恭喜!MacBook Pro 专为您而设 - Manuels - Apple Apple sur FNAC.COM

 

 

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恭喜!MacBook Pro 专为您而设。 www.apple.com.cn/macbookpro facetime thunderbolt MacBook Pro OS X Lion www.apple.com.cn/macosx HELLO FROM CUPERTINO, CA Mission Control 查看您 Mac 上运行 内容的大致情况。 帮助中心 mission control 全屏幕 仅需点按就可让应用程 序进入全屏幕。 帮助中心 全屏幕 Mac App Store 发现和下载 Mac 应 用程序的最佳途径。 帮助中心 launchpad mac app store Launchpad 集中快速访问您的所 有应用程序。 帮助中心 iPhoto 整理、编辑和共享您 的照片。 iPhoto 帮助 iMovie 将家庭视频变成家庭 大片。 iMovie 帮助 GarageBand 轻松制作绝妙声音 效果的乐曲。 GarageBand 帮助 Mail 按对话使您的邮件 成组。 帮助中心 邮件照片影片录音 目录5 目录 第 1 章: 准备、安装、使用 9 包装箱中的物品 9 安装 MacBook Pro 16 将 MacBook Pro 置入睡眠状态或将它关机 第 2 章: 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 20 MacBook Pro 的基本配置 22 MacBook Pro 的键盘功能 24 MacBook Pro 上的端口 26 使用 Multi-Touch 触控板 30 使用 MacBook Pro 电池 31 疑难解答 第 3 章: 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 37 更换硬盘驱动器 44 安装附加内存 第 4 章: 问题及其解决方案 50 防患于未然 51 无法使用 MacBook Pro 的问题 6 目录 54 修复、恢复或重新安装 Mac OS X 软件 59 使用 Apple Hardware Test 59 有关互联网连接的问题 62 Wi-Fi 通信时出现问题 63 保持软件最新 64 了解更多信息及服务与支持 66 找到产品序列号 第 5 章: 最后要点 68 重要安全信息 73 重要处理信息 75 了解人机工程学 77 Apple 和环境 78 Regulatory Compliance Information 帮助中心 迁移助理 www.apple.com.cn/macbookpro 准备、安装、使用 1 8 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用 MacBook Pro 的设计可让您迅速安装电脑并立即开始使用。如果您从未使用过 MacBook Pro,或 者您是 Mac 电脑新手,请仔细阅读本章以获得入门帮助。 【重要事项】首次使用电脑之前,请仔细阅读所有安装说明(以及从第 68 页开始的安全信息)。 如果您是一个经验丰富的用户,可能已经知道如何开始。请务必通读第 2 章体验 MacBook Pro 生活中的信息,以了解这台 MacBook Pro 的新功能。 许多疑难问题都可以在电脑的帮助中心中找到答案。有关使用帮助中心的信息,请参阅 第 31 页疑难解答。有关 MacBook Pro 的最新信息,请访问 Apple 支持网站 www.apple.com.cn/support/macbookpro。由于 Apple 可能会发布新版本的系统软件和系统 软件的更新,因此本手册中所示的图像可能与您在屏幕上看到的图像略有不同。 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用9 包装箱中的物品 ® 安装 MacBook Pro MacBook Pro 的设计可让您迅速安装电脑并立即开始使用。下面的几页将引导您完成安装过程, 其中包括以下任务:  插入 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器  连接电缆,访问网络  开启 MacBook Pro  使用设置助理配置用户帐户和其他设置  设置 Mac OS X 桌面和偏好设置 10 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用 【重要事项】安装 MacBook Pro 之前,请先撕去 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器上包着 的保护膜。 步骤 1: 插入 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器,给 MacBook Pro 供电,同时给电池 充电。 确定将交流插头完全插入电源适配器,并确定交流插头的电插销完全扳开。将电源适配器的交流插 头插入电源插座,并将 MagSafe 插头插入 MagSafe 电源端口。将 MagSafe 插头靠近电源端口 时,您会感到有一股磁力将插头吸入端口中。 ¯ 若要延长电源适配器电缆,请将交流插头替换成交流电源线。首先要将交流插头从适配器上拔出, 然后将附带的交流电源线装在适配器上,并确定它连接牢固。 从电源插座或电脑上断开电源适配器时,请拔插头,不要拉电源线。 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用11 第一次将电源适配器连接到 MacBook Pro 时,MagSafe 插头上的指示灯会亮起。指示灯为琥珀 色表明电池正在充电。指示灯为绿色表明电池已充满电。如果指示灯不亮,请确定插头连接正确, 并且已接上电源适配器。 步骤 2: 连接到无线网络或有线网络。  若要配合内建的 802.11n Wi-Fi 技术使用无线网络,请确定无线基站已打开并且您知道网络的名 称。开启 MacBook Pro 后, 设置助理会引导您完成连接过程。有关故障排除方面的提示, 请参阅第 62 页。  若要使用有线连接,请将以太网电缆的一端连接到 MacBook Pro,然后将另一端连接到线缆调 制解调器、DSL 调制解调器或网络。 ® G 12 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用 步骤 3: 快速按下电源按钮 (®) 以开启 MacBook Pro。 开机时您会听到启动声。 ® MacBook Pro 启动需要花一些时间。电脑启动后, 设置助理会自动打开。 如果 MacBook Pro 无法开启,请参阅第 52 页如果 MacBook Pro 无法开启或启动。 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用13 步骤 4: 使用设置助理来配置 MacBook Pro。 首次开启 MacBook Pro 时, 设置助理会启动。设置助理可帮助您指定 Wi-Fi 网络、设置 用户帐户,以及从另一台 Mac 或 PC 传输信息。您也可以从 Time Machine 备份或其他磁盘传输 信息。 如果要从另一台 Mac 迁移,而该 Mac 尚未安装 Mac OS X v10.5.3 或更高版本,您可能必须更新 软件。若要从 PC 迁移,请从 www.apple.com.cn/migrate-to-mac 下载迁移助理,然后将 它安装在要从其进行迁移的 PC 上。 在 MacBook Pro 上启动设置助理后,您无需退出,可中途转到其他电脑来更新其软件,然后 返回到 MacBook Pro 来完成安装。 【注】如果首次启动 MacBook Pro 时未使用设置助理来传输信息,您可以稍后使用迁移助 理进行传输。打开迁移助理,它位于 Launchpad 的实用工具文件夹中。有关使用迁 移助理的帮助,请打开帮助中心并搜索迁移助理。 14 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用 若要设置 MacBook Pro: 1 在设置助理中,按照屏幕指示进行操作,直至出现将信息传输到这台 Mac 屏幕。 2 若要进行基本安装、通过迁移来安装,或者从 Time Machine 备份或其他磁盘传输信息:  若要进行基本安装,请选择现在不传输,然后点按继续。按照屏幕提示来选择您的有线 或无线网络,设置帐户,然后退出设置助理。  若要通过迁移来安装,请选择从另一台 Mac 或 PC ,然后点按继续。按照屏幕指示来选 择要从其进行迁移的 Mac 或 PC。您的 Mac 或 PC 必须在同一个有线或无线网络上。按照屏幕 指示进行迁移。  若要从 Time Machine 备份或其他磁盘传输信息,请选择从 Time Machine 备份或其他磁 盘,然后点按继续。选择要从中进行迁移的备份或其他磁盘。按照屏幕指示进行操作。 如果您不打算保留或使用其他电脑,最好取消对它的授权,使它无法播放您从 iTunes Store 购买 的音乐、视频或有声读物。取消电脑的授权可以防止其他人播放您购买的任何歌曲、视频或有声 读物,并可以腾出另一个授权供使用。有关取消授权的信息,请从 iTunes 的帮助菜单中选取 iTunes 帮助。 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用15 步骤 5: 自定 Mac OS X 桌面和设定偏好设置。 您可以使用系统偏好设置将桌面快速变成您想要的样子,它是 MacBook Pro 上大多数设置的 命令中心。从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置,或者点按 Dock 中的系统偏好设 置图标。 菜单栏帮助菜单Spotlight 搜索图标 Finder 图标Dock 系统偏好设置图标 16 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用 【重要事项】您可以在用户与群组偏好设置中设定选项以重设密码,以防止您忘记登录密码。 有关系统偏好设置的帮助,请打开帮助中心并搜索系统偏好设置或搜索想要获取帮助的特 定偏好设置。 将 MacBook Pro 置入睡眠状态或将它关机 使用完 MacBook Pro 后,您可以将它置入睡眠状态或将它关机。 将 MacBook Pro 置入睡眠状态 如果您只是短时间内不使用 MacBook Pro,请将它置入睡眠状态。电脑处于睡眠状态时,您可以 快速唤醒它,从而跳过启动过程。 若要将 MacBook Pro 置入睡眠状态,请执行以下一项操作:  合上显示屏。  从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 () > 睡眠。  按下电源按钮 (®) 并在出现的对话框中点按睡眠。  选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置,点按节能器,然后设定睡眠计时器。 【注意】请务必等待几秒钟,直至睡眠指示灯开始闪亮(表示电脑处于睡眠状态,硬盘已停止转 动)后,再移动 MacBook Pro。硬盘转动时移动电脑会损坏硬盘,从而导致数据丢失或者无法 从硬盘启动。 第 1 章 准备、安装、使用17 若要唤醒 MacBook Pro:  如果显示屏是合上的,则只需打开它就可以唤醒 MacBook Pro。  如果显示屏已打开,请按下电源按钮 (®) 或键盘上的任意键。 将 MacBook Pro 从睡眠状态唤醒之后,应用程序、文稿和电脑设置将与您离开之前的状态保持 一致。 将 MacBook Pro 关机 如果您在两天或更长时间内都不会使用 MacBook Pro,最好将它关机。在关机过程中,睡眠指示 灯会短暂地亮起。 若要将 MacBook Pro 关机,请执行以下一项操作:  从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 () > 关机。  按下电源按钮 (®) 并在出现的对话框中点按关机。 如果您打算长期存放 MacBook Pro,请参阅第 74 页以了解有关如何防止电池完全耗尽的信息。 www.apple.com.cn/macosx 帮助中心 Mac OS X 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 2 20 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 MacBook Pro 的基本配置 ® 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活21 内建 FaceTime HD 摄像头和摄像头指示灯 使用附带的 FaceTime 应用程序与其他 FaceTime 用户(任何具备 FaceTime 功能的 iPhone 4、 新款 iPod touch 或 Mac 用户)进行视频通话,并使用 Photo Booth 来拍照或者使用 iMovie 来 拍摄视频。FaceTime HD 摄像头工作时,摄像头指示灯会亮起。 内建麦克风 使用麦克风采集声音,或者使用 FaceTime 或 iChat 应用程序通过互联网与朋友进行实时聊天。 内建立体声扬声器 欣赏音乐、电影、游戏和其他多媒体文件。 内建电池和电池指示灯 如果您身边没有电源插座,请使用电池电源。按下电池按钮可激活显示剩余多少电池电量的指示灯。 触控板 您可以在触控板上的任何位置进行点按或连按。用一个或多个手指触摸触控板以移动鼠标指针,并使 用 Multi-Touch 手势(如第 26 页所述)。 睡眠指示灯 MacBook Pro 处于睡眠状态时,白灯会闪亮。 红外线 (IR) 接收器 配合 IR 接收器使用 Apple Remote 遥控器(单独销售),在 9.1 米(30 英尺)范围内控制 MacBook Pro 上的 Keynote。 防盗锁口 安装防盗锁和缆绳(单独销售)以防止电脑被盗。 吸入式 SuperDrive 驱动器 此光盘驱动器可以读取和写入标准尺寸的 CD 和 DVD。 ® 电源按钮 开启或关闭 MacBook Pro,或将其置入睡眠状态。 22 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 MacBook Pro 的键盘功能 ® 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活23 功能键 (fn) 按住此键以激活分配给功能键 (F1 - F12) 的自定功能。若要学习如何自定功能键,请从菜单栏中选 取帮助> 帮助中心并搜索功能键。 亮度键(F1、F2) 增加 ( ) 或降低 ( ) 屏幕的亮度。 Mission Control 键 (F3) 打开 Mission Control 以全面查看 MacBook Pro 上运行有哪些内容,包括 Dashboard、所有空 间,以及所有打开的窗口。 Launchpad 键 (F4) 打开 Launchpad 以立即查看 MacBook Pro 上的所有应用程序。点按一个应用程序以打开它。 o 键盘照明键(F5、F6) 增加 (o) 或降低 (ø) 键盘照明的亮度。 ’ 媒体键(F7、F8、F9) 倒回 ( )、播放或暂停 (’) 或者快进 ( ) 歌曲、影片或幻灯片显示。 — 静音键 (F10) 使来自内建扬声器和音频输出端口的声音静音。 - 音量键(F11、F12) 增大 (-) 或减小 (–) 来自内建扬声器和音频输出端口的声音的音量。 C 光盘推出键 按住此键以推出没有在使用的光盘。将桌面上的光盘图标拖到废纸篓也可以推出光盘。 24 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 MacBook Pro 上的端口 ® ¯ G f , H d 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活25 ¯ MagSafe 电源端口 将附带的 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器插入电源插座,以给 MacBook Pro 电池充电。 G 千兆位以太网端口 可连接到高速以太网络、DSL 调制解调器、线缆调制解调器或另一台电脑。以太网端口能够自动检 测以太网设备,因此不需要以太网交叉电缆。 H FireWire 800 端口 连接外部设备,如数码摄像机和储存设备。 Thunderbolt 端口(高速数据、视频和音频) 连接兼容 Thunderbolt 的设备用于高速数据传输,或者连接使用 Mini DisplayPort 端口的外部显 示器。您可以购买适配器来连接使用 DVI、HDMI 或 VGA 的显示器。 d 两个高速 USB(通用串行总线)2.0 端口 您可以将 iPod、iPhone、iPad、鼠标、键盘、打印机、磁盘驱动器、数码相机、游戏杆、调制解调 器等设备连接到 MacBook Pro。 , 音频输入端口 将线路电平麦克风或数码音频设备连接到 MacBook Pro。 f 音频输出端口 连接外部扬声器、耳机(包括 iPhone)或数码音频设备。 SDXC 卡插槽 可在 SD 卡(或 SDXC 卡)和 MacBook Pro 之间轻松地传输照片、视频和数据。 【注】适配器及其他配件在 www.apple.com.cn/store 或您当地的 Apple Store 零售店单独 销售。 26 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 使用 Multi-Touch 触控板 使用触控板可移动鼠标指针以及执行各种 Multi-Touch 手势操作。MacBook Pro 触控板与普通 的触控板不一样,整个触控板就是一个按钮,您可以在触控板上的任何位置进行点按。若要启用 Multi-Touch 手势操作,观看手势操作的介绍视频以及设定其他触控板选项,请选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置,然后点按触控板。 以下是使用 MacBook Pro 触控板的几种方式:  双指滚动可让您在活跃窗口中快速向上、向下或向两侧拖移滚动。 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活27  辅助点按或右键点按可让您访问快捷菜单命令。 • 若要在触控板的任何位置设置双指辅助点按,请在触控板偏好设置的光标点按面板中 选择辅助点按。 • 若要在触控板的左下角或右下角设置单指辅助点按区域,请在触控板偏好设置的光标点 按面板中选择辅助点按,然后从弹出式菜单中选取一个选项。 辅助点按区域 【注】您也可以通过按住 Control 键并点按来进行辅助点按。 28 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 以下触控板手势能够在某些应用程序中工作。执行这些手势时,请在触控板的表面上轻轻滑动手 指。有关更多信息,请参阅触控板偏好设置或选取帮助> 帮助中心,然后搜索触控 板。  双指张开或合拢可让您放大或缩小 PDF、图像、照片等等。  双指转动可让您转动照片、页面等等。 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活29  三指扫动在 Finder 和所有应用程序中均有效。三个手指向左或向右扫动可让您循环浏览全屏幕应 用程序。三个手指向上扫动以打开 Mission Control。您也可以设定这些选项以使用四个手指。  四指合拢在您合拢拇指和其他三个手指时显示 Launchpad。张开这四个手指可返回桌面。 【注】您可以为许多手势指定其他功能。有关所有可用手势的详细信息,请选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置,然后点按触控板。点按注记格以打开或关闭手势,展开弹出式菜单以查看 每个手势的选项。 30 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 使用 MacBook Pro 电池 如果未连接 MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器,MacBook Pro 会通过内建电池供电。电池供电 时,MacBook Pro 可以使用的时间不同,取决于您所使用的应用程序及连接在 MacBook Pro 上 的外部设备。 关闭诸如 Wi-Fi 或 Bluetooth® 无线技术等功能以及降低屏幕亮度有助于节省电池电量,例如,乘 坐飞机旅行时,您就可以这样做。系统偏好设置中的许多选项都已自动设定为优化电池使用寿命。 通过查看 MacBook Pro 左侧的八个电池电量指示灯,可以知道电池剩余的电量。按下指示灯旁边 的按钮时,指示灯会短暂亮起,显示电池中剩余的电量。 【重要事项】如果只有一个指示灯闪亮,表明电池电量已所剩无几。如果指示灯都不亮,说明电池 电量已经完全耗尽,如果不接上电源适配器,MacBook Pro 将无法启动。请插入电源适配器以给 电池充电。有关电池指示灯的更多信息,请参阅第 54 页。 您也可以通过查看菜单栏中的电池状态图标 ( ) 来检查剩余的电池电量。所显示的电池电量多少 基于电池中的剩余电量,还与您正在使用的应用程序、外围设备和系统设置有关。若要节省电池电 量,请关闭不使用的应用程序并断开不使用的外围设备,然后调整节能器设置。有关电池节能 和性能技巧的更多信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/batteries/notebooks.html。 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活31 给电池充电 为 MacBook Pro 连接上其附带的电源适配器后,电池在电脑打开、关机或睡眠时都可以充电。但 在电脑关机或睡眠时,电池的充电速度会更快。 MacBook Pro 中的电池只能由 Apple 授权服务商或 Apple Store 零售店进行更换。 疑难解答 有关使用 MacBook Pro 的更多信息,可在电脑上的帮助中心和互联网网站 www.apple.com.cn/support/macbookpro 中获得。 若要打开帮助中心: 1 点按 Dock(沿屏幕边缘排开的图标条)中的 Finder 图标。 2 点按菜单栏中的帮助菜单,然后执行以下一项操作: a 在搜索栏中键入一个问题或术语,然后从结果列表中选择一个主题,或者选择显示所有结 果以查看所有主题。 b 选取帮助中心以打开帮助中心窗口,在那里您可以浏览或搜索主题。 32 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活 更多信息 有关使用 MacBook Pro 的更多信息,请参阅以下内容: 若要学习如何操作请参阅 安装内存第 35 页第 3 章增强 MacBook Pro 的性能。 MacBook Pro 出现问题时进行 故障排除 第 49 页第 4 章问题及其解决方案。 查找 MacBook Pro 的服务与支持第 64 页了解更多信息及服务与支持。或访问 Apple 支持网站: www.apple.com.cn/support/macbookpro。 使用 Mac OS X Mac OS X 网站 www.apple.com.cn/macosx。或者在帮助中心中 搜索Mac OS X 。 从 PC 转换到 Mac 你会爱上 Mac 的理由网址为 www.apple.com.cn/getamac/whymac。 使用 iLife 应用程序iLife 网站 www.apple.com.cn/ilife。或者打开一个 iLife 应用程序,打 开该应用程序的帮助,然后在搜索栏中键入问题或词语。 更改系统偏好设置打开系统偏好设置,方法是选取苹果菜单 (K) > 系统偏好设置。 或者在帮助中心中搜索系统偏好设置。 使用触控板打开系统偏好设置并点按触控板。 使用键盘帮助中心,搜索键盘。 使用内建 FaceTime HD 摄像头帮助中心,搜索摄像头。 使用 Wi-Fi 技术帮助中心,搜索wi-fi 。 使用蓝牙无线技术蓝牙支持网页:www.apple.com.cn/support/bluetooth。或者打开 蓝牙文件交换应用程序(位于 Launchpad 中的实用工具文件夹 中),然后选取帮助> 蓝牙帮助。 第 2 章 体验 MacBook Pro 生活33 若要学习如何操作请参阅 电池保养帮助中心,搜索电池。 连接打印机帮助中心,搜索打印。 FireWire 和 USB 连接帮助中心,搜索FireWire 或 USB 。 连接到互联网帮助中心,搜索互联网。 使用 Thunderbolt 端口帮助中心,搜索Thunderbolt 。 连接外部显示器 帮助中心,搜索显示器端口。 刻录 CD 或 DVD 帮助中心,搜索刻录光盘。 技术规格技术规格网页网址为 www.apple.com.cn/support/specs。或者打开 系统信息,方法是从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 (K) > 关于本机,然 后点按更多信息。 Apple 新闻Apple 网站:www.apple.com.cn。 软件下载Mac App Store(Mac OS X v10.6.6 或更高版提供)。 Apple 产品的操作说明、技术 支持和手册 Apple 支持网站:www.apple.com.cn/support。 帮助中心 内存 www.apple.com.cn/store 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 3 36 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 本章提供了有关在 MacBook Pro 中升级硬盘驱动器和安装附加内存的信息和说明。 【警告】Apple 建议由 Apple 认证的技术人员来安装更换用的驱动器和内存。请查阅电脑附带的 服务与支持信息,以了解有关如何联系 Apple 以获得服务的信息。如果您尝试安装更换用的驱动 器或内存而损坏了设备,则这种损坏将不包含在电脑的有限保修范围之内。 用户不可以自行更换 MacBook Pro 中的电池。如果您认为需要更换电池,请联系 Apple Store 零 售店或 Apple 授权服务商。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能37 更换硬盘驱动器 您可以升级 MacBook Pro 中的硬盘驱动器。打开 MacBook Pro 的后盖后,您就可以看到硬盘 驱动器位于内建电池旁边。更换用的驱动器必须是带有串行 ATA (SATA) 接口的 2.5 英寸驱动器。 【重要事项】Apple 建议您在移除并装回硬盘驱动器之前应先备份硬盘驱动器上的数据。Apple 对 任何丢失的数据概不负责。 若要更换 MacBook Pro 中的硬盘驱动器: 1 将 MacBook Pro 关机。断开电源适配器、以太网电缆、USB 电缆、防盗锁和所有连接到 MacBook Pro 上的其他电缆,以防止损坏电脑。 【警告】MacBook Pro 的内部组件可能会发热。如果您一直在使用 MacBook Pro,请在关机后 等候 10 分钟,待内部组件冷却后再继续下面的操作。 2 将 MacBook Pro 翻过来并拧下固定底盖的十颗螺丝。以下图所示角度拧下较短的几颗螺丝。取下 底盖并将其放在旁边。 38 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 【重要事项】由于螺丝的长度不等,请注意螺丝的长度和位置以便可以正确装回螺丝。将它们放在 旁边的安全位置。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能39 【重要事项】移除底盖会暴露内部的敏感组件,这些组件易于受到静电干扰。 3 触摸硬盘驱动器组件之前先触摸电脑内部的金属表面来释放您身上的静电。 40 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 4 找到位于驱动器顶部上的支架。使用十字螺丝刀拧开使支架固定到位的两颗固定螺丝。将支架放在 旁边的安全位置。 5 使用扣舌轻轻地斜向上抬起驱动器。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能41 6 握住驱动器的两侧,同时轻轻拔出驱动器左侧上的插头以取下驱动器。切勿用手指按压驱动器,避 免触碰到驱动器底部的电路。 插头连接在电缆上并留在硬盘驱动器仓位中。 【重要事项】硬盘驱动器的两侧上有四颗安装螺丝。如果更换用的驱动器不包含安装螺丝,请从旧 驱动器上卸下螺丝并安装在更换用的驱动器上,然后再安装更换用的驱动器。 7 将插头连接到更换用的驱动器的左侧。 42 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 8 倾斜插入更换用的驱动器,确定安装螺丝正确固定到位。 9 装回支架并拧紧螺丝。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能43 10 装回底盖。将您在步骤 2 中取下的十颗螺丝装回其适当的位置并拧紧,同时确定以下图所示角度插 入较短的螺丝。 有关安装 Mac OS X 和捆绑应用程序的信息,请参阅第 54 页修复、恢复或重新安装 Mac OS X 软件。 44 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 安装附加内存 您的电脑有两个内存插槽,取出底盖即可看到。MacBook Pro 预装了至少 4 GB 的 1333 MHz 双 倍数据速率 (DDR3) 同步动态随机存取存储器 (SDRAM)。每个内存插槽可以插一条符合以下规格 的 SDRAM 内存条:  双倍数据速率小型双列直插存储器模块 (DDR3) 格式  30 毫米(1.18 英寸)  204 针  2 GB 或 4 GB  PC3-10600S DDR3 1333 MHz 类内存 您可以添加两条 4 GB 内存条,从而达到最多的 8 GB 内存。若要获得最佳性能,请在两个内存插 槽中都安装内存,每个插槽均安装相同规格的内存条。 若要在 MacBook Pro 中安装内存: 1 按照从第 37 页开始的步骤 1 和步骤 2 来移除底盖。 【重要事项】移除底盖会暴露内部的敏感组件,这些组件易于受到静电干扰。 2 触摸内存组件之前先触摸电脑内部的金属表面来释放您身上的静电。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能45 3 向外推开内存条两侧上的推出控制杆,以将内存从内存卡插槽中松开。 内存会倾斜弹出。取出内存之前,请确定您看到半圆的舌片。如果没有看到,请再次尝试向外推开 控制杆。 46 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 4 握住内存条的舌片将内存条从插槽中取出。 5 取出另一个内存条。 【重要事项】握住内存条的边缘,不要触摸金属接头。 6 将新的内存条插入内存插槽: a 将内存条金黄色边缘上的槽口与下方的内存插槽中的槽口对齐。 b 使卡倾斜并将内存推入插槽中。 c 用两个手指稳固均匀地向下按压内存条。当内存正确安装到位时,您会听到轻微的喀哒声。 d 重复上面的步骤以安装附加内存条到顶部插槽中。向下按压内存条以确保它是水平的。 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能47 7 请按照第 43 页上步骤 10 中的说明装回底盖。 48 第 3 章 增强 MacBook Pro 的性能 确定 MacBook Pro 能识别新内存 在 MacBook Pro 中安装附加内存后,请检查电脑是否可以识别新内存。 若要检查电脑的内存: 1 启动 MacBook Pro。 2 当您看到 Mac OS X 桌面时,请从菜单栏选取苹果菜单 (),然后选取关于本机。 若要更详细地查看电脑中已安装的内存,请点按更多信息以打开系统信息,然后点按内 存。 如果 MacBook Pro 不能识别内存或者不能正常启动,请确保您安装的内存与 MacBook Pro 兼容 并已正确安装。 帮助中心 帮助 www.apple.com.cn/support 问题及其解决方案 4 50 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 使用 MacBook Pro 时偶尔会遇到一些问题。有关故障排除方面的提示,请继续阅读本章,以便在 遇到问题时尝试使用这些提示。您也可以在帮助中心和 MacBook Pro 支持网站 www.apple.com.cn/support/macbookpro 上找到更多故障排除信息。 如果您在使用 MacBook Pro 时遇到问题,通常总有一种简单快捷的解决方案。请回想一下导致问 题发生的情况。记下出现问题前您执行过的操作可以帮助您缩小查找可能的故障原因的范围,再寻 找您需要的答案。需要记下的内容包括:  发生问题时使用的应用程序。如果问题仅发生在某一特定应用程序上,则可能的原因是此应用程 序与电脑上安装的 Mac OS 版本不兼容。  您安装的所有新软件,特别是在系统文件夹中添加了项目的软件。  所有新安装的硬件,如附加内存或外围设备。 防患于未然 为了预防您的电脑或软件出现问题,请让 Time Machine 备份保持最新以确保数据不会丢失。如 果您经常进行 Time Machine 备份,您可以将软件和所有数据准确恢复到备份时的状态。即使发 生严重问题也不用担心,只要使用了 Time Machine 来保护您的信息。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案51 无法使用 MacBook Pro 的问题 如果 MacBook Pro 无响应或鼠标指针不移动 在极少数情况下,应用程序会在屏幕上停止响应。Mac OS X 提供了一种方法,使您不需要重 新启动电脑就可以退出已停止响应的应用程序。 若要强制应用程序退出: 1 按下 Command (x)-Option-Esc 键,或者从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 () > 强制退出。 强制退出应用程序对话框会出现,并且当前应用程序已被选定。 2 点按强制退出。 该应用程序会退出,而所有其他应用程序仍保持打开。 如果需要,您也可以从这个对话框重新启动 Finder。 接下来,重新启动电脑以确保问题彻底消除。 如果问题经常发生,请从屏幕顶部的菜单栏中选取帮助> 帮助中心。请搜索词语停止响 应以获得有关电脑停止响应或不响应的帮助。 如果问题只是在您使用某个特定应用程序时才发生,请咨询该应用程序的制造商,了解一下它与您 的电脑是否兼容。若要获得有关 MacBook Pro 附带的软件的支持和联系信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/downloads。 如果您知道某个应用程序是兼容的,则可能需要重新安装电脑的系统软件。请参阅第 54 页修复、 恢复或重新安装 Mac OS X 软件。 52 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 如果 MacBook Pro 在启动时停止响应、显示闪动的问号或屏幕不亮而睡眠指示灯一直亮着(并未 睡眠) 闪动的问号通常表示电脑无法在硬盘或连接的其他磁盘上找到系统软件。  稍等几秒钟。如果电脑经过一段时间仍未启动,请关机,方法是按住电源按钮 (®) 大约 8 至 10 秒钟。断开所有外围设备并尝试重新启动,方法是按住 Option 键的同时按下电源按钮 (®)。电 脑启动时,点按硬盘图标,然后点按右箭头。电脑启动后,打开系统偏好设置,然后点按 启动磁盘。选择本机的 Mac OS X 系统文件夹。 如果问题经常发生,您可能需要重新安装电脑的系统软件。请参阅第 54 页修复、恢复或重新安 装 Mac OS X 软件。 如果 MacBook Pro 无法开启或启动 请按顺序尝试以下建议,直到您可以开启电脑:  确定电源适配器已插入电脑并已插在一个已通电的电源插座上。确保使用的是 MacBook Pro 附 带的 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器。在插入电源线时,如果电源适配器停止充电,而 MagSafe 插头上的指示灯不亮,请尝试将电源适配器从电源插座上拔下来然后再插入到其他插 孔,或尝试使用其他电源插座。  检查电池是否需要充电。按下电脑左侧上的小按钮。您应当会看到有一个到八个灯亮起以表明电 池的电量。如果只有一个指示灯亮着,请连接电源适配器以重新充电。有关电池指示灯的更多信 息,请参阅第 53 页。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案53  如果问题仍然存在,请关闭所有已打开的文稿并退出所有应用程序。请将电脑恢复到出厂设置 (同时仍然保留您的文件),方法是同时按下左边的 Shift 键、Option (alt) 键、Control 键和 电源按钮 (®) 五秒钟,直至电脑重新启动。  如果最近安装了附加内存,请确定它已正确安装并且与电脑兼容。移除新安装的内存,再装回原 来的内存,检查电脑是否可以启动(请参阅第 44 页)。  按下电源按钮 (®) 并立即同时按住 Command 键 (x)、Option 键、P 键和 R 键,直到您听到 第二次启动声,以复位参数内存 (PRAM)。  如果仍然无法启动 MacBook Pro,请参阅第 64 页了解更多信息及服务与支持,以获得有关 联系 Apple 进行维修的信息。 如果屏幕突然黑屏或 MacBook Pro 停止响应 尝试重新启动 MacBook Pro。 1 拔下连接在 MacBook Pro 上的任何设备(电源适配器除外)。 2 按下电源按钮 (®) 重新启动系统。 3 让电池至少充电到总电量的 10%,然后再插上任何外部设备并继续工作。 若要查看电池的充电进度,请点按菜单栏中的电池状态图标 ( ),或检查位于 MacBook Pro 左 侧的电池电量指示灯。 如果为电池设定了节能器功能,屏幕也可能会变暗。 54 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 如果按下电池按钮后,所有电池指示灯迅速闪烁五次 电池需要更换。请联系 Apple Store 零售店或 Apple 授权服务商。 如果按下电池按钮后,电池指示灯从左到右然后从右到左连续闪烁五次 电池没有被识别。请联系 Apple Store 零售店或 Apple 授权服务商。 如果推出光盘有问题 退出所有可能正在使用光盘的应用程序,然后再试一次。如果此方法无效,请重新启动电脑,然后 立即按住触控板。 修复、恢复或重新安装 Mac OS X 软件 如果您的 Mac 软件或硬件出现问题,Mac OS X 提供了修复和恢复实用工具,可帮助您消除问 题,甚至将您的软件恢复为原始出厂设置。可以从Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序访问这些实用 工具(即使您的电脑未正确启动)。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案55 使用Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序进行以下操作:  从 Time Machine 备份恢复软件和数据。  重新安装 Mac OS X 和 Apple 应用程序。  将您的电脑恢复为出厂设置,方法是抹掉它的磁盘并重新安装 Mac OS X 和您的 Apple 应用 程序。  使用磁盘工具修复电脑的磁盘。 如果电脑检测到问题,它会自动打开Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序。您也可以通过重新启动电 脑来手动打开它。 56 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 若要打开Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序: m 重新启动电脑并同时按住 Command 键 (x) 和 R 键。Mac OS X 实用工具面板将出现。 Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序中的某些实用工具要求访问互联网和 Mac App Store。您可能需 要确定您的电脑已使用以太网络或 Wi-Fi 网络连接到互联网。 若要通过 Wi-Fi 网络进行连接: 1 从屏幕右上角的 Wi-Fi 状态菜单中选取网络。 2 如果需要,请键入网络的密码。 若要加入封闭网络,请选取加入其他网络。输入网络的名称和密码。 使用磁盘工具修复磁盘 如果您的电脑出现了问题,或者您启动电脑时看到了Mac OS X 实用工具应用程序,则可能需 要修复电脑的磁盘。 1 在Mac OS X 实用工具面板中选择磁盘工具,然后点按继续。 2 在左侧的列表中选择磁盘或分区,然后点按急救标签。 3 点按修复磁盘。 如果磁盘工具不能修复磁盘,请备份尽可能多的信息,然后按照第 54 页修复、恢复或重新安 装 Mac OS X 软件中的说明进行操作。 有关磁 盘工具及 其选项的信息, 请参阅帮 助中心, 或者打开磁 盘工具( 在 Launchpad 的实用工具文件夹中)并选取帮助> 磁盘工具帮助。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案57 使用 Time Machine 备份恢复信息 如果您先前创建了一个 Time Machine 备份,则可以使用恢复实用工具将您的电脑上的所有 内容都恢复到先前的状态。 使用 Time Machine 备份将您的信息仅恢复到该备份的源电脑。如果要将信息传输到新电脑,请 使用迁移助理(在 Launchpad 的实用工具文件夹中)。 1 如果备份位于 Time Capsule 上,请确定电脑已连接到以太网或 Wi-Fi 网络。(若要连接到 Wi-Fi 网络,请按照第 56 页上的说明进行操作。) 2 在Mac OS X 实用工具面板中,请选择从 Time Machine 备份进行恢复,然后点按继 续。 3 选择包含 Time Machine 备份的磁盘,然后按照屏幕指示进行操作。 重新安装 Mac OS X 和 Apple 应用程序 在某些情况下,您可能需要重新安装 Mac OS X 和 Apple 应用程序。重新安装后,您的文件和用 户设置都完好无损。 1 确定 MacBook Pro 已通过以太网络或 Wi-Fi 网络连接到互联网。(若要使用 Wi-Fi 网络进行连 接,请按照第 56 页上的说明进行操作。) 2 在Mac OS X 实用工具面板中,选择重新安装 Mac OS X ,然后点按继续。 3 在要求您选择磁盘的面板中,请选择您的当前 Mac OS X 磁盘(大多数情况下,它是唯一的可用磁 盘)。 4 若要选择或取消选择一些可选软件,请点按自定。 5 点按安装。 58 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 您可以在不抹掉磁盘的情况下安装 Mac OS X,这样可以存储现有文件和设置,或者也可以先抹掉 磁盘,这将抹掉您的所有数据,从而准备好电脑让您重新安装 Mac OS X 和 Apple 应用程序。 【重要事项】Apple 建议您在恢复软件之前先备份磁盘上的数据。Apple 对任何丢失的数据概不 负责。 将电脑恢复为出厂设置 如果您将电脑恢复为出厂设置,则您电脑上的所有内容(用户帐户、网络设置以及所有文件和文件 夹)都将被删除。恢复之前,请备份您想要保留的任何文件,将它们拷贝到另一个磁盘。从网 络偏好设置中记下您的网络设置,以便在重新安装 Mac OS X 后轻松地再接入网络。 1 请确定您的电脑已使用以太网络或 Wi-Fi 网络连接到互联网。(若要连接到 Wi-Fi 网络,请按照 第 56 页上的说明进行操作。) 2 在Mac OS X 实用工具面板中,选择磁盘工具,然后点按继续。 3 在左侧列表中选择磁盘,然后点按抹掉标签。 4 从格式弹出式菜单中选择Mac OS 扩展(日志式) ,为磁盘键入名称,然后点按抹掉。 5 在磁盘已被抹掉后,请选取磁盘工具> 退出磁盘工具。 6 在Mac OS X 实用工具面板中,选择重新安装 Mac OS X ,然后点按继续。 7 若要重新安装 Mac OS X 和您的应用程序,请按照 Mac OS X 安装器中的说明进行操作。 恢复 Mac OS X 和您的应用程序后,您可以选择性地从 Time Machine 备份来恢复您的其他数据 和应用程序。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案59 使用 Apple Hardware Test 如果怀疑 MacBook Pro 硬件有问题,您可以使用 Apple Hardware Test 应用程序来帮助诊断电 脑组件(如内存或处理器)是否有问题。 若要使用 Apple Hardware Test: 1 从电脑上断开所有外部设备(电源适配器除外)。 如果连接了以太网电缆,请断开它。 2 重新启动电脑,并在电脑启动时按住 D 键。 3 当 Apple Hardware Test 选择屏幕出现时,请选择您所在地区对应的语言。 4 按下 Return 键或点按右箭头按钮。 5 当 Apple Hardware Test 主屏幕出现时(大约 45 秒钟后),请按照屏幕指示进行操作。 6 如果 Apple Hardware Test 检测到问题,它会显示错误代码。请记下错误代码,然后寻求技术支 持。如果 Apple Hardware Test 没有检测到硬件故障,则问题可能与软件有关。 有关互联网连接的问题 MacBook Pro 上的网络设置助理应用程序可以帮助您完成互联网连接的设置。打开系统偏 好设置并点按网络。点按向导按钮以打开网络设置助理。 如果在建立互联网连接时遇到麻烦,您可以尝试本部分中适用于您的连接类型的步骤,或者也可以 使用网络诊断。 60 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 若要使用网络诊断: 1 选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置。 2 点按网络,然后点按向导。 3 点按诊断以打开网络诊断。 4 按照屏幕指示进行操作。 如果网络诊断不能解决问题,则可能是尝试连接的互联网服务商 (ISP)、用来连接 ISP 的外部 设备或尝试访问的服务器发生了问题。您还可以尝试以下步骤。 线缆调制解调器、DSL 调制解调器和局域网互联网连接 确定所有的调制解调器电缆都已插紧,包括调制解调器电源线、连接调制解调器和电脑的电缆以及 连接调制解调器和墙上插孔的电缆。同时,检查以太网集线器及路由器的电缆连接和电源。 将 DSL 调制解调器或线缆调制解调器关闭几分钟,然后再开启它。某些 ISP 会建议您拔下调制解调 器的电源线。如果您的调制解调器有复位按钮,则可以在打开或关闭电源之前或之后按下此按钮。 【重要事项】与调制解调器相关的说明不适用于局域网用户。局域网用户可能有集线器、交换机、 路由器或者连接头等设备,而 DSL 调制解调器和线缆调制解调器用户没有这些设备。局域网用户 应当联系他们的网络管理员而不是 ISP。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案61 PPPoE 连接 如果您无法使用 PPPoE(以太网上的点对点协议)来连接到互联网服务商,请确定您在网络偏 好设置中输入的信息是正确的。 若要检查网络偏好设置: 1 选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置。 2 点按网络。 3 点按网络连接服务列表底部的添加按钮 (+),然后从接口弹出式菜单中选取PPPoE 。 4 从以太网弹出式菜单中选取用于 PPPoE 服务的接口。如果您准备连接到有线网络,请选取 以太网;如果您准备连接到无线网络,请选取Wi-Fi 。 5 点按创建。 6 输入从服务商处收到的信息,例如帐户名称、密码和 PPPoE 服务名称(如果服务商有所要求)。 7 点按应用以激活设置。 62 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 网络连接 确定以太网电缆已与 MacBook Pro 连接并接入网络。检查以太网集线器及路由器的电缆连接和 电源。 如果有两台或两台以上的电脑尝试共享一个互联网连接,请确定您的网络已正确设置。您需要知道 ISP 是仅提供一个 IP 地址,还是提供多个 IP 地址(每台电脑一个)。 如果只有一个 IP 地址,则必须使用一个可以共享连接的路由器,也称为网络地址转换 (NAT) 或 IP masquerading 。有关设置信息,请查阅路由器附带的文稿,或者询问建立网络的人员。 AirPort 基站可用于在多台电脑之间共享一个 IP 地址。有关使用 AirPort 基站的信息,请查阅 帮助中心,或者访问 AirPort 支持网站 www.apple.com.cn/support/airport。 如果使用这些步骤不能解决问题,请联系您的 ISP 或网络管理员。 Wi-Fi 通信时出现问题 如果您在使用 Wi-Fi 通信时遇到问题  确定您尝试连接的电脑或网络正在运行,并且有无线访问点。  确定您已按照基站或访问点附带的说明正确配置了软件。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案63  确保 MacBook Pro 在其他电脑或网络访问点的天线覆盖范围内。附近的电子设备或金属结构会 干扰无线通信且会缩小其覆盖范围。重新放置电脑或转动电脑可以改善接收效果。  检查菜单栏中的 Wi-Fi 状态图标 (Z)。最多出现四格,指示信号强度。如果没有信号,请尝试换 个位置。  通过选取帮助> 帮助中心,然后搜索wi-fi 来获取在线帮助。也请查阅无线设备附带 的说明以了解更多信息。 保持软件最新 您可以接入互联网并自动下载和安装 Apple 提供的最新版免费软件、驱动程序以及其他增强软件。 当您的电脑接入互联网时, 软件更新会检查是否有任何可供您的电脑使用的更新。您可以设定 MacBook Pro 定期检查更新,那样您便可以下载并安装更新的软件。 若要检查更新的软件: 1 选取苹果菜单 () > 系统偏好设置。 2 点按软件更新图标,然后按照屏幕指示进行操作。 • 有关更多信息,请在帮助中心中搜索软件更新。 • 有关 Mac OS X 的最新信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/macosx。 64 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 了解更多信息及服务与支持 除了硬盘驱动器和内存,MacBook Pro 没有用户可以自行维修的部件。如果需要维修,请联系 Apple 或将 MacBook Pro 送到 Apple 授权服务商处。您可以通过网上资源、屏幕帮助、系统信 息或 Apple Hardware Test 找到有关 MacBook Pro 的更多信息。 网上资源 有关网上服务与支持信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/support。从弹出式菜单中选取您的国家 或地区。您可以搜索 AppleCare 知识库,核查软件更新,或者从 Apple 的论坛获得帮助。有关特 定于产品的最新信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/support/macbookpro。 屏幕帮助 您可以在帮助中心中查找问题的答案,以及查找相关说明和故障排除信息。选取帮助> 帮助中心。 系统信息 若要获得有关 MacBook Pro 的信息,请使用系统信息。它显示了已安装的硬件和软件、序 列号和操作系统版本、已安装内存的总量等。若要打开系统信息,请从菜单栏中选取苹果菜单 () > 关于本机,然后点按更多信息。 AppleCare 服务与支持 MacBook Pro 享有 90 天的技术支持和一年的硬件保修服务,这些支持与服务可在 Apple Store 零 售店或 Apple 授权的维修中心获得,如 Apple 授权服务商。您可以通过购买 AppleCare Protection Plan 来延长保修范围。有关信息,请访问 www.apple.com.cn/support/products,或者访问下 面列出的您所在国家或地区的网站。 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案65 如果您需要协助,AppleCare 电话支持代表可以提供安装和打开应用程序的帮助,以及进行基本 的故障排除。请致电离您最近的支持中心(前 90 天免费)。致电之前请准备好购买日期以及 MacBook Pro 的序列号。 【注】您的 90 天免费电话支持于购机之日起开始生效。您可能要自理电话费用。 国家或地区电话网站 中国(86) 4006-272273 www.apple.com.cn/support 香港(852) 2112-0099 * www.apple.com/hk/support www.apple.com/hk/en/support 印度(91) 1800 4250 744 或 (91) 80-4140-9000 www.apple.com/in/support 印度尼西亚(62) 0018 03061 2009 www.apple.com/id/support 韩国(82) 1544-2662 www.apple.com/kr/support 马来西亚1-800 803-638 www.apple.com/my/support 菲律宾1-800-1441-0234 www.apple.com/ph/support 新加坡800-186-1087 或 (65) 6835-1812 * www.apple.com/sg/support 台湾(886) 0800-095-988 www.apple.com/tw/support 泰国001800 4412904 www.apple.com/th/support 电话号码可能会有更改,可能会使用本地或国内长途电话费率。完整的列表可在以下网站上找到: www.apple.com/support/contact/phone_contacts.html 66 第 4 章 问题及其解决方案 找到产品序列号 使用以下一种方法来查找电脑的序列号:  将 MacBook Pro 翻过来。序列号蚀刻在转轴附近的机壳上。  选取苹果菜单 () > 关于本机。点按Mac OS X 字串下方的版本号以循环浏览 Mac OS X 版本号、版号和序列号。  打开系统信息,它位于 Launchpad 的实用工具文件夹中。 帮助中心 人机工程学 www.apple.com.cn/environment 最后要点 5 68 第 5 章 最后要点 为了您个人和设备的安全,请务必依照这些规则来操作和清洁 MacBook Pro,同时也有利于您更 舒适地工作。将这些说明放在容易拿到的位置,以便您和其他用户参考。 【注意】存放或使用电脑不当可能会使制造商的保修无效。 重要安全信息 【警告】不遵循这些安全说明可能会导致起火、触电、其他伤害或损坏。 内建电池 切勿将电池从 MacBook Pro 中取出。该电池应该只能由 Apple 授权服务商来更换。如 果 MacBook Pro 跌落或受到挤压、弯曲、变形或损坏,请勿继续使用。切勿使 MacBook Pro 靠 近极热的热源,如散热器或壁炉,那里的温度可能超过 100 C 或 212 F。 正确处理 正常使用时,MacBook Pro 的底部会发热。MacBook Pro 符合用户接触表面温度限制 的国际标准,即 International Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment (IEC 60950-1)。 第 5 章 最后要点69 若要安全地操作电脑并减小与发热相关的伤害的可能性,请按照这些指南进行操作:  将 MacBook Pro 摆放在稳定的工作台上,以使电脑底部及四周通风顺畅。  不要在枕头、毛毯或其他柔软的材料上操作 MacBook Pro,因为这些材料会阻塞通风散热孔。  操作 MacBook Pro 时切勿在键盘上放置任何物品。  切勿将任何物体插入通风口。  如果您将 MacBook Pro 放在膝上且它热得让人不舒服,请将它移到平稳的工作台上。 有水和潮湿的地方 使 MacBook Pro 远离各种液体源,如饮料、洗脸池、浴缸、淋浴室等等。保 护 MacBook Pro 免受潮湿或阴雨天气(如雨天、雪天和雾气)的侵袭。 85W MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器 请仅使用 MacBook Pro 附带的电源适配器或与本产品 兼容并经 Apple 认可的电源适配器。将该适配器插入电源插座之前,请确定交流插头或交流电源 线已完全插入到电源适配器中。 正常使用时,电源适配器会发热。MagSafe Power Adapter 适配器符合用户接触表面温度限制的 国际标准,即 International Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment (IEC 60950-1)。 70 第 5 章 最后要点 若要减小电源适配器过热或者与发热相关的伤害的可能性,请执行以下一项操作:  将电源适配器直接插入到电源插座中。  如果使用的是交流电源线,请将电源适配器放在书桌或餐桌上,或者在通风良好的位置将电源适 配器放在地板上。 第 5 章 最后要点71 如果遇到以下任何一种情况,请断开电源适配器并拔下其他所有电缆:  您想要添加内存或升级硬盘驱动器。  您想要清洁机壳(请仅采用第 74 页描述的建议过程)。  电源线或插头磨损或损坏。  MacBook Pro 或电源适配器被雨水、溅入到机箱内的液体弄湿,或者严重受潮。  MacBook Pro 或电源适配器跌落或机箱损坏,或者您觉得需要进行维修或修理。 MagSafe 电源端口含有磁体,能够抹去信用卡、iPod 或其他设备上的数据。若要保护数据,请 将这些物品或其他磁性敏感介质或设备远离电源适配器端口,至少相隔 25 毫米(1 英寸)以上。 如果有碎屑进入 MagSafe 电源端口,请用棉签轻轻地将碎屑取出。 MagSafe 电源规格:  频率:50 至 60 Hz(单相)  线路电压:100 至 240 V  输出电压:18.5 V 直流,4.6 A 72 第 5 章 最后要点 听力损伤 使用耳塞或耳机时如果音量很高,可能会造成听力的永久性损伤。听一段时间音乐后, 您会习惯高一些的音量,虽然听起来可能很正常,但会损坏您的听力。如果您出现耳鸣或谈话声听 起来模糊不清,请停止听音乐并检查一下您的听力。音量越大,听力就越容易受到影响。听力专家 建议按如下方法保护您的听力:  限制以高音量使用耳塞或耳机的时间。  避免通过调高音量来隔离嘈杂的周围环境。  如果您听不见周围人说话,请将音量调低。 高危险活动警告 本电脑不适用于核设施、飞机导航或通信系统、空中交通管制系统中的操作,也 不适用于由于电脑出现故障可能导致死亡、人身伤害或严重环境破坏的其他任何用途。 光盘驱动器的激光信息 【警告】调整或执行设备手册中指定操作之外的操作会导致有害的辐射泄漏。 在正常使用情况下,电脑的光盘驱动器中的激光对人体是安全的,但如果光盘驱动器遭到拆解,则 可能对人眼造成损害。为了您的安全,此设备只能由 Apple 授权服务商维修。 第 5 章 最后要点73 重要处理信息 【注意】如未能遵循这些处理说明,则可能导致 MacBook Pro 或其他财产受损。 操作环境 在以下温度范围之外操作 MacBook Pro 可能会影响其性能:  操作温度:10 至 35 C(50 至 95 F)  存放温度:-20 至 45 C(-4 至 113 F)  相对湿度:5% 至 90%(非凝结)  操作海拔高度:0 至 3048 米(0 至 10,000 英尺) 开启 MacBook Pro MacBook Pro 的内部和外部零件尚未完全装好之前,切勿开启电脑。在电脑 缺少部件的情况下操作电脑会很危险,而且会损坏电脑。 携带 MacBook Pro 如果您使用提包或公文箱来携带 MacBook Pro,请确定其中没有零散物件 (如回形针或硬币),以免它们从电脑的通风散热孔意外进入电脑内部或光盘驱动器插槽,或者堵 塞端口。同时,使磁性敏感物品远离 MagSafe 电源端口。 使用插头和端口 切勿强行将插头推入端口。连接设备时,请确定端口中没有碎屑、插头与端口匹 配,并且插头和端口的方向正确对应。 74 第 5 章 最后要点 使用光盘驱动器 安装在 MacBook Pro 中的 SuperDrive 驱动器支持标准的 12 厘米(4.7 英寸) 光盘。不支持形状不规则的光盘或直径小于 12 厘米(4.7 英寸)的光盘,这些光盘会卡在驱动 器中。 处理玻璃部件 MacBook Pro 包含玻璃组件,包括显示屏和触控板。如果它们已损坏,请勿使用 MacBook Pro,直至 Apple 授权服务商将它修理好。 存放 MacBook Pro 如果打算长期存放 MacBook Pro,请将其置于阴凉的环境中(理想温度为 22 C 或 71 F),并将电池放电到总电量的 50% 或以下。当要存放 MacBook Pro 的时间超过 五个月时,请将电池放电到总电量的 50% 左右。若要维持电池的电量,请每隔六个月左右将电池 重新充电到总电量的 50%。 清洁 MacBook Pro 清洁 MacBook Pro 的外壳及其组件之前,请先将 MacBook Pro 关机并拔 下电源适配器。然后使用湿润、柔软、不起绒的擦拭布来清洁电脑的外壳。避免任何一个开口处 受潮。不要将液体直接喷射到电脑上。不要使用可能会破坏电脑表面的气雾喷剂、溶剂或研磨剂。 清洁 MacBook Pro 屏幕 若要清洁 MacBook Pro 屏幕,请先将 MacBook Pro 关机并拔下电源 适配器。然后蘸湿附带的擦拭布(仅限用水)并擦拭屏幕。不要将液体直接喷射到屏幕上。 第 5 章 最后要点75 了解人机工程学 下面是有关如何设置健康的工作环境的一些技巧。 键盘和触控板 使用键盘和触控板时,双肩要放松。上臂和前臂应形成一个稍大于直角的角度,手腕和手掌大致成 一条直线。 76 第 5 章 最后要点 在击键或使用触控板时手指要轻触,双手和手指应保持放松。不要把拇指卷曲在手掌下。 经常改变一下手的姿势以避免疲劳。在不间断的频繁操作之后,有些电脑用户会感到手、手腕或手 臂不适。如果手、手腕或手臂出现慢性疼痛或不适,请向合格的健康专家咨询。 外部鼠标 如果您使用外部鼠标,请将鼠标与键盘放置在同一高度且操作舒适的位置。 座椅 最好使用可调节高度的座椅,且带有坚固而舒适的靠背。调整座椅的高度,使大腿放平,双脚平放 在地板上。座椅靠背应支撑背的下部(腰部)。请参照制造商的说明,根据自身体形调节椅背。 第 5 章 最后要点77 您可能需要调高座椅,使前臂和手与键盘成适当的角度。如果这样做您的双脚无法平放在地板上, 则可以用高度和倾角可调的搁脚板将脚垫平。您也可以降低桌面,这样就不需要搁脚板了。还有一 种方法是使用键盘托架比常规工作表面稍低的工作台。 内建显示屏 调整显示屏的角度,为在您的环境中观看进行优化。如果调整显示屏时遇到阻力,请不要强行调 整。显示屏打开角度不能超过 130 度。 当您将电脑从一个工作地点移到另一个工作地点或者工作环境的灯光有所改变时,您可以相应地调 整显示屏的亮度。 有关人机工程学的更多信息,可以在以下网站上找到: www.apple.com/about/ergonomics Apple 和环境 Apple Inc. 已经意识到有责任将产品的操作和产品本身对环境造成的影响降到最小。 有关更多信息,可以在以下网站上找到: www.apple.com.cn/environment 78 Regulatory Compliance Information FCC Compliance Statement This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. See instructions if interference to radio or television reception is suspected. L‘utilisation de ce dispositif est autorisée seulement aux conditions suivantes: (1) il ne doit pas produire de brouillage et (2) l’utilisateur du dispositif doit étre prêt à accepter tout brouillage radioélectrique reçu, même si ce brouillage est susceptible de compromettre le fonctionnement du dispositif. Radio and Television Interference This computer equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radiofrequency energy. If it is not installed and used properly—that is, in strict accordance with Apple’s instructions—it may cause interference with radio and television reception. This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. These specifications are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. You can determine whether your computer system is causing interference by turning it off. If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or one of the peripheral devices. If your computer system does cause interference to radio or television reception, try to correct the interference by using one or more of the following measures: • Turn the television or radio antenna until the interference stops. • Move the computer to one side or the other of the television or radio. • Move the computer farther away from the television or radio. • Plug the computer into an outlet that is on a different circuit from the television or radio. (That is, make certain the computer and the television or radio are on circuits controlled by different circuit breakers or fuses.) If necessary, consult an Apple Authorized Service Provider or Apple. See the service and support information that came with your Apple product. Or consult an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. Important: Changes or modifications to this product not authorized by Apple Inc. could void the EMC compliance and negate your authority to operate the product. This product has demonstrated EMC compliance under conditions that included the use of compliant peripheral devices and shielded cables (including Ethernet network cables) between system components. It is important that you use compliant peripheral devices and shielded cables between system components to reduce the possibility of causing interference to radios, television sets, and other electronic devices. Responsible party (contact for FCC matters only): Apple Inc. Corporate Compliance 1 Infinite Loop, MS 26-A Cupertino, CA 95014 Wireless Radio Use This device is restricted to indoor use when operating in the 5.15 to 5.25 GHz frequency band. Cet appareil doit être utilisé à l’intérieur. Exposure to Radio Frequency Energy The radiated output power of the Wi-Fi technology is below the FCC radio frequency exposure limits. Nevertheless, it is advised to use the wireless equipment in such a manner that the potential for human contact during normal operation is minimized. FCC Bluetooth Wireless Compliance The antenna used with this transmitter must not be colocated or operated in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter subject to the conditions of the FCC Grant. 79 Canadian Compliance Statement This device complies with Industry Canada license-exempt RSS standard(s). Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the device. Cet appareil est conforme aux normes CNR exemptes de licence d’Industrie Canada. Le fonctionnement est soumis aux deux conditions suivantes : (1) cet appareil ne doit pas provoquer d’interférences et (2) cet appareil doit accepter toute interférence, y compris celles susceptibles de provoquer un fonctionnement non souhaité de l’appareil. Bluetooth Industry Canada Statement This Class B device meets all requirements of the Canadian interference-causing equipment regulations. Cet appareil numérique de la Class B respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur du Canada. Industry Canada Statement Complies with the Canadian ICES-003 Class B specifications. Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada. This device complies with RSS 210 of Industry Canada. Bluetooth Europe—EU Declaration of Conformity This wireless device complies with the R&TTE Directive. Europe—EU Declaration of Conformity Български Apple Inc. декларира, че това MacBook Pro е в съответствие със съществените изисквания и другите приложими правила на Директива 1999/5/ЕС. Česky Společnost Apple Inc. tímto prohlašuje, že tento MacBook Pro je ve shodě se základními požadavky a dalšími příslušnými ustanoveními směrnice 1999/5/ES. Dansk Undertegnede Apple Inc. erklærer herved, at følgende udstyr MacBook Pro overholder de væsentlige krav og øvrige relevante krav i direktiv 1999/5/EF. Deutsch Hiermit erklärt Apple Inc., dass sich das MacBook Pro in Übereinstimmung mit den grundlegenden Anforderungen und den übrigen einschlägigen Bestimmungen der Richtlinie 1999/5/EG befinden. Eesti Käesolevaga kinnitab Apple Inc., et see MacBook Pro vastab direktiivi 1999/5/EÜ põhinõuetele ja nimetatud direktiivist tulenevatele teistele asjakohastele sätetele. 简体中文 Apple Inc. 特此声明此 MacBook Pro 符合 Directive 1999/5/ EC 的基本要求和其他相关条款。 Español Por medio de la presente Apple Inc. declara que este MacBook Pro cumple con los requisitos esenciales y cualesquiera otras disposiciones aplicables o exigibles de la Directiva 1999/5/CE. Ελληνικά Mε την παρούσα, η Apple Inc. δηλώνει ότι αυτή η συσκευή MacBook Pro συμμορφώνεται προς τις βασικές απαιτήσεις και τις λοιπές σχετικές διατάξεις της Οδηγίας 1999/5/ΕΚ. Français Par la présente Apple Inc. déclare que l’appareil MacBook Pro est conforme aux exigences essentielles et aux autres dispositions pertinentes de la directive 1999/5/CE. Islenska Apple Inc. lýsir því hér með yfir að þetta tæki MacBook Pro fullnægir lágmarkskröfum og öðrum viðeigandi ákvæðum Evróputilskipunar 1999/5/EC. Italiano Con la presente Apple Inc. dichiara che questo dispositivo MacBook Pro è conforme ai requisiti essenziali ed alle altre disposizioni pertinenti stabilite dalla direttiva 1999/5/CE. Latviski Ar šo Apple Inc. deklarē, ka MacBook Pro ierīce atbilst Direktīvas 1999/5/EK būtiskajām prasībām un citiem ar to saistītajiem noteikumiem. Lietuvių Šiuo „Apple Inc.“ deklaruoja, kad šis MacBook Pro atitinka esminius reikalavimus ir kitas 1999/5/EB Direktyvos nuostatas. Magyar Alulírott, Apple Inc. nyilatkozom, hogy a MacBook Pro megfelel a vonatkozó alapvetõ követelményeknek és az 1999/5/EC irányelv egyéb elõírásainak. Malti Hawnhekk, Apple Inc., jiddikjara li dan MacBook Pro jikkonforma mal-ħtiġijiet essenzjali u ma provvedimenti oħrajn relevanti li hemm fid-Dirrettiva 1999/5/EC. 80 Nederlands Hierbij verklaart Apple Inc. dat het toestel MacBook Pro in overeenstemming is met de essentiële eisen en de andere bepalingen van richtlijn 1999/5/EG. Norsk Apple Inc. erklærer herved at dette MacBook Pro -apparatet er i samsvar med de grunnleggende kravene og øvrige relevante krav i EU-direktivet 1999/5/EF. Polski Niniejszym Apple Inc. oświadcza, że ten MacBook Pro są zgodne z zasadniczymi wymogami oraz pozostałymi stosownymi postanowieniami Dyrektywy 1999/5/EC. Português Apple Inc. declara que este dispositivo MacBook Pro está em conformidade com os requisitos essenciais e outras disposições da Directiva 1999/5/CE. Română Prin prezenta, Apple Inc. declară că acest aparat MacBook Pro este în conformitate cu cerinţele esenţiale şi cu celelalte prevederi relevante ale Directivei 1999/5/CE. Slovensko Apple Inc. izjavlja, da je ta MacBook Pro skladne z bistvenimi zahtevami in ostalimi ustreznimi določili direktive 1999/5/ES. Slovensky Apple Inc. týmto vyhlasuje, že toto MacBook Pro spĺňa základné požiadavky a všetky príslušné ustanovenia Smernice 1999/5/ES. Suomi Apple Inc. vakuuttaa täten, että tämä MacBook Pro tyyppinen laite on direktiivin 1999/5/EY oleellisten vaatimusten ja sitä koskevien direktiivin muiden ehtojen mukainen. Svenska Härmed intygar Apple Inc. att denna MacBook Pro står i överensstämmelse med de väsentliga egenskapskrav och övriga relevanta bestämmelser som framgår av direktiv 1999/5/EG. 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Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. 3 1 Contents Preface 7 Introduction 7 What Are Control Surfaces? 8 How Control Surface Integration Works Chapter 1 13 Control Surface Setup 13 Control Surface Plug-ins 13 About Software and Firmware 14 Getting Started 15 Connecting the Unit(s) 16 Installing and Setting Up Control Surfaces 17 Control Surface Groups 19 Setup Window Parameters 25 Control Surface Preferences 29 Customizing Control Surfaces 34 The Controller Assignments Editor 45 About Modal Dialogs 46 Tips Chapter 2 47 Logic Control 47 Set Up 48 The Displays 50 The Channel Strip(s) 54 The Assignment Zone 69 Fader Bank Zone 71 Master Fader 71 Display Zone 73 The Function Key Zone 74 The Global View Zone 75 Function Button Zone 79 The Transport Zone 87 The Cursor/Zoom Key Zone 88 The Jog/Scrub Wheel Zone 89 Assignment Overview 4 Contents Chapter 3 101 M-Audio iControl 101 Setting Up the iControl 102 Compatibility 102 Channel Views 102 The Assignment Buttons 105 Arrow Up and Arrow Down Buttons 105 The Channel Strip(s) 106 The Jog Wheel 106 The Transport Zone 107 Master Fader 108 Assignment Overview Chapter 4 111 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 111 Setting Up the MC or System 5-MC With Logic 112 Setting Up Soft Key Assignments 113 Main-Tracks Touchscreen 113 Main-Layouts 113 Faders 114 Choosing Automation Modes 115 Knobsets 120 Monitors and Control Room 120 Clear Keys 120 Track Control Bar 120 System 5-MC Specific Features Chapter 5 123 CM Labs Motormix 123 Set Up 123 Assignment Overview Chapter 6 131 Frontier Design TranzPort 131 Set Up 131 LCD 132 Assignment Overview Chapter 7 135 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk 135 Set Up 135 Assignment Overview Chapter 8 141 JLCooper FaderMaster 4/100 141 Requirements 141 Set Up 142 Assignment Overview Contents 5 Chapter 9 143 Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49 143 Set Up 143 Assignment Overview Chapter 10 147 Mackie Baby HUI 147 Set Up 147 Assignment Overview Chapter 11 151 Mackie C4 151 Set Up 151 V-Pots, V-Selects 157 Buttons at Bottom 160 Marker Overlay 160 Track Overlay 160 Channel Strip Overlay 161 Function Overlay Chapter 12 163 Mackie HUI 163 Set Up 163 Assignment Overview Chapter 13 173 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K 173 Set Up 173 Assignment Overview 178 Troubleshooting Chapter 14 179 Roland SI-24 179 Set Up 179 Assignment Overview Chapter 15 185 Tascam FW-1884 185 Introduction 185 Set Up 185 Assignment Overview Chapter 16 193 Tascam US-2400 193 Set Up 194 Assignment Overview Chapter 17 199 Tascam US-428 and US-224 199 Set Up 199 Assignment Overview Chapter 18 203 Yamaha 01V96 203 Set Up 6 Contents 204 Assignment Overview 206 Selected Channel Section 207 Data Entry Section 207 Channel Strips 207 Stereo Channel Strip 208 User Defined Keys Section Chapter 19 211 Yamaha 02R96 211 Set Up 212 Assignment Overview Chapter 20 217 Yamaha DM1000 217 Set Up 218 Assignment Overview Chapter 21 225 Yamaha DM2000 225 Set Up 226 Assignment Overview Appendix A 235 Logic Control—Specifications 235 Logic Control (Base Unit) 237 Logic Control XT (Extension Unit) Appendix B 239 Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 239 SysEx Message Header 240 Global Control Messages 242 Common Control Messages Appendix C 251 Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs Appendix D 255 Logic Control—MIDI Implementation Chart 7 Introduction This manual covers the control surface support of Logic Pro. Please read it thoroughly to make the most of your new controller(s). All of the functions in Logic Pro that are normally associated with the use of an analog style mixer can be performed using just a mouse and a computer keyboard. The addition of many commercially available control surfaces can greatly enhance your creative experience by providing you with hands-on control of most realtime parameters in Logic. Move a fader and the on-screen fader in Logic will move with it. Similarly, when you make a fader move on-screen, the control surface fader moves (this only applies to control surfaces equipped with motorized faders). Adjust EQ parameters by turning one of your control surface’s knobs and Logic will update instantly. What Are Control Surfaces? Control surfaces are hardware units that enable the operation of Logic Pro using faders, rotary knobs, switches, and displays. There are a number of simple control surfaces that feature conventional faders and no displays. More progressive units are equipped with motorized faders, rotary encoders, LED rings, and programmable displays. The more feedback a control surface provides, the easier it is to use, as you don’t need to watch the computer screen in order to determine what mode the unit is currently in. Control surfaces—dependent on the options (buttons, knobs, switches, displays, and so on) available—have the potential to:  control all Logic transport functions  adjust instrument, input, bus, aux, master, and audio channel volume and pan levels  control Channel EQ and Linear Phase EQ parameters  select and control all effect and Instrument parameters  select, solo, mute, and arm tracks  set and adjust send parameters 8 Chapter Introduction  remotely switch between Screensets  scrub MIDI and audio  zoom in on individual tracks  create, delete, and move between markers, and much more For live use, control surfaces are ideal. The performing musician only needs to take a laptop, equipped with suitable audio and/or MIDI interfaces, a keyboard, and a control surface to a live event. Some units available nowadays incorporate a keyboard, audio interface, control surface, and MIDI interface into a single package. Given that Logic Pro’s track automation facilities can be active, even when not in record mode, you can capture your “live” real time changes for later recall. This ensures that you’ll never again lose that “once-in-a-lifetime” performance—on stage or in the studio. How Control Surface Integration Works Logic Pro features dedicated support for a number of control surface models. This is achieved through several plug-ins that are directly integrated into Logic. Some plug-ins support multiple, similarly-featured control surface models. Note: Although many other control surfaces are supported, the Logic/Mackie Control, C4, and XT control surface units are recommended for use with Logic. Logic also allows you to reprogram existing assignments for supported control surfaces and to program new assignments for unsupported control surfaces. This facility allows you to extend the use of faders, knobs, and switches, either directly or through the use of modifier commands. You can use any combination of control surfaces with Logic Pro. You will get most out of them, however, when used in a Control Surface Group (provided all devices are supported by the same plug-in). Universal information, that applies to all control surfaces, is covered in the following chapter. Please read this before taking a look at the dedicated section on your control surface(s). A detailed overview of group, installation, and other control surface setup parameters is found in Chapter 1, “Control Surface Setup,” on page 13. Please read this, as it contains a lot of useful information that will help you to customize and/or make the most of your control surface(s). Important: Specific information on device setup is found at the beginning of the relevant chapter for your control surface (see the table below). Chapter Introduction 9 It is assumed that you are familiar with the basic use and terminology of Logic Pro. As such, the functionality and uses of individual Logic parameters are not covered in this documentation. Please consult your Logic Pro 7 Reference manual or the Online Help, if you require further information. You are strongly encouraged to press buttons, move sliders and turn the knobs of your control surface while reading through the following chapters. This will help you to get a “feel” for how your control surface works, and how the various parts of the control surface interact with one another, and Logic. A listing of control surfaces that are directly supported by Logic (via a control surface plug-in included in the Logic package), how they differ from similar devices, and cross references to the relevant sections are shown below. Note: It is possible that your device may be directly supported in Logic via a suitable control surface plug-in, supplied by the manufacturer. Please check the website of your control surface manufacturer. Follow any written instructions supplied with the plug-in, if available. Supported Devices Manufacturer Notes 01V96 Yamaha The Yamaha 01V96 emulates two HUI units, using two virtual MIDI in and out connections over its USB cable. See “Yamaha 01V96” on page 203. 01X Yamaha The Yamaha 01X emulates a Logic Control. It does not feature all controls available to the Logic (and Mackie) units, however. Please refer to the 01X documentation for details. Logic recognizes the 01X as such and displays a custom icon, but communication is as with a Logic Control. See “Logic Control” on page 47. 02R96 Yamaha The Yamaha 02R96 emulates three HUI units, using three virtual MIDI in and out connections over its USB cable. See “Yamaha 02R96” on page 211. Baby HUI Mackie The Baby HUI is a stripped-down version of the HUI. See “Mackie Baby HUI” on page 147. C4 Mackie The Logic Control plug-in has been extended to support the Mackie C4. See “Mackie C4” on page 151. CM408T Euphonix See “EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC” on page 111. CS-32 MiniDesk JLCooper See “JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk” on page 135. 10 Chapter Introduction DM1000 Yamaha The Yamaha DM1000 emulates two HUI units, using two virtual MIDI in and out connections over its USB cable. See “Yamaha DM1000” on page 217. DM2000 Yamaha The Yamaha DM2000 emulates three HUI units, using three virtual MIDI in and out connections over its USB cable. See “Yamaha DM2000” on page 225. FaderMaster 4/100 JLCooper See “JLCooper FaderMaster 4/100” on page 141. FE-8 Tascam Extension unit for FW-1884. See “Tascam FW- 1884” on page 185. FW-1082 Tascam A stripped-down version of the FW-1884, with dedicated support in the FW-1884 plug-in. See “Tascam FW-1884” on page 185. FW-1884 Tascam See “Tascam FW-1884” on page 185. HUI Mackie Important: The HUI plug-in has been tested with the original Mackie HUI. There are a number of control surfaces not mentioned here which can emulate the HUI. We have not tested all devices capable of HUI emulation, and don’t provide any support for them, nor do we guarantee that they will work with Logic in HUI emulation mode. See “Mackie HUI” on page 163. iControl M-Audio See “M-Audio iControl” on page 101. KONTROL 49 Korg A larger version of the microKONTROL, with dedicated support in the microKONTROL plug-in. See “Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49” on page 143. Logic Control XT Mackie/Emagic This is the extension unit for the Logic Control. It only offers the channel strip section, making it less useful without a Logic Control. See “Logic Control” on page 47. Also see the Appendix for more details. Logic/Mackie Control Mackie/Emagic See “Logic Control” on page 47. Also see the Appendix for more details. Mackie Control Mackie The original Mackie Control hardware is similar to the Logic Control. The front panel legend is different, however. You should request a Logic Control Lexan Overlay from Mackie. As Logic also recognizes the Mackie Control protocol, you may use any firmware version. If you have firmware version 1.02 or higher, you can freely use either the Logic Control or Mackie Control mode. See “Logic Control” on page 47. Supported Devices Manufacturer Notes Chapter Introduction 11 Mackie Control Extender Mackie Mackie Control version of the Logic Control XT. As Logic also recognizes the Mackie Control protocol, you may use any firmware version. If you have firmware version 1.02 or higher, you can freely use either the Logic Control or Mackie Control mode. See “Logic Control” on page 47. Mackie Control Universal Mackie A Mackie Control with Logic Control silk screening (legend) and firmware version 2.0 or higher (including HUI emulation). As Logic also recognizes the Mackie Control protocol, you may use any firmware version. If you have firmware version 1.02 or higher, you can freely use either the Logic Control or Mackie Control mode. See “Logic Control” on page 47. MC Euphonix See “EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC” on page 111. microKONTROL Korg See “Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49” on page 143. Motormix CM Labs See “CM Labs Motormix” on page 123. Radikal Technologies SAC-2.2 There is a dedicated plug-in for the SAC-2.2/2k’s native mode. The Logic Control plug-in detects an SAC-2.2 (in Logic Control emulation mode) and ignores it, avoid two installations of the SAC-2.2. See “Radikal Technologies SAC-2K” on page 173. Radikal Technologies SAC-2k See “Radikal Technologies SAC-2K” on page 173. SI-24 Roland See “Roland SI-24” on page 179. TranzPort Frontier Design Group See “Frontier Design TranzPort” on page 131. US-224 Tascam A stripped-down version of the US-428, with dedicated support in the US-428 plug-in. See “Tascam US-428 and US-224” on page 199. US-2400 Tascam Logic has support for the US-2400’s native mode. In contrast to its Logic Control mode, all controls, including the joystick, are supported. See section “Tascam US-2400” on page 193. US-428 Tascam See “Tascam US-428 and US-224” on page 199. Supported Devices Manufacturer Notes 1 13 1 Control Surface Setup Logic offers dedicated support for a number of control surfaces, plus the option to program unsupported devices. The following chapter describes functions applicable to all control surface models. Specific documentation for various models is available in the following chapters. Control Surface Plug-ins Dedicated control surface support is achieved through the use of special plug-in files. These files are automatically added when Logic is installed. They are located in the /Contents/MIDI Device Plug-ins sub-folder of the Logic application bundle (to view the bundle contents, Control or right-click on the Logic application icon, and choose Show Package Contents from the menu). Logic also checks for control surface plug-ins in the (optional) “/Library/Application Support/ Logic/MIDI Device Plug-ins” and “~/Library/Application Support/Logic/MIDI Device Plug-ins” (the “~” denotes your user home directory) folders. When new control surface plug-ins are released independently from a Logic update, please place them in the folders described above (or as advised in the documentation supplied with the plug-in). About Software and Firmware Most control surfaces have no “intelligence” of their own. Their functionality is host software-based, making them reliant on Logic to tell them what to do/how to behave. What this means is that control surfaces cannot perform any function that Logic itself isn’t capable of. It also means that if Logic is not booted, most control surface units will do nothing at all. This reliance on the host application makes your control surface the ultimate upgradable hardware. As new functions are added to Logic, or you create new assignments (see “Control Surface Setup” on page 13), your control surface will be able to access and control them. 14 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Most control surface units do, however, have a form of software called “firmware.” This firmware is much like the BIOS found in your computer. New behaviors—at a hardware level—such as improved control of fader servo motors and changes to the display can be made via firmware updates. The firmware is usually stored on an EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) chip. It can often be updated via a simple MIDI dump procedure, in the form of a MIDI file. Should new firmware become available, you can simply download the appropriate MIDI file and play it to your control surface(s), which will be updated accordingly. The steps required to perform a firmware update will be outlined in the documentation that accompanies the MIDI file. Please read this before attempting any update. Note: Some control surfaces may require a physical chip replacement for firmware updates. Please contact the manufacturer of your device for details. Getting Started To make use of your control surface, you will require:  An installed, authorized copy of Logic Pro.  If a USB or FireWire equipped device (such as a Yamaha 01X)—a free USB or FireWire port. This should preferably be a direct USB/FireWire connection with the computer, rather than via a USB/FireWire hub. Please refer to the documentation provided by the manufacturer of your control surface.  If a MIDI-only device (such as a Logic Control)—a free MIDI in and out port for each unit, on any suitable MIDI interface. As an example; if using a Unitor 8 or AMT 8, which feature 8 MIDI in and 8 MIDI out ports, with one Logic Control and one Logic Control XT, you will need to use two of the Unitor8/AMT8’s MIDI ins and two of its MIDI outs.  An installed driver (if required by your control surface) that is supported by the operating system version being used. Important: Your MIDI interface must feature driver software that supports SysEx communication. Please consult the documentation that shipped with your MIDI interface. The number of units that can be run simultaneously is dependent on the availability of free MIDI in and out, FireWire or USB ports on your system. In a standard setup, a single control surface will be used alone, or accompanied by one or more units. It is also possible to make use of several units to create Control Surface Groups, as discussed in “Control Surface Groups” on page 17. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 15 The use of multiple control surfaces expands on the number of tracks, parameters, and so on that can be controlled with individual faders, knobs, and switches. As an example, the Logic/Mackie Control XT units are basically identical to the channel strip section (fader, V-Pot, and LCD) of the main Logic/Mackie Control unit. The Mackie C4 features a number of V-Pots, but no faders. You may add as many XT, C4, or other control surface units as you wish to your Logic system, provided enough MIDI in and out ports are available. Connecting the Unit(s) Connect your (MIDI) control surfaces as shown in the diagram below. As mentioned earlier, each MIDI control surface must have a discrete MIDI in and MIDI out connection. Do not “daisy-chain” other MIDI devices via MIDI thru to the MIDI in or out ports used by control surfaces, as this may result in data errors. FireWire and USB units are connected via a single cable to the computer. It is generally recommended that this is a direct connection with the Macintosh, rather than via a FireWire/USB hub. Daisy-chaining or the use of hubs can result in data errors. Optional Footswitches and Pedals If your control surface features suitable connectors, you may use optional foot switches to remotely control start/stop and other functions. This may be useful when using guitars or other instruments that require two-handed playing. Computer MIDI Interface Optional Footswitches 16 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Power Up Once everything is connected, press the power switch on your control surface. Once powered, the displays and/or LEDs will illuminate and the LCD (if applicable) will generally display a welcome message (often including the firmware version number). Each fader will slide to the top, and back to the bottom of its travel on most motorized control surfaces. This self-diagnostic power-on procedure indicates that your units are functioning correctly. Your computer and MIDI interface can be powered up before or after initialization of your control surface units. Logic can be started either before or after the units have completed initialization. Installing and Setting Up Control Surfaces Some control surface units (Logic/Mackie Control, for example) will automatically be detected when Logic is launched. Units which are not detected automatically can be added via the Setup window. This is accessed via the Setup option in the Preferences > Control Surfaces menu. Installation is very easy (and is covered in the Set Up section of the chapter on your specific device). Some devices may require different or additional steps, but generally, all you need to do is select the device(s) that you wish to use in Logic, as follows: To install control surfaces using the Scan function of Logic: 1 Choose New > Install, and in the ensuing Install window, select the desired device from the list. Note: You may select one or more models. To select more than one model, select them with Command held down. If you select more than one model, Logic performs the desired operation for each model in turn. 2 Press the Scan button. You can also press Enter or double-click the device name. Logic will then analyze your MIDI system, and will automatically install the devices it finds, including the correct connection settings. Note: The Scan function is preferable to manual installation, as Logic is able to gather the maximum amount of information about the devices. If you don’t want to select the models to be scanned manually, you can also click “Scan all.” This will search for all supported control surface units on all MIDI ports. Please be aware that this may take a while. Some control surfaces don’t support automatic scanning. Such devices must be added manually to your setup. In this scenario, you will need to manually set the MIDI In and Out port parameters. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 17 To manually add the selected devices to your system: 1 Select the desired devices from the list in the Install window. 2 Click the Add button. Note: Alternatively you can Option-double-click the desired device. If a control surface of the selected type already exists in your setup, you will be asked whether or not you really want to add the new device. You will need to manually alter the MIDI In and Out port values in the device parameters to match those of the connected unit. Once you have completed the scanning or installation of the devices, click Done. The Install window will close. Rebuilding Defaults The Preferences > Control Surfaces > Rebuild Defaults option re-initializes the support of all connected control surfaces. Control Surface Groups If you have multiple control surface units, you can define how they relate to each other, and build Control Surface Groups. A Control Surface Group consists of a number of control surface units (using the same plug-in) which are combined to create a single, unified (and larger) control surface. You can build up to 20 Control Surface Groups. Each “group” can consist of any number of physical units. The only limiting factor is the number of available MIDI In/Out (or USB/FireWire—defined as MIDI) ports. When multiple control surface units are combined, you can independently determine the default behavior for each physical device. This is discussed in the Device Parameters (p. 19) section. To build a Control Surface Group out of several units: m Simply arrange their icons (in the Setup window) in a single horizontal row—by dragging each icon to the desired onscreen location. The order of the icons from left to right also defines how the tracks and parameters are arranged on the units. To use two control surfaces independently: m Simply arrange them in separate rows—that is, one above the other. 18 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Here is an example with two Logic Control, three Logic Control XT units and a HUI: Computer icon connected to three rows, as below: The top row, consisting of Logic Control XT #1, Logic Control XT #2 and Logic Control #1 form a single Control Surface Group with 24 channels. XT #1 controls channels 1 to 8, XT #2 controls channels 9 to 16, and Logic Control #1 handles channels 17 to 24. Logic Control #2 and Logic Control XT #3 form a second Control Surface Group, displaying, say instruments (on channels 1 to 8) and busses (on channels 9 to 16). The HUI forms a single unit control surface group. Each Control Surface Group has individual settings, such as Flip Mode, Fader Bank Offset, Plug-in Parameter Bank Offset and others. This allows you to access, edit, and automate different sections of the Logic mixer. In our example, the three units in the top row could be used for control over audio tracks and MIDI channels. In the middle row, Logic Control #2 could be used for Audio Instrument channels 1 to 8, and XT #3 could be used for busses. The HUI might edit group definitions. The physical placement of units, and the way you use them, is entirely up to you. Note: The placement of your control surface units in relation to each other should be the same onscreen as in the real-world. Simply drag ’n drop the desired icon horizontally in your Control Surface Group to do so. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 19 Setup Window Parameters The three Parameter boxes along the left edge of the Setup window allow you to configure your control surface setup to meet your needs. Device Parameters Each control surface unit must be connected to an independent MIDI in and out port (or corresponding USB/FireWire port, designated as a MIDI port by the device driver). The automatic setup or Scan procedure should have found, and set, the correct MIDI in/ out port settings for each unit. In the event that the MIDI in or out port identification is incorrect, you can manually select the appropriate one for the unit. To do so, click-hold on the MIDI Input and Output pull-down menus, and select the appropriate port(s) of your MIDI interface/ device. Some devices allow you to define a device ID (or global/basic channel). This can be set in this area. Module name, model name and firmware version are also displayed in the device parameters. The Color parameter defines the color of the Track Control Bar—a bar displayed in the Arrange window, indicating the tracks that are currently being accessed by your control surface. The Track Control Bar of each control surface can be assigned a different color. Special Parameters Some control surfaces may allow the definition of “special” parameters. An example of this is fader touch sensitivity. Such parameters can be found in the Special Parameters area. A detailed description can be found in the documentation of the particular control surface plug-in. Control Surface Group Parameters The following parameters are shown in the Setup window. They apply to the Control Surface Group associated with the selected device, and allow you to set each group up to meet your needs. This facility is of great benefit when multiple Control Surface Groups have been created. Many (if not all) Control Surface Group parameters can also be changed directly from the control surface. The parameter display in the Setup window is for information purposes only. Any changes to settings (made here, or on the control surface) are saved in a preferences file, which is independent of the Logic program preferences: it’s named “com.apple.logic.pro.cs”, and is located in ~/Library/Preferences/Logic. 20 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Display Parameters The following section describes the display parameters of a Control Surface Group. Flip Mode Many control surfaces offer both a fader and a rotary encoder for each channel strip. Flip Mode allows you to swap the encoder assignment with that of the fader for each channel. Alternately, you can assign both controls to the same parameter. There are four “flip” or “swap” modes.  Off—disables Flip Mode, making the fader act as a volume control.  Duplicate—makes both the fader and encoder active for the currently selected encoder parameter.  Swap—swaps the fader and encoder, making the fader a pan control and the encoder a channel volume control, for example.  Mute—disables the faders. This is useful for situations where recording is taking place in the same room as the control surface, and you wish to avoid the mechanical noise of the faders. Any existing automation data will still function as per normal. Display Mode If there is insufficient space available for the display of both the parameter name and value (on the control surface LCD), you can specify what is displayed here:  Value—displays the parameter value.  Name—displays the parameter name. Clock Display If your control surface features a song position display, the Clock Display parameter allows you to set the display mode:  Beats—the song position display shows Bars/Beats/(optional) Sub Division/Ticks.  SMPTE—as above, but in Hours/Minutes/Seconds/Frames. Note: The exact elements displayed, and thus their positions, depend on the selected SMPTE or bar/beat display option defined in the Logic Preferences. Track View Mode This parameter determines which tracks or channels are displayed:  Mixer—displays channels in their order of appearance in the Track Mixer window (while Global mode is disabled). Channel Strip 1 in the Track Mixer is equivalent to channel 1 on the control surface, Channel Strip 2 in the Track Mixer is equivalent to channel 2 and so on. Instruments/channels used by multiple tracks are merged into one channel. Mixer View is the default mode of most devices, including the Logic/ Mackie Control. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 21  Global—displays all Objects of certain type(s)—MIDI or Bus channels, for example— independent of their usage by tracks. They merely need to be defined as Environment Objects to be visible. The Object types to be displayed are defined by another parameter which is not shown in the parameter list. If a control surface supports switching to Global View, it will also allow you to define which Objects to display. The Track Mixer window contents automatically follow the state of the Global View buttons. It also sets Object filters in accordance with the Object classes activated in Global View.  Arrange— Arrange View is similar to Mixer View, with one exception: Namely, if multiple tracks play back via the same Environment Object, all of these tracks will be displayed on separate channel strips. This is helpful when used in conjunction with the nudge commands, for example. The Hide button status is taken into account, with tracks hidden in the Arrange window also being hidden on the control surface. These modes are mutually exclusive, so if you’re in one View mode, you cannot be in the other. It is important to note that the Mixer vs. Global View modes is a property of the Control Surface Group, not a global setting. So one group can display busses, while the other shows tracks, for example. Mixer View Fader Bank This parameter affects the Track View mode by shifting channels by the defined amount. Imagine that your control surface has eight channel strips, and you were looking at audio tracks 1 to 8 in the Arrange window. These would appear as channels 1 to 8 on the control surface. Using the Mixer View Fader Bank parameter, you could offset this view by a defined number of channels, to see audio tracks 3 to 11, for example. Global View Fader Bank The Global View Fader Bank parameter performs much like the Mixer View Fader Bank, but only applies if multiple Object types are enabled. When single Object types are enabled, there are separate fader bank parameters (these aren’t displayed in the parameter list). Track/Channel Parameters The track or channel parameters define the behavior of a control surface’s channel/ track controls. Track Parameter Defines the current track assignment behavior for the encoders. Options are:  Volume—encoders adjust channel volume.  Pan—encoders adjust channel panorama position.  Mode—encoders adjust/select channel mode (mono/stereo). 22 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup  Input—encoders adjust/select channel input source.  Output—encoders adjust/select channel output (main outs/busses/surround).  Automation—encoders adjust/select channel automation mode.  Group—encoders adjust group membership of the track. Editing the parameter allows you to set either no group or a single group. Enabling membership of multiple groups is not possible here.  Displayed parameter—encoders adjust the automation parameter displayed in the Arrange window. This is especially useful if you set the control surface to Arrange View mode, and your Arrange window shows multiple sub-tracks with various parameters. Surround Parameter Defines the default pan/surround assignment behavior for the encoders. Options are:  Angle— encoders adjust surround angle.  Diversity—encoders adjust surround diversity (direction).  LFE—encoders alter LFE level.  Mode—encoders switch between the various surround formats.  X—encoders adjust surround x position.  Y—encoders adjust surround y position.  Center—encoders adjust the Center Level values of a surround output channel. Note: The X and Y parameters are a different representation of the Angle and Diversity parameters, and thus are independent from them. The X and Y parameters support the use of surround joysticks. EQ Band The EQ Band parameter allows you to select the current EQ band, if you wish to edit a particular Channel EQ or Linear Phase EQ parameter for all tracks in the EQ Multi Channel View. EQ Parameter This parameter determines which parameter of the selected EQ Band is edited by the encoders in EQ Multi Channel View:  Frequency—encoders determine the frequency of the selected band.  Gain—encoders change the gain of the selected EQ band. For the Low Cut (band 1) and High Cut (band 8) bands of the Channel and Linear Phase EQ, this parameter controls the slope.  Q—encoders change the Q factor of the selected band.  On/Off—encoders bypass the selected EQ band. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 23 EQ Parameter Page The EQ Parameter Page parameter defines the EQ parameter displayed in the EQ Channel Strip View. To explain: The Channel and Linear Phase EQs feature 8 bands per audio channel, with each band offering four parameters. All of these parameters can be accessed with your control surface. If you use a control surface that does not display all EQ parameters at once, you need to step through the parameter “pages.” As an example: Imagine you are using an eight channel control surface. You can directly affect parameters 1 to 8 with knobs/sliders 1 to 8—once you’ve switched to EQ Channel Strip Edit View. You then need to switch by a “page” to access parameters 9 to 16. Send/Plug-in Parameters These parameters define how your control surface controls send and plug-in parameters. Send Slot The Send Slot parameter determines the currently selected Send slot. Normally, a value of 1 would be used, as this accesses the first (top) Send on each channel. A value of 2 accesses the second Send, and so on, to Send 8. The Send slots are accessed by pressing the Up/Down buttons on your control surface—if applicable. Send Parameter Defines the Send parameter (to be edited with the encoders) when in the Send Multi Channel view:  Destination:—encoder is used to determine the bus channel number for the Send slot.  Level—encoder is used to adjust the Send level.  Position—encoders set Pre or Post fader modes.  Mute—encoders mute/unmute the selected Send slot. Send Parameter Page Much like the EQ parameters, up to 32 parameters are available in Send Channel Strip View for a given channel (Eight Send slots multiplied by the four parameters listed above). Send Parameter Page determines the current page for these parameters. Split: no. of upper parameters Control surfaces that support split mode allow the display of two separate parameter sections within one plug-in (or even different plug-ins). They are called Split Upper and Split Lower. 24 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup This parameter defines how many encoders belong to Split Upper, leaving the remaining encoders to Split Lower. A value of 0 means that Split Mode is off—with all encoders assigned to the Split Upper area. Instrument Parameter Page The Instrument Parameter Page option determines the parameter (counted from 1) which is assigned to the left-most encoder when editing an Audio Instrument. The next Instrument parameter is assigned to encoder 2, and so on. This applies to Split Upper when Split Mode is enabled. Inst Parameter Page (Split Lower) As above, but for Split Lower. Insert Slot Determines the current Insert slot number for both selecting a plug-in (in Plug-in Channel Strip View) and editing its parameters. A value of 1 accesses the first (top) plugin slot on each channel. A value of 2 accesses the second plug-in slot, and so on. With Split Mode enabled, this applies to Split Upper. Insert Slot (Split Lower) As with Insert Slot, but for Split Lower. Plug-In Parameter Page As with Instrument Parameter Page, but for editing plug-ins. Having these parameters separate allows you to quickly switch between editing an instrument and an effect on a track, without the need to adjust the parameter page every time. With Split Mode enabled, this applies to Split Upper. Plug-In Parameter Page (Split Lower) As with Plug-In Parameter Page, but for Split Lower. Track Specifies the currently displayed track for Channel Strip Views. With Split Mode enabled, this applies to Split Upper. Track (Split Lower) As with Track, but for Split Lower. Track Lock When this parameter is set to “on,” selecting a track in Logic does not change the Track and Track (Split Lower) parameters. In other words, the control surface group continues to display the same track, independent from the currently selected track. When Track Lock is disabled, the control surface group automatically switches to the selected track, whenever a track is selected. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 25 Other Parameters The following section describes the Track Name Format, Parameter Page Shift Mode, Relative Change Mode, Mix Group and Group Parameter Page parameters. Track Name Format Changes the track name display to show the track name alone, or the track name, and its track number. As an example, a track named “Audio1” may actually be placed on track 12 in the Arrange window. When a value of #:Name is toggled, “Audio1” would be displayed as “12:Au1”. Parameter Page Shift Mode Defines whether the parameter is shifted by an entire “page” or by one parameter. Relative Change Mode This determines the behavior of controller assignments that features a relative value change mode (for example rotary encoders).  Coarse: the parameter can be adjusted in coarse steps.  Full: In this mode, a turn to the right sets the encoder to its maximum value. A turn to the left sets the encoder to its minimum value. The encoder also stops at its default value. As an example: When the Pan knob is somewhere left of center, turning the encoder to the right will initially set the Pan parameter to its center (default value) position, with a further right-turn setting the full right (maximum value) position.  Fine: the value is incremented/decremented in fine steps—by one tick or “unit,” for example. In this mode, the standard adjustable resolution is ignored, and the highest possible resolution is used. As an example, using the Sample Delay parameter: every encoder rotation tick in/decreases the value by 1 ms, regardless of the resolution value. Note: Coarse is the default mode. Mix Group When in Group Edit mode, this parameter defines the edited group. Group Parameter Page As with the Instrument Parameter Page, but for the parameters of the edited group. 26 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Control Surface Preferences The Control Surface preferences window is accessible via the Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Preferences menu. Note: You can also use the global Control Surfaces Preferences key command. General The following section outlines the General control surface preferences. Resolution of Relative Controls This defines the default resolution of controls that change values in a relative manner. The default is 128 steps. As an example: adjusting the Sample Delay (value range 0 to 4000 ms) in/decreases the value by 40 ms with every encoder rotation “tick,” if resolution is set to 100. Maximum MIDI Band Width This slider determines the maximum amount of MIDI bandwidth that can be used by your control surface. By default, this is set to 50%, which should be suitable for most situations. You can adjust the value if you find that your MIDI or automation playback is being affected. Touching fader selects track Activation of this parameter will automatically select the track that corresponds to the selected fader. You require a device that features touch-sensitive faders for this functionality to work. Jog resolution depends on horizontal zoom If your control surface features a jog/shuttle wheel (or similar), the precision of any scrubbing is affected by the horizontal zoom level of Logic. To retain a consistent resolution, regardless of Logic window zoom levels, disable this checkbox. Pickup Mode If your control surface does not feature motorized faders and knobs, parameter changes—caused by playing back existing automation—are not reflected on its surface. Such control surfaces usually offer a Pickup mode. In Pickup mode, the current value must be reached (“picked up”) by the control surface before a value change can occur. This prevents sudden “jumps” of parameter values after parameter changes caused by playing back automation. A display (usually a pair of LED’s) will indicate the direction/ distance you need to move the controller to match (also known as “NULL”) the settings shown in Logic. Once you have matched the onscreen values, deactivate Pickup mode, and start automating. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 27 When the Pickup mode option is disabled, adjusting a fader modifies the parameter immediately. Multiple Controls per Parameter These parameters determine whether one, or multiple, encoders are used per parameter when editing plug-ins or audio instruments. When multiple encoders are used per parameter, the encoders are subdivided into groups (for example 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8). The first encoder of each sub-division controls the parameter shown in the display. The remaining encoder(s) are inactive. Using more than one encoder per parameter shows fewer parameters at any given time, but you gain space on the LCD to cater for longer parameter names and values. The more control surfaces you have within a Control Surface Group, the more you benefit from this feature. The Multiple controls per parameter pull-down menu defines the maximum number of encoders which will be used for a single parameter.  1: Parameters are always displayed using one encoder per parameter, with the least space available for parameter name and value in the LCD.  2: On each unit, encoders 1 and 2 are used for the first parameter, encoders 3 and 4 for the second, and so on.  4: On each unit, encoders 1 to 4 are used for the first parameter, encoders 5 to 8 for the second, and so on. Only when all Parameters fit in one Page When this option is checked, the defined number of encoders are only used when there are sufficient encoders available to show all parameters without changing pages. As an example:  You have a Logic Control and two Logic Control XTs, providing you with 24 encoders.  A plug-in with 13 parameters will be shown with one encoder per parameter. Eleven encoders will remain unused.  A plug-in with 11 parameters will be shown with two encoders per parameter. Two encoders will remain unused (as will the inactive encoders of the abovementioned sub-divisions). When the option is unchecked, multiple encoders are used for each parameter, which may require scrolling. This would not be the case if only one encoder was used for each parameter. 28 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Show Value Units For: Allows you to adjust whether parameter values will be appended by the measurement “unit,” where applicable—“Hz” or “%”, for example. You can set this option separately for Instrument / Plug-in parameters and Volume and other parameters. If you can do without the value units, the display is less cluttered. Controller Assignments The Controller Assignments button launches the Controller Assignments Editor. Setup The Setup button launches the Control Surfaces Setup window. Help Tags Control Surfaces that offer freely programmable displays with more than six characters per line/segment of the display, can use Control Surfaces Help Tags. These Help Tags are similar to Logic Help Tags, showing additional information during use. You can determine the type of information displayed in the Help Tags pane of the Control Surfaces preferences. While Editing Show Long Names For:  Parameter Name—While editing a parameter, the upper LCD line displays the full parameter name, rather than an abbreviated form of it.  Parameter Value—While editing a parameter, the lower LCD line displays the full parameter value. If the Show value unit for parameter box (see below) is checked, it will be appended by the measurement unit, where applicable—“dB”, “Hz” or “%”. Note: The following options only have an effect if at least one of the two parameters above is active. Display duration (s) Use the mouse to adjust the time that parameter names and values remain on the LCD display, following selection/adjustments. Allow multiple info This determines the behavior when you edit multiple parameters simultaneously. When enabled: the long name info remains in the display, until the most recently edited parameter’s display times out. This may cause overlapping text. When disabled: the long name display is only shown for the most recently edited parameter. This can cause flicker. Show info when selecting tracks When this option is checked, and you select a track, you will see “Selected” in the upper row, and the selected track’s name in the lower row of the LCD. You can disable this feature, if you find it disconcerting. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 29 Show info when editing volume When this option is checked, and you edit a track’s volume, you will see “Volume” in the upper row and the new volume value in the lower row. You can disable this feature, if you find it disconcerting. Show Value Units For: Allows you to adjust whether parameter values will be appended by the measurement “unit,” where applicable—“Hz” or “%”, for example. You can set this option separately for Instrument / Plug-in parameters and Volume and other parameters. If you can do without the value units, the display is less cluttered. Note: This parameter only applies while editing. Customizing Control Surfaces Logic allows you to reprogram existing assignments for supported control surfaces and to program new assignments for unsupported control surfaces. This facility allows you to extend the use of faders, knobs, and switches, either directly or through the use of modifier commands. As an example, The buttons F1 to F8 of the Logic Control are assigned to screensets 1 to 8 by default. When reassigned directly, or combined with the Shift, Option, Control, and Command modifiers (used in any combination), you can freely assign any command to these function keys (F1 to F8). To assign a MIDI control to a parameter: 1 Click the destination parameter that you want to “teach” Logic. 2 Activate Learn by pressing Command-L (default), or via the Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Learn Assignment for “xxx” menu option (the parameter name is appended to the menu item text). 3 The (small) assignment editor window is launched, with the Learn Mode button enabled.  If you continue to hold down the computer’s Command key (or whatever modifier key is assigned to the key command), a Help Tag will indicate what needs to be done next (move control, for example).  If MIDI messages are received while the Command key is held down, releasing the key closes the Help Tag window, and the learn procedure is completed. Note: If no MIDI messages are received, releasing the Command (modifier) key(s) leaves the Learn Mode button enabled, allowing you to immediately retry the generation of the intended control message. You will need to disable the Learn Mode button manually, once the procedure is completed. To abort the learn procedure: m Either press Command-L a second time, or click the Learn Mode button. 30 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup This will, however, result in a new, unfinished assignment. You can re-enable the Learn Mode button to assign a message. To delete a MIDI control assignment: 1 Click the destination parameter that you would like to delete. 2 Select the Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Delete Assignment for “xxx” menu option (the parameter name is appended to the menu item text), press the backspace key—or you may use the Edit > Clear menu option. To assign a control surface button to a key command: 1 Select the desired key command in the Key Commands window. 2 Click the Learn New Assignment button. 3 Press a control surface button that sends a MIDI message. Note: After about 5 ms, the Learn New Assignment button is automatically deactivated. This is designed to prevent recording of a button release message. It is also possible to assign a key command to a button/key release message: 1 Simply press and hold the desired button/key before you enable the Learn New Assignment button. 2 When you release the button/key, the selected key command is assigned to the button release message. To delete a key command assignment: 1 Select the desired key command in the Key Commands window. 2 Press the Backspace key. Changing an Existing Assignment The Learn procedure opens the Assignment Editor in Easy View, which offers an overview of the most important parameters, allowing you to tweak the newly-created assignment in the following ways:  Control Name (Learned for unsupported devices; name of control for supported devices).  Class (Track, for example).  Object (Fader Bank, for example).  Parameter (Volume or Plug-in parameter 5—relative to the parameter bank, for example).  Value Change message (Display only).  Mode (Direct, Toggle, Scaled, Relative, Rotate, X-OR).  For On/Off parameters, the mode is set to Toggle by default. Otherwise it is set to Scaled if an absolute control (fader, pot) has been recognized, or to Relative if an encoder has been recognized. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 31  Multiply, with shortcuts for +1 and –1 (–1 for decrementing). Note: For details on the abovementioned Assignment parameters read “Assignment Parameters” on page 35. For a full view of all parameters, enable the Expert View option. Shortcuts for Defining Multiple Assignments If you want to define multiple assignments in the Controller Assignment Editor, you can use the following shortcuts: Scenario 1: assign faders 1 to 16 to volume of tracks 1 to 16 1 Learn volume track 1 for fader 1. 2 Learn volume track 16 for fader 16. 3 As the track “distance” (15) is the same as the controller number distance for the two most recently learned assignments, a “Do you want to fill up in between?” message appears. Select OK to automatically fill the faders with corresponding Volume assignments for each track. Note: This feature also works for any other track parameter (Pan, Solo, Mute, and so on). Scenario 2: assign knobs 1 to 16 to plug-in parameters 1 to 16 1 Learn parameter 1 for knob 1. 2 Learn parameter 16 for knob 16. Note: The parameter enumeration is shown in the Plug-in window’s Control View. 3 As the gap between parameter numbers (15) is the same as the gap between controller numbers for the two most recently learned assignments, a “Do you want to fill up in between?” message appears. Select OK to automatically fill the knobs with corresponding Parameter assignments for each. Note: This feature also works for instrument parameters. Currently, this only works for knobs that send a single channel message, where the first data byte is the controller number and the second data byte is the value. Alternatively, the controller number can be encoded in the MIDI channel, with a fixed first data byte. Zones, Modes, and Assignments You can define “groups” of controls on a control surface that can be switched between different operating modes. As an example, the Logic Control rotary encoders can be used to control Pan, Send Level or plug-in parameters. Such “groups” are called Zones. The different operations that can be performed within a Zone are called Modes. A Zone contains one or more Modes, one of which is the active Mode. A Zone may also contain modeless assignments—assignments which are always active. 32 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup The reason for this structure is that you can place modeless assignments nearer to the modal assignments they are associated with. As an example, where pressing and releasing the Option button switches between two modes for the Function keys of an assignment. A Mode contains any number of assignments. Only the active Mode’s assignments are processed for incoming MIDI and feedback. Assignments of inactive Modes are ignored. A Zone’s active Mode can be switched by special Assignments (see below). There can be multiple Zones. As examples, one for the encoders and a second one that switches the F1 to F8 keys to different functions. Zones and Modes can be defined across multiple control surfaces, to create Control Surface Groups. You can visualize the Control Surface System as a hierarchical list. As an example: Zone 1  Modeless Assignment  Modeless Assignment  Mode 1  Modal Assignment  Modal Assignment  Mode 2 (active)  Modal Assignment  Modal Assignment  Modal Assignment  Modal Assignment  Mode 3  Modal Assignment Zone 2  Mode 4 (active)  Modal Assignment  Mode 5  Modal Assignment  Modal Assignment Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 33 Reassigning a Control If you want to reassign a control, the procedure depends on the current state of the control. Case 1: Control is currently active (an assignment for this control is part of an active Mode). If you attempt to learn an assignment for an “active” controller, the following message is displayed: “This control is currently assigned to xxx. Do you want to reassign the control?”  Cancel—Deletes the learned assignment.  Parallel assignment—Retains the new assignment. Typical usage: one knob controls multiple parameters as a macro.  Reassign—Deletes all existing active assignments for this parameter. Typical usage: reassigning an F1 to F8 key to a new key command.  Create new mode—Creates a new mode and places the assignment into the new mode. In this scenario, you will need to learn an assignment to switch between the old and new modes. Should you choose the latter option, the Controller Assignment Editor opens in Expert view, with the new mode selected, and a warning icon. If you move the mouse cursor over the icon, a Help Tag indicates that: “There is no mode change assignment yet to switch to this mode. Please click “Learn Mode Change” to create one.” Case 2: Control is currently inactive (an assignment for this control is part of an inactive mode). The learned assignment is moved to the active mode of the zone where the inactive assignment was found. Typical usage of this facility: Supported control surfaces have empty user pages available, allowing for new encoder assignments. You would select user mode, and then learn an assignment for the encoder. You can define multiple pages for a control surface. Cases 1 and 2 can occur simultaneously. Reassigning a Parameter Logic allows you to reassign a parameter that is already assigned to a MIDI control. The procedure depends on the current state of the assignment. Case 1: Assignment to a parameter that is currently active (as it is part of an active mode) If you attempt to change an existing “active” parameter assignment, the following message is displayed: “This destination parameter is currently assigned for control xxx. Do you want to reassign the parameter?” 34 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup  Cancel—Deletes the learned assignment.  Parallel assignment—Retains the new assignment. Typical usage: One knob controls multiple parameters as a macro.  Reassign—Deletes all existing active assignments for this parameter. Typical usage: Reassigning an F1 to F8 key to a new key command. Case 2: Assignment to a parameter is currently inactive If an assignment to a parameter is currently inactive (as it is part of an inactive mode), no special action is required. The Controller Assignments Editor The Controller Assignments Editor is opened via the Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Controller Assignments menu item. It allows you to edit all assignments of the Controller Assignments table. This table is a part of the Control Surfaces Preferences and is stored (along with all other control surface support settings) in the ~/Library/Preferences/com.apple.Logic.pro.cs file. The Controller Assignments Editor offers two view modes: Easy and Expert. The view modes can be switched via the Expert View option at the top of the window. Easy mode is designed to make learning Track parameter assignments as fast and efficient as possible. Therefore, this window only shows Track parameters—when first opened. After switching to Expert view and manually choosing another parameter class, the corresponding parameters are also shown in Easy view. It is generally recommended that Easy view is only used for Track parameter assignments. Easy mode offers an overview of the following parameters:  Parameter: Displays clear text of the addressed parameter.  Track (default): This field can be used to specify the track parameter you would like to assign. You can choose between the Selected option (which is the default, if creating assignments on the selected track) or a fixed track number (if you want to set up your controls as a mixer surface).  Input message: Displays the incoming message data. Note: For details on the abovementioned Assignment parameters read “Assignment Parameters” on page 35. For a full view of all parameters, enable the Expert View option. Only one set of assignment parameters are visible at a time. You can choose the desired assignment with the left/right arrows at the bottom of the window. If you activate the Follow option at the top of the Controller Assignments window, the window always selects the assignment that matches the most recently received incoming MIDI message. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 35 In Expert mode, there are four re-sizable columns:  Zone—Selects the Zone that contains the Modes and assignments being edited. The first entry “(No Zone)” is for zoneless assignments. Double-click a Zone name to edit it.  Mode—Selects the Mode that contains the assignments being edited. The first entry “(No Mode)” is for mode-less assignments. Double-click a Mode name to edit it. Selecting a Mode in the list also makes it the Zone’s active Mode. The active Mode is marked with an arrow.  Control/Parameter—Selects the assignment displayed in the editor to the right. Multiple selection is possible for operations in the Edit menu. In this scenario, however, only the first selected assignment is displayed. The left column displays the control name, the right column the controlled parameter (in an abbreviated form).  Assignment Parameters—Displays all parameters of an assignment. See the next section. If you activate the Follow option at the top of the Controller Assignment Editor, the window always selects the assignment that matches the most recently received incoming MIDI message. Assignment Parameters The following section covers all parameters that can be edited in the Controller Assignment Editor. Control Name Name of the control (Fader 1, for example). This is Learned by default for assignments created with the Learn function (see above) from supported control surfaces. This name is for information purposes only and has no influence on functionality. Label Text displayed on control surfaces that feature a display (and are supported by a plugin). A @ character starts an escape sequence which acts as a placeholder for dynamically generated text. The escape sequence consists of three characters: @ and two additional characters: 36 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup First Character: Second Character: Example: “Send@s#” shows “Send1”, “Send2”, and so on. Flip Group When set (to any value other than “none”), this number defines a counterpart for Flip Mode. By setting a fader and an encoder to the same Flip Group, for example, they are coupled. To set “none,” enter 0. Exclusive Only for supported control surfaces: when the Exclusive checkbox is enabled, the assignment deactivates all other assignments that have Exclusive disabled (for the same control). This limits the overwriting of a modeless assignment to particular modes. Example: Faders normally control volume. If you want to create a mode where faders control send level, enable Exclusive. Class This pop-up menu can be used to define the assignment class or, put another way, what type of destination parameter is controlled. The following section explains all available Class options. Character Meaning t Track r Surround s Send slot S All Sends e EQ band E all EQs p Plug-in Insert slot i Instrument Character Meaning # Number of above (track number, Send slot, EQ band, Plug-in slot) n Name of above p Name of parameter addressed by the assignment P Name of first parameter o Parameter offset, counted from 1 O Maximum parameter offset, counted from 1 b Parameter bank (= parameter offset/bank size), counted from 1 B total number of banks (= parameter offset/bank size), counted from 1 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 37 Mode Change The Mode Change option allows you to use an assignment to activate a mode in a Zone. An additional Mode pop-up menu appears below the Class menu, offering different Modes you can switch to. As an example: The Assignment buttons on a Logic Control choose several Modes for the encoders. Note: The Mode that is recalled also depends on the option set in the Value section’s Mode menu (See “Mode” on page 43.). The following table explains how the different Value Modes take effect. Global The Global option allows you to use an assignment to control global parameters. An additional Global pop-up menu appears below the Class menu, offering the parameters listed in the following table. Value Mode option Explanation Direct The stated Mode is activated in the Zone it belongs to. It is not necessary for the Mode Change assignment to be located in the same Zone. Example: While Shift is held down, button X switches the encoders to EQ view. The Shift and X buttons are in Zone A, but the encoders are in Zone B. All other value modes: Only the Modes of the Zone the Mode Change assignment is located in can be recalled. The destination parameter minimum is this Zone’s first Mode, and the maximum is the Zone’s last Mode. Toggle A button might toggle between the Zone’s first Mode and the stated Mode Relative Useful for stepping up and down through Modes of a Zone using two buttons, or for choosing a mode using an encoder. Rotate Useful for stepping through all modes using a single button. A jog wheel, for example: Off → Scrub → Shuttle → Off Global Options Explanation SPL Song Position Line; Text feedback in format of foreground window (beats or time code) SPL (Beats) Song Position Line; Text feedback in beats format SPL (Time Code) Song Position Line; Text feedback in time code format SPL (Beats, Scrubbing) Song Position Line; Text feedback in beats format. Value change does not set SPL directly, but initiates scrubbing. The value defines the scrubbing speed Move Locators Moves left and right locators Left Locator Sets left locator Right Locator Sets right locator Move Drop Moves Drop In and Drop Out locators Drop In Locator Sets Drop In locator Drop Out Locators Sets Drop Out locator 38 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Note: All options listed in the table above work only in relative mode. See the “Clock Part” sub-parameter. Dependent of the option chosen in the Global menu, you have access to the following two additional parameters:  Clock Part—Chooses the resolution of the parameter change: Bar, Beat, Format, Ticks, Cycle Length  Marker No—Determines the destination marker number Marker Position Edits position of current marker Marker Length Edits length of current marker Global Options Explanation Global Options Explanation Nudge selected Regions/Events Nudges the selected Regions or events by the chosen Nudge Value (see below) Any Solo Feedback only, used for “Rude Solo Light”. On if any Solo (track or Region) switch is enabled Nudge Value Nudge Value used for Nudge selected Regions/Events. Possible values are: Tick, Format, Beat, Bar, Frame, 1/2 Frame Scrub Status Sets the scrubbing status for parameter SPL (beats, scrubbing). Possible values are: set clock, audio scrubbing, Shuttle Automation of all tracks Sets the automation mode of all tracks. Possible values are: Off, Read, Touch, Latch, Write, MIDI Alert Text, Alert Button, Alert Icon Used by plug-ins to define special alert mode. Dummy No function; Used to temporarily disable a modeless assignment, using “Exclusive” Cycle Sets Cycle mode Drop Sets Drop mode Go to Marker Sets the SPL to marker number Group Clutch Sets the Automation Group Clutch; Automation Groups are disabled when the Clutch is enabled. For buttons, set the Group Clutch to 1 when the button is pressed, and set it to 0 when the button is released Active Sense Used by the HUI to process incoming “Active Sensing” messages Shuttle Speed Sets Shuttle Speed directly; Use for shuttle rings that send an absolute value Waveform Zoom Sets Waveform zoom in active Arrange window, if open and in foreground Quantize value Sets the Quantize value in the current window (if this parameter is available) Format Sets the Format value in the current window (if this parameter is available) Horizontal Zoom Sets horizontal zoom in the current window (if this parameter is available) Vertical Zoom Sets vertical zoom in the current window (if this parameter is available) Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 39 Track The Track option allows you to use an assignment to set a track parameter. An additional Track pop-up menu appears below the Class menu, offering the parameters listed in the following table. If you choose the Fader Bank, Index, Bus, Output, or Master option in the Track pop-up menu, the following two parameters are also available:  No.—A 0-based offset which is added to the track number. Typical usage: Fader 1 uses offset 0, Fader 2 uses offset 1 and so on.  Parameter—Clear text of the addressed parameter. Can only be set by the Learn Assignment for xxx menu item. Note that for plug-in and instrument parameters, Parameter Page offsets apply, allowing you to shift the parameter addressing up and down. Key If you choose the Key option in the Class menu, a key press is emulated. A field appears below the Class menu, allowing you to input the desired key. Key Command If you choose the Key Command option in the Class menu, a key command is executed. A field appears below the Class menu, where the key command that should be executed is displayed. Some key commands provide on/off or enabled/disabled feedback. This can only be set by using the Learn New Assignment button in the Key Commands window. Track Options Explanation Fader Bank This addresses a track in the Control Surface Group’s current View mode (Mixer, Global, Arrange), depending on the Control Surface Group’s current Fader Bank value for this Mode (see below). Example: The View mode is Mixer, the Mixer view Fader Bank is five, and the number next to this parameter is two. Thus, the eighth track in the Mixer view is addressed (Fader Bank and No. are 0-based, so add 1) Selected This normally corresponds to the selected Arrange track. Exception: if the Control Surface Group’s Track Lock parameter is enabled, then “Selected” corresponds to the track that was selected when Track Lock was enabled Index Same as Fader Bank option, but doesn’t depend on the current Fader Bank value Bus An Audio Bus. No. defines which Bus is addressed (again: 0-based; to address Bus 2, use a value of 1) Output Same as Bus option, but for Output Objects Master The Master Output Object; If it does not exist in the song, the first Output Object is addressed 40 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup If you want your key command assignment to be repeatedly executed, enable the Key Repeat checkbox at the bottom of the Key Command Assignments Editor. For further information, see “Key Repeat Checkbox” on page 44. Control Surface Group If you choose the Control Surface Group option in the Class menu, you can set a property for the Control Surface Group that the assignment belongs to. A Parameter menu appears below the Class menu, where you can choose between the options described in “Control Surface Group Parameters” on page 19, with the additions listed in the following table. Note: Assignments for unsupported control surfaces always belong to the first Control Surface Group. If you choose a Fader Bank or Parameter Page option in the Parameter menu, the following Bank Type options are also available.  By One—The fader bank or parameter page is shifted by one track or parameter.  By Bank—The fader bank or parameter page is shifted by the number of displayed tracks or parameters.  CS Group Setting—The fader bank or parameter page is shifted by the value defined by the “Parameter Shift Mode” Control Surface Group Parameter. Parameter Option Additional Info Current Mode Fader Bank Maps to the Fader Bank for the currently used View mode (Mixer, Global, Arrange). This way, you need only one assignment per left/right button for all View Modes. Global View Filter When this parameter is selected, eight additional switches for the eight object classes are displayed when the View mode is Global. Depending on the Value Mode, these switches define which objects are displayed (by using “Direct” mode) or which are toggled (by using “X-OR” mode). MIDI Tracks Fader Bank; Inputs Fader Bank; Audio Tracks Fader Bank; Instruments Fader Bank; Aux Fader Bank; Busses Fader Bank; Output Fader Bank; User Fader Bank; These Fader Bank parameters are used in Global View when only one object class is displayed. This way, you can switch between several object classes while retaining the current Fader Bank for each class. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 41 Automation Group If you choose the Automation Group option in the Class menu, you can use the assignment to set an automation group parameter. A Parameter Group field that allows you to determine the edited group appears below the Class menu. Current (entered with “0”) means the group selected in the Automation Group Control Surface Group parameter. The additional Parameter menu allows you to set the automation group parameter. For further information, see the Group Settings section in the Logic Pro 7 Reference Manual. MIDI Input Incoming MIDI messages are only processed on MIDI Input. When this parameter is changed, all other assignments using the same input will also have their input changed accordingly. If the assignment belongs to a supported control surface, the device’s MIDI Input will also change in the Setup window. This feature allows you to create default assignments for a new control surface, which other users can use immediately. To do so, they simply need to place your com.apple.Logic.cs preferences file into their Preferences folder, open the Controller Assignments Editor and change one assignment’s MIDI Input parameter in accordance with their MIDI setup. Value Change The incoming MIDI message(s) that cause a value change in the destination parameter are displayed here. To edit these MIDI messages, switch to the Expert View by activating the corresponding checkbox in the upper right corner of the Controller Assignments Editor. In the Expert View you’ll find two fields: the lower one is only a display that shows the Value Change message in plain text. The upper field display allows the messages to be viewed and edited as a sequence of bytes, displayed in hexadecimal. There are placeholders for the variable part:  Lo7: Low 7 bits of the value  Hi7: High 7 bits of the value If there is only a Lo7 placeholder in the message, the value is treated as 7 bit. If there is also a Hi7 placeholder, the value is treated as 14 bit. The order of Lo7 and Hi7 is honored, and there may be constant bytes in between. This allows you to define Control Change LSB and MSB portions. As an example: B0 08 Hi7 B0 28 Lo7 Note: When entering multiple MIDI messages, do not use Running Status. Always write down the entire MIDI message(s), ensuring that you repeat the status byte, even if it’s the same. 42 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup If the message does not contain Lo7 or Hi7 placeholders, an incoming value of 1 is assumed. This is typical for pressed or released buttons. Also see the “Multiply” section below. Touch/Release The incoming MIDI message(s) causes a change in the touched/released status of the destination parameter. A non zero value means touched; a value of 0 means released. The messages are displayed and entered in the same way as the Value Change field (see the “Value Change” section above). Note: This only applies to the Track assignment class and parameters that can be automated. Min/Max Defines the minimum and maximum range for incoming values represented by Lo7 and Hi7. Typically, the full range of 0–127 is used, but some control surfaces may use the same message with different value ranges for different controls (CM Labs Motor Mix, for example). Format Defines the way negative values are encoded in the 7-bit portions sent over MIDI. You can choose between the following options:  Unsigned—No negative values are possible. The full 7 or 14 bit range is treated as a positive number. This results in a value range of 0 to 127 or 0 to 16383.  2's complement—If the most significant bit is set, the value is negative. To obtain the absolute value, invert all bits and add 1. This results in a value range of –128 to 127 or –8192 to 8191.  1's complement—If the most significant bit is set, the value is negative. To set the absolute value, invert all bits. Note that this allows two possible encoding values for zero. This results in a value range of –127 to 127 or –8191 to 8191.  Sign Magnitude—If the most significant bit is set, the value is negative. To set the absolute value, clear the most significant bit. Note that this allows two possible encoding values for zero. This results in a value range of –127 to 127 or –8191 to 8191. The appropriate format that should be used is usually documented in your control surface user manual. If unavailable, check the control surface manufacturer’s website, or contact them via phone. Multiply Allows the incoming value to be scaled. Especially useful for button presses that have a value of 1. Examples: to set the automation mode to Write, set Multiply to 4.00 and Mode to Direct. To decrement a parameter by 1 with a button press, set Multiply to −1.00 and Mode to Relative. The 1 and –1 menu items in the combo box’s menu conveniently enter the most commonly used values of 1 and –1 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 43 Mode Defines the way the incoming value modifies the current parameter value. You can choose between the following parameters:  Direct—The incoming value is the new parameter value.  