuickTime movie from them. You import the projects using the same methods you would use to import other assets. Note: Playing projects requires significantly more system resources than playing a QuickTime movie. Depending on your system, projects may skip frames or show artifacts when playing as part of a menu or track. • You can open the Motion, LiveType, or Soundtrack Pro project from DVD Studio Pro. If you make changes to the project in Motion, LiveType, or Soundtrack Pro, DVD Studio Pro automatically uses the updated project. To open a Motion or LiveType project in that application, from within DVD Studio Pro Do one of the following: μ Select the project in the Assets tab, then choose File > Asset > Open in Editor. μ Control-click the project in the Assets tab, then choose Open in Editor from the shortcut menu. μ Double-click the project in the Assets tab. Note: The Motion or LiveType application must be available on your computer. About the Assets Tab The Assets tab displays a list of all assets imported into the project, whether they were directly imported to the Assets tab or dragged to the Menu or Track Editor from the Palette or a Finder window. About QuickTime Files QuickTime files often contain a video and audio stream. When you import a QuickTime file with both video and audio, it is displayed in the Assets tab as two files, each with the same name, one with the video icon and the other with the audio icon. The Type column lists them as QuickTime Video or QuickTime Audio. In most cases, these files are encoded with the integrated MPEG or AIFF encoder. You can re-encode the video files by Control-clicking them, then choosing Encoder Settings from the shortcut menu. An exception is the HDV and H.264 QuickTime files you can import into HD projects. These QuickTime files do not require encoding with the integrated MPEG encoder and cannot be re-encoded. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 201 Note: Subtitle text files and shapes do not appear in the Assets tab. Video icon Still image icon Audio icon Click a folder’s disclosure triangle to show or hide its contents. Click to open the Import Assets dialog. Click to create a new folder. Click to remove the selected asset. The Assets tab can contain up to 15 columns. For information on choosing which columns appear, see Managing Columns in the Assets Tab. The Assets tab also has three buttons you can use to manage the assets. • Import: Opens the Import Assets dialog so you can choose assets to import. See Using the Import Asset Feature for more information. • New Folder: Creates a new folder in the assets list. If you have an existing folder selected, the new folder becomes its subfolder. See Creating Asset Folders for more information. • Remove: Removes the selected asset or assets, including folders, from the assets list. A message appears if you try to remove assets that are currently in use by the project. This does not affect the asset’s actual file—it just controls whether it appears in this list. See Removing Selected Assets for more information. Default Columns in the Assets Tab The following columns appear by default in the Assets tab. You can remove these, change their order, and add additional columns as needed. See Managing Columns in the Assets Tab for more information. • Name: Applies to all asset types. Displays the asset’s name and an icon that represents the asset type. By default the asset name is the same as the asset filename, but you can rename the asset to make it easier to identify within your project. See Renaming Assets for more information. 202 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets The Name column also displays folders, with disclosure triangles, which you can use to organize your assets. • Status: Applies to all asset types. Displays whether the asset is being encoded, parsed, or is ready to use. • Progress bar: Appears while the asset is encoding or parsing. • Yellow: The asset has not been encoded (applies to assets to be encoded with the integrated MPEG or AIFF encoder). If the setting in the Encoding pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences is set to “Encode on build,” the yellow dot appears for any assets that will be encoded once you build the project. • Green: The asset has been encoded (applies to assets encoded with the integrated MPEG or AIFF encoder only). • Red: The asset encountered an error while encoding or parsing. • In Use: Applies to all asset types. Shows a checkmark next to all assets currently in use within the project. • Type: Applies to all asset types. Displays the type of asset (QuickTime video, AC-3 audio, and so on). • Length: Applies to video and audio asset types. Displays the length (in hours:minutes:seconds:frames) of the asset. • Size: Applies to all asset types. Displays the file size of the asset. In the case of QuickTime assets, shows the size of the original QuickTime file. You can select the asset to see its encoded file size in the Asset Inspector. • Rate: Applies to video and audio asset types. For video assets, displays the original frame rate. For audio, displays the original sample rate (typically 48000 or 96000). Additional Columns You Can Add You can add the following additional columns to the Assets tab. • Location: Applies to all asset types. Displays the asset’s actual filename and location within your system. • Timestamp: Applies to video and audio asset types. Displays the timecode value of the first frame. • Channels: Applies to audio assets. Displays the number of audio channels contained in the file. • Dimensions: Applies to video and still assets. Displays the size of the image in pixels (before rescaling, if applicable). • Layers: Applies to still assets. Displays the number of layers the still contains. • Bit Depth: Applies to still assets. Displays the number of bits the still contains. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 203 • Aspect: Applies to video and still assets. For video assets, displays the aspect ratio of the asset (4:3 or 16:9). For still assets, shows whether the asset is being rescaled to fit the video aspect ratio (Retain) or is displaying actual pixels (blank). • Markers: Applies to video assets. Displays the number of chapter markers the video contains. Managing Columns in the Assets Tab DVD Studio Pro lets you customize the columns in the Assets tab, making it easy to display only the information you want. To display a hidden column μ Control-click the column name to the left of where you want the hidden one to appear, then choose the column’s name from the shortcut menu. All columns that are currently displayed have checkmarks next to their names. To hide a column μ Control-click in the column name area, then choose the column’s name from the shortcut menu. You can choose to display as few or as many of the columns as you like. To change the order of the columns μ Drag a column’s name to a new position. When you drag a column to a new position, the other columns shift to make room for the one you are moving. 204 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets To change a column’s width μ Position the pointer on its right edge. When the pointer changes to a double arrow, drag to the new size. The pointer changes to a double arrow when you change a column’s width. Managing the Contents of the Assets Tab As you add assets to your project, you will want to keep them organized to reduce the potential for confusion. There are several tools you can use to organize and keep track of your assets: • Folders: Folders are the most powerful organizing tool for managing your assets. For added flexibility, you can create subfolders (folders within folders), import assets directly into a folder, and move assets between folders. You can also drag a folder to a new location. • Sorting: You can sort the assets based on any of the columns. • Asset information: You can select any asset to see its properties in the Asset Inspector. Creating Asset Folders You can create folders in the Assets tab at any time—before or after you have imported your assets. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 205 Important: Folders in the Assets tab help you organize your assets in your project. They do not affect the actual media files on your hard disk. Click the disclosure triangle to open and close folders. To create and name a folder 1 Do one of the following: • Choose Project > New Asset Folder (or press Command-Shift-N). • Control-click anywhere within the Assets tab, then choose Create New Folder from the shortcut menu. • Click the New Folder button in the Assets tab. 2 Select the folder, click the folder’s name, then type a new name. To create a new folder within an existing folder μ Control-click the existing folder, then choose Create New Folder from the shortcut menu. Sorting Assets You can sort the assets in the Assets tab by any of the columns. To sort the assets 1 Click the name of the column by which you want to sort the assets. The assets sort in the order of that column’s contents, and a triangle appears next to the column’s name to indicate it is controlling the sort and to show the sort’s direction (up or down). The triangle indicates the column controlling the sort and the sort direction (up or down). 2 Click the name of the column a second time to change the sort’s direction. 206 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Scrolling Through the Assets List Once you have added a number of assets to your project, DVD Studio Pro provides a variety of methods for scrolling through them. To scroll through a list of assets Do one of the following: μ Drag the scroller located on the right edge of the Assets tab. Hold down the Option key to scroll slowly through the list (useful with long lists). μ Press the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to scroll through one asset at a time. μ Press Option–Up Arrow to jump to the first asset in the list. μ Press Option–Down Arrow to jump to the last asset in the list. μ Press the Page Up and Page Down keys or hold down the Option key while clicking the scroller’s arrows to scroll through the list one page at a time. Importing Assets DVD Studio Pro provides several methods for importing assets into a project. • Using the Import Asset feature: You can click the Import Asset icon in the toolbar, click the Import button in the Assets tab, or use a shortcut menu in the Assets tab to import assets directly into the Assets tab. • Dragging assets to the Assets tab: You can drag assets from the media tabs in the Palette or a Finder window to the Assets tab. • Dragging assets directly to project elements: You can drag assets directly to the Menu Editor, Track Editor, and several other elements in your DVD Studio Pro project. These assets are also automatically added to the Assets tab. See Media Tabs for information on using the Audio, Stills, and Video tabs in the Palette. Note: To help organize your assets, it’s a good idea to create folders in the Assets tab before you import your assets, although you can create folders and move assets into them at any time. Importing Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant When you import video and audio assets that are not DVD-compliant, DVD Studio Pro uses its integrated MPEG encoder to convert them. In DVD Studio Pro Preferences, you can specify whether the encoding happens immediately, in the background, or waits until you build your completed project. See Using Video and Audio Assets That Are Not DVD-Compliant for more information. Once the encoding starts, a progress bar appears in the Status column of the Assets tab. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 207 Using the Import Asset Feature You can import assets directly from within the Assets tab by using the Import button or by using the Import Asset icon in the toolbar. You can import single assets, multiple assets, or entire folders of assets. Note: The “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences does not apply when you use the Import Asset dialog. Only the files you select are imported into the Assets tab. To import assets from within the Assets tab 1 Select the folder in the Assets tab that you want to import the assets into (if applicable). 2 Open the Import Asset dialog by doing one of the following: • Choose File > Import > Asset (or press Command-Shift-I). • Control-click the folder or an empty area of the Assets tab, then choose Import from the shortcut menu. • Click the Import button in the Assets tab. • Click Import Asset in the toolbar. • Double-click an empty area of the Assets tab. 3 Locate the assets or folder to be imported, then click Open. The assets are imported into the Assets tab. If you select a folder, the folder and all recognized asset files in it are added to the Assets tab. Any subfolders within the imported folder are also imported. A message appears if the folder contains assets that are not supported by DVD Studio Pro. Note: An asset cannot be imported more than once, and it can only appear once in the Assets tab. However, any asset in the Assets tab can be used multiple times in a project. Dragging Assets to the Assets Tab You can drag one or more assets from the Palette or a Finder window to the Assets tab and place them directly in folders if desired. To import assets from the Palette or a Finder window 1 In the Palette or a Finder window, select the assets to be imported. 2 Do one of the following: • To import them at the root level of the Assets tab: Drag the assets to an empty area of the tab. • To import them into a folder in the Assets tab: Drag the assets directly to the folder. 208 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets If you select a folder in the Finder window and drag it to the Assets tab, the folder and all recognized asset files in it are added to the Assets tab. Any subfolders within the imported folder are also imported. A message appears if the folder contains assets that are not supported by DVD Studio Pro. The Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a “Find matching audio when dragging” setting. When this checkbox is selected and you drag a video asset or group of video assets, DVD Studio Pro automatically looks for audio assets with the same base name in the same folder, and imports them as well. This does not happen if you drag a mixture of asset types, such as video and still images. It also does not happen when you use the Import Asset dialog. You can temporarily override the preferences setting by holding down the Command key after you start dragging video assets. About Dragging Assets Directly to a Project Element You can drag an asset from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window directly to the element that is going to use it. Assets dragged from the Palette or a Finder window are also added to the Assets tab. See Dragging Assets to the Menu Editor, Dragging Assets to the Track Editor, Dragging Assets to the Slideshow Editor, and Dragging Assets to the Outline and Graphical Tabs for more information. As is the case when you drag video assets to the Assets tab, the “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences controls whether audio assets automatically follow the video assets when they are dragged to an element. Dragging Assets to the Menu Editor You can drag video, audio, and still images to the Menu Editor. You can drag multiple assets, but they must all be of the same type (video or still image). You can drag a folder that contains still images to create a slideshow. • If you drag the asset to the Menu Editor and drop it immediately: It uses the default action for that asset type. • If you drag the asset to the Menu Editor and pause: The context-sensitive Drop Palette appears so that you can choose the asset’s action. The choices available depend on the type of asset you are dragging and whether you are dragging it to an empty part of the Menu Editor, a button, or a drop zone. See Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus and Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus for a complete list of the actions available. • If you drag video assets to the Menu Editor: DVD Studio Pro automatically looks for audio assets with the same base name in the same folder and imports them as well. This does not happen if you drag a mixture of asset types, such as video and still images. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 209 You can also drag templates and styles from the Palette. Any assets used by the template or style, such as a background video or an asset assigned to a drop zone, are also added to the list in the Assets tab, in a folder named Templates. See Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus for more information on using templates and styles. Dragging Assets to the Track Editor You can drag video, audio, and still images to streams in the Track Editor. You can drag multiple assets, but you cannot drag a folder. See Adding Video and Audio Assets for details on how the assets are placed in their streams. You can also drag one or more still images, as well as a folder containing multiple still images, to a subtitle stream. Each still image creates a subtitle clip. See Importing a Graphics File for more information. Dragging Assets to the Slideshow Editor You can drag one or more still images, as well as a folder, to the Slideshow Editor. The still images are automatically added to the slideshow. See Creating Slideshows for more information on slideshows. Dragging Assets to the Outline and Graphical Tabs You can drag video, audio, and still images to the Outline and Graphical tabs. How the assets are used depends on where you drag the assets. The only difference between dragging to the Outline or Graphical tab is that only the Outline tab has section titles for each element type. The following tables list the supported actions. Note: Most of the following actions work with the Outline tab’s By Type and By VTS displays. The exceptions are dragging assets to the Tracks and Slideshows sections, because the By VTS display does not have these sections. Additionally, with the By VTS display, all menus created by dragging assets to the Menu section of a VTS are automatically assigned to that VTS. See Showing the VTS Editor for more information on the By VTS display. The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to an empty area or the disc’s name. Assets Action One video asset Creates a track and adds the video to stream V1. Multiple video assets Creates a track for each and adds the video to stream V1. One audio asset Creates a track and adds the audio to stream A1. Multiple audio assets Creates a track for each and adds the audio to stream A1. Creates a track and adds the video to stream V1 and the audio to stream A1. One video/audio asset pair One still image Creates a menu and sets the still image as its background. 210 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Assets Action Multiple still images Creates a slideshow and adds the still images to it. Creates a standard menu and sets the file as the background with all layers selected. One multiple-layer PSD file One folder Creates a slideshow and adds the still images to it. The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to the Menus section title in the Outline tab. Assets Action One video asset Creates a menu and sets the video as its background. Multiple video assets Creates multiple menus and sets the video as their backgrounds. One audio asset Creates a menu and assigns the audio to it. Creates a menu and sets the video as its background and assigns the audio to it. One video/audio asset pair One still image Creates a menu and sets the still image as its background. Creates multiple menus and sets the still images as their backgrounds. Multiple still images Creates a standard menu and sets the file as the background with all layers selected. One multiple-layer PSD file The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to a specific standard menu. Assets Action One video asset Sets the video as the menu’s background. One audio asset Assigns the audio to the menu. Multiple audio assets Assigns the audio to the menu. Sets the video as the menu’s background and assigns the audio to it. One video/audio asset pair One still image Sets the still image as the menu’s background. One multiple-layer PSD file Sets the file as the menu’s background with all layers selected. The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to a specific layered menu. Assets Action One still image Sets the still image as the menu’s background. One multiple-layer PSD file Sets the file as the menu’s background with all layers selected. The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to the Tracks section title in the Outline tab. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 211 Assets Action One video asset Creates a track and adds the video to stream V1. Creates a track for each video asset and adds the video to stream V1 on each track. Multiple video assets One audio asset Creates a track and adds the audio to stream A1. Creates a track and adds the video to stream V1 and the audio to stream A1. One video/audio asset pair One still image Creates a track and adds the still image to stream V1. Multiple still images Creates a track and adds the still images to stream V1. Creates a track and adds the still image to stream V1, using only the layers set as visible in Photoshop. One multiple-layer PSD file The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to a specific track. Assets Action One video asset Adds the video to stream V1, at the end of any existing video. Multiple video assets Adds the videos to stream V1, at the end of any existing video. One audio asset Adds the audio to stream A1, at the end of any existing audio. Multiple audio assets Adds the audios to stream A1, at the end of any existing audio. Adds the video and audio to streams V1 and A1, at the end of any existing video and audio. One video/audio asset pair One still image Adds the still image to stream V1, at the end of any existing video. Multiple still images Adds the still images to stream V1, at the end of any existing video. Adds the still image to stream V1, at the end of any existing video, using only the layers set as visible in Photoshop. One multiple-layer PSD file The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to the Slideshow section title in the Outline tab. Assets Action One audio asset Creates a slideshow and assigns this as its overall audio. One still image Creates a slideshow and adds the still image to it. Multiple still images Creates a slideshow and adds the still images to it. Creates a slideshow and adds the still image to it, using only the layers set as visible in Photoshop. One multiple-layer PSD file One folder of images Creates a slideshow and adds the still images to it. The following table lists the actions when you drag assets to a specific slideshow. Assets Action One still image Adds the still image at the end of the slideshow. 212 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Assets Action Multiple still images Adds the still images at the end of the slideshow. Adds the still image at the end of the slideshow, using only the layers set as visible in Photoshop. One multiple-layer PSD file One folder of images Adds the still images at the end of the slideshow. Removing Selected Assets If you no longer need assets in a project, you can remove them from the Assets tab. Important: The Assets tab only contains links to the actual asset files. Removing an asset from the Assets tab does not actually delete the asset’s file from your hard disk. To remove assets from the Assets tab 1 Select one or more assets to remove. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Edit > Remove Asset (or press Delete). • Control-click in the Assets tab, then choose Remove from the shortcut menu. • Click the Remove button in the Assets tab. You cannot remove assets that are currently in use by the project. If you try to do so, an error message appears listing the selected assets that are in use and which project element is using them. List of assets that cannot be removed Locations that use the asset you select in the above assets list You can click an asset in the list to see which elements use it, or use the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to scroll through the assets list. Renaming Assets You can rename assets as they appear in DVD Studio Pro. This does not affect the actual name of the asset’s file. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 213 To rename an asset 1 Select the asset in the Assets tab. 2 Change its name by doing one of the following: • Click the asset’s name after the asset has been selected and type a new name. • Enter a new name in the Asset Inspector’s Name field. See Asset Inspector for more information on the Asset Inspector. Refreshing Still and QuickTime Assets It is possible, during the course of creating your project, that you will need to update a still or QuickTime asset. DVD Studio Pro includes both an automatic and a manual asset refresh capability to make it easier to use updated versions of your still and QuickTime assets. Important: An alert appears when updated assets have been detected, and the Encode view of the Log tab lists specific elements that use those assets. It is important to verify that each of these elements function correctly. All still and QuickTime assets are automatically refreshed any time you bring DVD Studio Pro to the foreground on your computer. For example, if you are working in DVD Studio Pro and switch to a graphics program to update a still or QuickTime asset used in the current project, the asset refreshes as soon as you switch back to DVD Studio Pro. Important: If the Simulator is active when assets are refreshed, you must close it and restart it for the refreshed assets to appear correctly in it. You can also manually refresh selected assets. To manually refresh selected assets Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Asset > Refresh. μ Control-click the asset to be refreshed in the Assets tab, then choose Refresh from the shortcut menu. Manually refreshing still and QuickTime assets is useful when you are updating them using a networked computer. Note: You cannot refresh MPEG motion assets. Issues with Refreshing Still Assets When used in slideshows and as clips in tracks, still assets that have been refreshed will have no impact outside of the change you made to the still asset itself. 214 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets When used in a menu, there may be issues for you to work with. For example, if the asset is used in a menu also using overlays, you may have to readjust the button active areas to match any changes you have made to the graphic. The same is true if you have made changes to the layers of a multiple-layer PSD file. Issues with Refreshing QuickTime Assets Changes made to QuickTime assets, which can include video, audio, or both together, can have large impacts on any project elements that use them. Re-encoding Any QuickTime assets you make changes to that have already been MPEG encoded by the DVD Studio Pro integrated MPEG encoder will need to be re-encoded. If you have enabled background encoding in the Encoding pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences, this re-encoding will start automatically. Video Asset Length Changes If you have changed the length of a video asset that is used in a track, there could be audio sync problems if other assets are used in the same track. For example, making the asset shorter would cause all video assets in the timeline that are placed after it to shift earlier because the V1 stream cannot have any gaps in it. The corresponding audio does not shift though, because audio streams can have gaps. Making the QuickTime video asset longer does not change the clip in any tracks that use it. You have to manually change the clip’s duration in the tracks to use the added video. When used as backgrounds in motion menus, you may need to adjust the menu’s duration to better fit with the asset’s new length. Video Asset Content Changes If you have changed the content of a video asset, you may need to adjust marker positions to match the new content or, in the case of motion menus, adjust the loop point. Audio Asset Length Changes If you have changed the length of an audio asset that is used in a slideshow, there are several issues that may arise. • If the audio is assigned to a specific slide: That slide’s length will change. • If the audio is assigned to the slideshow as overall audio and Fit to Audio has been selected: The slideshow’s duration will change. In both cases, if you have shortened the audio asset it is possible that the slide and transition durations cannot be shortened enough to match the audio. Making the QuickTime audio asset longer does not change the clip in any tracks that use it. You have to manually change the clip’s duration in the tracks to use the added audio. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 215 Opening Assets in Their Editor You can open a selected asset in a different application. This can make it easier for you to update the asset. Note: See Using Motion, LiveType, and Soundtrack Pro Projects for information on opening Motion and LiveType projects. To open an asset in a different application Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Asset > Open In Editor or File > Asset > Open With. μ Control-click the asset to be opened in the Assets tab, then choose Open In Editor or Open With from the shortcut menu. Open In Editor and Open With have the following differences: • Open In Editor: Choose this if you want to open the asset using its registered application (exactly as would happen if you double-clicked the asset in the Finder). • Open With: Choose this if you want to select the application to open the asset. This is useful when the registered application for that asset type is not the application you want to use. With still assets, you can edit and save them using the selected application, and DVD Studio Pro automatically refreshes the assets. With audio and video motion assets, you may find that you are unable to resave the assets once you have edited them. To ensure you can resave the audio or video motion assets, close the DVD Studio Pro project once you have opened the asset in its application. Identifying an Asset You can identify an asset’s actual filename and location and even open a Finder window that displays it. This is especially useful if you have renamed the assets within DVD Studio Pro. To identify an asset’s filename and location Do one of the following: μ Control-click the asset’s name, then choose Reveal In Finder from the shortcut menu. This opens a Finder window displaying the asset’s file. μ Add the Location column to the Assets tab. This column lists the details of the asset’s file. Previewing Assets You can display an asset in the Viewer tab or listen to its audio. 216 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets To preview an asset 1 Select the asset in the Assets tab. 2 Preview the asset by doing one of the following: • Choose File > Asset > Preview (or press the Space bar). • Control-click the asset, then choose Preview from the shortcut menu. • Double-click the asset. Preview controls You can use the controls in the Viewer tab to pause and stop playback. QuickTime video assets preview in their native format, even if they have been encoded with the integrated MPEG encoder. To preview the MPEG-encoded version of the QuickTime asset, you must add the asset to a track and preview it from the Track Editor. The Settings pop-up menu contains several settings that control what you see in the Viewer tab. • Title Safe Area and Action Safe Area: These settings turn on a shaded area around the outside edge of the menu, indicating portions of the menu that may not be viewable on most consumer monitors. Placing buttons or text in these shaded areas can be risky and should be avoided. There are two safe areas: title and action. The title safe area is more constricted and should be observed for items that must be seen by the viewer. All text and buttons should be within this area. The action safe area is closer to the menu edges and is considered a boundary for items that you would like the viewer to see but that are not required. You can also press Command-E to show or hide the title safe area and Command-Option-E to show or hide the action safe area. Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets 217 • Square Pixels and Rectangular Pixels: You can choose to switch between viewing assets with square pixels or scaled to the video aspect ratio (either 4:3 or 16:9). See Understanding Pixel Differences in Graphics and Video for more information. You can also press P to toggle the pixel display type. • Show Single Field: This setting optimizes playback when using field-based video sources. This is especially important with video that has fast motion because it will reduce the motion artifacts. However, selecting Show Single Field with frame-based video sources results in reduced resolution (edges may appear jagged). This setting only affects how the assets appear in the Viewer and does not change the actual assets themselves. Note: Anamorphic still assets will preview as 4:3 assets. Asset Inspector When you select an asset in the Assets tab, the Asset Inspector appears. The Asset Inspector shows general information about the selected asset. The only information you can edit is the asset’s name as it appears in DVD Studio Pro. Video assets include a thumbnail image and a scrubber so you can scrub through the video. Still assets also include a thumbnail image. 218 Chapter 11 Importing and Managing Assets Menus are the backbone of your project. To ensure a positive experience for the viewer, it’s important to create menus that provide logical navigation and a consistent experience. This chapter covers the following: • About Menus (p. 219) • About the Menu Editor (p. 224) • Starting and Working with a Menu (p. 231) About Menus Menus provide the buttons that the person viewing a DVD uses to configure the disc’s playback and to choose the tracks and slideshows that supply the DVD’s content. DVD menus are made up of a background, which can be a still image or a full-motion movie, and buttons. For the most part, the elements that make up a menu are created outside of DVD Studio Pro. You use DVD Studio Pro to combine these elements into a complete menu and assign actions to the buttons. See Preparing Menu Assets for details on creating the graphics used in your menus. DVD Studio Pro includes templates and styles that can make it easier to create menus. You can use the supplied templates and styles to quickly create your menus, or you can create your own templates and styles. Using templates and styles lets you apply a standardized look to your menus for all of your projects—for example, to maintain a corporate image. See Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus for more information. Before you create your menus, you need to understand the two different methods used to create menus in DVD Studio Pro, and be aware of special considerations for menus with a 16:9 aspect ratio. If you are authoring HD projects, you also need to be aware of special issues when creating HD menus. In DVD Studio Pro, you can create menus using either a standard, or overlay method, or a layered method. You can use menus created with both methods in a project, so you can use the method best suited to each individual menu. 219 Introduction to Creating Menus 12 The menu creation methods differ primarily in how each button’s states are displayed. Each button in a menu has three states: • Normal: How the button looks when not in the selected or activated state • Selected: How the button looks when you navigate to it using the DVD player’s arrow buttons • Activated: How the button looks after you navigate to it and press Enter. This state is typically displayed for just a short time before the menu clears and the next element appears, based on the action assigned to the button. Standard Menu Creation Method The standard method uses an overlay structure to display each button’s states. As described in detail in Creating Overlays, an overlay is a four-color image used to identify the highlight area of each button. Each of the four colors is mapped to the actual color and transparency values that appear for each of the three button states. The standard method provides the most flexibility when creating menus. • The background can be static, or it can be a full-motion video clip. • The background can contain the normal state of the buttons, or it can be plain, with the overlay supplying the normal button image. • You can use DVD Studio Pro to type text over the menu. The text can be used to title the menu or just provide basic information. • You can add text to buttons or even create text-only buttons. • You can use shapes on the menu as either buttons or drop zones. Shapes are self-contained graphics that include the normal state image, a graphic that defines the highlight area, and that can even display a full-motion thumbnail image of an assigned asset. Some shapes, called patches, contain animated effects. Shapes can be fully positioned and resized. DVD Studio Pro includes many stock shapes and can import shapes you create. The stock shapes are particularly useful when you are creating menus with minimal reliance on graphics programs. • You can create drop zones on the menu. A drop zone is an area of the menu you can assign an asset or shape to. You can reposition, resize, and rotate drop zones. Drop zones become a part of the menu’s background when you build the project. They allow you to add graphic elements to your menu that are not text- or button-related, making it possible to create complex menu backgrounds. • You can use templates and styles. • You can add audio to the menu. 220 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus The drawback of the standard method is that using overlays limits your creativity when showing the different states of a button. While the normal state of a button can be a full 24-bit image, you can only use up to four colors (as defined by the DVD-Video specification) to modify the normal image to show the selected and activated states. Because one of these colors is typically used as a transparent background color, that leaves only three colors. This is sufficient to add an outline or highlight to show when the button is selected or activated, but it is not enough to allow you to radically alter the button. See Creating Menus Using the Standard Method for details on creating standard menus. Layered Menu Creation Method The layered method allows you to create independent 24-bit versions of each button for each of the three states (normal, selected, and activated). This gives you great flexibility in changing a button’s appearance when it is selected and activated. The layered method requires an Adobe Photoshop (PSD) graphics file that contains a separate layer for each state of each button, in addition to the background graphic. This means a menu with 12 buttons requires 36 layers to show the normal, selected, and activated states of each button. You can combine overlays with buttons created using the layered method. There are several drawbacks to using the layered method: • You cannot have motion in the background; backgrounds must be still images. • You cannot use the text or shape features. • You cannot use templates and styles. • You cannot add audio to the menu. • Viewers may experience a slow reaction time while navigating around the buttons on DVD players. Because layered menus use separate layers for each button state, DVD Studio Pro performs some behind-the-scenes processing, creating separate hidden menus for each possible state of the menu. In the above example with 12 buttons, 25 versions of the menu would need to be created (one with all buttons in their normal state, and one for each button in its selected and activated states). These menus are not visible as separate elements within your project, but are displayed when you use the arrow buttons on the DVD player’s remote control to navigate to a button and activate it. Due to the number of menus that are created using the layered method, some DVD players may have a slight delay in displaying the menus as viewers navigate around the buttons, which may confuse impatient viewers. See Creating Menus Using the Layered Method for details on creating layered menus. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 221 Working with 16:9 Menus When using 16:9 menus in your project, you need to be aware of several things. How the Menu Will Be Displayed on a 4:3 Monitor Be sure to choose the proper display mode in the Menu tab of the Menu Inspector. Also, a default Display Mode setting in DVD Studio Pro Preferences sets all new menus, tracks, and slideshows to the proper display mode. The options include 4:3, 16:9 Pan-Scan, 16:9 Letterbox, and 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox. If you select Pan-Scan, be aware that areas at the left and right edges of the menu will not be visible. See Choosing an Aspect Ratio for more information on this and other aspect ratio issues. Fewer Buttons Can Be Used When you set a menu’s display mode to 16:9 Pan-Scan or 16:9 Letterbox, you reduce the total number of buttons you can have on the menu. For SD projects, the total number of buttons drops from 36 to 18; for HD projects, the total drops from 48 to 24. This is because DVD Studio Pro must create two menu overlays, one for each aspect ratio, and automatically select the one to use based on the DVD player’s aspect ratio setting. When you set a menu’s display mode to 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox, the total number of buttons you can have on a menu drops to 12 for SD projects, and 16 for HD projects, because three menu overlays must be created. 16:9 Graphics Must Be Anamorphic in SD Projects All graphics for 16:9 menus in SD projects must be anamorphic (horizontally compressed to fit the 4:3 aspect ratio). See What Exactly Is a 16:9 Asset? for details on creating graphics for 16:9 menus. Creating Menus for HD Projects Creating menus for HD projects is not much different from creating menus for SD projects. The most common issue is understanding how the HD-based DVD menus handle background video assets with respect to their resolutions. There is a Resolution setting in the General pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences that defines the default resolution of all new menus (and tracks and slideshows) you create. However, the actual resolution of a menu is usually defined by the background video asset you assign to it. For example, if your default resolution as defined by the preferences setting is 1280 x 720p and you create a new menu, its resolution is 1280 x 720p. If you set the menu’s background video to a 1920 x 1080i asset, the menu’s resolution automatically changes to match it. 222 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus If you set a menu’s background asset to something that is non-standard, for example, a still that is 800 x 600, the menu’s resolution changes to the highest resolution that is smaller than the non-standard size (in this example, full D1, which is 720 x 480 for NTSC or 720 x 576 for PAL), and the image is scaled to fit. If you set a menu’s background to something that is smaller than full D1, it is scaled up to the full D1 size. Note: As with SD-based DVD menus, when a menu’s background asset does not match the 4:3 or 16:9 display mode, the empty areas are filled with the menu background color, as defined in the Menu pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. You must also be aware that the limit on the number of buttons your menu can have is different than with SD-based DVD menus. Menus using the 4:3 aspect ratio can have up to 48 buttons. Menus using the 16:9 Pan-Scan or 16:9 Letterbox modes can have up to 24 buttons. Menus using the 6:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox modes can have up to 16 buttons. Adding Intro and Transition Clips to Menus You can make the DVD viewing experience more polished by adding short video clips that play at the beginning of a menu (intro clips) and when buttons are pressed (transition clips). There are several approaches you can take to add these clips to your project. See Adding Intro and Transition Clips to Menus for more information. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 223 About the Menu Editor The Menu Editor is contained in the Menu tab. It displays the menu graphics in either a 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio (depending on what is set in the Menu tab in the Menu Inspector). There are also several buttons and pop-up menus that let you select what appears in the editor and provide tools that help with the menu creation process. Menu Editor tools Drag the Menu Editor rulers to create guides. Click this to hide and show the Menu Editor tools. Choose a menu to configure. Open this pop-up menu to choose a menu language. Open to configure additional Menu Editor settings. The Menu Editor scales the menu to fit within its quadrant. As you make the quadrant larger, the menu also increases up to the point that it reaches full size, when it stops growing and the extra area around it is filled with gray. When working with the larger HD resolutions, however, you may find it difficult to increase the quadrant’s size enough to show the menu at full size. One option is to tear off the Menu tab into its own window, which you can then resize without affecting the rest of the DVD Studio Pro interface. See Tearing Off a Tab into Its Own Window for more information. Using the Menu Rulers The left and top sides of the Menu Editor can display rulers. When you click within the Menu Editor, marks on the ruler show the pointer’s position. The Alignment pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains configuration settings for the ruler. These settings include whether the rulers are shown and the units they use (pixels, percentage, and so on). See Alignment Preferences for details on setting the ruler’s preferences. To show or hide the menu rulers Do one of the following: μ Select the relevant setting in the Alignment pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. 224 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus μ Press Command-R. Using Menu Guides You can create horizontal and vertical guides to assist you while creating your menu. The guides are useful when lining up buttons or text on a menu. You can create as many guides as you need, reposition them, and remove them. The guides include a snapping feature that makes it easy to position menu items. The Alignment pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains configuration settings for the guides. These settings include whether the guides are shown and their color. See Alignment Preferences for details on setting the guide’s preferences. To create a guide μ Place the pointer over the top or left ruler, then drag into the Menu Editor. Note: The rulers must be visible before you can add guides to the Menu Editor. To reposition a guide μ Drag the guide where you want it. To hide or show previously created guides Do one of the following: μ Click the Guides button on the Menu Editor. Shows and hides the menu guides. μ Press Command-Semicolon (;). To temporarily disable snapping to the guides while moving an item μ Press Command while dragging the item. This also disables the dynamic guides discussed in the next section, Using Dynamic Guides. To remove a guide μ Drag the guide back to the ruler. Note: Like button outlines, guides are not included when you build your project, so it is not necessary for you to remove them when you are done. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 225 Using Dynamic Guides In addition to the menu guides, there are also dynamic guides that automatically appear as you drag menu objects. Dynamic guides make it easy to align menu objects with each other and with the menu’s center. As you move a menu object around, lines appear and the object snaps into position whenever one of its edges or its center is in alignment with another object’s edge or center or the menu’s center. This tool is especially useful when you are creating duplicates of an existing button (by Option-dragging it) and want them all to line up with each other. Only the guide preference’s color setting applies to dynamic guides—they do not disappear when you hide the menu guides. To temporarily hide the dynamic guides and disable their snapping action μ Hold down the Command key while you drag the menu object. Using the Align Objects Feature The align objects feature allows you to select a group of objects and apply an alignment mode to them. For example, you could select three buttons and set them so that their left edges align. The usual way of dragging to select a group of items will not work—you will end up creating a new button. To select multiple menu items Do one of the following: μ To individually select items, hold down the Shift key and click them. μ To select a group of items by dragging, press the Command key while dragging over them. μ To select all items in the Menu Editor, press Command-A. 226 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus μ To deselect all items, press Command-Shift-A. Once you have the objects selected, you can align them. To use the align objects feature 1 Select the group of objects to align. Note: The last object you select is the reference object that the others align to. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Arrange > Align Objects, then choose the alignment to use (Top, Center, Bottom, Left, Middle, or Right). • Control-click one of the selected objects, then choose the alignment to use (Top, Center, Bottom, Left, Middle, or Right) from Align Objects in the shortcut menu. The objects move to the new alignment. If you get a surprising result, press Command-Z to undo the alignment and verify that you had the right buttons selected and that you selected the reference button last. Using the Distribute Objects Feature The distribute objects feature allows you to select a group of objects and evenly space them between each other. To use the distribute objects feature 1 Select the group of objects to distribute. See Using the Align Objects Feature for details on how to do this. Note: The order that you select the objects does not matter. The objects are distributed between the two outermost objects. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Arrange > Distribute Objects, then choose the distribution method to use (Horizontally or Vertically). • Control-click one of the selected objects, then choose the distribution method to use (Horizontally or Vertically) from Distribute Objects in the shortcut menu. Menu Editor Pop-Up Menus and Tools The Menu Editor tools let you customize the editor to your needs. To show or hide the Menu Editor tools μ Click the dots at the bottom of the Menu Editor. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 227 Menu Editor Pop-Up Menus The top of the Menu Editor contains several pop-up menus. • View: Choose the menu you want to open in the Menu Editor from this pop-up menu. This is an alternative to selecting the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab. • Language selection: Choose a language to configure for this menu from the pop-up menu next to the View pop-up menu. See Using Languages with Menus for more information. • Settings: Contains a variety of settings that control what you see in the Menu Editor. • Auto Assign Buttons Now and Auto Assign Buttons Continuously: You can choose to have DVD Studio Pro automatically assign button navigation settings to the current menu configuration or continuously. See Configuring Button Navigation for more information. • Display Background, Display Overlay, and Display Composite: You can choose to show the background or overlay by itself or as a composite image. You can also press Q to step through these options. • Title Safe Area and Action Safe Area: These settings turn on a shaded area around the outside edge of the menu, indicating portions of the menu that may not be viewable on most consumer monitors. Placing buttons or text in these shaded areas can be risky and should be avoided. There are two safe areas: title and action. The title safe area is more constricted, and should be the boundary for items that must be seen by the viewer. All text and buttons should be within this area. The action safe area is closer to the menu edges, and is considered a boundary for items that you would like the viewer to see but are not required. You can also press Command-E to show or hide the title safe area, and Command-Option-E to show or hide the action safe area. • Square Pixels and Rectangle Pixels: You can choose to switch between viewing the menu images with square pixels or scaled to the video aspect ratio (either 4:3 or 16:9). See Understanding Pixel Differences in Graphics and Video for more information. You can also press P to toggle the pixel display type. • Show Single Field: Optimizes playback when using field-based video sources. This is especially important with video that has fast motion, because it reduces the motion artifacts. However, selecting Show Single Field with frame-based video sources results in reduced resolution (edges may appear jagged). 228 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus Menu Editor Tools The lower part of the Menu Editor contains a variety of buttons. • Arrange controls: These buttons allow you to change the priority of the selected item, letting you control which items have a higher priority by bringing them forward, or by sending lower-priority items to the back. See About Button Numbers for more information. Brings the item to the front, making it the highest priority. Sends the item’s priority one step back. Sends the item to the back, making it the lowest priority. Moves the item’s priority one step up. • Add Submenu, Add Slideshow, and Add Track buttons: These buttons allow you to create a new element in your project and add a button to the current menu that connects to them. You can also press Command-Option-Y to create a submenu, Command-Option-K to create a slideshow, and Command-Option-T to create a new track. Creates an empty slideshow. Creates an empty track. Creates a submenu that uses this menu’s template. The new button added to the menu uses the menu’s default button style. See Setting Default Styles for more information. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 229 • Button state selections: These buttons allow you to see the selected button in any of the three states (normal, selected, or activated). You can also press W to step through these options. Shows the selected state. Shows the activated state. Shows the normal state. • Button Outlines button: You can turn on button outlines, which show each button’s active area box and the button name. When your menu has buttons without an asset or shape assigned, turning off button outlines can make them disappear, which can be confusing if you later forget they are there and add them again. • Guides button: You can show or hide the menu guides created when you drag from the rulers into the Menu Editor. This does not affect the dynamic guides that appear when you drag items in the menu. See Using Menu Guides for more information. See Alignment Preferences for details on setting the menu guide preferences. You can also press Command-Semicolon (;) to show or hide these guides. Shows the menu guides. Shows the button outlines. • Motion button: Applies to standard menus only. Use this button to start or stop playback of video and audio assets assigned to the menu. This is useful for motion menus and still menus that include audio, providing a preview of how the motion elements appear. You can also press the Space bar or Command-J to turn the motion on and off. Note: The Motion button in DVD Studio Pro does not work the same way as the similar button in iDVD. In DVD Studio Pro, the Motion button does not have to be active to create a motion menu. It does not affect how the menu will appear when you finish the project and build the title. 230 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus Starting and Working with a Menu By default, all projects have an empty standard menu for you to start with. You can also add additional menus as needed. Creating a New Menu The following describes how to add a new standard or layered menu to your project. To add a standard menu Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Add to Project > Menu (or press Command-Y). μ Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Menu from the submenu. μ Click Add Menu in the toolbar. A new standard menu is added to the project, with the name “Menu _,” where “_” is the number of that menu. You can rename menus, making it easier to locate specific ones. To add a layered menu Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Add to Project > Layered Menu (or press Command-Shift-Y). μ Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Layered Menu from the submenu. μ Click Add Layered Menu in the toolbar. A new layered menu is added to the project, with the name “Menu _,” where “_” is the number of that menu. You can rename menus, making it easier to locate specific ones. You can also create a new standard submenu from an existing menu (standard or layered) by clicking the Add Submenu button in the Menu Editor. Creates an empty slideshow. Creates an empty track. Creates a submenu that uses this menu’s template. This creates a new menu based on the original menu, using its background, buttons, and other settings. This also adds a new button to the existing menu that is linked to the new submenu. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 231 Opening a Menu To work with a menu, you need to open the Menu Editor for that menu. You can do so from the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or within the Menu Editor. To open a menu from the Outline tab 1 Click the Outline tab. 2 Click the disclosure triangle next to Menus to display a list of current menus (if they are not already visible). 3 Select a menu by clicking its name. The menu appears in the Menu Editor, and the Inspector switches to show the menu’s settings. If the Menu Editor is not visible, you can double-click the menu’s name in the Outline tab to make it appear. To open a menu from the Graphical tab 1 Click the Graphical tab. 2 Select a menu by clicking its tile. The menu appears in the Menu Editor, and the Inspector switches to show the menu’s settings. If the Menu Editor is not visible, you can double-click the menu’s tile in the Graphical tab to make it appear. To choose a menu in the Menu Editor μ Choose the menu to open from the View pop-up menu, located along the top of the Menu Editor. The menu appears in the Menu Editor, and the Inspector switches to show the menu’s settings. Naming a Menu As you add menus to your project, you should rename them to make it easier to locate and group them. To rename a menu Do one of the following: μ In the Outline tab, select the menu, click its name, then type the new name. μ In the Graphical tab, select the menu tile, double-click its name, then type the new name. μ Select the menu in the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or the Menu Editor, then enter the new name in the Name field of the Menu Inspector. Adding Assets to a Menu There are several ways to add assets to a menu: • Drag an asset to the Menu Editor. See Dragging Assets to the Menu Editor for details. 232 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus • Apply a template or style from the Palette. See Applying a Template or Style for details. • Select the assets in the Menu Inspector. See Creating Menus Using the Standard Method or Creating Menus Using the Layered Method for details. Dragging Assets to the Menu Editor One way to add an asset to a menu is to drag the asset to the Menu Editor, and then use the Drop Palette to assign the asset a function. You can drag the asset from the Assets tab, the Palette, or from the Finder. You can also drag tracks, menus, and slideshows from the Outline or Graphical tab. When you drag an asset, the Drop Palette appears after a short delay to let you choose what function the asset will serve. For example, if you drag a still graphic, the menu may offer the options of using it as a background, an overlay, or a button. The top item in the Drop Palette is the default function. If you drag an asset or element to the Menu Editor and release it before the Drop Palette appears, the default function is applied. Viewing the Drop Palette The Drop Palette appears when you drag items to the Menu Editor. To see the Drop Palette μ Drag the asset to the Menu Editor. When it’s positioned exactly where you want it, hold the asset there while you keep the mouse button pressed. The Menu pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a setting that controls the length of the delay before the Drop Palette appears. See Menu Preferences for more information. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 233 The options in the Drop Palette depend on the type of asset you are dragging, whether you drag it to a button or an empty area of the menu, and the type of menu (standard or layered). For example, if you drag a video asset to an existing button, the Drop Palette provides the options of linking the video to the button and creating a track for it. If you drag the same asset to an empty part of the menu, the Drop Palette contains options for either using the video as the background, or adding a button at that location and linking it to the video. • If you drag an asset and you don’t see the options you expect in the Drop Palette: You may not have dragged it to the right place. Continue holding down the mouse button and drag the asset to the correct location. • If you drag to the menu but do not wait for the Drop Palette to appear: A default action is applied. • If you select an option that creates a new button on the menu: That button will use the default button style assigned to that menu. This style can determine whether or not the new button shows a thumbnail image of the asset. • If you are dragging multiple assets or elements and will be creating multiple buttons: The new buttons will be stacked together. To avoid problems with having overlapping buttons on a menu, be sure to drag them away from each other after they have been created. See Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus and Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus for a complete list of Drop Palette options and details on what they do. About Dragging Video and Audio Assets Together Several of the Drop Palette options only appear when you select and drag a video/audio asset pair. A video/audio asset pair is created when you select a video asset, and then hold down the Command key and select a companion audio asset. (There are also other ways to select an asset pair, depending on where you are dragging from.) Having Audio Automatically Follow the Video If you drag a motion video asset by itself to the Menu Editor and choose an option from the Drop Palette that supports audio, DVD Studio Pro checks to see if there is an audio asset in the same folder with the same basic name as the video asset. If the option does support audio (such as creating a track or setting a menu’s background), and an audio file is not already assigned to the target element, DVD Studio Pro can automatically add the audio asset to the element, depending on the “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Note: You can override the “Find matching audio when dragging” preferences setting by pressing the Command key after you start dragging the video asset. 