Toggle—If the parameter’s current value is 0, it is set to the incoming value. Otherwise it is set to 0. This option is useful for buttons which toggle a value: Mute, Solo, and so on.  Scale—The incoming value is scaled from its value range to the destination parameter’s value range. Most useful for faders and rotary pots.  Relative—The incoming value is added to the parameter’s current value. Used by encoders, but also for buttons that increment/decrement by a certain amount (set by the Multiply parameter).  Rotate—The incoming value is added to the parameter’s current value, cycling between maximum and minimum values. This is useful for button presses that cycle between modes: automation mode, for example.  X-OR—The value defines a bit mask which is applied to the parameter’s current value with the “exclusive or” Boolean operation. Useful for enabling/disabling single Object types in Global View. Feedback Defines the way the parameter’s current value is displayed on the control surface. You can choose between the following options:  None—No feedback is sent.  Single Dot/Line—LED rings: only one LED; LCDs: a single vertical line.  Left to Right Bar—A bar from the minimum to the current value.  Right to Left Bar—A bar from the current value to the maximum.  Q/Spread—A bar from the center to the current value.  Ascending Bar LCDs—A bar from the bottom to the current value.  Descending Bar LCDs—A bar from the top to the current value.  Text Only—LED rings: no feedback; LCDs: no feedback as a graphic element.  Automatic—Dependent on the currently assigned parameter, the most suitable feedback mode is used: Plug-in and Instrument parameters carry this information, Pan uses Single Dot/Line, all other parameters use Left to Right Bar. Note: Feedback only works for supported control surfaces, and not all settings are available for all controls. Text Feedback Checkbox If enabled, a textual representation of the current value is sent to the control surface’s display. The plug-in determines the display position and number of characters that are used. 44 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Local Feedback (Fader/Knob) Checkbox If enabled, no feedback is sent while the parameter is in Touched mode. This prevents motorized faders from “fighting” against the user. Key Repeat Checkbox When you enable the Key Repeat checkbox, the assignment is repeatedly executed. The Key Repeat Rate slider—set in the Mac OS X Keyboard & Mouse preferences— determines how quickly Logic repeats the assignment. The duration that the button/ controller must be held for, before the assignment is repeated, is set with the Delay Until Repeat slider in the Keyboard & Mouse preferences. Example: This facility is particularly useful for the zoom function: If you assign a key repeat command to the Zoom buttons on the Logic Control, for example, you can simply hold down the Zoom In button. Logic will zoom in until the Zoom In button is released. This mirrors the behavior of the Zoom key commands. In earlier versions, you had to repeatedly press the (Logic Control) Zoom buttons to zoom in/out more than one level. Note: The Key Repeat checkbox is only available for key commands, key presses and relative value changes. If any other assignment class is selected, the checkbox is dimmed. Logic Pro factory key command assignments already support the Key Repeat function (if useful and/or applicable to the control surface/device)—making changes unnecessary for use of this new functionality. If you want to enable the Key Repeat function for your own assignments, you may need to use the re-learn option for the assigned message. Key Repeat messages must include the Lo7 byte, which provides information on the up (released) or down (pressed) state of the assigned button. Logic guides you through the re-learning process: The current MIDI message is automatically cleared, Learn mode is activated, and a Help tag prompts you to send the desired MIDI message. Releasing the assigned button—after learning the MIDI message—automatically creates the Lo7 byte, and assigns the Lo7 value for the button release message to the Min parameter. The Lo7 value for the „button pressed“ message is automatically assigned to the Max parameter. Typically, the value range of 1–127 is used for the button pressed message. The zero (0) value is generally used for button released. Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup 45 Note: Some control surfaces may use different value ranges (CM Labs MotorMix, for example). Assigning the used value range to the desired Min and Max values ensures that key repeat also works with such devices. This, however, also means that you need to take care when manually changing the Min or Max value for a key command (in cases where the Min and Max values do not match the button on and button release (off ) states, the complete assignment will not work). Please consult your control surface manual for further information about the values used. About Modal Dialogs All modal dialogs (except file selector boxes) are shown on control surfaces that feature text displays. Modal dialogs do not allow you to perform actions in any other window when visible. As examples, authorization warnings, edit confirmations, or error messages. When these windows “pop up” on-screen, the upper LCD row (if applicable) shows the first part, or all, of the alert text. If the dialog text does not fit into the LCD’s upper row, it will start scrolling after three seconds. You can scroll the dialog text manually with the appropriate control (see assignment tables in the appropriate chapter). Once you start doing so, automatic scrolling is disabled.  If there is an Enter or OK button on the control surface, it triggers the dialog’s default button, where applicable.  If there is a Cancel or Exit button on the control surface, it triggers the button labeled Cancel or Abort, where applicable.  All buttons (push buttons, including Enter/default and Cancel, as well as checkboxes and radio buttons, but not pop-up buttons) are shown in the display’s lower row. Pressing a control surface button below the display triggers the appropriate button/ function in the dialog, if applicable. Following use of the Enter/Cancel button on the control surface or with the mouse, the dialog will disappear, and all controls and displays will return to their previous state. When a file select box is onscreen, a There is a file select dialog on the screen message appears on the LCD or other display (if applicable to your control surface). 46 Chapter 1 Control Surface Setup Tips Control surfaces change the way you use Logic, and are most effective if you make a few small modifications to your working methods. The following collection of hints will help you to work more smoothly and efficiently with your control surface/Logic system. Customize your Template/Autoload Songs  Set up Screensets 1–7 to your liking. These can be accessed directly with some control surfaces (on a Logic/Mackie Control—via Function Keys—F1 to F7. Function Key 8 (F8) will close the top-most window).  It is recommended that a full-screen Arrange window, with Track Automation View set to on, is among your Screensets.  A full-screen Track Mixer window is also recommended. Make Use of Markers Not much more can be said. Markers allow you to quickly navigate from location to location in a project. Most control surfaces feature a number of shortcuts that allow you to rapidly switch between Markers. Markers are very useful for the creation/selection of Cycle areas and a number of other tasks, such as Drop In and Replace. If you tend to follow a particular song structure, or like to work with a particular number of bars (4, 8, 16 bars, and so on) for verse and chorus sections, then set up a number of Markers at suitable locations in your Template/Autoload songs. Always use Projects As soon as Logic is launched, and the desired Template or Autoload song is loaded, you should routinely create a new project folder, and name it. This will provide a default folder structure/file path that contains the song file and all audio files associated with the project. You can also choose to include plug-in Settings files, video files, Space Designer IR files and EXS Instruments into your Project folder, if desired. The button assigned to Save operations on your control surface will open the File Save dialog. Once the project/song has been saved once, pressing the “Save” button will incrementally save the project without launching the File Save dialog window. 2 47 2 Logic Control This chapter will introduce you to using Logic with a Logic/ Mackie Control unit. The Logic Control and Mackie Control Universal units are functionally identical. All information in this chapter (as appropriate for the device) applies to the Mackie Control Universal, the Mackie Extender, and the C4. To use Logic with a Logic/Mackie Control unit, you need:  a Logic/Mackie Control unit.  Logic Pro 7.1, or newer. Set Up A powered Logic/Mackie Control unit will be automatically detected when Logic Pro is launched. You can use the Logic/Mackie Control in an independent control surface group (with other control surface icons placed above/below the Logic/Mackie Control icon), or combined into one control surface group with one or more control surfaces (such as Logic/Mackie Control XT or C4 units—place the icon(s) to the right of the existing icon(s). Foot Switches The foot switch sockets can use momentary foot pedals with either a positive or negative polarity. By default:  USER SWITCH A is assigned to Start/Stop.  USER SWITCH B is assigned to Record (note that a track must be selected and armed for recording to take place),  EXTERNAL CONTROL is assigned to the MASTERfader level. Only use an expression pedal with this socket. 48 Chapter 2 Logic Control The polarity of the foot switches is determined by the Logic Control when powered up. As such, you should first connect the foot switches, then turn the power on. Topics in this chapter are broken down into “Zones” of the Logic Control surface. The Displays The Logic Control features four displays, in addition to LEDs associated with individual switches:  Main LCD  Assignment LED  Song Position/SMPTE Time display  Solo LED The following section discusses these displays. LCD Assignment display Time display V-Pots Rec Rdy, Solo, Mute, and Select buttons Faders Jog Cursor buttons Wheel Transport Control buttons Assignment buttons Display buttons Channel buttons Function keys Chapter 2 Logic Control 49 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Each channel/parameter can be indicated by a name or value. In general, the upper row of each channel/parameter will display an abbreviated form of the track name, and the lower row will display the (abbreviated) parameter name and/or value. In some modes, a long (full, in other words) parameter or other name will be displayed briefly on-screen, when adjusted. The display of long names, and the duration of this display, is set in the Control Surfaces preferences. These settings are discussed in the Logic Reference manual. Note: 8-bit ASCII characters such as curly quotes and umlaut characters are replaced by the best-possible 7-bit ASCII equivalent. As examples: ä = ae, ö=oe, ü=ue, á = a, ø = oe, oe = oe, ß = ss, å = a. Assignment LED (Mode Display) The Logic/Mackie Control features a two digit, seven-segment LED display which indicates the current assignment status (also referred to as the mode display). A period is shown at the bottom-right of the display whenever a Channel Strip view is active. Song Position/SMPTE Time Display The Logic/Mackie Control includes a multi-digit, seven-segment LED. It is accompanied by two small LEDs which provide a quick visual indication of the currently active display format: SMPTE or BEATS. When BEATS mode is selected, the Position/Time Display is divided into four segments, separated as follows: Bars/Beats/Sub Divisions/Ticks When SMPTE mode is selected, the Position/Time Display is divided into four segments, separated as follows: Hours/Minutes/Seconds/Frames The display format can be viewed in a number of ways. This can be altered in the Display preferences. Solo LED This LED indicates that either: an audio track is set to solo, or the track solo mode is enabled. It is a helpful visual aid in situations where a track has been soloed and the fader bank has been shifted—making the soloed track’s Solo LED invisible on the control surface. 50 Chapter 2 Logic Control The Channel Strip(s) As each channel strip is identical, the information discussed in this section applies equally to all eight channel strips on the Logic Control and Logic Control XT units. V-Pot/V-Select This “soft” potentiometer can be used to adjust the send level and pan, plus any other parameter for EQ, instruments, effects, and so on. The V-Pot can also be used to scroll through and choose items—such as plug-ins, Audio Instruments and more—from menus, and to determine destinations for sends. The V-Pot also contains an integrated V-Select push button. This button generally sets a “default” parameter value (where a parameter has more than two possible values), or switches between two parameter values (on/off ). The V-Select can also be used to activate a function, selected through use of the V-Pot. As an example, the V-Pot can be rotated in order to select an effect plug-in for a particular channel Insert slot. Once the desired effect is displayed in the LCD, a simple press downwards on the top of the VPot will activate the V-Select button. In the example given, this would select, and insert, the effect and launch the Plug-in window. On occasion, the V-Select is used to switch to a special Assignment mode. The current value of any parameter being adjusted by the V-Pot is displayed on the LCD (dependent on the Name/Value setting), and is also indicated by the ring of LEDs which surround it. The various LED “ring” displays are shown here: This will vary as follows, dependent on the selected parameter:  Connected series of LED segments from left to right (send level, for example)  Single segment (panorama or frequency, for example)  Connected series of LED segments, starting in the center position and fanning to the left or right (EQ gain, for example)  Series of connected LED segments, starting in the center position and fanning to the left and right (Q-Factor, for example)  An LED dot below the V-Pot indicates the centered/default position of the parameter Chapter 2 Logic Control 51 Holding down the x/ALT button sets the V-Pots to high resolution parameter adjustment (fine) mode, where applicable. Holding down the OPTION button, and turning the V-Pot, switches between the minimum, default, and maximum parameter value. Rec/Rdy (Record/Ready) Button This button arms or disables the channel for recording. Each channel features an independent Rec/Rdy LED which is lit when a track is armed for recording. Holding down the OPTION button, while pressing any channel’s REC/RDY button will disarm all tracks. In Global view, if you arm an audio channel which is currently not used by any track in the song, and then start recording, you will be asked if you want to create a new track with this audio channel in the current recording folder. Signal LED Indicates the presence of any outgoing MIDI or audio signal. When recording, the presence of an incoming signal will be indicated. SOLO Button For isolating a channel’s signal. Each channel features an independent Solo LED which illuminates when a track is soloed. The Rude Solo LED—just to the right of the Position/ Time Display LED—also illuminates whenever any track is soloed. Holding down the OPTION button, while pressing any channel’s SOLO button will disable solo for all tracks. 52 Chapter 2 Logic Control In the Send Destination/Level views (see “Send Assignment Modes” on page 61), the SOLO button controls the Pre/Post mode selection—in both Multi Channel and Channel Strip views. MUTE Button Used to defeat the track’s signal. Each channel features an independent Mute LED which illuminates when a track is muted. Holding down the OPTION button, while pressing any MUTE button will unmute all tracks. In the EQ Frequency/Gain and Send Destination/Level views, the MUTE button controls the EQ bypass or Send mute function. This affects both Multi Channel and Channel Strip views. SELECT Button This button is used to select a channel for channel-based editing or assignment commands. Each channel features an independent SELECT LED which illuminates when a track is selected. When holding down the SHIFT button, pressing any channel SELECT button will set the track’s volume to unity level (0 dB). While holding down SHIFT, a SELECT button’s LED indicates if the track’s volume is set to 0 dB. When holding down the OPTION button, pressing any channel SELECT button will create a new track (assigned to the same instrument of the selected track), and switch to Arrange view. When holding down the SHIFT and OPTION buttons, pressing any channel SELECT button will create a new track (with the next instrument, following the selected track), and switch to Arrange view. Chapter 2 Logic Control 53 Touch-Sensitive Motor Fader These 100 millimeter faders control channel levels. When Flip mode is activated, the parameter currently assigned to the V-Pot can be controlled with the fader. This allows you to more easily control pans, aux returns, MIDI track parameters, EQs, plug-in, Audio Instrument, or other channel parameter levels/values. Movement of the eight faders is relative to the activity of the currently chosen bank of on-screen faders. The fader bank is shifted when one of the FADER BANK buttons is pressed. Fader behavior in other modes  In Flip mode: duplicates or swaps with V-Pot of same channel.  In Surround Angle/Diversity view: adjusts surround diversity.  In EQ Frequency/Gain view: adjusts gain of selected EQ band.  In Send Destination/Level Multi Channel view: adjusts send level of selected send.  In Send Destination/Level Channel Strip view: adjusts send level of send on selected track. Changing Parameters and Values Individual parameters can be adjusted via the associated V-Pot (or fader, if the FLIP button is active), located directly below the parameter entry in the LCD. To do so, simply grab and turn the desired V-Pot. Once the required parameter value is visible in the LCD, simply release the knob. Press the V-Select button to set the default value (for parameters that have more than two values), or switch between two values (for parameters with only two possibilities, such as on/off ). 54 Chapter 2 Logic Control Some parameters require confirmation, such as the selection of plug-ins, Audio Instruments, sends, inputs, outputs, and so on. For these types of parameters, press the V-Select button (press down on the top of the V-Pot) to activate/select the desired value. In the case of a plug-in or Audio Instrument, this will automatically launch the Plug-in window in Logic. For a send, the confirmed channel send destination will be activated in the Logic mixer(s). When a value has been pre-selected, but not confirmed/instantiated (such as send destination, plug-in insertion and so on) the value will flash until the V-Select button is pressed. An exponential increase in value changes will occur as a V-Pot is rotated more quickly. The Assignment Zone The small light gray area just below the mode display contains six buttons. These ASSIGNMENT buttons work in both Track and Global view modes. View modes are discussed in “Track View Mode” on page 20. When these buttons are pressed, the mode display, plus the LED associated with each button, will update to reflect the currently selected assignment mode. The LCD will also update to display the parameters relevant to the selected assignment. These parameters are, of course, assigned to the corresponding V-Pots. All ASSIGNMENT buttons work as switches, which means that if you click them repeatedly, they will switch between the Multi Channel and Channel Strip view modes.  Multi Channel view—you see the same parameter for multiple channels. In Multi Channel view, the mode display does not show a period—Example: P1  Channel Strip view—you see multiple parameters for a single channel. In Channel Strip view, the mode display shows a period to the right—Example: P1. Switching between Multi Channel and Channel Strip views is achieved by pressing the selected ASSIGNMENT button multiple times. If you press an ASSIGNMENT button which is not currently selected, the Assignment mode changes, and the view switches to Multi Channel view. Exception: Switching between Instrument Edit view and Plug-in Edit view retains the Channel Strip view. Chapter 2 Logic Control 55 The NAME/VALUE button also has an effect on what is shown on the LCD when in the Multi Channel and Channel Strip views. More information can be found in “Display Zone” on page 71. Track Assignment Modes The TRACK button selects Assignment modes which allow the editing of a number of global track parameters. It switches between all displayed channels and the individual parameters of the selected channel (Track Multi Channel view or Track Channel Strip view). The parameters in Track Multi Channel view include: Volume, Pan, Track mode, Track Input, Track Output, and Automation. In Track Channel Strip view you will see an overview of the most important track parameters: Volume, Pan, Instrument, Insert 1, Insert 2, Send 1 Level, Send 2 Level, and Send 3 Level. Track Multi Channel View Track Multi Channel view allows you to edit a single “global” track parameter for all tracks: Volume, Pan, Track mode, Input, Output, or Automation. The parameter being edited will be displayed briefly when switching to this mode.  The mode display will show tr (for “Track”).  The upper LCD row shows track names. Pressing NAME/VALUE switches the display mode to show parameter values in the lower row: As these display variants can be switched in all Multi Channel Strip views, the following will only show displays in Value mode.  Turning the V-Pots changes the associated track parameter.  Pressing a V-Select sets the parameter to its default value.  Cursor Left/Right buttons switch to the next or previous track parameter. The selected parameter will be displayed briefly in the upper LCD row. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Audio5 Audio6 Audio7 Audio8 Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Audio5 Audio6 Audio7 Audio8 +0.1dB -1.8dB +01.dB -30.0 +0.0dB -50.2 -24.7 -1.2dB 56 Chapter 2 Logic Control Channel Strip View Track Channel Strip view allows you to edit all parameters listed above, for the selected track.  The mode display will show tr. (track channel strip).  The upper LCD row shows the name of the track and “Track parameters.” Pressing NAME/VALUE switches the display mode to show parameter names in the upper row and parameter values in the lower row: As these display variants can be switched in all Channel Strip views, the following will only show displays in Value mode.  V-Pot/V-Select 1—edits Volume. The lower LCD row shows the current track volumes, either in dB or numeric format, depending on the settings of the underlying Environment Objects.  V-Pot/V-Select 2—edits Pan position. The lower LCD row shows the current track pan value, ranging from minus 64 to plus 63. A value of 0 is the centered position. If Surround is selected as the Output value, this controls the Surround Angle.  V-Pot 3—selects the instrument of Audio Instrument tracks. Confirm with V-Select 3.  V-Pot/V-Select 4 and 5—selects the plug-in used in Insert slots 1 and 2 (on audio and Audio Instrument tracks). Confirm with V-Select.  V-Pot/V-Select 6 to 8—edits the Send Level of Sends 1 to 3. Holding SHIFT while pressing one of the MUTE or V-Select buttons switches between mute or bypass:  1 and 2—activates/deactivates the track’s Mute button.  3—activates/deactivates Mute of the Audio Instrument used on the track.  4 and 5—activates/deactivates Bypass of plug-ins used in Insert slots 1 and 2 (of Audio and Audio Instrument tracks).  6 to 8—activates/deactivates Mute of Sends 1 to 3. Shortcuts Menu Holding down the TRACK button accesses a further sub-menu in the LCD.  The mode display will show t_ (Track)  V-Select 1 or F1—switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Volume. Track 1 "Audio 1" Track parameters Volume Pan Inst Ins.1 Ins.2 Send 1 Send 2 Send 3 Volume Pan Inst Ins.1 Ins.2 Send 1 Send 2 Send 3 +0.5dB 0 ES2 Dstrtn AutFlt -54.0 -27.0 -oo dB Volume Pan TrkMod Input Output Auto Setup Chapter 2 Logic Control 57  The LCD’s lower line shows the current volume of the tracks, in dB or numerically, depending on the setting of the underlying Environment Object.  Turning a V-Pot changes the volume.  pressing a V-Select sets the volume to the default value.  V-Select 2 or F2—switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Pan.  V-Select 3 or F3—switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Track mode.  V-Select 4 or F4—switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Input.  V-Select 5 or F5—switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Output.  V-Select 6 or F6 —switches to Track Multi Channel view and selects Automation mode.  V-Select 7 or F7—switches to Track Multi Channel view and displays the automation parameter selected in the Arrange window. Also switches to Arrange view.  V-Select 8 or F8—switches to Track Setup Channel Strip view (see below). Track Setup Channel Strip View In this mode, rarely used parameters can be edited for the selected track.  V-Pot/V-Select 1—edits Track mode (mono, stereo, left, right).  V-Pot/V-Select 2—selects the Surround mode. Confirm with V-Select 2.  V-Pot/V-Select 3—selects the Track Input. Confirm with V-Select 6.  V-Pot/V-Select 4—selects the Track Output. Confirm with V-Select 7.  V-Pot/V-Select 5—edits Automation mode.  V-Pot/V-Select 6—edits track group membership. You can only choose one group or “Off.” To make a track a member of multiple groups, use Group Edit mode (see below). Pan/Surround Assignment Modes Briefly pressing the PAN/SURROUND button switches between Pan/Surround Multi Channel and Pan/Surround Channel Strip view. Multi Channel View Pan/Surround Multi Channel view allows you to edit one pan/surround parameter on all tracks: Angle or Pan (on non-surround tracks), Radius (diversity), LFE, Surround mode (on surround tracks). The parameter being edited will be displayed briefly when switching to this mode. Regardless of which surround parameter is selected and active, non-surround tracks always display the standard Pan control. In a song that contains both surround and non-surround tracks, you can edit a specified surround parameter for surround tracks, while the V-Pot of non-surround tracks will edit panning, as usual.  The mode display will show Pn (Pan).  The upper LCD row shows track names. 58 Chapter 2 Logic Control  Turning the V-Pots changes the pan/surround parameter.  The Surround Angle parameter rotates between 0 and 359 degrees, avoiding any angle limit.  Pressing a V-Select sets the parameter to its default value.  Cursor Left/Right switches to the next or previous surround parameter. The selected parameter will be displayed briefly in the upper LCD row. Channel Strip View Pan/Surround Channel Strip view allows you to edit all surround parameters for the selected track.  The mode display will show Pn. (Pan/Surround channel strip).  The upper LCD row shows the name of the track and “Pan/Surround.”  V-Pot/V-Select 1—edits angle (or pan on non-surround tracks).  V-Pot/V-Select 2—edits diversity.  V-Pot/V-Select 3—edits LFE level.  V-Pot 4—selects the surround mode. Confirm with V-Select 4.  V-Pot/V-Select 5—edits Surround X.  V-Pot/V-Select 6—edits Surround Y. The Angle/Diversity and X/Y pairs influence each other. Only the Angle/Diversity parameters are automated and recorded. Alternate Mode Options Holding down the PAN/SURROUND button accesses a further sub-menu in the LCD:  V-Select 1 or F1—switches to Pan/Surround Multi Channel view and selects angle.  V-Select 2 or F2—switches to Pan/Surround Multi Channel view and selects diversity.  V-Select 3 or F3—switches to Pan/Surround Multi Channel view and selects LFE level.  V-Select 4 or F4—switches to Pan/Surround Multi Channel view and selects surround mode.  V-Select 6 or F5—switches to Pan/Surround Channel Strip view.  V-Select 7 or F6—switches to Surround Angle/Diversity Multi Channel view:  the mode display will show Ad (Angle/Diversity). Track 1 "Audio 1" Pan/Surround SrrAng SrrDvr SrrLFE mode Angle Radius LFE mode CStrip Ang/Dv Chapter 2 Logic Control 59  the upper LCD row shows track names.  the lower LCD row shows the surround angle currently assigned to each track.  turning a V-Pot changes the surround angle (or adjusts pan position on nonsurround tracks).  pressing a V-Select sets the surround angle to its default value.  the faders edit surround diversity.  V-Select 8 or F7—switches to Surround X/Y Multi Channel view:  the mode display will show XY (X/Y—the X character is not available on a 7 segment display).  the upper LCD row shows track names.  the lower LCD row shows the surround X value currently assigned to each track.  turning a V-Pot changes the surround X value (or adjusts pan position on nonsurround tracks).  pressing a V-Select sets surround X to its default value.  the faders edit surround Y. Notes on Surround X/Y Editing X and Y have a value range of –1000 to + 1000, but the resolution is not that high, as surround positions are currently recorded as 7 bit data. Note: The X and Y parameters are limited to a rectangular coordinate system. As such, value pairs outside the surround circle are not possible. When trying to set a value which would lead to an invalid position, the other coordinate is automatically adjusted to a valid position. Example: moving Y to + 1000 will result in an X coordinate value of 0. When editing only one coordinate, the other coordinate of the most recently track is remembered. This aids in the creation of linear (straight) lines of movement. EQ Assignment Modes Briefly pressing the EQ button switches between EQ Multi Channel view or EQ Channel Strip view. Note: If no Channel or Linear Phase EQ is present on the selected track, a Channel EQ will be inserted automatically when the EQ Channel Strip view is entered. Multi Channel View EQ Multi Channel view allows you to edit one equalizer parameter for all tracks: Frequency, Gain, Q, or EQ bypass. The EQ band number, and parameter being edited will be displayed for one second when switching to this mode.  The mode display will show E1 to E8, dependent on the selected EQ band number.  The upper LCD row shows track names.  Turning the V-Pots changes the EQ parameter. 60 Chapter 2 Logic Control  Pressing a V-Select sets the parameter to its default value.  Cursor Up/Down switches to the next or previous EQ band.  Cursor Left/Right switches to the next or previous EQ parameter. The selected parameter will be displayed briefly in the upper LCD row.  Pressing a MUTE button while the SHIFT button is held down switches the current EQ band’s Bypass status.  When Flip mode is enabled, the MUTE buttons display and edit the current EQ band’s Bypass status. Channel Strip View EQ Channel Strip view allows you to edit all EQ parameters—in all bands—for the selected track.  The mode display will show EQ. (EQ channel strip).  The upper LCD row shows the name of the track, “EQs,” the page number and total number of pages—Example: “Page 1/2”.  V-Pot/V-Select 1—edits the Frequency of odd-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 2—edits Gain of odd-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 3—edits Q-Factor of odd-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 4—edits Bypass of odd-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 5—edits the Frequency of even-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 6—edits Gain of even-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 7—edits Q-Factor of even-numbered EQ bands.  V-Pot/V-Select 8—edits Bypass of even-numbered EQ bands.  Cursor Left/Right switches to the next or previous EQ band. The number of EQ bands displayed on the LCD depends on the number of Logic Control (XT) units (two EQ bands are shown per unit) available. Alternate Mode Options Holding down the EQ button accesses a further sub-menu in the LCD:  The mode display shows E_ or E_., dependent on whether you were in EQ Multi Channel or EQ Channel Strip view.  V-Select 1 or F1—switches to EQ Multi Channel view and selects Frequency.  V-Select 2 or F2—switches to EQ Multi Channel view and selects Gain  V-Select 3 or F3—switches to EQ Multi Channel view and selects Q.  V-Select 4 or F4—switches to EQ Multi Channel view and selects Bypass.  V-Select 6 or F6—switches to EQ Channel Strip view. Chapter 2 Logic Control 61  V-Select 7 or F7—switches to Frequency/Gain Multi Channel view. In this mode you can edit the Frequency and Gain parameters of a specific EQ band (1 to 8) for all tracks.  the mode display will show F1 to F8, depending on the selected EQ band.  the upper LCD row shows track names.  the lower LCD row shows the Frequency of the selected EQ.  turning a V-Pot changes EQ Frequency.  pressing a V-Select sets the EQ Frequency to its default value.  use the Mute buttons to Bypass the EQ.  use the faders adjust the EQ Gain.  V-Select 8 or F8—switches to Frequency/Gain Channel Strip view. In this mode you can edit the Frequency and Gain parameters for all EQ bands of the selected track. Each pair of channel strips corresponds to one of the EQ bands.  the mode display will show FG.  V-Pots 1 to 8 control the Frequency of EQ bands 1 to 8.  Mute buttons 1 to 8 control the Bypass of EQ bands 1 to 8.  Faders 1 to 8 control the Gain of EQ bands 1 to 8. Note that the faders form a frequency response curve in this mode, if the EQ bands have ascending frequency values. You can edit another track’s EQ, without leaving this view mode, by simply selecting the track. Send Assignment Modes Briefly pressing the SEND button switches between Send Multi Channel or Send Channel Strip view. Multi Channel View Send Multi Channel view allows you to edit one Send parameter for all tracks: Destination, Level, Position, and Mute. The Send slot number, and parameter being edited will be displayed for one second when switching to this mode.  The mode display will show S1 to S8, depending on the selected Send slot.  The upper LCD row shows track names.  Turning the V-Pots changes the Send parameter.  Pressing a V-Select confirms the pre-selected Send Destination and sets the other send parameters to their defaults.  Cursor Up/Down switches to the next or previous Send slot. 62 Chapter 2 Logic Control  Cursor Left/Right switches to the next or previous Send parameter. The selected parameter will be displayed briefly in the upper LCD row.  Pressing a MUTE button while the SHIFT button is held switches the current Send’s Mute status.  When Flip mode is enabled, the MUTE buttons display and edit the current Send’s Mute status. Note: Ensure that the ZOOM button isn’t active when using the cursor buttons. Channel Strip View Send Channel Strip view allows you to edit all Send parameters for the selected track.  The mode display will show SE. (Send channel strip).  The upper LCD row shows the name of the track, “Sends”, the page number and total number of pages—Example: “Page 1/4”  V-Pot/V-Select 1—edits Destination of odd-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 2—edits Level of odd-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 3—edits Position (pre/post) of odd-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 4—edits Mute of odd-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 5—edits Destination of even-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 6—edits Level of even-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 7—edits Position (pre/post) of even-numbered Sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 8—edits Mute of even-numbered Sends.  The horizontal cursor buttons shift between pages. The number of Sends displayed simultaneously is dependent on the number of Logic Control XTs you have. Alternate Edit Mode Options Holding down the SEND button accesses a further sub-menu in the LCD:  The mode display shows S_ or S_., depending on whether you were in Send Multi Channel or Send Channel Strip view. Track 1 "Audio 1" Sends Page 1/2 Snd3Ds Send 3 Snd3Ps Snd3Mt Snd4Ds Send 4 Snd4Ps Snd4Mt Dest Pos Level Mute CStrip CSt2 Ds/LvM Ds/LvC Chapter 2 Logic Control 63  V-Select 1 or F1—switches to Send Multi Channel view and selects Destination.  V-Select 2 or F2—switches to Send Multi Channel view and selects Send Level.  V-Select 3 or F3—switches to Send Multi Channel view and selects Position.  V-Select 4 or F4—switches to Send Multi Channel view and selects Mute.  V-Select 5 or F5—switches to Send Channel Strip view.  V-Select 6 or F6—switches to Send Channel Strip 2 view: This mode is similar to Send Channel Strip view, but parameters are arranged in a slightly different way. You can control one parameter of all Send slots for the selected track.  The mode display will show SE. (Send channel strip).  The upper LCD row shows the name of the track, “Sends”, the page number and total number of pages.  V-Pot/V-Select 1 to 8—edits the displayed parameter.  The horizontal cursor buttons shift between pages. The number of parameters displayed simultaneously is dependent on the number of Logic Control XTs you have.  V-Select 7 or F7—switches to Destination/Level Multi Channel view: In this mode, you can control one Send slot for all tracks. Each channel strip corresponds to the track shown in the upper LCD row.  the mode display will show d1 to d8, depending on the selected Send.  the upper LCD row shows track names.  the lower LCD row shows the destination of the selected Send.  turning a V-Pot pre-selects the Send Destination.  pressing a V-Select confirms the pre-selected Send Destination.  the SOLO buttons edit Send Position— a lit SOLO LED indicates Pre Fader mode.  the MUTE buttons edit Send Mute.  the faders edit Send Level.  V-Select 8 or F8—switches to Destination/Level Channel Strip view: You can control all Send slots for the selected track in this mode. Each channel strip corresponds to the (embossed) Send number shown below the LCD.  the mode display will show dL.  turning a V-Pot pre-selects the corresponding Send Destination. Track 1 "Audio 1" Sends Page 1/2 Snd1Ds Snd2Ds Snd3Ds Snd4Ds Snd5Ds Snd6Ds Snd7Ds Snd7Ds 64 Chapter 2 Logic Control  pressing a V-Select confirms a preselected Send Destination.  the Solo buttons edit Send Position—a lit Solo LED indicates Pre Fader mode.  the MUTE buttons edit Send Mute.  the faders edit Send Gain. If one or more Sends are activated on multiple channels, you can switch between them in the Channel Strip views by simply pressing the SELECT button for the desired channel. Plug-in Assignment Modes Pressing PLUG-IN switches between Plug-in Multi Channel or Plug-in Channel Strip view. Note: There is one exception to this behavior: if you are in Instrument Edit view, pressing this button switches to Plug-in Edit view. Multi Channel View This mode shows the plug-ins associated with a particular Insert slot for all channels.  The mode display will show P1 to P9, or simply 10 to 16, dependent on the selected Plug-in Insert slot number. Note that if an Audio Instrument channel is selected, the display will show P1 to P9 and 10 to 15.  The upper LCD row shows track names.  The lower LCD row shows the currently selected plug-in for this Insert slot. Muted plug-ins are shown with an asterisk * that precedes the plug-in name.  Turning the V-Pots pre-selects a new plug-in. The plug-in name flashes until confirmed with the V-Select.  Turning another channel’s V-Pot will cancel any earlier pre-selection, and will start pre-selection on the newly selected track.  Pressing a V-Select:  confirms/activates the pre-selected plug-in (assuming that you’ve made your preselection by turning the V-Pot).  opens a Plug-in window, if none are opened. If a Plug-in window is open, and Link mode is enabled, the selection of another plug-in will replace the existing Plug-in window.  switches to Plug-in Edit view.  The Cursor Up/Down buttons change the currently displayed plug-in Insert slot (1 to 15).  Pressing a V-Select or the MUTE button while the SHIFT button is held down will mute/unmute the plug-in. Chapter 2 Logic Control 65 To remove a plug-in: 1 Pre-select the “--” value (by turning the V-Pot fully counter-clockwise) 2 Press the V-Select of the appropriate Insert slot. Logic Control will not switch to Plug-in Edit view, and no Plug-in window will be launched. If one was previously opened, it will be closed (if Link mode is inactive). Channel Strip View This mode shows the plug-ins associated with all Insert slots for the selected channel.  The mode display will show PL.  The upper LCD row shows Ins1Pl through Ins8Pl  The lower LCD row shows the plug-in which is currently selected for this insert slot. Muted plug-ins are indicated by an asterisk *, which precedes the plug-in name.  Turning the V-Pots pre-selects a new plug-in. The plug-in name flashes until activated.  Turning another channel’s V-Pot will cancel any previous pre-selection and will start pre-selection on the newly selected track.  Pressing a V-Select:  activates the pre-selected plug-in (assuming that you’ve made your pre-selection by turning the V-Pot).  opens a Plug-in window if none are opened (if a Plug-in window is open and Link mode is enabled, the selection of another plug-in will replace the existing plug-in).  switches to Plug-in Edit view.  Pressing a V-Select while the SHIFT button is held will mute/unmute the plug-in. To remove a plug-in: 1 Pre-select the “--” value (by turning the V-Pot fully counter-clockwise). 2 Press the V-Select linked to the appropriate Insert slot. Logic Control will not switch to Plug-in Edit view, and no Plug-in window will be launched. If one was previously opened, it will be closed (if Link mode is inactive). Plug-in Edit View  The mode display will show P1. to P8., depending on the number of the selected plug-in Insert slot.  Dependent on the Name/Value button, the LCD display will change in the following ways between the two modes:  Name: The upper LCD row shows the track’s name, insert number, plug-in name, current parameter page and total number of parameter pages. The lower LCD row shows the name of the parameter which can be edited via the V-Pot located below. 66 Chapter 2 Logic Control  Value: The upper LCD row shows the name of the parameter which can be edited via the V-Pot positioned below. The lower LCD row shows the current value of the parameter edited with the V-Pot. If there is sufficient onscreen space, the unit type will be added—Example: Hz.  Turning the V-Pots changes parameters.  Pressing a V-Select sets the parameter to its default value, except where the parameter only has two values (on/off, for example). In this case, pressing the VSelect switches between these values.  The Cursor Left/Right buttons switch to the next or previous parameter page. Note: When shifting by a “page” of parameters, the display is “quantized” to integer pages. As an example:  the plug-in has 19 parameters.  Logic Control shows parameters 1 to 8.  Cursor Right shifts to display parameters 9 to 16.  Cursor Right shifts to display parameters 12 to 19.  Cursor Left shifts back to display parameters 9 to 16, not parameters 4 to 11. This way, you always revert to the page positions you expect to find, and are comfortable with.  To switch by a single parameter, rather than by “page,” hold down the x/ALT key while pressing the Cursor Left/Right button.  The Cursor Up/Down buttons change the currently displayed plug-in Insert slot (1 to 15). Note: If you have a control surface group consisting of several physical Logic Control and XT units, the parameters are distributed across their displays. The number of parameters shown is dependent on the Multiple Controls Per Parameter settings in the Preferences > Control Surfaces > Preferences, as discussed in the Control Surface Setup chapter. When exiting Plug-in Edit view, the Plug-in window will be closed. Chapter 2 Logic Control 67 Compatibility Logic Control can edit all plug-ins that can be automated. The plug-in type (Logic native, TDM, Audio Units) is irrelevant. Some third-party manufacturer plug-ins unfortunately don’t provide parameter names and/or values as text. In such cases, parameters are enumerated as “Control #1,” “Control #2” and so on, with values displayed as numbers ranging between 0 and 1000. Please contact the plug-in manufacturer to obtain a version which supports this feature. Instrument Assignment Modes Pressing the INSTRUMENT button switches to Instrument Multi Channel view. Please note that when in Plug-in Edit view, pressing the INSTRUMENT button will switch to Instrument Edit view. If you can’t see the Audio Instrument Objects, use the BANK or CHANNEL buttons in the FADER BANKS zone, or switch to Global view by pressing the AUDIO INSTRUMENT button. (This assumes that you have created at least one or more Audio Instrument Objects in the Environment.) Multi Channel View This mode shows the Instrument slot for all channels.  The mode display will show In (Instrument)  The upper LCD row shows track names.  The lower LCD row shows the currently selected instrument. Muted instrument names are preceded by an asterisk *.  Turning the V-Pots pre-selects a new instrument. The pre-selected instrument name flashes until activated.  Turning another channel’s V-Pot will cancel any previous pre-selection and will start pre-selection on the newly selected track.  Pressing a V-Select:  activates the pre-selected instrument plug-in (assuming that you’ve made your pre-selection by turning the V-Pot).  opens a Plug-in window, if none are opened. If a Plug-in window is open, and Link mode is enabled, the selection of another Instrument plug-in will replace the existing one.  switches to Instrument Edit view.  Pressing a V-Select or MUTE button while the SHIFT button is held down mute/ unmutes the Instrument. 68 Chapter 2 Logic Control To remove an instrument: 1 Pre-select the “--” value (by turning the V-Pot fully counter-clockwise) 2 Press the V-Select button. Logic Control will not switch to Instrument Edit view, and no Plug-in window will be launched. If one was previously opened, it will be closed. Instrument Edit View  The mode display will show In.  Dependent on the NAME/VALUE button, the LCD changes in the following ways:  Name—The upper LCD row shows the track’s name, instrument name, current parameter page and total number of parameter pages. The lower LCD row shows the name of the parameter that can be edited with the V-Pot directly below it.  Value—The upper LCD row shows the name of the parameter that can be edited with the V-Pot below it. The lower LCD row shows the current value of the parameter being edited. If there is sufficient space on the LCD row, the unit type is shown after the value. Example: Hz.  Turning a V-Pot changes the corresponding parameter.  Pressing a V-Select sets the parameter to its default value, except where the parameter only has two values (on/off, for example). In this case, pressing the VSelect switches between these values. Compatibility Logic Control can edit all instruments that can be automated. The plug-in type (Logic native, TDM, Audio Units) is irrelevant. Some third-party manufacturer instruments unfortunately don’t provide parameter names and/or values as text. In such cases, parameters are enumerated as “Control #1,” “Control #2,” and so on, with values displayed as numbers ranging between 0 and 1000. Please contact the plug-in manufacturer to obtain a version which supports this feature. Chapter 2 Logic Control 69 Fader Bank Zone This area of the Logic Control surface contains six buttons. Bank Left/Right Moves up or down by “banks” of channels/tracks. To quickly explain, a single Logic Control is only capable of viewing eight tracks at a time, in either the Global or Mixer view. To see, and edit or mix more tracks, simply press the Right/Left BANK buttons to switch between tracks 1–8, 9–16, 17–24, and so on. The BANK button pair shifts the view section by the number of channels in the control surface group. As an example; if you have a Logic Control and two Logic Control XT units, the view shifts by 24 channels. When shifting by bank, the display is “quantized” to integer banks. As an example:  your song has 19 tracks.  Logic Control shows tracks 1 to 8.  BANK Right shifts to tracks 9 through 16.  BANK Right shifts to tracks 12 through 19.  BANK Left shifts back to tracks 9 through 16, not tracks 4 to 11. This way, you always revert to the bank positions you expect, and are used to. Channel Left/Right As per the BANK buttons, but moves up or down in increments of a single channel. Notes on Fader Bank Editing When holding down the OPTION button, pressing the BANK Left or CHANNEL Left button jumps to the first, and pressing the BANK Right or CHANNEL Right button jumps to the last, tracks in the song. As an example in a 64 track song, tracks 1 through 8 or tracks 57 through 64. 70 Chapter 2 Logic Control The fader bank offset is independently memorized for Global views where one track class is displayed (MIDI, Inputs, Audio Tracks, Instruments, Auxes, Busses, Outputs, and Master). There is also a separate fader bank offset memory location for combinations of multiple track types. This feature allows you to scroll to audio tracks 2 through 9 in Global Audio Track view, and then scroll to instruments 5 through 12 in Global Instruments view. You can switch between these views without losing the fader bank offset. Flip The FLIP button enables/disables the following Flip, Swap, or Zero modes:  If the LED beside the FLIP button is off, Flip mode is off. The faders control volume.  Pressing the FLIP button enables Flip mode (the LED is lit): in this mode, the current assignments of the eight V-Pots are mirrored by the eight channel faders. Pressing the FLIP button a second time disables Flip mode. Turning a V-Pot in this mode will also move the corresponding fader.  Pressing the FLIP button while the SHIFT button is held enables Swap mode (the LED will flash): in this mode, the encoder assignments are swapped with the fader assignments. Pressing SHIFT and FLIP again disables Swap mode. As the LCD’s lower row shows the current value of the encoders, it will display volumes when in this mode.  Pressing FLIP without SHIFT held reverts to Flip mode.  Pressing CONTROL and FLIP switches to Zero mode. Pressing CONTROL and FLIP a second time disables Zero mode. In this mode, the faders are set to zero and don’t move. This is useful for acoustic/microphone recordings if Logic Control is located in the recording booth, and you don’t want to hear/capture any motor noise. Both Flip and Swap modes work in all view modes. Flip mode has the following advantages:  You can edit any type of parameter with a fader, rather than a V-Pot, which allows more accurate edits.  You can edit with touch-sensitive faders. The V-Pots are not touch-sensitive, and thus don’t allow existing (controller automation) movements to be overwritten with a constant value. Global View This button is discussed in “The Global View Zone” on page 74. Chapter 2 Logic Control 71 Master Fader Controls the level of the Master fader in the Logic mixers. This reduces the level of all tracks, but does not affect their relative positions. When there is no Master Volume Object in the song, Logic Control’s Master fader is mapped to Output 1-2. You need to select this Object (Master) in order to set the automation mode of the Master output. To do so, press the OUTPUTS button and select the master output with the corresponding SELECT button. If you use multiple audio systems simultaneously, the MASTER fader only controls the first device’s Master Volume (in the order shown in the Audio Preferences window). Display Zone These buttons affect what you see in the LCD and Position/Time Display. Name/Value To switch between the two Display formats—Name or Value—repeatedly press the NAME/VALUE button in the Logic Control Display section—just below the SMPTE/ BEATS LEDs. For more information, see “Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)” on page 49. Pressing the NAME/VALUE button while holding the SHIFT button cycles through three level meter modes:  Vertical—In this mode, the sixth (last) character of each channel in both LCD rows is overlaid by a vertical level meter bar. The text character reappears when the level meter is not visible. The last, rather than the first, character was chosen for the level meter, as this character is often unused, so no valuable information is “blocked out” by the level meter. Note: If you find the flickering D of the dB unit disturbing when levels are displayed, you should switch off the display of units. See “Control Surface Preferences” on page 25.  Horizontal—with Peak Hold. In this mode, the second row is replaced by horizontal level meter bars. Peak Hold is shown as a hollow box which disappears after three seconds. Overload (clipping) is displayed as an asterisk. It remains on the LCD until cleared (see below).  Off—In this mode, no level meters are displayed in the LCD. 72 Chapter 2 Logic Control In all three modes, the SIGNAL LEDs function as per usual, indicating the presence of a signal. Note: The MIDI bandwidth required for the display of level meters is the same in all three modes—and is very low. The Position/Time Display updates require much more MIDI bandwidth than the level meters. Pressing the NAME/VALUE button, while holding the CONTROL button, clears overload (clipping) in both the Logic mixers, and the horizontal level meters on the Logic Control. Pressing the NAME/VALUE button, while holding the x/ALT button, enters Control Surface Group Settings mode. This mode enables you to edit several control surface group settings, some of which are not accessible with a single button:  V-Pot/V-Select 5 (label “TrkNam”)—sets track name display format “Name”—track name only “#:Name”—track number and name This parameter can also be switched with OPTION and NAME/VALUE.  V-Pot/V-Select 6 (label “Lock”)—switches Channel Strip view track lock “Off”—as you are used to: selecting a track also switches the currently edited Channel Strip track. “On”—the currently edited Channel Strip Track is not affected by selecting a track. When you switch from On to Off, this also updates the Channel Strip track. To edit another track in Locked mode, first disable Lock, then select the desired track, then re-enable Lock.  V-Pot/V-Select 7 (label “Disply”)—switches the LCD display format. “Name”—upper line displays global info, lower line displays parameter names. “Value”—upper line displays parameter names, lower line displays parameter values. This parameter can also be switched with NAME/VALUE.  V-Pot/V-Select 8 (label “Clock”)—switches the Clock display format. “Beats”—clock is displayed in format bars/measures/beats/ticks. “SMPTE”—clock is displayed in SMPTE format. This parameter can also be switched with SMPTE/BEATS. Control Surface Group Settings mode can be exited by pressing NAME/VALUE, or by entering one of the Marker or Nudge modes. SMPTE/Beats To switch between the two Time formats, repeatedly press the SMPTE/BEATS button in the Display section at the top of the Logic Control—just below the SMPTE/BEATS LEDs. For more information, see “Song Position/SMPTE Time Display” on page 49. Chapter 2 Logic Control 73 The Function Key Zone The eight Function keys—F1 to F8—are assigned as follows:  F1 to F7 recalls Screensets 1 to 7.  