234 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus If you drag a QuickTime movie, from a Finder window or the Video tab in the Palette, that contains both video and audio to the Menu Editor, it is treated as if it were a video/audio pair, with both the video and audio being added to the element. Selecting Multiple Menu Items As you create your menus, there will be times when you need to select multiple menu items, such as buttons, drop zones, or text objects, so that they can all be moved, deleted, or have an attribute applied. The usual way of dragging to select a group of items will not work—you will end up creating a new button. To select multiple menu items Do one of the following: μ To individually select items, hold down the Shift key and click them. μ To select a group of items by dragging, press the Command key while dragging over them. Any currently selected items are deselected first. Press the Command-Shift keys while dragging to keep any currently selected items selected. μ To select all items in the Menu Editor, press Command-A. μ To deselect all items, press Command-Shift-A. Copying Menu Items You are able to copy menu items, such as buttons, drop zones, and text objects, within an existing menu or from one menu to another. You can even copy multiple items at once. See Selecting Multiple Menu Items for more information. The copied items retain all attributes of their original, including assigned assets and, in the case of buttons, their target settings. The new items have a higher priority than the original items. See About Button Numbers for information on how you can modify the item priorities. There are several issues that can cause a copy operation to fail. • You are not allowed to copy items that are incompatible with their destination (such as copying a drop zone to a layered menu). • You are not allowed to copy buttons to a menu that would cause it to exceed the maximum allowed number of buttons. Menus with a 4:3 aspect ratio can have a maximum of 36 buttons. Menus with a 16:9 aspect ratio can have a maximum of 18 buttons. Copying Items by Dragging You can copy one or more items within a menu by selecting them and then dragging them to a new location. To copy one or more items within a menu by dragging 1 Select the items to be copied. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 235 2 Press the Option key, then drag the items to their new position. If multiple items are selected, they all move as a group, maintaining their relationships to each other. Using Copy, Cut, and Paste You can use the Copy and Paste commands to copy items within a menu and between menus. To copy one or more items using the Copy and Paste commands 1 Select the items to be copied. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). This copies the selected items to the Clipboard. The selected items are not affected. 3 Select the menu where you want to paste the copied items. 4 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). If no items are selected in the menu before you paste the copied items, the copied items are placed in the same locations as the originals. If an item is selected in the menu before you paste the copied items, the copied items are positioned relative to the selected item with a small offset. You can use the Paste command multiple times after using the Copy command. This makes it easy to add a button to multiple menus. To move one or more menu items using cut and paste 1 Select the items to be moved. 2 Choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). This copies the items to the Clipboard and removes the items from the current menu. 3 Select the menu where you want to paste the cut items. 4 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). This is most useful when you are moving menu items from one menu to another. Moving and Resizing Menu Items There are a number of methods you can use to move or resize your buttons, drop zones, and text objects in your menu. To move the item by dragging μ Click inside the dashed lines and drag it to the new position. To move the item by dragging in one direction only (horizontal or vertical) μ Press the Shift key, then drag the item. 236 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus To move the item by dragging with snapping and the dynamic guides temporarily disabled μ Press Command, then drag the item. To move the item using the arrow keys Do one of the following: μ Select the item and press the arrow keys to move it one pixel at a time. μ Press Shift and the arrow keys to move it 10 pixels at a time. μ Press Shift-Option and the arrow keys to move it 20 pixels at a time. To move a button or drop zone μ Use the Coordinates & Size area in the Advanced tab in the Button Inspector or in the Drop Zone Inspector to precisely set a button’s or drop zone’s size and position. To move an item’s edge μ Click the resize handle at the center of the edge and drag it to the new position. This changes the item’s size. To move an item’s corner (which moves two edges at once) μ Click the resize handle at the corner and drag it to the new position. This also changes the item’s size. To change a button’s or drop zone’s size while maintaining the button’s aspect ratio μ Shift-drag an edge or corner. See Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones for more information. To change a button’s or drop zone’s size while keeping the button centered at its current location μ Click an edge or corner, start dragging, then press the Option key. To delete an item μ Select it (resize handles appear on its dashed line), then press the Delete key. Verifying Your Menus As you create your menus, you will want to verify several aspects of them: • Button connections: Do the buttons connect to the correct project elements? • Button navigation: As you navigate around the menu’s buttons using the arrow keys, does the button selection follow a logical path? • Menu aspect ratios and languages: Does the menu perform correctly with different displays and DVD player languages? Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 237 Verifying Button Connections Each button’s Target setting (set in the Button Inspector) states its connection. Sometimes, however, the names of the various project elements can make it easy to choose a target that is not the one intended. For this reason, it’s important to verify the connections are correct. There are two ways you can do this: • Double-clicking the button in the Menu Editor: If you double-click a button that is connected to a different menu, the Menu Editor automatically switches to show that menu. If you double-click a button connected to a track, story, or slideshow, the appropriate editor opens to that element and the Viewer prepares to play it (all you need to do is click its play button). • Simulating the menu: You can simulate the menu by either Control-clicking in the Menu Editor, then choosing Simulate from the shortcut menu, or Control-clicking the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choosing Simulate from the shortcut menu. This forces the Simulator to start at this menu instead of the First Play connection, as it does when started from the toolbar. Verifying Button Navigation To verify button navigation, you need to use the Simulator. Either Control-click in the Menu Editor, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu, or Control-click the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu. You can now use the Simulator’s arrow keys to verify the navigation and highlight settings. Verifying Menu Aspect Ratios and Languages When you create menus using the 16:9 aspect ratio or multiple languages, you can use the Simulator to verify the menu configurations. In DVD Studio Pro Preferences, you can configure the Simulator to mimic a 16:9, 4:3 letterbox, or 4:3 pan-scan display. You can also configure the default language settings of the Simulator. Once you have configured the Simulator preferences, Control-click the menu’s name in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu. About Chapter Index Menus When you drag a video asset, track, or slideshow to the Menu Editor, you are given the option of creating a chapter index menu. A chapter index menu is created automatically and has buttons linked to the asset’s and track’s markers or the slides in a slideshow. How the chapter index menu is created depends on the menu already in the Menu Editor: • If the menu does not contain any buttons, text objects, or drop zones: That menu becomes the first chapter index menu (with additional chapter index menus added if more buttons are needed). • If the menu contains one or more buttons (whether you drag to them or not): A new menu is created to become the first chapter index menu (with additional chapter index menus added if more buttons are needed). 238 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus When you create a chapter index menu, a Choose Template or Layout Style dialog appears. You use this dialog to select a template or layout style to provide the template for what the menu will look like. The template or layout style you select defines: • How many buttons are on a menu • Where the buttons are placed • What shape the buttons use • The navigation between the buttons • Whether the marker names are used as button text • Whether the marker’s video is used as a button asset Templates can also define the menu background, assign an audio asset to the menu, and add text objects, such as a title. If there are more markers or slides than buttons on the template or layout style you select, additional chapter index menus are created. Templates and layout styles can also include buttons that do not get markers assigned to them. These are special-purpose buttons that you can use to provide navigation between the chapter index menu and other menus in your project. Once the chapter index menu (or menus) are created, you need to configure the navigation between each of them and the other menus in your project. For example, you would need to provide a way to access the main menu from each chapter index menu, as well as access to the chapter index menus from the main menu. DVD Studio Pro can automatically configure the navigation if you use the correct special-purpose buttons. See Applying Templates or Layout Styles to a Menu with Buttons for information on how button attributes affect the creation of chapter index menus. Additionally, you can modify any aspect of the chapter index menu that the template or layout style you chose defined. For example, you can move the buttons around, change their shapes, and add additional ones. Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus 239 DVD Studio Pro includes several templates and layout styles you can choose from, and you can also create some of your own. See Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus to learn more about templates and styles. About the First Marker Button in a Chapter Index Menu DVD Studio Pro automatically adds the first marker to all tracks. It is named “Start” when the track is created by dragging a video asset to the Menu Editor. (When the asset is dragged to the Track Editor, the name is based on the marker naming settings in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences.) When you create a chapter index menu, the first button linked to a marker is linked to the “Start” marker set by DVD Studio Pro. Because this marker is at the start of the track, pressing this button plays the track from its beginning. If the marker names appear on your chapter index menu’s buttons, you may want to edit this button’s text to better describe its function. 240 Chapter 12 Introduction to Creating Menus Standard menus provide the most flexibility when you create menus. You can choose to use static or full-motion backgrounds, audio, text objects, and drop zones. This chapter covers the following: • About Standard Menus (p. 242) • Choosing the Menu’s Background (p. 243) • Choosing the Menu’s Overlay (p. 246) • Understanding Color Mapping (p. 248) • Configuring the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus (p. 256) • Adding Buttons to Your Menu (p. 265) • Configuring Button Navigation (p. 281) • Adding Drop Zones to Your Menu (p. 285) • Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones (p. 288) • Adding Text Objects to a Menu (p. 288) • Adding Audio to a Menu (p. 291) • Configuring the Menu’s Drop Shadow Settings (p. 292) • Configuring Motion Menu Settings (p. 293) • Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus (p. 296) • Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Assets (p. 296) • Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Project Elements (p. 304) • Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Templates and Styles (p. 309) 241 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 13 About Standard Menus When creating a menu using the standard method, you have a wide variety of options: • Choosing the background: You need to assign an asset as the menu background. This can be a still graphic or a full-motion video image. It can contain art and text that represents the buttons, or it can be plain, relying on an overlay, shapes, drop zones, and the Menu Editor’s text capability to provide background and button art. • Choosing the overlay: Although an overlay graphic is not required for a menu, you typically use one to provide art for selected and activated button states, and in some cases, for the normal state as well. If you do not choose an overlay, DVD Studio Pro generates a full-screen white frame to be used in its place. • Using shapes: You can use shapes either in place of the overlay, or in conjunction with it. • Adding drop zones: You can add graphic elements to your background by creating drop zones and assigning assets to them. • Adding text: You can type text onto the background. This text can be used to create button labels, add titles to the menu, or provide viewing instructions. • Adding drop shadows: You can configure the menu’s drop shadow settings and apply them to the menu’s shapes, drop zones, and text. • Configuring motion settings: In addition to the menu’s background, you can use motion video in the shapes and drop zones. You choose whether the video loops once it reaches the end. • Adding audio: You can assign one or more audio assets to the menu. You can also simplify the standard method by using the templates and styles feature and choosing from the provided elements or adding your own. See Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus for more information. 242 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method About Menu Rendering Depending on how you create your standard menus, they may have to be rendered into an MPEG-2 video asset when you build your project. The menu must be rendered if it uses any of the following: • Assets assigned to a button • Shapes • Drop zones • Text objects • SIF (MPEG-1 or MPEG-2), 1/2 D1, or cropped D1 video Standard menus that only use a background (whether still or video), an overlay, and one or more audio files do not get rendered. Whether the menu gets rendered or not can be important for a couple of reasons: • The time it takes: Rendering menus is a process that composites all of the menu elements, one frame at a time, and creates an MPEG-2 file out of these composited frames. Depending on your system and the length of your menus, this can take a significant amount of time to process. See Menu Preferences for more information. • Extra processing can affect video: If your menu background video must be rendered, the extra processing has the potential to change the video a small amount. Anytime you decode compressed video, process it (such as by compositing shapes or text over it), then recompress it, you can expect some subtle changes to the background video. In those cases where you have meticulously encoded your background video before assigning it to a menu, this extra processing could noticeably change the video. When SD menus are rendered, they are encoded at 7 Mbps using the one-pass VBR method. HD menus are rendered at 21 Mbps using the one-pass VBR method. Choosing the Menu’s Background The first step in creating a menu is to choose its background. The menu background can be a still image or a video clip. Still Images for Backgrounds You can use a wide variety of graphic formats as still backgrounds in DVD Studio Pro. See Using Your Graphics Program for a list of supported formats. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 243 For best quality, be sure your graphic: • Matches the menu’s resolution and aspect ratio (4:3 or 16:9): If you are creating 16:9 menus in SD projects, or with the 720 x 480p, 720 x 576p, or 1440 x 1080i HD resolutions in HD projects, be sure the graphic is anamorphic. See Creating Graphics to Use in Menus and Choosing an Aspect Ratio for details. • Conforms to the broadcast video color space: Graphics that look stunning in your graphics program can look very different when viewed on DVD. Most graphics applications let you scale colors to NTSC or PAL color space. DVD Studio Pro automatically scales the size of the background graphic to fit the frame size if necessary. This can result in the menu’s background color being visible along some edges. Note: The color of an empty menu’s background can be set in the Menu pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. By default this color is set to dark gray. Video Clips for Backgrounds Assigning a video clip as a menu’s background creates a motion menu. The video can be an animation or live action. Often the video is actually a still background with several small moving images representing scenes you can jump to. See Creating Video for Motion Menus for more information on creating the video. You can choose what happens when a menu’s video clip reaches its end: • It can simply stop, displaying a still image of the last frame. • It can loop, jumping from the end back to a point in the video clip that you choose. It is common for a menu’s video clip to have a relatively complicated introduction—perhaps with the buttons flying in and a piece of dialogue providing the audio—and then resolve into a mostly still graphic, with lights flickering or objects moving in a repetitive way. This kind of design makes it easier to create a loop that jumps from the end back to the loop point as smoothly as possible. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for more information on setting looping options. Assigning a Background to a Menu There are several ways to assign a background to a menu. Use the method that you feel most comfortable with. In all cases, these methods also replace an existing background. Assigning a Menu Background Using the Inspector You can assign a menu background using the Inspector. With this method, you can only choose from assets already imported into DVD Studio Pro. To assign a menu background using the Inspector 1 Select the menu and make sure the Menu Inspector displays the menu properties. 244 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 2 Choose a background from the Background pop-up menu. The selected file appears as the menu background. Assigning a Menu Background by Dragging You can assign a background to a menu by dragging the asset from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. To assign a menu background by dragging it to the Menu Editor 1 Select the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab or choose it from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu to display it in the Menu Editor. 2 Locate the background file you want to use in the Assets tab, Palette, or Finder window. 3 Drag the asset to an empty part of the Menu Editor and pause until the Drop Palette appears. 4 Choose Set Background from the Drop Palette. The background appears in the Menu Editor. To assign a menu background by dragging it to the Outline or Graphical tab 1 Select the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab or choose it from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu to display it in the Menu Editor. 2 Locate the background file you want to use in the Assets tab, Palette, or Finder window. 3 Assign the background file to the menu by dragging it to the menu’s name in the Outline tab or the menu’s tile in the Graphical tab. A box appears around the name or tile to let you know the menu will receive the background file. The background appears in the Menu Editor when you release the mouse button. Choosing a Menu’s Background from a Layered Photoshop File You can choose a layer (or several) from an Adobe Photoshop format (PSD) file to use as the menu background. One PSD file can supply backgrounds and overlays for several menus. To choose a menu background from a PSD file 1 Either create a new menu or select an existing one. 2 Click the Menu tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Assign the PSD as the menu’s background by doing one of the following: • Choose it from the Background Asset pop-up menu in the Menu Inspector. • Drag it to the Menu Editor and choose Set Background from the Drop Palette. The PSD file’s layer names appear in the Background area of the General tab. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 245 4 Select the checkboxes next to the layers that make up the background. Select these checkboxes to make the layers part of the background. Choosing the Menu’s Overlay The second step in creating a menu is to choose its overlay (if you are using one). The overlay is a graphic that defines what kind of highlight appears when the viewer selects each button using the DVD player’s remote control, and where each button’s highlights occur on the menu. The highlight can be an outline of the button, an underline, or even text. Note: If you intend to use shapes to create your menu buttons, you do not need to choose an overlay file. You can use an overlay file and shapes in the same menu. There are two types of overlays you can use when creating your menus: • Simple overlay graphics: These have a single highlight color. Simple overlays use white where they will be transparent, and black to define the highlight areas. • Advanced overlay graphics: These can have up to four colors or shades of gray, depending on the mapping type you intend to use. Using advanced overlays, you have multiple highlight colors appear when selecting or activating buttons. A single overlay graphic provides the highlights for all buttons. When creating your buttons, you must single out each button’s active area to ensure that when the viewer selects a button, only its part of the overlay graphic is highlighted. The overlay typically provides the art only for each button’s selected and activated states. It can also provide the art for the normal state, but this state is most often incorporated into the background, allowing for very nice-looking, 24-bit resolution buttons. An advanced overlay’s four-color limit, and especially a simple overlay’s one-color limit, greatly restrict the visual quality of normal-state buttons. The four colors used in an advanced overlay depend on the mapping type used for the overlay: • Chroma: The overlay must use the colors black, red, blue, and white, with white typically being the background color. • Grayscale: The overlay must use the colors black, dark gray, light gray, and white. White is usually used as the background color. 246 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method The Mapping Type setting in the Menu Inspector’s Colors tab indicates the type of overlay you are using. If colors other than those specified are present in the overlay, they are mapped to their closest equivalents, which can produce surprising results. Use care to include only the specified colors when creating your overlays. See Creating Overlays for details on creating overlay graphics, including the color values used by the chroma and grayscale mapping types. It is important to understand that the actual colors used in the overlay, whether you use the chroma or grayscale method, are not what appear as the highlights in the menu. They only identify where the actual highlight colors should appear. DVD Studio Pro uses color mapping to set the highlight colors. See Understanding Color Mapping to learn more about color mapping. Assigning a Menu Overlay Using the Inspector You can assign a menu overlay using the Inspector. With this method, you can only choose from assets already imported into DVD Studio Pro. To assign a menu overlay using the Inspector 1 Select the menu and make sure the Menu Inspector displays the menu properties. 2 Click the General tab in the Menu Inspector (if it’s not already visible). 3 Choose an overlay from the Overlay File pop-up menu. The selected file is assigned as the menu overlay. Depending on other menu settings, you may not see any changes in the Menu Editor. Assigning a Menu Overlay by Dragging You can assign an overlay to a menu by dragging it from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. To assign a menu overlay by dragging it to the Menu Editor 1 Select the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab or choose it from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu to display it in the Menu Editor. 2 Locate the overlay file you want to use in the Assets tab, Palette, or Finder window. 3 Drag the asset to an empty part of the Menu Editor and pause until the Drop Palette appears. 4 Choose Set Overlay from the Drop Palette. The selected file is assigned as the menu overlay. Depending on other menu settings, you may not see any changes in the Menu Editor. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 247 Choosing a Menu Overlay from a Layered Photoshop File You can choose a layer from an Adobe Photoshop format (PSD) file to use as the menu overlay. One PSD file can supply backgrounds and overlays for several menus. To choose a menu overlay from a PSD file 1 Either create a new menu or select an existing one. 2 Click the General tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Assign the PSD asset as the menu’s overlay by doing one of the following: • Choose it from the Overlay File pop-up menu in the Menu Inspector. • Drag it to the Menu Editor and choose Set Overlay from the Drop Palette. 4 Choose the layer to use as the overlay from the Overlay Layer pop-up menu. Choose the overlay file. Choose the overlay layer. Understanding Color Mapping Color mapping is the process of assigning highlight colors with transparency values to the colors used in an overlay. The colors you assign can be different for each of the three button states (normal, selected, and activated). You can use two types of overlays: a simple one that uses a single overlay color and an advanced one that uses up to four overlay colors. For many menus, a simple overlay will provide what you need with minimal complexity. You may find, however, that an advanced overlay provides greater flexibility when you are creating complicated menus. Differences Between Simple and Advanced Overlays The simple and advanced overlays differ primarily in how they use the overlay file. • For simple overlays: The color white in the overlay graphic is set to be transparent—this cannot be changed. The only other color allowed is black. If you add a graphic element that has a soft glow or has been anti-aliased, the areas that are not black or white appear with additional highlight colors (controlled by the advanced overlay color mapping settings). You get to choose a highlight color and its transparency for each of the three button states (normal, selected, and advanced). See Creating Simple Overlays for more information. • For advanced overlays: You can use up to four colors when creating your overlay graphic. When setting up the color mapping, you assign a highlight color and transparency to each of the four overlay colors, for each of the three button states. This allows you to create much more varied looks to the menu. For example, you do not need to make all highlight colors for a button the same color. Using an advanced overlay can also allow you to take advantage of anti-aliased edges. 248 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Both simple and advanced overlays use the same color mapping palette and color mapping sets. When you map a color in a simple overlay, you are also mapping the color to the black overlay color in the advanced overlay. You can use simple overlay mapping for some buttons and advanced overlay mapping for other buttons on the same menu. Color Mapping Palette The DVD specification allows a single 16-color palette to be assigned to each menu. This palette provides the colors used by the overlay to create the three button states. You can set each of the 16 colors and save the palette as the default palette for DVD Studio Pro. You can also create a different palette for each menu. Note: Avoid choosing highly saturated colors. All colors used in your project must conform to broadcast limits. If necessary, the colors are restricted during playback and you may find the colors you configured do not match those used in the title. Setting the Colors in the Color Palette You set each of the 16 colors in the palette independently. To set a palette color 1 Select the menu and make sure the Menu Inspector displays the menu properties. 2 Click the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Click Edit Palette at the bottom of the Colors tab. The Color Palette window appears. 4 Select the color you want to change. The Colors window appears. 5 Select the color-choosing method you want to use, then choose the color. See Methods for Choosing Colors for information on the different methods. 6 As you choose your color, the color in the palette also changes. To change another color in the palette, select it in the Color Palette and repeat the above process. Click the close button once you have set the colors in the Color Palette. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 249 In the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector, clicking the Save as Default button makes this set of colors the DVD Studio Pro default palette, and it will be used in all menus and projects created from now on (until it is changed again). Clicking Restore to Default overrides any changes you have made to this palette and sets it to match the default palette. Note: Although they are identical in how they appear and work, the Color Palette used for subtitles is independent of the one used for menus. Methods for Choosing Colors DVD Studio Pro uses the standard Mac OS X Colors window. The window provides a variety of methods for choosing your colors, including a magnifying glass for grabbing colors from anywhere on your system’s display. See Mac Help for information on using the Colors window. Color Mapping Sets While the DVD specification limits you to 4 colors in a menu overlay and 16 colors in a menu’s palette, you can use those colors in different ways on each button on a menu. DVD Studio Pro lets you choose from three color mapping sets for each button. Each set uses the same Color Palette, but allows you to assign different colors and transparencies to each overlay color for the selected and activated states of the buttons. There are two reasons you might want to do this: • To include buttons with different highlight colors on the same menu • To get around problems with overlapping buttons Both the Menu and Button Inspectors have tabs with color mapping settings. The settings you make in the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector affect all buttons that you have created and will create for that menu. All buttons use color mapping set 1 when first created. Once a button has been created, its properties appear in the Button Inspector. You can select a different color mapping set (2 or 3) for this button in the Style tab. You can also change the color mapping settings (for example, picking a different color for the selected state of overlay color 2) in the Colors tab. However, this affects all buttons that use that setting, not just the current button. 250 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method The illustration below shows a menu with six buttons. The menu uses the three color mapping sets to group buttons with similar functions. Color map set 1 Color map set 1 Color map set 1 Color map set 1 Credits OK! Bonus OK! Color map set 2 Color map set 3 Play Movie Select Scene Trailers Cast Bios OK! OK! OK! OK! Using Simple Overlay Color Mapping Simple overlays have one color setting for each button state (normal, selected, and activated). All white areas of the overlay graphic are automatically set to be transparent—all black areas become a highlight area. You can use palettes and color mapping sets with a simple overlay. The following steps show you how to set up color mapping for a menu when using a simple overlay. Once you start creating buttons (described in Adding Buttons to Your Menu), you will be able to select the color mapping sets for them. To set up color mapping for a menu using a simple overlay 1 Select a menu that has a background and overlay assigned. The Menu Inspector appears. 2 Click the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Select Simple next to Overlay Colors. 4 In the Menu Editor, choose Display Composite from the Settings pop-up menu to see the normal color settings take effect as you set them. (You will not see the selected and activated settings take effect until you start creating buttons.) 5 Set the color and opacity settings for the normal selection state. • To choose the color: Open the Color pop-up menu and choose a color from the 16-color palette that appears. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 251 • To set the opacity: Either enter a new value in the fields to the right of the Opacity slider, or drag the sliders. The values range from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). Select Simple or Advanced, depending on the overlay you are using. Select the color mapping set to configure. Set the highlight’s opacity. Choose a color for each button state. Set the normal color settings based on whether the background includes the normal button graphics. • If the normal button graphics are included in the background: Set the opacity for the Normal color to 0 (completely transparent). • If the normal graphics are not included in the background: Set the opacity and select the color so that the buttons appear as intended. 6 Select Selected and Activated under Selection States and set the highlight color settings for the selected and activated states. You will not see any of these settings take effect until you start creating buttons. You can configure the settings for all three of the color mapping sets by selecting their buttons (1, 2, and 3). Note: If you set the Normal opacity to 15 and see other colors around the edges of items in the overlay graphic, the graphic has anti-aliased edges. To prevent the extra colors from appearing, you should either correct the overlay graphic or use the advanced overlay method. Using Advanced Overlay Color Mapping Using an advanced overlay, you can map highlight colors to up to four overlay colors. You choose one of two mapping types for the overlay graphic (chroma or grayscale), based on how you created the overlay graphic. See Creating Overlays for details. 252 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Because advanced overlays can have up to four colors, you’re more likely to use them to create the normal button states (in addition to the selected and activated states) than you would be with a simple overlay. The following sections describe strategies you can use for each button state. Normal State Normal settings determine what a button looks like when not selected or activated. They apply to the entire overlay graphic, not just the areas identified by the button active areas. • If the normal state of the button is part of the background (the overlay does not provide button graphics): You generally set the opacity for each of the overlay colors to 0, making them invisible (and making the highlight colors mapped to them unimportant). • If the normal state of the button is not part of the background (the overlay provides the button graphics): You need to assign a color and opacity for each overlay color for the normal state. Selected State To avoid viewer confusion, it is important to clearly show that a button has been selected. The way you do this depends on whether the normal state of the button is part of the background. • If the normal state of the button is part of the background: The overlay typically provides a highlight by adding something to the existing button, such as an outline or a small graphic (for example, a checkmark, logo, or some text). • If the normal state of the button is not part of the background: You can change the colors and transparency of the overlay colors used for the normal state button. For example, you could have one of the overlay colors be transparent in the normal state and appear as an additional graphic in the selected state. Activated State The activated state, like the selected state, must appear clearly to the user. However, the activated state generally appears for only a short time—the amount of time it takes the DVD to process the button’s action. The following is an example of an advanced overlay, showing only one button and using the grayscale mode. Play Movie OK! Light gray checkmark Dark gray name Black “OK!” White background Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 253 This overlay uses a white background, main text that is dark gray, a light gray checkmark, and a black “OK!” Using color mapping, you can control how each of these elements appears in each of the three states. Overlay color Normal state Selected state Activated state Black Transparent Transparent Yellow, opaque Dark gray Yellow, opaque Yellow, opaque Brown, opaque Light gray Transparent Green, opaque Transparent White Transparent Transparent Transparent In the above example, for the normal state only the main text (using the dark gray overlay color settings) is visible, with its color set to yellow. When the button is selected, a green checkmark (using the light gray overlay color settings) appears. When activated, the checkmark disappears, the text turns brown, and a yellow “OK!” (using the black overlay color settings) appears. Setting Up a Menu’s Color Mapping Using an Advanced Overlay The following steps show you how to set up color mapping for a menu when using an advanced overlay. Once you start creating buttons (described in Adding Overlay-Based Buttons), you will be able to select the color mapping sets for them separately. To set up color mapping for a menu using an advanced overlay 1 Select a menu that has a background and overlay assigned. The Menu Inspector appears. 2 Click the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Select Advanced next to Overlay Colors. 4 Set the Mapping Type to either Chroma or Grayscale, depending on how the overlay was created. 5 Select Normal under the Selection State. 6 In the Menu Editor, choose Display Composite from the Settings pop-up menu to see the normal color settings take effect as you set them. (You will not see the selected and activated settings take effect until you start creating buttons.) 7 Set the color and opacity settings for the normal selection state. • To choose the color: Open the Color pop-up menu and choose a color from the 16-color palette that appears. • To set the opacity: Either enter a new value in the fields to the right of the Opacity sliders, or drag the slider next to the value. The values range from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). 254 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 8 Set the normal color settings based on whether the background includes the normal button graphics. • If normal button graphics are included in the background: Set the opacity for each overlay color to 0 (completely transparent). • If normal graphics are not included in the background: Set the opacity and select the color for each overlay color so that the buttons appear as desired. 9 Select Selected and Activated under Selection State and set the highlight color settings for the selected and activated states. You will not see any of these settings take effect until you start creating buttons. You can configure the settings for all three of the color mapping sets by selecting their buttons (1, 2, and 3). Using an Advanced Overlay to Support Anti-Aliasing Instead of using the advanced overlay’s four colors to create multiple color highlights, you can use them to create pseudo-soft edges and take advantage of anti-aliased graphics. This requires you to use the grayscale method, using either white elements on a black background or black elements on a white background. The soft or anti-aliased edges are mapped to the dark and light gray overlay colors. By mapping the same color to each overlay color, but at reduced opacities on the dark and light gray overlay colors that occur at the edges, you can effectively simulate soft or anti-aliased edges. To configure an advanced overlay for anti-aliased edges 1 Select a menu that has a background and overlay with anti-aliased edges assigned. The Menu Inspector appears. 2 Click the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Select Advanced next to Overlay Colors. 4 Set the Mapping Type to Grayscale. 5 Select Normal under the Selection State. 6 In the Menu Editor, choose Display Composite from the Settings pop-up menu to see the normal color settings take effect as you set them. (You will not see the selected and activated settings take effect until you start creating buttons.) 7 If the overlay should appear in the normal selection state, set the color and opacity settings as follows: • Choose the same color from the Color pop-up menus for each of the overlay colors. • Set the opacity for the primary overlay color (usually black) to 15. • Set the opacity for the next overlay color (dark gray) to 10. • Set the opacity for the next overlay color (light gray) to 5. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 255 If the overlay should not appear in the normal selection state, set the opacity settings to 0 for each overlay color. 8 Select Selected and Activated under Selection State and set the highlight color settings for the selected and activated states. Set the color and opacity settings using the same method used in step 7. You will not see these settings take effect until you create buttons on the menu. Configuring the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus The tabs within the Menu Inspector provide a variety of menu configuration settings. These settings control everything from background and overlay configuration, to transition and timeout settings. The Menu Inspector has five tabs: General, Menu, Transition, Colors, and Advanced. The Colors tab changes depending on whether you are using simple or advanced overlay color mapping. Settings at the Top of the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus There are three settings at the top of the Menu Inspector: • Name: Enter the name for this menu. • Est. Size: Displays the estimated amount of disc space the menu requires based on the type and duration of the assigned assets. • Background: Choose the menu’s background. See Choosing the Menu’s Background for more information. 256 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method General Tab in the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus The General tab in the Menu Inspector is divided into four sections: The upper section contains basic menu settings, the next section contains settings for motion menus and menu timeout actions, the next section contains the overlay selection settings, and the bottom section contains the audio file settings. Motion menu settings Audio settings Menu timeout and jump actions Overlay selections Motion Menu Settings The motion menu settings apply whenever you assign a video asset as the menu’s background or add audio to the menu. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for more details on these settings. • Start: Defines the starting frame for the motion background. Use either the slider or timecode field to set this value. • Loop Point: Defines the frame that is jumped back to when the motion background is looped. By default this frame is set to be the same as the Start timecode. This is also the point where button highlights appear and the viewer can begin navigating the buttons. (Because button highlights are still images, you may want to delay their appearance until the buttons stop moving if you are flying them onto the screen.) Use either the slider or timecode field to set this value. This value can also be set by a chapter marker in the background video. • End: Defines the last frame for the motion background. The At End setting becomes active once this frame is reached. Use either the slider or timecode field to set this value. • Duration: Adjusts automatically to match the time between the Start and End settings. Adjusting Duration only affects the End setting. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 257 • Single Field: Optimizes playback when using field-based video sources. This is especially important with video that has fast motion, and will reduce any motion artifacts. Selecting Single Field with frame-based video sources results in reduced resolution (edges may appear jagged). • At End: Sets the motion menu action when the End time is reached during playback. Choose one of these settings: • Still: Freezes the video’s last frame once the video asset finishes playing. If there is an audio file assigned, it will also play once and then stop. • Loop: Activates the Start, Loop, and End controls if there is a video asset assigned as the background. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for information on using these controls. • Timeout: Activates the Sec and Action settings. This allows you to configure the menu so that if the viewer does not select a button for a specified amount of time, the title automatically jumps to the element specified with the Action setting. Menu Timeout and Jump Action You can set whether a menu appears indefinitely or has a timeout duration. If you set a timeout duration, the title jumps to the element chosen in the Action pop-up menu after the specified amount of time. If the menu has a video asset assigned as the background, the timeout’s countdown does not start until the video finishes playing. You’d generally use a timeout setting with titles played at a sales kiosk, where you want to have something playing onscreen as much as possible. • Sec: Enter the amount of time, in seconds, that the menu appears if no button is selected. • Action: Choose the element to jump to once the timeout value is reached. If the menu has a default transition, the transition plays before the element is jumped to. Overlay Selections You use these settings only if you are using an overlay with this menu. • Overlay File: Choose the file with the menu’s overlay. See Choosing the Menu’s Overlay for more information. • Overlay Layer: Becomes active whenever you assign a PSD file with layers as the menu’s subpicture overlay. You choose the overlay layer from the pop-up menu. Audio Settings See Adding Audio to a Menu for more information on using the settings in this area. • Filename area: Lists the audio files assigned to the menu. You can add audio files to the menu by dragging them here. You can rearrange their order by dragging the filenames to a new position. 258 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method • Add (+): Opens the file selection dialog, allowing you to add one or more audio files to the menu. • Delete (–): Removes the selected audio file from the menu. • Total Audio Duration: Shows the combined duration of all audio files assigned to the menu. Menu Tab in the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus Most settings in the Menu tab in the Menu Inspector are optional. Exceptions are the Resolution and Display Mode settings, which must be set correctly for each menu, and the Background Layers area that is used when a Photoshop layered file (PSD) is assigned as the background. Miscellaneous menu settings PSD background layer selections Drop shadow settings Miscellaneous Menu Settings • Default Button: Choose the button to be selected when the menu appears during playback of the title. This setting can be overridden by any element that jumps to this menu, based on its jump setting and the Highlight Condition setting. • Return Button: Choose the project element to jump to if you press the Return button on the DVD player’s remote control. • Highlight Condition: Provides an alternative method to the Default Button setting for determining which button to highlight. When Highlight Condition is set to Default, the Default Button setting supplies the button highlight setting. When Highlight Condition is set to one of its stream settings (audio, subtitle, camera angle), the number of the stream last played determines the button to highlight. This setting can be overridden by any element that jumps to this menu, based on its jump setting. • Language: Choose the language in which this menu should be displayed. See Using Languages with Menus for more information. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 259 • Resolution: Choose the menu’s resolution. • For SD projects: The resolution is either 720 x 480i (NTSC) or 720 x 576i (PAL). • For HD projects: You can choose from any of the supported resolutions. DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a setting for the default resolution. The resolution automatically changes to match the menu’s background video resolution if it matches one of the supported resolutions. Choosing a resolution different than that used by the menu’s background video results in the menu being scaled and rendered to this setting when you build the project. • Display Mode: Set the aspect ratio for this menu (4:3 or 16:9), and with 16:9, choose how it displays on a 4:3 monitor. The aspect ratio of the background and overlay must match this setting. See Working with 16:9 Menus for more information. • Number Pad: Defines which buttons are directly accessible by a DVD player’s numeric keypad. Choose All, None, or a button number from the pop-up menu. When you choose a button number, that button and all buttons less than that number are accessible via the numeric keypad—buttons greater than this value are blocked from direct access. Important: This feature is based on the button order as shown along the top of each button’s Button Inspector, and not the button names you see in the Menu Editor. See About Button Numbers for information on verifying and changing the button numbers. • Btn Offset: You can use this setting to offset button numbers so they make sense to a viewer who wants to select a button by entering its number. For example, you may have a set of scene selection menus with numbered scenes. One of the menus may have scenes 23 to 34, with the button for scene 23 being the first button on the menu. If you enter an offset value of 22 for this menu, when the viewer enters 23 on the remote control, 22 is subtracted from it, with the result being 1—the button’s actual number. Background Layers Selections • Background Layers: This table becomes active whenever you assign a PSD file with layers as the menu’s background. A list of all layers in the file appears, with checkboxes so that you can select which ones to use for the background. See Choosing a Menu’s Background from a Layered Photoshop File for details on these settings. Drop Shadow Settings • Menu Shadow: This area configures the drop shadow settings for this menu. See Configuring the Menu’s Drop Shadow Settings for more information. 260 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Transition Tab in the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus The Transition tab is used to configure a button transition for this menu. See Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors for details on this tab. Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Simple Selected The following settings are available in the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector when you select the simple overlay color mode. Select Simple or Advanced, depending on the overlay you are using. Select the color mapping set to configure. Set the highlight’s opacity. Choose a color for each button state. • Overlay Colors: Select the overlay color method to use. • Simple: Select Simple if you are using a simple overlay. • Advanced: Select Advanced if you are using an advanced overlay. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 261 • Set: Select the color mapping set (1, 2, or 3) to configure. You cannot assign sets to buttons from the Menu Inspector; you must select a button or group of buttons and select their set in the Button Inspector. All new buttons use set 1. Note: These sets apply only to the selected and activated states of the buttons. The normal state color mapping setting applies to the entire overlay graphic unless a button’s active area is selected or activated. See Color Mapping Sets for more information. • Color: Choose the color for each of the three button states from the current Color Palette. Note: This also sets the highlight colors for the black overlay color if an advanced overlay is also used on this menu. • Opacity: Set the opacity for each of the highlight colors. You can use the slider or enter a value from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). Note: This also sets the opacity for the black overlay color if an advanced overlay is also used on the menu. • Save As Default: Saves this color mapping configuration as the default to be used on all new menus you create. Simple and advanced overlays use the same default mapping configuration. • Restore Defaults: Replaces the existing settings with those of the default color mapping configuration. • Edit Palette: Displays the Color Palette window, which you can use to change colors within the palette. 262 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected The following settings are available in the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector when you select the advanced overlay color mode. Select the color mapping set to configure. Set the highlight’s opacity. Shows the overlay graphic’s colors. Select the mapping type used for the overlay graphic. Choose the colors to map to each overlay graphic color. Select the button state. Select Simple or Advanced, depending on the overlay you are using. • Overlay Colors: Select the overlay color method to use. • Simple: Select Simple if you are using a simple overlay. • Advanced: Select Advanced if you are using an advanced overlay. • Mapping Type: Select the colors used to create the overlay graphic. • Chroma: Chroma uses black, red, blue, and white as the overlay colors. • Grayscale: Grayscale uses black, dark gray, light gray, and white as the overlay colors. • Selection State: Select the button state you want to configure. This setting also determines which state’s colors and transparencies to display. • Normal: Selects the normal state for configuration and display. • Selected: Selects the selected state for configuration and display. • Advanced: Selects the advanced state for configuration and display. • Set: Select the color mapping set (1, 2, or 3) to configure. You cannot assign sets to buttons from the Menu Inspector—you must select a button or group of buttons and select their set in the Button Inspector. All new buttons use set 1. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 263 Note: These sets apply only to the selected and activated states. The normal state color mapping setting applies to the entire overlay graphic unless a button’s active area is selected or activated. • Key: Shows the overlay file’s colors as selected with the Mapping Type. • Color: Choose the color for each of the four overlay colors from this pop-up menu, which displays the current Color Palette. You must do this for all three button states. • Opacity: Set the opacity for each of the highlight colors. You can use the slider or enter a value from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). • Save As Default: Saves this color mapping configuration as the default to be used on all new menus you create. Simple and advanced overlays use the same default mapping configuration. • Restore Defaults: Replaces the existing settings with those of the default color mapping configuration. • Edit Palette: Displays the Color Palette window, which you can use to change colors within the palette. Advanced Tab in the Menu Inspector for Standard Menus The Advanced tab in the Menu Inspector for standard menus contains settings that are used only in specialized projects. Disabled User Operations settings Playback Options settings Disabled User Operations Settings • Disabled User Operations: Select the functions that you want to be disabled while this menu plays. See User Operations for more information. 264 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Playback Options Settings • Pre-Script: Choose a script to run before the menu appears. This script can decide whether to show the menu or configure the DVD player before showing it. See Pre-Scripts for information on pre-scripts. • DVD@CCESS: Selecting this checkbox allows you to add DVD@CCESS links, which provide additional functionality to your title when played on a computer. See DVD@CCESS for more information. • Display Condition: Selecting this checkbox enables the Display Condition settings that control whether or not this menu should be displayed and to define what should be displayed if not this menu. See Display Condition for more information. Adding Buttons to Your Menu Once you have set your background and overlay, you are ready to start adding buttons to your menu. You can add buttons either by creating active areas in the overlay or by dragging shapes to the Menu Editor. You can then set each button’s properties, such as what the button jumps to when activated and how to navigate from it when using the DVD player’s remote control. The number of buttons a menu can have depends on the DVD standard and its display mode. SD Projects • Menus using a 4:3 display mode can have up to 36 buttons. • Menus using a 16:9 Pan-Scan or 16:9 Letterbox display mode can have up to 18 buttons. • Menus using a 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox display mode can have up to 12 buttons. HD Projects • Menus using a 4:3 display mode can have up to 48 buttons. • Menus using a 16:9 Pan-Scan or 16:9 Letterbox display mode can have up to 24 buttons. • Menus using a 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox display mode can have up to 16 buttons. Adding Overlay-Based Buttons To add an overlay-based button, you must identify each button’s “active area.” The active area is where selected and activated state highlights will occur, whether the title is played on a set-top DVD player or on a computer. Additionally, when the title is played on a computer, the active areas also determine the area in which a mouse-click activates the button. To create the active area, you use the pointer to drag over the area containing the button’s elements. See the next section for details. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 265 Creating and Modifying Button Active Areas While you can create a button’s active area without a background or overlay assigned, most of the time you will need to assign them first so you know where to place the button active areas. See Creating Menus Using the Standard Method and Creating Menus Using the Layered Method for details on assigning these files. To create and modify a button’s active area 1 Click the menu background where you want one of the button’s corners to be, then drag to the opposite corner. You see a rectangle with dashed lines. 2 Do any of the following to modify the button’s active area: • To move the button by dragging: Click inside the dashed lines and drag it to the new position. • To move the button by dragging in one direction only (horizontal or vertical): Press the Shift key, then drag the button. • To move the button by dragging with snapping and the dynamic guides temporarily disabled: Press Command, then drag the button. • To move the button using the arrow keys: Select the button and press the arrow keys to move it one pixel at a time. Press Shift and the arrow keys to move it 10 pixels at a time, or press Shift-Option and the arrow keys to move it 20 pixels at a time. • To move an edge: Click the resize handle at the center of the edge and drag it to the new position. This changes the button’s size. • To move a corner (which moves two edges at once): Click the resize handle at the corner and drag it to the new position. This also changes the button’s size. • To change a button’s size while maintaining the button’s aspect ratio: Shift-drag an edge or corner. See Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones for more information. • To change a button’s size while keeping it centered at its current location: Click an edge or corner, start dragging, then press the Option key. • To delete a button: Select it (resize handles appear on its dashed line), then press the Delete key. You can also use the Coordinates & Size area in the Advanced tab in the Button Inspector to precisely set a button’s size and position. 266 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Viewing the Selected and Activated States You can view the highlights for all three button states when you have a button selected. This makes it easy to see how the color mapping settings interact with the overlay. To view and set highlights for a button 1 In the Menu Editor, choose Display Composite from the Settings pop-up menu. The Menu Editor displays both the background and the overlay based on the color mapping settings. 2 Use the Menu Editor’s button state buttons to select the state (normal, selected, or activated) to display. Shows the activated state. Shows the selected state. Shows the normal state. 3 With the button state set to either selected or activated, select Highlight Set 1, 2, or 3 in the Style tab in the Button Inspector to select the color mapping configuration to apply to the current button. Note: The Set 1, 2, and 3 buttons in the Button Inspector’s Colors tab are for configuring the sets. They do not apply the sets to the current button. Why Don’t Highlight Colors Appear Without an Overlay? In earlier versions of DVD Studio Pro, you could see the selected and activated highlights in the active area rectangle even without an overlay. This made it easy to create a menu by just creating underlines (which were short and wide active areas) that showed the selected and activated highlights. The shapes feature of DVD Studio Pro 4 includes a SimpleButton shape that you can use to create these same types of highlights. By applying the SimpleButton shape to the first button active area you add to a menu, and then setting that button to be the menu’s default, all subsequent buttons will automatically have the SimpleButton shape and will show the selected and activated highlights. See the following section, Adding Shapes to a Menu, for information on applying shapes, and Setting Default Styles for information on defining a menu’s default button style. Adding Shapes to a Menu There are two ways to add a shape to a menu: • Drag it from the Shapes tab in the Palette. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 267 • Create a button active area, then select the shape from the Button Inspector. When you drag a shape from the Palette, it appears at its actual size, as created in the graphics program. When you add a shape by assigning it to an active area, it is scaled to fit the area, which can make it appear squashed or stretched. Dragging a Shape from the Palette The Palette offers three groups of shapes and shows you thumbnails of all the shapes you have to choose from. To drag a shape from the Palette 1 Select the Shapes tab in the Palette. Select the group of shapes to display. A soft gray border appears around the selected shape. 