F8 closes the top-most window, with “floating” windows closed first. With the SHIFT key held down, the Function keys open/close particular windows:  F1—Arrange window  F2—Track Mixer  F3—Event Editor  F4—Score Editor  F5—Hyper Editor  F6—Matrix Editor  F7—Transport window  F8—Audio window With the x/ALT key held down, the Function keys trigger common key commands:  F1—Cut  F2—Copy  F3—Paste  F4—Clear  F5—Select All  F6—Select All Following  F7—Select Similar Objects  F8—Select Inside Locators In modal dialogs, the Function keys are equivalent to the computer’s number keys:  F1—1  F2—2  F3—3  F4—4  F5—5  F6—6  F7—7  F8—8 74 Chapter 2 Logic Control The following buttons directly below the Function keys supplement the numeric input functions:  MIDI Tracks button—9  Inputs button—0 In some other “modes,” the Function keys perform other duties, such as shortcuts to markers. Please see “Marker” on page 79. Also see the tables in “Assignment Overview” on page 89. The Global View Zone The Global view mode is activated by pressing any of the GLOBAL VIEW buttons. When any is activated, the green LED to the right of the GLOBAL VIEW button will illuminate. Pressing multiple GLOBAL VIEW buttons simultaneously will display the channels of the selected classes. To do so: m Hold down any GLOBAL VIEW button, and add or remove other Object classes by pressing the other desired GLOBAL VIEW buttons. The display order matches the order of these buttons on the front panel of the Logic Control. You can select multiple classes by clicking on multiple buttons simultaneously. The OUTPUTS button activates both Output and Master Objects. As an example: To see the busses and the outputs, hold down BUSSES, and then press OUTPUTS. Chapter 2 Logic Control 75 Function Button Zone There are three areas in this zone—Modifiers, Automation, and Utilities. Modifier Buttons The four buttons in this area are similar to those found on your computer keyboard (but are independent from the keyboard modifiers). Many Logic functions behave differently when one or more “modifier” key(s) is pressed, in conjunction with another key or mouse click. This also applies to the Logic Control. All “modified” Logic Control commands are covered in each function’s description. A generic description of each button follows:  SHIFT—an alternate function/meaning for a button.  OPTION—the function applies to all objects. For relative value changes: the value is set to the minimum, default, or maximum value, depending on whether you increase/decrease it.  CONTROL—while held down, the Group Clutch is engaged—Track Groups are temporarily disabled.  x/ALT—fine tuning/variation of the function. Automation Buttons The five buttons in this area activate/deactivate the various automation modes of Logic. These work in conjunction with the channel SELECT buttons. Simply choose the channel you wish to automate, select the Automation mode via one of these six buttons, and move the corresponding fader. The modes are outlined below:  READ/OFF—Pressing this button repeatedly switches between the Read and Off automation modes. 76 Chapter 2 Logic Control  Off—Automation is off. The fader will neither send nor receive automation data. Existing automation data remains untouched. It will still behave as a fader, however, and will adjust the volume or pan position and so on as usual.  Read—The fader will read (follow) any existing automation data, but will not write data, regardless of any movements you make with the mouse or external control device.  TOUCH—Writes new parameter changes when the fader is “touched” or V-Pot turned during playback. Any existing track automation data (of the current fader type) will be replaced by new movements as long as the control is active—while the fader is being touched or V-Pot is being turned.  LATCH—Similar to Touch mode, but the control remains activated, even when the fader is no longer being “touched” or V-Pot being turned. In other words, following the release of the fader, the current fader value will replace the existing automation data for as long as the sequencer is in playback mode. Press STOP to finish.  WRITE—Overwrites all existing automation data, or creates new automation data. Only use it if you wish to destroy all existing automation data.  TRIM—Not currently enabled. Pressing one of the AUTOMATION buttons while holding the OPTION key assigns the selected automation mode for all tracks. When an automation mode has been selected for all tracks, the button’s LED will illuminate whenever the OPTION key is held. Important: This behavior is slightly different for the “Off” automation mode, when holding down the OPTION button. While doing so, all automation “writing” buttons will be turned off, but this does not necessarily mean that all tracks are actually in Off mode—they could also be in different modes. To ensure that you have set all tracks to Off mode, press READ/OFF twice (its LED goes on, then off ), while holding down the OPTION key. Group Pressing the GROUP button enters Group Edit mode:  GROUP button’s LED is on.  The Assignment display shows the currently displayed group—“G1”, for example. Chapter 2 Logic Control 77  The Time display shows the group name (ten last characters if name is longer than ten characters).  The upper LCD line displays track names.  The lower LCD line displays group parameters.  Group parameters can be switched with V-Selects.  Cursor Up/Down selects previous/next group.  Cursor Left/Right shifts group parameter display.  SELECT buttons display if a track is a member of the group. Pressing a SELECT button enables/disables track membership of the group. With Group Edit mode off, holding down GROUP and pressing one or more SELECT buttons allows you to create a new group. Pressing the GROUP button, while the SHIFT button is held down, creates a new group, opens the Group window and enters Group Edit mode. Pressing the GROUP button, while the TRACK button is held, switches to Track Multi Channel view, with the Track Group parameter shown. It displays the group that the instrument belongs to. Multiple group membership is displayed as in the Track Mixer window. Turning a V-Pot changes group membership. Note that you can only select one group (or “Off”) with this function. Utilities Buttons The four buttons in this area trigger functions that are often used when working with Logic. Save Saves the current song file. When pressed, a file save dialog will open on your computer screen, awaiting input of a filename. The Logic Control LCD will display There is a file select dialog on the screen and the Position/Time Display will show ALERT. All LEDs are unlit. Once the file save has been confirmed—in Logic—the Logic Control will return all controls to their status prior to use of the Save command. Once the song has been saved and given a name, you may freely use the SAVE button to save any subsequent changes. This will occur without the alert messages and file save dialog appearing onscreen. As a general working tip, you should always save your Autoload/Template song under a different name as the first step in any project. If this practice is adhered to, you will be able to simply press the SAVE button on the Logic Control to incrementally save your work. 78 Chapter 2 Logic Control The SAVE LED illuminates as soon as any save-able change has been made in Logic. Holding down the OPTION button while pressing SAVE opens the “Save As” file selector box. Undo Pressing the UNDO button undoes the last undo-able editing step. As Logic supports near-unlimited multiple undo/redo, the green UNDO LED does not illuminate to indicate an undo-able step, but rather to indicate that Redo is available. This serves as a warning that performing a reversible editing step would render all Redo steps unavailable. Holding down the SHIFT button while pressing UNDO performs a “Redo.” Holding down the OPTION button while pressing UNDO opens the Undo History window. Cancel If an alert is open on-screen, it triggers the Cancel (or Abort) button. More information on alerts is found in “About Modal Dialogs” on page 45. Pressing the CANCEL button when no alert is opened will launch the Toolbox at the current on-screen position of the mouse cursor. Alternately, it will perform any function currently assigned to the computer keyboard’s Esc key. If no alert is open, and Logic Control is currently showing the contents of a folder track, use of the CANCEL button exits the folder. CANCEL also enables you to invalidate a (blinking) parameter value pre-selection. Enter If an alert is open, the ENTER button triggers the default button. See “About Modal Dialogs” on page 45 for more information. If no alert is open, and the selected track is a folder track, the ENTER button opens the folder. Chapter 2 Logic Control 79 The Transport Zone This section of the Logic Control features twelve buttons. All are equipped with a dedicated LED to indicate their current status. It should be noted that these buttons can be used independently, or in conjunction with one another, to navigate and edit your songs. The functionality of these buttons is as follows: Marker The MARKER button enables you to jump to, create, and delete markers. Marker and Nudge mode are mutually exclusive; activating one deactivates the other. Small Marker Mode When active, the MARKER button reassigns the behavior of the FAST FWD and REWIND buttons. These allow you to jump to the next or previous marker. Deactivation of the MARKER button reverts to the default behavior of the FAST FWD and REWIND buttons (see “Rewind” on page 85 and “Fast Fwd” on page 85). Small Marker mode is useful if you want to jump to markers, but wish to continue using the V-Pots for other purposes. Large Marker Mode Pressing the MARKER button while holding down SHIFT shows three “create” options on the LCD, assigned to the last three V-Selects. Once markers have been created: 80 Chapter 2 Logic Control  V-Select 1 to 5—displays the first five markers by name. Pressing a V-Select moves the SPL to this Marker. When the current song position (indicated by the SPL) is inside a marker, the lower line displays INSIDE, and the V-Pot LED ring is lit.  V-Select 6—Cr w/o—Creates a marker without rounding to the nearest bar.  V-Select 7—Create—Creates a marker rounded to the nearest bar.  V-Select 8—Delete—Deletes the marker above the current SPL location. To create or delete a marker at the current song position, simply press the appropriate V-Select switch. The creation or deletion of markers is best used in conjunction with the Jog/Scrub Wheel. Simply move to the desired song position by dialing with the wheel, and then press the appropriate V-Pot.  For coarse placement, simply use the wheel to move the SPL.  For fine placement, press the SCRUB button, then use the wheel to precisely position the SPL. (Only appropriate if creating or deleting an un-rounded marker). For more information on the Jog/Scrub Wheel, please refer to “The Jog/Scrub Wheel Zone” on page 88. Large Marker mode is terminated by pressing MARKER. Temporary Marker Mode If you want to enter Marker mode temporarily (to quickly perform a few marker functions), hold down the Marker button and press one (or more) of the V-Selects: this will execute the marker function and leave marker mode as soon as you release the MARKER button.  When in this mode—with the MARKER button held—pressing the Function keys F1—F8 “jumps” to the first eight markers (if created). As an example, to navigate to marker 3, press-hold MARKER and press F3.  To jump between markers, with (or without) the MARKER button held, simply press the FAST FWD or REWIND buttons. Chapter 2 Logic Control 81 Nudge The NUDGE button enables you to move (nudge) selected Audio or MIDI Regions, or events. Marker and Nudge mode are mutually exclusive; activating one deactivates the other. Small Nudge Mode Use of the NUDGE button reassigns the behavior of the FAST FWD and REWIND buttons. They nudge the selected Regions or events by the value defined in Large Nudge mode (see below). Pressing the NUDGE button again reverts to the default behavior of the FAST FWD and REWIND buttons (see “Rewind” on page 85 and “Fast Fwd” on page 85). Small Nudge mode is useful if you want to nudge Regions or events, but still use the VPots for other purposes. Large Nudge Mode Pressing the Nudge button while holding down Shift updates the LCD to display eight options, assigned to the V-Pots and V-Selects. All functions allow you to move the selected Region or events. As an indicator, the position of the first selected Region or event is displayed above VPots 3 and 4. If nothing is displayed, either; a window that does not allow selection of Regions or events is open, or no Regions or events are selected. The functions are as follows:  V-Pot 1—Nudge—selects the nudge value used by the REWIND and F.FWD buttons. These buttons move the selected object(s) backwards/forwards by the defined value.  V-Select 2—Pickup—moves to the current SPL location.  V-Pot 3—Bar— moves by one bar.  V-Pot 4—Beat—moves by the current song denominator value (beats).  V-Pot 5—Format—moves by the current song format value (sub-divisions—1/16th and so on).  V-Pot 6—Ticks—moves by single ticks.  V-Pot 7—Frames—moves by one SMPTE frame.  V-Pot 8—Fram/2—moves by half a SMPTE frame. 82 Chapter 2 Logic Control  The cursor buttons emulate the computer keyboard’s cursor keys, allowing easy selection of a Region or event. Large Nudge mode is terminated by pressing NUDGE. Temporary Nudge Mode If you want to use Nudge temporarily (for one or two small moves), hold down the NUDGE key, and use one or more of the V-Pots: this will execute the selected function and exit Temporary Nudge mode as soon as you release the NUDGE button. In Temporary Nudge mode, the cursor buttons emulate the computer keyboard’s cursor keys, allowing easy selection of a Region or event. The Nudge value for the REWIND and F.FWD buttons can also be defined with the function buttons:  F1—sets Ticks.  F2—sets Format.  F3—sets Beat.  F4—sets Bar.  F5—sets Frames.  F6—sets Frames/2. Cycle Activates/deactivates Cycle mode. By default, the cycle area will fall between the first two markers. Subsequent markers can act as left/right boundaries for further cycle areas. To “jump” between Cycle areas—defined by the markers: 1 Press the MARKER button. 2 Press the CYCLE button, and when active, press the REWIND or FAST FWD buttons. To set the left or right locator to the current song position: m Hold down CYCLE and press REWIND or FAST FWD. This also enables Cycle. The fastest way to define a new cycle area is to: 1 Navigate to the left locator with the Jog/Scrub Wheel. 2 Press CYCLE and REWIND. 3 Navigate to the right locator with the Jog/Scrub Wheel. 4 Press CYCLE and FAST FWD. Chapter 2 Logic Control 83 Cycle View Pressing the SHIFT and CYCLE buttons activates Cycle view mode:  The mode display displays Cy  V-Pot/V-Select 1—shows and edits the current Cycle status (off or on); you can also use the CYCLE button.  V-Select 2—BySel— sets the current Cycle area by the selection made in the Arrange window (selected Audio or MIDI Region).  V-Pot 3—Move— moves the current Cycle by a bar with each “click” when turning the V-Pot  The display shows the left and right locators above V-Pots 5 and 7.  Pressing V-Select 5 picks up the current song position for the left locator.  Turning V-Pot 5 changes the left locator in bars.  Turning V-Pot 6 changes the left locator in beats (denominator steps).  Pressing V-Select 7 picks up the current song position for the right locator.  Turning V-Pot 7 changes the right locator in bars.  Turning V-Pot 8 changes the right locator in beats (denominator steps). To return to a regular Assignment mode, press one of the Assignment buttons. Drop Activates/deactivates Drop-In mode. To navigate between drop-in areas: 1 Press the MARKER button. 2 Press the DROP button, and when active, press the FAST FWD or REWIND buttons. To set the Drop In or Drop Out locator to the current song position: m Hold down DROP and press FAST FWD or REWIND. This also enables Drop. The fastest way to define a new Drop In area is to: 1 Navigate to the Drop In locator with the Jog/Scrub Wheel. 2 Press DROP and REWIND. 3 Navigate to the Drop Out locator with the Jog/Scrub Wheel. 4 Press DROP and FAST FWD. Drop View Pressing the SHIFT and DROP buttons activates Drop view: 84 Chapter 2 Logic Control  The mode display shows dr  V-Pot/V-Select 1 shows and edits the current Drop status (off or on); you can also use the DROP button.  V-Pot 3—Move— moves the current Drop region by a bar with each “click” when turning the V-Pot.  The display shows the Drop In and Drop Out locators above V-Pots 5 and 7.  Pressing V-Select 5 picks up the current song position for the Drop In locator.  Turning V-Pot 5 changes the Drop In locator in bars.  Turning V-Pot 6 changes the left locator in beats (denominator steps).  Pressing V-Select 7 picks up the current song position for the Drop Out locator.  Turning V-Pot 7 changes the Drop Out locator in bars.  Turning V-Pot 8 changes the right locator in beats (denominator steps). Changing a drop locator with the Logic Control enables Drop mode. To return to a regular Assignment mode, press one of the Assignment buttons. Replace Activates/deactivates Replace mode. Click Enables/Disables MIDI (or Klopfgeist) metronome click. There are independent click settings for play and record. The click settings are enabled or disabled, dependent on the current Record state (see the “MIDI/Monitor Metronome Click” key command). Pressing SHIFT and CLICK buttons activates/deactivates both External Sync mode and Transmit MMC. Solo The SOLO button behaves as per the Solo key command. Individual channels can be soloed via the channel SOLO buttons on each channel strip. MIDI or Audio Regions can be selected and soloed along with the selected channels. Each channel features an independent SOLO LED which is lit when a track is soloed. The RUDE SOLO LED—just to the right of the Position/Time Display—is lit whenever any track is soloed. Pressing the SHIFT and SOLO buttons enables Solo Lock mode. Chapter 2 Logic Control 85 Rewind Rewinds/shuttles through the song. If pressed repeatedly while rewinding, the rewind speed is accelerated. If the FAST FWD button is pressed while REWIND is engaged, the fast rewind will be slowed. Repeated presses of the FAST FWD button will slow down, stop, and eventually reverse the shuttle direction. Pressing the STOP button will halt the rewind. Using the Jog/Scrub Wheel will also exit shuttle mode. When one of the Marker modes is activated, repeated presses of the REWIND button will move the Song Position Line (SPL) to the previous marker. When one of the Nudge modes is activated, the REWIND button will move the selected Region(s) or event(s) backward by the value defined in Large Nudge mode. Fast Fwd Fast forwards/shuttles through the song. If pressed repeatedly while fast forwarding, the shuttle speed is accelerated. If the REWIND button is pressed while FAST FWD is engaged, the fast forward will be slowed. Repeated presses of the REWIND button will slow down, stop, and eventually reverse the shuttle direction. Pressing the STOP button will halt the fast forward. Using the Jog/Scrub Wheel will also exit shuttle mode. When one of the Marker modes is activated, repeated presses of the FAST FWD button will move the Song Position Line to the next marker. When one of the Nudge modes is activated, the FAST FWD button will move the selected Region(s) or event(s) forward by the value defined in Large Nudge mode. As a tip, you can combine markers with Cycle areas by pressing the respective buttons on the Logic Control. This, in conjunction with navigation between markers (using the REWIND and FAST FWD buttons), will move the SPL and automatically set a cycle area between adjacent markers. Try this, and other options, with various button combinations. 86 Chapter 2 Logic Control Stop Stops all other Transport functions. Pressing the STOP button a second time will return to the song start point, or the beginning of the nearest cycle area, if Cycle is active. Repeated presses will switch between the two. Play Plays from the current song position. If pressed repeatedly, it will jump to the beginning of the nearest cycle area, if Cycle is active. SHIFT and PLAY works as a Pause command. Record Activates recording on the selected MIDI, audio, or Audio Instrument track. A special note for audio tracks if you have not “Saved as Project”: When the first audio track is armed by pressing the REC/RDY button on the desired channel, a file save dialog will open on your computer screen, awaiting entry of a filename. The Logic Control LCD display shows There is a file select dialog on the screen and the Position/Time Display will show ALERT. All LEDs will go off. Once the file name has been entered—in Logic—the Logic Control will return all controls to their prior status. Once the “default” audio file name has been entered, you may freely select and arm any Audio track, and then press the RECORD button. This will happen without the alert messages and file save dialog appearing onscreen. As a general working tip, you should save your Autoload/Template song as a project immediately. This will avoid the need to define filenames, and makes handling faster and easier—particularly when “driving” Logic with the Logic Control. Chapter 2 Logic Control 87 The Cursor/Zoom Key Zone This collection of five buttons serves a number of purposes. Normal Operation When the ZOOM button’s LED is off, these buttons select the current parameter, shift the current parameter page or Send/EQ/Insert slot, depending on the current V-Pot assignment. When holding down the OPTION button, the Cursor Left/Right buttons scroll to the first/last page, and the Cursor Up/Down buttons scroll to the first/last slot. When holding down the x/Alt button, the Cursor Left/Right buttons shift the parameter display by one parameter, rather than one page. In view modes which don’t require page or slot shifts, they emulate the computer keyboard’s cursor keys. Example: Track Multi Channel view. In Large and Temporary Nudge mode, the Cursor Left/Right buttons emulate the computer keyboard’s cursor keys, allowing easy Region or event selection. Zoom Mode Pressing the ZOOM button enables Zoom mode. The cursor buttons are then used to change the vertical or horizontal zoom factor of the active window. In the Arrange window:  OPTION and Cursor Up/Down changes the zoom factor of the selected track.  OPTION and Cursor Left resets the zoom factor of the selected track.  OPTION and Cursor Right resets the zoom factor of all tracks of the same class (audio, MIDI, and so on) as the selected track. 88 Chapter 2 Logic Control Computer Cursor Key Emulation To use the cursor buttons as a replacement for the computer keyboard cursor keys, hold down the SHIFT key. By pressing SHIFT and ZOOM, the cursor buttons go to Permanent Cursor Key mode— they mimic the computer cursor keys without the need to hold down SHIFT. The ZOOM button LED flashes when in this mode. You can deactivate this mode by pressing the ZOOM button. The Jog/Scrub Wheel Zone The Jog/Scrub Wheel and SCRUB button can be used to navigate through the song, which is useful for a number of Transport tasks. Simply turn the dial to use it. The following Scrub modes change the behavior of the Jog/Scrub Wheel.  Scrub mode off: the Jog/Scrub Wheel moves the SPL.  Scrub mode on: the Jog/Scrub Wheel performs “scrubbing,” which allows you to hear the data of the selected track while scrolling/moving through the song. Audio tracks are normally played back at their original speed. If you would prefer to hear them at double speed, choose Preferences > Audio > Drivers, and set Maximum Scrub Speed to Double in the pull-down menu. Note: You can also use the SCRUB button for Pause functionality.  SHUTTLE mode (Scrub button LED flashing): the Jog/Scrub Wheel shuttles the SPL— turning it increases or decreases the speed of SPL movement. Chapter 2 Logic Control 89 Assignment Overview The following assignment tables are broken down into “zones” of the Logic Control. Channel Strip (x8) Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments V-Pot — Modify parameter displayed in LCD. OPTION Set parameter to minimum, default, or maximum value. x/ALT Modify parameter at high resolution. V-Select — Set parameter displayed on LCD to default value, or: Switch between two possible values. Flashing pre-selection: — Enter the pre-selected value. Menu options: — Enter whatever option is visible in display. If track is folder: — Enter folder. REC/RDY — Activate/Deactivate Record Enable button of track. OPTION Disable Record Enable button for all tracks. SOLO — Activate/Deactivate Solo button of track’s Audio Object. OPTION Disable Solo button for all Audio Objects. In Send Destination/Level Multi Channel view: — Switch pre/post status of selected send. In Send Destination/Level Channel Strip view: — Switch between pre/post of send on selected track. 90 Chapter 2 Logic Control MUTE — Activate/Deactivate Mute button of track’s Audio Object. OPTION Disable Mute button for all Audio Objects. In Track Multi Channel view: SHIFT Activate/Deactivate mute/bypass of the shown parameter. In EQ Multi Channel view: SHIFT Activate/Deactivate bypass of the current EQ band. In EQ Frequency/Gain view: — Activate/Deactivate bypass of selected EQ band. In Send Multi Channel view: SHIFT Activate/Deactivate bypass of selected send. In Send Destination/Level Multi Channel view: — Activate/Deactivate bypass of selected send. In Send Destination/Level Channel Strip view: — Activate/Deactivate mute of send on selected track. In Plug-in Multi Channel view: SHIFT Activate/Deactivate bypass of plug-in. In Instrument Multi Channel view: SHIFT Activate/Deactivate bypass of instrument. SELECT — Select track. SHIFT Set track volume to unity level (0 dB). OPTION Creates a new track with the same instrument as the selected track and switches to Arrange view. SHIFT+ OPTION Create a new track with the next instrument (following the selected track) and switches to Arrange view. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Chapter 2 Logic Control 91 ASSIGNMENT Section Hold down to show soft-button menu; release to switch V-Pots to Multi Channel or Channel Strip views for: FADER — Adjust volume. In Flip mode “Duplicate”: — Same function as V-Pot of same channel. In Flip mode “Swap”: — Swap function with V-Pot of same channel. In Surround Angle/Diversity view: — Adjust surround diversity. In EQ Frequency/Gain view: — Adjust gain of selected EQ band. In Send Destination/Level Multi Channel view: — Adjust send level of selected send. In Send Destination/Level Channel Strip view: — Adjust send level of send on selected track. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments TRACK — Track parameters PAN/SURROUND — Pan/Surround parameters EQ — EQ parameters SEND — Send parameters PLUG-IN — Plug-in selection or Plug-in Edit mode INSTRUMENT — Instrument selection or Instrument Edit mode BANK <> — Shift fader bank left/right by number of channel strips. OPTION Shift fader bank to beginning or end. CHANNEL<> — Shift fader bank left/right by one channel. OPTION Shift fader bank to beginning or end. FLIP — Switch Flip mode between Off and Duplicate. SHIFT Switch Flip mode between Off and Swap. CONTROL Switch Flip mode between Off and Zero (turns fader motors off ). GLOBAL VIEW — Switch between Mixer view and Global view. SHIFT Switch between Mixer view and Arrange view. 92 Chapter 2 Logic Control DISPLAY Parameters Function Buttons Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments NAME/VALUE — Switch between parameter name and parameter value display. SHIFT Cycle through level meter displays: vertical, horizontal, and off. OPTION Switch between track name and track number:name display. CONTROL Clear clip/overload flags. x/ALT Enter control surface group settings mode. SMPTE/BEATS — Switch between SMPTE and beat format in clock display. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments F1 — Recall Screenset 1. SHIFT Open/Close Arrange window. x/ALT Cut TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Volume. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Multi Channel view—Pan/surround angle. EQ Switch to Multi Channel view—Bypass. SEND Switch to Multi Channel view—Destination. MARKER Create marker without rounding. NUDGE Nudge value: Tick In modal dialog: F1 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 1 key. F2 — Recall Screenset 2. SHIFT Open/Close Track Mixer window. x/ALT Copy TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Pan. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Multi Channel view—Pan/surround radius. EQ Switch to Multi Channel view—EQ Type. SEND Switch to Multi Channel view—Level. MARKER Create marker with rounding. NUDGE Nudge value: Format In modal dialog: F2 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 2 key. Chapter 2 Logic Control 93 F3 — Recall Screenset 3. SHIFT Open/Close Event Editor. x/ALT Paste TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Track mode. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Multi Channel view—Pan/surround LFE. EQ Switch to Multi Channel view—Frequency. SEND Switch to Multi Channel view—Position. MARKER Delete marker. NUDGE Nudge value: Beat In modal dialog: F3 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 3 key. F4 — Recall Screenset 4. SHIFT Open/Close Score Editor. x/ALT Clear TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Input. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Multi Channel view—Pan/surround mode. EQ Switch to Multi Channel view—Gain. SEND Switch to Multi Channel view—Mute. NUDGE Nudge value: Bar In modal dialog: F4 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 4 key. F5 — Recall Screenset 5. SHIFT Open/Close Hyper Editor. x/ALT Select All. TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Output. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Channel Strip view. EQ Switch to Multi Channel view—Q Factor. SEND Switch to Channel Strip view. NUDGE Nudge value: Frame In modal dialog: F5 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 5 key. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments 94 Chapter 2 Logic Control F6 — Recall Screenset 6. SHIFT Open/Close Matrix Editor. x/ALT Select All Following TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Automation. PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Angle/Diversity view. EQ Switch to Channel Strip view. SEND Switch to Channel Strip 2 view. NUDGE Nudge value: 1/2 Frame In modal dialog: F6 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 6 key. F7 — Recall Screenset 7. SHIFT Open/Close Transport window. x/ALT Select Similar Regions/events. TRACK Switch to Multi Channel view—Displayed Parameter PAN/ SURROUND Switch to Surround X/Y view. EQ Switch to Frequency/Gain Multi Channel view. SEND Switch to Destination/Level Multi Channel view. In modal dialog: F7 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 7 key. F8 — Close top-most floating window. SHIFT Open/Close Audio window. x/ALT Select Inside Locators. TRACK Switch to Track Setup view. EQ Switch to Frequency/Gain Channel Strip view. SEND Switch to Destination/Level Channel Strip view. In modal dialog: F8 key is equivalent to computer keyboard 8 key. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Chapter 2 Logic Control 95 GLOBAL VIEW Buttons MODIFIERS—While Held Down: Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments MIDI TRACKS — Switch to Global view and show MIDI tracks. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 1 (tracks 1 to 8, for example). In modal dialog: MIDI TRACKS button is equivalent to computer keyboard 9 key. INPUTS — Switch to Global view and show Audio Input Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 2 (tracks 9 to 16, for example). In modal dialog: INPUTS button is equivalent to computer keyboard 0 key. AUDIO TRACKS — Switch to Global view and show Audio Track Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 3 (tracks 17 to 24, for example). In modal dialog: AUDIO TRACKS button is equivalent to computer keyboard’s period key. AUDIO INSTRUMENTS — Switch to Global view and show Audio Instrument Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 4 (tracks 25 to 32, for example). In modal dialog: AUDIO INSTRUMENTS button is equivalent to computer keyboard / key. AUX — Switch to Global view and show Aux Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 5 (tracks 33 to 40, for example). In modal dialog: AUX button is equivalent to computer keyboard * key. BUSSES — Switch to Global view and show Bus Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 6 (tracks 41 to 48, for example). In modal dialog: BUSSES button is equivalent to computer keyboard – key. OUTPUTS — Switch to Global view and show Outputs and Master Objects. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 7 (tracks 49 to 56, for example). In modal dialog: OUTPUTS button is equivalent to computer keyboard + key. USER — Currently unassigned. SHIFT Set to fader bank no. 8 (tracks 57 to 64, for example). Logic Control Function/Comments SHIFT Switch to second function. OPTION Apply function to all tracks or set parameter to minimum, default, or maximum value. CONTROL Disable Group functions while held down. x/ALT Enable fine mode; shift parameter page by one parameter instead of page. 96 Chapter 2 Logic Control AUTOMATION Buttons UTILITIES Buttons Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments READ/OFF — Set selected track’s automation to Read or Off. OPTION Set all tracks’ automation to Read or Off. TOUCH — Set selected track’s automation to Touch. OPTION Set all tracks’ automation to Touch. LATCH — Set selected track’s automation to Latch. OPTION Set all tracks’ automation to Latch. WRITE — Set selected track’s automation to Write. OPTION Set all tracks’ automation to Write. TRIM Currently unassigned. GROUP — Enter Group Edit mode. SHIFT Create a new group, open the Group window and enter Group Edit mode. TRACK Switch to Track Multi Channel view, displaying Track Group parameter. Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments SAVE — Save Song. OPTION Save Song as. UNDO — Undo SHIFT Redo OPTION Open Undo History. CANCEL — Leave folder. Flashing pre-selection: — Cancel pre-selection. In alerts: — Execute Cancel button. ENTER — Enter folder of selected track. In alerts: — Execute default button. Chapter 2 Logic Control 97 TRANSPORT Buttons Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments MARKER — Switch Small Marker mode on/off. SHIFT Switch Large Marker mode on/off. NUDGE — Switch Small Nudge mode on/off. SHIFT Switch Large Nudge mode on/off. MARKER Create a marker. This allows you to create a marker with one hand without entering Large Marker mode. CYCLE — Activate/Deactivate Cycle. SHIFT Switch to Cycle view. DROP — Activate/Deactivate Drop. SHIFT Switch to Drop view. REPLACE — Activate/Deactivate Replace. CLICK — Activate/Deactivate metronome click (separately for playback and record). SHIFT Activate/Deactivate internal/external sync and MMC. SOLO — Activate/Deactivate Solo Lock function. SHIFT Enable Solo Lock function. REWIND << — Shuttle rewind. MARKER Go to previous marker. NUDGE Nudge left by chosen value. CYCLE Engage Cycle function and set left locator to SPL. DROP Engage Drop and set Drop In to SPL. In Marker mode: — Go to previous marker. In Nudge mode: — Nudge left by chosen value. F.FWD >> — Shuttle forward. MARKER Go to next marker. NUDGE Nudge right by chosen value. CYCLE Engage Cycle function and set right locator to SPL. DROP Engage Drop and set Drop Out to SPL. In Marker mode: — Go to previous marker. In Nudge mode: — Nudge right by chosen value. STOP — Stop. 98 Chapter 2 Logic Control Cursor Keys and Scrub Wheel PLAY — Play SHIFT Pause RECORD — Record Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Cursor Left/Right If in Multi Channel view: — Select previous/next parameter of current view. ZOOM Scroll window horizontally by page. If in Channel Strip EQ, Send view or Plug-in/Instrument Edit view: — Shift current editor page by one page. x/ALT Shift current editor page by one parameter. ZOOM Scroll window horizontally by page. Otherwise (always in Nudge mode): — Mimic computer keyboard Left/Right Arrow keys. ZOOM Scroll window horizontally by page. In Zoom mode: — Change horizontal zoom level. SHIFT Reset individual track zoom of current track (Cursor Left) or all tracks of same class (Cursor Right). Cursor Up/Down In Channel Strip EQ, Send view or Plug-In/Instrument Editor view: — Select previous/next EQ band, Send, or Insert slot. ZOOM Scroll window vertically by page. Otherwise (always in Nudge mode): — Mimic computer keyboard Up/Down Arrow keys. ZOOM Scroll window vertically by page. In Zoom mode: — Change vertical zoom level. SHIFT Change individual track zoom of current track. ZOOM — Switch between default cursor button behavior (see above) and Zoom mode. SHIFT Switch between default cursor button behavior and permanently mimicking computer keyboard arrow keys. SCRUB — Activate/Deactivate Scrub mode. SHIFT Enable Shuttle mode on the Jog Wheel (SCRUB button LED flashes) Chapter 2 Logic Control 99 External Inputs Jog Wheel — Move song position line. CYCLE Set the Left locator to the current SPL, advance the SPL as normally, then set the Right locator to the SPL. Further Jog Wheel turns while still holding down CYCLE advances the SPL and sets the Right locator again. Tip: Rotating the Jog Wheel counterclockwise while holding down CYCLE defines a skip-cycle range. DROP Set the Drop In locator to the current SPL, advance the SPL as normally, then set the Drop Out locator to the SPL. Further Jog Wheel turns while still holding down DROP advances the SPL and sets the Drop out locator again. In Scrub mode (SCRUB button LED on): — Scrub In Shuttle mode (SCRUB button LED flashing): — Shuttle Logic Control Modifier Function/Comments Logic Control Modifier Function USER SWITCH A — Play/Stop USER SWITCH B — Drop In/Out EXTERNAL CONTROL — Master Volume 3 101 3 M-Audio iControl This chapter will introduce you to using Logic Pro with the MAudio iControl. The iControl support in Logic Pro has been designed to ensure full GarageBand compatibility. When a GarageBand song is imported into Logic, the iControl can be used to edit the song in exactly the same fashion as it would in GarageBand. Logic, however, offers many more functions than GarageBand, leading to some iControl buttons not being assigned as you might expect in Logic. But don’t worry: you can easily reassign these buttons using the sophisticated Control Surfaces Assignments Editor of Logic (see the Control Surface chapter for more information). To use Logic with an iControl unit, you need:  an iControl unit  Logic Pro 7. 2, or later  a free USB port Setting Up the iControl Setting up your iControl for use with Logic is a simple process: Connect the iControl to any of your computer’s USB ports. Logic automatically detects a connected iControl. You can use the iControl in an independent control surface group (with other control surface icons placed above/ below the iControl icon), or combined into one control surface group with one or more control surfaces. If Cycle mode is enabled in your song or any tracks are muted, the corresponding LEDs will be illuminated, reflecting each track’s current status. The following sections will provide you with information on accessing parameters and functions that may not be apparent at first glance. You are strongly encouraged to experiment with these parameters and functions—this will help to familiarize you with iControl support in Logic. 102 Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl Compatibility The iControl can edit all plug-ins that offer parameters which can be automated. Many Logic plug-ins—effects and Audio Instruments—plus those of third-party manufacturers, feature dozens of parameters. Every one of these parameters can be accessed by the iControl. To give you an example of how this works, imagine a plug-in that contains, say, 16 parameters. Once you’ve switched to the appropriate Channel Strip View of the plug-in you wish to adjust, you can directly affect parameters 1 to 8 with encoders 1 to 8. You can then switch by a “page” to access parameters 9 to 16. Simply press the Arrow Up or Arrow Down button to step up/down to the next “page” of parameters. Should you find that your third-party plug-in does not support remote editing or other features mentioned in this document, please contact the plug-in manufacturer to obtain an updated version that supports these facilities. Channel Views The channels section (the eight channel strips on the right side of your iControl; each channel strip comprises of a Select, Record Enable, Mute, and Solo button plus a rotary encoder) operates in two view “modes”—Multi Channel and Channel Strip View. Switching between these modes only affects the rotary encoders, with the other channel controls always remaining in Multi Channel View.  Multi Channel View—accesses one parameter for eight tracks, such as pan or volume (normally a section of the Track Mixer window).  Channel Strip View—accesses eight parameters of the selected track. Switching to a Multi Channel or Channel Strip view is achieved by pressing one of the Assignment buttons (see the following section). The Assignment Buttons The two button areas labelled “All Tracks” and “Selected Track” are used to define the behavior of the channel strip buttons. Volume Pressing the Volume button enters Volume Multi Channel View; you can use the rotary encoders to control the Volume fader of the eight active tracks in this mode. Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl 103 The other channel strip buttons maintain the default Multi Channel View function:  Sel buttons: Selects the track for editing.  Record Enable buttons: Enables/disables the track for recording.  Mute button: Activates/deactivates the Mute button of the Audio Object that corresponds with the track.  Solo button: Activate/deactivates the Solo button of the Audio Object that corresponds with the track. Pan Pressing the Pan button enters Pan Multi Channel View; you can use the rotary encoders to control the Pan knob of the eight active tracks in this mode. The other channel strip buttons maintain the default Multi Channel view function:  Sel buttons: Selects the track for editing.  Record Enable buttons: Enables/disables the track for recording.  Mute button: Activates/deactivates the Mute button of the Audio Object that corresponds with the track.  Solo button: Activate/deactivates the Solo button of the Audio Object that corresponds with the track. Track Info Pressing the Track Info button enters Track Channel Strip View. In this mode, you can use the Sel buttons and rotary encoders of the eight channel strips to edit global parameters of the selected track. The Record Enable, Mute, and Solo buttons maintain their default Multi Channel view functions.  Sel button 1 to 5: Switches the bypass status of the first five Insert slots.  Sel button 6 and 7: Switches the bypass status of the first and second Send slots. Note: A Select button is illuminated if the Insert or Send slot is enabled, and unlit if the effect is bypassed.  Sel button 8: Not assigned.  Encoder 1: In GarageBand, every Real Instrument track (Real Instrument tracks are audio tracks in Logic) contains a Noise Gate plug-in. Given this default plug-in assignment, encoder 1 is assigned to controlling the Threshold parameter of the Noise Gate in Track Channel Strip mode (if inserted in the selected channel strip).  Encoder 2: In GarageBand songs, every Real Instrument track contains a Compressor plug-in. Again, in Track Channel Strip mode, encoder 2 is assigned to controlling the Compressor’s Ratio (if inserted in the selected channel strip).  Encoders 3 and 4 are not assigned.  Encoder 5 controls the Pan knob of the channel.  Encoder 6 controls the Send level of the first Send. 104 Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl  Encoder 7 controls the Send level of the second Send.  Encoder 8 controls the Volume fader of the channel. Generator Pressing the Generator button allows you to edit all sound generation parameters of the software instrument for the selected track. The Arrow Up and Arrow Down buttons switch to the previous or next eight parameters. Note: This mode can only be accessed if the selected channel strip contains an audio instrument. Effect 1 and Effect 2 Pressing Effect 1 or Effect 2 allows you to edit the parameters of the third or fourth Insert slot of the selected track (where applicable).  Turning the encoders changes the parameter value.  The Arrow Up and Arrow Down buttons switch to the previous or next parameter page. Note: When shifting by a “page,” this always “quantizes” to integer pages. As an example: The plug-in has 19 parameters and the iControl displays parameters 1 to 8.  Pressing the Arrow Down button shifts to parameters 9 to 16.  Pressing the Arrow Down button again shifts to parameters 12 to 19  Pressing the Arrow Up button shifts back to parameters 9 to 16, not 4 to 11. This way, you always revert to the page positions you expect to find, and are comfortable with. Pressing the Effect 1 or Effect 2 button while pressing the Option button switches the bypass status of Insert slots 3 and 4, respectively. EQ Pressing the EQ button allows you to edit all EQ parameters—in all bands—for the selected track. Pressing the EQ button opens or closes the Channel EQ plug-in window of the track. If no Channel or Linear Phase EQ is present on the selected track, a Channel EQ will be inserted automatically when the EQ Channel Strip View is entered. Note: You can use the Arrow Down and Up buttons to switch to the next or previous parameter page. Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl 105 Arrow Up and Arrow Down Buttons The Arrow Up and Arrow Down buttons move up or down by “banks” of tracks (or between “pages” of parameters, as discussed earlier). To quickly explain, a single iControl device is only capable of viewing eight tracks at a time. To see, and edit or mix more tracks, simply press the Arrow Up or Arrow Down button to switch between tracks 1 to 8, 9 to 16, 17 to 24 and so on. Note that when shifting by bank, this always “quantizes” to integer banks. As an example: Your song has 19 tracks, and the iControl is displaying tracks 1 to 8.  Pressing the Arrow Down button shifts to tracks 9 to 16  Pressing the Arrow Down button again shifts to tracks 12 to 19  Pressing the Arrow Up button shifts back to tracks 9 to 16, not 4 to 11 This way, you always revert to the bank positions you expect, and are used to. Note: Pressing the Arrow Up button while holding down the Option button jumps to the first tracks, and pressing the Arrow Down button jumps to the last tracks in the song—as an example (in a 64 track song), tracks 1 to 8 or tracks 57 to 64. If the Generator, EQ, Effect 1, or Effect 2 button is illuminated, the Arrow Up and Arrow Down buttons have different functionality. See the sections above for details. The Channel Strip(s) As each channel strip is identical, the information discussed in this section applies equally to all eight of the iControl channel strips. Select Button This button is used to select a channel for channel-based editing or assignment commands. Each channel features an independent Select LED which is lit when a track is selected. Note: If the Track Info button is illuminated, the Select buttons behave differently. See “Track Info” on page 103 for details. Record Enable Button This button arms or disables the channel for recording. Each channel features an independent Record Button LED which illuminates when a track is “armed” for recording. Note: Holding down the Option button, while pressing any Record Enable button will disarm all tracks. 106 Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl Mute Button Used to mute the track’s signal. Each channel features an independent Mute LED which illuminates when a track is muted. Note: Holding down the Option button, while pressing any Mute button will unmute all tracks. Solo Button Used to solo channel signals. Each channel features an independent Solo LED which illuminates when a track is soloed. Note: Holding down the Option button, while pressing any Solo button will disable solo for all tracks. Encoder The eight encoders are used for a number of operations, depending on the current status of the Assignment buttons to the left. See “The Assignment Buttons” on page 102. Note: Pressing the Option button while turning an encoder sets the Relative Controller mode to Full: The encoder switches between the parameter’s minimum, default, or maximum value. The Jog Wheel The Jog Wheel can be used to navigate through the song, which is useful for a number of transport tasks. Simply turn the dial to move to a song position. The Transport Zone This section of the iControl features six buttons. It should be noted that these buttons can be used independently, or in conjunction with one another, to navigate and edit your songs. Record Button Activates recording on the selected track. Return to Zero Button (RTZ) Moves the SPL to the beginning of the song. Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl 107 Rewind Button Holding the Rewind button moves the song position line backwards. Quickly pressing the Rewind button once, moves the SPL one bar backwards. Pressing the Rewind and Cycle buttons simultaneously enables Cycle mode, and sets the left border of the Cycle area (left locator) to the current song position. Play Plays from the current song position. If pressed during playback, it will stop playback. Fast Forward Button Holding the Fast Forward button moves the song position line forwards. Quickly pressing the Fast Forward button once, moves the SPL one bar forward. Pressing the Fast Forward and Cycle buttons simultaneously enables Cycle mode, and sets the right border of the Cycle area (right locator) to the current song position. Cycle Activates/deactivates Cycle mode. By default, the Cycle area will fall between the first two markers. You can use the iControl to set the left or right locator to the current song position and enable Cycle mode. To define a new Cycle area, using the Cycle button: 1 Navigate to the desired left locator position with the Jog Wheel. 2 Do one of the following:  Press the Cycle and Rewind buttons simultaneously, navigate to the desired right locator position with the Jog Wheel, then press the Cycle and Fast Forward buttons simultaneously.  Hold down the Cycle button, navigate to the desired right locator position with the Jog Wheel, then release the Cycle button. Master Fader Controls the level of the Master fader in the Mixer windows of Logic. This reduces the level of all tracks, but does not affect their relative positions. 108 Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl Assignment Overview The following assignment tables are broken down into “zones” of the iControl. Assignment Section The Assignments button in the All Tracks and Selected Tracks area defines the behavior of the channel strip buttons. Channel Strip (x8) iControl button Modifier Function/Comments Volume — Encoders control track’s Volume parameter. Pan — Encoders control track’s Pan parameter. Generator — Encoders control software instrument parameters. Track Info — Encoders control track parameters. EQ — Encoders control EQ parameters. Effect 1 — Encoders control Insert 3 parameters. Effect 2 — Encoders control Insert 4 parameter. Option — Modifier for other controls; while held down, the modified control either applies the function to all tracks or sets the parameter to its minimum, default, or maximum value. Arrow Up/Down — Shift fader bank left/right by number of channel strips. Option Shift fader bank to beginning or end. iControl Modifier Function/Comments Encoder — Modify currently selected parameter. Option Set parameter to minimum, default, or maximum value. Record Enable — Activates/Deactivates Record Enable button of track. Option Disable Record Enable button for all tracks. Solo — Activates/Deactivates Solo button of track. Option Disable Solo button for all tracks. Mute — Activates/Deactivates Mute button of track. Option Disable Mute button for all tracks. Sel — Select track, except in Channel Strip mode. Chapter 3 M-Audio iControl 109 Jog Wheel Transport Buttons iControl Modifier Function/Comments Jog Wheel — Move Song Position Line. Cycle Set the Left locator to the current SPL, advance the SPL as per usual, then set the Right locator to the new SPL position. Further Jog Wheel turns (to the right) while holding down the Cycle button advances the SPL and resets the Right locator position. Tip: rotating the Jog Wheel counter-clockwise (to the left) while holding down Cycle defines a skip-cycle range. iControl Modifier Function/Comments Record — Record Return To Zero — Go to beginning of song Rewind — Move the SPL one bar backward. If held, continue to scroll backwards. Cycle Engage Cycle function and set left locator to SPL. Play — Play or Stop Fast Forward — Move the SPL one bar forward. If held, continue to scroll forwards. Cycle Engage Cycle function and set right locator to SPL. Cycle — Switch Cycle mode on or off. 4 111 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC Logic Pro 7.2.1 supports the EuCon protocol developed by Euphonix, enabling enhanced communication between the MC or System 5-MC and Logic. The following chapter describes how the MC and System 5-MC control Logic in EuCon mode. Please note that this is an addendum to the MC operation manual and is limited to descriptions of Logic specific features. Please refer to the device operating manuals for more information about your control surface(s). Setting Up the MC or System 5-MC With Logic Please follow the steps outlined in the section below to use your MC or System 5-MC with Logic. To set up the MC or System 5-MC with Logic: 1 Set up your MC and/or CM408T units as described in the MC operation manual. 2 Install the EuConWS software (version 1.1.2 or later) on your Macintosh. 3 Ensure that your Macintosh computer is set up as a workstation on the MC (see MC operation manual). 4 Assuming that the MC software is running on the MC: Select the Euphonix Menu icon on the MC Touchscreen and choose the Prefs menu item, then go to the About tab. Ensure that EuCon version is 1.1.2 or later. If it isn‘t, you‘ll need to update the EuCon software. Go to the Euphonix website for more information. Note: If you have been using an earlier EuCon version, you should delete or rename the Logic Pro.xml file before installing newer EuCon versions. This file is used when controlling Logic with the Euphonix device(s) HUI emulation, which causes conflicts when controlling Logic in EuCon mode. Exit the MC and return to the operating system by choosing Euphonix > Shutdown > Exit to Operating System, then open the C:\Program Files\Euphonix\EuCon\UserSets\MCUser\MC_USER_SET__Root folder and rename or delete the Logic Pro.xml file. 112 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 5 If you have a CM408T and the correct MC software is running: Choose Euphonix > Prefs > Modules, select the CM408T in the “All Online” list, then touch “Add.” 6 Launch Logic Pro 7.2.1. The startup screen advises that Logic is starting EuCon. 7 On the MC, press the workstation button associated with your Macintosh computer. The MC display will show an “Attaching to Logic Pro” progress bar. Note: The EuCon support of Logic is not achieved through special control surface plugins. As a consequence, you can not use the Control Surface Assignments Editor to change assignments. You can only use the facilities provided by the MC or System 5- MC. More information about this can be found in the operation manuals provided with your EuCon device(s). EuCon devices do not appear in the Control Surfaces Setup window. Setting Up Soft Key Assignments The “Logic Pro.xml” Application Set file—installed with EuCon version 1.1.2—features a number of useful Soft Key assignments. The MC Touchscreen can be used to edit them. To change a Soft Key assignment: 1 Select the respective Soft Key. 2 Touch the Euphonix Menu icon, then choose Setup in the ensuing pop-up menu. 3 Choose the desired EuCon command in the menu. Logic supports the following EuCon commands:  Key Commands: All Logic key commands (except the transport commands) are found here. The Touchscreen uses the same hierarchy as the Key Commands window. Many of these key commands switch between states (on/off, for example) or set a value. Most also provide feedback on the Soft Key (as an example: a Soft Key assigned to the Open/Close Score Editor command is illuminated when a Score Editor window is open).  Left Wheel/Right Wheel: The commands found here allow you to configure the left or right wheel to perform a certain action when turned. This includes horizontal or vertical zoom, waveform zoom, individual track zoom, move locators, adjust left locator, adjust right locator, move drop locators, adjust drop in (punch in), adjust drop out (punch out), move marker, adjust marker length, nudge selected Regions or events, left/right pan (surround X), and front/back pan (surround Y). Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 113  Project > Markers: All markers defined in the open song are shown as a list. Assigning a Soft Key to a marker command will display the marker title on the Soft Key LCD display. Pressing the Soft Key will move the SPL to the marker start point. The Soft Key is illuminated while the SPL falls within the marker boundaries. Renaming a marker in Logic also changes the associated Soft Key title. Moving a marker, however, disconnects the Soft Key from the marker.  Transport: All transport related key commands are found here. Note: Marker Soft Keys are a part of the Application Set, not the song data. Don’t forget to save the User Set after defining a Marker Soft Key. Main-Tracks Touchscreen The MC Main-Tracks Touchscreen always displays a song‘s tracks (channels) in the Track Mixer‘s (adaptive) Track view:  The channels are laid out in the same order as in the Arrange window.  Redundant tracks are suppressed (not accessible), where multiple tracks represent the same output. Note: Filtered selections (different view modes) are not reflected on the MC Main- Tracks Touchscreen track list. The transport information is displayed as follows:  SMPTE clock  Bars/beats time  Left locator  Right locator Main-Layouts Layouts are automatically saved with the Logic song. When re-loading a song, all defined layouts are available. Faders The following section outlines the functionality of the MC fader elements in Logic. Solo Keys This key activates the Solo button for each Audio Object. 114 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC On Keys The MC On keys provide the same functionality as the Mute buttons in Logic, but work in reverse: An MC On key must be lit to hear the channel. If a channel strip has been muted in Logic, the corresponding MC channel On key is not illuminated. A track that is not muted features a lit On key. L LED When the Logic track controlled by the fader belongs to an automation group, the L LED on the channel strip is lit. Touching Fader Selects Track Preference Please note that the “Touching fader selects track” preference of Logic (Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Preferences) does not apply to the MC and System 5- MC when they are used with the EuCon protocol. This function is offered by the MC itself, with the “Select channel by touching fader/joystick“ preference. Choosing Automation Modes The MC and System 5-MC only support Read and Write automation modes. Logic, however, also features Touch and Latch automation modes. When you use these devices with Logic, activating the “Read and Write“ mode in the Touchscreen activates Touch mode in Logic. Latch mode can not be activated with the MC or System 5-MC. When you choose Latch mode with the mouse in Logic, the green R and red W LEDs are lit (as per Read and Write mode). To choose an automation mode: 1 Press the Wave and Select keys simultaneously. 2 Select the desired automation mode in the pop-up menu displayed on the Touchscreen. You can choose between:  Isolate: Automation mode is off.  Read: Activates Read mode in Logic.  Write: Activates Write mode in Logic.  Read/Write: Activates Touch mode in Logic. Note: If a write automation mode (Touch, Latch, Write) is active (and an automation parameter enabled in the Logic > Preferences > Automation > Touch/Latch/Write Erase settings is chosen), the red W LED is lit. The green LED is lit when a read automation mode is active. Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 115 Knobsets When using the Euphonix MC with Logic, a knobset contains pages, each comprised of eight parameters. The top level knobset leads to the following knobsets:  Inserts: Pressing the Inserts Soft Key switches to a list of currently instantiated plugins (see the following section for details). The On key is lit if a plug-in is enabled (not bypassed) and does not belong to the dynamic, EQ, or filter plug-in groups. (Please note that this also applies to Audio Unit plug-ins.) Pressing the On key switches the bypass state of all plug-ins that do not fall into the dynamic, EQ, or filter groups.  Input: Pressing the Input Soft Key switches to input parameters (see “Input Knobset” on page 116).  Dyn: The Dyn Soft Key is not currently used to display a list, or allow editing, of dynamic plug-ins. The On key is lit when any Dynamic plug-ins are enabled (not bypassed). Please note that this only applies to Logic plug-ins, not Audio Unit plugins. Pressing the On key switches the bypass state of all Dynamic plug-ins.  EQ: Pressing the EQ Soft Key switches to EQ editing (see “EQ Knobset” on page 118). The On key is lit when EQ plug-ins are enabled (not bypassed). Please note that this only applies to Logic plug-ins, not Audio Unit plug-ins. Pressing the On key switches the bypass state of all EQ plug-ins.  Sends: Pressing the Sends Soft Key switches to Send editing mode (see “Sends Knobset” on page 118).  Pan: Pressing the Pan Soft Key switches to Pan/Surround editing mode (see “Pan/ Surround Editing Knobset” on page 119).  Groups: Pressing the Groups Soft Key switches to Group editing mode (see “Groups Knobset” on page 119).  Output: Pressing the Output Soft Key switches to Output parameter editing mode (see “Output Knobset” on page 119). Inserts (Configuration) Knobset In this mode, the Soft Keys display the effect plug-ins inserted on the selected track. If more than eight effect plug-ins are instantiated, you can use the right Page key of the left Page key set to display ensuing plug-ins. To edit an effect plug-in: 1 Press the Soft Key (or respective knob top) that features the name of the effect plug-in that you wish to edit. This switches to Effect Plug-in Editing mode. The parameters of the plug-in are displayed in the order shown in the Controls view of the effect. 2 Turn the respective knob(s) to change the desired value(s). 116 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC Pressing a knob top sets the controlled parameter to its default value. For parameters with only two values, the On key is lit when the value is 1 (or on) and unlit when the value is 0 (or off ). Pressing the On key switches between the two value. If the plug-in features more than eight parameters, use the left Page key set to navigate between pages of parameters. Pressing the Back key returns to the Inserts (Configuration) knobset. To insert effect plug-ins: 1 In the Inserts (Configuration) Knobset mode, press both Page keys simultaneously. This switches to Effect Insert mode. The Soft Keys display the first eight Insert slots of a channel. 2 Select the desired Insert slot by pressing the respective knob top. You can use the left Page key to display Insert slots 9 to 15. When you press the respective knob top, the Soft Keys display the Logic plug-in menu that appears when you click-hold on an Insert slot with the mouse. Π Tip: If the selected Insert slot already contains an effect plug-in, the MC reflects the bold menu entries (indicating the selected plug-in name/type) with a lit On key. 3 Choose the desired effect plug-in:  Pressing the Soft Key or knob top enters a submenu or inserts a selected effect plugin.  Pressing the Back key navigates up one level in the menu hierarchy. Input Knobset If the Input knobset is active, the Soft Keys display all possible input values for audio tracks:  The first value is “--”, meaning no input.  The currently active input value is indicated by a lit On key.  Pressing the respective On key, Soft Key or knob top chooses the respective input value.  If there are more than eight values (inputs), the left Page key set switches to the previous/next values.  Pressing the two Page keys simultaneously switches to Input Configuration mode: the Soft Keys display mode values (Mono, Stereo, Left, Right) for the track. Again, the active value is indicated by a lit On key. Pressing the respective On key, Soft Key or knob top chooses the respective value.  Pressing the Back key returns to the top-level knobset. On Audio Instrument tracks, the Input knobset displays the inserted instrument. Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 117 To edit an instrument: m Press the respective knob top or Soft Key. Instrument parameters are displayed in the order shown in the Controls view of the plug-in. Turning a knob changes the parameter value. Pressing a knob top sets the controlled parameter to its default value. For parameters with only two values, the On key is lit when the value is 1 (or on) and unlit when the value is 0 (or off ). To change or insert an instrument: 1 Press both Page keys simultaneously. This switches to Insert Instrument mode. The Soft Key display indicates the Instrument slot of the channel. When you press the knob top or Soft Key, the Soft Keys display the Instrument plug-in menu that appears when you click-hold on an Instrument slot with the mouse. 2 Choose the desired Instrument plug-in:  Pressing the Soft Key or knob top enters a submenu or inserts a selected instrument plug-in.  Pressing the Back key navigates up one level in the menu hierarchy (or switches back to the Input Knobset if you are in the top level of the menu). Opening and Closing Plug-in windows Logic supports the MC “Open plugins on workstation when editing” and “Close plugins on workstation when exiting” preferences. This behavior is dependent on the Link button being enabled in plug-in windows. If a Link-enabled plug-in window is open:  “Open plugins on workstation when editing” does not open a new window when a new plug-in is selected, but will replace the open window’s contents.  “Close plugins on workstation when exiting” does nothing. Otherwise, “Open plug-ins on workstation when editing” opens a new plug-in window, with the Link button disabled. “Close plugins on workstation when exiting“ closes the Plug-in window. Dyn(amic) Knobset This knobset is not currently implemented. 118 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC EQ Knobset This knobset allows you to edit the first EQ plug-in (Channel EQ or Linear Phase EQ). There are two pages, with each band featuring two knobs. Page 1 shows the parameters of the first, second, 7th, and 8th EQ bands. Page 2 shows the parameters of EQ bands 3 to 6. When no Linear Phase or Channel EQ is present on the selected track, pressing the last Soft Key in the second row (labeled AddChEQ) inserts a Channel EQ. For each band:  The upper knob controls either Frequency or Q. You can switch between Frequency or Q with the Select key for the Knobset. Pressing the knob top sets the controlled parameter to its default value.  The lower knob controls Gain (or Slope). Again, pressing the knob top sets the controlled parameter to its default value.  The lower knob‘s On key switches the bypass state of the band. When the band is bypassed, the On key is unlit. When the band is active, the On key is illuminated. To return to the top-level knobset: m Press the Back key. Sends Knobset The Sends knobset displays the current track send options.  The Soft Key shows the send destination.  The knob controls send level.  The Select key switches between pre fader (off—unlit) and post fader (on—lit) modes.  The On key switches the bypass state of the send.  Pressing both Page keys simultaneously enters Send Configuration mode (see the following section).  Pressing the Back key returns to the top-level knobset Send Configuration Knobset In Send Configuration mode, a list of the first eight Send slots is displayed. When you touch the knob, the Soft Key shows the send level (provided the send slot is already assigned to a bus). To change a send destination: 1 Select the desired Send slot by pressing the respective Soft Key or knob top. The first eight Send destinations are displayed. You can use the right Page key of the left Page key set to display ensuing Send destinations. 2 Choose the desired destination by pressing the respective Soft Key or knob top. Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 119 To return to send editing mode: m Press the Back key. Pan/Surround Editing Knobset This knobset displays the Pan parameter unless Surround mode is active on the track(s). On tracks where Surround Mode is active, this knobset displays:  Surround Angle  Surround Diversity  LFE  Surround X (left/right)  Surround Y (front/back)  Center Level Press the Back key to return to the top-level knobset. Pressing a knob top sets the controlled parameter to its default value. Groups Knobset This knobset displays all currently used automation groups.  The Soft Keys show group names. Press to choose the respective group(s).  The On key displays and switches between active/inactive group membership for the track.  Pressing the Back key returns to the top-level knobset. Output Knobset If the Output knobset is active, the Soft Keys display all possible output values for the track:  The first value is “Surround,” the second is “--”, meaning no output.  The currently active output is indicated by a lit On key.  Pressing the On key, Soft Key, or knob top chooses the respective output value.  If there are more than eight outputs, you can use the right Page key of the left Page keys to display ensuing outputs.  If the selected track is a surround track, pressing the two Page keys simultaneously will switch to Surround Output Configuration mode: the Soft Keys display the surround format parameters (Stereo, LCR, Center Only, Quadro, and so on) of a track. Again, the active value is indicated by a lit On key and pressing the On key, Soft Key or knob top chooses the respective value.  Pressing the Back key returns to the top-level knobset. 120 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC Assignable Knob The Assignable Knob can be used for control of any parameter that can be automated. You must click on the target parameter with the mouse. Pointing with the mouse is not sufficient to assign a parameter. Pressing the knob top locks/unlocks the Assignable Knob. When locked, clicking a parameter with the mouse will not reassign the Assignable Knob. Both the On and the Smart key switch the currently assigned parameter between values of 0 and 1 (useful for on/off parameters). Monitors and Control Room Logic Pro does not support EuCon monitoring control. Please use the Studio Monitor Pro application. Clear Keys The “Clear Mute” and “Clear Solo” keys turn off Mute or Solo on all tracks. The Clear Mute/Clear Solo key is lit when any track is muted/soloed. The button without a label above the Clear Mute key provides a special feature on the CM408T: when it is active (lit), pressing a CM408T key/knob activates the respective view (knobsets, sub-menus, and so on) for all channels. Track Control Bar The Track Control Bar of the Logic Arrange window offers a special feature on the Euphonix MC and System 5-MC devices: it shows “attentioned” tracks in light blue. All currently “accessed” tracks are shown in dark blue. Note: The color of the track control bar can not be changed in the Control Surface Setup window. System 5-MC Specific Features This section describes how the System 5-MC‘s CM408T fader module controls Logic in EuCon mode. TFT Display  Level meters: Display the level of the respective track. Two discrete stereo level meters are shown for stereo tracks.  Track Info section: Displays the track name, number, stereo/surround mode, input and output assignments. Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC 121  Graphs: In all knobsets (except EQ), the graph section displays the current pan or surround position. If the EQ knobset is selected, the graph section displays the current frequency response. If the EQ plug-in is bypassed, the curve is displayed in gray, rather than green.  Knobset assignment: The eight lines normally display the assignment of a knob. The current value of a knob is displayed when it is touched. In the Output and Group knobset, a green frame is shown around the text of knob cells with a lit On key.  Color bar: The color corresponds to the color assigned to the audio channel (or Logic instrument) of the track. Two Keys Above Knobsets Pressing the two keys above a knobset is equivalent to pressing the MC Back key: You move up one level in the hierarchy, if applicable. Knob Cells The CM408T knob cells are almost identical to the MC knob cells. There is just one difference: They feature a four-character LED, but no Soft Key. Top Level Knobset Keys These keys allow you to access knobsets directly:  “*” (asterisk) key: Same as Inserts Soft Key (see “Inserts (Configuration) Knobset” on page 115).  Input: Accesses Input knobset (see “Input Knobset” on page 116)  Dyn: Selects the Dynamic knobset (see “Dyn(amic) Knobset” on page 117).  EQ: Selects the EQ/Filter knobset (see “EQ Knobset” on page 118).  Aux: Selects the Sends knobset (see “Sends Knobset” on page 118).  Pan: Selects the Pan knobset (see “Pan/Surround Editing Knobset” on page 119).  Grp: Selects the Group knobset (see “Groups Knobset” on page 119).  Mix: Selects the Output knobset (see “Output Knobset” on page 119). In Keys These keys allow you to switch the bypass status of particular plug-in types.  Ins In key: Switches the bypass status of all plug-ins that do not belong to the dynamic, EQ, or filter categories (please note that this also applies to Audio Unit plug-ins).  Dyn In: Switches the bypass status of all dynamic plug-ins (please note that this only applies to Logic, not Audio Unit plug-ins).  EQ In: Switches the bypass status of all EQ plug-ins (please note that this only applies to Logic, not Audio Unit plug-ins).  Filt In: Switches the bypass status of all filter plug-ins (please note that this only applies to Logic, not Audio Unit plug-ins). 122 Chapter 4 EuCon Support of Euphonix MC and System 5-MC Identical Keys The following CM408T keys work in the same fashion as their MC counterparts:  Page/Configure key  Channel Select key  Rec key  Solo key  On key 5 123 5 CM Labs Motormix Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Ensure that your Motormix unit(s) are connected bi-directionally with the MIDI interface.  Choose Logic Pro > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup.  Choose the New > Install menu item from the Setup window’s local menu.  Select “Motormix” in the Install window, choose “Add,” then set the appropriate MIDI In and Out ports in the Setup window—for each Motormix unit. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (SHIFT, for example) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Select Buttons The Select buttons (buttons just below the LCD) have multiple uses, depending on the current mode. Mode Assignment normal Selects track displayed in upper LCD line. Tracks can be shifted to the left and right with the View left and right buttons. bank button LED flashing Track View Select mode: selects type of tracks to be displayed:  1: Track View  2: Arrange View  3: Global View, MIDI tracks  4: Global View, Input channels  5: Global View, Audio tracks  6: Global View, Audio Instruments  7: Global View, Bus, and Aux channels  8: Global View, Outputs, and Master 124 Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix WINDOW/ tool button LED on Opens, activates, or closes a window of a certain class. LED off: If the window is not open, the button opens it. LED on: If the window is open, but not active, the button activates it. LED flashes: If the window is active, the button closes it.  1: Arrange Window  2: Track Mixer  3: Event List  4: Score Editor.  5: Hyper Editor  6: Matrix Editor.  7: Transport window  8: Audio window. WINDOW/ tool button flashes Chooses a tool.  1: Pointer  2: Pencil  3: Eraser  4: Text tool  5: Scissors  6: Glue  7: Solo tool  8: Mute tool PLAY/ transport button flashes Transport section  1: Record  2: Pause  3: Stop  4: Play  5: Rewind  6: Fast Forward  Upper LCD row displays current clock position. STOP/locate button flashes Locating functions  1: Goes to left locator.  2: Goes to right locator.  3: Enables/Disables Cycle.  4: Enables/Disables Drop.  5: Enters Marker mode (see below).  6: Opens floating Marker List.  Upper LCD row displays current clock position. Marker mode  1 to 6: Selects markers 1 to 6. Marker names are displayed in the upper LCD row.  7: Creates a new marker.  8: Deletes current marker. Group Edit mode Switches between group parameters. Parameter view can be shifted by the View left and right buttons when the SHIFT button is held down. Plug-in Assign Enters Plug-in Edit mode for selected track. Plug-in Edit Enables/Disables parameter or resets it to default value. Mode Assignment Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix 125 Note: In modal dialogs, the Select buttons generate the computer keyboard character shown on the button face. Rotary Pots Instrument Assign Enters Instrument Edit mode for selected track. Instrument Edit Enables/Disables parameter or resets it to default value. Mode Assignment Control Assignment Rotary pots 1 to 8 Control parameter chosen with the Rotary Selector, as displayed in the 7 segment display (see below). 7 segment display Shows current selection for Rotary pots: Send editing (S-MUTE or PRE/PST LED is on):  S1 to S8 = Send 1 to 8 level  F1 to F8 = EQ band 1 to 8 frequency  G1 to G8 = EQ band 1 to 8 gain  q1 to q8 = EQ band 1 to 8 Q factor Pan/Surround editing (select LED is on):  Pn = Pan  An = Surround Angle  dv = Surround Diversity  FE = Surround LFO  Md = Assign Surround Mode  X = Surround X  Y = Surround Y Track parameter editing (eff-4 LED is on):  VL = Volume  Pn or An = Pan/Surround Angle  Md = Channel Mode  In = Channel input  Ou = Channel output  Au = Automation mode  Gr = Group membership Assignment:  d1 to d8 = Assign Send 1 to 8 destination Plug-in editing (DSP/compare LED is on):  P1 to 15 = Assign Insert slot 1 to 15 to plug-in  P1. to 15. = Plug-in parameter editing Instrument editing (DSP/compare LED is on):  IA = Assign instrument  IE. = Instrument parameter editing. Group property editing (group LED is on):  G1 to 32 = group number 126 Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix Multi Buttons These buttons (labelled A to H) have multiple uses, depending on the current mode, as indicated by the green and yellow LEDs to the right. Note: In modal dialogs, the Multi buttons generate the computer keyboard character shown on the button face. Rotary Selector Selects a slot or parameter for rotary encoders, depending on the parameter type(s) being edited with the rotary encoders:  Send slot when editing send level or assigning send destination.  EQ band when editing an EQ parameter.  Effect/Instrument slot when assigning an effect/instrument.  Pan/Surround parameter when editing a Pan/Surround parameter.  Track parameter when editing a Track parameter.  Effect/instrument parameter page when editing a plug-in or instrument. Rotary Selector push button Switches Flip mode between Off and Duplicate (faders duplicate rotary encoder assignments). SHIFT Switches Display mode for channel strip displays: switches between:  Page info in upper line, parameter name in lower line.  Parameter name in upper line, parameter value in lower line. Control Assignment Mode Assignment fx bypass Enables/Disables bypass of currently selected insert effect. SHIFT (eff-1) Enables/Disables bypass of currently selected EQ band and switches rotary encoders to EQ frequency editing. s-mute Enables/Disables bypass of currently edited Send and switches rotary encoders to send level editing. SHIFT (eff-2) Enables/Disables bypass of currently selected EQ band and switches rotary encoders to EQ Gain editing. pre/post Switches between pre and post of currently edited send and switches rotary encoders to send level editing. Post mode is indicated by a lit LED. SHIFT (eff-3) Enables/Disables bypass of currently selected EQ band and switches rotary encoders to (EQ) Q factor editing. select Switches rotary encoders to Pan/Surround editing. The edited parameter is selected with the Rotary Selector. SHIFT (eff-4) Switches rotary encoders to track parameter editing. Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix 127 Burn Buttons These buttons (labelled I to P) have multiple uses, depending on the current mode, as indicated by the red LEDs to the left. Note: In modal dialogs, the Burn buttons generate the computer keyboard character shown on the button face. SOLO Buttons These buttons switch the Solo status of the displayed track. Note: In modal dialogs the Solo buttons generate the computer keyboard character shown on the button face. MUTE Buttons These buttons switch the Mute status of the displayed track. Note: In modal dialogs, the Solo buttons generate the computer keyboard character shown on the button face. Mode Assignment record Enables/Disables Record Enable status of track. SHIFT (fnctA) Switches automation mode to Latch. ALL + SHIFT (fnctA) Switches automation mode of all tracks to Latch. write Switches automation mode to Write. ALL Switches automation mode of all tracks to Write. SHIFT (fnctB) Switches automation mode to Read. ALL + SHIFT (fnctA) Switches automation mode of all tracks to Read. burn Switches automation mode to Touch. ALL Switches automation mode of all tracks to Touch. SHIFT (fnctC) Switches automation mode to Off. ALL + SHIFT (fnctA) Switches automation mode of all tracks to Off. 128 Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix VIEW Section Left Function Buttons Control Assignment Left/right buttons In Plug-in and Instrument Edit mode: shifts the parameter bank by one bank. In other modes:  If BANK LED is off: shifts the fader bank by one channel.  If BANK LED is on: shifts the fader bank by one bank. SHIFT In Plug-in and Instrument Edit mode: shifts the parameter bank by one parameter. In Group Edit mode, the group parameter bank is shifted. bank Switches mode of left/right buttons (see above). SHIFT Sets Select buttons to Track View Select mode (see below). group Sets Select buttons, rotary encoders and Multi buttons to Group Edit mode. SHIFT Displays tracks’ group assignments in the LCD. The rotary encoders allow you to change assignments. Control Assignment AUTO ENBL/mode Currently unassigned. SHIFT Switches rotary encoders to automation enable mode. SUSPEND/create While held down, the groups are temporarily disabled. SHIFT Creates a new group and enters Group Edit mode. PLUG-IN/compare Switches rotary encoders and Multi buttons to Plug-in Assign mode. The Rotary Select knob is used to select the Insert slot you want to use/edit. In Plug-in Assign or Instrument Assign mode, it switches to Pan mode. In Plug-in Edit mode, it switches to Plug-in Assign mode. In Instrument Edit mode, it switches to Instrument Assign mode. SHIFT Switches rotary encoders and Multi buttons to Instrument Assign mode. WINDOW/tools Switches Select buttons to Window Select mode. SHIFT Switches Select buttons to Select Tool mode. ALL/alt/fine While ALL/alt/fine is held down, rotary encoders are in full mode: rotating counter-clockwise sets minimum, rotating clockwise sets maximum value. SHIFT while SHIFT and ALL/alt/fine are held down, rotary encoders are in fine mode. DEFAULT/bypass Currently unassigned. SHIFT In Instrument Edit mode: switches bypass state of the instrument. In Plug-in Edit mode: switches bypass state of the currently edited plug-in. UNDO/save Performs an Undo step. The LED is lit if there is a Redo step available. SHIFT Saves the song. The LED is lit if the song contains unsaved changes. SHIFT Switches to Shift mode—where the functions indicated by the lower case (inverted) labels below the buttons apply. Chapter 5 CM Labs Motormix 129 Faders The faders normally control volume, except when in Flip mode, where they duplicate the rotary encoder assignments. Right Function Buttons Control Assignment PLAY/ transport Play key command. SHIFT Switches Select buttons to Transport Section mode. STOP/locate Stop key command. SHIFT Switches Select buttons to Locate mode. FFWD/monitor Shuttle Forward key command. SHIFT Opens System Performance window. REWIND/status Shuttle Rewind key command. SHIFT Opens Synchronization window. NEXT/configure Navigates to next marker. LAST/assign When rotary encoders are displaying send destinations, use of LAST/assign switches them back to displaying send levels. Otherwise: goes to previous marker. SHIFT When rotary encoders are displaying send levels, use of LAST/assign switches them to displaying send destinations. When rotary encoders are in Plug-in Edit mode, use of LAST/assign switches them to Plug-in Assign mode. When rotary encoders are in Instrument Edit mode, use of LAST/assign switches them to Instrument Assign Mode. ENTER/utility Identical to Enter key on computer keyboard. SHIFT Opens Automation Settings window. ESCAPE When LED is lit, escapes from “special” mode (denoted by flashing LED). At all other times: identical to Esc key on computer keyboard. 6 131 6 Frontier Design TranzPort Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Ensure that the software shipped with the TranzPort is installed.  Make sure that the “Tranz Bridge” (the wireless transmitter) is connected to the computer via USB.  When Logic Pro 7 is launched, it installs the TranzPort automatically, and sets it to “native mode.” LCD The LCD displays the following information:  Top line left: name of currently displayed track.  Top line middle: volume of currently displayed track.  Top line right: panning of currently displayed track.  Bottom line left: level meter of currently displayed track (stereo).  Bottom line right: current clock position. 132 Chapter 6 Frontier Design TranzPort Assignment Overview A right-aligned SHIFT (or other) button below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Channel Strip Master Section Control Assignment Shift the currently displayed track right by one track. SHIFT Shift the currently displayed track right by eight tracks. REC Activate/Deactivate Record Enable button for the currently displayed track. SHIFT Disable Record Enable button for all tracks. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo for the currently displayed track. SHIFT Disable Solo for all tracks. MUTE Enables/Disables Mute for the currently displayed track. SHIFT Disable Mute for all tracks. ANY SOLO Lit if any tracks or Regions are soloed. UNDO Undo SHIFT Redo Control Assignment SHIFT Modifier for function of other controls. IN Go to left Cycle locator. PUNCH Engage Drop and set Drop In locator to SPL. LOOP Engage Cycle and sets left Cycle locator to SPL. OUT Go to right Cycle locator. PUNCH Engage Drop and set Drop Out locator to SPL. LOOP Engage Cycle and set right Cycle locator to SPL. PUNCH Enables/Disables Drop mode. LOOP Enables/Disables Cycle mode. PREV Go to previous marker. SHIFT Set locators by previous marker. ADD Create marker at SPL. SHIFT Delete marker at SPL. NEXT Go to next marker. SHIFT Set locators by next marker. Chapter 6 Frontier Design TranzPort 133 External Input Jog Wheel Depending on current Jog Wheel mode: • Move SPL by bars. • Audio scrubbing or • Shuttle. SHIFT Adjust volume of the currently displayed track. LOOP Set the Left locator to the current SPL, advance the SPL as per usual, then set the Right locator to the SPL. Further Jog Wheel use while holding down LOOP advances the SPL and sets the Right locator. Tip: Rotating the Jog Wheel counter-clockwise while holding down LOOP defines a skip-cycle range. DROP Set the Drop In locator to the current SPL, advance the SPL as per usual, then set the Drop Out locator to the SPL. Further jog wheel use while holding down DROP advances the SPL and sets the Drop Out locator. REW Shuttle backward. SHIFT Go to last play position. PUNCH Engage Drop mode and set Drop In locator to SPL. LOOP Engage Cycle mode and set left locator to SPL. F FWD Shuttle forward. PUNCH Engage Drop mode and set Drop Out locator to SPL. LOOP Engage Cycle moce and set right locator to SPL. STOP Stop SHIFT Switch Jog Wheel modes between Move SPL by Bars, Audio Scrubbing and Shuttle. PLAY Play SHIFT Pause RECORD Record SHIFT Save Control Assignment Control Assignment Foot Switch Drop In/Out 7 135 7 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Install the software that ships with the CS-32.  Ensure that the CS-32 is in Host mode:  Make sure that your CS-32 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB or MIDI. USB units are installed automatically. You must manually scan for MIDI units:  Choose Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup.  Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu.  Select the CS-32 from the list in the Install window.  Click the Scan button. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Display The 2-digit 7-segment display shows information on the current mode and currently edited parameter: Display text Meaning -- A “switching” parameter (Solo, Mute, Rec/Rdy) has been disabled. AE Mute buttons 1–6 display/set Automation Enable. AS Pots are in Pan/Send Assignment mode. b1–b9 Pots are in Plug-in or Instrument bank select mode. In Pots are in Instrument Edit mode. Lt Mute buttons display/set “Latch” automation mode. MI Mute buttons display/set “MIDI” automation mode. Mu Mute has been enabled. P1–P9 Pots are in Plug-in Edit mode. 136 Chapter 7 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk Pots As the pots are not motorized, Pickup mode is used, if enabled in the Control Surfaces preferences. This means that the pots will not “take over” until NULLed. NULL status is displayed by the NULL arrow LEDs. The Upper arrow is lit if the pot’s value is above the NULL point, the Lower arrow is lit if the pot’s value is below the NULL point, and both arrow LEDs are lit if NULLed. The pots can operate in one of three modes, with one sub-mode each. Pan/Send Mode In Pan/Send mode (enabled with F7; display shows “PA”), the pots control global track parameters: While SHIFT is held down (display shows “AS”), the pots perform the following assignments: PA Pots are in Pan/Send mode. rd Mute buttons display/set “Read” automation mode. Re Rec/Rdy has been enabled. So Solo has been enabled. Tc Mute buttons display/set “Touch” automation mode. Wr Mute buttons display/set “Write” automation mode. Other text When a track is selected, the first two characters of its name are shown briefly. Numbers While editing a numerical value with a fader or pot, the current value is displayed. If there are more than two digits, only the last digits of the mantissa are displayed. Signs (+/–) are only shown if only one digit is displayed. Display text Meaning Control Assignment SEND A/P1 Controls Send 1 Level of selected track. SEND B/P2 Controls Send 2 Level of selected track. PAN/P3 Controls Pan of selected track. SEND C/P4 Controls Send 3 Level of selected track. SEND D/P5 Controls Send 4 Level of selected track. SEND E/P6 Controls Send 5 Level of selected track. Control Assignment SEND A/P1 Assigns Send 1 Destination of selected track. SEND B/P2 Assigns Send 2 Destination of selected track. PAN/P3 Assigns Track mode of selected track. SEND C/P4 Assigns Send 3 Destination of selected track. Chapter 7 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk 137 Instrument Edit Mode In Instrument Edit mode (enabled with F8; display shows “In”), the pots control instrument parameters. With SHIFT held down (display shows “b1”–“b9”), you can choose the parameter bank (see “Cursor Section” on page 139). Plug-in Edit Mode In Plug-in Edit mode (enabled with F9, display shows “P1”–”P9”), the pots control plugin parameters of the currently selected insert. With SHIFT held down (display shows “b1”–”b9”), you can choose the current insert and parameter bank (see “Cursor Section” on page 139). Channel Strips SEND D/P5 Assigns Send 4 Destination of selected track. SEND E/P6 Assigns Send 5 Destination of selected track. Control Assignment Control Assignment PAN SELECT/TRACK SELECT Selects track. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. LOCATE Navigates to markers 1–32. SHIFT LOCATE 17: Creates new marker. LOCATE 18: Creates new marker without rounding. LOCATE 19: Deletes marker at SPL. LOCATE 25: Opens Marker List. LOCATE 26: Opens Marker Text window. LOCATE 28: Sets locators by previous marker. LOCATE 29: Sets locators by current marker. LOCATE 30: Sets locators by next marker. LOCATE 31: Navigates to previous marker. LOCATE 32: Navigates to next marker. MUTE Enables/Disables Mute. F1 Automation Enable setup (display shows “AE”). MUTE 1: Enables/Disables volume automation. MUTE 2: Enables/Disables pan automation. MUTE 3: Enables/Disables mute automation. MUTE 4: Enables/Disables automation of solo. MUTE 5: Enables/Disables send automation. MUTE 6: Enables/Disables automation of plug-in parameters. F2 Displays/sets automation mode to “Read” (display shows “Td”). F3 Displays/sets automation mode to “Touch” (display shows “Tc”). F4 Displays/sets automation mode to “Latch” (display shows “Lt”). 138 Chapter 7 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk Bank Button F Key Section F5 Displays/sets automation mode to “Write” (display shows “Wr”). F6 Displays/sets automation mode to “MIDI” (display shows “MI”). ARM Activates/Deactivates Record Enable button. Faders Control volume. As the faders don’t offer feedback, Pickup mode is used, if enabled in the Control Surfaces preferences. This means that they will not “take over” until NULLed. NULL status is displayed by the NULL arrow LEDs. Upper arrow is lit if the pot’s value is above the NULL point, the lower arrow is lit if the pot’s value is below the NULL point, and both are lit if NULLed. Control Assignment Control Assignment (Small red button with green LED) LED off: black labels of channel strip buttons apply (TRK/LOC/ARM). LED on: white labels of channel strip buttons apply (PAN/SOLO/MUTE). Control Assignment SHIFT Modifier for function of other controls. See right-aligned “SHIFT” in left column. F1 While held down, MUTE buttons 1–6 enables/disables automation of certain parameters (see MUTE). SHIFT Enables/Disables Cycle mode. F2 While held down, MUTE buttons set automation mode to Read. SHIFT Enables/Disables Drop mode. F3 While held down, MUTE buttons set automation mode to Touch. SHIFT Sets left locator by current SPL. F4 While held down, MUTE buttons set automation mode to Latch. SHIFT Sets right locator by current SPL. F5 While held down, MUTE buttons set automation mode to Write. SHIFT Sets Drop In locator by current SPL. F6 While held down, MUTE buttons set automation mode to MIDI. SHIFT Sets Drop Out locator by current SPL. F7 Sets pots to Pan/Send mode (display shows “PA”). SHIFT Enables/Disables metronome click. F8 Sets pots to Instrument Edit mode (display shows “In”). F9 Sets pots to Plug-in Edit mode (display shows “P1”–”P9”). Chapter 7 JLCooper CS-32 MiniDesk 139 Cursor Section Transport Section Jog Wheel Section Control Assignment Up Zooms out vertically. SHIFT In Plug-in edit mode: decrements current Insert slot. Down Zooms in vertically. SHIFT In Plug-in Edit mode: increments current Insert slot. Left Zooms out horizontally. SHIFT In Instrument and Plug-in Edit modes: decrements current parameter bank. Right Zooms in horizontally. SHIFT In Instrument and Plug-in Edit modes: increments current parameter bank. Control Assignment RECORD Record STOP Stop REW Moves SPL backward by one bar. PLAY Play F FWD Moves SPL forward by one bar. Control Assignment Jog Wheel SCRUB off: moves SPL in bars. SCRUB on: Audio Scrubbing. SHUTTLE on: Shuttle mode. SCRUB Switches Jog Wheel between Move SPL by Bars and Audio Scrubbing mode. SHUTTLE Switches Jog Wheel between Move SPL by Bars and Shuttle mode. 8 141 8 JLCooper FaderMaster 4/100 Requirements You need one or more FaderMaster 4/100 (MIDI or USB version) units with firmware version 1.03 or higher. Important: If you have older firmware (see the sticker on the back of the unit), please contact JLCooper. Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  USB model only: install the software that ships with the FaderMaster 4/100.  Ensure that your FaderMaster 4/100 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB or MIDI. USB units are installed automatically. You must manually scan for MIDI units: 1 Choose Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup. 2 Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu. 3 Select the FaderMaster 4/100 from the list in the Install window. 4 Click the Scan button. Note: You can combine several FaderMaster 4/100 units to form one large virtual control surface. The meaning/functionality of the Track buttons, however, are individually switched for each unit. 142 Chapter 8 JLCooper FaderMaster 4/100 Assignment Overview The following assigment tables are broken down into “zones” of the FaderMaster 4/100. Global buttons Channel Strip Control Assignment Select Switches Track buttons to track selection. Aux Switches Track buttons to Record Ready. Solo Switches Track buttons to Solo. Mute Switches Track Buttons to Mute. Inc Increases fader bank display to show next four tracks. Dec Decreases fader bank display to show previous four tracks. Control Assignment Track button Performs currently selected function (Select, Record Ready, Solo, Mute). Fader Controls volume (touch sensitive and motorized). 9 143 9 Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro.  Ensure that your unit(s) is/are connected to the computer via USB.  Boot Logic, and the unit(s) will be scanned for, and installed automatically.  When Logic launches, the microKONTROL/KONTROL49 is automatically set to “Native mode”—internal Scene settings are ignored. Note: If installation and identification fails, it may be possible that the microKONTROL/ KONTROL49 reaction time is too slow, due to USB bus-power issues. In this situation, connect the supplied power adapter, and set the power switch to the “DC” position. When Logic quits (or the icon is removed from the Control Surface Setup window), the microKONTROL/KONTROL49 is reset to normal operation. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (shown below a button description) indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Pads The Pads can operate in one of eight modes and three overlays. While pressing SCENE, the Pads allow you to select modes for the Pads and channel strips. Releasing SCENE without pressing a Pad does not affect the currently selected Pad or Channel Strip modes. Pad Assignment 1 Switches Pads to Transport mode. 2 Switches Pads to Solo/Mute mode. 3 Switches Pads to Rec/Select mode. 4–8 Switches Pads to User 4–8 mode. These modes have unassigned Pads. You can add assignments to key commands with the Learn function. 9 Switches channel strips to Pan mode. 144 Chapter 9 Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49 Transport Mode This mode is enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 1. Solo/Mute Mode This mode is enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 2. Rec/Select Mode This mode is enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 3. 10 Switches channel strips to Send mode. 11 Switches channel strips to Automation mode. 12 Switches channel strips to Instrument Edit mode. 13 Switches channel strips to Plug-in Edit mode. 14–16 Switches channel strips to User 6–8 mode. These modes have unassigned encoders. You can add assignments with the Logic Learn function. Pad Assignment Pad Assignment 1 Sets main encoder to Transport mode. 2 Sets main encoder to Scrub mode. 3 Sets main encoder to Shuttle mode. 7 Switches sync between internal and external. 8 Enables/Disables metronome click (separately for Playback and Record). 9 Enables/Disables Cycle function. 10 Enables/Disables Drop function. 11 Enables/Disables Replace function. 12 Enables/Disables Solo function. 13 Record 14 Pause 15 Play 16 Stop Pad Assignment 1–8 Enables/Disables Solo for the eight tracks being controlled with the eight channel strips. 9–16 Enables/Disables Mute for the eight tracks being controlled with the eight channel strips. Pad Assignment 1–8 Activates/Deactivates Record Enable button for the eight tracks being controlled with the eight channel strips. 9–16 Selects one of the eight tracks being controlled with the eight channel strips. Chapter 9 Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49 145 User 4–8 Modes These modes are enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 4 to 8. In these modes, the Pads are unassigned. Use the Learn function (Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Learn Assignment for xxx) to assign them to key commands, for example. Send Mode This mode is enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 10. Send overlay Pressing SETTING while the encoders are in Send mode, changes the operation of the Pads in Send mode. Plug-in Edit Mode This mode is enabled by pressing SCENE and Pad 13. Plug-in Edit overlay Pressing SETTING while the encoders are in Plug-in Edit mode changes the operation of the Pads in Plug-in Edit mode. Main Section The main LCD shows information on the current mode of the encoders. Pad Assignment 1–8 Switches send bypass state of the currently selected send for the eight channel strips. 9–16 Switches send position (Pre/Post) of the currently selected send for the eight channel strips. Pad Assignment 1–8 Switches plug-in bypass state of the currently selected Insert slot for the eight channel strips. Display text Meaning Encoders edit Instrument parameters. Encoders edit Plug-in parameters (xx is for the currently selected insert). Automatn Encoders control Automation mode. Ins. x (SETTING held down) Main encoder chooses Plug-in insert. ModePad? Displayed while SCENE button is held down. Pan Encoders control pan. Send x Encoders control send level of send x. User 6 Channel Strip User Mode 6. Encoders are initially unassigned. User 7 Channel Strip User Mode 7. Encoders are initially unassigned. User 8 Channel Strip User Mode 8. Encoders are initially unassigned. 146 Chapter 9 Korg microKONTROL and KONTROL49 The LCD backlight is red while recording, and green at other times. The controls in the main section have the following meaning: Channel Strips There are several modes for the encoders, enabled with SCENE and Pad 9–16. External Input Control Assignment Main encoder Controls SPL in one of three modes (see Pads 1–3 in “Transport Mode” on page 144). SETTING Held down in Send mode:  Main encoder chooses current send.  Pads have special meaning—see “Send Mode” on page 145.  LCDs display send destinations.  Encoders choose send destinations. Holding down in Plug-in Edit mode:  Main encoder chooses current plug-in insert.  Pads have special meaning—see “Plug-in Edit overlay” on page 145.  LCDs display plug-in name of the eight tracks. MESSAGE Enables/Disables Flip mode. When enabled, the encoders control volume and the faders control the parameter displayed in the LCDs. SCENE While held down, pads switch Pad and Channel Strip modes. See “Pads” on page 143. EXIT — HEX LOCK Shifts fader bank to the previous eight tracks (LED is on if previous tracks exist). ENTER Shifts fader bank to the next eight tracks (LED is on if subsequent tracks exist). < Octave Shift Down > Octave Shift Up Control Assignment LCD Shows the parameter controlled by the encoder. The currently chosen value is displayed for a few seconds while operating an encoder or fader. When the encoders are in a multi-channel view (Pan, Send, Send Setup), the background color indicates the track’s automation mode:  green—off or Read  yellow—Touch or Latch  red—Write or MIDI Encoder Controls the parameter shown directly above the encoder in the LCD. Fader Controls volume. As the faders don’t offer feedback, “Pickup mode” is used if enabled in the Logic Preferences. This means that they will not “take over” until NULLed. Control Assignment Foot Switch Starts and stops playback. Pedal Controls master volume. 10 147 10 Mackie Baby HUI Set Up Please make sure that your Baby HUI unit(s) is/are connected bi-directionally with the computer. You must manually scan for Mackie Baby HUI units: 1 Choose Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup. 2 Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu. 3 Select Baby HUI in the Install window. 4 Click the Scan button. Assignment Overview A right-aligned SHIFT below a button description indicates that the control has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Channel Strips Control Assignment Rotary encoder Adjusts parameter selected in the Encoder Assignment section. Rotary encoder push button Selects track. SHIFT Enables/Disables Record Ready. Signal indicator Illuminates when a signal is present in the channel. It also indicates channel selection. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. MUTE Enables/Disables Mute. Fader Adjusts volume. 148 Chapter 10 Mackie Baby HUI Encoder Assignment Section Automation Section Display Section Utility Section Control Assignment PAN Assigns Pan to rotary encoders. SEND 1 Assigns Send 1 Level to rotary encoders. SEND 2 Assigns Send 2 Level to rotary encoders. SEND 3 Assigns Send 3 Level to rotary encoders. SEND 4 Assigns Send 4 Level to rotary encoders. Control Assignment BYPASS/OFF Sets selected track to automation mode Off. SHIFT Enables/Disables automation playback and recording of volume. READ Sets selected track to automation mode Read. SHIFT Enables/Disables automation playback and recording of mute. WRITE Sets selected track to automation mode Write. SHIFT Enables/Disables automation playback and recording of pan. TOUCH Sets selected track to automation mode Touch. SHIFT Enables/Disables automation playback and recording of Send Level. Control Assignment TRANSPORT Opens/Closes the Transport window. MEM–LOC Opens/Closes the Marker List. MIXER Opens/Closes the Track Mixer. EDIT Opens/Closes the Arrange window. Control Assignment UNDO Performs Undo. SHIFT Shifts to alternate use of some buttons (see below). Chapter 10 Mackie Baby HUI 149 Navigation Section Transport Section Control Assignment RTZ Navigates to the left locator. SHIFT Sets Drop In locator. END Navigates to the right locator. SHIFT Sets Drop Out locator. BANK SELECT Left Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. SHIFT Shifts channel strips by one channel to the left. BANK SELECT Right Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. SHIFT Shifts channel strips by one channel to the right. Control Assignment REWIND Shuttles backward. FAST FWD Shuttles forward. STOP Stop PLAY Play RECORD Record 11 151 11 Mackie C4 Set Up A powered Mackie C4 unit will automatically be detected when Logic Pro is launched. You can use the C4 in an independent control surface group (with other control surface icons placed above/below the C4 icon), or combined into one control surface group with one or more control surfaces (such as the Logic Control—place the icon to the right or left of the existing icon(s). Although the C4 can be used independently, it is most useful when combined with other control surfaces, particularly the Logic/Mackie Control. In the latter case, the C4 adds eight channels in Multi Channel view. Using the C4 in its own control surface group allows you to edit instruments and plug-ins independently, while performing mixing and other tasks on the Logic/Mackie Control or other control surface. V-Pots, V-Selects Functionality depends on current view mode, and optional overlay (see below).  The top row (row 1) consists of V-Pot/V-Select 1 to 8.  Row 2 consists of V-Pot/V-Select 9 to 16.  Row 3 consists of V-Pot/V-Select 17 to 24.  The bottom row (row 4) consists of V-Pot/V-Select 25 to 32. V-Pot/V-Select 1 to 8 While no overlay is active, V-Pot/V-Selects 1 to 8 (the top row) normally perform in the same way as their counterparts on a Logic Control or Logic Control XT. See “The Assignment Zone” on page 54. V-Pot/V-Select 9 to 32 These V-Pots have additional functionality in many views. In Multi Channel views, the V-Pot/V-Selects of rows 2, 3 and 4 usually edit the parameter that “follows” the parameter edited on row 1. 152 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 Example: In Pan Multi Channel view (see “Multi Channel View” on page 57); where row 1 edits the Pan/Surround Angle, row 2 edits Surround Diversity, row 3 edits LFE and row 4 edits Surround mode. In Channel Strip view, all four rows build a group of 32 editable parameters. In Plug-in and Instrument Edit views, it can be split into two groups (8/24, 16/16 or 24/8 parameters), see “SPLIT” on page 157. Pan/Surround Multi Channel View In Pan/Surround Multi Channel view:  Row 1 edits Pan/Surround parameter 1.  Row 2 edits Pan/Surround parameter 2.  Row 3 edits Pan/Surround parameter 3.  Row 4 edits Pan/Surround parameter 4 (in this order; Pan/Angle, Diversity, LFE, Surround Mode, X, Y). SINGLE Left/Right changes the parameter edited in row 1, thus affecting the parameters shown and edited in rows 2 to 4. To access Pan/Surround Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 18 (labeled Surrnd MultiC). Pan/Surround Channel Strip View In Pan/Surround Channel Strip view, row 1 edits all eight surround parameters of a surround channel. If a stereo or mono channel is selected, V-Pot 1 edits the Pan (or Balance) parameter. To access Pan/Surround Channel Strip view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 26 (labeled Surrnd). Track Multi Channel View In Track Multi Channel View, the lowest V-Pot row (row 4) edits the currently chosen track parameter. Row 3 edits track parameter 2, Row 2 track parameter 3, and row 1 track parameter 4. The row order is reversed, so that the lowest row (editing parameter 1) is closest to the buttons. Chapter 11 Mackie C4 153 The V-Pots edit the following track parameters in this order: Volume, Pan/Angle, Track Mode, Input, Output, Automation Mode, Group, Displayed Automation Parameter). BANK Left/Right and SINGLE Left/Right change the parameter edited in row 4, thus affecting the parameters shown/edited in rows 1 to 3. To access Track Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 17 (labeled Track MultiC). EQ Multi Channel View In EQ Multi Channel view:  Row 1 edits EQ band bypass.  Row 2 edits EQ band frequency.  Row 3 edits EQ band gain/slope.  Row 4 edits EQ band Q factor.  The SLOT UP/DOWN buttons select the EQ band. This only works if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted in the selected channel strip. To access EQ Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 19 (labeled EQ MultiC). EQ Channel Strip View In EQ Channel Strip view:  Row 1 edits EQ Frequency of all eight bands.  