2 Select the group of shapes to display: • To display the shapes included with DVD Studio Pro: Click Apple. Note: Not all shapes supplied with DVD Studio Pro support highlights. Some are intended to be used only with drop zones and do not include the highlight layer used by buttons. • To display the shapes that have been imported for use by all projects: Click Custom. • To display shapes imported for use by this project only: Click Project. 3 Scroll through the available shapes, then select the one you want to use. 268 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 4 To add the shape to any empty part of the menu, drag it to the Menu Editor. If you hover over the area for a second, the Drop Palette appears, where you can choose to create a button or drop zone. See Adding Drop Zones to Your Menu for additional information about drop zones. 5 To apply the shape to an existing button, select the button in the Menu Editor, then do one of the following: • Click Apply in the Palette. • Drag the shape to the button. When dragged to an empty part of the menu, the shape becomes a button and appears at its actual size. You can move it and change its size by either dragging it or entering coordinate and size values in the Advanced tab in the Button Property Inspector. When applying or dragging the shape to an existing button, the shape’s size changes to match the existing button’s size. Assigning a Shape in the Button Inspector In the Button Inspector, you can select from the same shapes displayed in the Palette. To assign a shape in the Button Inspector 1 In the Menu Editor, select the button you want to apply the shape to. 2 Click the Style tab in the Button Inspector. 3 Choose a shape group from the Shape pop-up menu, then choose the shape to use. A thumbnail of the shape appears in the Button Inspector and the shape is applied to the button. The shape’s size changes to fit the button’s active area. You can move the button and change its size by either dragging it or entering coordinate and size values in the Advanced tab in the Button Inspector. See Managing Shapes for information on the different types of shapes available and details on how to import your own shapes. Copying a Button You can make a copy of a button to use on the same menu. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 269 To make a copy of a button 1 Select the button to be copied in the Menu Editor. 2 Hold down the Option key, then drag the button’s copy to its new location. The copy is automatically given the same name as the original, with a number added to distinguish it. The copy has all the same properties as the original, including its Target and navigation settings. Setting a Button’s Connection The main purpose of a button is to provide a way for the viewer to jump to a new disc location. For this to work, you must assign an element from your project as the button’s connection. There are several ways to set a button’s connection: • Using the Target setting in the Button Inspector • Using the shortcut menu that appears when you Control-click a button • Using the Connections tab. See Establishing Connections for more information. In some cases, when using the dragging methods to add assets to a menu and selecting options from the Drop Palette, the connection is automatically set. See Dragging Assets to the Menu Editor for more information. You can see a button’s current connection by placing the pointer over it and reading the tooltip that appears. To set a button’s connection in the Button Inspector 1 Select the button whose connection you want to set. 2 Choose the element to connect to from the Target pop-up menu in the top section of the Button Inspector. 270 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method To set a button’s connection using the shortcut menu μ Control-click the button whose connection you want to set, choose Target from the shortcut menu, then choose the element to connect to from the submenus. A checkmark appears next to the currently selected target. Those elements that can have a pre-script assigned to them (menus, tracks, stories, and slideshows) are listed in square brackets. Setting a button’s target to the element in brackets allows the pre-script, if one is assigned to the element, to run before the element appears. If you set the target to anything else in the list, the pre-script is not run. See Pre-Scripts for more information. About Resume If you jump to a menu while watching a track, for example, by pressing the remote control’s Menu button, the DVD player remembers what track you were playing and how far you were into it. A mostly unknown feature of DVD players is that you can press the Menu button while in a menu to resume playing the track at the same place you jumped from. Creating a button on the menu and setting its Target to Resume provides the viewer with a more obvious way to resume playing the track. About Button Properties When you select or create a button, the Button Inspector appears. Note: There is a different Button Inspector for buttons on layered menus. See About Layered Menu Button Properties for more information. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 271 There are four tabs in the Button Inspector: Style, Advanced, Colors, and Transition. See the following sections for details: • Settings at the Top of the Button Inspector • Style Tab in the Button Inspector • Advanced Tab in the Button Inspector • Colors Tab in the Button Inspector • Transition Tab in the Button Inspector Settings at the Top of the Button Inspector There are three settings at the top of the Button Inspector. • Name: By default, buttons you manually add are named “Button _,” where “_” is the button number on that menu. To reduce confusion when viewing a list of the menu’s buttons, it is helpful to rename the buttons based on their functions. Note: Buttons created as a result of a Drop Palette action that creates other project elements are named after the new project elements. In the case of actions that create a new track, the button and the track are named after the video asset. • Button #: Next to the button’s name is its number. This number is based on the order in which the buttons are added to the menu. See About Button Numbers for information on changing this number and why it can be important. • Target: You can use this pop-up menu to define a button’s action when activated. (You can also use the Connections tab or Control-click the button.) Often you must set the connection later because what you want to jump to has not yet been added to the project. The pop-up menu contains all possible elements you can jump to. 272 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Style Tab in the Button Inspector The Style tab of the Button Inspector contains the most commonly used settings. • Asset: Use this pop-up menu to assign an asset to the thumbnail of the shape (if present) or, when there is no shape, to the button’s active area. You can choose any existing applicable assets. • Start Frame: When the asset assigned to this button is a video clip, this area displays the video. Use the slider or timecode entry to choose the start point for motion playback (if motion is enabled) or to choose the frame to use in the button’s thumbnail if motion is not enabled. • Motion: Select this checkbox to enable motion in the button when the button’s asset is a video clip. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for looping details with motion buttons. • Shape: Use this pop-up menu to choose a shape to assign to the selected button. A thumbnail image of the selected shape appears next to the pop-up menu. The pop-up menu lists the existing shapes by their names, grouped as Apple Shapes (supplied with DVD Studio Pro), Custom Shapes (added shapes available to all projects), Project Shapes (added shapes available to this project only), and Patch Shapes. Use the Palette’s Shapes tab to manage the shapes and as another way to select a shape. • Shadow: Select this checkbox to apply the menu’s drop shadow setting to this shape. • Selected Highlight: Choose the button’s selected state highlight color from the 16-color palette. Note: This does not affect the button’s normal or activated states. Use the settings in the Colors tab for those highlights. • Highlight Set: Select the color mapping set (1, 2, or 3) to use for this button. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 273 • Opacity: Use this slider or enter a numeric value to set the selected highlight’s transparency from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). Note: The Selected Highlight and Opacity settings affect the black color mapping settings for the selected color mapping highlight set. These settings affect all buttons on this menu, including overlay buttons, that use the same color mapping set. • Text: You can type text directly on the button in the Menu Editor or type it in this text area, then press Return to apply it to the button. To start a new line, press Option-Return. See Adding Text to a Button for more information. • Shadow: Select this checkbox to apply the menu’s drop shadow setting to this button text. • Text Position: Choose where you want to place the text when adding text to a button. Choices include Bottom, Top, Right, Left, and Center. Use the Center setting when creating a text-only button. • Text Offset X and Y: Adjust the position of the text using these settings. For the horizontal (X) offset, positive numbers move the text to the right and negative numbers move it to the left. For the vertical (Y) offset, positive numbers move the text down and negative numbers move the text up. • Include Text in Highlight: Select this checkbox to make the button text highlight when the button is selected or activated. 274 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Advanced Tab in the Button Inspector The Advanced tab of the Button Inspector contains settings you can use to fine-tune a button. • Navigation: The pop-up menus in this area let you set the actions that take place when the viewer uses the arrow buttons on the DVD player’s remote control to navigate around the title. Because this is the typical way the title will be viewed, it is important to spend some time configuring the navigation in a logical, predictable way. See Configuring Button Navigation for information. • Angle/Audio/Subtitle Streams: Use these three pop-up menus to connect a button to specific audio, subtitle, and angle streams to play back. For the subtitle stream, you can also choose whether subtitles should appear. • Auto Action: If you enable Auto Action for a button, it will activate automatically as soon as it is navigated to, without the viewer needing to press Enter. This is useful in menus, such as scene selection menus, in which you use Next and Previous buttons; you can assume that if viewers navigate to the Next or Previous button, they want to activate it. With overlay-based buttons, if you select this option, only the activated color mapping appears when the button is navigated to, skipping the selected color mapping. Important: When viewed with most software-based DVD players, such as the Apple DVD Player, auto action buttons must be clicked if a mouse is used to select buttons. If you use the computer’s arrow keys, however, auto action buttons activate automatically as with set-top DVD players. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 275 • Invisible: Applies to overlay-based buttons. This option allows you to have a button that does not display highlights in the normal, selected, or activated state. This is useful when you want to have a menu with text and no visible buttons. The text could tell the viewer to press the Enter button to go to the next menu or start playback (or whatever the button is set to jump to). • Coordinates & Size: This area lets you set the location of each edge of the button’s active area, plus the area’s height and width. The upper-left corner of the menu is at pixel 0, line 0. You can enter values for each edge, allowing you to precisely position and size the button’s active area. (You can also drag the active area and each of its edges with the pointer.) Colors Tab in the Button Inspector The Colors tab works exactly as does the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. See Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Simple Selected and Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected for information on this tab. 276 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Transition Tab in the Button Inspector The Transition tab is used to configure a button transition for this button. See Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors for details on this tab. About Button Numbers Each time you add a button to a menu, in addition to its name (which you can change), it is assigned a number (which you cannot directly change) based on the order in which you added it to the menu. The button’s number The button’s name The first button you manually add to a menu is named and numbered “Button 1,” the second is “Button 2,” and so on. How a button fits in the order is important for four reasons: • Button number 1 is the default button selected when the menu plays if no other button has been set as the menu’s default button. • The button order determines the priority of the buttons if they overlap. Higher numbered buttons have a higher priority and can cover up lower numbered buttons. • The button order affects the creation of chapter index menus (see Applying Templates or Layout Styles to a Menu with Buttons). • The button order affects the number pad setting for viewers directly accessing a menu’s buttons from the DVD player’s remote control. While you cannot change this number in the Button Inspector, you can change it using the shortcut menu that appears when you Control-click a button. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 277 When you Control-click a button, a shortcut menu appears that allows you to rearrange the button order (and also set other button properties). There are also four buttons along the bottom of the Menu Editor (the Arrange controls) that allow you to rearrange the button order. Brings the item to the front, making it the highest priority. Sends the item’s priority one step back. Sends the item to the back, making it the lowest priority. Moves the item’s priority one step up. • Send To Back: Makes the selected button button 1, the lowest priority button. The existing button 1 now becomes button 2, and so on. The button names don’t change, however. You can also press Command-Shift-B to send it to the back. • Send Backward: Swaps the selected button’s number with the button below it, making it a lower priority than the button below it. If this is button 12, then it becomes button 11, and button 11 becomes button 12. You can also press Command–Left Bracket ([) to send it backward. • Send Forward: Swaps the selected button’s number with the button above it, making it a higher priority than the button above it. If this is button 12, then it becomes button 13, and button 13 becomes button 12. You can also press Command–Right Bracket (]) to send it forward. 278 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method • Bring to Front: Makes the selected button the highest priority button on the menu. All buttons that were above it move down one number. You can also press Command-Shift-F to bring it to the front. The priority is generally not important unless you overlap your buttons or you intend to use this layout as a style for creating chapter index menus. (Overlapping is discouraged; see About Overlapping Buttons for more information.) Note: Drop zones, text objects, and buttons are included in the same priority list; a drop zone can have a higher priority, and thus cover up, a button. Adding Text to a Button You can add text to any button on a standard menu. You can even create text-only buttons by creating a button active area and then adding the text to it. The default text font and color are set in the Text pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. To add text to a button 1 Make sure the Style tab in the Button Inspector is displayed. 2 To add the text, do one of the following: • Select the button in the Menu Editor, then press Return. An insertion point appears at the bottom of the button. Type your text here. Press Return to add an additional line, or press Enter to exit the text entry mode. • Select the button in the Menu Editor, then type the text in the Text entry area of the Button Inspector. To add an additional line, press Return or Enter. • Select the button in the Menu Editor, then click just below its active area. An insertion point appears. Type your text. Press Return to add an additional line, or press Enter to exit the text entry mode. Note: The default settings in the Button Inspector’s Text Formatting section at the bottom of the Style tab place the text at the bottom of the button. You can change these settings before typing the text, in which case the text appears at the new position. 3 Select the Shadow checkbox (next to the text entry area) to apply the menu’s drop shadow settings to the text. 4 Choose the text’s position (Bottom, Top, Left, Right, or Center) from the Position pop-up menu. You can use the X Offset and Y Offset entries to fine-tune the position. 5 Select Include Text in Highlight if you want the text to highlight along with the button when selected or activated. You can edit the text by clicking within it or by dragging the pointer over the portion of the text to be replaced, then typing the new text. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 279 The button’s active area extends to include the text if you choose to include the text in the highlight. Use care to ensure that the active area does not inadvertently overlap other buttons on the menu. Setting the Button Text’s Font and Color A button’s text can use a mix of colors and fonts. To change the text font and color 1 Select the text you want to change. 2 Do one of the following to open the Font panel: • Choose Format > Font > Show Fonts (or press Command-T). • Click Fonts in the toolbar. 3 Choose the font and size to use. 4 Do one of the following to open the Colors window: • Choose Format > Font > Show Colors (or press Command-Shift-C). • Click Colors in the toolbar. 5 Choose the color to use. You can also add bold, italic, and underline attributes to the text. Note: The bold and italic attributes are available only if the current font supports them. To apply bold, italic, and underline attributes 1 Select the text you want to change. 2 Choose Format > Font > Bold (or press Command-B) to add the bold attribute. 3 Choose Format > Font > Italic (or press Command-I) to add the italic attribute. 4 Choose Format > Font > Underline (or press Command-U) to add the underline attribute. By selecting different parts of the button’s text, you can mix different fonts, colors, and attributes on the same button. Creating Text-Only Buttons You can create text-only buttons that only have the text as their graphic. This is useful if you want a simple button that says something like “Play Movie.” By centering the text in the button and configuring the button so that the selected and activated highlights apply to the text, you can create a button that works well in a DVD title. To create a text-only button 1 Create a button active area by dragging in the Menu Editor. 2 Add text to the button, either in the Button Inspector or by typing directly in the Menu Editor. 3 Set the text’s font and color. 280 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 4 In the Style tab in the Button Inspector, choose Center for the Position, and select Include Text in Highlight. 5 Adjust the size of the button’s active area so that it fits the text. You can now set the button’s selected and activated highlights as you would any simple overlay graphic. Note: If you open a DVD Studio Pro project that uses a font that is not on the computer you are opening it on (either because the font was deleted or the project was created on a different computer), any items using the missing font have a different font substituted with no warning. About Overlapping Buttons In general, it’s a good idea to avoid overlapping buttons. Some DVD players may behave erratically when they try to process menus with overlapping buttons. This problem is worse if you are playing the title on a computer and using a pointer to select a button. Sometimes, however, while the button graphics do not actually overlap, their active areas do. Active area overlap Play Movie Scene Select Slideshow In this case, if viewers watch the title on a computer, they may get unexpected results if they click in an overlap area. Another problem occurs when using overlay-based buttons. Because the active areas control the overlay area that is highlighted when you select or activate a button, you may end up with portions of neighboring buttons highlighting at inappropriate times. It is possible to get around this problem by using different color mapping sets on neighboring buttons. See Color Mapping Sets for more information. Configuring Button Navigation Because most viewers will use the arrow buttons on a DVD player’s remote control to navigate through the buttons on a menu, it’s important that the navigation is easy and logical. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 281 DVD Studio Pro includes three methods for setting button navigation: • Dragging: In the Menu Editor, you can Command-Option-drag the resize handle on each button’s edge to the button it should navigate to. • Manually: You can manually set each button’s navigation using the Navigation section in the Button Inspector’s Advanced tab. • Auto Assign: You can use the Auto Assign feature in the Menu Editor. This sets the navigation for all buttons on the menu at the same time. • Continuous Auto Assign: You can use the Continuous Auto Assign feature in the Menu Editor. This sets the navigation for all buttons each time you add a new button or reposition an existing button. This feature is activated when you first open DVD Studio Pro. See Setting Button Navigation with Continuous Auto Assign for more information. In general, if you are manually setting button navigation or modifying automatic button navigation, you should wait until all buttons have been added to the menu, ensuring that all possibilities are taken into account. It is also helpful to name each button before setting the navigation so that you can easily distinguish them from each other. Setting Button Navigation Manually by Dragging in the Menu Editor You can set button navigation in the Menu Editor by dragging a button’s edge to the button that it should navigate to. Each edge of a button corresponds to an arrow button on a remote control. For example, dragging the right edge of a button determines what will happen when you press the Right Arrow button. To set button navigation by dragging button edges 1 Select the button whose navigation you want to set. The active area rectangle appears around it. 2 Hold down the Option and Command keys and click the resize handle on the edge you want to set. For example, click the right edge to set the right-arrow jump for the button. 3 Drag from the resize handle to the button you want to link to. A line appears to indicate which edge you started at. 4 As you drag, the line’s color changes from white to green once you reach a button’s active area. When the line is green, release the mouse button to make the connection. Once the connection is made, the line disappears. 282 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method The biggest drawback to setting navigation this way is that, unless you verify the connections carefully, you can easily miss setting all four edges of all buttons, resulting in some peculiar navigation. Setting Button Navigation Manually with the Button Inspector You can manually set each button’s navigation using the Button Inspector. You can also change a button’s navigation that has been set with the Auto Assign feature. To manually set button navigation 1 Select a button. 2 Click the Advanced tab in the Button Inspector. 3 In the Navigation area, open the pop-up menu for each direction (left, right, up, and down) and choose the button that should be jumped to for each. Leave the setting at “not set” if you do not want an action to occur when a viewer presses a particular arrow button. Each button’s settings are completely independent. The settings you make for one button have no effect on the other buttons in the menu. Setting Button Navigation with the Auto Assign Feature The Auto Assign feature makes it easy to configure the button navigation for a menu. You can also use it as a starting point for configuring your navigation, and then freely adjust the settings it creates. To use Auto Assign to set button navigation 1 Set up your menu as you want it, with its buttons in their final locations. 2 Choose Auto Assign Buttons Now from the Menu Editor’s Settings pop-up menu (or press Command-Shift-D). It’s important to understand that Auto Assign works with the buttons as they currently exist on the menu. If you move, delete, or add buttons to the menu, you need to use Auto Assign again to update the navigation. Note: Using Auto Assign overrides any existing navigation settings. If you intend to manually modify the settings Auto Assign creates, be sure you have all buttons in place before using it. This reduces the risk of having to use Auto Assign again, and undoing any modifications you may have made. How Auto Assign Works Auto Assign strives to configure the navigation in a logical manner. For example, pressing a Right Arrow button on the remote control selects the button to the right (if there is one). If a menu has a peculiar button layout, however, Auto Assign can produce surprising results. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 283 Auto Assign uses the following rules when configuring the navigation: • It assigns every button a navigation setting. This is an advantage, because you may accidentally skip a button when manually assigning navigation, resulting in orphaned buttons. • The navigation loops through all buttons. When you reach the edge of a menu and press the same arrow button on the remote again, you jump to the menu buttons in the next row at the opposite edge. This means that if you keep pressing any of the arrows, you will eventually get to all menu buttons. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Setting Button Navigation with Continuous Auto Assign The Menu Editor includes a Continuous Auto Assign feature that updates the navigation of all buttons on the menu each time you add a new button or move an existing one. You are unable to manually assign button navigation while the Continuous Auto Assign feature is active. To enable Continuous Auto Assign μ Choose Auto Assign Buttons Continuously from the Menu Editor’s Settings pop-up menu. The Continuous Auto Assign feature remains enabled until you choose it again to disable it. Unlike using the Auto Assign feature, you can enable the Continuous Auto Assign feature before the buttons are in their final positions—you can even enable it before you have added any buttons to the menu. Right-to-Left Reading Mode Auto Assign and Continuous Auto Assign have a Right-to-Left Reading option, designed for use with titles whose viewers are used to reading right-to-left (such as Farsi and Hebrew). To use the Right-to-Left option, choose the appropriate setting in the Menus pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. 3 2 1 6 5 4 9 8 7 284 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method The illustration above shows the path for a menu intended for viewers familiar with right-to-left reading. Note that the difference is in what happens when you reach a menu edge; when you are not on an edge, the arrow buttons work the same in both reading modes. Adding Drop Zones to Your Menu Drop zones are similar to buttons; you can assign an asset to them, move them around, and change their size. Unlike buttons, however, they do not have jump targets and they are not counted as buttons in the menu’s button count. Drop zones allow you to add graphics to a menu that you would otherwise have had to add to the background using an external video editing application. To create a drop zone by dragging an asset 1 Drag a still image, video clip, or shape to an empty part of the Menu Editor. You can drag this from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. 2 Choose Create Drop Zone from the Drop Palette. A 120-pixel high by 180-pixel wide rectangle appears, with the still image, video clip, or shape filling it. You can position and resize the drop zone the same as you would a button’s active area. See Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones for more information. To create a drop zone by drawing a rectangle μ Hold down the Option key while dragging to create a rectangle in the Menu Editor, similar to the way you create a button’s active area. You can use the Drop Zone Inspector or drag to assign a shape and asset to the drop zone. To convert a button to a drop zone Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Convert Button to Drop Zone. μ Control-click the button, then choose Convert Button to Drop Zone from the shortcut menu. The name of the drop zone is “DropZone _,” with “_” being the next available number. To convert a drop zone to a button Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Convert Drop Zone to Button. μ Control-click the button, then choose Convert Drop Zone to Button from the shortcut menu. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 285 The name of the button is “Button _,” with “_” being the next available number. Once you have created a drop zone, you can drag an asset to the drop zone, or select an asset in the Drop Zone Inspector. See Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones for more information. Setting Drop Zone Properties The Drop Zone Inspector appears once you create a drop zone. It contains basic settings for configuring the drop zone. • Name: Enter a name for the drop zone. • Asset: Use this pop-up menu to assign an asset to the drop zone. You can choose any applicable assets. • Start Frame: When the asset assigned to the drop zone is a video clip, this area displays the video. Use the slider or the timecode entry to choose the start point for motion playback (if motion is enabled) or to choose the frame to use in the drop zone if motion is not enabled. • Motion: Select this checkbox to enable motion in the drop zone when the drop zone’s asset is a video clip. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for details on looping video within drop zones. • Shape: Use this pop-up menu to choose a shape to assign to the selected drop zone. A thumbnail image of the selected shape appears next to the pop-up menu. The pop-up menu lists the existing shapes by their names, grouped as Apple Shapes (supplied with DVD Studio Pro), Custom Shapes (added shapes available to all projects), Project Shapes (added shapes available to this project only), and Patch Shapes. Use the Palette’s Shapes tab to manage the shapes and as another way to select a shape. 286 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method • Shadow: Select this checkbox to apply the menu’s drop shadow setting to this drop zone. • Coordinates & Size: This area lets you set the location of each edge of the drop zone, plus the drop zone’s height and width. The upper-left corner of the menu is at pixel 0, line 0. You can enter values for each edge, allowing you to precisely position and size the drop zone. (You can also drag the drop zone and each of its edges with the pointer.) • Rotation: Rotate the knob or enter a value to rotate the drop zone. The values can go from 0.0 to 359.9, with a value of 0.0 as normal. About Using Drop Zones Any drop zones you add to your menu will become part of the menu’s background when the project is built. Overlapping Drop Zones While you should avoid overlapping buttons, you can feel free to overlap drop zones, because they are not involved in navigation. Because drop zones can be overlapped, you should use care when adding them to the menu—those added later have a higher priority and will cover up those added earlier. To change a drop zone’s priority μ Control-click it, then choose an option from the shortcut menu. See About Button Numbers for more information. Note: Drop zones, text objects, and buttons are included in the same priority list; a drop zone can have a higher priority, and thus cover up a button. Shapes in Drop Zones While shapes are primarily intended to be applied to buttons, they can be useful when applied to drop zones, too. Without a shape, a drop zone usually has a rectangular outline, because that is the shape of the still images and video clips you can add to the drop zones. Shapes, however, can have an irregular outline, and when applied to a drop zone, the irregular outline is maintained. This makes it possible to have heart- or star-shaped drop zones—or any shape you want to create and import. Using a shape in a drop zone, you could add your corporate logo to your menus without having to composite it externally. Shapes with patches can also be used with drop zones. See Adding Shapes to a Menu for more information. Note: A drop zone can also have an irregular edge if the asset assigned to it has an alpha channel. See Creating Graphics for Drop Zones and Buttons for more information. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 287 Working with Assets in Buttons and Drop Zones A button’s or drop zone’s active area aspect ratio may not match the aspect ratio of the asset assigned to it. In these situations, part of the asset ends up being cropped off. You have two options for working with the asset: • You can leave the active area’s aspect ratio as it is, and move the asset to control which part of it is cropped off. • You can force the active area’s aspect ratio to match the asset’s aspect ratio. Positioning Images in a Button or Drop Zone If you want to keep the button’s or drop zone’s active area at its current aspect ratio, you can position the asset within the active area, choosing which parts of the asset are cropped off. To position an asset in an active area μ Shift-Option-click the asset within the active area, then drag it. The active area remains where it is, and the asset moves within it (similar to moving a picture behind a window). Matching the Active Area Aspect Ratio to the Asset If you want the asset to appear without being cropped, you need to adjust the active area’s aspect ratio to match the asset’s aspect ratio. To match the active area’s aspect ratio to the asset’s aspect ratio μ Shift-drag a corner of the active area. The active area snaps to match the asset’s aspect ratio, ensuring none of it is being cropped off. As long as you hold down the Shift key while changing the active area’s size, this aspect ratio is maintained. Adding Text Objects to a Menu You can type text directly onto a menu’s background, creating a text object. When you build the project, this text object merges with the background—it cannot be selected by the viewer or have jump actions assigned to it. A text object can contain characters with different colors, fonts, and sizes. The Text pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains settings that define the text font and color used when you create new text objects. You can change the text font and color after you have typed it. Text objects can also be rotated and have the menu’s drop shadow applied. 288 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method To add a text object to a menu 1 Double-click the menu where you want to add a text object. You will be able to move the object later, so the actual position is not critical. 2 Start typing the text. As you type, the text appears on the menu, with a handle on each end. To create a new line, press the Return key, or press Enter to exit the text entry mode. The Text Object Inspector appears. Note: You can also type the text in the Text entry area in the Text Object Inspector, and use either Return or Enter to create a new line. 3 Click the Shadow checkbox to add the menu’s drop shadow to the text. 4 To change the text’s justification, do one of the following: • Click the appropriate button in the Text Object Inspector. • Press Command–Shift–Left Bracket ([) to left align the text. • Press Command–Shift–Right Bracket (]) to right align the text. • Press Command-Shift-Backslash (\) to center the text. 5 Rotate the Rotation knob or enter a value to rotate the text object. You can reposition the text object by dragging the text to a new position. (If you are in the text edit mode with the blinking insertion point showing in the Menu Editor, you need to click an empty area of the Menu Editor to exit the text edit mode before you can drag the text object to a new position.) To change the text object’s font and color 1 Select the text you want to change. 2 Do one of the following to open the Font panel: • Choose Format > Font > Show Fonts (or press Command-T). • Click Fonts in the toolbar. 3 Choose the font and size to use. Note: If you open a DVD Studio Pro project that uses a font that is not on the computer you are opening it on (either because the font was deleted or the project was created on a different computer), any items using the missing font have a different font substituted with no warning. 4 Do one of the following to open the Colors window: • Choose Format > Font > Show Colors (or press Command-Shift-C). • Click Colors in the toolbar. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 289 5 Choose the color to use. You can also add bold, italic, and underline attributes to the text. Note: The bold and italic attributes are available only if the current font supports them. To apply bold, italic, and underline attributes 1 Select the text you want to change. 2 Choose Format > Font > Bold (or press Command-B) to add the bold attribute. 3 Choose Format > Font > Italic (or press Command-I) to add the italic attribute. 4 Choose Format > Font > Underline (or press Command-U) to add the underline attribute. By selecting different parts of the text, you can mix different fonts, colors, and attributes in the same text object. Setting Text Object Properties The Text Object Inspector appears once you type text on a menu or select an existing text object. It contains basic settings for configuring the text. • Text: This area contains the text displayed in the text object. You can also enter or edit the text here. To add additional lines, press Return. • Shadow: Select this checkbox to apply the menu’s drop shadow setting to this text object. • Position: Select the justification to apply to the text object (left, center, or right). • Rotation: Rotate the knob or enter a value to rotate the text object. The values can go from 0.0 to 359.9, with a value of 0.0 as normal. About Text Objects Any text objects you add to your menu will become part of the menu’s background when the project is built. While you should avoid overlapping buttons, you can feel free to overlap text objects because they are not involved in navigation. Because text objects can be overlapped, use care when adding them to the menu—those added later have a higher priority and will cover up those added earlier. 290 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method To change a text object’s priority μ Control-click it, then choose an option from the shortcut menu. See About Button Numbers for more information. Note: Text objects, drop zones, and buttons are included in the same priority list; a text object can have a higher priority, and thus cover up, a button or drop zone. Adding Audio to a Menu All menus created with the standard method, including menus with still backgrounds, can have one or more associated audio files. Adding audio to a menu can be an easy way to make it more engaging. The audio can come from files created specifically for this purpose, portions of the soundtrack, or from an audio library. The Apple audio applications Soundtrack and GarageBand are both great for creating high-quality background audio. If you assign a video asset to the menu’s background by dragging it to the Menu Editor, DVD Studio Pro can automatically assign its companion audio file (with the same base name and in the same folder) to the menu. The “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences controls whether or not the audio is assigned. See Track Preferences for more information. You can also manually assign an audio file to a menu. To assign an audio file to a menu Do one of the following: μ Drag an audio file to the Menu Editor, then choose Set Audio or Add to Existing Audio from the Drop Palette. μ Click the General tab in the Menu Inspector, then do one of the following: • Drag an audio file to the Audio Filename area. • Click the Add (+) button and select the audio file from the file selection dialog. In addition to adding audio files to your menu, you can use the General tab in the Menu Inspector to set the order of the audio files and to remove them from the menu. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 291 To manage the audio files assigned to a menu Do one of the following: μ To set the order of the audio files, drag them in the file list. μ To remove audio files, select them and click the Delete (-) button. To hear the audio μ Click the Motion button in the Menu Editor. If there is a still image as the menu’s background, you can use the motion settings in the Menu Inspector’s General tab to set the start and end points of the audio. See Configuring Motion Menu Settings for information on how the audio interacts with any video clips assigned to the menu, including when looping is enabled. Configuring the Menu’s Drop Shadow Settings Each standard menu can have a drop shadow that can be shared by button text, shapes, drop zones, and text objects. You configure the drop shadow in the Advanced tab in the Menu Inspector and then enable it in the Inspector for each button text, shape, drop zone, and text object you want it applied to. Enabling Drop Shadows Enabling the drop shadows on a menu is a two-step process: Enable drop shadows for each menu item you want to apply them to, and then configure the menu’s drop shadow settings. This allows you to see the effect of the menu settings on all of the items at once. To enable the drop shadow 1 Select a menu item that supports drop shadows (button text, button shapes, drop zone shapes, or text objects). 2 In that item’s Inspector, click the Shadow checkbox to enable it. 3 Click an empty part of the menu in the Menu Editor so the Menu Inspector appears. 4 Click the Menu Inspector’s Menu tab. The drop shadow settings appear along the bottom part of the tab. 5 Configure the drop shadow settings. (Keep in mind that the drop shadows only appear on items that have been enabled.) See Setting the Drop Shadow Properties for more information. 292 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Setting the Drop Shadow Properties Once you have enabled drop shadows on one or more menu items, you can start adjusting the drop shadow settings. Note: You will not see the drop shadow if any of the settings are at 0.0. • Angle: A rotary control that sets the direction of the drop shadow. The control’s indicator points in the drop shadow’s direction. Rotate the indicator to the desired direction. You can also enter an angle value. A value of 0 places the shadow directly above the item; 90 places it to the right. • Alpha: Sets the drop shadow’s transparency. A value of 0.0 makes the drop shadow completely transparent while a value of 1.0 makes it completely opaque. • Diffusion: Sets the drop shadow’s softness. Smaller numbers provide harder edges while larger numbers (up to a maximum of 15.0) provide softer edges. • Distance: Sets the distance of the drop shadow from the item. Smaller numbers position the drop shadow closer while larger numbers (up to a maximum of 15.0) position it farther away. • Colored rectangle: Sets the color of the drop shadow. Click it to open the Colors window where you can choose the color to use. Configuring Motion Menu Settings There are several parts of a standard menu that can include an asset with motion or a time setting: • The menu’s background • The menu’s audio • Buttons • Drop zones A motion menu can have anywhere from one to all four of these motion items. The items it contains determine how they will interact. About Motion Menu Playback The Menu Editor contains a motion menu start/stop button. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 293 Clicking the button starts motion menu playback. Clicking it a second time stops playback. You can also press Command-J to turn the playback on and off. Unlike a similar button in iDVD, this button does not determine whether or not this menu is a motion menu. It only controls whether the motion menu plays while you are working on it. Once you add motion assets to a menu, it is a motion menu. Note: Depending on your system and the number of motion items in the menu, motion menu playback may not be perfectly smooth in the Menu Editor. Once you build your project, playback will be perfect. About the Motion Settings The Menu Inspector’s General tab contains a section for configuring a menu’s start, end, loop, and duration times. You can drag the slider located under the thumbnail images of the background, click the arrow controls, or enter a timecode value for each of the entries. The way the Start, Loop Point, End, and Duration settings function depends on the type of assets assigned to the menu. Start Setting You can use the Start setting to set the video’s starting frame. By default, the start is set to the background video’s first frame. If there is audio assigned to the menu, its start time is also moved by the same number of frames as the video. Note: If there are other motion assets assigned to buttons or drop zones, they are not affected by the change in start time. When the menu’s background is a still image, the Start setting only affects the menu’s audio. Loop Point You can use the Loop Point setting to set a frame different from the starting frame to use when you choose Loop as the At End setting. By default, the Loop setting is the same as the Start setting. When you adjust the Loop setting, you are choosing the frame that is jumped to once the end frame is reached. This allows you to have a looping background with a beginning section—for example, a fade up from black or a transition from another menu—that only plays the first time through. If there is audio assigned to the menu, it automatically follows the video as it loops. 294 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method This setting also defines when the button highlights appear—the viewer cannot navigate the menu’s buttons until the loop point is reached. Additionally, the Loop Point setting controls the video used for the menu’s tile in the Graphical tab. If you are creating your menu background video in an application such as Motion or Final Cut Pro, you can set a chapter marker named “MenuLoopPoint” to define the loop point. When you assign a menu’s background by dragging the video to the Menu Editor and choosing Set Background from the Drop Palette, or dragging the video to the Outline or Graphical tab, DVD Studio Pro checks to see if a chapter marker named “MenuLoopPoint” is present. If it is, the Loop Point setting is set to its time. If it is not present, the Loop Point setting is set to match the Start setting. Note: When you assign the menu’s background using the Menu Inspector’s Background pop-up menu, you must manually set the Loop Point setting, even if the video contains a “MenuLoopPoint” chapter marker. See Defining the Menu Loop Point for more information on setting the chapter markers. About Jumping Directly to a Menu’s Loop Point When you configure a motion menu with a loop point, you may find that, in some cases, you would prefer to jump directly to the loop point rather than to the start point. This is especially true if the menu has a long period between the start and loop points. You can write a simple script that will allow you to jump to the loop point. When you select Jump as the command in the Script Inspector and choose a menu to jump to, a Start At Loop Point option becomes available. When selected, this option sets the jump to skip the start point and jump directly to the loop point. See Start At Loop Point Checkbox for more information, and Jumping to a Menu’s Loop Point for an example script. End Setting You can use the End setting to set the menu’s ending frame. By default, this is set to the value entered in the Menu pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences if the menu has any motion assets. You can adjust it to be shorter or longer. This is most useful when you do not want to use the entire video background asset—when used along with the Start setting, you can choose the specific part of the video to use. • When using the slider: Its maximum setting matches the length of the menu’s background video. If the background is a still image, the slider maximum setting matches the longest of the other menu assets (audio or assets assigned to buttons and drop zones). • When using the numeric timecode entry: You are able to choose any length. Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 295 When the end is reached during playback, either all assets stop and display their last frame as a still image (At End set to Still), or the playback jumps to the Loop, if available, or Start setting. If any assets assigned to the menu reach their end before the menu reaches the End setting, they are looped back to their start to keep playing. Duration Setting You can use the Duration setting to set the menu’s duration. It is equal to the End setting minus the Start setting. If you enter a value, the End setting automatically updates. Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus Following are descriptions of the various Drop Palette options that can appear when you drag an asset or element to the Menu Editor. See Viewing the Drop Palette for information on using the Drop Palette options. The following descriptions are grouped by the type of item you are dragging (asset, project element such as a track or slideshow, and a template, style, or shape from the Palette). Details for standard menus are listed first, followed by the details for the layered menus. For those Drop Palette options that appear when you drag a motion video asset, a matching audio asset is also added (if applicable), as long as: • The “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences is selected. • An audio file with the same base name as the video file is located in the same folder as the video asset. The following details assume the “Find matching audio when dragging” preference is selected and a suitable audio file is found. Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Assets The following sections list the choices in the Drop Palette that appear when you drag assets to an empty area, button, or drop zone on a standard menu. Dragging a Motion Video Asset to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 296 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions • Uses the video as this menu’s background. • Assigns matching audio as the menu’s audio. Set Background (default option) • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this video to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Track This option does not create a track or link the button to anything. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this video to the button’s thumbnail, creating a motion button. Create Button • Creates a drop zone at this menu location. • Assigns this video to the drop zone. Create Drop Zone Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. If the menu contains no buttons, drop zones, or text objects, this option changes to Create Chapter Index. Instead of creating a separate menu as the first chapter index menu, this menu is used. Additional chapter index menus are created if necessary. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging a Motion Video Asset to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions This option does not create a track or link the button to anything. • Sets this video to be the button’s thumbnail image. Set Asset (default option) Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 297 Drop Palette options Actions • Assigns this video to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Set Asset and Create Track The button’s thumbnail image does not change. • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. Create Track Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Sets this video to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Set Asset and Create Chapter Index Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Chapter Index Dragging a Motion Video Asset to a Drop Zone The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 298 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions Set Asset (default option) • Sets this video to be the drop zone’s asset. The drop zone is unaffected. • Creates a button on top of the drop zone. • Assigns this video to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Track Dragging Multiple Motion Video Assets to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions For each video asset: • Creates a button. • Assigns each video as its button’s asset. • Creates new tracks. • Assigns matching audio as each track’s audio. • Names each track the same as their video asset. • Sets each new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Adds links from the new buttons to the first marker of the new tracks. Create Buttons and Tracks (default option) This option does not create any tracks or link the buttons to anything. • Creates a button for each video asset. • Assigns each video as its button’s asset. Create Buttons Dragging One or More Audio Assets to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Set Audio (default option) • Assigns this audio as the menu’s audio. Add to Existing Audio • Adds this audio to the existing audio assets assigned to thismenu. Dragging a Video/Audio Pair to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 299 Drop Palette options Actions • Sets this video to be the menu’s background. • Sets this audio to be the menu’s audio. Set Background and Audio (default option) • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this video to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new track with this video and audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Track Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. If the menu contains no buttons, drop zones, or text objects, this option changes to Create Chapter Index. Instead of creating a separate menu as the first chapter index menu, this menu is used. Additional chapter index menus are created if necessary. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers and audio to it. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging a Video/Audio Pair to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Sets this video to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Creates a new track with this video and audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Set Asset and Create Track (default option) The button’s thumbnail does not change. • Creates a new track with this video. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. Create Track 300 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers and audio to it. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Sets this video to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Set Asset and Create Chapter Index Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers and audio to it. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Chapter Index Dragging a Still Picture to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Set Background (default option) • Uses the picture as this menu’s background. Set Overlay • Uses the picture as this menu’s overlay. This option does not create a new menu or link the button to anything. • Creates a button at this menu location and assigns this picture to its thumbnail. Create Button Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 301 Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a drop zone at this menu location and assigns this picture to it. Create Drop Zone • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this picture to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new menu with this picture as the background. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Submenu Dragging a Still Picture to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions This option does not create a menu or link the button to anything. • Sets this picture to be the button’s thumbnail image. Set Asset (default option) • Sets this picture to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Creates a new menu with this picture as the background. • Adds a link from the button to the new menu. Set Asset and Create Submenu The button’s thumbnail does not change. • Creates a new menu with this picture as the background. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Submenu Dragging a Still Picture to a Drop Zone The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Set Asset (default option) • Sets this picture to be the drop zone’s asset. This option does not create a new menu or link the button to anything. The drop zone is unaffected. • Creates a button on top of the drop zone and assigns this picture to its thumbnail. Create Button Dragging Multiple Still Pictures (or a Folder) to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions This is the only action available if you drag a folder to an empty area (uses only the still pictures of the folder’s first level). • Creates a button with the first picture assigned as its thumbnail image. • Creates a new slideshow. • Adds a link from the new button to the new slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Slideshow (default option) 302 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions This option does not create any menus or link the buttons to anything. • Creates a button for each picture, and assigns each picture as its thumbnail. Create Buttons • Creates a button for each picture. • Assigns each picture as its button’s asset. • Creates new menus with each picture as their backgrounds. • Adds a link from the new buttons to the new menus. Create Submenus Dragging Multiple Still Pictures (or a Folder) to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Sets the button’s thumbnail to the first picture. • Creates a new slideshow. • Adds a link from the button to the new slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu. Set Asset and Create Slideshow (default option) The button’s thumbnail image does not change. • Creates a new slideshow. • Adds a link from the button to the new slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Slideshow Dragging a Multiple-Layer Still Picture to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Once set, you can disable layers in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s background, with all layers visible. Set Background—All Layers Visible (default option) Once set, you can enable layers in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s background, with no layers visible. Set Background—No Layers Visible Once set, you can select the layer to use as the overlay in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s overlay, with no layers assigned to the overlay. Set Overlay This option does not create a new menu or link the button to anything. You cannot select the layers to show—because they are composited together. • Creates a button at this menu location and assigns this picture to its thumbnail, using the layers left visible by the graphics application. Create Button Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 303 Drop Palette options Actions Once set, you can disable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this picture to the button’s thumbnail, using the layers left visible by the graphics application. • Creates a new standard menu with this picture as the background, with all layers visible. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Standard Submenu Once set, you can disable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this picture to the button’s thumbnail, using the layers left visible by the graphics application. • Creates a new layered menu with this picture as the background, with all layers visible. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Layered Submenu Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Project Elements The following sections list the choices in the Drop Palette that appear when you drag project elements from the Outline or Graphical tab to an empty area or a button on a standard menu. Dragging an Existing Track to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 304 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns the video from the first video clip of stream 1 to the new button’s thumbnail. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the track. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button (default option) If the menu contains no buttons, drop zones, or text objects, this option changes to Create Chapter Index. Instead of creating a separate menu as the first chapter index menu, this menu is used. Additional chapter index menus are created if necessary. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging an Existing Track to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Sets the video from the first video clip of stream 1 to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the track. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Set Asset (default option) The button’s thumbnail does not change. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the track. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Connect to Track Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 305 Drop Palette options Actions • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Sets this track to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Set Asset and Create Chapter Index • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Chapter Index Dragging Multiple Existing Tracks to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • For each track, creates a button. • Assigns each track as its button’s asset. • Adds a link from the new buttons to the first marker of the tracks. • Sets each track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Buttons (default option) Dragging an Existing Story to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns the video from the story’s first video clip to the new button’s thumbnail. • Adds a link from the new button to the story’s first video clip. • Sets the story’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button (default option) Dragging an Existing Story to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 306 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions • Sets the video from the story’s first video clip to be the button’s thumbnail image. • Adds a link from the button to the story’s first video clip. • Sets the story’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Set Asset (default option) The button’s thumbnail does not change. • Adds a link from the button to the story’s first video clip. • Sets the story’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Connect to Story Dragging Multiple Existing Stories to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • For each story, creates a button. • Assigns each story as its button’s asset. • Adds a link from the new buttons to each story’s first video clip. • Sets each story’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Buttons (default option) Dragging a Slideshow to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns the first slide to its thumbnail. • Adds a link from the new button to the slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button (default option) If the menu contains no buttons, drop zones, or text objects, this option changes to Create Chapter Index. Instead of creating a separate menu as the first chapter index menu, this menu is used. Additional chapter index menus are created if necessary. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of slides and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each slide from the slideshow to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the picture from each slide to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button and Chapter Index Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 307 Dragging a Slideshow to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Sets the first slide’s image to be the button’s thumbnail. • Adds a link from the button to the slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Set Asset (default option) The button’s thumbnail does not change. • Adds a link from the button to the slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Connect to Slideshow • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus, depending on the number of slides and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each slide from the slideshow to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the picture from each slide to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Chapter Index Dragging Multiple Slideshows to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button for each slideshow. • Assigns each slideshow as its button’s asset. • Adds a link from the new buttons to the slideshows. • Sets each slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if they have not already been set). Create Buttons (default option) Dragging a Menu to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns the menu’s background as the button’s thumbnail. • Adds a link from the new button to the menu. Create Button (default option) Dragging a Menu to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 308 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions • Sets the menu’s background to be the button’s thumbnail. • Adds a link from the button to the menu. Set Asset (default option) • Adds a link from the button to the menu. The button’s thumbnail does not change. Connect to Menu Dragging a Script to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the script. Create Button (default option) Dragging a Script to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Connect to Script (default • Adds a link from the button to the script. option) Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Templates and Styles The following sections list the choices in the Drop Palette that appear when you drag shapes, templates, and styles from the Palette to an empty area or a button on a standard menu. Dragging a Shape to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this shape to the button. Create Button (default option) • Creates a drop zone at this menu location. • Assigns this shape to the drop zone. Create Drop Zone Dragging a Shape to a Button or Drop Zone The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 309 Drop Palette options Actions Set Shape (default option) • Assigns this shape to the button or drop zone. Only available when dragging to a drop zone. The drop zone is unaffected. • Creates a button on top of the drop zone. • Assigns this shape to the button. Create Button Dragging a Template to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Template buttons are only applied to existing buttons (no new buttons are created). An exception is if the menu has no buttons, in which case all buttons from the template will be added. Apply to Menu (default option) • Template buttons are all applied, replacing existing buttons and adding new ones (if necessary). Apply to Menu—Add All Buttons • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this template’s background to the button’s thumbnail. • Creates a new standard menu with this template. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Submenu Dragging a Template to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a new standard menu with this template. • Adds a link from the button to the new menu. Create Submenu and Apply Template (default option) Dragging a Button Style to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this style to the button. Create Button (default option) • Creates a button at this menu location. • Assigns this style to the button. • Assigns this style as the default button style for this menu. Create Button—Set Default Button Style No button is created. • Assigns this style as the default button style for this menu. Set Default Button Style Dragging a Button Style to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: 310 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method Drop Palette options Actions Apply to Button (default option) • Applies this button style to the button. Dragging a Text Style to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a text object at this menu location. • Assigns this style to the text object. Create Text Object (default option) • Creates a text object at this menu location. • Assigns this style to the text object. • Assigns this style as the default text style for this menu. Create Text Object—Set Default Text Style No text object is created. • Assigns this style as the default text style for this menu. Set Default Text Style Dragging a Text Style to a Text Object The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Apply to Text Object (default • Assigns this style to the text object. option) Dragging a Drop Zone Style to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a drop zone at this menu location. • Assigns this style to the drop zone. Create Drop Zone (default option) Dragging a Drop Zone Style to a Drop Zone The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Apply to Drop Zone (default • Assigns this style to the drop zone. option) Dragging a Layout Style to the Menu Editor The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method 311 Drop Palette options Actions • Layout style buttons are only applied to existing buttons (no new buttons are created). An exception is if the menu has no buttons, in which case all buttons from the layout style will be added. Apply to Menu (default option) • Layout style buttons are all applied, replacing existing buttons and adding new ones (if necessary). Apply to Menu—Add All Buttons 312 Chapter 13 Creating Menus Using the Standard Method DVD Studio Pro includes templates and styles that can make it easier to create menus. You can use the supplied templates and styles to quickly produce your menus, or you can make your own templates and styles. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Templates, Styles, and Shapes (p. 313) • What Are Templates and Styles? (p. 314) • Templates and Styles in the Palette (p. 316) • Applying a Template or Style (p. 321) • Setting Default Styles (p. 323) • Creating a Template or Style (p. 324) • Importing Templates and Styles (p. 326) • Deleting Templates and Styles (p. 327) • Managing Shapes (p. 329) Introduction to Templates, Styles, and Shapes DVD Studio Pro includes templates and styles that are designed to make the menu creation process quicker and easier. By applying a template or style to all menus in a project, you can create a cohesive, consistent look for your project. • You can use the supplied templates and styles to create your menus. Use a template to supply everything needed for a menu, or choose certain styles to use in combination with menus you create. • You can create your own templates and styles. This makes it easy to create a consistent look to apply to all of your menus that meets your specific needs. DVD Studio Pro also includes a shapes feature that allows you to add buttons to your menu that include the art and highlight areas. The shapes can also be used to create drop zones with irregular edges. See Managing Shapes for more information. 313 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 14 What Are Templates and Styles? Templates and styles both contain properties, such as background assets, button highlights, and text colors, that you use to create a menu. While templates cover all aspects of a menu, styles are targeted to specific areas. Applying a template to a menu can result in a mostly finished menu—you may only need to link the buttons. With styles, you generally work with an existing menu, and then use the styles to change specific areas such as a button’s shape or a text object’s font. In addition to the supplied templates and styles, you can create your own. You can import and use these templates and styles in many different projects. Each template and style can be self-contained, including the actual assets used in the template or style, such as backgrounds, audio files, and shapes. Or, they can reference assets located in a folder on your hard disk. Note: Templates and styles are in either PAL or NTSC format. You cannot use a template or style created using NTSC assets in a PAL project. The Palette only shows templates and styles that are compatible with the current project’s video standard. Additionally, templates using HD-specific resolutions (such as 1280 x 720p) or HD-specific video formats (HDV or H.264) cannot be imported into SD projects. About the Apple Templates Using the templates and styles provided with DVD Studio Pro is the quickest way to create professional looking menus. They can also help you to understand the different aspects of a template and give you ideas on how to create your own. Also, keep in mind that the Apple templates can be modified and saved as user templates. The Apple templates are installed when you install Final Cut Studio. If you chose not to install them, you can install them later by starting the Final Cut Studio install process and deselecting everything except the DVD Studio Pro content. See the Installing Your Software document included with Final Cut Studio for more information. In general, each template theme includes three templates designed for use in different situations: • Cover: Use these as the main menu. These include a text item for the menu title, one or more drop zones for you to customize their look, and several buttons that you can link to other menus and project elements. • Detail: Use these when you need to have a menu with several lines of explanation-type text. These include a text item for the menu title, one or more drop zones for you to customize their look, and several buttons. • Index: Use these for chapter index menus. These include a text item for the menu title, multiple buttons for linking to a track’s chapters, and three buttons, Back, Main, and Next, that the viewer uses to navigate to the next element. 314 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus The best way to learn what a template contains is to apply it to a menu and look for button, drop zone, and text items. Any menu item that you can assign an image to has a transparent arrowhead assigned by default. These arrows indicate menu items you can assign images to. Most of the templates contain motion backgrounds—be sure to have the menu play in the Menu Editor to see how it is intended to look. About the Template Intro Movies The Final Cut Studio installation disc includes several video assets that are intended to be used as menu intro files for specific supplied templates. These assets can be used to provide a smooth transition when a menu is selected that uses the associated template. See the “About Template Intro Movies” file, located in the Template Intro Movies folder on the installation disc for more information. Also see Using Menu Intro Clips. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 315 Templates and Styles in the Palette Templates and styles are contained in the Palette’s first two tabs. Click to select the group of templates or styles to display. See Managing Shapes for information on the Shapes tab, and Media Tabs for information on the Audio, Stills, and Video tabs. You can choose either small or large as the size for the thumbnails that appear in the Palette in the General pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. See General Preferences for more information on the preferences. Template and Style Groups To see the available templates and styles, you click the buttons at the top of the tabs. There are three choices for templates and four for styles: • Apple: The templates and styles provided by DVD Studio Pro. These are available to all projects. • Custom: The templates and styles you create and do not designate as “Project.” These are available to all projects. • Project: The templates and styles you create for use only in a specific project. These do not appear when you are working on other projects. Note: You must have saved your project before you can create a template or style belonging to the project group. • Current: For styles only, these are the styles that have been linked to the template assigned to the current menu. See Linking Styles to Templates for more information. 316 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus Style Types In addition to the style group you select, when you click the Styles tab in the Palette, you also need to select the type of style. Click to select the style type to display. There are four style types you can choose from: • Buttons: Contains almost all settings (except navigation and jump settings) from the Button Inspector. • Text: Contains the font, size, color, rotation, and default text. • Drop Zones: Contains details about drop zones. • Layouts: Contains locations, sizes, shapes, and other attributes of one or more buttons on a menu. Linking Styles to Templates You can link, or associate, styles to templates. That way, if you apply a template to a menu and then want to use a different button style on one of the buttons, you can choose to see only those button styles that have been linked to that template. This makes it easier to create menus based on families of templates and styles, helping you maintain a consistent look while creating a project. Once you have applied a template to a menu, you can see which styles are linked to that template by selecting the Current view in the Styles tab in the Palette. When you select a style type (buttons, text, layouts, or drop zones), only the styles linked to that menu appear. Note: You can only link the styles you create to templates. The supplied Apple styles are already linked to the Apple templates. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 317 To link a style to a template 1 Control-click a style, then choose Link to Templates from the shortcut menu. A selection dialog that lists all templates appears. 2 Select the checkbox next to all templates that you want to link this style to. Because menus keep track of the last template applied to them, you can open a menu at any time and, by selecting the Current view in the Styles tab, see those styles linked to the menu’s template. Note: If no template is applied to the menu, or no styles have been linked to the template, no styles appear when the Current view is selected. About Template and Style Properties Properties define the look and content of templates and styles. For example, properties define what kind of menu background a template has, how many buttons a layout style has, and where the buttons are located on the menu. Not all templates and styles need to use all of the properties available to them. For example, you can create a set of templates that have no menu background—when they are applied to an existing menu, the menu’s current background is maintained while other template properties, such as groups of buttons and text objects, are added to the menu. A template contains the properties of each of the four styles plus some additional properties. See the following sections for details: • Button Style Properties • Text Style Properties • Drop Zone Style Properties • Layout Style Properties • Other Template Properties Button Style Properties Button styles and all buttons in a template contain the following properties. Templates also contain the following properties as the default button style, used when a Drop Palette action requires new buttons to be created on the menu. See Setting Default Styles for information on setting a default button style. • Size: The width and height of the button’s active area 318 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus • Asset: The asset file assigned to the button and the timecode setting below the thumbnail. When a button style is applied to an existing button, this asset only appears if the existing button does not already have an asset assigned. • Motion: Whether or not motion has been enabled for the asset • Shape: The shape file assigned to the button • Shadow: Whether or not the menu’s drop shadow has been enabled for the shape • Color Set: Which of the three highlight sets the button uses • Auto Action: Whether or not Auto Action has been enabled for the button • Invisible: Whether or not the button has been set to be invisible • Default Text: The actual text that the button uses. When a button style is applied to an existing button, this text only appears if the existing button does not already have text. • Font: The font’s name and size used for the button text • Text Color: The text’s color • Text Position: The text’s position on the button (top, left, right, center, or bottom) • Text Offset: The offset values for the text’s position • Text Shadow: Whether or not the menu’s drop shadow has been enabled for the text • Text in Highlight: Whether or not the text is included in the button’s highlight Text Style Properties Text styles and all text objects in a template contain the following properties. Templates also contain the following properties as the default text style, used when you double-click the menu background to create a text object. See Setting Default Styles for information on setting a default text style. • Default Text: The actual text that the text object uses. This text does not appear when a text style is applied to an existing text object. • Font: The font’s name and size used for the text object • Text Color: The text’s color • Rotation: The rotation setting used for the text object Drop Zone Style Properties Drop zone styles contain the following properties. Templates contain the following properties for each of their drop zones. • Size: The width and height of the drop zone’s active area • Asset: The asset file assigned to the drop zone and the timecode setting below the thumbnail. When a drop zone style is applied to an existing drop zone, this asset only appears if the existing drop zone does not already have an asset assigned. • Shape: The shape file assigned to the drop zone Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 319 • Shadow: Whether or not the menu’s drop shadow has been enabled for the drop zone • Rotation: The rotation setting used for the drop zone • Motion: Whether or not motion has been enabled for the asset Layout Style Properties Layout styles and templates contain the following properties. • Position/Size: The position and size of all buttons in the layout • Button Assets: The assets assigned to the buttons. This asset does not appear when a layout style is applied to a menu with buttons already containing assets. This asset only appears if the existing buttons do not already have an asset assigned. • Button Shapes: The shapes assigned to the buttons • Button Text: The text assigned to the buttons. This text does not appear when a layout style is applied to a menu with buttons already containing text. This text only appears if the existing buttons do not already have text assigned. • Default Button: The button number of the button assigned as the default button. This is the button selected when the menu appears, unless the connection to the menu specified a different button. • Guides: The guide configuration, including the number of guides and their positions Other Template Properties In addition to the button, text, drop zone, and layout style properties, templates contain the following properties: • Default Button Style: The default button style is used when a Drop Palette action requires new buttons to be created on the menu. See Setting Default Styles for information on setting a default button style. • Default Text Style: The default text style is used when you double-click the menu background to create a text object. See Setting Default Styles for information on setting a default text style. • Background Asset: The name of the asset assigned to the menu as the background • Overlay: The name of the asset assigned to the menu as the subpicture overlay • Audio Asset: The name of the audio asset assigned to the menu • Drop Zones: All drop zones added to the menu. Each drop zone includes its own settings. • Text Objects: All text objects added to the menu. Each text object includes its own settings. • Color: The color mapping settings for the menu. These include the color and opacity assigned to each button state for each of the three color sets, as well as the Color Palette’s 16 colors. • Mapping Type: Whether the menu uses the chroma or grayscale mapping type 320 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus • Motion: The timecode values for the start, loop point, end, and duration settings, as well as the action for the menu’s end • Shadow: The drop shadow settings that the buttons, text objects, and drop zones can use • Display Mode: Whether the menu uses a 4:3,16:9 Pan-Scan, 16:9 Letterbox, or 16:9 Pan-Scan & Letterbox display mode • Resolution: The video resolution of the video background • Transitions: All transitions assigned to the menu and its buttons Applying a Template or Style When you select a template or style in the Palette, it does not affect the menu until you click the Apply button. Before you click Apply, it is important to make sure that the Menu Editor is displaying the correct menu, and in the case of some of the styles, that the correct items in that menu are selected. Note: The Menu Editor always has a menu assigned to it, and it is that menu that templates and styles are applied to. Templates and styles can be applied to a menu even if you are working on a different element, such as a track. The Menu Editor does not even have to be visible. You do not need to select anything in the menu before applying templates or layout styles. These items can be applied to an existing menu or a new empty one. Important: Applying a template to a menu changes the menu’s resolution and display mode to match the template (if they are different). Applying layout styles (or any of the other styles) does not change the menu’s resolution or display mode. In the case of layout styles, the layout is scaled to match the menu’s current resolution. For the button, text, and drop zone styles, you can either select one or more items in an existing menu before applying the style, or you can drag the style to an item. Styles are applied only to selected items in an existing menu, so you can actually use multiple versions of these styles on a single menu. For example, if you want the buttons on a menu to use different shapes, you can set up several different styles to provide those shapes. Note: Applying a template or style to a menu is a one-time action—the menu does not become locked to the template or style. You can make changes to the menu just as if you had manually configured it. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 321 Using the Palette’s Apply Button The Palette includes an Apply button that you can use to apply the selected template or style to a menu. When applying button, text, or drop zone styles using the Apply button, the style is applied to all selected items at once. When dragging, you can only apply the style to one item. To apply a template or style using the Apply button 1 Make sure the Menu Editor is displaying the correct menu. 2 In the case of the button, text, and drop zone styles, select the item on the menu to apply the style to. 3 Select the template or style to apply to the menu. 4 Click Apply. The Apply button is unavailable if more than one template or style is selected. You can also apply a template or style by double-clicking it. Dragging Templates and Styles to a Menu In addition to the Palette’s Apply button, you can apply templates and styles by dragging them to the menu. The Menu Editor’s Drop Palette appears when you drag templates and styles to it. The Drop Palette provides options not available when using the Apply button. For example, you can drag a button style to an empty area of the Menu Editor and create a new button with it. With the Apply button, you need to select an existing button before the style can be applied. The area to which you drag the template or style determines the options available to you. For example, if you drag a template to an empty part of the menu, you have the options of applying it to the menu, applying it to the menu and adding all buttons, and creating a submenu. If you drag a template to an existing button, your only option is to create a submenu and apply this template to it. See Drop Palette for Standard Menus—Dragging Templates and Styles for a complete list of options. To apply a template or style by dragging 1 Make sure the Menu Editor is displaying the correct menu. 2 Select the template or style to apply to the menu and drag it to the Menu Editor. Be sure to drag it to an empty area or to an existing item, depending on how you want to apply the template or style. If you select more than one item before dragging, only the item you actually drag gets applied to the menu—the others are ignored. 322 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus Applying Templates or Layout Styles to a Menu with Buttons When you apply a template or layout style to a menu that already has buttons, you are given the option of adding only enough buttons to replace the existing ones, or of adding all template or layout style buttons. If the menu has more buttons than the template or layout style, all buttons are added with the extra ones on the menu remaining unchanged. When replacing existing buttons, DVD Studio Pro first looks at their names to see if they match the names of any buttons in the template or layout. If an existing button and a new button have the same name, the link and asset of the original button are copied to the new button. By carefully naming your buttons, you can apply one template after another to a menu and still maintain the original button settings. To be able to switch templates easily while using the templates and layout styles supplied with DVD Studio Pro, you need to name the buttons on your menus according to the button-naming convention used by DVD Studio Pro. In the Apple templates and layout styles provided with DVD Studio Pro, button names fall into two categories: general-purpose buttons and special-purpose buttons. General-Purpose Buttons General-purpose buttons use the DVD Studio Pro default naming structure for buttons, starting with “Button 1.” Additionally, the Apple templates and layout styles can have assets and text assigned to each of the general-purpose buttons. When you create a chapter index menu, DVD Studio Pro checks each button to see if it has an asset assigned—if it does, the asset is changed to match the marker’s video. Similarly, if the button has text assigned, it is replaced with each marker’s name. Special-Purpose Buttons Any buttons not intended to link to chapter markers have underscores before and after their names—this causes DVD Studio Pro to ignore them when assigning chapter markers to buttons. The Apple templates and layout styles include three of these: _NEXT_ (to link to the next chapter index menu), _PREV_ (to link to the previous chapter index menu), and _UP_ to link to the original menu (if applicable). These three buttons automatically link to the appropriate menus when used to create a chapter index menu. See About Chapter Index Menus for more information on chapter index menus. Setting Default Styles You can set a default button and text style for each menu. Additionally, you can choose a default text style for the entire project in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 323 DVD Studio Pro uses the default button style any time you create a button, whether by dragging the pointer in the Menu Editor or dragging an asset to the Menu Editor and choosing an option from the Drop Palette that creates buttons. The default text style is used whenever you add a text object to any menu in a project. You can also set a default text style for each menu. The text style includes the font, its size, and its color. It can also include default text. You can set the default button and text styles by dragging the style to the Menu Editor or using shortcut menus. Important: Setting the default button or text style for a menu only affects that menu—each menu has its own default button and text style settings. To set a button or text style as the menu default by dragging 1 Select a button or text style in the Palette and drag it to the Menu Editor. 2 When the Drop Palette appears, choose Set Default Button (or Text) Style. To set a button or text object as the menu default in the Palette μ In the Palette, Control-click the button or text object you want to use as the default, then choose Set as Default from the shortcut menu. To set a button or text object as the menu default in the Menu Editor μ In the Menu Editor, Control-click the button or text object you want to use as the default, then choose Set as Default from the shortcut menu. Additionally, you can set the default button and text styles for a menu when you apply a template. See Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences for information on setting a default text style in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Creating a Template or Style While creating a template or style is not difficult, it is worth spending some planning time so that you can make the templates and styles as useful as possible. To create a template or style 1 Configure a standard menu to match what you want the template or style to be. If you’re creating a template or a layout style, use care to name the buttons and create them in the correct order. See About Button Numbers and Applying Templates or Layout Styles to a Menu with Buttons for details. 2 If you’re creating a button, text, or drop zone style, select the specific item on the menu whose settings you want to include in the style. For templates and layout styles, you do not need to select anything on the menu. 324 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 3 Do one of the following: • Choose Project > Create in Menu > Template or Project > Create in Menu > Style. • Click Create in the Palette. The Create Template or Create Style dialog opens. Select Self-Contained to copy the assets in this template or style to its file. Leave unselected to have the template or style reference the assets. The thumbnail of the template or style Select Project to have this template or style available to only this project. Enter the name of the template or style. 4 Enter a name for the template or style. 5 Select the Project checkbox if you want the template or style to be available only to this project. Leaving this unselected makes this template or style available to all projects on this system. 6 Select the Self-Contained checkbox to copy the assets used by this template or style into its file. This makes it easier to copy the file to another system where it can be imported by another project. 7 Click Save. The template or style is now saved and appears in the Palette. About Self-Contained Templates and Styles A template or style can use a surprising number of assets. Motion backgrounds and assets assigned to the button thumbnails can be very large files. In many cases, templates and styles you create that use motion assets will be specific to a particular project. In these cases, there is no reason to save them as self-contained. If you are creating a template or style and want to be sure it will always have the assets it requires, you can save it as self-contained. In this case, the assets are added to the template or style’s file. This makes it possible to copy the file to a different system and still have a working version of it. The drawback is that the file may be very large. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 325 Locations of Template and Style Files Template and style files are placed in different locations based on whether or not they are project-exclusive. When you import template and style files, they are also copied to these locations. Custom Template and Style Files When you save a template that is not specific to a project, it is placed at the root of your disk, in this location: /Library/Application Support/DVD Studio Pro/Templates. All template files have a “.dsptemplate” extension. Style files are placed at the same location, in a Styles folder: /Library/Application Support/DVD Studio Pro/Styles. All style files have a “.dspstyle” extension, regardless of the type of style they are. To avoid confusion, be sure to indicate the style type when naming your style. Project Template and Style Files When you save a project template or style, it is added to the project bundle file (the file created when you save your project). Project templates and styles cannot be shared with other projects or systems. If you want to share them, you can add a menu to your project, apply the template or style to it, and then create a new template or style from the menu, setting it so that it is not specific to the project. This creates a new template or style file in the folders mentioned above. Apple Template and Style Files The Apple template and style files provided with DVD Studio Pro are at /Library/Application Support/Final Cut Studio/DVD Studio Pro/. Because these are the same for all DVD Studio Pro systems, there is no reason to copy these to another system. Naming Buttons in Your Templates and Styles If you create a template or layout style, you should follow a consistent button-naming convention. This will allow you to apply different templates or styles, one after the other, without having to reconfigure your buttons. For information on the button-naming conventions used in DVD Studio Pro templates and layout styles, see Applying Templates or Layout Styles to a Menu with Buttons. Importing Templates and Styles You can import templates and styles from other systems. When you import a template or style, it is copied to the same locations used when you create a custom or project template or style. See Locations of Template and Style Files for more information. To import a template or style using the File menu 1 Choose either File > Import > Style or File > Import > Template. 326 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 2 Use the import dialog to navigate to the templates or styles you want to import. You can select a single file or multiple files. 3 Select the Project checkbox if you want the template or style to be available to this project only. Deselecting Project makes this template or style available to all projects on this system. 4 Click Import to import the files. To import a template or style using the Palette 1 Click the Templates or Styles tab in the Palette. Note: When importing a style, it is not necessary to select the proper style type (button, layout, and so on). All style types can be imported. 2 Control-click in the Palette’s thumbnail area, then choose Import from the shortcut menu. 3 Use the import dialog to navigate to the templates or styles you want to import. You can select a single file or multiple files. 4 Select the Project checkbox if you want the template or style to be available to this project only. Deselecting Project makes this template or style available to all projects on this system. 5 Click Import to import the files. The imported templates and styles appear in the Palette and are ready for use. There are several factors that determine how well an imported template or style will work on your system. • Templates and styles only work with the video standard (NTSC or PAL) of the system on which they were created. You cannot import templates and styles from one standard into the other. • Self-contained templates and styles work on all systems using the same video standard, regardless of what assets they contain or how they are arranged. • Referencing templates and styles requires the assets to be in the same location on the new system as they were on the original system. Any assets that cannot be found when a template or style is applied are skipped, leaving those areas of the menu empty. Deleting Templates and Styles You can delete templates and styles once you no longer need them. To delete a template or style 1 Select the template or style to delete. You can select multiple items to delete. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 327 2 Do one of the following: • Control-click the item to be deleted, then choose Delete Selected Template or Delete Selected Style from the shortcut menu. • Click Delete at the bottom of the Palette. 3 A dialog appears, warning that deleting this item may affect this and other projects. Click OK. Note: You cannot delete a template or style that contains assets currently in use on a menu. The template or style is deleted. Deleting Really Deletes When you delete a template or style, the file is actually deleted from the disk. You cannot undo a deletion. This can be a serious issue if the template or style is self-contained because the assets used in the template or style are also deleted. Any projects that used the deleted template or style will no longer be able to access those assets, and you will need to relink their assets. Deleting Apple Templates and Styles You cannot delete the Apple templates supplied with DVD Studio Pro; however, you can delete the Apple styles. If you later decide you want to use the deleted styles, you must reinstall DVD Studio Pro to get them back. 328 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus Managing Shapes The Palette contains a Shapes tab. You can use this tab to view thumbnails of the shapes, drag the shapes to the Menu Editor to use them as buttons or drop zones, and import shapes that you have created. You can choose either small or large as the size for the thumbnails in the Palette in the General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. See General Preferences for more information on the preferences. Two Types of Shapes There are two types of shapes that are available: normal and patches. You can create your own normal shapes; however, patches only come with DVD Studio Pro, and you cannot create your own. What’s a Patch? Patches are shapes that are able to modify the assigned asset. For example, a shape may add a tint or a blur filter to the assigned asset. Some patches have a motion element although most are static. Patches can be positioned and sized just like normal shapes, and have still or video assets assigned to them. Unlike normal shapes, you are not able to create custom patches. Patches appear in the Apple group of the Shapes tab along with the normal shapes. You can tell which shapes are patches by choosing Patch Shapes in the Button Inspector’s Style tab. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 329 Applying a Shape You can apply a shape to an existing button or drop zone (or group of buttons or drop zones) on a menu, or you can create a new button when you apply the shape. The method you use to apply the shape (use the Apply button or drag the shapes) determines what you are able to do. Shapes are sorted into three groups: • Apple: The shapes provided by DVD Studio Pro. These are available to all projects. Note: Not all shapes supplied with DVD Studio Pro support highlights. Some are intended to be used only with drop zones and do not include the highlight layer used by buttons. • Custom: The shapes you import and designate as available to all projects created on this system • Project: The shapes you import for use only in this project. These will not appear when you are working on other projects. The Shapes tab in the Palette includes buttons so that you can choose which of these groups of shapes to view. To apply a shape using the Apply button 1 In the Palette, select the shape’s group (Apple, Custom, or Project), then select the shape you want to apply. 2 In the Menu Editor, do one of the following: • To apply the shape to an existing button or drop zone: Select the button or drop zone. • To apply the shape to a group of buttons or drop zones: Select the buttons or drop zones by holding down the Shift key while clicking them. 3 Click Apply. The shape is applied to the selected items. Note: The Apply button is disabled if you select more than one shape in the Palette. You cannot create a new button or drop zone using the Apply button. To apply a shape by dragging 1 In the Palette, select the shape’s group (Apple, Custom, or Project) so that the shape’s thumbnail appears. 2 Drag the shape from the Palette to the Menu Editor, then do one of the following: • To apply the shape to an existing button or drop zone: Drag the shape to it. • To create a new button or drop zone: Drag the shape to an empty area of the menu and when the Drop Palette appears, choose either Create Button or Create Drop Zone. 330 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus Note: You cannot apply the shape to multiple existing buttons or drop zones by dragging. To assign a shape in the Button Inspector 1 In the Menu Editor, select the button to which you want to apply the shape. 2 Click the Style tab in the Button Inspector. 3 Choose a shape group from the Shape pop-up menu, then choose the shape to use from the submenu. A thumbnail of the shape appears in the Button Inspector and the shape is applied to the button. When you create a new button by dragging a shape to the Menu Editor, the shape is added to the menu at its actual size. This can be important if you intend your shapes to be a specific size when used on a menu. (When shapes are applied to an existing button, they are squeezed to fit it, which can distort it significantly.) Importing a Shape You can import shapes that you create. See Creating Shapes for information on creating shapes. When you import shapes, you choose whether they are specific to a project or shared. To import a shape 1 Click Import in the Shape tab in the Palette. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 331 2 In the selection dialog that appears, locate and select the shape (or shapes) to import. Select if you want the imported shapes to be used only with this project. 3 Select the Project checkbox if you want the shapes to be used only with this project. Deselect the checkbox to make them available to all projects on this system. 4 Click Import. The imported shapes now appear in their group (Project or Custom). For custom shapes, the shape file is copied to the [root]/Library/Application Support/DVD Studio Pro/Shapes folder. For project shapes, the shape is copied to the project bundle. (Apple shapes are contained in the DVD Studio Pro application bundle.) Updating a Shape When you create a custom shape, you will often find, once you’ve applied it to a button or drop zone on a menu, that you need to make an adjustment to it. For example, you might need to make the highlight area larger. To reimport a shape 1 Click Import in the Shape tab in the Palette. 2 In the selection dialog that appears, locate and select the shape (or shapes) to reimport. 3 Select the Project checkbox if the shapes are used only with this project. Deselect the checkbox if they are available to all projects on this system. 4 Click Import. A dialog appears, stating that the shape already exists. 5 Click Replace to import the new versions of the shapes, replacing the existing ones. 332 Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus To see the new versions of the shapes, either in places they are already in use or in new places you want to use them, you must save your project, close it, and then open it again. Any older versions of the shapes are updated to the new versions. Deleting a Shape You can delete one or more shapes. To delete a shape 1 In the Palette, select the shape’s group (Apple, Custom, or Project) that contains the shape or shapes to be deleted. Note: If you delete an Apple shape, you must reinstall DVD Studio Pro to get the shape back. 2 Select the shape or shapes to delete. Use the Shift key to select multiple shapes. 3 Click the Shape tab’s Delete button. The shape’s file is deleted from its location (as determined by its group). Note: You cannot delete a shape that is currently in use on a menu. Chapter 14 Using Templates, Styles, and Shapes to Create Your Menus 333 The layered method allows you to create independent versions of each button for each of the three states. This gives you great flexibility in changing a button’s appearance when it is selected and activated. This chapter covers the following: • About Layered Menus (p. 335) • Choosing the Menu’s Background (p. 336) • Choosing the Menu’s Overlay (p. 338) • About the Menu Inspector for Layered Menus (p. 338) • Adding Buttons to Your Layered Menu (p. 343) • About Layered Menu Button Properties (p. 344) • Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus (p. 348) • Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Assets (p. 349) • Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Project Elements (p. 353) About Layered Menus When you create menus using the layered method, you specify independent 24-bit layers in an Adobe Photoshop file (PSD) for each state (normal, selected, and activated) of each button (as opposed to using an overlay or shapes, as you do with the standard method). See Layered Menu Creation Method for a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Menus created with the layered method can also use overlays. See Choosing the Menu’s Overlay for details on using overlays. See Starting and Working with a Menu for information on creating a layered menu, naming it, and adding assets to it. Note: You cannot change an existing menu from one kind of menu (standard or layered) to the other. 335 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 15 Choosing the Menu’s Background Layered menus must use the same PSD file for both the menu’s background and the layered buttons. Because of this requirement, only PSD files with multiple layers can be used as backgrounds for layered menus. For best quality, be sure your graphic: • Matches the menu’s resolution and aspect ratio (4:3 or 16:9): If you are creating 16:9 menus in SD projects, or with the 720 x 480p, 720 x 576p, or 1440 x 1080i HD resolutions in HD projects, be sure the graphic is anamorphic. See Creating Graphics to Use in Menus and Choosing an Aspect Ratio for details. • Conforms to the broadcast video color space: Graphics that look stunning in your graphics program can look very different when viewed on DVD. Most graphics applications let you scale colors to NTSC or PAL color space. DVD Studio Pro automatically scales the size of the background graphic to fit the frame size if necessary, which can result in the menu’s background color appearing along some edges. There are several ways to assign a background to a menu. Use the method that you feel most comfortable with. In all cases, these methods also replace an existing background. Assigning a Menu Background Using the Inspector You can assign a menu background using the Inspector. With this method, you can only choose from assets already imported into DVD Studio Pro. To assign a menu background using the Inspector 1 Select the menu and make sure the Menu Inspector displays the menu properties. 2 Click the General tab in the Inspector (if it’s not already visible). 3 Choose a background from the Background pop-up menu. The selected file appears as the menu background, with all layers hidden. You can choose which layers to show in the Menu Inspector. Assigning a Menu Background by Dragging You can assign a background to a menu by dragging the asset from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. To assign a menu background by dragging it to the Menu Editor 1 Select the menu in the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or choose it from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu to display it in the Menu Editor. 2 Locate the background file you want to use in the Assets tab, Palette, or Finder window. 3 Drag the asset to an empty part of the Menu Editor and pause until the Drop Palette appears. 336 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 4 Choose one of the following: • Set Background—All Layers Visible: To show all layers in the file. • Set Background—No Layers Visible: To hide all layers in the file. The background appears in the Menu Editor. You can choose which layers to show in the Menu Inspector. To assign a menu background by dragging it to the Outline or Graphical tab 1 Click the Outline or Graphical tab and select the menu you want to assign the background to. 2 Locate the background file you want to use in the Assets tab, Palette, or Finder window. 3 Assign the background file to the menu by dragging the file to the menu’s name or tile. A box appears around the name or tile to let you know the menu will receive the background file. The background appears in the Menu Editor, with all layers hidden, when you select the menu. You can then choose which layers to show in the Menu Inspector. Choosing a Menu’s Background from a Layered Photoshop File You can choose a layer (or several) from an Adobe Photoshop format (PSD) file to use as the menu background. One PSD file can supply backgrounds and overlays for several menus. To choose a menu background from a PSD file 1 Either create a new menu or select an existing one. 2 Click the General tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Assign the PSD as the menu’s background by doing one of the following: • Choose it from the Background Asset pop-up menu in the Menu Inspector. • Drag it to the Menu Editor and choose Set Background from the Drop Palette. The PSD file’s layer names appear in the Background area of the General tab. 4 Select the checkboxes next to the layers that make up the background. Choose the background from this pop-up menu. Select these checkboxes to make the layers part of the background. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 337 Choosing the Menu’s Overlay You can use overlays with layered menus as well as with standard menus. Every aspect of using them, from selecting the file and configuring its color mapping, is identical to how you use overlays in a standard menu. See Choosing the Menu’s Overlay for information on adding an overlay to your layered menu. See Understanding Color Mapping for information on configuring color mapping for simple and advanced overlays. About the Menu Inspector for Layered Menus The tabs within the Layered Menu Inspector provide a variety of menu configuration settings. These settings control everything from background and overlay configuration, to transition and timeout settings. The Layered Menu Inspector has five tabs: General, Menu, Transition, Colors, and Advanced. Settings at the Top of the Layered Menu Inspector The top of the Layered Menu Inspector contains two settings. • Name: Enter the name for this menu. • Est. Size: Displays the estimated amount of disc space the menu requires based on the assigned assets. 338 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method General Tab in the Layered Menu Inspector The General tab in the Layered Menu Inspector is divided into three sections: The upper section contains the menu timeout settings, the middle section contains the background configuration settings, and the lower section contains the overlay configuration settings. Menu timeout settings Background settings Overlay settings Menu Timeout Settings • At End: Choose whether the menu displays indefinitely (Still) or performs a jump action if there is no activity for a period of time (Timeout). • Sec: Active only when At End is set to Timeout. Enter the number of seconds the menu appears before jumping to the Action setting. • Action: Choose the element to jump to once the timeout ends. Background Settings • Background: Choose the layered PSD file to use as the menu’s background. • Show: Select the checkboxes next to each layer that you want to appear as part of the background. Overlay Settings • Overlay: Choose the file to use as the menu’s overlay file. Set this only if you want to use both overlay-based buttons and layered buttons on this menu. • Show: Select the checkbox next to the layer you want to use as the overlay for the menu. Unlike backgrounds where you can select multiple layers, you can only select a single layer for use as an overlay. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 339 Menu Tab in the Layered Menu Inspector Most settings in the Menu tab in the Layered Menu Inspector are optional. An exception is the Aspect Ratio setting, which must be set correctly for each menu. • Default Button: Choose the button to be selected when the menu appears during playback of the title. This setting can be overridden by any element that jumps to this menu, based on its jump setting, and the Highlight Condition setting. • Return Button: Choose the project element to jump to if you press the Return button on the DVD player’s remote control. • Highlight Condition: Provides an alternative method to the Default Button setting for determining which button to highlight. When Highlight Condition is set to Default, the Default Button setting supplies the button highlight setting. When Highlight Condition is set to one of its stream settings (audio, subtitle, camera angle), the number of the stream last played determines the button to highlight. This setting can be overridden by any element that jumps to this menu, based on its jump setting. • Language: Choose the language in which this menu should be displayed. See Using Languages with Menus for more information. • Resolution: Choose the menu’s resolution. • For SD projects: The resolution is either 720 x 480i (NTSC) or 720 x 576i (PAL). • For HD projects: You can choose from any of the supported resolutions. DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a setting for the default resolution. The resolution automatically changes to match the menu’s background video resolution if it matches one of the supported resolutions. Choosing a resolution different than that used by the menu’s background video results in the menu being scaled and rendered to this setting when you build the project. 340 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method • Display Mode: Set the aspect ratio for this menu (4:3 or 16:9). With 16:9, you also choose how it will display on a 4:3 monitor. The aspect ratio of the background and overlay must match this setting. See Working with 16:9 Menus for more information. • Number Pad: Defines which buttons are directly accessible by a DVD player’s numeric keypad. Choose All, None, or a button number from the pop-up menu. When you choose a button number, that button and all buttons less than that number are accessible via the numeric keypad—buttons greater than this value are blocked from direct access. • Btn Offset: You can use this setting to offset button numbers so they make sense to a viewer who wants to select a button by entering its number. For example, you may have a set of scene selection menus with numbered scenes. One of the menus may have scenes 23 to 34, with the button for scene 23 being the first button on the menu. If you enter an offset value of 22 for this menu, when the viewer enters 23 on the remote control, 22 is subtracted from it, with the result being 1—the button’s actual number. Transition Tab in the Layered Menu Inspector The Transition tab is used to configure a button transition for this menu. See Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors for details on this tab. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 341 Colors Tab in the Layered Menu Inspector The Colors tab is identical to the Menu Inspector for standard menus. See Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Simple Selected and Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected for information on the Colors tab. Advanced Tab in the Layered Menu Inspector The Advanced tab in the Layered Menu Inspector contains settings that are used only in specialized projects. Disabled User Operations Settings • Disabled User Operations: Select the functions that you want to be disabled while this menu plays. See User Operations for more information. 342 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Playback Options Settings • Pre-Script: Choose a script to run before the menu appears. This script can decide whether to show the menu or configure the DVD player before showing it. See Pre-Scripts for information on pre-scripts. • DVD@CCESS: Selecting this checkbox allows you to add DVD@CCESS links, which provide additional functionality to your title when played on a computer. See DVD@CCESS for more information. • Display Condition: Selecting this enables the Display Condition settings which control whether this menu should be displayed or not, and to define what should be displayed if not this menu. See Display Condition for more information. Adding Buttons to Your Layered Menu There are two button types you can add to a layered menu: layered buttons and overlay buttons. In both cases, the first step is to create a button active area. See Creating Menus Using the Standard Method. Once you create the active areas, you can configure the buttons. For overlay buttons, see Using Simple Overlay Color Mapping and Using Advanced Overlay Color Mapping for details. For layered buttons, see Configuring a Layered Button. Mixing Overlay Buttons with Layered Buttons So that you can combine overlay and layered buttons on the same menu, the color mapping settings are active at all times—even when you aren’t adding an overlay to the menu. If you see an unexpected color appear in the active areas in any of the button states (normal, selected, or activated), you need to configure the color mapping settings. If no overlay file is assigned to a layered menu, a plain white image is used in place of the overlay file. If the color mapping settings apply a color to white, that color will appear in the active areas. When working with a layered menu without an assigned overlay file, you must either: • Select Simple as the Overlay Colors setting. This automatically sets white to be fully transparent. • Select Advanced as the Overlay Colors setting, then set the opacity for white to 0 for each selection state. Configuring a Layered Button Configuring a layered button is a matter of selecting layers in the menu’s PSD file to display in the three button states (normal, selected, and activated). To configure a layered button 1 Click in the button’s active area. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 343 The Button Inspector appears. 2 Set the button’s connection by choosing an element from the target pop-up menu in the top section of the Button Inspector. 3 Click the Layers tab. A list of all layers in the PSD file appears. The normal button state column The selected button state column The activated button state column 4 Select the checkbox in the Normal column next to the layer to display when this button is not selected or activated. You can select more than one layer. If the normal state for the button is already part of the background, you do not need to select layers in the Normal column. 5 Select the checkbox in the Selected column next to the layer to display when this button is selected. You can select more than one layer. 6 Select the checkbox in the Activated column next to the layer to display when this button is activated. You can select more than one layer. 7 To verify the layer settings, use the Menu Editor’s button state icons to select the state (normal, selected, or activated) to display. Shows the selected state. Shows the activated state. Shows the normal state. You need to repeat this process for each layered button in your menu. About Layered Menu Button Properties The Layered Button Inspector has four tabs: Button, Layers, Colors, and Transition. 344 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Settings at the Top of the Layered Button Inspector The top of the Layered Button Inspector has three settings. • Name: By default, buttons manually added to a menu are named “Button _,” where “_” is the button number on that menu. To reduce confusion when viewing a list of the menu’s buttons, it is helpful to rename the buttons based on their functions. Next to the button’s name is its number. This number is based on the order in which the buttons are added to the menu. See About Button Numbers for information on changing this number and why it can be important. • Target: You can use this pop-up menu to define a button’s action when activated. (You can also use the Connections tab or Control-click the button.) Often you must set the connection later because what you want to jump to has not yet been added to the project. The pop-up menu contains all possible project elements you can jump to. Button Tab in the Layered Button Inspector The Button tab in the Layered Button Inspector contains settings that allow you to customize the selected button. • Navigation: This area lets you set the actions that take place when the viewer uses the arrow buttons on the DVD player’s remote control to navigate around the title. Because this is the typical way the title will be viewed, it is important to spend some time configuring the navigation in a logical, predictable way. See Configuring Button Navigation for information. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 345 • Angle/Audio/Subtitle Streams: Use these three pop-up menus to connect a button to specific audio, subtitle, and angle streams to play back. For the subtitle stream, you can also choose whether subtitles should appear. • Auto Action: If you enable Auto Action for a button, it activates automatically as soon as it is navigated to, without the viewer needing to press Enter. This is useful in menus, such as scene selection menus, in which you use Next and Previous buttons; you can assume that if viewers navigate to the Next or Previous button, they want to activate it. Note: With overlay-based buttons, if you select this option, only the activated color mapping appears when the button is navigated to, skipping the selected color mapping. • Invisible: Applies to overlay-based buttons. Allows you to have a button that does not display highlights in the normal, selected, or activated state. This is useful when you want to have a menu with text and no visible buttons. The text could tell the viewer to press the Enter button to go to the next menu or start playback (or whatever the button is set to jump to). • Highlight: Applies to overlay-based buttons. Allows you to choose the color mapping set to assign to this button. • Coordinates & Size: This area lets you set the location of each edge of the button’s active area, plus the area’s height and width. The upper-left corner of the menu is at pixel 0, line 0. You can enter values for each edge, allowing you to precisely position and size the button’s active area. (You can also drag the active area and each of its edges with the pointer.) 346 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Layers Tab in the Layered Button Inspector The Layers tab in the Layered Button Inspector lists the layers in the PSD file assigned as the menu’s background. There are three columns of checkboxes—normal (on the left), selected (in the center), and activated (on the right)—next to each layer. For the current button, you select at least one layer to appear when the button is selected, and a second layer to appear when the button is activated. You do not need to select a layer for the button’s normal state if it is part of the menu’s background. Colors Tab in the Layered Button Inspector The Colors tab is identical to the one used in the Button and Menu Inspectors for standard menus. See Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Simple Selected and Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected for details on using this tab. Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 347 Transition Tab in the Layered Button Inspector The Transition tab is used to configure a button transition for this button. See Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors for details on this tab. Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus Following are descriptions of the various Drop Palette options that can appear when you drag an asset or element to the Menu Editor. See Viewing the Drop Palette for information on using the Drop Palette options. The following descriptions are grouped by the type of item you are dragging (asset, project element such as a track or slideshow, and a template, style, or shape from the Palette). Details for standard menus are listed first, followed by the details for the layered menus. For those Drop Palette options that appear when you drag a motion video asset, a matching audio asset is also added (if applicable), as long as: • The “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences is selected. • An audio file with the same base name as the video file is located in the same folder as the video asset. The following details assume the “Find matching audio when dragging” preference is selected and a suitable audio file is found. 348 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Assets The following sections list the choices in the Drop Palette that appear when you drag assets to an empty area or button in a layered menu. Dragging a Motion Video Asset to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Track (default option) Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging a Motion Video Asset to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 349 Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a new track with this video. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Track (default option) Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Assigns matching audio as the track’s audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Chapter Index Dragging a Video/Audio Pair to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 350 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new track with this video and audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Track (default option) Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging a Video/Audio Pair to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a new track with this video and audio. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the new track. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Track (default option) Use this option with video that has had chapter markers added with Compressor, Final Cut Express, or Final Cut Pro. • Creates a track and adds the chapter markers to it. • Names the track the same as the video asset. • Sets the new track’s End Jump setting to this menu. • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the new track to buttons on the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. Create Chapter Index Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 351 Dragging a Single-Layer Still Picture to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Set Overlay (default option) • Uses the picture as this menu’s overlay. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new standard menu with this picture as the background. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Standard Submenu Dragging a Single-Layer Still Picture to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a new standard menu with this picture as the background. • Adds a link from the button to the new menu. Create Standard Submenu (default option) Dragging a Multiple-Layer Still Picture to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Once set, you can disable layers in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s background, with all layers visible. Set Background—All Layers Visible (default option) Once set, you can enable layers in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s background, with no layers visible. Set Background—No Layers Visible Once set, you can select the layer to use as the overlay in the Menu Inspector. • Uses the picture as this menu’s overlay, with no layers assigned to the overlay. Set Overlay Once set, you can enable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new standard menu with this picture as the background, with no layers visible. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Standard Submenu Once set, you can enable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new layered menu with this picture as the background, with no layers visible. • Adds a link from the new button to the new menu. Create Layered Submenu Dragging a Multiple-Layer Still Picture to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: 352 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Drop Palette options Actions Once set, you can enable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a new standard menu with this picture as the background, with no layers visible. • Adds a link from the button to the new menu. Create Standard Submenu (default option) Once set, you can enable layers for the new menu in the Menu Inspector. • Creates a new layered menu with this picture as the background, with no layers visible. • Adds a link from the button to the new menu. Create Layered Submenu Dragging Multiple Still Pictures (or a Folder) to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Creates a new slideshow. • Adds a link from the new button to the new slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Button and Slideshow (default option) Dragging Multiple Still Pictures (or a Folder) to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a new slideshow. • Adds a link from the button to the new slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu. Create Slideshow (default option) Drop Palette for Layered Menus—Dragging Project Elements The following section lists the choices in the Drop Palette that appear when you drag project elements from the Outline or Graphical tab to an empty area or a button in a layered menu. Dragging an Existing Track to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 353 Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the first marker of the track. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button (default option) • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging an Existing Track to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Adds a link from the button to the first marker of the track. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Connect to Track (default option) • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of markers and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each chapter marker from the track to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the video from each marker to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the track’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Chapter Index Dragging a Story to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: 354 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the story. Create Button (default option) Dragging a Story to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Connect to Story (default option) • Adds a link from the button to the story. Dragging a Slideshow to an Empty Area The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button (default option) • Creates a button on this menu to link to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of slides and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each slide from the slideshow to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the picture from each slide to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Button and Chapter Index Dragging a Slideshow to a Button The following options appear in the Drop Palette: Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method 355 Drop Palette options Actions • Adds a link from the button to the slideshow. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Connect to Slideshow (default option) • Links the button to the first of the new chapter index menus. • Creates one or more new chapter index menus (using the standard method), depending on the number of slides and the button layout used. • Opens the Choose Template or Layout Style dialog so you can choose the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menus. • Links each slide from the slideshow to buttons in the chapter index menus. • Assigns the picture from each slide to its button’s thumbnail. • Sets the slideshow’s End Jump setting to this menu (if it has not already been set). Create Chapter Index Dragging a Menu to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the menu. Create Button (default option) Dragging a Menu to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Connect to Menu (default • Adds a link from the button to the menu. option) Dragging a Script to an Empty Area The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions • Creates a button at this menu location. • Adds a link from the new button to the script. Create Button (default option) Dragging a Script to a Button The following option appears in the Drop Palette: Drop Palette options Actions Connect to Script (default • Adds a link from the button to the script. option) 356 Chapter 15 Creating Menus Using the Layered Method Adding menu transitions and creating menus for multiple languages are advanced features that can add value to your DVD project. Menu transitions are short video clips that play at the beginning of a menu (intro clips) and when buttons are pressed (transition clips). There are several approaches you can take to add these clips to your project. You can also configure a menu to support up to 16 different languages. By assigning different backgrounds, overlays, audio, and text to each menu’s language, you can create a DVD that supports a wider audience. This chapter covers the following: • Adding Intro and Transition Clips to Menus (p. 357) • Using Languages with Menus (p. 364) Adding Intro and Transition Clips to Menus You can make the DVD viewing experience more polished by adding short video clips that play at the beginning of a menu (intro clips) and when buttons are pressed (transition clips). Using Menu Intro Clips Menu intro clips are most effective when they build up to the menu’s background video. For example, if the menu’s background is a shot of a building with buttons in its windows, you could have an intro clip that fades up from black to the shot of the building, and then has the button elements fly in from off the screen and take their place in the windows. 357 Using Advanced Menu Features 16 There are three approaches you can take to create a menu intro effect: • Combine the intro clip with the menu’s background video: This method guarantees a seamless transition between the intro clip and the original menu’s background. The Menu Editor includes a Loop Point setting that you can use to control where the menu jumps to when its playback is looped. This allows you to configure the intro clip to play only the first time a menu’s background plays. The loop point also controls when the button highlights appear. Because button highlights cannot move, you would not want them visible during the intro while the button elements are moving. See About the Motion Settings for more information. A disadvantage of this mode is that, unless you use a simple script, the menu’s intro must play each time the menu is accessed because you cannot jump directly to the menu’s loop point. (See Jumping to a Menu’s Loop Point for an example of the script.) • Configure the intro clip as its own menu: To do this, you need to create a menu and assign the intro clip as its background. You also need to set the menu’s At End setting to Timeout, enter 0 as the Sec, and set the Action to be the menu this intro clip is for. Whenever you want to jump to the original menu, you can jump to this intro menu instead—the intro menu will automatically jump to the original menu once its intro clip plays. The advantage of this method is that, because you are jumping from one menu to another menu, the disruption during that jump time should be minimal. (By default, all menus are stored in the same general area on a DVD disc, making it easier for the DVD player to jump between them. Additionally, you can use the VTS Editor to ensure the two menus are next to each other.) Another advantage is that you can choose whether to jump to the intro menu or to jump directly to the original menu, avoiding forcing the viewer to watch the intro menu multiple times. • Configure the intro clip as its own track: To do this, you need to create a track and add the intro clip to its V1 video stream. The only configuration you need to do is to set the track’s End Jump setting to the original menu. Whenever you want to jump to the original menu, you can jump to this intro track instead—the intro track will automatically jump to the original menu once its intro clip plays. About Button Transition Clips Button transition clips provide the opposite effect of the menu intro clip—they provide a transition from the menu background’s buttons to the element (a track or another menu) that the menu’s button is connected to. Using the same example used for the intro clips (a shot of a building with buttons placed in its windows), the transition clip could have the button elements fly off the screen and then fade the shot of the building to black. 358 Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features You can use the menu transition feature to automatically create the transition clips or you can manually create button transition clips. Using the Menu Transition Feature The menu transition feature makes it easy to automatically create transition clips for all buttons on a menu. You define a transition in the Menu Inspector that is then applied to all buttons and the timeout action (if set). By default, each button is set to use the menu’s transition settings; however, you can modify or disable the settings for each button. Transition settings include: • Transition (crossfade, wipe, and so on) • Specific parameters based on the transition type (duration, direction, and so on) • Alternative start and end video The menu transition feature can be used with standard and layered menus. Important: Be aware of the aspect ratio and resolution of the button’s target when configuring transitions. All transitions from a menu are based on the menu’s aspect ratio and resolution. Depending on the type of monitor a viewer is using, if the button’s target uses a different aspect ratio or transition, there may be a noticeable glitch when the monitor switches from the menu’s settings to the button target’s settings. Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 359 About the Transition Types DVD Studio Pro includes a variety of Standard and Alpha Transitions you can use with your menus. These same transitions are available in slideshows and tracks with still images. Menus also allow you to specify a video clip to use in place of the Standard Transitions. Disables default transitions for this menu. Standard Transitions Video Transition Alpha Transitions Alpha Transitions DVD Studio Pro includes several Alpha Transitions. These transitions use short video clips to produce a transition from the current picture to the new picture. These transitions, indicated with the Greek letter alpha in front of their name, have no settings other than a duration. Additionally, you can even create and import your own Alpha Transitions. See Preparing Alpha Transitions for details on the process. Standard Transitions When you choose a Standard Transition from the Transition pop-up menu in the Transition tab in the Menu or Button Inspector, DVD Studio Pro creates a short video clip to be used as the transition. 360 Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features The transition clips use a start and end video frame, with the transition controlling how the video changes from one to the other. • The start frame: This is the menu with all buttons in the normal state. If the menu has a video asset as its background, the loop point frame (or first frame, if the loop point is not set) of the video is used as the start frame. The start frame also includes the menu’s drop zones and text objects. • The end frame: This is the first frame of the target the button is jumping to. If the button jumps to a script, the end frame is black. If you change the button’s target, the end frame automatically updates. You are able to assign specific assets or colors as the start and end video frames in the Menu and Button Inspectors. See Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors for more information. The transition clips that are created with the menu transition feature are rendered as part of the build process. They are placed in the same video title set (VTS) file as the menus. When authoring a project that will fill the DVD disc, you must take into account that a transition video clip is rendered for each menu button that has transitions enabled—a menu with 18 buttons can require 18 transition video clips. This can have a significant impact on the amount of disc space the menus require. See Transitions for more information. Video Transitions When you choose Video Transition from the Transition pop-up menu in the Transition tab in the Menu or Button Inspector, you can assign a short video clip to be used as the transition clip. Adding Button Transitions to a Menu You can set a default transition for the menu. This transition is applied to all buttons. To set a transition for a menu 1 Select the menu in the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu. 2 Click the Transition tab in the Menu Inspector. 3 Choose either a Standard Transition or the Video Transition from the Transition pop-up menu. You can choose “not set” to disable default transitions for this menu. (You can still configure individual buttons to use transitions.) 4 Configure the transition using its specific parameters. Once you have configured the menu’s transition, you can modify or disable it at each button. Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 361 To modify a button’s transition 1 Select the button to be modified. 2 Click the Transition tab in the Button Inspector. The Transition setting shows “Same as Menu” by default. 3 Choose the transition to use from the Transition pop-up menu. You can choose “not set” to disable transitions for that button. 4 Configure the transition using its specific parameters. Transition Tab in the Menu and Button Inspectors The Transition tabs in the Menu and Button Inspectors are identical—the only difference is that the Transition pop-up menu in the Button Inspector has a “Same as Menu” choice that the Menu Inspector does not have. • Start thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will start from. • Transition thumbnail: Provides a preview of a still transition when you click the Preview button, or a preview of a video transition when you click the Play button. • End thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will end with. This thumbnail is empty in the Menu Inspector unless you have used the End pop-up menu to specify an ending frame. • Transition: Choose the transition to use. In the Menu Inspector, this sets the default transition for this menu, which you can override at each button. • not set: Disables transitions for this menu or button. • Standard Transition: Creates a transition clip based on the Standard Transitions supplied with DVD Studio Pro. 362 Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features • Video Transition: Uses a video clip you assign to create a transition. See About the Transition Types for more information. • Same as Menu: Only available in the Button Inspector. Sets the current button to use the transition settings in the Menu Inspector. • Preview: Click this to preview the current transition in the Transition thumbnail area. • Parameters area: Contains the parameters, including the duration, for the current transition. Each transition has its own set of parameters. • Start: Choose the start frame for the transition to use. • With Default: The start frame is the menu’s background. • With Solid Color: You are able to choose a color to use as the start frame. • With Stills and Videos: You are able to choose a specific asset to use as the start frame. In the case of videos, an Offset setting appears that allows you to choose the video frame to use. • End: Choose the end frame for the transition to use. • With Default: The end frame is the menu’s background. • With Solid Color: You are able to choose a color to use as the end frame. • With Stills and Videos: You are able to choose a specific asset to use as the end frame. In the case of videos, an Offset setting appears that allows you to choose the video frame to use. Transition Parameters Each transition has its own parameters. In many cases, the settings are self-explanatory; however, in some cases, the settings are not obvious. See Transition Parameters for details on the parameters for each transition. Manually Creating Button Transition Clips Transition clips are inserted between the button and the button’s connection. While a menu’s intro clip plays when you jump to the menu, button transitions play when you activate a specific button. If you have eight buttons on a menu and want the transition clip to play when each button is activated, you have to create a separate transition clip for each button because the end of the transition clip needs to jump to the button’s actual connection. Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 363 There are two approaches you can take to create the button transition effect: • Configure the transition clip as its own menu: To do this, you need to create a menu and assign the transition clip as its background. You also need to set the menu’s At End setting to Timeout, enter 0 as the Sec, and set the Action to be the element that the button originally connected to. Then you need to change the original menu’s button connection to this transition menu. The advantage of this method is that, because you are jumping from one menu to another menu, the disruption during that jump time should be minimal. (All menus are stored in the same general area on a DVD disc, making it easier for the DVD player to jump between them.) • Configure the transition clip as its own track: To do this, you need to create a track and add the transition clip to its V1 video stream. The only configuration you need to do is to set the track’s End Jump setting to the element that the button originally connected to, and to change the original menu’s button connection to this transition track. Using Languages with Menus You can configure a menu to support up to 16 different languages. When the DVD first starts playing, it checks the menu language setting of the DVD player and automatically displays the corresponding menu (if a menu for that language is available) or the menu for the first language available (if there is no language match). The Outline tab lists the languages you have added to the project in the Languages section. The languages you see there are used to determine only which menus to display and have no effect on the stream settings within the tracks. By default, one language, based on the Default Language setting in the Project pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences, appears in the Outline tab. You do not actually create different menus for each language—you simply assign separate background, overlay, and audio (if applicable) files to each language. You can also change the text in any text objects and buttons. These three files and the text changes are the only differences between the languages. Button active areas, links, and all other menu settings are exactly the same for each language. Note: Because the start frames of transitions are based on the menu’s background video, separate transition clips are rendered for each language that uses a different background video. 364 Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features Creating and Configuring Menu Languages There are two approaches you can take to configure menus for multiple languages: • Create the primary language’s menu first, and then create the alternate languages in the Outline tab: When you create the menu languages after you have created the primary menu, all of the primary menu attributes are applied to all language versions of the menu, including those that can be different between the languages. This makes it easier to configure the menus for the other languages, especially if you are not changing much between the different languages. • Create the languages first, and then create the menus: When you create the languages first, the menus all start out empty. Anything you apply to one of the menus that is not language-specific gets applied to all versions of the menu. If you apply an item that is language-specific—for example, you create a text object—a text object is created on all versions of the menu, but only the menu you created it on will have the text and text attributes (font or color). This can require more effort because you have to set not only the text, but its attributes for each version of the menu. (If you had created the primary menu first, all of the other versions would have the text object with its font and color—all you would need to do would be type the new text.) Most often you will find yourself using a mixture of these methods. For example, you might create the languages and menus, and then find you need to add an additional language. The menu configurations for the new language will match the primary menu settings. Adding Menu Languages You can use the Outline tab’s shortcut menu to create menu languages. To create menu languages Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Add to Project > Language, or press Command-Slash (/). μ Control-click in the Outline tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Language from the submenu. The new language appears in the Outline tab under the Languages heading. By default it is named “English _,” with “_” being the number of the language. The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a project default language setting that you can use to define the default language. See General Preferences for more information. Important: For every language you add, DVD Studio Pro creates a new menu for each menu in your project. This is true whether or not you assign different backgrounds to each language. For projects with a lot of motion menus, these additional menus can take up a significant amount of space on the DVD. Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 365 Configuring Menu Languages in the Outline Tab You can use the Outline tab to configure the menu languages. To configure menu languages using the Outline tab 1 Click the triangle next to Languages to display the available languages. There should be at least one entry. 2 Select the language entry to open the Language Inspector. 3 Choose a language from the Language Code pop-up menu. This is the language that this language element should map to on the DVD player when the title plays. 4 If desired, enter a new name in the Language Name area. This is the name that you will see when configuring your menus. By default, it changes to match the name of the language selected in the Language Code pop-up menu. This name is not seen by the viewer; it is strictly for your use while configuring menus. 5 To remove a language, select it in the Outline tab and press the Delete key. Setting Up Menus for the Languages Once you have created and configured your languages, you can configure their menus. To do this, you need to have created and imported all assets (backgrounds, overlays, and audio streams) that will be used for the different languages. To configure a menu for a language 1 Select a menu. It does not have to be fully configured yet. Keep in mind that all settings (with the exception of the background, overlay, audio file, and text) are shared among all languages. 2 Do one of the following to choose a language to configure: • Choose the language from the Language pop-up menu in the Menu tab in the Menu Inspector. • Choose the language from the Menu Editor’s language pop-up menu, next to the View pop-up menu. 3 Select the background file, overlay file, and audio file to use for this language. You can use the same file for multiple languages. Note: These files must be compatible (the same format, resolution, and, in the case of audio, the same bit rate, sample size, and sample rate) between all language versions of the menu. 366 Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 4 If desired, change the text in any text objects and buttons to what you want to appear for that language. You can also change the font and color for each language. 5 Select any additional languages and set their asset files and text as you like. When you choose a language that you have already configured with alternate assets, the menu’s assets and text change to match those settings. Chapter 16 Using Advanced Menu Features 367 The main content of a DVD project is contained in tracks, which hold pieces of video, audio, and subtitles that play as a unit. This chapter covers the following: • About Track Limits in a DVD (p. 370) • Working with a Track’s Assets (p. 370) • How Many Tracks Should You Have? (p. 371) • About Subtitle Streams (p. 371) • DVD Studio Pro Tools for Working with Tracks (p. 371) • Creating Tracks (p. 372) • Opening Tracks (p. 373) • Setting Track Properties (p. 373) • About the Track Editor (p. 377) • Configuring the Track Editor (p. 377) • Understanding Time Information in the Track Editor (p. 380) • Supported Asset Types (p. 384) • Adding Video and Audio Assets (p. 386) • Editing Video and Audio Clips (p. 390) • Setting Stream Properties (p. 392) • Exporting an MPEG Clip (p. 393) • Working with Markers (p. 393) • About Marker Placement (p. 394) • Creating and Editing Markers (p. 395) • Adding Markers to a Track Without a Video Clip Assigned (p. 397) • Importing Markers from an Editor (p. 397) • Importing Markers from a Text List (p. 399) 369 Creating and Editing Tracks 17 • About the Marker Types (p. 399) • Setting Marker Properties (p. 401) • Introduction to Stories (p. 403) • Creating a Story for a Track (p. 404) • Using the Story Editor (p. 404) • Setting Story Properties (p. 405) • Setting Story Entry Properties (p. 407) • Simulating a Story (p. 407) • Adding Alternate Video Streams (p. 408) • Using Still Clip Transitions (p. 410) • Viewing a Track (p. 413) About Track Limits in a DVD A DVD can have a combination of up to 99 tracks, stories, and slideshows. Each track can contain up to: • 9 video streams, used as angles or alternate video • 8 audio streams for different soundtracks • 32 subtitle streams for alternate text, alternate languages, or buttons over video • 99 chapter markers used primarily to define points in the track that can be jumped to • 255 cell markers used for a variety of purposes, such as button highlights and DVD@CCESS (this includes chapter markers, which are also cell markers) • 98 stories (assuming there are no other tracks or slideshows), each defining an alternate track playback by treating each chapter marker as a clip that can be moved or skipped as needed Working with a Track’s Assets You can add multiple video or audio assets to each stream in a track. You can even trim each asset’s start and end points to choose the parts of it you want to use. While this allows for a lot of flexibility when creating your tracks, it is not a substitute for using a video editing application, such as Final Cut Pro, to edit the clips into an asset to add to your project. 370 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks You need to use a video editing application to add effects such as dissolves, wipes, and keys to the video. With this kind of editor, you can precisely choose each clip’s start and end points—the trimming capability of DVD Studio Pro is restricted to Group of Pictures (GOP) boundaries only, making it much harder to trim a clip exactly where you would like. Also, DVD Studio Pro can’t mix multiple audio assets together as you can with an editor. How Many Tracks Should You Have? Depending on your intended result, your project may have one long track, or you may choose to divide your material into multiple tracks that can be played separately or linked together. For example, if you are working on a long project that you expect the viewer to watch from beginning to end, using one long track is the best option. This eliminates any pauses that the viewer may encounter while the DVD player jumps from one track to another. Even if your project contains several independent segments that the viewer would not watch one after the other, you can still use a single track and set actions on the markers to break the track into the smaller segments. Or, you can create separate tracks for each segment—whichever method is easiest for you to manage. In some cases, such as a track with a mixture of still images and motion clips, you may need to use multiple tracks to work around the 99 chapter marker-per-track limit. If you think you may need to replace some segments in your project later on—for example, to customize for various countries or to update outdated sections—you may find it easier to replace these segments if they are separate tracks. About Subtitle Streams Subtitles can be created in the Track Editor, or they can be imported from other applications. They can be used to overlay dialogue text over the video stream, or to overlay simple graphics. Subtitles can also be used to place buttons over the video; the viewer can select these buttons just as they would on a menu. See Creating Subtitles for information on working with subtitles. DVD Studio Pro Tools for Working with Tracks DVD Studio Pro provides two primary tools for configuring your tracks: the Track Inspector and the Track Editor. • The Track Inspector contains general track settings, such as its aspect ratio, what happens when the track finishes, the remote control settings, and DVD@CCESS settings. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 371 • The Track Editor is where you add and manage your video and audio assets, as well as your subtitles. You can also add markers for use as chapter points and other functions. There is also a Marker Inspector you use when working with markers and a Clip Inspector you use when working with individual clips within a track. Note: An asset used within a track is considered a clip. This distinguishes what is used in the track (which may be just a part of the asset) from the original asset. Together, these powerful tools allow you to make the tracks into exactly what you need. Creating Tracks There are several methods you can use to create a track. Once it has been created, you can open it in the Track Editor, using the controls there and in the Track Inspector to configure it. By default, a new project contains one menu and one track. Depending on your project, you will probably want to add additional tracks. There are several ways to add a track to your project. To create a track Do one of the following: μ Drag a video asset or a video/audio asset pair to the Menu Editor and choose an option that creates a new track from the Drop Palette. You can drag the assets from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. See Options in the Drop Palette for Standard Menus and Options in the Drop Palette for Layered Menus for details on the options in the Menu Editor’s Drop Palette. In all cases, a track is created with the video placed in the V1 stream and the audio (if used) placed in the A1 stream. The track has the same name as the video asset. μ Drag a video asset or a video/audio asset pair to an empty area of the Outline or Graphical tab. You can also drag the assets to the disc name or the Tracks heading. In all cases, a track is created with the video placed in the V1 stream and the audio (if used) placed in the A1 stream. The track has the same name as the video asset. Dragging a video or video/audio asset pair to an existing track in the Outline or Graphical tab appends the assets to the track’s existing assets. μ Convert a slideshow to a track. The still images and audio are added to the track’s V1 and A1 streams. See Converting a Slideshow to a Track for slideshow details. μ Click Add Track in the toolbar. Each track created this way is empty. μ Press Command-Control-T. This also creates an empty track. 372 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Opening Tracks To configure a track, you need to open it in the Track Editor. You can select the track you want to work with in the Outline tab, the Graphical tab, or the Track Editor. To open a track in the Track Editor Do one of the following: μ Double-click the track you want to configure in the Outline or Graphical tab. μ Choose the track from the Track Editor’s Track pop-up menu. The track appears in the Track Editor and the Track Inspector changes to display its properties. Setting Track Properties The Track Inspector contains a top section and four tabs: General, Other, User Operations, and Transition. Settings at the Top of the Track Inspector There are three settings at the top of the Track Inspector. • Name: Enter the name for the track. If a track is created because a video asset was dragged to the Menu Editor, the Outline tab, or the Graphical tab, it is automatically named the same as the video asset. In other cases, the track is named “Track _” where “_” is the next available number. • Est. Size: Shows the approximate amount of disc space the track will require. This takes into account all of the assets assigned to the video, audio, and subtitle streams. • End Jump: Choose the element to jump to once the track finishes playing. If you don’t make this selection, the DVD player will be unable to continue playing the title when it reaches this point. If the track was created by dragging an asset to the Menu Editor, the End Jump is automatically set to jump back to that menu. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 373 General Tab in the Track Inspector The General tab in the Track Inspector contains the following settings. • Resolution: Choose the track’s resolution. • For SD projects: The resolution is either 720 x 480i (NTSC) or 720 x 576i (PAL). • For HD projects: You can choose from any of the supported resolutions, as long as no video assets have been assigned to the track. You cannot change the resolution once a video asset has been assigned to the track. (You can change the resolution if the track only contains still assets.) The resolution automatically changes to match the track’s V1 stream video resolution if it matches one of the supported resolutions. DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a setting for the default resolution (which also applies to menus and slideshows). • Display Mode: Set the aspect ratio for this track (4:3 or 16:9), and with 16:9, choose how it displays on a 4:3 monitor. The aspect ratio of the video assets must match this setting. • Pre-Script: The script you choose in this pop-up menu will run as soon as the track is selected. The script determines whether to play the track or configure the DVD player before playing it. See Creating Scripts for information on scripts. • Wait: You can set how long the DVD player shows the last frame of the track’s video before exercising the End Jump setting. • None: Immediately jumps to the End Jump setting. • Seconds: Shows the track’s last frame for the number of seconds you enter. • Infinite: Shows the track’s last frame indefinitely. • Remote Control: Use these pop-up menus to set what happens when the viewer uses the remote control buttons on the remote control. See Remote Control Settings for more information. 374 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks • Display Condition: Select this checkbox to set display conditions to control whether this track should appear or not, and to define what should appear if not this track. See Display Condition for more information. Select the Apply to Stories checkbox to also have these display conditions apply to stories based on this track. Other Tab in the Track Inspector The Timestamps settings in the Other tab in the Track Inspector applies to both SD and HD projects. The other settings in the tab apply only to SD projects. • Timestamps: Shows the start timecode of the first video asset in the V1 stream. You can also enter a track offset that is used in place of the first video asset’s timecode when you choose Asset-Based Timecode in the Track Editor. See Timecode in the Timeline for more information. • Reset: Click to change the track offset back to 00:00:00:00, allowing the first asset start time to be used for the timeline (if you are using asset-based timecode in the Track Editor). • Closed Caption: SD projects only. Use these settings to assign a closed caption file to this track. See Line 21 Settings for Closed Captions for more information. • Macrovision: SD projects only. This setting allows you to override the disc’s Macrovision copy-protection settings for this track. If you have not enabled the Macrovision settings for the disc in the Disc Inspector, setting this to one of the three types automatically enables Macrovision for the disc. See About the Macrovision Settings for more information. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 375 User Operations Tab in the Track Inspector The User Operations tab is the same as those in other DVD Studio Pro Inspectors, and is discussed in User Operations. Transition Tab in the Track Inspector The Transition tab is the same used in the Clip Inspector when a still clip is selected. See Transition Tab in the Track and Clip Inspectors for details on the Transition tab. 376 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks About the Track Editor The streams are the heart of the Track Editor. In these parallel areas, you define the video, audio, and subtitle assets to be used in your tracks, and their relationship to one another. Drag the separator bars to set how many video, audio, and subtitle streams appear. Displays the track’s time and marker information. Scroll through the timeline to view different parts. The left side of the Track Editor contains the controls to configure the streams. Choose the track to view in the Track Editor. Use these controls to configure the streams. Select the height of the streams. Set the timeline zoom amount. Within the Track Editor, timescales provide different ways to obtain timing information about the tracks. See Understanding Time Information in the Track Editor for more details. Configuring the Track Editor You can configure the Track Editor to suit your needs. You can set the size of the streams, how many of each stream type appear, and the timeline zoom amount. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 377 Viewing the Streams A track can contain up to 49 streams total, but viewing this many streams at once requires some effort. It’s unlikely that you’ll need to view more than ten streams at once; depending on the types of projects you create, you may use only two or three streams. There are three ways to control how many streams appear. • You can change the size of the Track Editor’s quadrant. You can even drag the Track tab into its own window. See Working with the Quadrants for more information. • You can use the Track Editor’s separator bars to control how many of each stream type appear. For example, if you do not plan to add subtitles, you can hide the subtitle stream area by dragging the separator bar above the subtitle area to the bottom of the window. • You can select a different stream height. This changes the height of the streams as they appear in the Track Editor. This can be useful if you want to see larger or smaller thumbnails of the video at the markers. Using the Stream Configuration Buttons The Track tab includes a set of controls that you can use to quickly change which streams appear. The size of the Track tab determines how many streams appear. To choose which streams appear Do one of the following: μ Click the video icon to show only video streams. μ Click the audio icon to show only the V1 stream and the audio streams. μ Click the subtitle icon to show only the V1 stream and the subtitle streams. Click to show the video streams in the Track Editor. Click to show the V1 and audio streams in the Track Editor. Click to show the V1 and subtitle streams in the Track Editor. If you select more than one of these views at the same time, the separator bars move to show as many of the selected streams as possible. Once you select one of these views, you can drag the separator bars to customize the stream types that are displayed. 378 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Setting the Timeline Zoom The Track tab contains a zoom control you can use to expand or contract the timeline. When working with large projects, you often need to be able to expand the timeline in order to set a marker or insert a subtitle. Using the zoom control in conjunction with the scroller at the bottom of the timeline allows you to configure the timeline so that it provides enough detail to work with. Drag the ends of the scroller to zoom in or out. Drag the timeline scroller to select the part to view. Drag to the right to zoom out or to the left to zoom in. To use the zoom control Do one of the following: μ Drag it to the right to zoom out, showing more of the timeline. If the playhead is not visible, the timeline scroller automatically jumps to a position that does show it. μ Drag it to the left to zoom in, showing less of the timeline but more detail in the part that shows. If the playhead is not visible, the timeline scroller automatically jumps to a position that does show it. Hold down the Shift key while dragging the zoom control to prevent the scroller from automatically changing its position to show the playhead. You can also set the timeline zoom using keyboard shortcuts. To zoom using keyboard shortcuts Do one of the following: μ Press Command-Hyphen (-) to zoom out on the timeline. If the playhead is not visible, the timeline scroller automatically jumps to a position that does show it. μ Press Command-Shift-Hyphen (-) to zoom out without moving the scroller to show the playhead. μ Press Command–Equal Sign (=) to zoom in on the timeline. If the playhead is not visible, the timeline scroller automatically jumps to a position that does show it. μ Press Command–Shift–Equal Sign (=) to zoom in without moving the scroller to show the playhead. μ Press Shift-Z to zoom the timeline out to its maximum. μ Press Shift-Option-Z to fit the currently selected clip into the Track tab. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 379 Understanding Time Information in the Track Editor There are a variety of time-related elements that appear in the Track Editor. Some only display time information while others allow you to change the information. The time values help you identify the position of markers, clips, the playhead, and the pointer within the video, audio, and subtitle streams. Displays the pointer position within the stream or marker area. Shows the playhead’s position, and can be used to move it. Drag the playhead along the timeline to view a different part of a stream in the Viewer tab. The timeline’s timecode Sets the start and end time of the selected clip with respect to the timeline. Timecode in the Timeline The timeline’s timecode is continuous throughout the track. You can choose from two sources for the timecode: zero-based and asset-based. • Zero-based timecode: This timecode starts the timeline at 00:00:00:00. You cannot change the zero-based timecode, and the assets assigned to the V1 stream do not affect it. • Asset-based timecode: This timecode can be based either on the timecode of the first clip on the V1 stream or on a value you enter in the Track Inspector. To choose the timeline’s timecode source Do one of the following: μ Choose View > Timescale > Zero-Based Timecode or View > Timescale > Asset-Based Timecode. μ Control-click in the timeline, then choose either Zero-Based Timecode or Asset-Based Timecode from the shortcut menu. Control-click in the timeline to choose the timecode source. The pointer position, playhead, and start and end timecode values change to match the timecode source you choose. 380 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks If you choose the asset-based timecode source, you can also choose whether to use the clip’s timecode or a value you enter. To configure the asset-based timecode source 1 Choose Asset-Based Timecode as the timecode source for the Track Editor’s timeline. 2 Click the Other tab in the Track Inspector. If the Inspector is not showing the track properties, select the track’s name in the Outline tab, its tile in the Graphical tab, or click an empty area in any of the Track Editor streams. 3 Do one of the following: • To use the timecode from the first clip in the V1 stream: Click the Reset button. This sets the Track Offset value to 00:00:00:00, which forces the timeline to use the clip’s timecode. • To set the timecode to start at a specific value: Enter a new timecode value in the Track Offset field. The timeline’s first frame is set to this number. Being able to force the timeline’s timecode to start at a specific value can be useful whenever you are importing a marker list or subtitle file that is based on timecode different from the zero-based or asset-based values. Note: For NTSC projects, the type of timecode in the first asset—drop frame or non-drop frame—determines the type of timecode for the timeline. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 381 Clip Start and End Timecode Timecode start and end values appear when you select a clip (video, audio, or subtitle) in one of the streams. These values indicate the position of the clip with respect to the timeline’s selected timecode source. Depending on the stream, you can enter new start values to reposition the clip or new end values to trim the clip’s size. The currently selected clip is darker than the others. Shows the clip’s timeline timecode for its last frame. You can trim the clip by entering a new End timecode. Shows the clip’s timeline timecode for its first frame. You can move the clip (on streams other than video) by entering a new Start timecode. See Editing Video and Audio Clips for more information. Playhead The playhead provides a visual indication of what part of the track is currently playing in the Viewer tab. When you play the track, the playhead moves along the track’s timeline. It also provides a way to scroll across the timeline and see the video in the Viewer tab. The playhead is in the timeline’s timecode area. With new tracks, the playhead is located at the track’s start. The playhead at the track start 382 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks A playhead icon appears in the timeline scroller area to let you know where it is relative to the part of the timeline being shown, which is useful if you cannot see the playhead in the Track Editor. For example, if the playhead icon appears to the left of the scroller, that means the playhead is at a point in time before the clips currently visible in the timeline. The playhead appears in the timeline’s scroller. Positioning the Playhead by Dragging You can drag the playhead along the timeline to see the video (and subtitle, if applicable). This is useful when placing markers because it allows you to see the actual video frame. As you drag the playhead along the timeline, the timecode of its current position appears in the playhead timecode entry. A line extends across all of the streams, indicating the playhead position. The playhead’s current timecode appears here when you drag the playhead. You can also click anywhere in the timeline to move the playhead to that position and have the video at that position appear in the Viewer tab. Playback starts at this point if you click the Play button in the Viewer tab. Positioning the Playhead by Using Keyboard Shortcuts There are a number of keyboard shortcuts that you can use to position the playhead. • Left Arrow and Right Arrow keys: Move the playhead one frame at a time. • Shift–Left Arrow and Shift–Right Arrow keys: Move the playhead one second at a time. • Option–Left Arrow and Option–Right Arrow keys: Move the playhead one GOP at a time. • Control–Left Arrow and Control–Right Arrow keys: Move the playhead to the next marker. • Command–Left Arrow and Command–Right Arrow keys: Move the playhead to the start or end of the selected clip. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 383 • Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys: Move the playhead to the next clip edge (includes all clips in all streams) or marker. • Home and End keys: Move the playhead to the start or end of the timeline. See Keyboard Shortcuts for a complete list of keyboard shortcuts. Positioning the Playhead by Entering a Timecode Value You can also set the playhead’s position by entering a timecode value in the playhead position entry. The playhead jumps to its new position. Enter a timecode to move the playhead to. See About the Viewer Tab for more information on using the Viewer tab. Supported Asset Types The Track Editor’s streams contain the video, audio, and subtitle assets. You can add one or more assets to each stream. Each stream has several properties you can set, such as its language and whether or not it is enabled. See Creating Subtitles for information on working with the subtitle streams. In addition to assets that are already DVD-compliant, you can add assets supported by the DVD Studio Pro integrated MPEG encoder. These assets are encoded once they are added to your project. See Encoding Video Materials for DVD for information on supported video assets, Preparing Audio Assets for information on supported audio assets, and Using the Integrated MPEG Encoder for information on the assets the integrated MPEG encoder supports. Video Assets for SD-Based DVD Video Streams All video assets on an SD-based DVD stream must use the same aspect ratio (4:3 or 16:9), the same video standard (PAL or NTSC), and the same MPEG type (SIF MPEG-1 or full D1 MPEG-2, for example). Note: All QuickTime video assets you import into an SD project are encoded as full D1 MPEG-2 assets and can be mixed with still images in a video stream. 384 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks About Segmented MPEG Files The segmented MPEG files created by some third-party encoders do not import correctly into DVD Studio Pro. Some encoders segment their large encoded files into 1 GB files. When imported into DVD Studio Pro, only the first 1 GB segment is imported. You need to combine the files into a single file before importing the asset into DVD Studio Pro. There are several third-party applications that can be used to combine a segmented MPEG file into a single file. Video Assets for HD-Based DVD Video Streams All assets on an HD-based DVD stream must use the same aspect ratio (4:3 or 16:9), the same resolution, the same video standard (PAL or NTSC), and the same MPEG type (MPEG-2/HDV or H.264). All non-HDV and non-H.264 QuickTime video assets you import into an HD projects are encoded as MPEG-2. Note: Because HDV is actually HD MPEG-2, you can combine HDV assets with other HD MPEG-2 assets, including those encoded from the integrated MPEG encoder, as long as they are the same resolution. Still Assets for Video Streams You can add still images to a video stream to either manually create a slideshow or create a stream with mixed motion and still video. Stills can be added to all SD and HD tracks except those using SIF, 1/2 D1, cropped D1 MPEG-2, or H.264 format assets. Still asset clips in a stream must each be at least 15 frames long for NTSC projects, or 12 frames long for PAL projects. Note: To have still assets with shorter durations, you can edit them into a video asset using an external video editor. Still clips can have a transition added to their end. The transition controls what happens at the end of the still clip—for example, you can configure it to dissolve or wipe to the next clip, whether the next clip is a video or still clip. See Using Still Clip Transitions for more information. Assets for Audio Streams All audio assets within a stream must be the same type (AC-3, AIFF, MPEG-1 layer 2, and so on) with the same number of bits (16, 20, or 24), the same sample rate (48 kHz or 96 kHz), the same bit rate (when using compressed audio), and the same channel configuration; for example, stereo or 5.1 surround. (The streams within a track do not have to match each other—only the assets within a stream must match. For example, the A1 stream can use AC-3 audio and the A2 stream can use AIFF audio.) Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 385 Using AAC Audio Files from the iTunes Store DVD Studio Pro is able to import and use AAC format audio files purchased from the iTunes Store as long as the computer you are using them on is authorized to use them. If you import iTunes Store files that the computer is not authorized to use, DVD Studio Pro plays silence when it encounters those files. Additionally, if you select and try to play an iTunes Store file that the computer is not authorized to play in the Audio tab in the Palette, DVD Studio Pro plays silence. Adding Video and Audio Assets If you created your track by dragging either a video asset or a video/audio asset pair to the Menu Editor, the Outline tab, or the Graphical tab, it already contains video and audio clips. If you created your track using the Add Track icon in the toolbar, it will be empty. In either case, you can add additional assets to the streams and even trim each clip’s start and end points. To add an asset to a stream μ Drag the video or audio asset from the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window to the stream where you want to place it. With the V1 stream, DVD Studio Pro automatically ensures there is always a clip at its beginning (if one has been assigned), and there are no gaps between the clips. With the other video streams, the clips can only be positioned at markers. Audio and subtitle clips can be positioned anywhere on the stream and there can be gaps between them. Adding Audio Assets Automatically When you enable the “Find matching audio when dragging” setting in the Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences, audio assets are automatically added to a track when video is added. When you add a video asset to the V1 stream, DVD Studio Pro checks to see if there is an audio asset with the same base name in the same folder. If there is, it is automatically added to the A1 audio stream. The start of the audio clip will be the same as the video clip. If any audio already exists in the A1 stream where the new audio clip needs to go, it is trimmed or moved as necessary. Note: Hold down the Command key after you start dragging to temporarily override the “Find matching audio when dragging” preferences setting. 386 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Adding AC-3 Audio Assets AC-3 audio assets are the only DVD Studio Pro–supported audio asset type that actually have embedded timecode. This can help when you want to maintain sync between the video and audio. To add an AC-3 asset using its timecode μ Hold down the Option key, then drag the AC-3 audio file from the Assets tab to an audio stream in the Track Editor. Note: Because the file must be parsed to determine its embedded timecode, an AC-3 file’s timecode is only available when you drag it from the Assets tab, and not from the Palette or a Finder window. Drag the AC-3 file to the Assets tab first and then from there to the Track Editor. When you add an AC-3 asset to an audio stream while holding down the Option key, DVD Studio Pro checks to see if its timecode is coincident with the V1 stream’s timecode. In other words, it checks to see if the AC-3 asset has timecode that falls within the timecode range of the video asset. • If it is coincident: The AC-3 asset is placed in the stream so that it is in sync with the video. • If it is not coincident: The AC-3 stream is placed at the beginning of the stream. Note: If the V1 stream has more than one video clip, the AC-3 timecode is ignored. It is also ignored if the audio stream you drag it to already has an audio clip. Using Multiple Copies of a Clip You can use a clip multiple times in the same stream or you can drag the clip to other streams. To copy a clip within a stream μ Option-click the clip and drag it to an empty location in the stream. You can treat the clip’s copy the same as any other clip in the stream. To copy a clip to a different stream Do one of the following: μ Option-drag the clip to the stream that you want to copy it to. You can position it as needed. μ Shift-Option-drag the clip to the stream that you want to copy it to. The clip is constrained to use the same start time as the original. The original clip is not affected, and remains in its location. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 387 Copies of the original clip take up as much disc space as the original clip. If the size of your project is an issue, you may want to simply reuse the original clip by setting markers and creating scripts to access the clip from another project element. Viewing a Clip’s Properties When you select a clip in one of the Track Editor’s video or audio streams, the Clip Inspector appears. To accommodate the additional settings used to configure transitions, the Clip Inspector used for still clips contains two tabs: General and Transition. The General tab contains the same information and settings as with video clips. See Using Still Clip Transitions for information on the Transition tab. Note: Selecting a clip in a subtitle stream opens the Subtitle Inspector. See Creating Subtitles for information on subtitles. The Clip Inspector shows information about both the clip and the stream. Settings at the top of the Inspector • Name: Enter a name for the clip. This name applies to the clip in this track’s timeline only—it does not affect the asset’s name in the Assets tab. • Asset: Shows the clip’s actual filename. • Est. Size: Shows how much disc space this clip requires. Clip Information and Settings • Start: Shows the clip’s start time in the stream. 388 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks • Clip Start Trim: Choose the part of the asset that the clip should use. Enter an amount of time by which to trim the clip’s beginning. This affects the clip’s overall length. When you enter a new Clip Start Time, the clip repositions itself on the timeline so that it begins at the same time, with the clip’s end moving to its new position. • Duration: Shows the clip’s length. You can enter a new length to trim the end of the clip. Note: When you import a QuickTime asset that contains both video and audio, you may find that their durations, as shown in the Clip Inspector, do not match exactly. This is often due to the DVD-Video specification’s frame rate for the supported audio formats not dividing evenly into the video frame rate. This does not affect the lip sync between the audio and video streams or their playback and is purely cosmetic. • Asset Start Timestamp: Displays the timecode of the asset’s first frame. • Bits/Second (Avg.): Shows the clip’s bit rate information. Stream Information • Stream Number: Shows the stream’s number. • Stream Duration: Shows the stream’s length. • Language: For audio clips only; shows the stream’s language setting. You can choose a different language from the pop-up menu. The new language is applied to the entire stream. See Setting Stream Properties for more information. Browse Clip For video clips only. You can drag the slider under the thumbnail image to scrub through the clip’s video. Removing a Clip from a Stream There are several ways you can remove clips from a stream. To remove a clip from a stream Do one of the following: μ Click the clip to select it, then press the Delete key. μ Control-click the clip, then choose Delete Media Clip from the shortcut menu. These methods remove the clip from the stream, but the asset remains in the Assets tab. The actual asset’s file is not affected. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 389 Editing Video and Audio Clips You can trim the start and end of a clip, which is useful when you need to remove a portion of an asset for artistic reasons (such as a bumped camera). It is important to understand that video clips in DVD Studio Pro are trimmed based on GOP boundaries—you cannot choose a specific frame to trim to. The typical GOP (Group of Pictures) size for NTSC video is 15 frames—for PAL video it is 12 frames. This means you may have to choose between trimming a little too much or not quite enough. If you need to trim a clip precisely, you should use a video editor to make the trim, and then bring the asset back into DVD Studio Pro. You can trim audio clips by frames, making it possible to trim off a popping noise. Trimming can also be a way to use a small part of a longer asset. Only the part of the asset that is in the stream is included in the final disc size. About the V1 Stream The first video stream, V1, has requirements different from the other streams. DVD Studio Pro automatically ensures these conditions are met. • The first clip must be at the beginning of the timeline. There cannot be a gap between the timeline’s first frame and the first frame of the V1 clip. All other streams, including the other video streams, can have their first clip start anywhere in the timeline. • You cannot have gaps between clips in the V1 stream. All other streams can have gaps between their clips. • When building the project, the track ends at the last frame of video in the V1 stream. Any streams that have clips extending beyond the V1 clips are automatically truncated by the build process. Trimming and Positioning Clips There are several methods you can use to trim and position a stream’s clips within the Track Editor. To trim a stream’s clip by dragging 1 Position the pointer over the end of the clip you want to trim. The pointer changes to a bracket with an arrow pointing in the direction you can trim. 2 Drag the clip’s edge to its new position. Note: You cannot trim a clip beyond the edges of the asset. 390 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks To help guide you when trimming your clip, drag the playhead to the point you want to edit to. A vertical line appears across all streams, which you can use as a guide to trim an edge to. Be sure to use the timeline zoom feature to provide a close-up view of the area you’re editing. Use care not to lose your video and audio synchronization when trimming. Instead of dragging, you can enter values in the Start and End boxes at the top of the Track Editor and the Duration and Clip Start Offset entries in the Clip Inspector to trim a clip more precisely so that you can repeat exactly the trim on other clips. To use the start and end values to position and trim a clip 1 Select the clip you want to trim. Its start and end values appear in the Track Editor’s Start and End boxes. 2 Enter a new Start time. The beginning of the clip moves to that time. This moves the entire clip, but does not actually trim it. 3 Enter a new End time. The end of the clip is trimmed to that time. To use the Clip Inspector to trim a clip 1 Select the clip you want to trim. The clip appears in the Clip Inspector. 2 Enter a new Clip Start Offset to trim the clip’s start. The clip’s start position on the timeline is not changed—only its end position is moved to match its new duration. 3 Enter a new Duration value to trim the clip’s end. Clip Conflicts There are a number of rules to keep in mind when you trim and position a clip. Video Clips Dragging clips to the V1 stream is different from dragging audio clips. In part this is due to the requirement that there can be no gaps in the V1 stream, and there must be a clip at its beginning. The following situations cause video clips already in the V1 stream to move. This can cause problems if the video clips have associated audio or markers because they do not move with the video. • If you drag a video clip to the start of a V1 stream that already has a clip assigned: The new clip becomes the first clip and the original one (and any that follow it) shuffle down the timeline. • If you drag a video clip to the point where two existing video clips meet in a V1 stream: The new clip is inserted between them. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 391 • If you drag a video clip to the stream, and the “Find matching audio when dragging” preference setting is enabled: The audio in the A1 stream is trimmed or moved to accommodate the new video clip, even if that clip does not have matching audio. This maintains sync between the track’s existing video and audio clips. Audio Clips Because audio clips can be placed anywhere in their audio streams, the results are different from those you get when working with video clips. • If you drag an audio clip to any open area within an audio stream: The clip is placed there. If the open area is not long enough to hold the whole clip, the clip’s end is trimmed so that it will fit. Unlike video clips, audio clips do not move unless you move them intentionally. Setting Stream Properties Each stream has a few settings you can use while configuring it. Click to lock the stream, preventing inadvertent changes to it. Choose a language to assign to each audio and subtitle stream. Click to choose one video, audio, and subtitle stream to play in the Viewer tab. Each stream has a button at the far-left side of the Track tab that you can click to enable that stream when you play the track in the Viewer tab. You can choose one video, and optionally, one audio and one subtitle stream. Each audio and subtitle stream in a track can have a language assigned to it. When the track plays, it can select a stream based on the DVD player’s language setting. If no suitable stream is found, the player plays the first stream. Note: The Languages area of the Outline tab and the Add Language icon in the toolbar are used when creating multiple-language menus and are not used by the Track Editor. See Setting Up Menus for the Languages for more information. 392 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks You can protect a stream from accidental changes by clicking its lock icon. When it is open (unlocked), you can make changes to the stream; when the lock is closed, you can’t. You can still select it for previewing and assign a language to it, but you cannot make any changes to its clips. To lock all streams μ Choose Project > Timeline > Lock All Streams (or press Shift-F4). Exporting an MPEG Clip You can export the contents of the V1 stream as an MPEG file. This can be useful in some situations: • If you have a long video asset and want to make a separate asset of a small part of it, you can add the asset to the stream, trim it to the size you want, and export it as a new asset. You can use this asset as you would any other asset. For example, you could use it as a menu background. • You can edit multiple assets into the stream, and then export them as a single MPEG file. Note: You cannot export the stream as an MPEG file if the stream contains still images or uses H.264 format clips. To export an MPEG file from the V1 stream 1 Configure the stream as needed. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose File > Export > MPEG File. • Control-click the stream, then choose Export MPEG File from the shortcut menu. 3 Enter a name and select a destination for the file in the Save Stream dialog that appears, then click Save. When exporting a large asset, be sure you have sufficient disk space to hold the file. Working with Markers You can add up to 255 markers to a track, although a maximum of 99 can be set as chapter markers. Each marker has its own properties that define its purpose. Markers can be used to: • Identify chapter points that the viewer can skip to when viewing the title • Define when buttons appear over the video stream • Identify the dual-layer break point when creating dual-layer projects • Identify points in the stream that can be accessed by buttons and scripts Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 393 • Identify points where mixed-angle tracks can start • Configure a DVD@CCESS operation to launch once the viewer reaches the marker point while playing the title • Set a jump to another element in the project once the marker reaches its end. This is most often used by scripts that are set to play a portion of the stream and then return to another place in the project. There are three ways to place markers on your track: • You can manually place the markers along the track’s timeline. • If you are editing your video using Final Cut Pro 3.0.2 or later or Final Cut Express, you can place the markers as part of the editing process. These markers are automatically imported into DVD Studio Pro when you import the video asset. See Adding and Configuring Markers in Final Cut Pro and Final Cut Express for more information. • You can import a text file that contains a list of markers. With all three methods, you can always edit the markers’ position and attributes as needed. About Marker Placement Markers can only be placed on Group of Pictures (GOP) boundaries. Because of this restriction, you cannot precisely position a marker on the exact frame you want to—you often need to set the marker either a little early or a little late. The length of the GOP depends on the MPEG encoder’s settings (NTSC systems commonly use a GOP size of 15 frames and PAL systems commonly use a GOP size of 12 frames). This means that, unless you embed markers with a video editor, you may need to set a marker as much as 6 or 7 frames from where you’d like. If you import markers from a timecode list, the markers are moved to a GOP boundary when they are imported. The Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences lets you choose how the markers are placed. See Track Preferences for more information. If you import a video asset edited with a version of Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express that supports chapter markers, the integrated MPEG encoder automatically adds GOP boundaries at the marker frames, so the markers end up positioned exactly where intended. 394 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks If you convert a slideshow to a track, each still clip has a marker placed at its beginning. The markers are named the same as the still asset used for its clip. These markers retain any pause and DVD@CCESS settings that may have been set in the Slideshow editor. If any slides use transitions, the transitions appear as a shaded area in the timeline with a cell marker at their beginning. Transition indicator You can configure the transition by selecting the clip and making changes in the Clip Inspector’s Transition tab. If a still with a transition also has a pause, the marker for the next clip is placed at the beginning of the transition instead of at the next clip’s start. See Using Still Clip Transitions and Converting a Slideshow to a Track for more information. See Working with GOP Settings for more information about GOP structures, and Adding Markers to Your Video for information on using Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express to add markers to a clip. Creating and Editing Markers Each track always contains a chapter marker at its beginning. You can add up to 98 additional chapter markers to a track. Markers appear along the top of the timeline display. A vertical line extends across all streams at the position of each marker. To add a marker to a track Do one of the following: μ Click in the area above the timeline display. A marker is added at the point where you clicked. μ Position the playhead at the point where you want to add the marker, then press M. By default, the marker is set to be a chapter marker and is purple. See About the Marker Types for more information about the marker types. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 395 Depending on the currently selected stream size, a thumbnail image of the frame located at the marker point appears in the video stream. You can modify the thumbnail image in the Marker Inspector. See Setting Marker Properties for more information. The default marker’s name is “Chapter _,” with “_” being the next number available. The number is based on the order in which you create the markers, not on their location on the track. This means Chapter 4 may occur before Chapter 2. To avoid confusion, you should rename your markers in the Marker Inspector. See Setting Marker Properties for more information. The Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a setting you can use to control the names assigned to markers as they are created. See Track Preferences for more information. When you have multiple clips in the V1 stream, you can also have markers placed at a stream’s clip end (except for the last clip). To add a marker to a clip’s end μ Control-click the clip in the V1 stream to base the marker on, then choose Add Marker to Clip End from the shortcut menu to add a cell marker, or Add Chapter to Clip End to add a chapter marker. You cannot add a marker to the end of the last clip in the V1 stream. See About the Marker Types for information on the difference between a cell marker and a chapter marker. To set the playhead to a marker’s position μ Control-click the marker, then choose Set Playhead Here from the shortcut menu. This makes it easier to see the video at the marker’s position. You can also hold down the Control key and use the Left Arrow and Right Arrow keys to jump from marker to marker. To move a marker Do one of the following: μ Drag the marker to its new position. The timecode of the marker’s position appears next to the pointer timecode display as you move it. μ Enter a new time in one of the timecode boxes (zero-based or asset-based) in the Marker Inspector. See Setting Marker Properties for more information. μ Drag the slider underneath the video thumbnail in the Marker Inspector. When you move a marker, the thumbnail image in the video stream changes to match the marker’s new location. To delete a marker Do one of the following: μ Control-click the marker, then choose Delete Marker from the shortcut menu. 396 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks μ Select the marker, then press the Delete key. To delete all markers Do one of the following: μ Choose Edit > Delete All Markers. μ Control-click in an empty part of the Track Editor’s marker area, then choose Delete All Markers from the shortcut menu. Adding Markers to a Track Without a Video Clip Assigned You can add markers to a track even if you have not assigned a video clip to the track. You can also add markers beyond the end of the video clip, in anticipation of adding a video clip later. In these cases, because the GOP structure is unknown, you can place the markers at any frame. Once the video is added, however, the markers will need to be adjusted because most will not be at legal GOP boundaries. DVD Studio Pro automatically readjusts the marker positions based on the Snap To setting in the Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. What Happens to the Markers If You Move the Video? When you place markers in the Track Editor with a video clip already present, the markers are automatically placed at GOP boundaries. If you move a marker, it jumps from one GOP boundary to the next, and therefore is always in a legal position. If you move the video clip—for example, by trimming its start or dragging it to another position when multiple clips are in the V1 stream—the markers do not reposition to follow the video. There is also a good chance that at least some of the markers will no longer be at GOP boundaries. For this reason, you should be sure the video is in its final location before adding markers to it. When you build your project, DVD Studio Pro verifies that all markers are on GOP boundaries, and that none are placed after the end of the V1 stream’s video. A setting in the Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences determines whether the build will quit if invalid markers are found, or if it will reposition markers to a GOP boundary and remove excess markers from the end of the track and continue with the build. See Track Preferences for more information. Importing Markers from an Editor When you edit your video asset in Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express, you can add chapter markers that DVD Studio Pro uses to create markers on the track. If you have named the markers, DVD Studio Pro uses those names when it creates the markers. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 397 How you add the video asset to your project determines what happens with the markers: • If you add the asset by dragging it to the Menu Editor: You can choose any of the Drop Palette options that create a track. In addition to creating a track with the markers in place, some options create chapter index menus. The chapter index menu buttons are automatically linked to the track’s markers. • If you add the asset by dragging it to a track: You can import the markers from the Track Editor. Note: The first marker in a track is always at the beginning of the timeline and is named “Start” when a track is created by dragging the video asset to the Menu Editor. It is not affected by imported markers. You can rename the marker as needed. To use the Menu Editor to import an asset with chapter markers 1 Drag the video asset with markers to the Menu Editor. You can drag it to an existing button or to an empty area. 2 When the Drop Palette appears, choose an option that creates a track. 3 If you choose an option that creates a chapter index menu, select the template or layout style to use for the chapter index menu in the dialog that appears. DVD Studio Pro creates the chapter index menu and a new track. The chapter index menu contains a button for each marker. Depending on the number of markers and the template or layout style you select, there may be multiple chapter index menus, and each marker button may have the name and a thumbnail image of the video frame located at its marker. Each of these marker buttons is linked to the new track, which displays the markers along with their names. To import chapter markers directly into a track 1 Drag the video asset with markers to the V1 stream of the Track Editor. If there are currently no markers in the track (other than the one at the start of the timeline), the clip’s markers are automatically imported. If there are markers in the track other than the one at the timeline’s start, you must manually import them. 2 Control-click the clip, then choose Import Embedded Markers from the shortcut menu. While this does not create chapter index menus, you can create them later by dragging this track from the Outline or Graphical tab to the Menu Editor. The advantage of this method is that you can add or edit the track’s markers before creating the chapter index menus. 398 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Importing Markers from a Text List You can create a list of timecode points that DVD Studio Pro can import to create markers. The timecode values need to match the timecode of the track’s video clip. The list of timecode values must be a plain text file; you can create it with TextEdit (as long as you save the file as plain text). If you create the list with a more complex word-processing application, be sure to save the file as a plain ASCII text file with no formatting. The file must follow these rules: • Each marker must be on a new line that starts with a timecode value in the “00:00:00:00” format. These values identify the marker positions. • After the timecode value, you can include a name for the marker. You can use a comma, space, or tab character to separate the timecode value from the marker name. • Any lines that do not begin with a timecode value are ignored. This makes it easy for you to add comments to the list. • The timecode values do not have to be listed in chronological order. To import a marker list from a text file Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Import > Marker List. μ Control-click in the Track Editor’s marker area in the track you want to apply the marker list to, then choose Import Marker List from the shortcut menu. Once the import is complete, a message appears stating how many markers were imported. The markers are placed on the timeline at GOP boundaries. The Track pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a setting that controls how the GOP is chosen. See Track Preferences for more information. About the Marker Types There are four types of markers you can have in the track. One marker can be one or more of these types. The color of a marker in the Track Editor indicates its type—if you configure a marker to be more than one type, the marker symbol splits to display the relevant colors. The types of markers and their colors are: • Chapter: Purple Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 399 • Button highlight: Orange • Dual-layer break: Black dot in the marker’s middle • Cell: Green You define the type of marker in the Marker Inspector. Additionally, you can set a marker to be a button highlight type by Control-clicking it and choosing Button Highlight Marker from the shortcut menu. Note: Only chapter markers can be connected to from menu buttons and scripts. Each marker has a duration that is determined by the distance between it and the next marker. This duration is especially important when using button highlight markers, because it determines how long the highlights display over the video, and when creating stories, because it determines the length of each story’s segment. See Creating Buttons over Video and Introduction to Stories for more information. Chapter Markers By default, all markers you create start out as chapter markers. Viewers can jump to these markers by pressing the Previous and Next buttons on their DVD player’s remote control. Because of this, even simple projects without a chapter index menu can benefit by having chapter markers added to the track because they provide a viewer with the ability to quickly skip through sections of a track. Only chapter markers can be connected to from other project elements such as menu buttons and scripts, and a track’s story can only use track sections defined by chapter markers. While a track can have up to 255 markers, it is limited to a maximum of 99 chapter markers. Note: The Previous and Next buttons can act differently on different DVD players. See Getting Consistent Previous and Next Button Behavior for more information. Chapter markers have an end jump setting. By default, this is set to Not Set, which actually means that playback will automatically jump to the next video frame. In almost all cases you will leave the End Jump set to Not Set; however, you may have non-standard situations where you need to set the End Jump to a specific element. In these cases, you are limited to a maximum of 106 chapter markers and individual end jump chapter settings. See Setting Chapter Marker End Jumps for more information. Note: The DVD specification does not allow subtitles to extend across chapter markers. For that reason, subtitles that cross chapter markers are automatically split into multiple subtitle clips at each marker when you build your project. 400 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Button Highlight Markers You use button highlight markers when you want to have buttons display over the video on the track. These buttons are actually configured as part of a subtitle clip. The buttons appear once you reach the marker and disappear when you reach the next marker (unless it has also been configured as a button highlight marker). Often referred to as “buttons over video,” this feature allows you to provide choices to viewers while they watch the track part of the title. See Creating Buttons over Video for more information on using buttons over video. Important: There must be at least 1.5 seconds between a button highlight marker and the next marker. Dual-Layer Break Markers When you create a dual-layer title, you can set a marker to be used as the dual-layer break point, the point where the title splits between the first and second layer. Because the break point is often noticeable when playing the disc on a DVD player (the video temporarily freezes), you want to try to choose a place in the track where the freezing is not as noticeable. See About Choosing a Dual-Layer Break Point for details on choosing a dual-layer break point. Cell Markers All markers define a cell in the track. A cell marker is a marker that has no specific assignment. They are often added to a track to start a DVD@CCESS action or to provide a break point for a button highlight marker. Setting Marker Properties When you select a marker, the Marker Inspector appears. It has two tabs: General and User Operations. See User Operations for details on the settings in this tab. Also see Getting Consistent Previous and Next Button Behavior for information specific to user operations and markers. Settings at the Top of the Marker Inspector The following settings are at the top of the Marker Inspector. • Name: Enter the name for the marker. See Track Preferences for information on how DVD Studio Pro can automatically assign names to markers. A number is automatically appended to the name you enter if a marker with that name already exists on that track. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 401 • End Jump: Choose the project element to jump to when the marker finishes playing (occurs just before the next marker is reached). This is typically left at “not set.” In most cases, if you leave it at “not set,” each marker is automatically connected to the next marker. This setting can be used by specialized projects and scripts that dynamically control which parts of the track plays. See Setting Chapter Marker End Jumps for more information. General Tab in the Marker Inspector The following settings are in the General tab of the Marker Inspector. Marker thumbnail • Thumbnail: The thumbnail is the video frame where the marker is located. You can drag the slider beneath the thumbnail image to move the marker to a new position. • Save Still: Click to save the thumbnail image as a video resolution TIFF file. You can import this file for use as a menu background or shape asset. This is useful as a way to create a still image from a frame of a video asset. • Zero-Based: Shows the marker’s timecode based on the timeline’s zero-based mode (based on the timeline’s first frame being 00:00:00:00). You can reposition the marker by entering a new value or using the arrows. The new position must correspond to a GOP boundary—the arrows jump one GOP at a time. • Asset-Based: Shows the marker’s timecode based on the timeline’s asset-based mode (based on the timecode of the timeline’s first clip or a value entered in the Track Inspector’s Other tab). • Type: Select the function to assign to the marker. You can select one or all functions. See About the Marker Types for information. • Wait: Use this control to set how long the DVD player displays the last frame of the marker’s video before exercising the End Jump setting. • None: Immediately jumps to the End Jump setting. 402 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks • Seconds: Shows the marker’s last frame for the number of seconds you enter. • Infinite: Shows the marker’s last frame indefinitely. • Pause after each VOBU: Select if you want playback to pause until the viewer presses the Play button, when it plays to the next VOBU (Video Object Unit) and pauses again. This is a way to pause the track’s playback and wait for the viewer to start it again. The length of a VOBU varies depending on whether it is a still image or full-motion video. When you place a still image in the video stream, it lasts for one VOBU regardless of its duration. With video, a VOBU can be from 0.4 to 1 second long. For this reason, “Pause after each VOBU” is generally only used on markers at still boundaries. You should avoid using it on markers with video because it will cause the playback to stop about once a second. • DVD@CCESS: Select to make the name and URL settings available for this marker, which allows you to add functionality to your title when played on a computer. See DVD@CCESS for more information. • Remote Control: Choose the place in the project to jump to if the viewer presses the remote control’s Menu button. See Remote Control Settings for more information on remote control settings. • Macrovision: SD projects only. Choose the Macrovision setting to apply to this marker’s video. See About the Macrovision Settings for more information on Macrovision copy-protection. Introduction to Stories A story is simply a way to rearrange the playback of the track cells defined by the chapter markers. You may want to create a version of a track that skips some objectionable content, or you may want to use a short piece of the track as a preview. A story does not increase the amount of disc space the track requires because it is simply playing the track’s markers in a different order. A story has access to the entire track, but it does not have to include it all. You can choose which chapter markers to include and in what order—you can even play a marker’s video more than once. Additionally, you can exclude and subtitle audio streams from a story. By default, a story has access to the same audio and subtitle streams that the track has access to, which can be a problem if your intention is to present a less objectionable version of the track by providing alternative audio and subtitle streams. By excluding selected audio streams, you can force the DVD player to play the alternate audio and subtitle streams. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 403 Creating a Story for a Track Because stories are associated with the current track, you need to make sure you select the correct track before creating the story. To create a story for a track 1 In the Outline or Graphical tab, select the track for which you want to create a story. 2 To create the story, do one of the following: • Choose Project > Add to Project > Story (or press Command-Shift-T). • Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Story from the submenu. • Control-click the track, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Story from the submenu. • Click Create Story in the toolbar. 3 Double-click the new story. The Story Editor appears. Using the Story Editor The Story Editor is where you create your story. Choose a story from the current track to edit. The entry list. Drag markers to this list to create your story. The source list. Drag markers from this side to the other side to create your story. The Story Editor contains two areas: • The left area is the source list, which contains a list of all markers in the track. You cannot directly make changes to the source list. 404 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks • The right area is the entry list, where you create your story by dragging markers from the area on the left (the source list). As you drag markers from the source list to the entry list, you add story entries. Each entry shows the source marker’s name and the running time of the story, based on the duration of that marker and all markers ahead of it. A number is added to the end of the source marker’s name if the marker appears more than once in the entry list. To delete a marker from the entry list μ Select the entry, then press the Delete key. The entry is removed from the entry list. To change an entry in the entry list μ Control-click the entry, choose Change Chapter from the shortcut menu, then choose the marker you want to replace the entry with from the submenu. You can also change a story entry’s source marker in the entry’s Story Inspector. To change the order of the entry list μ Drag an entry to a new position. The order of the entries in the entry list controls how the story plays. This makes it easy to rearrange the order if you inadvertently mix up a couple of markers. Setting Story Properties The Story Inspector has two tabs: General and User Operations. See User Operations for details on the settings in this tab. Settings at the Top of the Story Inspector Following are the settings at the top of the Story Inspector. • Name: Enter the name for the story. • End Jump: Choose the project element to jump to when the story finishes playing. This is typically left at Same as Track, but can be set to any other element in the project. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 405 General Tab in the Story Inspector The Story Inspector appears when you select a story in the Outline or Graphical tab. If you select an entry or marker in the Story Editor, the Inspector changes to display details about that item. Select the story in the Outline or Graphical tab to switch back to the Story Inspector. • Stream Options: Deselect the checkboxes to disable any audio and subtitle streams you do not want to be available when this story plays. This is useful when you don’t want the story to have access to streams that might contain objectionable content. • Pre-Script: The script you choose in this pop-up menu will run as soon as the story is selected. The script determines whether to play the story or configure the DVD player before playing it. See Creating Scripts for information on scripts. • Wait: Use this control to set how long the DVD player displays the last frame of the story’s video before exercising the End Jump setting. • None: Immediately jumps to the End Jump setting. • Seconds: Shows the story’s last frame for the number of seconds you enter. • Infinite: Shows the story’s last frame indefinitely. • Remote Control: Choose what happens when the viewer uses the Menu button of the remote control. See Remote Control Settings for more information. • Display Condition: Select this checkbox to set display condition settings to control whether this story should play or not, and to define what should play if not this story. See Display Condition for more information. 406 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Setting Story Entry Properties If you select a marker in the Story Editor’s source list, the Marker Inspector appears, displaying the settings for that marker. See Setting Marker Properties for an explanation of this window. If you select an entry in the entry list, the Story Marker Inspector appears. • Name: Enter the name for the story entry. This does not affect the marker’s name. • End Jump: Choose the project element to jump to when the entry finishes playing (occurs just before the next entry is reached). This is typically left at “not set.” In most cases, if you leave it at “not set,” each story entry is automatically connected to the next entry. This setting can be used by specialized scripts that dynamically control which parts of the track play. • Zero-Based: Shows the story entry’s timecode based on the timeline’s zero-based mode (based on the timeline’s first frame being 00:00:00:00). • Asset-Based: Shows the marker’s timecode based on the timeline’s asset-based mode (based on the timecode of the timeline’s first asset). • Track Marker: Choose a marker from the source list to assign to this entry. • Remote Control: Choose the place in the project to jump to if the viewer uses the Menu button of the remote control. See Remote Control Settings for more information. Simulating a Story Simulating a story allows you to verify that it plays as expected. To simulate a story Do one of the following: μ Select the story, then choose File > Simulate Story, or press Command-Option-0 (zero). μ Control-click the story’s name in the Outline tab or its tile in the Graphical tab, then choose Simulate Story from the shortcut menu. These methods force the Simulator to start at this specific story instead of the First Play connection, as it does when you open it using the icon in the toolbar. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 407 You can also start the Simulator from a specific story entry. To simulate a story entry Do one of the following: μ Select the story entry in the Story Editor, then choose File > Simulate Story Entry, or press Command-Option-0 (zero). μ Control-click the story entry, then choose Simulate Story entry from the shortcut menu. Once the story starts playing, you can use the Simulator’s controls to choose the streams to view (angle, audio, and subtitle). See Simulating Your Project for information on using the Simulator. Adding Alternate Video Streams One feature unique to the DVD medium is the viewer’s ability to switch between parallel video streams with continuous audio. Only one video stream at a time can serve as the active stream, but there can be as many as eight alternate streams, for a total of nine “camera angles.” These can be different camera views, or angles, of the same subject, or they can be any other video sources. For example, a concert video could use different camera angles for the alternate video streams, with cameras focusing on each musician. Stream V1, the main video stream, could be an edited version of all angles while streams V2 to V9 could be unedited versions of each musician. This would allow the viewer to choose whether to see the whole concert or focus on a specific aspect of it. In another example, the V1 stream could contain the normal view of a business presentation, including the presenter, and the presentation’s slides could be displayed up close on the V2 stream. Multi-Angle and Mixed-Angle Tracks DVD Studio Pro allows you to create either multi-angle or mixed-angle tracks. With a multi-angle track, the alternate video streams are the same length as the main stream. A mixed-angle track uses partial alternate video streams. Authoring with multi-angle video is an exciting capability of the DVD medium, though there are some disadvantages, the main one being that multi-angle video streams consume a great deal of disc space. A DVD capable of holding 120 minutes of video has its play time reduced to 60 minutes if there are two video angles (120 divided by 2), and to 13.3 minutes if there are 9 video angles. 408 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks A space-efficient method of taking advantage of the alternate video streams is to build DVD projects that have a single video stream for most of their playing time, but that provide alternate streams in certain sections. This is known as using mixed angles. Angle 1 2 3 4 Mixed-angle track with stream 3 playing About Alternate Stream Video Assets If you want to switch between video streams while the DVD is playing, the DVD specification sets some restrictions on the alternate streams. They must be in the same MPEG format and have the exact same GOP structure as the main stream. It is strongly recommended that you use the same encoder for all streams to ensure they match exactly. For multi-angle tracks, all streams, including the main one, must be the exact same length. For mixed-angle tracks, you use markers to define one or more sections of the main stream that contain the alternate streams. There are three basic rules for the alternative sections: • Within a track, you can use markers to define multiple sections to use additional angles, but each section must have the same number of streams. For example, you cannot have one section early in the track with two alternate streams and a section later in the track with three alternate streams—both sections must have either two or three streams. • Each alternate angle section can be different lengths, but all streams within a section must be the same length. For example, you can have one mixed-angle section early in the track that is 10 seconds long and a second mixed-angle section that is 20 seconds long. All alternate streams in the first mixed-angle section must be 10 seconds long; all alternate streams in the second mixed-angle section must be 20 seconds long. • You cannot use still images in the V2 through V9 streams. You can use still images in the V1 stream as long as they are outside of the mixed-angle areas (places where video is present in the V2 through V9 streams). See Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks for more information on stream requirements. Creating a Multi-Angle Track To create a multi-angle track, you need to use two or more suitable video assets that are the exact same length and have the same GOP structure. To create a multi-angle track 1 Configure the Track Editor so that you can see as many video streams as you intend to use. See Viewing the Streams for details. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 409 2 Add the main video asset to the track’s video stream 1 (V1). 3 Add the second video asset to the track’s second video stream (V2). 4 Continue adding video assets to the next available streams until they are all in place. You can name each clip in each stream using the Clip Inspector. Creating a Mixed-Angle Track With a mixed-angle track, the main video stream runs the full length of the track with the alternate streams using only a small part of that time. Each of the track’s alternate video streams is aligned to a marker, and all corresponding alternate video assets start at the same point. Each alternate stream must use assets with the same length, and their GOP structures must match the main video stream. To create a mixed-angle track 1 Configure the Track Editor so that you can see as many video streams as you intend to use. See Viewing the Streams for details. 2 Configure the V1 stream as needed. If you are adding multiple clips or still images, place them all and make any necessary adjustments before adding anything to streams V2 through V9. 3 Create a marker where you want the first mixed-angle portion to begin. 4 Add the second video asset to the track’s second video stream (V2) at the marker. The asset snaps to the marker. Use the timeline zoom control to verify the asset is positioned properly. 5 Continue placing video assets to the next available streams until they are all in place and lined up with the marker. 6 Add a marker at the end of the angle clips by Control-clicking the clip in the V2 stream and choosing Add Marker to Clip End from the shortcut menu. 7 If you are adding an additional mixed-angle section to the track, add another marker and repeat steps 3 through 6. You can name each clip in each stream using the Clip Inspector. Important: To avoid errors when building your project, do not edit the V1 stream (add, trim, or remove assets) once you have added assets to the V2 through V9 streams. Using Still Clip Transitions When you add a still asset as a clip to a track, you are able to configure a transition for it. The transition can be an effect, such as a dissolve or wipe, that provides a smooth transition from the still clip to the next clip. 410 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Each still clip in a track has its own transition settings, accessible in the Transition tab in the Clip Inspector. You can also set a default transition for the track in the Transition tab in the Track Inspector. The transition is considered part of the still clip, and, in most cases, does not affect its duration. Using long transitions may lead to the still being visible for only a short time, or may require the clip’s duration to be increased. If any clips use transitions, the transitions appear as a shaded area in the timeline. Transition indicator Each transition has a start and end frame. The start frame is the still you are transitioning from and the end frame is the still you are transitioning to. If you are transitioning to a video clip, the end frame is the first frame of the video clip. Note: You cannot configure a transition from a video clip to a still clip. Adding Transitions to Still Clips You can add a transition to any still clip in a track. Setting a Track’s Default Transition You can set a default transition for a track. All still clips with their type set to Same as Track use the transition. To set a track’s default transition 1 Click in an empty stream in the Track Editor to show the Track Inspector. 2 Click the Transition tab. 3 Choose the transition to use from the Transition pop-up menu. Choose “not set” if you do not want still clips to use a default transition. (You can still configure individual clips to use transitions.) 4 Configure the transition using its specific parameters. Setting an Individual Still Clip’s Transition You can set each still clip’s transition settings. To set a still clip’s transition 1 Click the still clip in the timeline to which you want to add the transition. 2 Click the Transition tab in the Clip Inspector. 3 Choose the transition to use from the Transition pop-up menu, or choose Same as Track to use the track’s default transition settings. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 411 Choose “not set” if you do not want this still clip to use a transition. 4 Configure the transition using its specific parameters. Transition Tab in the Track and Clip Inspectors The Transition tabs in the Track and Clip Inspectors are identical—the only difference is that the Type pop-up menu in the Clip Inspector has a Same as Track choice that the Track Inspector does not have. • Start thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will start from. • Transition thumbnail: Provides a preview of a still transition when you click the Preview button. • End thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will end with. This thumbnail is empty in the Track Inspector. • Transition: Choose the type of transition to use. In the Track Inspector, this sets the default transition for this track, which you can override at each still clip. • not set: Disables default transitions for this track or still clip. (Even with “not set” chosen for the track, you can set transitions at each still clip.) • Still Transition: Creates a transition clip based on the chosen transition and its related settings. • Same as Track: Only available in the Clip Inspector. Sets the current still clip to use the transition settings in the Track Inspector. • Preview: Click this to preview the current transition in the Transition thumbnail area. • Parameters: Contains the parameters for the current transition. Each transition has its own set of parameters. Transition Parameters Each transition has its own parameters. In many cases, the settings are self-explanatory; however, in some cases, the settings are not obvious. See Transition Parameters for details on the parameters for each transition. 412 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Viewing a Track The track preview feature allows you to select a video, audio, and subtitle stream to view. You control which streams play using the buttons at the far-left side of the stream. To preview a track Do one of the following: μ Control-click in the video stream, then choose Play from the shortcut menu. μ Press the Space bar. μ Move the playhead. The Viewer tab moves to the front (if not already there) and shows the selected video stream and subtitle. You can also hear the audio of the selected audio stream through your system’s speakers or through an external audio decoder and monitor. You can also see the video if you drag the playhead along the timeline in the Track Editor. If you click in the timeline, the playhead jumps to that position and its video appears in the Viewer tab. About the Viewer Tab You use the Viewer tab to preview tracks. It is also used as the Subtitle Editor when you create subtitles in DVD Studio Pro. Click this control to show or hide the viewer controls. The Play, Stop, and Step buttons Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 413 When previewing a track, you can use four buttons to control the preview: • Play/Pause • Stop • Step Forward • Step Reverse Note: The Subtitle Editor tools in the Viewer tab are unavailable unless you select a subtitle to edit. See Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro for more information. Pausing or Stopping Playback? The difference between pausing and stopping playback is what happens to the playhead: • When you pause playback by clicking the Play/Pause button: The playhead remains at its current position. • When you stop playback by clicking the Stop button: The playhead jumps to the position it was at when playback started. You can also use your keyboard’s Space bar to pause or stop the track. The “Space bar toggles between play/pause” setting in the Track pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences controls whether the Space bar pauses or stops the track: • With the checkbox selected: The Space bar pauses playback, leaving the playhead at its current position. • With the checkbox not selected: The Space bar stops playback, returning the playhead to its original position. Holding down the Space bar while playing the clip allows you to stop playing the clip automatically by releasing the Space bar. The playhead then follows the above preferences setting. Modifying the Step Buttons The Step Forward and Step Reverse buttons move the playhead one frame at a time. You can use modifier keys to enhance their capabilities. • Holding down the Shift key while clicking the step buttons: This moves the playhead one second at a time. • Holding down the Option key while clicking the step buttons: This moves the playhead one Group of Pictures (GOP) at a time. • Holding down the Control key while clicking the step buttons: This moves the playhead one marker at a time. You can also click a step button and continue to hold down the mouse button to repeatedly step the playhead. 414 Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks Previewing Angles If you are previewing a mixed-angle track and select a video stream other than V1, the preview still plays the V1 stream whenever the selected video stream is not present. To see the multi-angle or mixed-angle stream actually function, you need to use the DVD Studio Pro Simulator. Simulating a Track Simulating a track allows you to verify all streams and any special interactivity you may have built into it. To simulate a track Do one of the following: μ Select the track, then choose File > Simulate Track, or press Command-Option-0 (zero). μ Control-click the track’s name in the Outline tab or its tile in the Graphical tab, then choose Simulate Track from the shortcut menu. μ Control-click one of the streams in the Track Editor, then choose Simulate from Track from the shortcut menu. These methods force the Simulator to start at this specific track instead of the First Play connection, as it does when you open it using the icon in the toolbar. Once the track starts playing, you can use the Simulator’s controls to choose the streams to view (angle, audio, and subtitle). See Simulating Your Project for information on using the Simulator. Chapter 17 Creating and Editing Tracks 415 Slideshows can be combined with video tracks on a DVD to provide extra information about the subject, such as historical information, newspaper and magazine articles, and cast biographies. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Slideshows (p. 417) • Want Your Slideshows to Do More? (p. 418) • File Formats for Slideshows (p. 418) • Adding a Slideshow to Your Project (p. 419) • Creating a Slideshow Using the Menu Editor (p. 420) • Working with Slides in a Slideshow (p. 421) • Adding Audio to Your Slideshow (p. 424) • Working with Slideshows (p. 427) • Setting Slideshow Properties (p. 437) • Setting Slide Properties (p. 440) • Previewing a Slideshow (p. 441) • Simulating a Slideshow (p. 442) Introduction to Slideshows In much the same way you assemble video assets in the Track Editor, you can assemble still images in slideshows, with fixed or user-controlled duration, and with or without audio. With the DVD Studio Pro slideshow feature, you can also create presentations with high-quality audio, and even put photo albums and scrapbooks on DVDs. Slideshows can be used for training, human resources information, education, corporate communications, health care, weddings, and special events. Features, documentaries, and promotional materials on DVD can include slideshows for supplementary materials. 417 Creating Slideshows 18 You can also convert a slideshow to a track, allowing you to add additional audio streams and subtitles to it. A slideshow can contain up to 99 still images. Each still can have its own display duration, or the viewer can control when to go to the next still. You can add audio to each slide and let each audio file’s duration determine the slide’s display duration. Alternatively, you can assign one or more audio files to the overall slideshow, with each slide’s duration scaled so the whole slideshow fits the duration of the audio files. You can also assign transitions to each slide, adding effects such as dissolves and wipes as you play the slideshow. Want Your Slideshows to Do More? Even with all that DVD Studio Pro allows you to do with a slideshow, you may find yourself wanting it to do more. For example, if you want a panning or zooming action on each slide, or more than the 99–still image limit, you will need to use an editing application, such as Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express to edit the stills together into a QuickTime movie. You can import the movie into a DVD Studio Pro track. You can even add markers and force manual pauses so that the viewer can still control the pace of the slideshow playback. Another way to get around the 99–still image limit is to manually create a slideshow in the Track Editor. File Formats for Slideshows Slideshows can use a wide variety of still and audio formats. The following sections, Still Images in SD Projects, Still Images in HD Projects, and Audio Files, provide details on these formats. Still Images in SD Projects DVD Studio Pro lets you use most common image formats in slideshows. You can also use a mix of formats within a slideshow. See Slideshow File Formats for a list of supported formats. Once a still is imported into DVD Studio Pro, it is scaled, if necessary, to fit the slideshow’s resolution. If any of the still images do not fit the 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio you’ve chosen for the slideshow, a background color fills the gaps. You can set the background color in the General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. See General Preferences for more information. Important: Use care not to mix 4:3 and 16:9 stills in a slideshow. For more information about still image sources, see Preparing Slideshow Assets. 418 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows Still Images in HD Projects Creating slideshows for HD projects is not much different from creating slideshows for SD projects. The most common issue is understanding how the HD slideshows handle stills with respect to their resolutions. A Resolution setting in the General pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences defines the default resolution of all new slideshows (and tracks and menus) you create. However, the actual resolution of a slideshow is usually defined by the first still you assign to it. For example, if your default resolution as defined by the preferences setting is 1280 x 720p and you create a new slideshow, its resolution is 1280 x 720p. If the first still you add has a 1920 x 1080 resolution, the slideshow’s resolution automatically changes to match it. If the first still’s resolution is something that is non-standard, for example, a still that is 800 x 600, the slideshow’s resolution changes to the highest resolution that is smaller than the non-standard size (in this example, full D1, which is 720 x 480 for NTSC or 720 x 576 for PAL), and the image is scaled to fit. If you set a menu’s background to something that is smaller than full D1, it is scaled up to the full D1 size. After you have added one or more stills, you can choose a resolution in the General tab of the Slideshow Inspector to force the stills to be scaled to a specific resolution. Note: As with SD slideshows, when a still does not match the 4:3 or 16:9 display mode, the empty areas are filled with the slideshow background color, as defined in the General pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Audio Files Slideshows can have one or more audio files for the overall slideshow, or a separate file for each still. While you can import files in a wide variety of audio formats for use with slideshows, all audio files within a slideshow must have the same format, resolution, and bit rate. See Preparing Audio Assets for more information about audio files. Adding a Slideshow to Your Project You add and manipulate still images in the same manner as you do video assets. You can drag images directly to the Slideshow Editor from the Finder, or you can drag them to the Assets tab, and then to the Slideshow Editor. You can also create slideshows by dragging groups of stills to the Menu Editor. When you open DVD Studio Pro, no default slideshow is created. You have to add a slideshow to include one in your project. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 419 To add a slideshow to your project 1 Do one of the following: • Choose Project > Add to Project > Slideshow (or press Command-K). • Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Slideshow from the submenu. • Click Add Slideshow in the toolbar. • Click the Slideshow tab and drag one or more stills to the Slideshow Editor. A slideshow element appears in the Outline and Graphical tabs. 2 To open the slideshow in the Slideshow Editor, double-click it. 3 Enter a name for the slideshow in the Slideshow Inspector. Use the Slideshow Inspector to set the jumps and remote control settings for the slideshow. Creating a Slideshow Using the Menu Editor An easy way to create a slideshow and a button that links to it is to drag a group of stills to the Menu Editor and choose Create Button and Slideshow from the Drop Palette. To create a slideshow in the Menu Editor 1 Do one of the following to select the menu to which you want to add the button that links to the new slideshow: • Choose the menu from the Menu Editor’s View pop-up menu. • Select the menu in the Outline or Graphical tab. 2 In either the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window, select two or more still images to be used in the slideshow. You can also select a folder that contains the still images. 420 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 3 Drag the still images to the Menu Editor, positioning them at the location where you want the new button to be created. You can also drag them to an existing button if you want to link that button to the slideshow. 4 When you hold the pointer still, the Drop Palette appears. Choose an option that creates a slideshow. A slideshow is created and linked to a button on the menu. You can modify the slideshow just like any other slideshow, adding additional stills and audio as desired. Use the Slideshow Inspector to set the slideshow’s name, jumps, and remote control settings. Working with Slides in a Slideshow Once you’ve created a slideshow, you can start adding still images to it. You can add still images one at a time or as a group, and rearrange their order. Before you begin adding slides, you should set their default duration. Setting the Default Slide Duration The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a default duration setting that determines each slide’s length when first imported. It’s a good idea to set the default slide duration before adding slides to the slideshow. While this setting applies to all slides when first imported, you can change the duration of individual slides later. See General Preferences for more information on this setting. You shouldn’t spend too much time fine-tuning each slide’s duration until you have added and arranged all slides, and have added any audio. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 421 Adding Slides to a Slideshow Slides can be added to a slideshow one at a time or as a group. Note: Do not mix slides with 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios in a slideshow. Slideshows only directly support the 4:3 aspect ratio. To add slides to a slideshow 1 Select one or a group of slides in the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. 2 Drag the file or files to the Slideshow Editor. If there are existing slides in the editor, a line appears where you position the pointer. The Slideshow Editor inserts the new slides underneath the line. By moving the pointer before releasing the mouse button, you can control where the slides are inserted. If you add a group of slides, the slides are added in alphabetical order. You can easily rearrange the slide order later. Selecting Slides in a Slideshow As you add slides to a slideshow, you will need to be able to scroll through the list and select the slide you want to work on. To scroll through the slideshow list Do one of the following: μ Drag the scroller along the right edge of the Slideshow Editor. μ Press the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to move through the list one slide at a time. μ Press the Option key, then the Up Arrow or Down Arrow key to jump to the first or last slide in the list. μ Press the Page Up and Page Down keys to move through the list one page at a time. In the last three cases, a slide is selected and it appears in the Viewer tab. There are times when you will want to select a group of slides. For example, you might need to delete them, change their duration, or move them to a different point in the list. There are several ways to select groups of slides. 422 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows To select a group of slides Do one of the following: μ To select a group of nonadjacent slides, hold down the Command key while you select the slides. μ To select a group of adjacent slides, hold down the Shift key while selecting the first and last slide in the group. μ Hold down the Shift key while pressing the Up Arrow or Down Arrow key to select each slide you scroll through. μ Press Command-A to select all slides. You can also press Command-Shift-A to deselect all slides. Rearranging Slides in a Slideshow Use the Slideshow Editor to rearrange slides in a slideshow. To rearrange slides in a slideshow 1 Select the slide or slides to be moved. You can move a group of nonadjacent slides together, but they will end up adjacent once they are moved. 2 Drag the slide (or slides) to a new position. When you hold a slide over another slide in the list, a line appears where you position the pointer. The repositioned slide is inserted underneath this line when you release the mouse button. Removing Slides from a Slideshow You can remove slides from your slideshow, either one at a time or as a group. To remove slides from a slideshow 1 Select the slide or slides you want to remove in the Slideshow Editor. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose Edit > Delete. • Press the Delete key. Note: Dragging a slide out of the list does not remove it from the slideshow. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 423 Adding Audio to Your Slideshow You can assign one audio file to each slide or add one or more audio files to the overall slideshow. The method you choose depends on the type of slideshow you are creating. • If each slide requires descriptive audio: Having a separate file for each makes it easy to ensure that the audio always matches the appropriate slide. See Assigning an Audio File to Each Slide for more information. • If your slideshow consists of stills with an audio file providing background music: It is much easier to assign one or more audio files, or an “overall audio file,” to the entire slideshow. See Assigning Overall Audio Files to the Slideshow for more information. Assigning an Audio File to Each Slide You can assign an audio file to each individual slide in a slideshow. You can use the same audio file multiple times, or only add audio to a few slides and leave the others silent. Important: You cannot add audio files directly to slides as long as there is an overall audio file assigned to the slideshow. See Assigning Overall Audio Files to the Slideshow for information on removing overall audio files from a slideshow. To assign audio to a slide using the Slideshow Editor 1 Select the audio file in the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. Note: You can only add one audio file at a time when assigning them to slides. 2 Drag the file to a slide in the Slideshow Editor. When you pause the pointer, a black box surrounds the slide the audio will be assigned to. 3 Release the mouse button when the correct slide is selected. The slide’s duration changes to match the length of the audio file. You cannot change the slide’s duration to a different value. 4 Press the Space bar to play the slide with its audio. Press the Space bar a second time to stop playback. To assign audio to a slide using the Slide Inspector 1 Select the slide to which you want to add audio. 424 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 2 In the Slide Inspector, choose the audio asset to assign to the slide using the Audio File pop-up menu. The Audio File pop-up menu in the Slide Inspector only allows you to choose from files already imported into your project. To change the audio file assigned to a slide Do one of the following: μ Drag a new file to the slide in the Slideshow Editor. μ Choose a new file with the Audio File pop-up menu in the Slide Inspector. To delete an audio file assigned to a slide Do one of the following: μ Select the audio file in the Audio column in the Slideshow Editor, then press the Delete key. Make sure you only select the audio portion of the slide. μ Choose “not set” from the Audio File pop-up menu in the Slide Inspector. Note: All audio files used within a slideshow must be the same type and use the same resolution and bit rate. Assigning Overall Audio Files to the Slideshow You can assign one or more audio files to a slideshow as overall audio files. This allows you to have audio files that are not specific to a single slide. When you assign overall audio to the slideshow, you can choose whether the slide or audio durations determine the slideshow’s duration. To assign overall audio files to a slideshow 1 Select the audio file or files in the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. 2 Do one of the following: • Drag the file or files to the audio well in the Slideshow Editor. Drag one or more audio files to this location. The audio well shows how many overall audio files are assigned to the slideshow. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 425 • Drag the file or files to the Audio section in the Slideshow Inspector’s General tab. 3 Do one of the following to choose one of the two Slideshow Duration options: • Choose Fit To Audio, Fit To Slides, or Fit To Slides and Loop Audio from the Slideshow Editor’s Settings pop-up menu. Choose a Slideshow Duration setting. • Select either Fit To Slides or Fit To Audio in the Slideshow Inspector’s General tab. If you select Fit To Slides, you can also select the Loop Audio checkbox. Use Fit To Audio to calculate a slide duration value that is applied to all slides, based on the length of the audio file. The duration ensures the slides and the audio finish at the same time and that all slides appear for the same amount of time. There are several things to be aware of when using Fit To Audio: • Each slide’s duration automatically updates if you add or remove slides or overall audio files in the slideshow. • Using a short audio file with Fit To Audio can cause the audio to finish before the slides, because the slides cannot be set to durations shorter than their minimum duration (15 frames for NTSC or 12 frames for PAL projects). The minimum duration for the slides increases when one or more of them uses transitions. • All slide duration controls are disabled when Fit To Audio is selected. 426 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows Use Fit To Slides to leave each slide’s duration as is. When the slideshow is played, most likely the audio will not finish at the same time that the slides finish appearing. • If the slides finish first: The audio is clipped off. (The Loop Audio setting has no effect.) • If the audio finishes first: The slides continue playing in silence. With Loop Audio selected, the audio loops back to its beginning and continues playing if it reaches its end before the slides. 4 Select the first slide and press the Space bar to play the slideshow with its audio. Important: Adding an overall audio file automatically removes any audio files assigned to individual slides. As long as there is an overall audio file assigned to the slideshow, you cannot add audio files directly to slides. To change the assigned audio files using the Slideshow Inspector Do one of the following: μ Select one or more existing files and press Delete to remove them from the slideshow. μ Drag an existing audio file to a new location in the list to change its order. μ Drag one or more new audio files to the list to add them to the slideshow. You can also drag additional audio files to the audio well in the Slideshow Editor to add them to the end of the list. Working with Slideshows You use the Slideshow Editor and Slideshow Inspector to change the settings for your slideshow. Setting the Slideshow Editor’s Thumbnail Size The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains a thumbnail image size setting that allows you to control the number of slides displayed in the Slideshow Editor. See General Preferences for more information on this setting. Slideshow Editor Settings The Slideshow Editor has two areas: • The controls along its top: These buttons and pop-up menus provide easy access to a variety of slideshow features. See Slideshow Editor Controls for details on these. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 427 • The slide list: This lists the slideshow’s slides in the order they appear. See Slide List for more information. Slideshow Editor controls Lists the slides in the order they appear. The triangle indicates this slide has a transition, and can be clicked to show the Transition Inspector. Slideshow Editor Controls The top of the Slideshow Editor contains several controls that you can use while making changes to your slideshow. Choose the slideshow to edit. Converts the slideshow to a track, allowing you to add additional features to it. Choose the default transition for the slideshow. Sets the duration for the selected slides. Shows that an overall audio file has been assigned. You can drag audio files here to add them. Contains overall audio duration and manual advance settings. • View pop-up menu: Use this to select the slideshow to open in the Slideshow Editor. • Transition pop-up menu: Use this to choose the default transition for the slideshow. See Using Slideshow Transitions for more information. • Overall Audio well: Drag audio files here to add them to the overall audio file list. The graphic in the well changes to show that one or more audio files are currently assigned as the overall slideshow audio. When you position the pointer over the well, a tooltip appears that lists some overall audio file information. You can Control-click the well to remove all assigned overall audio files. 428 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows • Convert to Track button: Click this button to convert the slideshow to a track. See Converting a Slideshow to a Track for details. • Duration: Enter a new value or choose a value from its pop-up menu. This duration affects all currently selected slides. This setting is disabled if overall audio is being used, and the Fit To Audio mode is selected. See Manually Changing a Slide’s Duration for more information. • Settings pop-up menu: Contains a variety of settings you can use with your slideshow: • Fit To Audio, Fit To Slides, and Fit To Slides and Loop Audio: Control how the slideshow uses the audio when it is configured to use overall audio. These settings are disabled when audio is assigned to individual slides. See Assigning Overall Audio Files to the Slideshow for more information. • Manual Advance: Use to set all selected slides to pause or, if they are already set to pause, to turn pause off. See Setting Up a Slideshow to Let the Viewer Advance the Slides for more information. Slide List The Slideshow Editor displays eight columns of information for each slide. You can edit two of these columns: Duration and Pause. Note: You can drag the list headings to rearrange their order. You can also drag the edges of the Audio columns to control its width. • No.: Displays each slide’s number, indicating its order in the slideshow. You cannot edit this number directly, but if you drag one or a group of slides to a new position, the number is changed to reflect the slide’s new position in the slideshow. • Image: Displays a thumbnail image of each slide. All slides with a transition assigned have a triangle in their lower-right corner. Press Command–Equal Sign (=) for large thumbnails and Command-Hyphen (-) for small thumbnails. • File: Displays the name of each slide’s asset file. • Audio: Displays the name of the audio file assigned to the slide (if applicable). Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 429 • Time: Displays the slideshow’s elapsed time at the beginning of each slide. This time value does not include the duration of the slide it is listed with. All slideshows start at 00:00:00:00. While you cannot directly edit this value, changing the duration of any slides positioned earlier in the list will change this time value. • Duration: Displays the slide duration. This value is either the default duration selected in the Preferences window, the length of the audio file assigned to the slide, or, when using an overall audio file with the “Fit to audio” option selected in the Slideshow Duration pop-up menu, a value calculated so that all slides play for an equal amount of time and match the overall audio file length. You can edit this duration except on slides that have an audio asset assigned to them or in slideshows with an overall audio file that have “Fit to audio” selected. See Manually Changing a Slide’s Duration for details. • Pause: Select the checkbox if you want a pause to occur at the end of the slide. The viewer then manually advances to the next slide using the Next button or Play button on the DVD player’s remote control. Note: If the slide contains a transition, the pause occurs before the transition. When the viewer advances to the next slide, the transition plays and then the next slide appears. Manually Changing a Slide’s Duration You can manually change each slide’s duration except on slides that have an audio asset assigned to them or in slideshows with an overall audio file that have “Fit to audio” selected. To change a selected slide’s duration to a fixed value using the Slideshow Editor 1 Select one or more slides to change their durations. 2 Do one of the following: • Choose a set value (1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 seconds) from the Duration pop-up menu. • Enter a value (in seconds) in the Duration field and press Return. Either enter a duration or choose one from the pop-up menu to apply to the selected slides. The duration of all selected slides is changed to the new value. 430 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows To manually enter a slide’s duration in the slide list in the Slideshow Editor 1 Select the slide whose duration you want to change. 2 Double-click the current duration setting. The duration highlights. 3 Type the new value and press Return. Once you press Return, the new duration is set and the Time values for all affected slides adjust to reflect this change. The Duration value of the next slide is automatically selected. If you do not want to change its duration, select a different slide. When entering a value, you don’t need to enter a colon to define the number pairs—the values automatically divide into pairs starting from the frames. If you enter a value that is greater than the maximum value for that field, the appropriate time is added to the next field. For example, if you enter 79 seconds, the seconds field displays “19” and one minute is added to the minutes field. Note: The minimum slide duration for NTSC projects is 15 frames; for PAL, it is 12 frames. The minimum is longer on slides using transitions. To manually enter a slide’s duration in the Slide Inspector 1 Select the slide whose duration you want to change. 2 Do one of the following: • Enter a new duration directly. Use the same methods as when entering a new duration in the slide list area of the Slideshow Editor. • Choose a duration from the Duration pop-up menu. Setting Up a Slideshow to Let the Viewer Advance the Slides You can set up your slideshow so that each slide appears for a specified length of time or until the viewer decides to advance to the next slide. For example, you might want to coordinate your slideshow for a speaker to step through each slide. This allows the viewer (in this case the speaker) to choose when to advance to the next slide by pressing the Next or Play button on the DVD player’s remote control. To set up a viewer-advanced slideshow Do one of the following: μ Select the checkbox in the Pause column next to each slide that you want the viewer to be able to advance manually. μ Select a group of slides and choose Manual Advance from the Slideshow Editor’s Settings pop-up menu. This turns on the Pause option on all selected slides. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 431 μ Select a slide and select the Manual Advance checkbox in the Slide Inspector. Select the Pause checkbox on slides you want to be advanced manually. The pause occurs at the end of the slide’s duration. If you have added an audio asset to the slide, the audio plays and then the pause occurs. The viewer can press the Next button or the Play button on the DVD player’s remote control to continue to the next slide. Note: If the slide contains a transition, the pause occurs before the transition. When the viewer advances to the next slide using the Play button, the transition plays and then the next slide appears. If the viewer advances using the Next button, the transition does not play, and the next slide immediately appears. Setting a Pause on the Last Slide The viewer may have problems when playing your slideshow on some DVD players if you set the last slide to have a pause. Some DVD players do not react to presses of the Next button once the viewer reaches the last slide, which leaves the viewer with no way to activate the slideshow’s End Jump setting. There are two methods you can use to avoid this problem and provide consistent playback on all DVD players: • Set the slideshow’s Next Jump connection in the Connections tab. • Duplicate the last slide in the slideshow and set the new last slide not to pause. Setting the Slideshow’s Next Jump Connection Each element in your project has a Next Jump connection that is normally left not set. The only place you can set a connection for Next Jump is in the Connections tab. To set the slideshow’s Next Jump connection 1 Select the slideshow in the Outline tab. 2 Click the Connections tab. 3 Choose Advanced from the Connection tab’s View pop-up menu. Make sure the pop-up menu next to the View pop-up menu is set to All. 4 Locate the End Jump and Next Jump items in the list of sources. 432 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 5 Set the Next Jump target to be the same as the slideshow’s End Jump setting by dragging the End Jump target setting to the Next Jump target. See Next Jump and Prev Jump for more information. Duplicating the Last Slide Duplicating the last slide in a slideshow allows you to create a “false ending” for the slideshow, and avoid the pause issue. To duplicate and configure the last slide in a slideshow 1 In the Slideshow Editor, determine the asset name of the last slide and drag that slide’s asset from the Assets tab to the next slide location. 2 Select the new last slide in the Slideshow Editor and set its duration to 15 frames by double-clicking its duration value, entering 15, then pressing Return. Note: For PAL projects, you can use a 12 frame duration. 3 Make sure the last slide’s Pause checkbox is not selected. When you play this version of the slideshow and press the Next button on the last slide with a pause, it jumps to the new last slide and then to the End Jump setting. Using Slideshow Transitions Slideshow transitions allow you to control whether the slideshow directly jumps from slide to slide or uses a transition effect, such as a wipe or crossfade, to move from slide to slide. You are able to set a transition effect that applies to all slides in the slideshow or you can individually configure each slide’s transition effect. About Transitions Each slide has its own transition settings, accessible in the Transition tab in the Slide Inspector. The default transition settings for the slideshow are in the Transition tab in the Slideshow Inspector. The transition is considered part of the slide, and, in most cases, does not affect its duration. Using long transitions may lead to the slide being visible for only a short time, or may require the slide’s duration to be increased. When you select a transition for a slide, group of slides, or the slideshow, a warning appears if any slides must be lengthened. Start and End Frames Each transition has a start and end frame. The start frame is the slide you are transitioning from, and the end is the slide you are transitioning to. If the last slide in a slideshow has a transition assigned, its transition’s end frame is based on the slideshow’s End Jump setting. If the End Jump is set to a script, the transition is to black. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 433 Setting a Slideshow’s Default Transition Setting the transition for a slideshow affects all slides with their type set to “Same as Slideshow.” To set a slideshow’s default transition using the Slideshow Editor μ Choose the transition from the Slideshow Editor’s Transition pop-up menu. Choose the default transition for the slideshow. The triangle indicates this slide has a transition. The transition uses its default settings. You can change the settings in the Transition tab in the Slideshow Inspector. To set a slideshow’s default transition using the Slideshow Inspector 1 Double-click an empty place in the Slideshow Editor’s control area to show the Slideshow Inspector. 2 Click the Transition tab. 3 Choose the transition to use from the Transition pop-up menu. Choose “not set” if you do not want slides to use a default transition. (You can still configure individual slides to use transitions.) 4 Configure the transition using its specific parameters. 434 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows Setting an Individual Slide’s Transition You can use either the Slide Inspector or the Slideshow Editor to set the transition for a slide. To set a slide’s transition in the Slide Inspector 1 Select the slide for which you want to set a transition. 2 Click the Transition tab in the Slide Inspector and set the transition parameters. In addition to selecting one of the transitions to use, you can choose “not set” to disable transitions for that slide, or “Same as Slideshow” to have the slide use the slideshow’s default transition. To select a transition for a group of slides 1 Select the group of slides for which you want to select a transition. 2 Control-click one of the slides, choose Transition from the shortcut menu, then choose the transition from the submenu. Setting the Transition Parameters The Transition tabs in the Slideshow and Slide Inspectors are identical—the only difference is that the Type pop-up menu in the Slide Inspector has a “Same as Slideshow“ choice that the Slideshow Inspector does not have. • Start thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will start from. • Transition thumbnail: Provides a preview of a still transition when you click the Preview button. • End thumbnail: Shows the video frame that a still transition will end with. This thumbnail is empty in the Slideshow Inspector. • Transition: Choose the type of transition to use. In the Slideshow Inspector, this sets the default transition for this slideshow, which you can override at each slide. • not set: Disables transitions for this slideshow or slide. (Even with “not set” chosen for the slideshow, you can set transitions at each slide.) Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 435 • Still Transition: Creates a transition clip based on the chosen transition and its related settings. • Same as Slideshow: Only available in the Slide Inspector. Sets the current slide to use the transition settings in the Slideshow Inspector. • Preview: Click this to preview the current transition in the Transition thumbnail area. • Parameters: Contains the parameters for the current transition. Each transition has its own set of parameters. Transition Parameters Each transition has its own parameters. In many cases, the settings are self-explanatory; however, in some cases the settings are not obvious. See Transition Parameters for details on the parameters for each transition. Converting a Slideshow to a Track You may want to add several features to your slideshow that the Slideshow Editor does not support. These include: • Subtitles • Alternate language streams • The ability to combine moving video with the slides To get access to these features, you can convert your slideshow to a track. Once converted to a track, what was previously a slideshow is now a track, and must be edited in the Track Editor. Note: Once you convert a slideshow to a track, you cannot convert it back. You can use the Undo feature or create a duplicate of the slideshow before you convert it to a track. If you do create a duplicate of the slideshow, be sure to delete the duplicate before you build your project. To convert a slideshow to a track 1 In the Outline tab, Control-click the slideshow’s name, then choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu. An identical copy of the slideshow is created in case you need it later. You should delete this copy when you are sure that it is no longer needed. 2 Choose the original slideshow in the Slideshow Editor. 3 Do one of the following: • Choose Project > Slideshow > Convert to Track. • Click Convert To Track in the Slideshow Editor. 436 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows The slideshow is deleted and a new track is created using the slideshow’s name. Click Convert To Track to create a track from the selected slideshow. The new track has a marker at each slide, each named with the slide’s filename. Each slide retains its duration and pause setting. If audio files were assigned, they are also present in the track. Note: If a slide has a transition, a cell marker is placed at the beginning of the transition. If the slide has pause selected, this marker is set to pause. Setting Slideshow Properties Selecting a slideshow in the Outline tab displays the Slideshow Inspector. The Slideshow Inspector contains a top section and three tabs: General, Advanced, and Transition. Settings at the Top of the Slideshow Inspector Following are the settings at the top of the Slideshow Inspector. • Name: Enter the name of the slideshow. This is the name that appears in the Outline tab (where you can also change it). • Est. Size: Displays the amount of disc space the slideshow requires. • End Jump: Choose a setting from this pop-up menu to determine what happens once the slideshow finishes playing. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 437 General Tab in the Slideshow Inspector The settings in the General tab in the Slideshow Inspector are used to set the slideshow’s resolution and display mode. These settings are also used to configure a slideshow for overall audio and are disabled when you are using no audio or are assigning audio to individual slides. Resolution and Display Settings These settings define the basic video attributes of the slideshow. • Resolution: Choose the slideshow’s resolution. • For SD DVD projects: The resolution is either 720 x 480i (NTSC) or 720 x 576i (PAL). • For HD DVD projects: You can choose from any of the supported resolutions. The resolution automatically changes to match the first slide’s resolution if it matches one of the supported resolutions, or to the closest smaller resolution if there is not a direct match. DVD Studio Pro Preferences includes a setting for the default resolution (which also applies to menus and tracks). See Still Images in HD Projects for more information. • Display Mode: Set the aspect ratio for this slideshow (4:3 or 16:9) and, with 16:9, choose how it displays on a 4:3 monitor. The aspect ratio of the slide assets should match this setting. Parameters These settings define the length of the slideshow. • Slideshow Duration: Controls how the slideshow uses the audio when it is configured to use overall audio. These settings are disabled when you assign audio to individual slides. See Assigning Overall Audio Files to the Slideshow for more information. • Fit To Audio: Slide durations are changed to a value that ensures the slides and audio end at the same time. 438 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows • Fit To Slides: Slide durations are not changed, which means the audio can end before or after the last slide. Selecting Fit To Slides enables the Loop Audio checkbox. • Loop Audio: Select this to have the slide durations control when the slideshow ends. If the audio is too long, it is clipped so that it ends with the last slide. If the audio is too short, it loops back to the first audio asset and continues playing until the last slide finishes. • Total Running Time: Shows the duration of the slideshow. Audio The audio section lists the overall audio files assigned to the slideshow. You can drag a file within the list to change its order. • Add (+): Opens a file selection dialog so you can add an audio file to the list. • Delete (–): Removes the selected audio files from the list. • Total Audio Duration: Shows the combined duration of the audio files. Advanced Tab in the Slideshow Inspector Following are the settings in the Advanced tab of the Slideshow Inspector. • Pre-Script: If applicable, you can choose a script from this pop-up menu. See Pre-Scripts for information on using pre-scripts. • Remote Control: Use these pop-up menus to customize the viewer’s interaction with the title from this slideshow. See Remote Control Settings for details. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 439 Transition Tab in the Slideshow Inspector See Setting the Transition Parameters for details on the Transition tab. Setting Slide Properties If you select a slide in the Slideshow Editor, the Slide Inspector appears. It allows you to set attributes for each slide. It contains a top section and two tabs: General and Transition. See Setting the Transition Parameters for details on the Transition tab. Note: Any settings you make in the Slide Inspector become marker properties if you convert the slideshow to a track. Settings at the Top of the Slide Inspector Following are the settings at the top of the Slide Inspector. • Name: Displays the name of the slide as it appears in the Assets tab, where its name can be changed. • Asset: Displays the name of the slide’s actual asset. 440 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows General Tab in the Slide Inspector Following are the settings in the General tab of the Slide Inspector. • Slide Duration: Displays the duration of the selected slide. You can enter a new duration or choose a duration from the pop-up menu. • Manual Advance: Determines whether the slideshow pauses (checkbox selected) or continues playing to the next slide (checkbox not selected). • Audio File: Displays the name of the audio asset assigned to this slide. You can use this pop-up menu to choose from the audio assets already imported into this project. Important: All audio files within a slideshow must have the same format, resolution, and bit rate. • DVD@CCESS: Select this checkbox for titles played on a computer if you need to open an application such as a web browser to view special content when the slide starts playing. See DVD@CCESS for information on DVD@CCESS. Previewing a Slideshow Before you build the slideshow, it’s a good idea to preview it. To preview a slideshow 1 Select the slideshow in the Outline tab. 2 In the Slideshow Editor, select the slide to start playing from. 3 Do one of the following: • Press the Space bar. • In the Slideshow tab, Control-click a slide, then choose Play from the shortcut menu. The Viewer tab appears and the slideshow starts playing from the selected slide. If the slideshow has audio assigned, it also plays. A drawback is that pauses are ignored. You can use the Simulator to play the slideshow and test any pauses you have set. Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows 441 Simulating a Slideshow Simulating a slideshow allows you to fully test a slideshow, including its pauses and DVD@CCESS settings. To simulate a slideshow Do one of the following: μ Select the slideshow, then choose File > Simulate Slideshow, or press Command-Option-0 (zero). μ Control-click the slideshow in the Outline tab, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu. μ In the Slideshow tab, Control-click a slide, then choose Simulate from the shortcut menu. These options force the Simulator to start at this slideshow instead of the First Play connection, as it does when started by clicking Simulator in the toolbar. Once the slideshow starts playing, you can use the Simulator’s controls to test the pauses. See Simulating Your Project for information on using the Simulator. 442 Chapter 18 Creating Slideshows Although the most common use for subtitles is to display a text version of the dialogue, subtitles created in DVD Studio Pro can be used for many other purposes. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Subtitles (p. 443) • Importing Older DVD Studio Pro Subtitles (p. 445) • Subtitles and Overlays (p. 445) • About Subtitles and Closed Captions (p. 445) • Subtitle Stream Basics (p. 446) • Subtitle Inspector (p. 448) • What Happens with Different Aspect Ratios? (p. 454) • Viewing Subtitles (p. 455) • Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro (p. 457) • Importing Graphics Files for Subtitles (p. 463) • Creating and Importing Subtitle Files (p. 464) • Importing a Subtitle File (p. 465) • Creating an STL Format Subtitle File (p. 467) • Creating Buttons over Video (p. 471) • Configuring a Button over Video Subtitle Clip (p. 473) Introduction to Subtitles Each track can include up to 32 subtitle streams. Having multiple streams makes it possible to offer text in several languages, allowing the viewer to select the appropriate one. Increasingly, subtitles are being used for other purposes, such as to create buttons over video (also known as interactive markers or interactive subtitles), which allow the viewer to make choices while watching the movie. You can also use subtitles to supply simple graphics to augment the video, such as arrows and lines. 443 Creating Subtitles 19 You can create text subtitles directly in DVD Studio Pro, one at a time. You set their position, font, size, style, and color, and can have them fade in and out. You control their start and stop time either by entering timecode values or dragging in the timeline. You can also import subtitle files containing all of the subtitles for a track. DVD Studio Pro supports files that conform to any of these formats: • STL: The Spruce Technologies subtitle format • SON: The Sonic Solutions bitmap-based format • TXT: A plain text file • SCR: The Daiken-Comtec Laboratories Scenarist bitmap-based format Note: See Importing Older DVD Studio Pro Subtitles for information on importing SPU format subtitles (subtitles created with earlier versions of DVD Studio Pro). Files in these formats should all contain multiple subtitle text or graphics images tied to timecode values, ensuring they are placed properly within the timeline. You can also import graphics files and use them as subtitles or overlay them on the video. For example, you could have a graphic that traces a route on a map that appears in the video stream. By importing several graphics, you could effectively animate the graphic (by making the line move in the map, for example). Subtitles can also be used to superimpose buttons over the track’s video. The viewer selects these buttons just as they would buttons on a menu. Creating buttons over video is similar to creating buttons using the standard menu creation method; that is, both involve overlays, drawing rectangles to identify each button’s active area, and color mapping. There are no limits to how many subtitles you can add to a subtitle stream. However, there are limits to how many subtitles you can have that provide buttons over video. See How Do Buttons over Video Work? for more information. There is also no limit to the length of subtitles—you can make subtitles as short as one frame or as long as the track. Short subtitles can be useful if you want to create an animation effect, with simple graphics that move. See Using Graphics Files to Create an Animation for more information. Subtitles can be configured so that the viewer controls whether they appear, or they can be forced to appear. 444 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Importing Older DVD Studio Pro Subtitles Because of the way they are created, you cannot directly import subtitle files created with the Subtitle Editor in earlier versions of DVD Studio Pro. These subtitle files have an “.SPU” extension. However, you can import older DVD Studio Pro projects that contain subtitles into DVD Studio Pro 4. Each subtitle entry is converted to a TIFF file and placed on the timeline at the correct location. Because the subtitles are TIFF files, you cannot edit their text within DVD Studio Pro 4. Subtitles and Overlays All subtitle types use the same advanced overlay method used in the standard menu creation method. This means that any graphics and subtitle files must be made of up to four predefined colors, on which you map the actual colors that appear when the title plays. See Creating Overlays for information on overlay graphics. About Subtitles and Closed Captions While this chapter describes working with subtitles, it is important to understand how they compare to closed captions, which are also supported by DVD Studio Pro when creating NTSC SD projects. This is especially important if you are creating DVD titles that must comply with accessibility requirements. There are two methods available to you to provide visual text to the viewers of your NTSC SD-based DVD title: adding subtitles and importing closed caption files. In both cases, text can be made to appear on the screen along with the video. However, the capabilities of each method are different. Note: DVD Studio Pro does not support closed captions in HD projects or PAL SD projects. Subtitle Capabilities Subtitles generally provide dialogue text only—there is no text description of sounds that may also be part of a scene (although those could be added if you wish). Subtitles are generally intended to provide the dialogue in a second language and assume you can hear the disc’s audio. When creating subtitles, you can define their position, size, font, and color. Subtitles do not actually have to be text—they can be a graphic used to display a logo or point out an item in the video. All DVD players, including those used by computers, include the ability to show subtitles. Subtitles work the same in both NTSC and PAL projects. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 445 Closed Caption Capabilities Closed captions provide not only dialogue text but also descriptions of other sounds that are part of a scene (such as a phone ringing or a dog barking). They are intended to enhance the viewing experience for deaf and hearing-impaired viewers. To view closed captions, you must have a suitable decoder—either built in to the television or as a standalone device. When creating closed captions, you choose the text’s position and, in some cases, its color—the font is controlled by the decoder. Because a lot of computers do not have closed caption decoders, playing DVD titles on them means you generally cannot count on being able to show any included closed captions. Due to their reliance on information contained in line 21 of the video signal, closed captions, as supported by the DVD specification, apply to NTSC programs only. See Adding Closed Captions to a DVD for details on importing a closed caption file. Subtitle Stream Basics There are several aspects of working with subtitle streams that apply whether you create them in DVD Studio Pro or import them. Working with Subtitles in DVD Studio Pro Working with subtitles in DVD Studio Pro involves using the Track Editor, the Subtitle Inspector, and the Viewer tab. All subtitles, whether created with text entered in DVD Studio Pro, as individual imported graphics files, or as a subtitle file containing multiple subtitles, are based on subtitle clips in one of the 32 subtitle streams. In general, you work with the subtitle clips the same way you work with audio clips in the Track Editor. You can drag the clips to change their position and drag their edges to change their length. The Subtitle Inspector provides the settings you use to configure each of the subtitle clips. Even the subtitle clips you import as part of a subtitle file can have their settings modified in the Subtitle Inspector. The Viewer tab serves the Subtitle Editor function. When you double-click a subtitle clip in the Track Editor, its playhead jumps to the subtitle clip’s start, with the subtitle appearing over the track’s video. You can enter and position subtitle text directly in the Viewer tab. It also contains the tools you use when you create subtitles configured for buttons over video. 446 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles How Subtitles Switch Streams When the viewer switches from one subtitle stream to the other, two things must happen before the second stream’s subtitles appear: • The subtitle clip currently showing must reach its end. No subtitle actions, including switching streams and turning subtitles off, can occur until the DVD player finishes showing the current subtitle clip. • A clip on the second stream must start. If a subtitle clip on the second stream starts before the subtitle clip on the first stream ends, it does not appear, and instead, the next clip on the second stream is the first from that stream to appear. For most standard subtitles, this happens relatively quickly and the viewer quickly starts seeing subtitles from the selected stream. At most they might miss one subtitle clip. These rules become important if you create a long subtitle clip that is the same length as the track because you will never be able to select it or switch from it. Having a single long subtitle clip is useful if you want to place a logo in a corner of the image. For this to work, its subtitle stream must be selected before the long clip starts, and once selected, you cannot switch it off or switch to a different subtitle stream. Note: Subtitles that cross chapter markers are automatically split into multiple subtitle clips at each marker when you build your project. Subtitle Preferences DVD Studio Pro contains a set of preferences that control many aspects of how subtitles appear on a stream, whether manually created or imported (unless specifically overridden). It is recommended that you take some time and configure these preferences before you start working in the subtitle streams. The preferences cover the following areas: • Fade and length: The General pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains the default settings for the fade in and out settings as well as the subtitle length. The fade settings apply to all subtitles except those configured to provide buttons over video. The length setting applies only to new subtitles you create in DVD Studio Pro. • Font and position: The Text pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains the default settings for the font used with text subtitles and the position settings for both text and graphic-based subtitles. Depending on the type of subtitle file you are importing, these settings may be overridden during the file import. • Color mapping: The Colors pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences contains default settings for the color mapping used when importing subtitle files and creating subtitles in DVD Studio Pro. Depending on the type of subtitle file you are importing, these settings may be overridden during the file import. See Setting DVD Studio Pro Preferences for more information. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 447 Applying Subtitle Settings to the Stream No matter how carefully you configure your preferences and how much time you spend deciding how the subtitles should look, there will often be times when you need to make a change to all subtitle clips in a stream (and there could be hundreds of clips in a stream). For example, you may need to use a different color for the text or to change the font. The Subtitle Inspector includes an Apply to Stream function that you can use to selectively apply changes you make in one subtitle clip to all subtitle clips in that stream. There are three areas in which you can independently apply changes you make to the entire stream: • Fade In and Out: You can make changes to a clip’s fade settings in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector and apply the changes to all subtitle clips in the stream. • Text formatting: You can make changes to a clip’s font and position settings in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector and apply the changes to all subtitle clips in the stream. • Color mapping: You can make changes to a clip’s color and opacity settings in the Colors tab in the Subtitle Inspector and apply the changes to all subtitle clips in the stream. Subtitle Inspector The Subtitle Inspector contains settings applicable to all subtitle clips. It shows the settings of the currently selected subtitle clip. The Subtitle Inspector contains three tabs: General, Button, and Colors. There is also the Text entry area at the top of the Inspector. Text Entry Area in the Subtitle Inspector You can use the Text area to enter subtitle text for the current subtitle clip. The Text area also displays any text you enter directly in the Subtitle Editor. If you have imported the subtitle as a graphic, the Text area does not show any text contained in the graphic. Click within the Text area to enter text. You can even combine text with an imported graphic. Press Return to insert a line break. 448 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles General Tab in the Subtitle Inspector Following are the settings in the General tab of the Subtitle Inspector. Clip Info • Start: The timecode where this clip appears. You can change a clip’s start time by entering a new value here or by dragging the clip’s leading edge in the Track Editor. Changing the start time also affects the clip’s end time, but not its duration. • Duration: The length of the clip. If you enter a new duration here, the clip’s end time changes to fit it. You can also change a clip’s duration by dragging its edges in the Track Editor. • Stop Time: The timecode where the clip stops appearing. You can change a clip’s stop time by entering a new value here or by dragging the clip’s trailing edge in the Track Editor. Changing the stop time also affects the clip’s duration. • Fade In: You can enter a value (in frames) that controls how long the clip takes to dissolve on. The fade in starts at the clip’s start time. Note: The Fade settings are unavailable when you are working with a subtitle clip configured to provide buttons over video. • Out: You can enter a value (in frames) that controls how long the clip takes to dissolve off. The fade out finishes at the clip’s stop time. Note: Because there are only 16 opacity levels, setting fades longer than 20 frames produces noticeable “stepping” as the subtitle dissolves in and out. • Force display: Select this checkbox to force specific subtitle clips to appear, even if the viewer has disabled subtitles. Subtitle clips set to force their display only appear if their subtitle stream is currently selected. • Apply to Stream: Click to apply the fade in and out settings to all subtitle clips in this stream. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 449 Formatting • Horizontal: Sets the horizontal justification of the text. Click the appropriate icon for left, center, or right alignment. • Horizontal Offset: Trims the horizontal position of the text, in pixel steps, from the selected justification setting. Positive values move the text to the right and negative values move it to the left. A value of 0 positions the text at its justification setting. • Vertical: Sets the vertical justification of the text. Click the appropriate icon for top, center, or bottom alignment. • Vertical Offset: Trims the vertical position of the text, in pixel steps, from the selected justification setting. Positive values move the text down and negative values move it up. A value of 0 positions the text at its justification setting. • Apply to Stream: Click to apply the formatting settings to all subtitle clips in this stream. Graphic • File: Shows the name of the graphics file assigned to this subtitle clip. You can enter the path and name for a graphics file or click the Choose button to open a file selection dialog. • Offset X and Y: Use to trim the graphic’s position. • Offset X: Trims the horizontal position. Positive values move the graphic to the right and negative values move it to the left. A value of 0 positions the graphic at its default position. • Offset Y: Trims the vertical position. Positive values move the graphic down and negative values move it up. A value of 0 positions the graphic at its default position. Stream • Language: Choose the stream’s language. This setting applies to all subtitles in the stream. You can also choose the stream’s language in the stream configuration area of the Track Editor. • Import Subtitles: Click this button to import a subtitle file. This file affects the entire subtitle stream. See Importing a Subtitle File for more information. Note: Importing a subtitle file deletes any existing subtitle clips from the stream. Button Tab in the Subtitle Inspector The Button tab in the Subtitle Inspector is empty unless the subtitle is configured to provide buttons over video. See Creating Buttons over Video for more information. 450 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles You use the Button tab to configure the buttons to add to the subtitle. • Name: By default, buttons are named “Button _,” where “_” is the button number in that menu. To reduce confusion when viewing a list of the menu’s buttons, it is helpful to rename the buttons based on their functions. • Default: Choose the button to be selected when the subtitle appears during playback of the title. This setting can be overridden by any element that jumps to this subtitle’s marker, based on its jump setting. • Target: You can use this pop-up menu to define a button’s action when activated. (You can also use the Connections tab or Control-click the button.) Often you must set the connection later because what you want to jump to has not been added to the project yet. The pop-up menu contains all possible elements you can jump to. • Highlight: Select the color mapping set (1, 2, or 3) to use for this button. • Angle/Audio/Subtitle Streams: Use these three pop-up menus to have a button select specific angle, audio, and subtitle streams to play back. For the subtitle stream, you can also choose whether subtitles should appear. These settings are only active if the target is set to “not set.” You can set the target to run a script if you want a button to jump to a specific stream in a different track. • Remote: This area lets you set the actions that take place when the viewer uses the arrow buttons on the DVD player’s remote control to navigate through the title. Because this is the typical way the title will be viewed, it is important to spend some time configuring the navigation in a logical, predictable way. See Configuring Button Navigation for information. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 451 • Number Pad: Defines which buttons are directly accessible by a DVD player’s numeric keypad. Choose All, None, or a button number from the pop-up menu. When you choose a button number, that button and all buttons less than that number are accessible via the numeric keypad—buttons greater than this value are blocked from direct access. Important: This feature is based on the order in which the buttons are created. In most cases, this order is the same as the default button names shown in the Viewer. This button order can be changed if you delete a button and later add a new button—the new button’s default name is not a reliable indicator of the order in which the buttons were created. • Button Offset: You can use this to offset button numbers so they make sense to a viewer who wants to select a button by entering its number. For example, you may have a set of scene selection menus with numbered scenes. One of the menus may have scenes 23 to 34, with the button for scene 23 being the first button on the menu. If you enter an offset value of 22 for this menu, when the viewer enters 23 on the remote control, 22 is subtracted from it, with the result being 1—the button’s actual number. • Coordinates & Size: This area lets you set the location of each edge of the button’s active area, plus the area’s height and width. The upper-left corner of the menu is at pixel 0, line 0. You can enter values for each edge, allowing you to precisely position and size the button’s active area. (You can also drag the area and each of its edges with the pointer.) • Auto Action: If you select Auto Action for a button, the button activates automatically as soon as it is navigated to, without the viewer needing to press Enter. This is useful in menus, such as scene selection menus, in which you use Next and Previous buttons; you can assume that if viewers navigate to the Next or Previous button, they want to activate it. With overlay-based buttons, if you select this option, only the activated color mapping appears when the button is navigated to, skipping the selected color mapping. Important: When viewed with most software-based DVD players, such as the Apple DVD Player, auto action buttons must be clicked if a mouse is used to select buttons. If you use the computer’s arrow keys, however, auto action buttons activate automatically as with set-top DVD players. • Invisible: Applies to overlay-based buttons. Allows you to have a button that does not display highlights in the normal, selected, or activated state. This is useful when you want to have a menu with text and no visible buttons. The text could tell the viewer to press the Enter button to go to the next menu or start playback (or whatever the button is set to jump to). 452 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Colors Tab in the Subtitle Inspector The Colors tab in the Subtitle Inspector is very similar to the Colors tab in the Menu Inspector. • Mapping Type: Select the colors used to create the overlay graphic. This setting only applies to imported graphics files. • Chroma: Uses black, red, blue, and white • Grayscale: Uses black, dark gray, light gray, and white. • Selection State: Unless you have configured this subtitle clip to provide buttons over video, only the Normal setting is available. When configured for buttons over video, you can select the button state you want to configure, and that state’s colors and transparencies are displayed. • Set: Active only when you have configured this subtitle clip to provide buttons over video. Select the color mapping set (1, 2, or 3) to configure. All new buttons use set 1. See Color Mapping Sets for more information. Note: These sets apply only to the selected and activated button states. The normal state color mapping setting applies to the entire overlay graphic unless a button’s active area is selected or activated. • Key: Displays the overlay file’s colors as selected with the Mapping Type. The names to the left of the key colors (Text, Outline 1, Outline 2, and Background) show which settings apply to subtitle text entered in DVD Studio Pro. • Color: Select the color for each of the four overlay colors from the current Color Palette. If this subtitle is configured to provide buttons over video, you must do this for all three button states. • Opacity: Set the transparency for each of the highlight colors. You can use the slider or enter a value from 0 (completely transparent) to 15 (completely opaque). Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 453 • Apply to Stream: Click to apply the color and opacity settings to all subtitle clips in this stream. • Save As Default: Click to save this color mapping configuration as the default to be used on all new subtitles you create. Note: This is not the same palette used by the Menu Editor. • Restore Default: Click to replace the existing settings with those of the default subtitle color mapping configuration. • Edit Palette: Click to display the Color Palette dialog, which you can use to change colors within the palette. See Color Mapping Palette for more information. What Happens with Different Aspect Ratios? There are special considerations when you add subtitles to a track with its display set to one of the 16:9 options, especially if you have subtitles configured to provide buttons over video. Normal Text Subtitles and 16:9 The text on the subtitles you create in DVD Studio Pro on 16:9 tracks will appear horizontally stretched when viewed on a 16:9 monitor. You can counteract this effect by choosing a narrow font. When a 16:9 track’s subtitle plays on a 4:3 monitor using either the letterbox or pan-scan method, the text will appear at its natural, nonstretched width. Additionally, the text is complete, even when you use the pan-scan mode. Normal Overlay Graphic Subtitles and 16:9 Overlay graphics that you use for subtitles on 16:9 tracks must be anamorphic (horizontally compressed) to display properly when viewed on a 16:9 monitor. If you use nonanamorphic graphics for the subtitles, they will appear horizontally stretched when viewed on a 16:9 monitor. When a 16:9 track with a graphic subtitle plays on a 4:3 monitor, the entire graphic appears, whether you use the letterbox or pan-scan mode. If you used an anamorphic graphic for the subtitle, it will appear horizontally squeezed when viewed on a 4:3 monitor. Buttons over Video Using Text Buttons and 16:9 If you create subtitle buttons by typing text and using the text as the buttons on a 16:9 track, the highlights will work as expected when played on a 16:9 monitor. How the track plays on a 4:3 monitor depends on whether you are using the letterbox or pan-scan mode. • If you play the 16:9 track on a 4:3 letterbox monitor: The highlights will not match the text, because the highlight areas have been scaled along with the video. • If you play the 16:9 track on a 4:3 pan-scan monitor: The highlights will match the text. 454 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Based on this behavior, it is recommended that text buttons not be used when creating buttons over video on a 16:9 track that is set to play in the letterbox mode on a 4:3 monitor. Buttons over Video Using Overlay Graphic Buttons and 16:9 If you create subtitle buttons by importing an overlay graphic and configuring it for a 16:9 track, the highlights will work as expected when played on a 16:9 monitor. The highlights will not match the overlay graphic when played on a 4:3 monitor, either letterbox or pan-scan. • If you play the 16:9 track on a 4:3 letterbox monitor: The highlights will be expecting the overlay graphic to be compressed vertically about its center by 25 percent (matching what happens to the track’s video). • If you play the 16:9 track on a 4:3 pan-scan monitor: The highlights will be expecting the overlay graphic to have had 12.5 percent of its width removed from both the left and right edges (resulting in a total of 25 percent of the width being removed, matching what happens to the track’s video). In both cases, you can create overlay graphics that compensate for these issues, but not one that will work for both 16:9 and 4:3 playback. One solution is to create two sets of graphics—one for 16:9 monitors and the other for 4:3 monitors, either letterbox or pan-scan. If you place the graphics on separate subtitle streams at the same timecode, you can use a script to determine how the DVD player is configured and enable the appropriate stream. See Creating Buttons over Video for more information about using buttons over video. Viewing Subtitles To see how your subtitles look over moving video, including the fade in and fade out settings, you must preview or simulate the track. • Previewing: Previewing subtitles plays the selected subtitle stream over the video track in the Viewer tab. You are able to switch subtitle streams during playback. However, they switch immediately—not as they would switch with a DVD player. You cannot try out any buttons over video you may have added. • Simulating: Simulating subtitles plays the track in the Simulator. You are able to properly switch subtitle streams during playback and can verify any buttons over video you have configured. Previewing Subtitles Before you can preview a subtitle, you need to enable its stream; you can then start playing the track. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 455 To preview a subtitle 1 Select the video, audio, and subtitle streams you want to preview, using the button at the far left of each stream. Click to select one video, audio, and subtitle stream to preview. See Setting Stream Properties for more information on stream settings. 2 Play the track by clicking the Play button in the Viewer tab. The track plays from the playhead’s current position. Because the playhead automatically jumps to each subtitle clip as you edit them, you need to move it back to the track’s beginning if you want to begin playing from there. Alternatively, you can move the playhead to any position on the timeline to start playback at that point. See Playhead for information on using the playhead. See Viewing a Track for more information on playing tracks. Simulating Subtitles DVD Studio Pro provides two ways to start the Simulator: at the First Play connection using Simulator in the toolbar, and at the current track using a shortcut menu in the Outline and Graphical tabs. Because you may have not yet configured your project so that you can easily navigate to this track from the First Play setting, it is often more convenient to start the Simulator playing at the current track. To start the Simulator at a specific track Do one of the following: μ Select the track, then choose File > Simulate Track, or press Command-Option-0 (zero). μ Control-click the track in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Simulate Track from the shortcut menu. μ Control-click a stream in the Track Editor, then choose Simulate from Track from the shortcut menu. 456 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Creating Subtitles with DVD Studio Pro Before you create a subtitle, you must have first created and selected the track where the subtitle will go. Because the contents of the track’s video and audio streams typically determine the subtitle placement, you should not start adding subtitles until these streams are set. Creating a Subtitle Clip There are several methods you can use to create a new subtitle clip. Note: Remember that you have to create the subtitle in a subtitle stream (one of the streams labeled S1 to S32), and not in the V1 stream. To create a new subtitle clip Do one of the following: μ Double-click in the subtitle stream at the approximate time position where the subtitle clip should appear. μ Position the track’s playhead where the subtitle clip should appear, then choose Project > Timeline > Add Subtitle at Playhead. μ Position the track’s playhead where the subtitle clip should appear, Control-click in the subtitle stream, then choose Add Subtitle at Playhead from the shortcut menu. μ Position the track’s playhead where the subtitle clip should appear, then press Shift-Tilde (~). μ Control-click in the subtitle stream at the approximate time position where the subtitle clip should appear, then choose Add Subtitle from the shortcut menu. Double-click in a subtitle stream to create a new subtitle. Control-click in a subtitle stream to open this shortcut menu. All methods create an empty subtitle, with the duration and colors set in the General and Colors panes in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Click the Viewer tab to see the video frame that corresponds to the start of the subtitle. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 457 Positioning and Trimming a Subtitle Within a Stream You can use your mouse or the settings in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector to adjust the position and duration of the subtitle. To position and trim a subtitle 1 Change the subtitle’s position on the timeline by doing one of the following: • Drag it to a new position. • Enter a new start time in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector. 2 Change the subtitle’s duration by doing one of the following: • Drag one of its edges to a new position. You may need to change the timeline’s zoom level to make it easier to see any changes you make, especially if the subtitle clip appears very small. The pointer changes to indicate when you are over an edge and can start dragging it. • Enter a new duration in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector. • Enter a new stop time in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector. Note: Subtitles cannot cross chapter markers. When you build your project, any subtitle clips that reach a chapter marker are clipped at that point. Selecting Subtitle Clips Once you have multiple subtitle clips in a stream, you can use a variety of methods to select one. To select a subtitle clip in a subtitle stream Do one of the following: μ Choose Project > Subtitle > Next or Project > Subtitle > Previous. μ Click a subtitle clip in the subtitle stream. μ Click the left and right arrows in the Viewer tab. μ Press the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to move the playhead through the timeline, stopping at each clip edge and marker. Entering Subtitle Text If you have experience using graphics applications, most aspects of entering subtitle text will be familiar to you. You can type directly in the Viewer tab or in the Text area in the Subtitle Inspector. To enter subtitle text 1 Do one of the following: • If the blinking insertion point is showing in the Subtitle Editor, you can start typing the text. The insertion point automatically appears at the default position in the Subtitle Editor. 458 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles • Click in the Text area in the Subtitle Inspector. 2 Type the text. Press Return to start a new line. Note: When typing text in the Subtitle Editor, press Enter to exit the text entry mode. You cannot create more than one text entry per subtitle. For example, you cannot enter a sentence, position it in the upper-left corner, and enter a second sentence and position it in the lower-right corner. If you need this functionality, create a graphics file that contains the text as required, and import it into a subtitle. See Importing Graphics Files for Subtitles for more information. See Setting the Subtitle Font if the font is not the right size or style. See Setting the Subtitle Color if you see the insertion point move, but no text appears in the Viewer tab, or you want the text to be a different color. You can edit the text by clicking to place the insertion point or selecting existing text and typing new text. You can also drag the text in the Subtitle Editor to a new position. Copying Text Between Subtitles You can copy text from one subtitle or other text source to a subtitle. Depending on where you paste the text, you can even maintain the font and size of the copied text: • To use the font and size information in addition to the text: Paste at the insertion point in the Viewer tab. The text’s color and justification are not copied. • To use only the text: Paste in the Subtitle Inspector’s text entry area. The text uses the subtitle’s font and size settings. To copy text to a subtitle 1 Select the text to be copied. This text can be from almost any text source, including other subtitles or TextEdit files. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). This copies the text to the Clipboard. The selected text is not affected. 3 Select the subtitle to copy the text to, then do one of the following: • To add it as new text: Click the insertion point. • To replace existing text: Highlight the text to be replaced. • To add it to existing text: Place the insertion point where the copied text should go. Use the Viewer tab to retain the font and size settings of the copied text, or use the Subtitle Inspector’s text entry area to use the subtitle’s font and size settings. 4 To paste the text, choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 459 Entering Subtitles in Multiple Languages One of the great things about subtitles is that you can have a completely different stream for each language. In the Viewer tab, you can type the subtitles on that stream in any language that your system is configured to handle. When you build the project, the text subtitles are converted to bitmap images. The system on which you build the project (if it is different from the one used to enter the subtitles) must have the proper fonts installed to create the bitmaps. However, once the project is built, the fonts are not required to view the title using DVD players. You can copy each subtitle clip to a new stream, preserving any attributes, such as fading, fonts, and duration, you have already set. To copy a subtitle clip from one stream to another stream Do one of the following: μ Option-drag the existing subtitle clip to the new stream. You can place the clip freely within the stream. μ Shift-Option-drag the existing subtitle clip to the new stream. The subtitle clip is forced to the same timeline position as the original. Formatting Subtitle Text You can format your subtitle text in a variety of ways. You get to choose: • The font family and specific typeface attributes (bold, oblique, and so on) • The font size • The colors, including transparency and outlines You can also mix multiple fonts and sizes within the subtitle, although they must all use the same colors. Note: You cannot set the color of subtitle text as you do a text object in the Menu Editor. You must choose colors from the Color Palette. See Setting the Subtitle Color for more information. Setting the Subtitle Font You can set the font attributes either before or after you type subtitle text. To set the font attributes 1 To open the Fonts window, do one of the following: • Choose Format > Font > Show Fonts (or press Command-T). • Click Show Fonts in the toolbar. 460 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles The Mac OS X Fonts window opens. 2 If you’re making changes to existing text, select the text in the Subtitle Editor by dragging across it. 3 In the Fonts window, select the font family and the typeface style to use. The list of available fonts and styles is based on fonts currently installed on your system. 4 Either select a size in the Size column (use the slider to scroll through the list) or select the existing size and enter the new value, then press the Return key. Note: If you open a DVD Studio Pro project that uses a font that is not on the computer you are opening it on (either because the font was deleted or the project was created on a different computer), any items using the missing font have a different font substituted with no warning. To help make the font list manageable, you can assign fonts to collections, creating groupings of similar fonts. This makes it easy to get to a specific font type, such as script or serif. For more information, see Mac OS X Help. Setting the Subtitle Color You can set the colors that subtitles are displayed in. As you type text into a subtitle, you are actually creating an overlay graphic, exactly the same as an overlay graphic you might create with a graphics application. As with an advanced overlay, a subtitle contains four colors that you map to the actual colors that are displayed in the finished title. Each color also has a transparency setting. For subtitles, however, the function of each of the four colors is fixed: Color 1 is the text, color 2 is the first text outline, color 3 is the second text outline, and color 4 is the text background. You usually set the opacity of color 4 (the text background) to 0—other opacity settings apply color 4 over the entire picture (except where the text is). Color 2 (text outline 1) and color 3 (text outline 2) let you apply a text border to help improve the contrast with the video underneath the subtitle. For example, you could set the text to be white and the outlines to be black, making it easy to read the text over light or dark video content. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 461 You choose the colors that appear for each of the four overlays/text functions from a 16-color palette, exactly as you do with the standard menu creation method. You can define the colors in the palette either in the Colors pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences or by clicking Edit Palette in the Colors tab in the Subtitle Inspector. Note: The subtitle Color Palette is independent of the menu Color Palette. Changes you make in one do not affect the other. To set the text colors 1 For each of the four overlays/text functions, choose a new color from the Color pop-up menu. See Color Mapping Palette for details on setting the color palette. 2 Adjust the opacity (0 is completely transparent; 15 is completely opaque) for each color you set. Note: The Mapping Type setting only applies to imported graphics, and does not affect subtitle text. Positioning Subtitle Text over the Video Once you have typed your text and set its font attributes, you can set its final position. There are several tools you can use to set the text’s position: • You can set the default position for subtitles in the Text pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Any new subtitles you type will be placed according to your settings. • You can drag the text to a new position. • You can use the buttons in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector to automatically position the text horizontally and vertically. You can also fine-tune the placement by entering an offset for each direction, which moves the text the distance you specify from the position selected with the Horizontal and Vertical buttons. The Text pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences and the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector use similar settings for positioning the text. In both cases, you use horizontal and vertical alignment settings to get it close, and then use the offset settings to position it exactly. To position subtitle text without dragging 1 Select the horizontal alignment (left, center, or right). 2 Enter an offset value, in pixels, to adjust the position selected with the alignment setting. Positive numbers move the text to the right. Negative numbers move the text to the left. A value of 0 positions the text at its default position for the selected alignment. 3 Select the vertical alignment (top, center, or bottom). 4 Enter an offset value, in pixels, to adjust the position selected with the alignment setting. Positive numbers move the text down. Negative numbers move the text up. A value of 0 positions the text at its default position for the selected alignment. 462 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Note: It’s easy to enter an offset value that makes the text disappear completely. If you cannot see the text, enter 0 for the horizontal and vertical offsets. Importing Graphics Files for Subtitles You can use graphics files, configured as overlays, to create individual subtitles. These graphics can be drawings or text created using a graphics application. See Creating Overlays for information on creating overlay graphics. You must also use the correct frame size when creating your graphics. See Understanding Pixel Differences in Graphics and Video for information on square pixels and a list of frame sizes to use when creating the graphics. You can also use graphics in conjunction with typed text. Because the same color mapping settings are used for both the text and graphics, you need to create the graphics with the mapping setting for the four overlay colors in mind. Importing a Graphics File There are two approaches you can take to import a graphics file into a subtitle stream: • Add a subtitle to a stream and import the graphic through the Subtitle Inspector. • Drag a suitable graphics file directly to a subtitle stream. In both cases, the graphic uses the normal color settings in the Colors tab in the Subtitle Inspector. To import a subtitle graphic using the Subtitle Inspector 1 Create a subtitle or select a previously created text subtitle. See Creating a Subtitle Clip. 2 Click Choose in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector. 3 In the dialog that appears, select the graphics file to use, then click Open. The graphic appears in the Viewer tab, using the current settings in the Colors tab. To import a subtitle graphic by dragging 1 Locate the graphics file in the Assets tab, the Palette, or a Finder window. 2 Drag the graphics file to the subtitle stream at the approximate position where it should start. A new subtitle is created with the duration and color mapping set in the Colors pane in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. Using Graphics Files to Create an Animation While subtitles are most often used to present text, the ability to import graphics files into subtitle streams makes it possible to use them for other purposes. For example, the video stream might show a mountain while the subtitle shows the route taken to climb it with a line that gradually grows from the start of the trail to the mountain top. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 463 While you cannot import any kind of a motion asset into a subtitle stream, you can manually create an animation by adding a number of very short (one- or two-frame) subtitles, each with a different graphic that shows the line at a different stage. Typical text subtitles have little impact on the playback bit rate—on average they run at around 10 kbps. When you use subtitles to create an animation, the impact on the playback bit rate becomes substantial, and may force you to lower the bit rate of the video stream. The DVD specification limits a subtitle stream’s bit rate to 3.36 Mbps (about the same as some MPEG-2 video). The easiest way to create a subtitle animation is to create an STL subtitle file and import it. You can specify the exact duration and position of each graphic, as well as configure the color mapping settings. See Creating an STL Format Subtitle File for more information. Creating and Importing Subtitle Files Often you may want to create your subtitles outside of DVD Studio Pro. There can be several reasons for this: • To use a facility that specializes in creating subtitles and closed captions: This can be especially important if you are including subtitles in multiple languages. • To free up your DVD Studio Pro system: Typing a lot of subtitles takes a significant amount of time, especially if you are using multiple languages. This is often a task that can be started well before you start authoring the project. • To be able to spell-check the text: Creating the subtitle text with a text-editing program gives you the ability to take advantage of its spell-checking capabilities. There are two approaches used to create subtitle files for import into DVD Studio Pro: Use a single file with the text embedded in it or use a group of graphics files, one for each subtitle, with a master file that controls which files appear at which time. In both cases, the subtitle files can be opened with a text-editing program such as TextEdit. This makes it easy to verify the file’s settings and make any necessary modifications. Be sure to save the file in a plain text format if you do make any changes. Using a Single Subtitle File When you use the single file subtitle method, you specify a timecode for each subtitle’s start and end, as well as the actual subtitle text. You can also embed commands that affect how the text appears on the screen, such as the font, position, color mapping settings, and fade in and fade out settings. There are two disadvantages of the single file subtitle method: • It requires your authoring system to have the correct fonts installed. This can be an important issue when working with foreign languages that require special characters. 464 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles • The subtitle can only include text characters. However, you can manually import graphics files to use in addition to the imported subtitle file. Using a Group of Graphics Files When you use a group of graphics files for the subtitles, each file provides the graphic for one subtitle. A master file provides a list of timecode values for the start and end of each subtitle, along with the name of the graphics file to use for each subtitle. An advantage of this subtitle method is that the graphics files do not need to actually contain text. This method is useful if you want to include graphics elements along with the text, such as a logo. This also means that the DVD Studio Pro system is not required to have the same fonts you used to create the subtitle graphics. A disadvantage of this method is that you have to manage a folder with a lot of large graphics files, as compared to the single file method with its single small file. The graphics files follow the same guidelines as overlay files. See Creating Overlays for more information. Importing a Subtitle File Before you import a subtitle file, you will usually have the video asset it relates to in place in the V1 stream. It is also a good idea to have the subtitle preferences configured before importing a subtitle file. Unless the subtitle file specifically overrides them, these preference settings will apply to all subtitles that are imported. To import a subtitle file Do one of the following: μ Control-click in the subtitle stream to import the subtitles into, then choose Import Subtitle File from the shortcut menu. μ Select an existing subtitle clip in the stream, then click Import Subtitles in the Subtitle Inspector. Important: Importing a subtitle file deletes any subtitle clips in that stream that might already be present. In both cases, a file selection dialog appears for you to choose the file to import. After you choose the file, a dialog appears stating how many subtitles were imported, and the subtitle stream shows clips for each subtitle. If a Subtitle Import Does Not Work There are several common reasons why you might have problems when importing a subtitle file. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 465 Wrong Timecode The most common problem is that the timecode in the subtitle file does not correspond to the asset timecode of the video stream. In some cases, this is due to the original tape’s timecode not being entered prior to the video being MPEG-encoded. To see the timeline’s asset timecode, Control-click in the timeline, then choose Asset-Based Timecode from the shortcut menu. You can force an STL format subtitle file to import based on zero-based timecode (which sets the first frame as 00:00:00:00 regardless of the asset’s timecode) by setting the $TapeOffset command to False (it is True by default). See Timeline Command for more information. You can also try importing the subtitle file into a track that has no video assets. This also forces the subtitle clips to import based on zero-based timecode. Font Not Available If you are using the single subtitle file method and specify a font to use, a dialog appears if the font is not found on the system, and DVD Studio Pro uses the default subtitle font (as configured in the Text pane of DVD Studio Pro Preferences) as a substitute. Note: The font must be installed as a Mac OS X font—Mac OS 9 fonts are not used. Unable to Find the Graphics Files In most cases, the master subtitle file and the graphics files it uses must be in the same folder. In some cases, however, the master file may be configured to use a separate folder for the graphics files. In this case, the path supplied by the master file must match the actual location where the graphics files are. How Subtitles Are Positioned When you import subtitles, they are positioned in the subtitle stream based on the start and end timecode values in the subtitle file and the video stream’s asset timecode. This means that the timecode values in the subtitle file must be relative to the asset timecode of the video stream’s clip, not to the timeline’s zero-based timecode. An exception is when you use an STL format subtitle file, which can choose to use the timeline’s zero-based timecode. See Timeline Command for information on positioning subtitles when using an STL format file. See Understanding Time Information in the Track Editor for more information on asset-based versus zero-based timecode. Editing Imported Subtitles Once you have imported a subtitle file, you can work with the individual subtitle clips as if you had manually created them. You can reposition them and change their color mapping and any other subtitle attribute. If you imported the subtitles as text from a single subtitle file, you can edit the text. If you imported a group of graphics files as your subtitles, you cannot edit the actual text. 466 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles You can also modify all of the subtitles in a stream by using the Apply to Stream controls. See Applying Subtitle Settings to the Stream for more information. Creating an STL Format Subtitle File An easy and flexible way to create subtitle files is to use the STL format developed by Spruce Technologies. The STL format allows you to configure most subtitle settings, and change the settings on a subtitle by subtitle basis. It supports both the single file method and the graphics file method, and even allows you to use both methods in the same file. STL format files can be saved as either plain text files or as RTF files (as created with TextEdit). You must use RTF files if your text contains Unicode characters. Basic STL Format There are three parts to an STL format subtitle file: commands, comments, and entries. • Commands: These are preceded by the dollar sign ($). It is these commands that allow you to configure the various aspects of the subtitles, such as their font and position. See STL Commands for more information. • Comments: These are preceded by a double slash (//). These allow you to add text comments throughout the subtitle file without affecting its import. • Entries: These include the start and end timecode values and the text or graphics file for that subtitle clip. Following is an example of a simple STL subtitle file. $FontName = Arial $FontSize = 65 //The following subtitles are for scene one. 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , Lemurs are the bullies of the wild. 00:00:16:14 , 00:00:19:08 , Here we see them bring down a moose. Commands, which are always preceded by a dollar sign, use the equal sign (=) to separate the command name from its value. The entries use commas to separate their fields. In both cases, you can add tab characters to align the fields and make the file easier to read. Note: If you add spaces between the comma and the text entry, they are considered part of the text and appear in the subtitle. You can use the tab character to provide space between the comma and the text entry without affecting the text. You can add a command multiple times within a file to change a setting for specific subtitles. $FontName = Arial Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 467 $FontSize = 65 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , Lemurs are the bullies of the wild. $FontSize = 50 00:00:16:14 , 00:00:19:08 , Here we see them bring down a moose. In this case, both subtitles will use the same font, with the first one at a size of 65 and the second one at 50. STL Commands Following is a list of the commands supported by the STL format. Note: These commands override the settings in DVD Studio Pro Preferences, which provide the default settings for all settings that have not been overridden. Font Commands The font commands set all commonly used font properties. • $FontName: Sets the name of the font the subtitles use. Use the family name as it appears in the Fonts window, which can be opened by clicking Show Fonts in the toolbar or choosing Format > Fonts > Show Fonts. • $FontSize: Sets the size of the font. • $Bold: Selects the bold version of the font (if available). Enter True to select the bold version and False to disable it. • $Italic: Selects the italic version of the font (if available). Enter True to select the italic version and False to disable it. • $Underlined: Adds an underline to the subtitle text. Enter True to turn on the underline and False to turn it off. Color Commands The color commands choose the colors from the default subtitle Color Palette to apply to the subtitle. The values range from 0 to 15. You can assign the colors to the default Color Palette in DVD Studio Pro Preferences. • $ColorIndex1: Chooses the text color. • $ColorIndex2: Chooses the text’s outline 1 color. • $ColorIndex3: Chooses the text’s outline 2 color. • $ColorIndex4: Chooses the background color. Contrast Commands The contrast commands set the opacity of the colors assigned to the subtitle. The values range from 0 (transparent) to 15 (opaque). • $TextContrast: Sets the opacity of the text color. 468 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles • $Outline1Contrast: Sets the opacity of the text’s outline 1 color. • $Outline2Contrast: Sets the opacity of the text’s outline 2 color. • $BackgroundContrast: Sets the opacity of the background color. This is usually set to 0, unless you are using a graphic that does not use white as the background color. Position Commands These commands control the subtitle’s position. • $HorzAlign: Sets the subtitle’s horizontal alignment. You can enter left, center, or right. • $VertAlign: Sets the subtitle’s vertical alignment. You can enter top, center, or bottom. • $XOffset: Allows you to modify the subtitle’s horizontal position from where the horizontal alignment placed it. The values you enter are in pixels, with positive values moving the subtitle to the right and negative values moving it to the left. • $YOffset: Allows you to modify the subtitle’s vertical position from where the vertical alignment placed it. The values you enter are in pixels, with positive values moving the subtitle up and negative values moving it down. Display Commands These commands control how a subtitle displays. • $ForceDisplay: Forces the subtitle to display regardless of whether subtitles are turned on by the DVD player. You can enter True (subtitles are forced to display) or False (subtitle display is controlled by the DVD player). • $FadeIn: Sets the fade time used to gradually dissolve the subtitles on. Enter a value in frames. • $FadeOut: Sets the fade time used to gradually dissolve the subtitles off. Enter a value in frames. Graphics File Command Use this command if this subtitle file uses graphics files in addition to, or in place of, text entries. • $SetFilePathToken: Sets a token that you use on any subtitle entries that contain a graphics filename instead of subtitle text. The entry must be such that it never appears in normal text or filenames. The normal convention is to surround the text with dual angle brackets, making it easier to locate within an STL file. For example, you could use _Graphic_. See Referencing Graphics Files in STL Subtitle Files for details. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 469 Timeline Command By default, the timecode values in an STL file are in reference to the video stream’s zero-based time, which starts at 00:00:00:00. You can use this command to reference the file’s timecode values to the video stream’s asset-based timecode. • $TapeOffset: Controls how the timecode values in the STL file are referenced to the video stream. You can enter False to reference them to the stream’s zero-based timecode (which begins at 00:00:00:00), or True (the default setting) to reference them to the asset-based timecode. Note: When referenced to the asset-based timecode, the Track Inspector’s Track Offset setting is ignored—only the actual asset’s timecode is used. Controls Embedded in the Subtitle Text You can embed several controls in the text part of the entries. These controls can force a line break and turn on and off the bold and italic font versions. Line Breaks Subtitle text does not automatically wrap at the edges of the screen. To make it fit you must either reduce the font size or break it into multiple lines by inserting line breaks. To insert a line break, add the vertical pipe character (|) to the text. 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , Lemurs are the bullies | of the wild. In the above example, the text will appear as two lines. Bold, Italic, and Underlined Characters You can embed controls that change the state of the bold and italic attributes within the text part of an entry. To change the state of the bold setting, insert an up arrow followed by the letter “B” (^B). 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , Lemurs are ^Bbullies^B. In the above example, the bold status changes for the word “bullies” only. If the bold attribute had not already been activated, “bullies” would change to bold. If the bold attribute had already been activated, “bullies” would not be bold. To change the state of the italic setting, insert an up arrow followed by the letter “I” (^I). You can also use bold and italic together. 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , Lemurs are ^B^Ibullies^B^I. In the above example, the word “bullies” has both the bold and italic attributes change. To add an underline to portions of the text, insert an up arrow followed by the letter “U” (^U). You can use the underline along with the bold and italic settings. 470 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles Referencing Graphics Files in STL Subtitle Files An STL subtitle file can contain a mix of text subtitle entries and references to graphics files. You must use the $SetFilePathToken command in the file before any lines that reference a graphics file. $SetFilePathToken = _Graphic_ 00:00:12:04 , 00:00:14:12 , _Graphic_RabidLemur.tif 00:00:16:14 , 00:00:19:08 , _Graphic_MooseLemur.tif Important: Do not add spaces between the token (_Graphic_ in this example) and the filename. The STL subtitle file and the graphics it references must be in the same folder. And, just like the other assets that you import into your project, the graphics files must not be moved, renamed, or deleted until after you build your project. Creating Buttons over Video Having buttons appear while a track plays can be a very useful navigational tool, providing the viewer with options that can significantly add to the DVD title’s value. For example, you can use buttons over video to allow the viewer to jump from the current track to a track containing related information, such as an interview of an actor, a news clip, or an explanation of how an effect was done. How Do Buttons over Video Work? DVD Studio Pro uses subtitles at specially configured markers to provide the buttons over video feature. You configure the buttons exactly as if you were configuring a standard menu using advanced overlays: You create each button’s active area, assign its connection, set the button navigation (if you use more than one button), and set up the color mapping for the highlights. Each subtitle containing buttons over video is tied to a marker. You must create a marker at the point where the subtitle should appear, and another where it should disappear. You can mix standard subtitles in the same stream as button over video subtitles. You can only view one subtitle stream at a time. Because the buttons over video feature uses a subtitle stream, you effectively disable the normal usage of subtitles on the title while the buttons over video stream is selected. (Although a subtitle clip can have both buttons and subtitle text, often the buttons need to appear longer than normal dialogue text.) In most cases, you would configure the title so that the viewer decides whether to enable buttons over video by selecting a button on a menu. When selected, the subtitle stream that contains the buttons is usually configured to be forced to display so that the viewer does not inadvertently turn it off. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 471 Adding Button Highlight Markers To create a button over video subtitle, you add a marker at the point where the subtitle should appear, select its button highlight setting, and add a second marker where the subtitle should end. Once you do this, if you create a subtitle between these markers, its start snaps to the marker with the button highlight setting selected and its end snaps to the second marker, regardless of its type. Any marker can be configured as a button highlight marker. See Working with Markers for information on adding markers to a track. To configure a marker as a button highlight marker Do one of the following: μ Control-click the marker, then choose Button Highlight Marker from the shortcut menu. μ Select the marker in the Track Editor. In the Marker Inspector, select the Button Highlight type in the General tab. You can also select any of the other types available. Depending on the other types you select, at least a part of the marker will change to red. See Working with Markers for more information. The second marker, which ends the button over video subtitle, can be of any type. How a Button Highlight Marker Affects the Subtitle Stream If a subtitle already exists between the two markers that specify the start and end of a button over video subtitle, its duration changes to match the time between the two markers. This is true of all subtitle streams. If you have traditional subtitles on one or more of the other subtitle streams, adding button highlight markers will also affect them. For this reason, you must use care when deciding when and how long to have the buttons over video subtitle appear, so as not to affect existing subtitles. You can have several subtitle streams in the same track configured for buttons over video. For example, you may be using text for the buttons and want to have different streams for each language. It’s important to keep in mind that all button active areas, connections, navigation settings, and color mapping settings are applied to all subtitle streams. The only element that can be different between the streams is the text or overlay you use. Adding a Button over Video Subtitle Clip Once you have configured the button highlight marker and the ending marker, you can add the button over video subtitle. To add a button over video subtitle clip μ Double-click in the subtitle stream between the button highlight marker and the ending marker. 472 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles A new subtitle clip appears, with its duration matching the time between the two markers. See the next section, Configuring a Button over Video Subtitle Clip, for information on configuring the subtitle clip to provide buttons over video. Configuring a Button over Video Subtitle Clip To configure a button over video subtitle clip, you first add the text or import the graphic to use for the button or buttons, and then configure the buttons much as you would when creating a menu. Using an Overlay Graphic The first step to creating a button over video subtitle using an overlay graphic is to import the overlay graphic into the subtitle. To import an overlay graphic for a button over video 1 Select the subtitle clip that you previously created to configure for buttons over video. 2 Click Choose in the General tab in the Subtitle Inspector. 3 In the dialog that appears, select the graphics file to use, then click Choose. The graphic appears in the Viewer tab, using the current settings in the Colors tab. Using Text Buttons The first step to creating a button over video subtitle using subtitle text is to enter the text in the subtitle. You need to set its font and position before proceeding with creating buttons from it. See Formatting Subtitle Text and Positioning Subtitle Text over the Video for more information. Creating the Buttons for Button over Video Subtitles Once you have imported the overlay graphic or entered the button text, you can create the buttons. To create the buttons, you create active area rectangles by dragging over each button’s area. See Adding Overlay-Based Buttons for details on this process. The number of buttons you can have depends on the track’s aspect ratio setting, set with the Display Mode pop-up menu in the General tab in the Track Inspector. See Choosing an Aspect Ratio for more information on these modes. Also see What Happens with Different Aspect Ratios? for issues that occur when creating buttons over video on a 16:9 track. SD Projects • 4:3: You can have up to 36 buttons. • 16:9 Pan Scan: You can have up to 18 buttons. • 16:9 Letterbox: You can have up to 18 buttons. Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 473 • 16:9 Pan Scan & Letterbox: You can have up to 12 buttons. HD Projects • 4:3: You can have up to 48 buttons. • 16:9 Pan Scan: You can have up to 24 buttons. • 16:9 Letterbox: You can have up to 24 buttons. • 16:9 Pan Scan & Letterbox: You can have up to 16 buttons. Configuring the Buttons for Button over Video Subtitles Once you have created the buttons, you need to configure them. There are three areas to configure: • Button navigation: Sets how a viewer jumps from one button to the next using the remote control’s arrow buttons. • Button targets: Sets the connection for each button (what is jumped to when the button is activated). • Color mapping: Sets the colors that appear for the normal, selected, and activated button states. Button Navigation Configuring button navigation with buttons over video is exactly the same as configuring the navigation in menus. By default, the navigation is assigned continuously, with DVD Studio Pro automatically setting the arrow button actions for each button. You can disable this function and set the navigation manually if you prefer. See Configuring Button Navigation for details on the methods you can use. Button Targets Configuring the targets for each button with buttons over video is almost exactly the same as configuring the button targets in menus. You have the option of setting them in the Connections tab (the buttons appear as marker items), in the Subtitle Inspector, or by using a shortcut menu in the Subtitle Editor. The difference is that a button within a track cannot select a specific stream in a different track. For this reason, the stream settings for buttons in subtitles are inactive if the target is set to anything other than “not set.” If you need a button within a track to select a specific stream in another track, you can set the target to run a script that’s configured to jump to the desired stream. See Setting a Button’s Connection for details on each method. Color Mapping Configuring the color mapping for the buttons with buttons over video is similar to configuring the color mapping for an advanced overlay with a menu. 474 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles The biggest difference is that you don’t have the option of using a simple overlay. You can accomplish a similar effect by setting the color and opacity settings for the three nonwhite overlay colors to the same values, and setting the white overlay opacity to 0, making it completely transparent. Another difference is that the overlay colors have pre-assigned functions if you are typing subtitle text. See Setting the Subtitle Color for more information. See Using Advanced Overlay Color Mapping and Colors Tab in the Menu Inspector with Advanced Selected for more information. Copying Buttons in a Subtitle Clip You are able to copy buttons within a subtitle clip or to a different subtitle clip. The buttons retain all of their settings, including their target setting. You are not allowed to copy buttons to a subtitle clip if it causes that clip to exceed the maximum number of buttons allowed. See Creating the Buttons for Button over Video Subtitles for details on the maximum number of buttons allowed. Copying Buttons by Dragging You can copy one or more buttons within a subtitle clip by selecting them, then dragging them to a new location. To copy one or more buttons within a subtitle clip by dragging 1 Select the buttons to be copied. 2 Press the Option key, then drag the buttons to their new position. If multiple buttons are selected, they all move as a group, maintaining their relationships to each other. Using Copy, Cut, and Paste You can use the Copy and Paste commands to copy buttons within a subtitle clip and between subtitle clips. You can even copy buttons from a menu to a subtitle clip. However, any shapes, button styles, button text, and button assets that the menu’s button might have are not copied to the subtitle. Important: If you copy a button to a subtitle clip that is not configured for buttons over video, DVD Studio Pro automatically converts the subtitle clip to support buttons by adding a button highlight marker (named “Button Marker _,” where “_” is the button marker number on that track) to the timeline at the clip’s beginning, and a cell marker (named “Marker _,” where “_” is the cell marker number on that track) at its end. To copy one or more buttons using copy and paste 1 Select the buttons to be copied. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles 475 This copies the selected buttons to the Clipboard. The selected buttons are not affected. 3 Select the subtitle clip to which you want the copied buttons to be pasted. 4 If the insertion point is active in the Viewer tab, click an empty area to deactivate it. 5 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). If there are no buttons selected in the subtitle clip before you paste the copied buttons, the copied buttons are placed in the same locations as the originals. If a button is selected in the subtitle clip before you paste the copied items, the copied buttons are positioned relative to the selected button with a small offset. You can use the Paste command multiple times after using the Copy command. This makes it easy to add a button to multiple subtitle clips. To move one or more buttons using cut and paste 1 Select the buttons to be moved. 2 Choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). This copies the buttons to the Clipboard and removes the buttons from the current subtitle clip. 3 Select the subtitle clip to which you want the cut buttons to be pasted. 4 If the insertion point is active in the Viewer tab, click an empty area to deactivate it. 5 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). This is most useful when you are moving buttons from one subtitle clip to another. 476 Chapter 19 Creating Subtitles You can add sophisticated interactivity and control to a project with only a few simple scripts. This chapter covers the following: • Introduction to Scripts (p. 477) • Pre-Scripts (p. 478) • Scripting Overview (p. 479) • The Scripting User Interface (p. 480) • About the Script Tab (p. 481) • About the Script Inspector (p. 484) • About the Script Command Inspector (p. 485) • Creating and Testing Scripts (p. 486) • Script Command Details (p. 489) • System Parameter Register Memories List (p. 499) • System Parameter Register Memories Details (p. 500) • Using Bit-Wise Operations (p. 511) • General Purpose Register Memories (p. 512) • Scripting Examples (p. 517) • Language Code Table (p. 525) Introduction to Scripts The DVD-Video specification includes a simple yet powerful scripting language. This scripting language provides for extensive interactivity between the viewer and the DVD player. DVD Studio Pro gives you full access to these scripting capabilities. Scripts in DVD Studio Pro are created as separate elements within a project, so they can be assigned easily to any element that supports a script. Scripts can be assigned to buttons or attached to the start or end of any track, story, menu, or marker. 477 Creating Scripts 20 With scripts you can: • Have the title automatically customize itself to best match the DVD player’s configuration in areas such as language selection, audio formats, and parental management • Add specialized features, such as a random play after a menu times out • Add subtle features, such as having a menu highlight the next button when returning to the menu after activating a previous button Those are just a few examples of the ways you can customize your DVD project and create a better viewer experience. Pre-Scripts Tracks, stories, slideshows, and menus have pre-script settings. A pre-script is a normal script that is run before the element plays or displays. It can be used to do things such as decide whether to play the element or to configure the DVD player before it is played. For example, you may have a pre-script assigned to a track that checks the DVD player’s parental management setting to decide whether this track or a different one should play. Pre-scripts only run if you jump to the root of the element (its name shown in square brackets, or, in the Connections tab, the element’s name) they are assigned to. Choose [Track] to have a pre-script assigned to this track run when it is jumped to. Connect to the element’s name to have the pre-script run. 478 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts For example, when you assign a connection to a menu, you can choose to jump to a specific button or to the menu root with no button specified (using the [Menu] selection). A pre-script assigned to a menu only runs if the element that jumped to it had [Menu] selected. If the jump selected a specific button on the menu, the pre-script is skipped. Similarly, a pre-script on a track or story does not run if you jump directly to a marker. With slideshows, the pre-script does not run if you jump directly to a slide. In all cases, if you want the pre-script to run, you must jump to the root of the element, indicated by the square brackets. If an element is also configured with a display condition, the pre-script runs first, and then the display condition. Note: Unlike pre-scripts, display conditions run when any part of an element is connected to. Scripting Overview Scripts you add to your project contain commands that allow you to access the functionality available in all DVD players. Each script can contain up to 124 commands. Every DVD player contains a micro-controller that can execute a set of commands defined by the DVD-Video specification. The commands defined in the DVD-Video specification are at the level of microprocessor machine code, with very simple commands used to initiate desired functions. You may find that some of the concepts and terms are a challenge. Therefore, when learning scripting, proceed with initial deliberateness and caution—it is very easy to author titles with scripts that just don’t work. You should also use the Simulator and test builds of your project using the Apple DVD Player to verify that your title plays back exactly as intended. About DVD Player Registers Each DVD player has two types of memory registers: General Purpose Register Memories (GPRMs, also known as variables) and System Parameter Register Memories (SPRMs). Scripts interact with these registers to determine DVD player settings (such as language and parental control) and to control various aspects of disc playback. Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 479 Scripts use GPRMs as temporary storage, or “scratch pads,” while executing their commands. DVD Studio Pro provides access to eight 16-bit GPRM registers, designated GPRM 0 through GPRM 7 (though they can be renamed). DVD Studio Pro includes the ability to partition seven of these registers into multiple smaller registers. For example, you can partition GPRM3 into four 4-bit registers. Each register is independent of the others, and all are cleared whenever a disc is inserted into the DVD player. The registers can be used as storage locations or as countdown timers. In contrast, SPRMs have rigidly defined functions. There are 24 of them, designated SPRM 0 through SPRM 23. See System Parameter Register Memories Details for a detailed listing of their functions. Scripts spend a lot of time copying values from an SPRM to a GPRM, extracting information from the values (for example, determining the language setting), and then acting on that information (selecting the proper audio stream to play). Extracting the information can be challenging, requiring a bit of skill and programming knowledge. About Scripting Commands You can choose from ten scripting commands when building your script. Each scripting command has its own set of controls that fit the command’s function. Each script can contain up to 124 commands, or operations. Depending on how you configure the scripting command, it might use up to 16 of the 124 commands. The top of the Script Inspector shows the number of commands used and available. A dialog appears to warn you if you create a script with too many commands, and the Script Inspector shows the commands used and available values in red, with a negative number for the Commands Remaining value. Each scripting command creates a command line that appears in the Script Editor. You are provided with a variety of tools to rearrange the order of the command lines in the script, which is important because the command lines are executed in order (though it is possible for a command line to jump to any other command line in the script). The Scripting User Interface Scripts appear in the Outline and Graphical tabs. Double-clicking an existing script or clicking the Script tab displays the Script Editor and the Script Inspectors. You use the Script tab to add and remove commands, as well as modify their order. You use the Script Inspectors to configure the commands, choosing the actual command to use and setting its parameters. See the following for details on the items that make up the scripting user interface: • About the Script Tab • About the Script Inspector • About the Script Command Inspector 480 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts About the Script Tab You click the Script tab to access the Script Editor. The Script Editor lists the command lines within the script. You use its Add button to add command lines to the script. The other buttons provide methods for managing the order of the command lines. Because scripts generally execute the command lines in order, starting at command line 1, it is important to have them in the correct order. Select to view the values as hexadecimal. Choose the script to work with in the editor. Command line reorder tools Command line add and delete controls Drag this bar to adjust column sizes. Once you have multiple commands in the list, you can move between them by either selecting the one you want to go to or using the keyboard’s Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to step from one to the other. You can also press the Command key along with the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to jump to the first or last command line, or the Page Up and Page Down keys to move through the list one page at a time. Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 481 Command Line Add and Delete Buttons There are three buttons you can use to add or remove command lines from the Script Editor. Inserts a command line below the selected line. Adds a command line to the end of the list. Deletes the selected command line. • Add (+): Clicking the Add button, or pressing Command–Equal Sign (=), adds a command line to the script. This command line is always placed at the end of the list, regardless of which command is currently selected. By default, each added command line is set to Nop (no operation) which works as a placeholder for the actual command you will select in the Inspector. • Delete (–): Clicking the Delete button removes the currently selected command line from the list. You can also use the keyboard’s Delete key. • Insert: Clicking the Insert button, or pressing Command–Shift–Equal Sign (=), adds a new command line to the list, positioned after the currently selected command line. All command lines below the current one ripple down one location. As with the Add button, the new command is a Nop. Command Line Reorder Tools You can use the reorder tools to change the order of the command lines in the Script Editor. You can also drag a line to a new position. 482 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts Note: You are just rearranging the order of the command lines—you are not deleting or replacing any command lines. Moves the command line up one line. Moves the command line down one line. Moves the command line to the top of the list. Moves the command line to the bottom of the list. • Move Up: Clicking the Move Up button moves the currently selected command line up one location. The command line already at that location moves down one location to make room (the two command lines basically switch positions). • Move Down: Clicking the Move Down button moves the currently selected command line down one location. The command line already at that location moves up one location (the two command lines basically switch positions). • Move To Top: Clicking the Move To Top button moves the currently selected command line to the top of the list, making it the first command line executed. All command lines that were above it in the list ripple down (the command line that was at the top is moved to the number 2 position, the number 2 command line moves to number 3, and so on). • Move To Bottom: Clicking the Move To Bottom button moves the currently selected command line to the bottom of the list, making it the last command line executed. All command lines that were below it in the list ripple up. Copying Command Lines When creating a script with multiple similar command lines, you may find it easier to create the first version of the command line, copy that command line multiple times, then modify the copies as needed. You can also copy a command line from one script to another. To copy command lines in the Script Editor 1 Select the command line to be copied. You can select more than one command line. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). This copies the command lines to the Clipboard. The selected command lines are not affected. Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 483 3 Select the command line in this script or a different script after which you want to paste the copied command lines. If you have no command lines selected, the copied command lines are placed after the last existing command line. 4 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). To move one or more command lines using cut and paste 1 Select a command line or a group of command lines to be moved. 2 Choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). This copies the command lines to the Clipboard and removes the command lines from the current list. 3 Select the command line in the script after which you want the cut command lines to be pasted. 4 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). This is most useful when you are moving command lines from one script to another. About the Script Inspector A general Script Inspector appears when no command lines in the script are selected. To display the script’s Script Inspector, you need to either click in an empty area below the command lines in the Script Editor or click the script’s name in the Outline or Graphical tab. Configure the GPRM partitions. Enter a name for the script. Use these to import and export GPRM configurations. 484 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts The Script Inspector displays values showing the number of commands used and how many are still available out of the possible total of 124. (Configuring a scripting command may use up to 16 of the 124 commands.) These values will turn red if your script uses more than 124 commands, with a negative number in the Commands Remaining value indicating how many excess commands there are. It is also where you name your script and then configure the partitions and names of the GPRM registers. Note: You can also configure the partitions and names of the GPRM registers in the Advanced tab in the Disc Inspector. See Configuring GPRM Partitions for more information. About the Script Command Inspector A Script Command Inspector appears when you select a command line. To display the Script Command Inspector, you need to select a command line in the Script Editor. Enter a comment (optional). Choose a command. Configure the command. Configure a compare function (optional). The Script Command Inspector has four sections: • The command selection section, where you select which of the ten commands to use • The command setup section, where you configure the command’s parameters. The actual contents of this section vary, based on the command selected. • The compare section, where you can add a compare function to the command • The comment section, where you can add a comment to the command. Comments are useful for both yourself and others later on when trying to remember why certain commands were added. See Script Command Details for details on setting up the commands. Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 485 Creating and Testing Scripts While it is easy to create scripts, it’s a good idea to first spend some time planning exactly what you intend the script to do. Sometimes a single script can be designed to fit multiple situations, or it may be easier to create multiple similar scripts, with each configured for a specific case. Creating a Script Scripts can vary greatly. Simple scripts may contain only one or two commands, while complex scripts can contain many commands and dependencies on other scripts. No matter how complex the script, you create all scripts using the same basic methods. To create a script 1 Do one of the following: • Choose Project > Add to Project > Script, or press Command–Shift–Single Quote (’). • Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, choose Add from the shortcut menu, then choose Script from the submenu. • Click Add Script in the toolbar. A new script is added to the Outline and Graphical tabs. 2 To name the script, do one of the following: • Enter the name in the Name field in the Script Inspector. • Select the script in the Outline or Graphical tab, click its name, type the new name, then press Return. 3 Double-click the new script in the Outline or Graphical tab or click the Script tab to open the Script Editor. 4 In the Script Editor, select the default Nop command line. The Script Command Inspector appears, displaying the command configuration display. 5 Configure the command line as desired, and add new command lines as needed. See Script Command Details for details on the commands you can add to a script. See About Connections for information on connecting scripts to your project’s elements. Duplicating and Saving Scripts Most scripts contain command lines that are specific to a particular function in a particular project. However, because it is often easier to modify an existing script rather than start from scratch, DVD Studio Pro includes several tools that allow you to create copies of a script for use in this and other projects. Duplicating Scripts When creating several similar scripts, use the Outline or Graphical tab’s duplication function to make a copy of a script. 486 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts To duplicate a script within a project Do one of the following: μ Select the script in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Edit > Duplicate. μ In the Outline or Graphical tab, Control-click the script, then choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu. A copy of the script is created with the same name as the original, with a number added to the end of the name. Saving Scripts You can save a script as an item description file, making it easy to import a script into other projects. To save a script as an item description file Do one of the following: μ Select the script in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose File > Export > Item Description. μ Control-click the script in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Save Script from the shortcut menu. Loading Scripts You can load saved scripts into a DVD Studio Pro project. To load a script file Do one of the following: μ Choose File > Import > Item Description to import a script item description (with an “.dspScript” extension). μ Control-click in the Outline or Graphical tab, then choose Load Script from the shortcut menu. The script appears in the Outline tab under the Scripts heading and as a new tile in the Graphical tab, and can now be edited as needed. Testing Scripts Once you have created a script, you will want to test it. Depending on the script’s function, you can test it with the Simulator, with the Apple DVD Player as part of an emulator test, or in set-top DVD players after you burn a disc. Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 487 Testing a Script in the Simulator The DVD Studio Pro Simulator has a Registers display that shows useful information when testing a script. The display appears when you click the Simulator’s Info button. Select to show the GPRM values. Select to show the values as hexadecimals. Select to show the SPRM values You can display either the SPRM or GPRM values, or both at the same time. You can also choose whether the values appear as decimal numbers or hexadecimal numbers. Seeing the SPRM and GPRM values can be useful when you want to ensure the right values are being set in the registers. Additionally, you are able to enter values into the registers to preset a specific condition you want to test. To enter a value, double-click its existing value and enter the new one. Also, you can name the GPRMs within the Simulator. To name a GPRM, double-click the existing name in the Description column and enter a new one. The Simulator has several preferences settings that allow you to verify script commands that rely on general DVD player settings, such as language preferences, aspect ratio, and region code. See Simulator Preferences for more information on Simulator preferences. See Simulating Your Project for more information on using the Simulator. Testing a Script with DVD Player The Apple DVD Player provides an additional way to test your scripts. Testing a project with DVD Player is referred to as emulating the project. It requires you to build the project, which creates the VIDEO_TS folder that DVD Player uses. See Emulating Your Project Using DVD Player for more information. Testing a Script on Set-Top DVD Players The best test to give your scripts is to play the title in a set-top DVD player. This method provides the most real-world experience, giving the scripts the most true tests. 488 Chapter 20 Creating Scripts To test scripts in a set-top player, you need to build and format your project, burning it onto a DVD. See Formatting Your Project for more information on burning a DVD. General Scripting Information There are a number of good practices to keep in mind when creating your scripts: • Plan your GPRM partitioning: Partitioning one or more of the eight 16-bit GPRM registers can add a lot of flexibility to your script writing by making many GPRM registers available to be used. However, keep in mind that some scripting configurations and display conditions require full 16-bit GPRM registers. Also, when you import a script item description, any GPRMs used by the script must be partitioned exactly the same as they were when the script was originally created. To ensure compatibility, it is a good idea to consistently partition your GPRMs the same way for each project. See General Purpose Register Memories for information on saving and loading GPRM configurations. • Don’t forget about display conditions: Menus, tracks, and stories can all have display conditions applied to them. Display conditions work a lot like a simple pre-script—they determine whether the element should play, and if not, provide a jump to an alternative element. One advantage of a display condition is that it is part of the track and is placed in the same video title set (VTS) file as the track—by default, all scripts are placed in VTS 1 (though you can move them to the track’s VTS with the VTS Editor). In some cases, there could be a slight delay as the DVD player jumps from one VTS to the other to run a script. An additional advantage is that a display condition executes whether you jump to an element’s root or to a part of it (such as a button or marker). See Pre-Scripts and Display Condition for more information. • There are many ways to do the same thing: When creating your script, you will often find that there are alternate ways to accomplish the same task. The simplest approach is often the best, but other considerations, such as a lack of available GPRMs, may force you to be creative in your script writing. Sometimes it is better to create several small scripts rather than one large one that covers all situations. • Make sure the script has a way to end: It is important for the script to have an exit point that terminates its running and returns to playing the disc. For example, if you run a script that only uses the set command to configure some registers, the DVD player will just sit and wait for the script to finish, which it never will. You create the exit point by using one of three commands: jump, resume, and exit pre-script. You can use a jump command in any script; however, you can use the resume and exit pre-script commands only in specific script types. See Script Command Details for more information on these commands. Script Command Details Scripts can affect a disc’s playback in one of two ways: • Playback can jump to a new location (track or menu). Chapter 20 Creating Scripts 489 • A different stream (audio, video, subtitle) can be selected. Most scripts use several commands to perform these functions. Often, one script may use values placed in a GPRM by a different script that ran earlier. Each of the ten commands has un