Row 2 edits EQ Gain/Slope of all eight bands.  Row 3 edits EQ band Q factor of all eight bands.  Row 4 edits EQ bypass of all eight bands. If no Channel or Linear Phase EQ is present on the selected track, a Channel EQ will be inserted automatically when the EQ Channel Strip view is entered. The TRACK L and TRACK R buttons switch to the previous or next track. If you switch to a track with no Channel or Linear Phase EQ inserted, the C4 displays show “–” and the V-Pots do nothing. To access EQ Channel Strip view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 154 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 2 Press V-Select 27 (labeled EQs). Send Multi Channel View In Send Multi Channel view:  Row 1 edits send destination.  Row 2 edits send level.  Row 3 edits send position.  Row 4 edits send mute.  The SLOT UP/DOWN button selects the edited Send slot.  The TRACK L and TRACK R buttons shift the fader bank left or right by the number of channel strips in the control surface group. To access Send Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels appear on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 20 (labeled Sends MultiC). Send Channel Strip View In Send Channel Strip view:  Row 1 edits the eight send destinations of the channel strip.  Row 2 edits the send level of sends 1 to 8  Row 3 edits send positions 1 to 8.  Row 4 edits send mutes 1 to 8.  TRACK L and TRACK R switch to the previous or next track. To access Send Channel Strip view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels are shown on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 28 (labeled Sends). Plug-in Select Multi Channel View In Plug-in Select Multi Channel view, the C4 displays the first four Insert slots of the eight selected channels.  Turn a V-Pot to switch between plug-ins.  Press the respective V-Select to insert the selected effect. This enters Plug-in Edit view, where you can directly edit plug-in parameters. See the section below for more information.  The SLOT UP/DOWN buttons switch between Insert slots.  TRACK L and TRACK R shift the fader bank left or right by the number of channel strips in the control surface group. Chapter 11 Mackie C4 155  Holding SHIFT and pressing a V-Select switches the bypass state of the respective Insert slot. Bypassed plug-ins are denoted by an asterisk which precedes the plug-in name(s). To access Plug-in Select Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels are shown on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 21 (labeled PlugIn MultiC). Plug-in Edit View In Plug-in Edit view:  V-Pot/V-Select 1 to 32 builds a group of 32 parameters. Splitting is possible.  SLOT UP/DOWN button selects the desired plug-in insert slot.  BANK Left/Right shifts the edited parameters by one page. In Split mode, this applies to Split Upper. When holding down SHIFT, this applies to Split Lower.  SINGLE Left/Right shifts the edited parameters by 1. In Split mode, this applies to Split Upper. When holding down SHIFT, this applies to Split Lower. To access Plug-in Edit view: m Access Plug-in Select Multi Channel view, then insert or select a plug-in (see section above for details). This automatically switches to Plug-in Edit view. Instrument Select Multi Channel View In Instrument Select Multi Channel view, the C4 displays the Instrument slots of the selected instrument channels.  Turn a V-Pot to select an instrument.  Press the respective V-Select to insert the selected instrument. This enters Instrument Edit view, where you can edit instrument parameters. See the section below for more information.  TRACK L and TRACK R shift the fader bank left or right by the number of channel strips in the control surface group.  Holding SHIFT and pressing a V-Select switches the bypass state of the respective Instrument slot. An asterisk symbol precedes the name of bypassed instruments. To access Instrument Select Multi Channel view: 1 Hold the CHAN STRIP button. The Channel Strip overlay labels are shown on the C4 displays. 2 Press V-Select 22 (labeled Instru MultiC). 156 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 Instrument Edit View In Instrument Edit View:  V-Pot/V-Select 1 to 32 builds a group of 32 parameters. Splitting is possible.  BANK Left/Right shifts the edited parameters by one page. In Split mode, this applies to Split Upper. When holding down SHIFT, this applies to Split Lower.  SINGLE Left/Right shifts the edited parameters by 1. In Split mode, this applies to Split Upper. when holding down SHIFT, this applies to Split Lower. To access Instrument Edit view: m Access Instrument Select Multi Channel view, then insert or select an instrument (see section above for details). This automatically switches to Instrument Edit view. Cycle View Holding the CHAN STRIP button and pressing V-Select 31 activates Cycle view. In this mode, the V-Pots/V-Selects behave as follows:  V-Pot/V-Select 1 (labeled Cycle): shows and edits the current Cycle status (off or on).  V-Select 2 (labeled BySet): matches the Cycle area to selections made in the Arrange window (selected Audio or MIDI Region).  V-Pot 3 (labeled Move): moves the current Cycle area by a bar with each “click” of the V-Pot, when turned.  V-Pot 4: moves the current Cycle area by a beat with each “click” of the V-Pot, when turned.  The display shows the left and right locators above V-Pots 5 and 7.  Pressing V-Select 5 picks up (uses) the current song position for the left locator.  Turning V-Pot 5 changes the left locator position by bars.  Turning V-Pot 6 changes the left locator position by beats (denominator steps).  Pressing V-Select 7 picks up (uses) the current song position for the right locator.  Turning V-Pot 7 changes the right locator position by bars.  Turning V-Pot 8 changes the right locator position by beats (denominator steps). Drop View Holding the CHAN STRIP button and pressing V-Select 32 activates Drop (also called “punch”) view. In this mode, the V-Pots/V-Selects behave as follows:  V-Pot/V-Select 1 shows and edits the current Drop status (off or on).  V-Pot 3 (labeled Move): moves the current Drop-in area by a bar with each “click” of the V-Pot, when turned.  V-Pot 4: moves the current Drop-in area by a beat with each “click” of the V-Pot, when turned.  The display shows the Drop In and Drop Out locators above V-Pots 5 and 7. Chapter 11 Mackie C4 157  Pressing V-Select 5 picks up (uses) the current song position for the Drop In locator.  Turning V-Pot 5 changes the Drop In locator position by bars.  Turning V-Pot 6 changes the left locator position by beats (denominator steps).  Pressing V-Select 7 picks up (uses) the current song position for the Drop Out locator.  Turning V-Pot 7 changes the Drop Out locator position by bars.  Turning V-Pot 8 changes the right locator position by beats (denominator steps). Note: Changing a drop locator position with the C4 automatically enables Drop mode. Buttons at Bottom The following section outlines the functionality of the buttons found at the bottom of the C4 control surface. SPLIT Switches edit split between 4/0, 1/3, 2/2 and 3/1 rows. Split Edit allows you to simultaneously edit two separate sections of a plug-in/instrument, or even two different plug-ins. Split Edit is also possible across multiple C4 units. As an example with two units, pressing the SPLIT button offers the following split modes:  1/7 (Split Upper is top line of first unit, Split Lower is bottom 3 lines of first unit and all lines of second unit. LED 1/3 is lit.)  2/6 (Split Upper is top two lines of first unit, Split Lower is bottom two lines of first unit and all lines of second unit. LED 2/1 is on.)  3/5 (LED 3/1 is on.)  4/4 (all three LEDs are on.)  5/3 (all three LEDs are on.)  6/2 (all three LEDs are on.)  7/1 (all three LEDs are on.) LOCK Activates/deactivates Track Lock. When enabled, selecting a track does not switch the current track selection. SPOT ERASE Currently unassigned. MARKER Switches between Marker overlay (see “Marker Overlay” on page 160) and normal view. 158 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 TRACK Switches between Track overlay (see “Track Overlay” on page 160) and normal view. Alternate mode options Holding down the TRACK button accesses a further submenu in the lower LCD, enabling you to enter Global view with a certain Object type:  V-Select 25 switches to MIDI tracks.  V-Select 26 switches to Input Objects.  V-Select 27 switches to Audio tracks.  V-Select 28 switches to Audio Instrument tracks.  V-Select 29 switches to Auxiliary Objects.  V-Select 30 switches to Bus Objects.  V-Select 31 switches to Outputs.  V-Select 32 switches to Master Output. Releasing the TRACK button without pressing a V-Select returns to Mixer view. CHAN STRIP Switches between Channel Strip overlay (see “Channel Strip Overlay” on page 160) and normal view. Alternate mode options Holding down the CHAN STRIP button accesses a further submenu in the lower LCD:  V-Select 9 to 16 switches to one of eight user modes, where you can freely assign parameters to V-Pots or V-Selects.  V-Select 17 switches to Track Multi Channel view (see “Track Multi Channel View” on page 152).  V-Select 18 switches to Pan/Surround Multi Channel view (see “Pan/Surround Multi Channel View” on page 152).  V-Select 19 switches to EQ Multi Channel view (see “EQ Multi Channel View” on page 153).  V-Select 20 switches to Sends Multi Channel view (see “Send Multi Channel View” on page 154).  V-Select 21 switches to Plug-in Select Multi Channel view (see “Plug-in Select Multi Channel View” on page 154).  V-Select 22 switches to Instrument Select Multi Channel view (see “Instrument Select Multi Channel View” on page 155).  V-Select 26 switches to Pan/Surround Channel Strip view (see “Pan/Surround Channel Strip View” on page 152).  V-Select 27 switches to EQ Channel Strip view (see “EQ Channel Strip View” on page 153). Chapter 11 Mackie C4 159  V-Select 28 switches to Send Channel Strip view (see “Send Channel Strip View” on page 154).  V-Select 31 activates the Cycle view (see “Cycle View” on page 156).  V-Select 32 activates the Drop view (see “Drop View” on page 156). FUNCTION Switches between Function overlay (see “Function Overlay” on page 161) and normal view. Modifier Buttons The four buttons in this area are similar to those found on your computer keyboard (but are independent of the keyboard modifiers). Many Logic functions behave differently when one or more “modifier” key(s) is pressed, in conjunction with another key or mouse click. This also applies to the C4 control surface. All “modified” C4 commands are covered in each function description. Here is a generic description of the modifier button functions:  SHIFT: Switches other buttons to alternate function.  OPTION: While held down, parameters are set to the minimum, default or maximum value when edited with a V-Pot.  CTRL: Disables the Group function.  x/ALT: While held down, parameters are edited in fine (high resolution) mode with a V-Pot. BANK Left/Right Shifts parameter display by one page in particular view modes. SINGLE Left/Right Shifts parameter display by one parameter in particular view modes. TRACK L/R In Multi Channel view, TRACK L/R shifts the fader bank left or right by the number of channel strips in the control surface group. As an example: If you have two C4 units in a control surface group, the view shifts by 16 channels. Simultaneously pressing TRACK L or TRACK R and OPTION switches the fader bank to the beginning or end. As an example, if you are viewing the first eight channels (of 64 Audio Objects) in the fader bank, pressing OPTION and TRACK L or TRACK R will switch to view the last eight channels in the fader bank (Audio Objects 57 to 64). In Channel Strip view, TRACK L/R selects the previous or next track. With SHIFT held down: as above, but for Split Lower. 160 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 SLOT UP/DOWN Selects the desired EQ, Send or plug-in insert slot. Marker Overlay The Marker overlay is active when the MARKER button light is on.  V-Select 1 to 30 is assigned to markers 1 to 30. The upper LCD line shows the marker name; the lower line displays “INSIDE” when the SPL falls between marker boundaries.  V-Select 31 creates a new marker.  V-Select 32 deletes the current marker. Track Overlay The Track overlay is active when the TRACK button light is on.  V-Select 1 to 32 changes the currently edited track. When a track is selected for Split Upper, the lower LCD line displays the word “UPPER.” If a track is selected for Split Lower, the word “LOWER” is shown. To select a track for Split Upper, press the appropriate V-Select. To select a track for Split Lower, press the V-Select while holding down SHIFT.  BANK Left/Right shifts the fader bank by the number of channels in the control surface group.  SINGLE Left/Right shifts the fader bank by one track. Channel Strip Overlay The Channel Strip overlay is active when the CHAN STRIP button light is on.  V-Pot/V-Select row 1 edits the frequency and gain of EQ bands 3 to 6 (the parametric bands), provided an EQ plug-in is inserted in the current channel strip.  V-Pot/V-Select row 2 switches to edit mode for plug-in inserts 1 to 8, provided a plug-in is inserted in the respective Insert slot. If no plug-in is inserted, turn the respective V-Pot to select a plug-in, then press V-Select, to instantiate it.  V-Pot/V-Select row 3 edits Send 1 to 8 Level, provided the current track has active sends.  V-Pot/V-Select 25 switches to Instrument Edit mode, provided the selected track is an Audio Instrument track and an Audio Instrument is inserted.  V-Pot/V-Select 26 edits track output.  V-Pot/V-Select 27 sets the automation mode.  V-Pot/V-Select 28 edits group membership.  V-Pot/V-Select 29 edits volume. Chapter 11 Mackie C4 161  V-Pot/V-Select 30 edits pan/surround angle (for surround channels).  V-Pot/V-Select 31 edits Surround Diversity.  V-Pot/V-Select 32 edits track mode (mono/stereo). Function Overlay The Function overlay is active when the FUNCTION button light is on. Control Assignment 1 (display: Params) Enables/Disables the parameter display of the active window. 2 (Channl Strip) Enables/Disables Channel Strip Only option in Arrange. 3 (Delay in ms) Activates/Deactivates display of delays in milliseconds. 4 (Ruler: SMPTE) Activates/Deactivates SMPTE display of time ruler. 5 (Global Track) Activates/Deactivates display of Global tracks. 6 (Arrang Grid) Activates/Deactivates display of the grid in Arrange. 7 (Event Float) Activates/Deactivates display of the floating Event List. 8 (Name/Value) Switches the display mode between Name and Value (identical to the NAME/VALUE button on the Logic Control). 9 (Track Autom.) Enables/Disables display of track automation in Arrange windows. 10 (Trk>Rg Autom.) Performs Move Current Track Automation Data To Region key command. With the SHIFT button held down (display: Trk>Ob Au All), Move All Track Automation Data To Region key command is performed. 11 (Rg>Trk Autom.) Performs Move Current Region Control Data To Track Automation function. With the SHIFT button held down (display: Ob>Trk Au All), Move All Region Control Data To Track Automation key command is performed. 12 (Clear Autom.) Performs Delete Currently Visible Automation Data of Current Track key command. With the SHIFT button held down (display: Clear Au All), Delete All Automation Data of Current Track function is performed. 13 (ClrAll Overld) Resets the Level Meter Overload displays. 14 (ClrAll RecRdy) Switches off Record Ready for all tracks. 15 (ClrAll Solo) Switches off Solo for all tracks. 16 (ClrAll Mute) Switches off Mute for all tracks. 17 (Tool: Pointr) Chooses the Pointer tool. 18 (Tool: Pencil) Chooses the Pencil tool. 19 (Tool: Scissr) Chooses the Scissors tool. 20 (Tool: Glue) Chooses the Glue tool. 21 (Tool: Text) Chooses the Text tool. 22 (Tool: Xfade) Chooses the Crossfade tool. 23 (Tool: Marque) Chooses the Marquee tool. 24 (Tool: Autom.) Chooses the Automation tool. 162 Chapter 11 Mackie C4 The SHIFT modifier button is currently assigned to V-Selects 10 to 12 (see above). Use of the OPTION, CTRL or x/ALT modifiers don’t alter V-Select/V-Pot functionality, as they are unassigned. You can freely assign new key commands to these encoders, or may choose to reassign the existing assignments in Logic Pro. V-Pot 25 (WfZoom) Edits the active Arrange waveform zoom factor. V-Pot 26 (V.Zoom) Edits the vertical zoom factor of the active window. V-Pot 27 (H.Zoom) Edits the horizontal zoom factor of the active window. V-Pot 28 (Move Cycle) Moves the Cycle locators. V-Pot 29 (Quantz) Chooses the Quantize Again value. V-Select 29 performs Quantize Again for the selected Regions or events. V-Pot 30 (Format) Chooses the Format value for clock display. V-Select 31 (Prev SetEXS) Performs “Next Plug-in Setting or EXS Instrument” key command. V-Select 32 (Next SetEXS) Performs “Previous Plug-in Setting or EXS Instrument” key command. Control Assignment 12 163 12 Mackie HUI Set Up Please make sure that your HUI unit(s) are connected bi-directionally with the computer, using a MIDI interface. To set up Mackie HUI units: 1 Choose Logic Pro > Control Surfaces > Setup. 2 Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu. 3 Select HUI in the Install window. 4 Click the Scan button. Logic Pro will scan for, and automatically install, your control surface(s). Other HUI Compatible Devices If the unit emulates one HUI unit, proceed as if using a HUI. If you experience problems in the DSP Edit display, install the unit as a DM2000. If the unit emulates more than one HUI, add the required number of additional devices in the Setup window (see the Yamaha digital mixer sections in this document). If the unit is limited to support of only one HUI DSP edit section, choose HUI Channel Strips only as the model name for these additional units. This ensures that scrolling in the DSP edit section is limited to four parameters. If you wish to know more about button assignments, refer to the Assignment Overview section below, and the device’s user manual. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. 164 Chapter 12 Mackie HUI ASSIGN Section Fader Bank Buttons Control Assignment SEND A Assigns Send 1 Level to V-Pots, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Send 1 destination assignment. SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 6 SEND B Assigns Send 2 Level to V-Pots, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Send 2 destination assignment. SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 7 SEND C Assigns Send 3 Level to V-Pots, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Send 3 destination assignment. SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 8 SEND D Assigns Send 4 Level to V-Pots, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Send 4 destination assignment. SEND E Assigns Send 5 Level to V-Pots, and Send 5 to 8 Levels to DSP V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Send 5 destination assignment. PAN Assigns Pan to V-Pots; assigns selected track’s Pan/Surround parameters to DSP VPots. INPUT Assigns Track Input to V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Track Input assignment. OUTPUT Assigns Track Output to V-Pots. While held down, the scribble strips show the current Track Output assignment. REC/RDY ALL Disable Record Ready on all tracks. BYPASS Switches the INSERT buttons between Insert Select and Insert Bypass mode. Also see Insert entry in Channel Strips table on page 166. MUTE Switches the V-Select buttons between Send Position and Send Mute mode. SHIFT Enables/Disables Flip mode. SELECT-ASSIGN Displays the V-Pot assignment as follows: Pan, Snd1 to Snd8, S1As to S8As, In, Out. SUSPEND — DEFAULT Switches V-Select buttons between normal behavior and setting default value. ASSIGN When V-Pots display a Send level, the ASSIGN button switches them to Send Destination Assignment mode. Press V-Select or ASSIGN button again to confirm the assignment. Control Assignment Bank Left Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. Bank Right Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. Channel Left Shifts channel strips by one channel to the left. Channel Right Shifts channel strips by one channel to the right. Chapter 12 Mackie HUI 165 WINDOW Section KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS Section Control Assignment TRANSPORT Opens/Closes the Transport window. EDIT Opens/Closes the Arrange window. MIX Opens/Closes the Track Mixer. ALT Opens/Closes the Sample Editor. STATUS Opens/Closes the Audio window. MEM-LOC Opens/Closes the Marker List. Control Assignment UNDO Performs Undo. SHIFT/ADD Performs Redo. OPTION/ALL Opens Undo History window. SAVE Saves the song. OPTION/ALL Performs Save As function, allowing you to save the song under a different name. EDIT MODE — EDIT TOOL Selects the next tool. While held down, numerical buttons select a specific tool. SHIFT/ADD Shifts to second meaning of some buttons. See descriptions of other buttons. OPTION/ALL While held down, value change mode is set to “relative”: relative value changes result in a minimum, default, or maximum value for the edited parameter. Also see description of other buttons. CTRL/CLUTCH While held down, the Group Clutch is engaged (all groups are disabled). x/ALT/FINE While held down, value change mode is set to “fine”: relative value changes work at maximum resolution. Also see descriptions of other buttons. 166 Chapter 12 Mackie HUI Channel Strips Control Assignment Level meters Displays momentary and peak levels. REC/RDY Activates/Deactivates Record Enable button. OPTION/ALL Disables Record Enable button for all tracks. INSERT BYPASS button off (see Insert Select mode on page 164): selects track for plug-in selection. BYPASS button on (see Insert Bypass mode page 164): enables/disables bypass of currently selected Insert slot. V-SEL PAN button on: sets Pan parameter to center if DEFAULT button is on. Send 1 to 8 selected: edits Send Pre/Post, activates/deactivates Send Mute or sets Send Level to default value. In Send Destination Assignment mode, Track Input (see Input button on page 164) or Track Output Assignment mode (see Output button on page 164), the V-SEL buttons confirm the selection. V-Pot Adjusts parameter selected in the ASSIGN section. AUTO Cycles through automation modes. With an automation mode button held down, the button sets this automation mode. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. OPTION/ALL Disables Solo for all tracks. MUTE Enables/Disables Mute. OPTION/ALL Unmutes all tracks. Scribble strip Displays track name, or Send, In, or Out assignment. SELECT Selects track. SHIFT/ADD Sets volume to unity level. DEFAULT Sets volume to unity level. Fader Adjusts volume, or duplicates V-Pot in Flip mode. Chapter 12 Mackie HUI 167 DSP EDIT/ASSIGN Section Control Assignment ASSIGN — COMPARE Switches DSP display between “track name/parameter name” and “parameter name/ parameter value” modes. BYPASS Enables/Disables bypass of currently edited plug-in insert. DSP Select 1 to 4 Assignment Pan:  DSP Select 1 centers Pan or Surround Angle.  DSP Select 2 centers Surround Diversity.  DSP Select 3 centers Surround LFE.  DSP Select 4 selects Surround mode. Assignment Send:  Activate/Deactivate Sends 1 to 4 or Mutes 5 to 8. Plug-in Assign mode:  Confirms insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 plug-in selection, selects this insert and enters Plug-in Edit mode. Plug-in Edit mode:  Sets value to default, or turns parameter “switch” on/off. DSP V-Pots Assignment Pan:  DSP V-Pot 1 controls Pan or Surround Angle.  DSP V-Pot 2 controls Surround Diversity.  DSP V-Pot 3 controls Surround LFE.  DSP V-Pot 4 controls Surround Mode. Assignment Send:  Control Send 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 Level. Plug-in Assign mode:  Assigns plug-in inserts 1 to 4 or 5 to 8. Plug-in Edit mode:  Controls the selected plug-in parameter. INSERT/PARAM Switches between Plug-in Assign and Plug-in Edit modes. SCROLL Plug-In Edit mode: shifts parameter display by the number of DSP V-Pots in the control surface group (usually four). x/ALT/FINE Plug-in Edit: mode shifts parameter display by one. 168 Chapter 12 Mackie HUI Function Keys AUTO ENABLE Section Control Assignment F1 Clears Overload LEDs. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables MIDI tracks. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Arrange window. F2 Recalls Screenset 2. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables Input Objects. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Track Mixer. F3 Recalls Screenset 3. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables audio tracks. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Event Editor. F4 Recalls Screenset 4. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables Audio Instrument trackss. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Score Editor. F5 Recalls Screenset 5. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables Aux Objects. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Hyper Editor. F6 Recalls Screenset 6. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables Bus Objects. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Matrix Editor. F7 Switches counter display between SMPTE and bars/beats/format/ticks. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables Outputs and Master Object. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Transport window. F8/ESC Default: exits folder. Goto Marke mode: cancels dialog. x/ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Audio window. Control Assignment FADER Activates/Deactivates volume automation playback and recording. PAN Activates/Deactivates pan automation playback and recording. PLUG IN Activates/Deactivates plug-in parameter automation playback and recording. MUTE Activates/Deactivates mute automation playback and recording. SEND Activates/Deactivates send level automation playback and recording. SEND MUTE — Chapter 12 Mackie HUI 169 AUTO MODE Section STATUS/GROUP Section Control Assignment READ Sets selected track to Read automation mode. While held down, the channel strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Read. OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Read automation mode. LATCH Sets selected track to Latch automation mode. While held down, the channel strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Latch. OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to automation mode Latch. TRIM — TOUCH Sets selected track to Touch automation mode. While held down, the channel strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Touch. OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Touch automation mode. WRITE Sets selected track to Write automation mode. While held down, the channel strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Write. OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Write automation mode. OFF Sets selected track to Off automation mode. While held down, the channel strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Off. OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Off automation mode. Control Assignment AUTO While held down, the scribble strips display the tracks’ automation mode. MONITOR — PHASE — GROUP Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  DSP Select buttons 1 to 4 switch between the properties of the currently edited group. The group name is shown in the lower line.  When the INSERT/PARAM button is off, the DSP Edit V-Pots scroll through the group properties. If the INSERT/PARAM button is on, the DSP EDIT V-Pots select the group currently being edited.  The SELECT buttons enable/disable group membership of the track. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Track View. CREATE Creates a new group and enters Group Edit mode (see above). SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View. SUSPEND Activates/Deactivates the Group Clutch. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Arrange View. 170 Chapter 12 Mackie HUI EDIT Section Time Display LOCATE/NUMERICS Section Control Assignment CAPTURE — SEPARATE — CUT Cuts the selection. COPY Copies the selection. PASTE Pastes the Clipboard contents. DELETE Deletes the selection. Control Assignment TIME CODE Lit if counter displays time code. FEET Not assigned. BEATS Lit if counter displays bars/beats/format/ticks. Time display Displays time code or bars/beats/format/ticks. RUDE SOLO LIGHT Flashes if any track is soloed. Control Assignment CLR Deletes current marker. = Creates a marker at the current song position. / Equivalent to computer keyboard / key. * Equivalent to computer keyboard * key. – Equivalent to computer keyboard – key. + Equivalent to computer keyboard + key. 0 to 9 Normal: 1 to 9 recalls markers 1 to 9. If in Goto Marker dialog: Equivalent to computer keyboard keys 0 to 9. SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables: 1: MIDI tracks 2: Input Objects 3: Audio tracks 4: Audio Instrument Objects 5: Aux Objects 6: Bus Objects 7: Outputs and Master Object Chapter 12 Mackie HUI 171 Transport Section EDIT TOOL Selects tool: 1: Pointer 2: Pencil 3: Eraser 4: Text tool 5: Scissors 6: Glue 7: Solo tool 8: Mute tool 9: Magnifying Glass 0 If in Goto Marker dialog: Equivalent to computer keyboard 0 key. . If not in Goto Marker dialog: Enters Goto Marker dialog. In in Goto Marker dialog: Confirms entered marker number. ENTER If not in Goto Marker dialog: Enters folder of selected track. If in Goto Marker dialog: Confirms entered marker number. Control Assignment Control Assignment AUDITION — PRE Sets left locator. IN Sets Drop In locator. OUT Sets Drop Out locator. POST Sets right locator. RTZ Goes to the left locator. END Goes to the right locator. ON LINE Switches between internal/external sync. LOOP Enables/Disables Cycle mode. QUICK PUNCH Enables/Disables Drop mode. REWIND Shuttles backward. FAST FWD Shuttles forward. STOP Stop playback. PLAY Starts playback. SHIFT/ADD Pause RECORD Record 172 Chapter 12 Mackie HUI Cursor Buttons Jog Wheel Foot Switches Control Assignment Cursor Up Cursor mode: Equivalent to computer keyboard Up Arrow key. Zoom mode: Zooms out vertically. SHIFT/ADD Zoom mode: Individual track zoom in. x/ALT/FINE Page up OPTION/ALL + x/ALT/FINE Scroll to top. Cursor Down Cursor mode: Equivalent to computer keyboard Down Arrow key. Zoom mode: Zooms out vertically. SHIFT/ADD Zoom mode: Individual track zoom out. x/ALT/FINE Page down OPTION/ALL + x/ALT/FINE Scroll to bottom. Cursor Left Cursor mode: Equivalent to computer keyboard Left Arrow key. Zoom mode: Zooms out horizontally. SHIFT/ADD Zoom mode: Individual track zoom reset of tracks from the same class. x/ALT/FINE Page left OPTION/ALL + x/ALT/FINE Scroll to left border. Cursor Right Cursor mode: Equivalent to computer keyboard Right Arrow key. Zoom mode: Zooms in horizontally. SHIFT/ADD Zoom mode: Individual track zoom reset of all tracks. x/ALT/FINE Page right OPTION/ALL + x/ALT/FINE Scroll to right border. MODE Switches between Cursor and Zoom modes. Control Assignment Jog Wheel Default: Move SPL by one bar. Scrub button lit: Scrub mode. Shuttle button lit: Shuttle mode. SCRUB Activates/Deactivates Scrub mode. SHUTTLE Activates/Deactivates Shuttle mode. Control Assignment Foot Switch 1 Play or Stop Foot Switch 2 Record On/Off 13 173 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K Set Up Please make sure that your control surface is connected bi-directionally with the computer, either using a MIDI interface or the built-in USB connector. If the unit(s) are connected via USB, ensure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. To set up SAC-2K units: 1 Choose Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup. 2 Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu. 3 Select the SAC-2K in the Install window. 4 Click the Scan button. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. LCDs and Encoders Control Assignment Left and middle LCDs Upper row displays track number (if in a Multi Channel View) or parameter name (if in a Channel Strip View). Lower row shows the parameter value of the encoder below the display. Level meters are displayed to the right. Right LCD Upper row displays the name of the parameter edited with the encoder below. Lower row displays the parameter value assigned to the encoder below the display. The Master Output level meter is displayed at the far right. Encoders Edit the corresponding parameter displayed in the LCD. Encoder push buttons Parameters with two values (On/Off ): Switches between the two values. Parameters that access items (plug-in selection): Confirms preselection. At other times: Sets parameter to default value. 174 Chapter 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K Channel Strips Mixe Mode Section Control Assignment Mute/Solo Switches Mute/Solo 1 to 8 buttons between Mute and Solo modes. LED off: Mute/Solo buttons switch Mute state on/off. LED on: Mute/Solo buttons switch Solo state on/off. LED flashes: Mute/Solo buttons switch Rec/Rdy state on/off. SHIFT Sets Mute/Solo buttons to Rec/Rdy mode. Mute/Solo 1 to 8 Mute/Solo LED off: Enables/Disables Mute; LED displays Mute status. Mute/Solo LED on: Enables/Disables Solo; LED displays Solo status. Mute/Solo LED flashing: Enables/Disables Rec/Rdy; LED displays Rec/Rdy status. SELECT 1 to 8 buttons Selects track. Exception: In Group mode, these buttons define group membership of the track. Master Select button Switches Flip mode between Off and Duplicate. Fader 1 to 8 Controls volume, or duplicates encoder above if Flip mode is enabled. The silk screened legend lines are scaled as follows: +6 dB, +3 dB, 0 dB, −5 dB, −10 dB, −15 dB, −20 dB, −25 dB, −30 dB, −35 dB, −40 dB, −45 dB, −50 dB, −60 dB, −inf. Master Fader Controls master volume. Control Assignment Pan Switches to multi-channel pan editing. Encoders 9 to 12 edit Pan/Angle, Diversity, LFE, and Surround Mode of selected track (in Surround mode). High, HiMid, LowMid, Low Switches to multi-channel gain editing of a certain EQ band. Encoders 9 to 12 edit Frequency, Gain, Q factor, and On/Off for the selected track. Pressing and releasing the button chooses a specific EQ band.  Low: Band 3 (first parametric EQ band)  LowMid: Band 4 (second parametric EQ band)  HiMid: Band 5 (third parametric EQ band)  High: Band 6 (fourth parametric EQ band) While held down, Encoder 9 lets you choose the EQ band to edit (bands 1 to 8). The button’s LED is lit when in multi-channel gain editing mode of the button’s EQ band. Snd/Ins Switches the four Snd/Ins (1 to 4) buttons between Send and Insert modes.  LED off: Send mode  LED on: Insert mode Chapter 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K 175 Snd/Ins 1 to 4  If in Send mode, switches to multi-channel send level editing of Sends 1 to 4. Encoders 9 to 12 edit Destination, Level, Pre/Post and Mute of the selected track. Destination must be confirmed by encoder 9’s push-button. While held down, Encoder 9 selects the desired Send number (1 to 8). The button’s LED is lit when in multi-channel send level editing mode of the button’s send number.  If in Insert mode, switches to multi-channel plug-in selection for Inserts 1 to 4. Plug-in selection is confirmed by the encoder’s push-button. While held down, Encoder 9 enables you to choose the desired Insert number (1 to 15). The button’s LED is lit when in plug-in selection mode (of the corresponding button’s insert number). Audio Switches to Global View and displays audio tracks. SHIFT Switches to Mixer View. MIDI Switches to Global View and displays MIDI tracks. SHIFT Switches to Arrange View. Input Switches to Global View and displays Input Objects. SHIFT Switches to Global View and displays Outputs and Master Object. Inst Switches to Global View and displays Audio Instrument Objects. SHIFT Switches to Global View and displays Aux Objects. Bus Switches to Global View and displays Bus Objects. SHIFT Switches to Global View and displays folders and all tracks shown when the View > Other Tracks option is activated in the Track Mixer. Group Switches to Group editing:  Encoder 1 to 10 push buttons edit a group property (Property shown in the LCD’s lower line).  Encoder 11 scrolls through group properties.  Encoder 12 selects a group to edit. Its name is displayed in the lower line, above Encoder 12.  Select buttons 1 to 8 activate/deactivate track membership within the group. 1 to 8 Shifts the fader bank offset to the left by one bank. 9 to 16 Shifts the fader bank offset to the right by one bank. 17 to 24 Shifts the fader bank offset to the left by one track. 25 to 32 Shifts the fader bank offset to the right by one track. Control Assignment 176 Chapter 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K Software Navigation Section Locator Section The locator displays the current song position in bars/beats format, as defined in the song settings. The spaces between the sections are replaced with a period, as the bars/ beats format uses up to 14 characters in Logic, and the SAC display is limited to eight digits. Control Assignment 1 Num LED off: — Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘1’ on computer keyboard. 2 Num LED off: Equivalent to Left Arrow key on computer keyboard. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘2’ on computer keyboard. 3 Num LED off: Equivalent to Up Arrow key on computer keyboard. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘3’ on computer keyboard. 4 Num LED off: Eequivalent to Right Arrow key on computer keyboard. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘4’ on computer keyboard. 5 Num LED off: Performs Undo. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘5’ on computer keyboard. 6 Num LED off: — Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘6’ on computer keyboard. 7 Num LED off: Copies the selection. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘7’ on computer keyboard. 8 Num LED off: Equivalent to Down Arrow key on computer keyboard. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘8’ on computer keyboard. 9 Num LED off: Pastes the Clipboard contents. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘9’ on computer keyboard. 0 Num LED off: Saves the song. Num LED on: Equivalent to ‘0’ on computer keyboard. Num Switches the numeric buttons between primary and secondary function (see above). Enter Equivalent to Enter key on the computer keyboard. Chapter 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K 177 Marker Section Transport Section Control Assignment SHIFT Shifts to secondary function of other buttons. Scrub Rotates thru the three modes for the Jog Wheel:  LED off: Move SPL by one bar.  LED on: Activates Scrub mode.  LED flashes: Activates Shuttle mode. From Sets left locator to current SPL. SHIFT Sets SPL to left locator. Store Marker Creates a marker at the current SPL. SHIFT Deletes marker at the current SPL. To Sets right locator to current SPL. SHIFT Sets SPL to right locator. Recall Marker Opens the Goto Marker dialog. SHIFT Opens the Marker List. Jog Wheel Moves the SPL in one of three modes, depending on the state of the Scrub button (see above). Control Assignment << Shuttles backward. SHIFT Goes to previous marker. >> Shuttles forward. SHIFT Goes to next marker. STOP Stops playback. PLAY Starts playback. SHIFT Enables/Disables Cycle mode. RECORD Record SHIFT Enables/Disables Replace mode. 178 Chapter 13 Radikal Technologies SAC-2K Channel Strips Section Troubleshooting The track names are shorter than necessary, and the assignments don’t work correctly. The SAC-2K is in an emulation mode (Logic Control or HUI, for example). To resolve this issue, simply switch the SAC-2K power off, and then back on. The faders don’t work, and the locator display shows 00000000. You have manually switched the SAC-2K to SLAVE mode. This, unfortunately, does not initialize some settings required for proper communication. To resolve this issue, simply switch the SAC-2K power off, and then back on. Control Assignment EQs Enters Channel Strip EQ editing mode. Pressing the button again cycles through the available pages. Inserts/Sends Enters Channel Strip plug-in editing mode—edits the currently selected insert of the selected track. Pressing the button again cycles through the available pages. Dynamics — MIDI — Instrument Enters Channel Strip instrument editing mode—edits the instrument of the selected track (if it’s an Audio Instrument track). Pressing the button again cycles through the available pages. 14 179 14 Roland SI-24 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Ensure that your SI-24 unit(s) are connected to the RPC card with the (included) blue cable. This connector provides both digital audio and MIDI connections.  Make sure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. To scan for your Roland SI-24 unit: 1 Choose Logic > Preferences > Control Surfaces > Setup 2 Choose New > Install in the Setup window’s local menu. 3 Select Roland SI-24 in the Install window. 4 Click the Scan button. Logic Pro will scan for, and automatically install, your control surfaces. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Channel Strips Control Assignment EQ ON/OFF 1 to 4 In Pan mode:  Switches bypass state of EQ bands 1–4.  Enters EQ/Send mode. If no Channel or Linear Phase EQ is present on the selected track, a Channel EQ will automatically be inserted. In EQ/Send mode:  Switches bypass state of EQ bands 1–4. The button LED is lit when the EQ is enabled. In Plug-in mode:  Switches to insert 1–4. The lit button LED indicates the selected insert.  If a Plug-in window is open, it will also switch to the selected insert. SHIFT In EQ/Send mode: Enables/Disables Send 1–4 Mute. 180 Chapter 14 Roland SI-24 EQ/SEND Switches track edit section between:  EQ/Send mode (LED on).  Pan mode (LED off ). PLUG-IN Switches track edit section between:  Plug-in mode (LED on) (Plug-in window opens.)  Pan mode (LED off ) Plug-in window closes when Plug-in mode is exited. SHIFT Switches track edit section between:  Instrument mode (LED on) (Instrument window opens.)  Pan mode (LED off ) Instrument editor window closes when Instrument mode is exited. PAN 1 to 12 In Pan mode:  Controls channel strip’s Pan (surround angle for tracks in surround mode). In EQ/Send mode:  1/3/5/7: EQ 1–4 Gain.  2/4/6/8: EQ 1–4 Frequency.  9–12: Send 1–4 Level. In Plug-in mode:  1–10: Edits plug-in parameter.  11: Bypasses plug-in.  12: Shifts plug-in parameter page. In Instrument mode:  1–10: Edits Instrument parameter.  11: Bypasses Instrument.  12: Shifts Instrument parameter page. SHIFT In EQ/Send mode:  1/3/5/7: EQ 1–4 Type  2/4/6/8: EQ 1–4 Q factor.  9–12: Send 1–4 destination. CH SELECT 1 to 12 Selects track/channel. STATUS 1 to 12 In Automation mode: Switches Automation mode between:  Off (LED off )  Read (green)  Latch (orange)  Write (red) In Record Ready mode: Enables/Disables Record Ready. In Solo mode: Enables/Disables Solo. In Mute mode: Enables/Disables Mute. Fader 1 to 12 Controls volume. Control Assignment Chapter 14 Roland SI-24 181 STATUS MODE Section CH ASSIGN Controls MASTER Section SURROUND PAN Section Control Assignment AUTOMIX Sets STATUS 1 to 12 buttons to Automation mode. SHIFT Sets all tracks to Off, Read, Latch, or Write (cycles through) automation mode. REC/PLAY Sets STATUS 1 to 12 buttons to Record Ready mode. SOLO Sets STATUS 1 to 12 buttons to Solo mode. MUTE Sets STATUS 1 to 12 buttons to Mute mode. Control Assignment INPUT Shows the first 12 audio inputs (Global View) on channel strips. SHIFT Shows the first 12 MIDI channels (Global View) on channel strips. OUTPUT Shows the first 12 audio outputs (Global View) on channel strips:  1: Output 1–2 (front).  2: Output 3–4 (rear).  3: Output 5 (center).  4: Output 6 (LFE).  5: Output 7–8 (digital out). SHIFT Shows the first 12 audio channels (Global View) on channel strips. BUS Shows the first 12 audio buses (Global View) on channel strips. SHIFT Shows the first 12 Audio Instruments (Global View) on channel strips. Tr 1 to 12 Shows tracks 1 to 12 (Track View) on channel strips. Tr 13 to 24 Shows tracks 13 to 24 (Track View) on channel strips. Control Assignment Master Fader Controls output 1-2 volume. Control Assignment ON/OFF Switches selected track’s output between:  Surround (LED on) and  Out 1-2 (LED off ). Also shows/hides the Surround Pan window. Joystick Surround X/Y of selected track. 182 Chapter 14 Roland SI-24 Numeric Key Section Control Assignment SYSTEM Switches SI-24 to System mode. See SI-24 user manual for details. LOCATE Switches numeric keys to Locate mode. SHORT CUT Switches numeric keys to Shortcut mode. SCREEN SET Switches numeric keys to Screenset mode. 0 to 9 System mode: See SI-24 user manual. Locate mode:  1 to 9: Goes to markers 1 to 9.  0: Creates marker at SPL. Shortcut mode:  1: Saves song. LED is lit if song has changed since last save.  2: Performs undo. LED is on if Redo is possible.  3: Copies the selection.  4: Pastes the Clipboard contents.  5: Deletes the selection.  6: Enables/Disables Scrub mode. LED is on if Scrub mode is enabled.  7: Enables/Disables Cycle mode. LED is on if Cycle mode is enabled.  8: Enables/Disables Drop mode. LED is on if Drop mode is enabled.  9: Switches Arrange window to volume automation view.  0: Switches Arrange window to pan automation view. Screenset mode:  1 to 9: Recall Screensets 1 to 9.  0: Enables/Disables Lock Screenset. SHIFT Locate mode:  1 to 9: Goes to Markers 10 to 18.  0: Deletes marker at SPL. Shortcut mode:  1: Performs Save As.  2: Performs Redo.  3: Cuts selection.  4: Pastes the Clipboard contents. Screenset mode:  1: Opens/Closes Arrange window.  2: Opens/Closes Track Mixer.  3: Opens/Closes Event Editor.  4: Opens/Closes Score Editor.  5: Opens/Closes Hyper Editor.  6: Opens/Closes Matrix Editor.  7: Opens/Closes Transport window.  8: Opens/Closes Audio window.  9: Opens/Closes Sample Editor. Chapter 14 Roland SI-24 183 Transport Section Control Assignment PAUSE Pause REW Rewinds SPL by one bar. F FWD Advances SPL by one bar. STOP Stops playback. PLAY Starts playback. RECORD Record Jog wheel Scrub mode off: Moves SPL by bars. Scrub mode on: Scrubs audio. 15 185 15 Tascam FW-1884 Introduction Logic Pro 7 supports the Tascam FW-1884, FE-8 extension and the FW-1082. Version 1.10 of the plug-in also supports the SoftLCD application which displays information on track names, parameter assignments and the current value of the encoders. SoftLCD displays the tracks’ current automation mode while one of the automation mode buttons is held down. The corresponding encoder edits the parameter. Alerts are displayed in SoftLCD. Select buttons allow you to remotely-control alert buttons. The following text referring to the FW-1884 also applies to FE-8 and FW-1082, except where mentioned explicitly. Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro.  Ensure that the FW-1884’s MIDI driver is installed. See the FW-1884 documentation for details.  Connect the FW-1884 to your computer with the supplied FireWire cable.  Boot Logic Pro. The FW-1884 is installed automatically. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Note: The FE-8 units only offer the Channel Strip section, so other facilities mentioned here don’t apply. The FW-1884 ENCODERS section does, however, apply to the FE-8 channel strips. The FW-1082 has no channel encoders, and offers an extended channel strip section. 186 Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 ENCODERS Section (FW-1884 only) SHORTCUTS Section (FW-1884 only). Control Assignment FLIP Switches Flip mode between Off and Swap. PAN Assigns Pan to encoders. AUX 1 Assigns Send 1 level to encoders. AUX 2 Assigns Send 2 level to encoders. AUX 3 Assigns Send 3 level to encoders. AUX 4 Assigns Send 4 level to encoders. AUX 5 Assigns Send 5 level to encoders. AUX 6 Assigns Send 6 level to encoders. AUX 7 Assigns Send 7 level to encoders. AUX 8 Assigns Send 8 level to encoders. Control Assignment SAVE/F1 Saves the active song; The button’s LED is lit when the song has been edited. REVERT/F2 Reverts the active song to the saved version. ALL SAFE/F3 Disables Record Enable button for all tracks. CLR SOLO/F4 Switches Solo off on all tracks. SHIFT Switches Mute off on all tracks. MARKERS/F5 Creates a new marker at the current SPL. SHIFT Deletes the marker at the SPL. LOOP/F6 Enables/Disables Cycle mode. CUT Cuts the current selection and places it in the Clipboard. DEL Deletes the current selection. COPY Copies the current selection to the Clipboard. PASTE Pastes the Clipboard contents to the current SPL. ALT/CMD Modifier for other buttons. UNDO Performs Undo; The button’s LED is lit when Redo is possible. SHIFT Performs Redo. SHIFT Modifier for other buttons. CTRL Modifier for other buttons. Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 187 Channel Strips EQ Section (FW-1884 only) The EQ controls apply to a certain EQ band of the selected track. A Channel or Linear Phase EQ will be automatically inserted in the track, if not already present. Control Assignment REC LEDs These LEDs are lit when the corresponding track is recording. The LEDs flash when the track is in Record Ready mode (armed). SEL Selects the track. SHIFT Enables/Disables Send mute, when encoders are controlling a Send level. READ Sets the track’s automation mode to Read. WRITE Sets the track’s automation mode to Write. TCH Sets the track’s automation mode to Touch. LATCH Sets the track’s automation mode to Latch. SOLO Enables/Disables the Solo status of the track. SHIFT Disables Solo status for all tracks (new for plug-in version 1.20). MUTE Enables/Disables the Mute status of the track. SHIFT Disables Mute status for all tracks (new for plug-in version 1.20). Encoder Controls parameter chosen with the ENCODERS section. SET When encoders control a Send’s level, this combination sets the Send destination. Fader Controls volume of the track. Mode Assignment REC While held down, the SEL buttons in the channel strips enable/disable the track’s Record Enable button. GAIN Edits Gain of currently selected EQ band. SET Selects track input. FREQ Edits Frequency parameter of currently selected EQ band. SET Selects Track output. Q Edits Q Factor of currently selected EQ band. SET Selects Track mode (mono/stereo). HIGH Selects EQ band 6. SHIFT Selects EQ band 8. REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 6 (new in plug-in version 1.20). HI-MID Selects EQ band 5. SHIFT Selects EQ band 7. REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 7 (new in plug-in version 1.20). LOW-MID Selects EQ band 4. 188 Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 Encoders and Controls Section (FW-1082 only) The three buttons at the bottom of this section define the mode of the other controls:  EQ/Pan mode: The controls apply to a certain EQ band of the selected track.  AUX 1–4 mode: The controls apply to Sends 1–4.  AUX 5–8 mode: The controls apply to Sends 5–8. SHIFT Selects EQ band 2. REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 3 (new in plug-in version 1.20). LOW Selects EQ band 3. SHIFT Selects EQ band 1. REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 3 (new in plug-in version 1.20). Mode Assignment Mode Assignment REC While held down, the SEL buttons in the channel strips enable/disable the track’s Record Enable button status. EQ GAIN–AUX 1/5 • EQ/PAN mode: edits Gain of currently selected EQ band. • AUX 1–4 mode: controls Send 1 level. • AUX 5–8 mode: controls Send 5 level. SET Selects Track input. EQ FREQ–AUX 2/6 • EQ/PAN mode: edits Frequency of currently selected EQ band. • AUX 1–4 mode: controls Send 2 level. • AUX 5–8 mode: controls Send 6 level. SET Selects Track output. EQ Q–AUX 3/7 • EQ/PAN mode: edits Q Factor of currently selected EQ band. • AUX 1–4 mode: controls Send 3 level. • AUX 5–8 mode: controls Send 7 level. SET Selects Track mode. PAN–AUX 4/8 • EQ/PAN mode: edits Pan. • AUX 1–4 mode: controls Send 4 level. • AUX 5–8 mode: controls Send 8 level. EQ HI–AUX 1/5 • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 6. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 1 Mute on/off. • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 5 Mute on/off. SHIFT • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 8. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 1 Position (pre/post.) • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 5 Position (pre/post). REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 6. EQ HI MID–AUX 2/6 • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 5. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 2 Mute on/off. • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 6 Mute on/off. Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 189 MASTER Fader This fader always controls the master volume. If no Master Object exists in the Environment, it controls Output 1/2. Automation/Clock Rate Section (FW-1884 only) SHIFT • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 7. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 2 Position (pre/post). • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 6 Position (pre/post). REC Switchess bypass state of EQ band 5. EQ LO MID–AUX 3/7 • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 4. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 3 Mute on/off. • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 7 Mute on/off. SHIFT • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 2. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 3 Position (pre/post). • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 7 Position (pre/post). REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 4. EQ LOW–AUX 4/8 • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 3. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 4 Mute on/off. • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 8 Mute on/off SHIFT • EQ/PAN mode: selects EQ band 1. • AUX 1–4 mode: switches Send 4 Position (pre/post). • AUX 5–8 mode: switches Send 8 Position (pre/post). REC Switches bypass state of EQ band 3. EQ/PAN Chooses EQ/PAN mode. SHIFT Enables/Disables Flip mode; With Flip mode enabled, the faders control Pan. AUX 1–4 Chooses AUX 1–4 mode. AUX 5–8 Chooses AUX 5–8 mode. Mode Assignment Control Assignment READ While held down, SEL buttons are on if a track is in Read automation mode. Pressing the SEL button sets Read mode. Turning the encoder also edits the automation mode. WRITE While held down, SEL buttons are on if a track is in Write automation mode. Pressing the SEL button sets Write mode. Turning the encoder also edits the automation mode. TCH While held down, SEL buttons are on if a track is in Touch automation mode. Pressing the SEL button sets Touch mode. Turning the encoder also edits the automation mode. LATCH While held down, SEL buttons are on if a track is in Latch automation mode. Pressing the SEL button sets Latch mode. Turning the encoder also edits the automation mode. 190 Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 Mode Controls Section (FW-1082 only) Master Section F7 Switches encoders to editing of pan/surround parameters on selected track: angle, radius, LFE, surround mode, X, Y. F8 Switches encoders to EQ editing on selected track. See upper line on SoftLCD application for parameter assignment. Cursor left/right shifts the parameter bank. F9 Switches encoders to plug-in editing on selected track. Cursor left/right shifts parameter bank; Cursor up/down chooses insert to edit. F10 Switches encoders to instrument editing on selected track. Cursor left/right shifts parameter bank. Control Assignment Control Assignment F1 Saves the active song; The button’s LED is lit if the song has been edited. SHIFT Opens the Save As dialog. F2 Performs Undo; The button’s LED is lit when Redo is possible. SHIFT Performs Redo. F3 Copies the current selection to the Clipboard. SHIFT Cuts the current selection and places it in the Clipboard. F4 Pastes the Clipboard contents. SHIFT Clears the current selection. Control Assignment Cursor buttons Identical to computer keyboard’s Arrow keys—except when encoders are in EQ, Plug-in or Instrument Edit modes (see above). SHIFT Zoom in and out horizontally or vertically. SHTL Enables Shuttle mode for wheel. Wheel Shuttle mode off: moves SPL by bar. Shuttle mode on: shuttles SPL. Bank LEDs Show currently selected fader bank. If you only have an FW-1884, a bank refers to eight tracks. If you have FE-8 extensions added, a bank means the entire number of channel strips: 16, 24, and so on. If no LED is lit, a bank higher than 4 is selected. < BANK Shifts fader bank down by one bank. SHIFT Shifts fader bank down by one track. SET Switches to Track view (new in plug-in version 1.20). BANK > Shifts fader bank up by one bank. SHIFT Shifts fader bank up by one track. SET Switches to Global view and shows Aux, Bus, and Output Objects (new in plugin version 1.20). Chapter 15 Tascam FW-1884 191 << LOCATE Goes to previous marker. SET Deletes the current marker (new in plug-in version 1.20). LOCATE >> Goes to next marker. SET Creates a new marker at the SPL (new in plug-in version 1.20). NUDGE buttons Nudge the selected event/Region left or right (by the current nudge value). SET Chooses the current nudge value: tick, format, denominator, bar, frame, 1/2 frame. SET Modifier for other buttons. IN Goes to left locator. SET Sets left locator to SPL. SHIFT Sets Drop In locator to SPL. OUT Goes to right locator. SET Sets right locator to current SPL. SHIFT Sets Drop Out locator to SPL. REW Shuttle Rewind key command. FFWD Shuttle Forward key command. STOP Stops playback. PLAY Starts playback. REC Record key command. Control Assignment 16 193 16 Tascam US-2400 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Make sure that your US-2400 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Ensure that the US-2400 is in native mode. Please consult your US-2400 manual for more information on this.  Launch Logic Pro 7. Your control surface(s) will be scanned for, and installed, automatically. Special Note The US-2400 is capable of running in both “native” and Logic Control emulation modes. If the unit is set up in Logic Control emulation mode, and the native support plug-in is installed in the Logic Pro 7 program bundle, Logic will detect both a US-2400 native control surface and a Logic Control plus two Extender (XT) units. If you wish to run the US-2400 in Logic Control mode, you may find it most convenient to remove the US-2400 plug-in from the Logic Pro 7 application bundle. Logic will then detect a Logic Control plus two Extender (XT) units (the appropriate setup for the US- 2400 in Logic Control emulation mode), when you scan your control surfaces. The Logic/Mackie Control differs in button layout to the Tascam US-2400. When running the Tascam US-2400 in Logic Control mode, certain controllers are not accessible (the Joystick, as an example). Given these restrictions, it’s not recommended that the Tascam US-2400 is used in Logic Control mode with Logic. If you choose to do so, please refer to the documentation supplied with the Tascam US-2400 for details. 194 Chapter 16 Tascam US-2400 Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Channel Strips Encoder Details In CHAN mode (CHAN button on), the encoders control these parameters on the selected track: Control Assignment Encoder(s) CHAN button on: see “Encoder Details” on page 194. CHAN button flashing: Encoders control Instrument parameters, also see “Instrument Edit View” on page 197. PAN button flashing: Encoders control plug-in parameters, also see “Plug-in Edit View” on page 197. Other modes: Encoders control the mode’s parameters. F-KEY  If you are in Instrument Edit view (CHAN button flashing), pressing the F-Key enters the Instrument Assignment view: The encoders then choose an instrument.  If you are in Plug-in Edit view (PAN button flashing), pressing the F-Key enters the Plug-in Assignment view: the encoders then choose a plug-in.  If you are in Send views (AUX button LED flashes) and press the F-Key, the encoders assign the send’s destination. SEL buttons Select tracks. SHIFT In Pan view: sets volume to Unity (0 dB) In Send views: switches Send mode pre/post F-KEY Activates/Deactivates Record Enable buttons. SOLO button(s) Enables/Disables Solo. MUTE button(s) Enables/Disables Mute. In Send views with Flip mode enabled: activates/deactivates Send mute. SHIFT In Send views: activates/deactivates Send mute. Faders Control volume. Control Assignment Encoder 1 (AUX 1) Controls Send 1 level. Encoder 2 (AUX 2) Controls Send 2 level. Encoder 3 (AUX 3) Controls Send 3 level. Encoder 4 (AUX 4) Controls Send 4 level. Encoder 5 (AUX 5) Controls Send 5 level. Encoder 6 (AUX 6) Controls Send 6 level. Encoder 7 Controls Send 7 level. Encoder 8 Controls Send 8 level. Chapter 16 Tascam US-2400 195 In CHAN mode, with the SHIFT button held, the encoders control the following parameters on the selected track: Encoder 11 (GAIN 1) Controls the Gain parameter of band 3, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 12 (FREQ 1) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 3, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 13 (Q 1) Controls the Q factor of band 3, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 14 (GAIN 2) Controls the Gain parameter of band 4, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 15 (FREQ 2) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 4, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 16 (Q 2) Controls the Q factor of band 4, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 17 (GAIN 3) Controls the Gain parameter of band 5, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 18 (FREQ 3) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 5, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 19 (Q 3) Controls the Q factor of band 5, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 20 (GAIN 4) Controls the Gain parameter of band 6, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 21 (FREQ 4) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 5, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 22 (Q 4) Controls the Q factor of band 5, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 24 (PAN) Controls Panning. Control Assignment Control Assignment Encoder 1 (AUX 1) Controls Pan/Surround Angle Encoder 2 (AUX 2) Controls Surround Radius. Encoder 3 (AUX 3) Controls Surround LFE. Encoder 4 (AUX 4) Controls Surround mode. Encoder 5 (AUX 5) Controls Surround X. Encoder 6 (AUX 6) Controls Surround Y. Encoder 11 (GAIN 1) Controls the Slope parameter of band 1, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 12 (FREQ 1) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 1, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 13 (Q 1) Controls the Q factor of band 1, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 14 (GAIN 2) Controls the Gain parameter of band 2, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 15 (FREQ 2) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 2, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. 196 Chapter 16 Tascam US-2400 Master Channel Encoder Assignment Section This is the standard assignment of these buttons: Encoder 16 (Q 2) Controls the Q factor of band 2, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 17 (GAIN 3) Controls the Gain parameter of band 7, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 18 (FREQ 3) Controls the Frequency parameter of band 7, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 19 (Q 3) Controls the Q factor of band 7, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 20 (GAIN 4) Controls the Slope parameter of band 8, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 21 (FREQ 4) Controls the Q factor of band 8, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 22 (Q 4) Controls the Q factor of band 8, if a Channel or Linear Phase EQ is inserted. Encoder 24 (PAN) Controls Panning. Control Assignment Control Assignment SEL Selects Master Output track (if Master Output Object exists). CLR SOLO Disables Solo for all tracks. SHIFT Disables Mute for all tracks. F-KEY Disables Record Enable button for all tracks. FLIP Switches Flip mode between Off (LED off ) and Duplicate (LED on). SHIFT Sets Flip mode to Swap (LED flashing). F-KEY Sets Flip mode to Zero—fader motors are disabled (LED flashing). Control Assignment CHAN Switches encoders to Channel Strip view (see encoders’ legend)—CHAN button LED is lit. F-KEY Switches encoders to Instrument Edit view—CHAN button LED flashes. See “Instrument Edit View” on page 197 for details. PAN Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of panning—PAN button LED is lit. F-KEY Switches encoders to Plug-in Edit view—PAN button LED flashes. See “Plug-in Edit View” on page 197 for details. AUX 1 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 1 level. F-KEY Switches display of Arrange window:  If Arrange window is open, it will be closed.  If Arrange window is closed, it will be opened. AUX 2 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 2 level. Chapter 16 Tascam US-2400 197 Instrument Edit View In Instrument Edit view, the following AUX buttons have special assignments: The AUX button LEDs show the currently selected parameter bank. AUX 2 LED is on if parameters 25–48 are shown on the encoders. Plug-in Edit View In Plug-in Edit view, the following AUX buttons have special assignments: The AUX button LEDs show the currently selected Insert slot. As an example: AUX 2 LED is on if Insert slot 2 is being edited. F-KEY Switches display of Event List:  If Event List is open, it will be closed.  If Event List is closed, it will be opened. AUX 3 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 3 level. F-KEY Switches display of Score Editor:  If Score Editor is open, it will be closed.  If Score Editor is closed, it will be opened. AUX 4 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 4 level. F-KEY Switches display of Audio window:  If Audio window is open, it will be closed.  If Audio window is closed, it will be opened. AUX 5 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 5 level. F-KEY Switches display of Hyper Editor:  If Hyper Editor is open, it will be closed.  If Hyper Editor is closed, it will be opened. AUX 6 Switches encoders to Multi Channel view of Send 6 level. F-KEY Switches display of Matrix Editor:  If Matrix Editor is open, it will be closed.  If Matrix Editor is closed, it will be opened. Control Assignment Control Assignment AUX 1 Scrolls parameter fader bank left by 24 parameters. AUX 2 Scrolls parameter fader bank right by 24 parameters. AUX 4 Enables/Disables Bypass button of the currently edited Instrument. Control Assignment AUX 1 Scrolls parameter fader bank left by 24 parameters. AUX 2 Scrolls parameter fader bank right by 24 parameters. AUX 3 Increments Insert slot. AUX 4 Enables/Disables Bypass button of the currently edited plug-in. AUX 6 Decrements Insert slot. 198 Chapter 16 Tascam US-2400 Master Section Control Assignment MTR Switches encoder LED rings between value controlled by encoder (LED off ), and level and peak hold meters (LED on). In Level Meter mode, the LED below the encoder displays signal overloads (clipping). F-KEY Modifier key, used to switch the function of other controls (see right-aligned “FKEY” in left column). NULL Sets Surround x/y or Panning of selected track to center position—LED is on if Surround X (or Panning) is centered. F-KEY Resets overload for level meters. Jog Wheel SCRUB off: moves SPL by bars. SCRUB on: audio scrubbing. SCRUB flashing: Shuttle mode. Joystick Edits Surround x/y or Panning of selected track. SCRUB Switches Jog Wheel between “Move SPL by Bars” (LED off ) and audio scrubbing (LED on). F-KEY Sets Jog Wheel to Shuttle mode (LED flashes). BANK – Shifts fader bank left by one bank—LED is lit if the left-most fader bank has not been reached. F-KEY Shifts fader bank left by one track. BANK + Shifts fader bank right by one bank—LED is lit if the right-most fader bank has not been reached. F-KEY Shifts fader bank right by one track. IN Sets Drop In locator to Song Position Line. SHIFT Navigates to left Cycle locator. F-KEY Sets left Cycle locator to Song Position Line. OUT Sets Drop Out locator to Song Position Line. SHIFT Navigates to right Cycle locator. F-KEY Sets right Cycle locator to Song Position Line. SHIFT Modifier key, used to switch the function of other controls (see right-aligned “SHIFT” in left column). REW Shuttles backward. SHIFT Identical to Left Arrow key on computer keyboard. F FWD Shuttles forward. SHIFT Identical to Right Arrow key on computer keyboard. STOP Stops playback. SHIFT Identical to Down Arrow key on computer keyboard. PLAY Starts playback. SHIFT Identical to Up Arrow key on computer keyboard. RECORD Enables/Disables Record. 17 199 17 Tascam US-428 and US-224 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Ensure that your US-428/224 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Launch Logic, and the unit(s) will be scanned for, and installed, automatically. Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as NULL) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. Note: The US-224 has only four channel strips, and the EQ section, as well as the Master section (except the NULL button and data wheel) are not available. Channel Strips Control Assignment MUTE 1 to 8 SOLO LED off: Switches Mute on/off; LED displays Mute status. SOLO LED on: Switches Solo on/off; LED displays Solo status. REC 1 to 8 LEDs Displays Record Ready status. NULL On if fader is higher than actual volume. SELECT 1 to 8 LEDs Displays select status. NULL On if fader is lower than actual volume. SELECT 1 to 8 buttons Selects track. REC Enables/Disables Record Ready status. Fader 1 to 8 Controls Volume. NULL Allows you to update the fader position to match the actual volume. Master fader Controls master volume (Outputs 1 and 2 if no Master Fader Object is available in the Environment). 200 Chapter 17 Tascam US-428 and US-224 EQ Section Master Section Controls Control Assignment Gain Controls gain of currently selected EQ of chosen track. Freq Controls frequency of currently selected EQ of chosen track. Q Controls Q factor of currently selected EQ of chosen track. HIGH Selects EQ band 3 for Gain, Freq, and Q controls. ASGN Switches EQ band 3 bypass state. HI-MID Selects EQ band 4 for Gain, Freq, and Q controls. ASGN Switches EQ band 4 bypass state. LO-MID Selects EQ band 5 for Gain, Freq, and Q controls. ASGN Switches EQ band 5 bypass state. LOW Selects EQ band 6 for Gain, Freq, and Q controls. ASGN Switches EQ band 6 bypass state. Control Assignment AUX 1 Switches data wheel between Transport/Scrub mode and Send Level 1. ASGN Switches Send 1 Mute state. AUX 2 Switches data wheel between Transport/Scrub mode and Send Level 2. ASGN Switches Send 2 Mute state. AUX 3 Switches data wheel between Transport/Scrub mode and Send Level 3. ASGN Switches Send 3 Mute state. AUX 4 Switches data wheel between Transport/Scrub mode and Send Level 4. ASGN Switches Send 4 Mute state. ASGN Modifier for function of EQ controls, AUX 1 to 4 buttons, PAN knob and data wheel. F1 Enables/Disables Cycle mode. F2 Enables/Disables Drop mode. F3 Enables/Disables Scrub mode. PAN Controls panning of selected track. ASGN Selects current track’s input. NULL Modifier for NULL mode. NULL mode allows you to update the fader positions to match the actual volume. Chapter 17 Tascam US-428 and US-224 201 LOCATE Section BANK Section Transport Section Data wheel AUX 1 LED on: Controls Send 1 Level of selected track. AUX 2 LED on: Controls Send 2 Level of selected track. AUX 3 LED on: Controls Send 3 Level of selected track. AUX 4 LED on: Controls Send 4 Level of selected track. F3 LED on: Data wheel is in Scrub mode. None of the above is lit: Data wheel is in Transport mode and moves the SPL by bars. ASGN Selects current track’s output. Control Assignment Control Assignment << LOCATE Goes to previous marker. LOCATE >> Goes to next marker. SET Creates a new marker at the current SPL. Control Assignment < BANK Shifts fader bank left by one bank. The LED is lit if the left-most fader bank has not been reached. BANK > Shifts fader bank right by one bank. The LED is lit if the right-most fader bank has not been reached. Control Assignment REW Shuttles backward. F FWD Shuttles forward. STOP Stops playback. PLAY Starts playback. RECORD Record 18 203 18 Yamaha 01V96 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Make sure that your 01V96 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Make sure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. Basically, you set up the 01V96 as if you are using it with Pro Tools. See the 01V96 user manual. Here are the necessary steps: 1 Press DISPLAY ACCESS [SETUP] repeatedly until the Setup/MIDI/Host page is visible. 2 Move the cursor to the port parameters: select DAW, then select USB and 1-2. 3 Press DISPLAY ACCESS [REMOTE]. 4 Choose General DAW as the TARGET parameter. 5 Press LAYER [REMOTE]. The unit is installed automatically when Logic Pro is launched. You should see two 01V96 (USB 1–2) icons in the setup window, aligned horizontally. 204 Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. DISPLAY ACCESS Section FADER MODE Section Control Assignment DISPLAY Hides/shows the Sample Editor. AUTOMIX While held, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of the selected tracks. PAIR/GROUP Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  Parameter control push-switch buttons 1 to 4 switch the properties of the currently edited group. Group name is shown in the lower line.  When INSERT/PARAM is off, DSP Edit Scroll encoder scrolls through the group properties. At other times, it selects the group currently being edited.  The SELECT buttons switch group membership of the track. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Track View. EFFECT Hides/shows the Sample Editor. Control Assignment AUX 1 Assigns Send 1 Level to encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 Destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 6. AUX 2 Assigns Send 2 Level to encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 2 Destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 7. AUX 3 Assigns Send 3 Level to encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 3 Destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 8. AUX 4 Assigns Send 4 Level to encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 4 Destination assignment. AUX 5 Assigns Send 5 Level to encoders, and Send 5 to 8 Levels to DSP encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 5 Destination assignment. AUX 6 Switches Encoder Push-Switch buttons between normal behavior and setting default value. Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 205 LCD Function LCD The LCD displays different data, depending on the page selected with the F2, F3, and F4 buttons: Insert Display Mode Press the [F2] button to select Insert Display mode. In this mode, the LCD displays parameter details and you can edit and select plug-ins. AUX 7 Assigns Pan to encoders; assigns selected track’s pan/surround parameters to DSP encoders. AUX 8 Determines mode of channel strip SEL buttons when channel strip AUTO button is off:  Indicator off: Track selection.  Indicator on: Insert selection. HOME Enables/Disables Flip mode. Control Assignment Control Assignment Left/Right buttons Plug-in Edit mode: Shifts parameter display by the number of parameters shown in the control surface group (usually four). DAW ALT/FINE Plug-in Edit mode: Shifts parameter display by one. F1 Clears Overload LEDs. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables MIDI tracks. DAW ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Arrange window. Display Assignment TIME CODE option Active if counter is displaying time code. FEET Not assigned. BEATS option Active if counter is displaying bars/beats/format/ticks. Time display Displays time code or bars/beats/format/ticks. SELECT ASSIGN Displays the encoder assignment as follows: Pan, Snd1 to Snd8, S1As to S8As, In, Out. ASSIGN — COMPARE Switches DSP display between “track name/parameter name” and “parameter name/parameter value” modes. BYPASS Switches bypass status of plug-in insert currently being edited. INSERT/PARAM Switches between Plug-in Assign and Plug-in Edit modes. 206 Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 LCD Channel Page Selected Channel Section Parameter control 1 to 4 push-switch Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 push-switch centers Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 push-switch centers Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 push-switch centers Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 push-switch sets Surround Mode to center. Assignment Send:  Enables/Disables Sends 1 to 4 or Mutes 5 to 8. Plug-in Assign:  Confirms insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 plug-in selection, selects this insert slot and enters Plug-in Edit mode. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default, or bi-polar switch to on/off. Parameter controls Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 controls Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 controls Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 controls Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 controls Surround Mode. Assignment Send:  Control Send 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 Level. Plug-in Assign:  Assigns insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8. Plug-in Edit mode:  Sets value to default. Display Assignment Control Assignment Encoder Adjusts parameter selected in the FADER MODE section. Encoder Switch Pan selected: Sets Pan to center if MATRIX 1 is on. Send 1 to 8 selected: Edits Send Pre/Post, enables/disables Send Mute or sets Send Level to default value. Assignment Send, Input, or Output: Confirms selection. Control Assignment Pan controls Adjusts parameter selected in the FADER MODE section. SEL Switches channel strip SEL buttons between track and insert selection. Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 207 Data Entry Section Channel Strips Stereo Channel Strip Control Assignment Parameter Wheel Default: Move SPL by one bar. Scrub: Scrubbing. Shuttle: Shuttle mode. – (DEC) Default: Exits Folder. Goto Marker: Cancels dialog. DAW ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Audio window. + (INC) Enters folder of selected track. Control Assignment Level Meters Display momentary and peak level. SEL If AUTO off:  FADER MODE [AUX 8] off: Selects track.  FADER MODE [AUX 8] on: Selects track for insert assignment. If AUTO on:  Cycles through automation modes. With an automation mode button held down, sets this automation mode. DAW SHIFT/ADD Sets volume to unity level. MATRIX SELECT 1 Sets volume to unity level. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. DAW OPTION/ALL Disables Solo for all tracks. ON Enables/Disables Mute. DAW OPTION/ALL Unmutes all tracks. Fader Adjusts volume, or duplicates encoder in Flip mode. Control Assignment SEL Switches channel strips’ SEL buttons between track and insert selection. 208 Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 User Defined Keys Section These keys can be assigned to the following functions: Control Assignment DAW WIN STATUS Opens/Closes the Audio window. DAW REC/RDY 1 to 16 Enables/Disables Record Ready. DAW WIN TRANSPORT Opens/Closes the Transport window. DAW BANK– Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. DAW BANK+ Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. DAW SHIFT/ADD Shifts to second meaning of some buttons. See descriptions of other buttons. DAW OPTION/ALL While held down, value change mode is set to “relative”: relative value changes result in a minimum, default, or maximum value for the edited parameter. Also see description of other buttons. DAW GROUP STATUS Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  Parameter control push-switch buttons 1 to 4 switch between properties of the currently edited group. Group name is shown in the lower line.  When INSERT/PARAM is off, DSP Edit Scroll Encoder scrolls through the group properties. At other times, it selects the group currently being edited.  The SELECT buttons enable/disable group membership of the track. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Track View. DAW SUSPEND Enables/Disables the Group Clutch. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Extended Track View. DAW CREATE GROUP Creates a new group and enters Group Edit mode (see above). DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View. DAW WIN MIX/EDIT Switches between the Arrange and Track Mixer windows. DAW CHANNEL – Shifts channel strips by one channel to the left. DAW CHANNEL+ Shifts channel strips by one channel to the right. DAW CTRL/CLUTCH While held down, the Group Clutch is engaged (all groups are disabled). DAW ALT/FINE While held down, value change mode is set to “fine”: relative value changes work at maximum resolution. Also see description of other buttons. DAW MONI STATUS — DAW UNDO Performs Undo. DAW SHIFT/ADD Performs Redo. DAW OPTION/ALL Opens Undo History window. DAW SAVE Saves the song. DAW WIN MEM-LOC Opens/Closes the Marker List. Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 209 DAW OPTION/ALL Performs Save As and allows saving the song under a different name. DAW EDIT TOOL Selects the next tool. While held, numerical buttons select a specific tool. DAW WIN INSERT Opens/Closes the Sample Editor. DAW REC/RDY ALL Disable Record Ready on all tracks. DAW SCRUB Enables/Disables Scrub mode. DAW SHUTTLE Enables/Disables Shuttle mode. DAW REW Shuttles backward. DAW FF Shuttles forward. DAW STOP Stop DAW PLAY Play DAW SHIFT/ADD Pause DAW REC Record DAW PRE Sets left locator. DAW IN Sets Drop In locator. DAW OUT Sets Drop Out locator. DAW POST Sets right locator. DAW RTZ Goes to the left locator. DAW END Goes to the right locator. DAW ONLINE Enables/Disables internal/external sync. DAW QUICK PUNCH Enables/Disables Drop mode. DAW AUTO FADER Enables/Disables Volume automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO PAN Enables/Disables Pan automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO PLUGIN Enables/Disables Plug-in parameter automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO MUTE Enables/Disables Mute automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO SEND Enables/Disables Send Level automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO SEND MUTE — DAW AUTO WRITE Sets selected track to Write automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Write. DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Write automation mode. DAW AUTO TOUCH Sets selected track to Touch automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Touch. DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Touch automation mode. DAW AUTO LATCH Sets selected track to Latch automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Latch. DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Latch automation mode. DAW AUTO READ Sets selected track to Read automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Read. Control Assignment 210 Chapter 18 Yamaha 01V96 DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Read automation mode. DAW AUTO TRIM — DAW AUTO OFF Sets selected track to Off automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to Off. DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to Off automation mode. DAW AUTO STATUS While held down, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of the selected track. Control Assignment 19 211 19 Yamaha 02R96 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Make sure that your 02R96 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Make sure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. On the 02R96 Front Panel: Basically, you set up the 02R96 as if you are using it with Pro Tools. See the 02R96 user manual. Here are the necessary steps:  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [SETUP] repeatedly until the Setup / MIDI/Host page is visible. Now move the cursor to the port parameters: select DAW, then select USB and 1-3.  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [REMOTE]. Choose General DAW as the TARGET parameter.  Press LAYER [REMOTE]. In Logic: The unit is installed automatically when Logic Pro is launched. You should see three 02R96 (USB 1-3) icons in the setup window, aligned horizontally. 212 Chapter 19 Yamaha 02R96 Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. DISPLAY ACCESS Section AUX SELECT Section ENCODER MODE Section FADER MODE Section Control Assignment METER Clears Overload LEDs. Control Assignment AUX 1 Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. AUX 2 Assigns Send 2 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 2 destination assignment. AUX 3 Assigns Send 3 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 3 destination assignment. AUX 4 Assigns Send 4 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 4 destination assignment. AUX 5 Assigns Send 5 Level to Encoders, and Send 5 to 8 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 5 destination assignment. Control Assignment PAN Assigns Pan to Encoders; assigns selected track’s pan/surround parameters to DSP Encoders. AUX Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. Control Assignment FADER Enables/Disables Flip mode. AUX/MTRX Enables/Disables Flip mode. Chapter 19 Yamaha 02R96 213 EFFECTS/PLUG-INS Section Control Assignment Display Opens/Closes the Sample Editor window. PLUG-INS Switches Encoder Push-Switch buttons between normal behavior and setting default value. CHANNEL INSERTS Determines mode of channel strip SEL buttons:  Indicator off: track selection.  Indicator on: Insert selection. 1 — 2 Switches DSP display between “track name/parameter name” and “parameter name/ parameter value” modes. 3 Switches bypass status of currently edited plug-in insert. 4 Switches between Plug-in Assign and Plug-in Edit modes. Parameter Up & Parameter Down Plug-In Edit: shifts parameter display by the number of parameters shown in the control surface group (usually four). Parameter control 1–4 push-switch Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 push-switch centers Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 push-switch centers Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 push-switch centers Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 push-switch sets Surround Mode to center. Assignment Send:  Enables/Disables Sends 1 to 4 or Mutes 5 to 8. Plug-In Assign:  Confirm insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 plug-in selection, selects this insert slot and enters Plug-In Edit mode. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default, or sets bi-polar switch to on/off. Parameter controls Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 controls Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 controls Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 controls Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 controls Surround Mode. Assignment Send:  Control Send 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 Level. Plug-In Assign:  Assigns insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default. 214 Chapter 19 Yamaha 02R96 LCD The LCD displays different data, depending on the page selected with the F2, F3, and F4 buttons:  INSERT ASSIGN/EDIT Display Mode: parameter details, plug-in selection or plug-in parameters. Press [F2] to select this mode.  Channel Display Mode: Encoder values and Channel Strip display). Press [F3] to select this mode.  level meters. Press [F4] to select this mode. USER DEFINED KEYS Section Display Assignment TIME CODE Active if counter is displaying time code. FEET Not assigned. BEATS Active if counter is displaying bars/beats/format/ticks. Time display Displays time code or bars/beats/format/ticks. SELECT ASSIGN Displays the Encoder assignment as follows: Pan, Snd1 to Snd8, S1As to S8As, In, Out. Control Assignment DISPLAY While held, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of the selected tracks. 1 Switches between the Arrange and Track Mixer windows. 2 Enables/Disables the Group Clutch. 3 Sets selected track to “Write” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Write.” 4 Sets selected track to “Touch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Touch.” 5 Sets selected track to “Latch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Latch.” 6 Sets selected track to “Read” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Read.” 7 — 8 Sets selected track to “Off” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Off.” 9 Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. 10 Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. 11 Enables/Disables Volume automation playback and recording. 12 Enables/Disables Mute automation playback and recording. 13 Enables/Disables Pan automation playback and recording. 14 Enables/Disables Send Level automation playback and recording. Chapter 19 Yamaha 02R96 215 Channel Strips MACHINE CONTROL Section Data Entry Section 15 — 16 Enables/Disables Plug-in parameter automation playback and recording. Control Assignment Control Assignment Encoder Adjusts parameter selected in the AUX SELECT section. Encoder Push- Switch Pan selected: sets Pan to center. If EFFECTS/PLUG-INS [PLUG-INS] on Sends 1 to 8 selected: edits Send Pre/Post, switches Send Mute status or sets Send Level to default value. Send Assign, Input, or Output: confirms selection. AUTO Cycles through automation modes. With an automation mode button held down, sets this automation mode. SEL If EFFECTS/PLUG-INS [CHANNEL INSERTS] off: selects track. If EFFECTS/PLUG-INS [CHANNEL INSERTS] on: chooses track for plug-in selection/ insertion. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. ON Enables/Disables Mute. Fader Adjusts volume, or duplicates Encoder in Flip mode. Control Assignment DISPLAY Opens/Closes the Marker List window. 1 to 8 Recalls markers 1 to 8. REW Shuttles backward. FF Shuttles forward. STOP Stop PLAY Play REC Record Control Assignment SCRUB Enables/Disables Scrub mode. SHUTTLE Enables/Disables Shuttle mode. Parameter Wheel Default: move SPL by one bar. Scrub: scrubbing. Shuttle: Shuttle mode. ENTER Enters folder of selected track. DEC Exits Folder. 216 Chapter 19 Yamaha 02R96 INC Switches between Cursor and Zoom modes. Cursor Up Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard up arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out vertically. Cursor Down Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard down arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out vertically. Cursor Left Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard left arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out horizontally. Cursor Right Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard right arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms in horizontally. Control Assignment 20 217 20 Yamaha DM1000 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Make sure that your DM1000 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Make sure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. On the DM1000 Front Panel: Basically, you set up the DM1000 as if you are using it with Pro Tools. See the DM1000 user manual, section 17. Here are the necessary steps:  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [SETUP] repeatedly until the Setup / MIDI/Host page is visible. Now move the cursor to the port parameters: select DAW, then select USB and 1-2.  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [REMOTE], then [F1] (below the LCD). Choose General DAW as the TARGET parameter.  Press LAYER [REMOTE 1]. In Logic: When Logic Pro is launched, the unit is installed automatically. You should see two DM1000 (USB 1-2) icons in the Setup window, aligned horizontally. 218 Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. DISPLAY ACCESS Section AUX SELECT Section Control Assignment DISPLAY Opens/Closes the Sample Editor window. AUTOMIX While held, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of the selected track. PAIR/GROUP Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  Parameter control push-switch buttons 1 to 4 switch between properties of the currently edited group (name shown in lower line of LCD).  When INSERT/PARAM is off, DSP Edit Scroll Encoder scrolls through the group properties. Otherwise, it selects the currently edited group.  The SELECT buttons enable/disable group membership of the track. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Track View. METER Clears Overload LEDs. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View and enables MIDI Tracks. DAW ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Arrange window. EFFECT Opens/Closes the Sample Editor window. Control Assignment AUX 1 Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 6. AUX 2 Assigns Send 2 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 2 destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 7. AUX 3 Assigns Send 3 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 3 destination assignment. DAW SHIFT/ADD As above, for Send 8. AUX 4 Assigns Send 4 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 4 destination assignment. AUX 5 Assigns Send 5 Level to Encoders, and Send 5 to 8 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 5 destination assignment. Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 219 ENCODER MODE Section FADER MODE Section LCD Function LCD The LCD displays different data, depending on the page selected with the F2, F3, and F4 buttons:  INSERT ASSIGN/EDIT Display Mode: parameter details, plug-in selection or plug-in parameters. Press [F2] to select this mode. AUX 6 Switches Encoder Push-Switch buttons between normal behavior and setting default value. AUX 8 Determines mode of channel strip SEL buttons when channel strip AUTO button is off:  Indicator off: track selection.  Indicator on: Insert selection. Control Assignment Control Assignment PAN Assigns Pan to Encoders; assigns selected track’s pan/surround parameters to DSP Encoders. AUX Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. Control Assignment FADER MODE Enables/Disables Flip mode. Control Assignment Left & Right Plug-In Edit: shifts parameter display by the number of Parameter controls in the control surface group (usually four). DAW ALT/FINE Plug-In Edit: shifts parameter display by one (parameter). Display Assignment LCD Displays parameter details, plug-in selection or plug-in parameters. TIME CODE Active if counter is displaying time code. FEET Not assigned. BEATS Active if counter is displaying bars/beats/format/ticks. Time display Displays time code or bars/beats/format/ticks. SELECT ASSIGN Displays the Encoder assignment as follows: Pan, Snd1 to Snd8, S1As to S8As, In, Out. 220 Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 LCD Insert Page Data Entry Section Control Assignment ASSIGN — COMPARE Switches DSP display between “track name/parameter name” and “parameter name/parameter value” modes. BYPASS Activates/Deactivates bypass of plug-in insert currently being edited. INSERT/PARAM Switches between Plug-in Assign and Plug-in Edit modes. Parameter control 1–4 push-switch Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 push-switch centers Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 push-switch centers Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 push-switch centers Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 push-switch sets Surround Mode to center. Assignment Send:  Enables/Disables Sends 1 to 4 or Mutes 5 to 8. Plug-In Assign:  Confirm insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 plug-in selection, selects this insert slot and enters Plug-In Edit mode. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default, or sets bi-polar switch on/off. Parameter controls Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 controls Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 controls Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 controls Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 controls Surround Mode. Assignment Send:  Control Send 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 Level. Plug-In Assign:  Assigns insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default. Control Assignment Parameter Wheel Default: move SPL by one bar. Scrub: scrubbing. Shuttle: Shuttle mode. – (DEC) Default: leaves Folder. Goto Marker: cancels dialog. DAW ALT/FINE Opens/Closes Audio window. + (INC) Enters folder of selected track. Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 221 Channel Strips Stereo Channel Strip USER DEFINED KEYS Section These keys can be assigned to the following functions: Control Assignment Level Meters Display momentary and peak level. Encoder Adjusts parameter selected in the AUX SELECT section. Encoder Push-Switch Pan selected: sets Pan to center if MATRIX 1 on. Send 1 to 8 selected: edits Send Pre/Post, activates/deactivates Send Mute or sets Send Level to default value. Send Assign, Input, or Output: confirms selection. SEL If AUTO off:  AUX [AUX 8] off: selects track.  AUX [AUX 8] on: selects track for insert assignment. If AUTO on:  Cycles through automation modes. With an automation mode button held down, sets this automation mode. DAW SHIFT/ADD Sets volume to unity level. MATRIX SELECT 1 Sets volume to unity level. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. DAW OPTION/ALL Disables Solo for all tracks. ON Enables/Disables Mute. DAW OPTION/ALL Unmutes all tracks. Fader Adjusts volume, or duplicates Encoder assignment in Flip mode. Control Assignment AUTO Switches channel strips’ SEL buttons between track and insert selection. Control Assignment DAW WIN STATUS Opens/Closes the Audio window. DAW REC/RDY 1 to 16 Enables/Disables Record Ready. DAW WIN TRANSPORT Opens/Closes the Transport window. DAW BANK- Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. DAW BANK+ Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. DAW SHIFT/ADD Shifts to second meaning of some buttons. DAW OPTION/ALL While held down, value change mode is set to “relative”: relative value changes result in a minimum, default, or maximum value for the edited parameter. Also see description of other buttons. 222 Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 DAW GROUP STATUS Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  Parameter control push-switch buttons 1 to 4 switch between properties of the currently edited group. Group name shown in lower line of LCD.  When INSERT/PARAM is off, DSP Edit Scroll Encoder scrolls through the group properties. At other times, it selects the group currently being edited.  The SELECT buttons enable/disable group membership of the track. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Track View. DAW SUSPEND Enables/Disables the Group Clutch. DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Extended Track View. DAW CREATE GROUP Creates a new group and enters Group Edit mode (see above). DAW SHIFT/ADD Switches to Global View. DAW WIN MIX/EDIT Switches between the Arrange and Track Mixer windows. DAW CHANNEL - Shifts channel strips by one channel to the left. DAW CHANNEL+ Shifts channel strips by one channel to the right. DAW CTRL/CLUTCH While held down, the Group Clutch is engaged (all groups are disabled). DAW ALT/FINE While held down, value change mode is set to “fine”: relative value changes work at maximum resolution. Also see description of other buttons. DAW MONI STATUS — DAW UNDO Performs undo. DAW SHIFT/ADD Performs redo. DAW OPTION/ALL Opens undo history window. DAW SAVE Saves the song. DAW WIN MEM-LOC Opens/Closes the Marker List window. DAW OPTION/ALL Save As…: saves the song under a different name. DAW EDIT TOOL Selects the next tool. While held, numerical buttons select a specific tool. DAW WIN INSERT Opens/Closes the Sample Editor window. DAW REC/RDY ALL Disable Record Ready on all tracks. DAW SCRUB Enables/Disables Scrub mode. DAW SHUTTLE Enables/Disables Shuttle mode. DAW REW Shuttles backward. DAW FF Shuttles forward. DAW STOP Stop DAW PLAY Play DAW SHIFT/ADD Pause DAW REC Record DAW PRE Sets left locator. Control Assignment Chapter 20 Yamaha DM1000 223 DAW IN Sets Drop In locator. DAW OUT Sets Drop Out locator. DAW POST Sets right locator. DAW RTZ Goes to the left locator. DAW END Goes to the right locator. DAW ONLINE Activates/Deactivates internal/external Sync. DAW QUICK PUNCH Enables/Disables Drop mode. DAW AUTO FADER Enables/Disables Volume automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO PAN Enables/Disables Pan automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO PLUGIN Enables/Disables Plug-in parameter automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO MUTE Enables/Disables Mute automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO SEND Enables/Disables Send Level automation playback and recording. DAW AUTO SEND MUTE — DAW AUTO WRITE Sets selected track to “Write” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Write.” DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to “Write” automation mode. DAW AUTO TOUCH Sets selected track to “Touch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Touch.” DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to “Touch” automation mode. DAW AUTO LATCH Sets selected track to “Latch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Latch.” DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to “Latch” automation mode. DAW AUTO READ Sets selected track to “Read” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Read.” DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to “Read” automation mode. DAW AUTO TRIM — DAW AUTO OFF Sets selected track to “Off” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Off.” DAW OPTION/ALL Sets all tracks to “Off” automation mode. DAW AUTO STATUS While held down, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of the selected track. Control Assignment 21 225 21 Yamaha DM2000 Set Up Please follow these steps before using your control surface with Logic Pro 7.  Make sure that your DM2000 unit(s) are connected to the computer via USB.  Make sure that the MIDI driver shipped with the unit is installed. On the DM2000 Front Panel: Basically, you set up the DM2000 as if you are using it with Pro Tools. See the DM2000 user manual, section 19. Here are the necessary steps:  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [SETUP], then [F4] (below the LCD) so that the Setup / MIDI/Host page is visible. Now move the cursor to the port parameters: select DAW, then select USB and 1-3.  Press DISPLAY ACCESS [REMOTE], then [F1] (below the LCD). Choose General DAW as the TARGET parameter.  Press LAYER [REMOTE 1]. In Logic: When Logic Pro is launched, the unit is installed automatically. You should see three DM2000 (USB 1-3) icons in the Setup window, aligned horizontally. 226 Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 Assignment Overview A right-aligned modifier button (such as SHIFT) below a button description indicates that the button has an alternate meaning/use while holding down this modifier. MATRIX SELECT Section AUX SELECT Section Control Assignment MATRIX 1 Switches Encoder Push-Switch buttons between normal behavior and setting default value. MATRIX 2 Switches the Encoder Push-Switch buttons between Send Position and Send Mute mode. MATRIX 4 If ENCODER MODE [ASSIGN 4] is on, switches the channel strip SEL buttons between Insert Select (indicator off ) and Insert Bypass mode (indicator on). Control Assignment AUX 1 Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. USER 4 As above, for Send 6. AUX 2 Assigns Send 2 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 2 destination assignment. USER 4 As above, for Send 7. AUX 3 Assigns Send 3 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 3 destination assignment. USER 4 As above, for Send 8. AUX 4 Assigns Send 4 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 4 destination assignment. AUX 5 Assigns Send 5 Level to Encoders, and Send 5 to 8 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 5 destination assignment. Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 227 ENCODER MODE Section FADER MODE Section DISPLAY ACCESS Section Control Assignment PAN Assigns Pan to Encoders; assigns selected track’s pan/surround parameters to DSP Encoders. AUX/MTRX Assigns Send 1 Level to Encoders, and Send 1 to 4 Levels to DSP Encoders. While held, the Channel Strip displays show the current Send 1 destination assignment. ASSIGN 1 Assigns Track Input to Encoders. While held down, the Channel Strip displays show the current Track Input assignment. ASSIGN 2 Assigns Track Output to Encoders. While held down, the Channel Strip displays show the current Track Output assignment. ASSIGN 3 When Encoders display a Send level, switches them to Send Destination assignment mode. Press Encoder Push-Switch or ASSIGN 3 again to confirm the assignment. ASSIGN 4 Determines mode of channel strip SEL buttons:  Indicator off: track selection.  Indicator on: Insert selection or Insert Bypass, depending on MATRIX SELECT [MATRIX 4]. Control Assignment FADER Enables/Disables Flip mode. AUX/MTRX Enables/Disables Flip mode. Control Assignment METER Clears Overload LEDs. USER 4 Switches to Global View and enables MIDI Tracks. USER 13 Opens/Closes Arrange window. 228 Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 EFFECTS/PLUG-INS Section Control Assignment Display Opens/Closes the Sample Edit window. 5 — 6 Switches DSP display between “track name/parameter name” and “parameter name/ parameter value” modes. 7 Activates/Deactivates bypass of plug-in insert that is currently being edited. 8 Switches between Plug-in Assign and Plug-in Edit modes. Parameter Up & Parameter Down Plug-In Edit: shifts parameter display by the number of Parameter controls in the control surface group (usually four). USER 13 Plug-In Edit: shifts parameter display by one (parameter). Parameter control 1–4 push-switch Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 push-switch centers Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 push-switch centers Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 push-switch centers Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 push-switch sets Surround Mode to center. Assignment Send:  Enables/Disables Sends 1 to 4 or Mutes 5 to 8. Plug-In Assign:  Confirm insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 plug-in selection, selects this insert slot and enters Plug-In Edit mode. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default, or switches bi-polar parameter value on/off. Parameter controls Assignment Pan:  Parameter control 1 controls Pan or Surround Angle.  Parameter control 2 controls Surround Diversity.  Parameter control 3 controls Surround LFE.  Parameter control 4 controls Surround Mode. Assignment Send:  Control Send 1 to 4 or 5 to 8 Level. Plug-In Assign:  Assigns insert 1 to 4 or 5 to 8. Plug-In Edit mode:  Sets value to default. Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 229 LCD TRACK ARMING Section Display Assignment LCD Displays parameter details, plug-in selection or plug-in parameters. TIME CODE Active if counter is displaying time code. FEET Not assigned. BEATS Active if counter is displaying bars/beats/format/ticks. Time display Displays time code or bars/beats/format/ticks. SELECT ASSIGN Displays the Encoder assignment as follows: Pan, Snd1 to Snd8, S1As to S8As, In, Out. Control Assignment 1 to 24 Enables/Disables Record Ready. USER 5 Disables Record Ready for all tracks. MASTER Disables Record Ready for all tracks. 230 Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 AUTOMIX Section Control Assignment DISPLAY While held, the Channel Strip displays show the automation mode of selected track. REC Sets selected track to “Write” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Write.” USER 5 Sets all tracks to “Write” automation mode. ABORT/UNDO Sets selected track to “Touch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Touch.” USER 5 Sets all tracks to automation mode “Touch.” AUTOREC Sets selected track to “Latch” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Latch.” USER 5 Sets all tracks to automation mode “Latch.” RETURN Sets selected track to “Read” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to” Read.” USER 5 Sets all tracks to “Read” automation mode. RELATIVE — TOUCH SENSE Sets selected track to “Off” automation mode. While held down, channel Strip AUTO buttons set automation mode to “Off.” USER 5 Sets all tracks to “Off” automation mode. OVERWRITE [FADER] Enables/Disables volume automation playback and recording. OVERWRITE [PAN] Enables/Disables pan automation playback and recording. OVERWRITE [EQ] Enables/Disables Plug-in parameter automation playback and recording. OVERWRITE [ON] Enables/Disables mute automation playback and recording. OVERWRITE [AUX] Enables/Disables Send level automation playback and recording. OVERWRITE [AUX ON] — Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 231 USER DEFINED KEYS Section Control Assignment DISPLAY Opens/Closes the Audio window. 1 Opens/Closes the Transport window. 2 Shifts channel strips by one bank to the left. 3 Shifts channel strips by one bank to the right. 4 Shifts to second meaning of some buttons (see descriptions of other buttons). 5 While held down, value change mode is set to “full”: any relative value changes will “jump” to their minimum or maximum values. 6 Enters Group Edit mode:  The upper line in the DSP edit section displays the currently edited group number and name.  Parameter control push-switch buttons 1 to 4 switch the properties of the group currently being edited (names shown in lower line of display).  When INSERT/PARAM is off, DSP Edit Scroll Encoder scrolls through the group properties. Otherwise, it selects the currently edited group.  The SELECT buttons activate/deactivate group membership of the track. USER 4 Switches to Track View. 7 Activates/Deactivates the Group Clutch (disables all groups). USER 4 Switches to Extended Track View. 8 Creates a new group and enters Group Edit mode (see above). USER 4 Switches to Global View. 9 Switches between the Arrange and Track Mixer windows. 10 Shifts channel strips by one channel to the left. 11 Shifts channel strips by one channel to the right. 12 While held down, the Group Clutch is engaged (all groups are disabled). 13 While held down, value change mode is set to “fine”: relative value changes work at maximum resolution. Also see descriptions of other buttons. 14 — 15 Performs Undo. USER 4 Performs Redo. USER 5 Opens Undo History window. 16 Saves the song. USER 5 Save As…: saves the song under a different name. 232 Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 LOCATOR Section Control Assignment DISPLAY Opens/Closes the Marker List window. 1 to 8 Recalls markers 1 to 8. USER 4 Switches to Global View and enables: 1: MIDI Tracks. 2: Inputs. 3: Audio Tracks. 4: Audio Instruments. 5: Aux Tracks. 6: Busses. 7: Outputs and Master object. DISPLAY HISTORY [FORWARD] Selects tool: 1: Arrow. 2: Pencil. 3: Eraser. 4: Text edit. 5: Scissors. 6: Glue. 7: Solo. 8: Mute. AUDITION — PRE Sets left locator. IN Sets Drop In locator. OUT Sets Drop Out locator. POST Sets right locator. RETURN TO ZERO Navigates to the left locator. END Navigates to the right locator. ONLINE Enables/Disables internal/external sync. QUICK PUNCH Enables/Disables Drop mode. Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 233 Channel Strips Transport/Cursor Section Control Assignment Level Meters Displays momentary and peak levels. Encoder Adjusts parameter selected in the AUX SELECT section. Encoder Push- Switch Pan selected: sets Pan to center if MATRIX 1 on Send 1 to 8 selected: edits Send Pre/ Post, activates/deactivates Send Mute or sets Send Level to default value. Send Assign, Input, or Output selected: confirms selection. AUTO Cycles through automation modes. With an automation mode button held down, sets this automation mode. SEL If ENCODER MODE [ASSIGN 4] off: selects track. If ENCODER MODE [ASSIGN 4] on:  BYPASS off: selects track for plug-in selection.  BYPASS on: switches bypass status of currently selected insert slot. USER 4 Sets volume to unity level. MATRIX SELECT 1 Sets volume to unity level. SOLO Enables/Disables Solo. USER 5 Disables Solo for all tracks. ON Enables/Disables Mute. USER 5 Unmutes all tracks. Channel strip display Displays track name, or Send, In, or Out assignment. Fader Adjusts volume, or duplicates Encoder in Flip mode. Control Assignment REW Shuttles backward. FF Shuttles forward. STOP Stop PLAY Play USER 4 Pause REC Record DISPLAY HISTORY [BACK] — DISPLAY HISTORY [FORWARD] Selects the next tool. While held down, numerical buttons select a specific tool. SCRUB Enables/Disables Scrub mode. SHUTTLE Enables/Disables Shuttle mode. 234 Chapter 21 Yamaha DM2000 Parameter Wheel Default: move SPL by one bar. Scrub: scrubbing. Shuttle: Shuttle mode. DEC Default: leaves Folder. Goto Marker: cancels dialog. USER 13 Opens/Closes Audio window. INC Switches between Cursor and Zoom mode. Cursor Up Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard up arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out vertically. USER 4 Zoom mode: Individual track zoom in. USER 13 Page Up. USER 5 + USER 13 Scroll to top. Cursor Down Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard down arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out vertically. USER 4 Zoom mode: Individual track zoom out. USER 13 Page Down. USER 5 + USER 13 Scroll to bottom. Cursor Left Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard left arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms out horizontally. USER 4 Zoom mode: Individual track zoom reset for tracks of the same type. USER 13 Page Left. USER 5 + USER 13 Scroll to left border. Cursor Right Cursor mode: equivalent to computer keyboard right arrow key. Zoom mode: zooms in horizontally. USER 4 Zoom mode: Individual track zoom reset of all tracks. USER 13 Page Right. USER 5 + USER 13 Scroll to right border. ENTER Enters folder of selected track. Control Assignment 235 A Appendix A Logic Control—Specifications Logic Control (Base Unit) This appendix describes the specifications of the Logic Control unit. Display  55 × 2-digit (LCD) backlit multi-function display for detailed parameter information and metering  Built-in screensaver function  2-digit, 7-segment display for mode displays  10-digit, 7-segment display for song position information in either SMPTE or bar/ beats/ticks  1 × button to toggle the LCD between parameter name/value and to activate the level meters.  1 × button to toggle the 7-segment display between SMPTE and bar/beats/ticks.  2 × LEDs show the current 7-segment display status.  1 × LED shows the current Solo status. Per Channel (8 Channels)  1 × motorized 100mm touch-sensitive Penny & Giles faders with 10Bit resolution (1024 steps)  1 × V-POT: digital endless rotary knob with position indicator and integrated push button for parameter adjustments of pan, EQ, send levels, and so on  4 × buttons with integrated colored LED for channel functions such as: Record, Solo, Mute, and Channel Selection  Signal Present LED indicates when an audio or MIDI signal is present. Master Fader  1 × motorized 100mm touch-sensitive Penny & Giles fader with 10Bit resolution (1024 steps). 236 Appendix A Logic Control—Specifications Controller  6 × buttons with status LED for direct selection of parameter groups for Track, Pan/ Surround, EQ, Send, Plug-In, Instrument  8 × buttons to directly select sections of Logic mixers such as audio tracks, MIDI tracks, inputs, busses, and so on  4 × buttons to shift the displayed mixer channels to the left and right, either one channel at a time, or in banks  1 × button with status LED for the channel fader/V-POT flip: swaps the assignments of fader and V-POTs  1 × button with status LED to toggle between Mixer View and Global View  4 × buttons with status LED to activate automation modes such as Read, Write, Touch, and Latch  4 × buttons to select utility functions such as: “Save Song,” “Undo,” “Cancel,” or confirmations in dialogs  4 × buttons to access additional functions through modifier keys  8 × freely definable user keys  2 × currently unassigned buttons for future use Transport Controls  5 × Transport buttons with status LED for Forward, Rewind, Stop, Play, Record  1 × Jog/Scrub wheel for precise location of any song position and audio scrubbing  1 × Scrub button with status LED to activate the scrub function  1 × Marker and 1 × Nudge button with status LED to extend the functionality of the Forward/Rewind buttons (Nudge functionality only available in Logic Pro)  4 × Navigation buttons to quickly navigate through plug-in slots and parameter pages  1 × Zoom button to switch the navigate buttons to zoom Internal Processor  High-speed RISC micro controller  Firmware can be updated via MIDI dump. Connections  1 × MIDI in, 1 × MIDI out.  2 × assignable foot switch inputs to control Start/Stop and Punch In/Out, for example  1 × assignable external control signal input to connect a volume pedal.  Power supply jack Appendix A Logic Control—Specifications 237 Power Supply  International (100–250V) external power supply for standard power cords  Rear-mounted power switch Weight and Construction  Logic Control weighs 5.05 kg (unpacked).  High quality, sturdy 1mm steel chassis and case  Comfortable, durable wrist rest Dimensions Logic Control XT (Extension Unit) Display  55 × 2-digit (LCD) backlit multi-function display for detailed parameter information and metering  Built-in screensaver function Per channel (8 channels)  1 × motorized 100mm touch-sensitive Penny & Giles faders with 10Bit resolution (1024 steps)  1 × V-POT: digital endless rotary knob with position indicator and integrated push button for parameter adjustments of pan, EQ, send levels, and so on  4 × buttons with integrated colored LED for channel functions such as: Record, Solo, Mute, and Channel Selection  Signal Present LED indicates the presence of an audio signal Internal Processor  High-speed RISC micro controller  Firmware can be updated via MIDI dump. 238 Appendix A Logic Control—Specifications Connections  1 × MIDI in, 1 × MIDI out  Power supply jack Power Supply  International (100–250V) external power supply for standard power cords  Rear-mounted power switch Weight and Construction  Logic Control XT weighs 3.45 kg (unpacked)  High quality, sturdy 1mm steel chassis and case  Comfortable, durable wrist rest Dimensions 239 B Appendix B Logic Control— MIDI Implementation The following information is important for software vendors who wish to create a level of software integration for the Logic/Mackie Control/XT units. This documentation covers firmware version V1.0. Note: All numbers are in hexadecimal format. Variable bytes are shown in italics and use characters other than a-f as a placeholder. All channel messages use running status messages. Once an initial 3-byte message has been sent, the status byte is dropped from proceeding transmitted channel messages, in order to conserve bandwidth. SysEx Message Header The following documentation uses the place holder “” whenever the SysEx header is transmitted or received. It has the following form: F0 MIDI SysEx status byte 00 00 66 Mackie 3-byte SysEx manufacturer ID ii Model ID 10 Logic Control 11 Logic Control XT A device ID is not required, as each unit needs a dedicated MIDI cable. 240 Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation Global Control Messages Host Connection and Initialization Received: 00 F7 Device Query 02 ss ss ss ss ss ss ss rr rr rr rr F7 Host Connection Reply 0F 7F F7 Go Offline Transmitted: 01 ss ss ss ss ss ss ss ll ll ll ll F7 Host Connection Query 03 ss ss ss ss ss ss ss F7 Host Connection Confirmation 04 ss ss ss ss ss ss ss F7 Host Connection Error ss = Serial number (7 bytes ASCII text, non null-terminated) ll = Challenge code (4 bytes) rr = Response code (4 bytes) Offline Mode: Logic Control employs a query system to maintain a connection to the host software. When Logic Control is initially powered up, it defaults to Offline mode. In Offline mode, Logic Control’s faders move to their lowest setting, and the LCD reads “EMAGIC LOGIC CONTROL -- by MACKIE.” After power-on, Logic Control also transmits a system exclusive Host Connection Query message that is used (by the host) to detect a connection, and what type of device is connected (Logic Control/Logic Control XT). Communications Initialization: When the host software receives a Host Connection Query message (containing a serial number and a random challenge code), it should transmit a Host Connection Reply command within 300ms to initialize Logic Control. The command must contain the same serial number and the correct response code for the challenge code. Here is the algorithm (l1 to l4 = challenge code bytes 1 to 4, r1 to r4 = response code bytes 1 to 4): r1 = 0x7F & (l1 + (l2 ^ 0xa) – l4); r2 = 0x7F & ((l3>>4) ^ (l1+l4)); r3 = 0x7F & (l4-(l3<<2) ^ (l1|l2)); r4 = 0x7F & (l2-l3+(0xF0^(l4<<4))); Logic Control will, in turn, respond with either:  a Host Connection Confirmation message that contains the serial number, and switch to Online mode—where it will await further instructions from the host, or  reply with a Host Connection Error message, if the response code was wrong. Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 241 Online Mode: Once the connection between Logic Control and the host software has been made, Logic Control stays in Online Mode until it receives a Go Offline message. Firmware version request Received: 13 00 F7 Version request Transmitted: 14 vv vv vv vv vv F7 Version reply vv 5 ASCII bytes containing version string, e. g. “V1.0”. Note: When Logic Control receives a version request message, it sends the version reply message. Reset Messages Received: 61 F7 Faders to minimum (Sends all faders to the bottom of their throw) 62 F7 All LEDs off (Turns off all LEDs on Logic Control) 63 F7 Reset (Re-Boots Logic Control into Offline mode) Transmitted: No Configuration Messages Received: 0A tt F7 Transport button click 0B ll F7 LCD back light saver 0C mm F7 Touchless movable faders 0E ii ss F7 Fader touch sensitivity Transmitted: No tt 00 = no transport button click 01 = transport button click (default) ll 00 = LCD back light off 01 to 7F = LCD back light on, with time out in minutes (default: 0F = 15 minutes) mm 00 = fader movements are only transmitted if the fader has been recognized as touched 01 = fader movements are also transmitted if the fader has not been recognized as touched (e. g. with fingernail or pen) ii Fader ID (00 thru 07; Master = 08) ss Fader touch sensitivity (00 to 05; default: 03) 242 Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation Common Control Messages Faders Received: Ei, ll, hh Move fader to position Transmitted: Ei, ll, hh Fader moved by user i Fader ID (00 thru 07; Master = 08) ll Fader position value low 7 bits (00–7F) hh Fader position value high 7 bits (00–7F) Example: E0, 40, 55 = Fader Ch. 1, position (55 << 7) + 40 Note: Message format for transmitted fader position is the same as for received position. Only the top (high) 10 of the 14 transmitted bits are required. Positions 0 to 1023 (decimal) are transmitted as 0000 to 03FF (Ei 00 00 to Ei 7F 7F). Switches Received: None Transmitted: 90, ii, ss Switch pressed/released by user ii Switch ID (See “Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs” on page 251.) ss Switch State 00 = switch or fader relead 7F = switch pressed or fader touched Example: 90, 0F, 7F = SOLO Ch. 8 is pressed 90, 0F, 00 = SOLO Ch. 8 is released Note: LEDs and switches use the same control message. This approach means that an LED has the same ID as its corresponding switch. LEDs Received: 90, ii, ss Set LED status Transmitted: None ii LED ID (See “Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs” on page 251.) ss LED State (7F = on, 00 = off, 01 = flashing) Example: 90, 08, 7F = Turn LED 08 on 90, 08, 00 = Turn LED 08 off Note: Switches and LEDs use the same control message. This ensures that an LED always shares an ID with its corresponding switch. Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 243 V-Pots Received: None Transmitted: B0, 1i, XX V-POTs turned by user i V-POT ID (00–07) XX delta value in the form of (0 s v v v v v v) s direction bit: 0 = clockwise, 1 = counter clockwise vv number of ticks Examples:  B0, 10, 01 = V-POT Ch. 1 is being turned clockwise by one tick.  B0, 17, 47 = V-POT Ch. 8 is being turned counter-clockwise by 7 ticks. V-Pot LED ring Received: B0, 3i, XX Set LED ring display Transmitted: None i V-POT number (0 thru 7) XX V-POT display control byte in the form of (0 p x x v v v v): p V-POT display center LED state (1 = on, 0 = off ) xx V-POT mode (00 thru 03; see diagrams below) vv V-POT display position value 00 = all LEDs in ring off; 01 thru 0B see diagrams below Example:  B0, 31, 06 = V-POT 2 display shows LEDs at position 6. Note: In any V-POT display mode, a received LED position value of 00 will turn off all of the V-POT LEDs. 244 Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation V-POT Display modes available: Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 245 External Controller Received: None Transmitted: B0, 2E, vv External Controller changed vv External Controller position value (00–7F) Example:  B0, 2E, 07 = External Controller value = 07 Jog Wheel Received: None Transmitted: B0, 3C, XX Jog wheel turned by user XX delta value in the form of (0 s v v v v v v) s direction bit: 0 = clockwise, 1 = counter clockwise vv number of ticks Examples:  B0, 3C, 01 = Jog forward.  B0, 3C, 41 = Jog reverse. 246 Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation LCD Received: , 12, oo, yy, …, F7 Update LCD Transmitted: None oo Display offset to write from: 00 thru 37 for upper line, 38 thru 6F for lower line. yy Data: ASCII equivalents for display characters—written from left to right— and including line wrapping between upper and lower lines. Up to 100 data bytes may be sent in one message. Example:  The following message writes “Hello” to the top left of the LCD on a Logic Control master section. F0 00 00 66 10 12 00 48 65 6C 6C 6F F7 Notes:  There are 7 displayed characters per channel, with the exception of channel 8, which is limited to displaying the first 6 characters. Internally however, the LCD stores 2 x 56 characters.  In most cases, you will use the LCD in a scribble-strip fashion (text above each channel). In this scenario, you should only use the first six characters per channel, thus allowing for spaces between the text of each channel.  The lower line can be switched into meter mode. See “Metering” on page 249 for further details.  While the LCD switches between horizontal and vertical metering modes, it ignores LCD messages. You should delay LCD messages for at least 600 ms after sending an LCD metering mode change message. Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 247 Time Code/BBT Display Received: , 10, yy, …, F7 Update multiple characters B0, 4i, yy Update single character Transmitted: None i Digit ID: 0 = right-most, 9 = left-most yy Data bytes representing character to be written (See “7-Segment Display Character Table” on page 248). Up to ten characters can be sent in the SysEx message. Examples:  The following message writes “109.02.01.126” to the Time Code display (note decimal points). F0 00 00 66 10 10 36 32 31 71 30 72 30 79 30 31 F7  B0 40 30 41 31 = writes “10” into the last two digits. Important: The digits in the Time Code and Assignment displays are written RIGHT-TOLEFT, which helps to conserve bandwidth. Assignment 7-segment display Received: , 11, yy, yy, F7 Update multiple characters B0, 4i, yy Update single character Transmitted: None i Digit ID: A= right, B = left yy Data bytes representing character to be written (See “7-Segment Display Character Table” on page 248). Two characters can be sent in the SysEx message. Example:  B0 4B 10 4A 4E = writes “Pn.” to the Assignment display. Important: The digits in the Time Code and Assignment displays are written RIGHT-TOLEFT, to help conserve bandwidth. 248 Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 7-Segment Display Character Table Hint:  Characters @ (40h) thru ` (60h) = (ASCII value) − 40h  Characters ! (21h) thru ? (3Fh) = ASCII value Note: The decimal point on each 7-segment character can be lit by adding 40 Hex to the value of the data. Appendix B Logic Control—MIDI Implementation 249 Metering Received: D0, XX Peak level , 20, ii, mm, F7 Channel meter mode , 21, yy, F7 Global LCD meter mode Transmitted: None XX Meter level in the form of (0 h h h l l l l): hh Channel to be addressed (0 thru 7) ll Meter level: 0 thru C = level meter 0% to 100% Overload not cleared! E = set overload F = clear overload ii Channel ID (0 to 7) mm mode bit map in the form of (0 0 0 0 0 l p s): l Enable level meter on LCD p Enable peak hold display (horizontal only) s Enable Signal LED yy 00 = horizontal; 01 = vertical Notes:  There is only one level meter per channel. For stereo tracks, use the maximum of left and right levels.  Only transmit peak levels. Logic Control automatically decreases the level meter bars, and switches off the Signal Present LED (over time). This approach ensures that MIDI bandwidth takes only a fraction of that required by implementations where the current level (and peak level) is transmitted constantly.  Decay rate is approximately 300ms per meter division (1.8 seconds to fall from 100% to 0%).  The LCD meter value and the duration of the Signal Present LED are controlled by the same data byte.  While the LCD switches between horizontal and vertical metering mode, it ignores LCD messages. You should delay LCD messages for at least 600 ms after sending an LCD metering mode change message. 251 C Appendix C Logic Control— Control Surface Layout and IDs ID Switch LED Function 00 • • REC/RDY Ch. 1 01 • • REC/RDY Ch. 2 02 • • REC/RDY Ch. 3 03 • • REC/RDY Ch. 4 04 • • REC/RDY Ch. 5 05 • • REC/RDY Ch. 6 06 • • REC/RDY Ch. 7 07 • • REC/RDY Ch. 8 08 • • SOLO Ch. 1 09 • • SOLO Ch. 2 0A • • SOLO Ch. 3 0B • • SOLO Ch. 4 0C • • SOLO Ch. 5 0D • • SOLO Ch. 6 0E • • SOLO Ch. 7 0F • • SOLO Ch. 8 10 • • MUTE Ch. 1 11 • • MUTE Ch. 2 12 • • MUTE Ch. 3 13 • • MUTE Ch. 4 14 • • MUTE Ch. 5 15 • • MUTE Ch. 6 16 • • MUTE Ch. 7 17 • • MUTE Ch. 8 18 • • SELECT Ch. 1 19 • • SELECT Ch. 2 252 Appendix C Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs 1A • • SELECT Ch. 3 1B • • SELECT Ch. 4 1C • • SELECT Ch. 5 1D • • SELECT Ch. 6 1E • • SELECT Ch. 7 1F • • SELECT Ch. 8 20 • V-Select Ch. 1 21 • V-Select Ch. 2 22 • V-Select Ch. 3 23 • V-Select Ch. 4 24 • V-Select Ch. 5 25 • V-Select Ch. 6 26 • V-Select Ch. 7 27 • V-Select Ch. 8 28 • • ASSIGNMENT: TRACK 29 • • ASSIGNMENT: SEND 2A • • ASSIGNMENT: PAN/SURROUND 2B • • ASSIGNMENT: PLUG-IN 2C • • ASSIGNMENT: EQ 2D • • ASSIGNMENT: INSTRUMENT 2E • FADER BANKS: BANK Left 2F • FADER BANKS: BANK Right 30 • FADER BANKS: CHANNEL Left 31 • FADER BANKS: CHANNEL Right 32 • • FLIP 33 • • GLOBAL VIEW 34 • NAME/VALUE 35 • SMPTE/BEATS 36 • F1 37 • F2 38 • F3 39 • F4 3A • F5 3B • F6 3C • F7 3D • F8 ID Switch LED Function Appendix C Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs 253 3E • GLOBAL VIEW: MIDI TRACKS 3F • GLOBAL VIEW: INPUTS 40 • GLOBAL VIEW: AUDIO TRACKS 41 • GLOBAL VIEW: AUDIO INSTRUMENT 42 • GLOBAL VIEW: AUX 43 • GLOBAL VIEW: BUSSES 44 • GLOBAL VIEW: OUTPUTS 45 • GLOBAL VIEW: USER 46 • SHIFT 47 • OPTION 48 • CONTROL 49 • CMD/ALT 4A • • AUTOMATION: READ/OFF 4B • • AUTOMATION: WRITE 4C • • AUTOMATION: TRIM 4D • • AUTOMATION: TOUCH 4E • • AUTOMATION: LATCH 4F • • GROUP 50 • • UTILITIES: SAVE 51 • • UTILITIES: UNDO 52 • UTILITIES: CANCEL 53 • UTILITIES: ENTER 54 • • MARKER 55 • • NUDGE (Logic Pro only) 56 • • CYCLE 57 • • DROP 58 • • REPLACE 59 • • CLICK 5A • • SOLO 5B • • REWIND 5C • • FAST FWD 5D • • STOP 5E • • PLAY 5F • • RECORD 60 • Cursor Up 61 • Cursor Down ID Switch LED Function 254 Appendix C Logic Control—Control Surface Layout and IDs 62 • Cursor Left 63 • Cursor Right 64 • • Zoom 65 • • Scrub 66 • User Switch A 67 • User Switch B 68 • Fader Touch Ch. 1 69 • Fader Touch Ch. 2 6A • Fader Touch Ch. 3 6B • Fader Touch Ch. 4 6C • Fader Touch Ch. 5 6D • Fader Touch Ch. 6 6E • Fader Touch Ch. 7 6F • Fader Touch Ch. 8 70 • Fader Touch Master 71 • SMPTE LED 72 • BEATS LED 73 • RUDE SOLO LIGHT 76 • Relay click ID Switch LED Function 255 D Appendix D Logic Control— MIDI Implementation Chart Mode 1: OMNI ON, POLY, Mode 2: OMNI ON, MONO, O: Yes Mode 3: OMNI OFF, POLY, Mode 4: OMNI OFF, MONO, X: No Function Transmitted Recognized Remarks Channel, Default: Changed: 1 1 1 1 Each Logic Control unit should be installed on a separate MIDI port. Mode, Default: Messages: Altered: X X X X X X Note Number True Voice: O 0–127 X O 0–127 X Velocity, Note On: Note Off: O v = 1–127 X v = 00 O v = 1–127 X v = 00 After Touch, Keys: Chan’s: X X X O Pitch Bend O O Used for motor faders Control Change O O Program Change True #: X X SYSTEM EXCLUSIVE: O O SYSTEM COMMON: X X Soundtrack Pro 2 User Manual K Apple Inc. Copyright © 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of Soundtrack Pro software may reproduce this publication for the purpose of learning to use such software. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this publication or for providing paid for support services. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Shift-Option-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its system software, applications, and Internet sites, images shown in this book may be slightly different from what you see on your screen. Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014–2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, the Apple logo, Apple Cinema Display, AppleScript, DVD Studio Pro, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Studio, FireWire, iPhoto, iPod, iTunes, Logic, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, QuickTime, and Soundtrack are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder and Apple TV are trademarks of Apple Inc. AppleCare and Apple Store are service marks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. iTunes Store is a service mark of Apple Inc. Dolby Laboratories: Manufactured under license from Dolby Laboratories. “Dolby,” “Pro Logic,” and the double-D symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories. Confidential Unpublished Works, © 1992–1997 Dolby Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. NeXT is a trademark of NeXT Software, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. Production stills from the film “Koffee House Mayhem” provided courtesy of Jean-Paul Bonjour. “Koffee House Mayhem” © 2004 Jean-Paul Bonjour. All rights reserved. http://www.jbonjour.com 3 1 Contents Preface 11 An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro 11 Overview of Soundtrack Pro 13 Using Soundtrack Pro in Your Post-Production Workflow 15 Notable Features in Soundtrack Pro 18 Resources for Learning About Soundtrack Pro 18 About This Soundtrack Pro Onscreen User Manual 19 Apple Websites Chapter 1 21 Setting Up Your System 21 System Considerations 23 Connecting Equipment 24 Video and Audio Input and Output Devices 25 Video and Audio Interfaces 25 External Audio and Video Monitoring 27 Example Hardware Setups 32 Setting Up a System for Stereo Mixing 32 Setting Up a System for Surround Mixing Chapter 2 33 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 34 Soundtrack Pro Window Organization 37 Project Pane 38 Toolbar 38 Transport Controls 39 Timeline 43 File Editor 44 Mixer 46 Multitake Editor 47 Conform 48 Bin 49 Meters Tab 50 Recording Tab 51 Browser 52 Search Tab 4 Contents 54 Favorites Tab 55 Video Tab 55 Project Tab 57 Details Tab 60 Effects Tab 61 Tracks Tab 62 Actions Tab 63 Analysis Tab 64 HUDs Chapter 3 65 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 65 Two Kinds of Projects 67 Setting Up Your Workspace 71 Playing Projects 75 About Changing Values and Timecode Entries 78 Locating and Adding Audio Files 91 Previewing Audio Files 93 Using Undo and Redo 94 Using Snapping 96 Reconnecting Media Files 97 Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences Chapter 4 105 Working with Multitrack Projects 105 Creating and Opening Multitrack Projects 106 Creating a Multitrack Project from Final Cut Pro Clips or Sequences 106 Closing Multitrack Projects 106 Setting Project Properties 110 Setting the Project Length 111 Saving Multitrack Projects 112 Setting Default Locations for Saving Media Files 113 Adding Files to a Multitrack Project 114 Viewing and Editing Clip and Track Properties 124 Tracks, Busses, Submixes, and the Master Bus Chapter 5 127 Working in the Timeline 127 Working in the Timeline 128 Moving Around in the Timeline 135 Working with Tracks, Busses, and Submixes in the Timeline 147 Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline 149 Selecting the Entire Contents of a Track 150 Selecting Partial Contents of One or More Tracks 151 Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Audio Clips 153 Spotting Clips to the Timeline Contents 5 154 Moving Clips 156 Snapping Clips to Clips on Adjacent Tracks 156 Resizing Audio Clips 157 Changing the Offset of an Audio Clip 158 Creating Fades and Crossfades in the Timeline 162 Truncating Overlapping Audio Clips 162 Editing Audio Clips in the Multitrack Timeline 164 Using the Timeline Editing Tools 165 Timeline Editing Tools HUD 166 Editing in Place 166 How Clips Are Affected by Media File Editing 166 How Source Audio File Editing Works in a Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project 167 Modifying a Clip Without Affecting Its Source Media 168 Using the Multitrack Timeline and the File Editor Together 170 Spotting Sound Effects from the File Editor to the Timeline 170 Splitting and Joining Audio Clips 174 Editing with the Timeslice Tool 179 Using the Lift and Stamp Tools 183 Working with Markers 185 Using Markers with Video 188 Working with Tagged and Looping Clips 189 Replacing the Source Audio in a Clip Chapter 6 191 Editing Audio Files 193 Audio File Projects 193 Editing Audio Files Directly in a Multitrack Project 195 Editing in Place 195 How Clips Are Affected by Media File Editing 196 How Media File Editing Works in a Multitrack Project 196 How Source Audio File Editing Works in an Audio File Project 197 Modifying a Clip Without Affecting Its Source Media 198 Editing Audio Files in the File Editor 198 Opening Audio Files in the File Editor Tab 199 Playing Audio Files in the File Editor 199 Soloing an Audio File in the File Editor 200 Linking the File Editor Selection and the Cycle Region 200 Scrubbing Audio Files 202 Selecting Part of an Audio File 206 Cutting, Copying, and Pasting in the File Editor 207 Zooming In and Out in the File Editor 208 Editing Audio Files Graphically with Waveform Editing Tools 212 Choosing the Sample Units in the File Editor 212 Editing Multichannel Files 6 Contents 214 Using Frequency Spectrum View 219 Processing Audio Files 230 Working with Actions 236 Analyzing an Audio File 240 Using the File Editor Project View Chapter 7 251 Using the Multitake Editor 251 About the Multitake Editor 252 What Is ADR? 252 Multitake Clips 252 Creating Multitake Clips 253 Overview of the Multitake Editor 254 Editing in the Multitake Editor 255 Slipping Take Regions 256 Adding and Deleting Takes 256 Renaming Takes 257 Reordering Takes 257 Example: A Multitake Editing Workflow Chapter 8 261 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 262 Steps in Mixing 263 Structuring an Audio Post-Production Project 263 What Is a Submix and How Do You Use It? 263 Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro 266 Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes 270 Using Sends and Busses 273 Using the Mixer 273 Working with Channel Strips in the Mixer 284 Working with Effects in the Mixer 286 Working with Sends and Busses in the Mixer 288 Setting the Overall Project Volume Level 290 Using the Master Bus 290 Listening to a Temporary Mono Mix 291 Recording Audio in the Mixer 291 Recording Automation in the Mixer 292 Creating Multiple Mixes 292 Things to Keep in Mind While Mixing Chapter 9 293 Mixing Surround Sound 293 What Is 5.1 Surround? 294 Creating a Surround Project 294 Setting Up for Surround 294 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro for Surround Contents 7 298 Surround Speaker Placement 299 Using Surround Panners to Create a Surround Mix 299 The Mini Surround Panner 300 The Surround Panner HUD 303 Surround Panner Automation 303 Modifier Keys for Moving the Puck 304 Surround Metering 306 Surround Mixing Strategies 306 Mixing Surround Files 307 Converting a Stereo Mix to 5.1 Surround 309 Placing Dialogue and Voiceover in a Surround Mix 310 Placing Stereo Music in a Surround Mix 310 Using the Center Channel 310 Using Surround Channels 311 Using Surround Effect Plug-ins 311 Limitations of the LFE Channel 312 Accommodating Stereo Playback 312 Exporting and Delivering 5.1 Surround Projects 312 Mixdowns 313 Project Files Chapter 10 315 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 315 Supported Video File Formats 316 Adding a Video to a Project 317 Playing the Video 320 Viewing Video Details 321 Working with a Video’s Audio 321 Using the Time Display and Time Ruler with Video 322 Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD 325 Removing a Video from a Project Chapter 11 327 Working with Audio Effects 327 Processing Effects and Realtime Effects 330 Working with Effect Presets 331 Audio Effects Included with Soundtrack Pro 343 Working with Realtime Effects 353 Working with Processing Effects Chapter 12 355 Working with Automation 355 Working with Envelopes 365 Recording Automation Data Chapter 13 367 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 367 Getting Ready to Record 8 Contents 368 Recording Audio in the Timeline 374 Recording Audio in the Mixer 375 Recording Audio in the File Editor Project View Chapter 14 377 Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro 378 Podcasting Media Production 379 Using the Podcast Track and Podcast Markers 379 Displaying the Podcast Track and the Details Tab 380 Podcast Marker Information in the Details Tab 381 Adding Markers to a Podcast 384 Adding Images to a Podcast 387 Exporting Podcasts 387 Exporting Audio Podcasts 388 Exporting Video Podcasts 390 Using Post-Export Actions for Podcast Production Chapter 15 391 Using Control Surfaces with Soundtrack Pro 391 Connecting Control Surfaces 392 Adding and Deleting Control Surfaces 393 Premapped Controls 393 Mapping Commands to Control Surface Buttons 394 Recording Control Surface Automation Chapter 16 395 Exporting Multitrack Projects 396 About the Export Dialog 397 Exporting and the Cycle Region 397 Exporting a Master Mix 414 Exporting Tracks, Busses, and Submixes Separately 415 Exporting Multiple Mono Files 416 Using Post-Export Actions 418 Using Export Presets 419 Exporting to AAF 419 Saving Multitrack Projects 419 Distributing a Multitrack Project and Its Media Files Together Chapter 17 421 Using Soundtrack Pro with Other Applications 421 Using Soundtrack Pro with Final Cut Pro 421 About Soundtrack Pro Audio File Projects 422 Methods for Sending Audio from Final Cut Pro to Soundtrack Pro 422 Sending Individual Audio Clips from Final Cut Pro to Soundtrack Pro 428 About Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Projects 428 Creating Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Projects from Final Cut Pro Clips or Sequences 432 Using Soundtrack Pro with DVD Studio Pro 434 Using Soundtrack Pro with Motion Contents 9 435 Using Soundtrack Pro with Third-Party Applications 435 Exchanging OMF and AAF Files with Other Applications 437 Exporting Audio Files Chapter 18 439 Using Conform with Final Cut Pro 439 About Conforming Manually 439 Using Soundtrack Pro Conform 444 Reviewing and Approving the Changes in the Conform Result Project Appendix A 449 Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts 449 General and File 450 Layouts, Tabs, and HUDs 451 Navigating the Timeline 451 Project Playback 452 Cycle Region 453 General Editing 453 Editing Audio Clips in the Timeline 454 Moving Audio Clips and Envelope Points 455 Viewing the Timeline 456 Timeline Tools 456 File Editor Project View Tools and Commands 457 Processing and Editing Audio Files 458 Tracks, Busses, and Submixes 459 Markers 459 Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline 460 Video Out 460 Recording 461 Using Arrow Keys to Move the Playhead 461 Working with Timeslices Appendix B 463 Audio Fundamentals 463 What Is Sound? 463 Fundamentals of a Sound Wave 465 Frequency Spectrum of Sounds 467 Measuring Sound Intensity 469 Signal-to-Noise Ratio 470 Headroom and Distortion 470 Dynamic Range and Compression 471 Stereo Audio 473 Digital Audio 474 Sample Rate 474 Bit Depth Appendix C 477 Working with Professional Video and Audio Equipment 10 Contents 477 About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors 477 Video Interfaces 480 Video Signals and Connectors 485 About Audio Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors 485 Setting Up an Audio Interface 490 Audio Connectors, Cables, and Signal Formats 494 About Balanced Audio Signals 496 Tips for Choosing Speakers and an Amplifier 497 Frequency Response and Dynamic Range 497 Self-Powered Versus Passive Speakers 498 Amplifiers and Signal Levels for Unpowered Speakers 498 Connecting Professional Video Devices 498 Connecting Professional SD Video Devices 501 Connecting Professional Component Analog Video Devices 501 Connecting Consumer Analog Video Devices 501 Connecting Non-DV Devices to a DV Converter 503 Connecting Professional Audio Devices 503 Connecting Professional Digital Audio Devices 503 Connecting Consumer Digital Audio Devices 503 Connecting Professional Analog Audio 504 Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator 506 Synchronizing Soundtrack Pro to External Timecode Appendix D 509 Working with Apogee Hardware in Soundtrack Pro 510 Global Parameters 511 Units Parameters 514 Setup Buttons Appendix E 515 Solutions to Common Problems and Customer Support 516 Solutions to Common Problems 517 Calling AppleCare Support Appendix F 519 Using Apple Loops Utility 519 What Is Apple Loops Utility? 520 The Apple Loops Utility Interface 526 Opening Files in Apple Loops Utility 527 Tagging Files in Apple Loops Utility 528 Working With Transients 530 Saving Changes to Files 530 Removing Files From the Assets Drawer 531 Apple Loops Utility Preferences 532 Apple Loops Utility Keyboard Shortcuts Index 537 11 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro gives you the tools you need to create high-quality soundtracks for your film and video productions. Most experienced film and television producers know that “audio is more than half the picture.” The art and techniques of sound recording, dialogue editing, sound effect recording and placement, mixing, and sound design play a substantial role in how audiences perceive the (visual) quality of a film or video. Soundtrack Pro is designed to serve the art of motion picture sound post-production. Like the other applications in Final Cut Studio, Soundtrack Pro was created for the film and video industry. Soundtrack Pro gives you many specialized tools and powerful features that you can use to create high-quality audio. Overview of Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro provides film and video professionals streamlined workflows for editing everything from individual audio files to large multitrack sound projects, including synchronizing audio and video, editing sound in place, working with automatic dialogue replacement (ADR), analyzing and fixing common audio problems like clicks and pops, and creating stereo and surround sound design. Add interoperability with the other applications in Final Cut Studio to this list of features, and you have a professional-quality audio application designed to meet the needs of the most discerning audio editors and mixers. Soundtrack Pro features two types of projects: audio file projects and multitrack projects. You use audio file projects to edit individual audio files. This is sometimes known as waveform editing. However, unlike most waveform editing applications, Soundtrack Pro allows you to edit your audio files nondestructively by keeping track of the actions you have performed on your audio file. You can edit down to the file’s individual sample level and perform tasks ranging from audio repair to sound design. You can perform edits nondestructively using actions, which include processing effects and other operations. You can analyze audio files for a range of common audio problems, including clicks and pops, hum, and phase issues, and automatically fix problems that are found. 12 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro Multitrack projects look and function similarly to Final Cut Pro projects. You arrange a multitrack project’s audio clips on the tracks in the Timeline. Multitrack projects contain the features you expect from a high-performance and professional-quality audio editor, including features to synchronize audio and video, work with ADR and multitake editing, and automate volume, pan, and other changes over time using envelopes. You can record over multiple channels to the Timeline or the File Editor or to multiple tracks in the Timeline. Most audio applications focus on multitrack editing or waveform editing, but not both. Furthermore, most waveform editing applications handle media destructively—making permanent changes to your media files. Soundtrack Pro provides the best of both worlds: nondestructive waveform editing while working in a multitrack project. You can edit audio clips in a variety of ways in the Timeline. You can select, cut, copy, and paste clips; move, resize, transpose, split, and join them; and edit them in other ways. You can also apply any actions to and process menu operations for any clip directly in the Timeline. You can organize your multitrack project for the final mix by creating busses and submixes, adding realtime effects and actions, and adding surround panning. When you’re ready to mix, you can mix in the Timeline or in the Soundtrack Pro Mixer. The Mixer models a traditional hardware mixing board and includes a channel strip for each track, bus, and submix in the project. Soundtrack Pro includes a large library of stereo and surround sound effects and music beds that you can use for Foley effects, background ambience, sound effects, and music transitions in your audio and multitrack projects. Soundtrack Pro also includes a generous selection of professional-quality effects plug-ins, like Space Designer and Channel EQ that you can add to tracks, busses, and submixes. You have numerous options for exporting your project. You can export your mix (or selected tracks, busses, or submixes) in a variety of audio file types including WAVE, AIFF, MP3, AAC, Dolby Digital Professional, and as a QuickTime movie. You can export your mix with Compressor, Apple’s high-performance encoding application. You can also pick from a variety of post-export actions that automatically open the mix in a Final Cut Pro sequence, or export it to Motion, Logic, or Waveburner. Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro 13 Using Soundtrack Pro in Your Post-Production Workflow On its own, Soundtrack Pro is a powerful audio editing application. As part of Final Cut Studio, Soundtrack Pro becomes an integral part of your post-production workflow. You can easily share media projects between Final Cut Pro and Soundtrack Pro. When you send a sequence from Final Cut Pro, your audio files and a compiled video file arrive in a Soundtrack Pro multitrack project, ready for you to edit. After editing and creating your final mix, you can automatically send a mixdown back to the original Final Cut Pro sequence. The Soundtrack Pro Conform feature allows you to quickly sync up the picture editor’s cut with the sound editor’s version of the same sequence. Unlike many audio editing applications, Soundtrack Pro was created specifically to produce sound for motion picture audio projects. This means it has many specialized tools and features that simplify and enhance the sound-for-picture editing process. Here are some examples of how you can use Soundtrack Pro to enhance your motion picture sound editing and mixing experience:  To quickly synchronize a sound effect with the picture using the Multipoint Video HUD For more information, see “Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD” on page 322.  To edit audio dialogue replacement (ADR) recordings, combine them with production sound files, and create perfect voiceover narration For more information, see Chapter 7, “Using the Multitake Editor,” on page 251.  With the Soundtrack Pro Conform feature, to quickly merge two versions of the same sequence: the picture edit (from Final Cut Pro) and the sound edit/mix (from Soundtrack Pro) For more information, see Chapter 18, “Using Conform with Final Cut Pro,” on page 439.  To perfect and clean up individual audio files. You can go straight into a clip’s waveform to correct a click or pop or add an effect. Soundtrack Pro makes it easy for you to move between editing individual clips and arranging your overall multitrack project for a quick back-and-forth workflow. To learn more about editing individual audio files, see “Editing Audio Clips in the Multitrack Timeline” on page 162 and Chapter 6, “Editing Audio Files,” on page 191.  To lift effects from one clip and apply them to other clips using lift-and-stamp tools and the Sound Palette, and to create palettes of sound processing for future use For more information, see “Using the Lift and Stamp Tools” on page 179.  To organize your multitrack project for professional sound effect editing and mixing For more information, see “Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro” on page 263 and “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270. 14 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro  To prepare your multitrack project for distribution and final delivery, such as foreign language versions (for example, to create separate submixes for dialogue, sound effects, and music) For more information, see “What Is a Submix and How Do You Use It?” on page 263 and “Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes” on page 266.  To use advanced editing techniques and tools in the multitrack Timeline for streamlined sound editing For more information, see “Using the Timeline Editing Tools” on page 164, “Moving Around in the Timeline” on page 128, “Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline” on page 147, and “Editing with the Timeslice Tool” on page 174.  To create a podcast from a video edited in Final Cut Pro For more information, see Chapter 14, “Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro,” on page 377 and “Exporting Video Podcasts” on page 388.  To create stereo and surround mixes for the same project For more information, see “Mixing Surround Sound” on page 293 and “Converting a Stereo Mix to 5.1 Surround” on page 307.  To set up your sound-for-picture editing system to display video on an external video monitor or use Digital Cinema Desktop on the Apple Studio and Apple Cinema Displays For more information, see “Setting Up a System Using a Video Output Device” on page 30 and “Video Out Preferences” on page 103.  To adjust the selection for an action. For example, you may have applied an effect to a portion of a file, and you might like to move that effect to a different portion of the file. For more information, see “Selecting Part of an Audio File” on page 202, “Editing with the Timeslice Tool” on page 174, and “Working with Actions” on page 230.  To use the resizable Timecode HUD to display the current project timecode (for a client sitting across the room) For more information, see “Timecode HUD” on page 64.  With the Frequency Spectrum view and the Frequency Selection tool, to make selections of frequency ranges as well as copy, paste, delete, and adjust the amplitude of frequency selections These tools help you visually pinpoint specific frequencies, for example, some noise that you want to remove. For more information, see “Using Frequency Spectrum View” on page 214.  To send a mixdown back to Final Cut Pro automatically Soundtrack Pro can send a new copy of the Final Cut Pro sequence that looks just like the original sequence but has additional audio tracks that contain your mixdown. For more information, see “Sending a Mixdown Back to Final Cut Pro Automatically” on page 430. Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro 15  As you drag clips to the Timeline, to separate the channels of stereo and multichannel clips into individual clips, or combine separate clips into single stereo or multichannel clips For more information, see “Separating Channels by Option-Dragging” on page 122 and “Combining Separate Clips to Create Multichannel Clips” on page 123.  To arrange background music or add FX and Foley in stereo or surround sound For more information, see Chapter 18, “Using Conform with Final Cut Pro,” on page 439. Combining these Soundtrack Pro features creates your sound-for-picture project, a balanced sound design that enhances your video or film project using tools that look like and function similarly to the tools you know from using Final Cut Pro. Notable Features in Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro provides a powerful set of tools for your motion picture sound editing and mixing projects, including the following features. Audio editing features:  Powerful audio editing: You can edit audio files nondestructively in Soundtrack Pro. You can edit audio files graphically with sample-accurate precision and process files using actions, which can be reordered and turned on or off individually.  Analysis and repair of common audio problems: You can choose which problems to analyze the file for, then fix the problems detected by analysis either individually or in a single operation. Selected problems are highlighted in the waveform display for easy viewing.  Multitake Editor: Use the Multitake Editor to edit multitake and synced audio that is created by performing multitake recording (such as in automatic dialogue replacement, or ADR).  Edit in place: Edit and process a file’s waveform directly in the Timeline and hear the changes in the context of your whole multitrack project. Simply select a clip in the Timeline and it appears in the File Editor tab below. Any changes you make to the media file are updated in the Timeline immediately.  Ability to add professional-quality effects: Soundtrack Pro includes high-quality effects plug-ins from the Logic Pro effects library that you can use in your projects, including the Space Designer convolution reverb. You can also install third-party effects in the Audio Units plug-in format.  Frequency Selection tool and Spectrum View HUD: Use the Frequency Selection tool in the Frequency Spectrum view to make selections of frequency ranges as well as copy, paste, delete, and adjust the amplitude of frequency selections. The new Spectrum View HUD provides extensive controls. 16 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro  Tape-style scrubbing: The Scrub tool provides detailed scrubbing that realistically approximates the “rock-the-reels” scrubbing on analog tape decks to help you quickly find a particular sound or event in a long audio file.  Multichannel support: You can edit up to 24 channels in a single audio file, and play back and record up to six channels in a single audio file in the Timeline. Soundtrack Pro 2 supports the following types of multichannel files: AIFF, WAVE, Broadcast Wave, QuickTime, CAF, and single folder/multi-mono file AIFF. Multitrack project features:  Advanced multitrack editing features: Soundtrack Pro includes the ability to lock/unlock, enable/disable, and color-label clips and tracks in the Timeline; an advanced Timeslice tool for marquee time selections; enhanced marquee clip selection; Final Cut Pro–style J-K-L transport controls; the ability to spot clips from various media tabs to the Timeline; the ability to move clips numerically; blade tools for splitting clips; region markers; and a mode for selecting and moving envelope points with clips.  Record and edit automation tools: You can record movements to sliders and other onscreen controls, play back the automation, and edit it in the Timeline.  OMF and AAF support: Soundtrack Pro can use these industry-standard project interchange formats to import the editing decisions from other video and audio editing applications. You can also export a multitrack project from Soundtrack Pro as an AAF file.  Sophisticated export options: You can export an entire project, or selected portions of it, to a mono, stereo, or multichannel audio file using the following audio file types: AIFF, WAVE, NeXT, Sound Designer II, MP3, AAC/Podcast, and Dolby Digital Professional (AC-3). Soundtrack Pro has a direct link to Compressor, the Final Cut Studio transcoding application, for exporting to numerous other audio and video formats. Other options include a variety of post-export actions, the ability to add your own custom AppleScript actions using the Export dialog, as well as custom export presets.  Lift and Stamp tools and the Sound Palette: Soundtrack Pro includes time-saving tools for applying work you have done on one clip to one or more other clips. Use the Lift tool to copy properties from selected clips. Create a processing template in the Sound Palette that can be applied to other clips with the Stamp tool. Final Cut Studio workflow features:  Send clips: You can send clips from the Final Cut Pro Timeline to Soundtrack Pro and edit the clips in the File Editor. When you save the clip, it is automatically updated in your Final Cut Pro project. Soundtrack Pro includes similar support for Motion and DVD Studio Pro.  Send sequences: You can also send clips or entire sequences to a Soundtrack Pro multitrack project to complete your final mix, adding additional tracks of sound effects, voiceover, and music. Both stereo and surround sound mixing are supported. Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro 17  Conform: You can use the Conform feature in Soundtrack Pro to quickly merge two versions of the same sequence: the picture edit (from Final Cut Pro) and the sound edit/mix (from Soundtrack Pro).  Automatic mixdown return: When you export a mixdown of the multitrack project originally sent from Final Cut Pro, you can choose to open a new copy of the Final Cut Pro sequence that looks just like the original sequence but has additional audio tracks that contain your mixdown. Mixing features:  Advanced mixing capabilities: You can mix multitrack projects in the Mixer, which displays a virtual mixing console for a project. Using the channel strips in the Mixer, you can adjust levels, mute and solo tracks, and add realtime effects. You can create submixes using busses, and send audio to multiple physical outputs using submixes.  Surround editing and mixing: Soundtrack Pro provides an elegant and easy-to-use toolset for creating and adjusting projects in 5.1 discrete surround audio including surround panning, mixing, and automation; unparalleled flexibility with surround sources; and the ability to easily switch between stereo and surround mixes.  Support for control surfaces: In addition to recording movements of onscreen controls, you can connect a supported control surface and record automation of control surface movements.  Synchronized video display: You can add a video to a project and view it in the Video tab or display the video on an external video monitor. Audio/video synchronization is accurate both onscreen and on the external monitor, up to HD resolutions. You can accurately place audio clips to sync with specific frames or points in time in the video. Other features:  Audio recording capability: You can record audio directly into multiple tracks in the Soundtrack Pro Timeline, including recording multiple takes.  Powerful Inspector tabs: These include the Tracks tab for easily viewing, selecting, and grouping tracks, busses, and submixes, and the Bin, a hierarchical display of information about all open projects.  HUDs: Heads-up displays (HUDs) are semi-transparent floating windows with controls and displays that you can use to accomplish specific tasks. The HUDs include the Fade Selector HUD for quickly applying and adjusting fades and crossfades, the Multipoint Video HUD for providing visual context when you are positioning audio clips in a video-based project, and the Timecode HUD, which displays the current project timecode.  Podcasting: With Soundtrack Pro, audio creators can quickly and easily produce extremely high-quality audio and video podcasts directly from their Soundtrack Pro projects. 18 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro Resources for Learning About Soundtrack Pro This manual describes the Soundtrack Pro interface, commands, and menus, and gives step-by-step instructions for creating Soundtrack Pro projects and for accomplishing specific tasks. It also includes information on setting up your system and on audio basics. It is designed to provide the information you need to get up to speed quickly so you can take full advantage of the intuitive interface and powerful features of Soundtrack Pro. If you want to start by learning how to set up audio hardware to use with Soundtrack Pro, read Chapter 1, “Setting Up Your System,” on page 21. If you want to learn about the features and controls in the Soundtrack Pro interface, read Chapter 2, “The Soundtrack Pro Interface,” on page 33. If you want to jump right in and start using the application, skip ahead to Chapter 3, “Setting Up Soundtrack Pro,” on page 65. If you want to read about editing audio files, turn to Chapter 6, “Editing Audio Files,” on page 191. If you want to start using the multitrack Timeline, read Chapter 5, “Working in the Timeline,” on page 127. Soundtrack Pro provides several different sources of support. About This Soundtrack Pro Onscreen User Manual The Soundtrack Pro onscreen user manual allows you to access information directly onscreen while you’re working in Soundtrack Pro. To view this information, choose Help > Soundtrack Pro User Manual. The Soundtrack Pro onscreen user manual is a fully hyperlinked version of the Soundtrack Pro User Manual, enhanced with many features that make locating information quick and easy.  The homepage provides quick access to various features, including Release Notes, the index, and the Soundtrack Pro website.  A comprehensive bookmark list allows you to quickly choose what you want to see and takes you there as soon as you click the link. In addition to these navigational tools, the Soundtrack Pro onscreen user manual gives you other means to locate information quickly:  All cross-references in the text are linked. You can click any cross-reference and jump immediately to that location. Then, you can use the Preview Back button to return to where you were before you clicked the cross-reference.  The table of contents and index are also linked. If you click an entry in either of these sections, you jump directly to that section of the user manual.  You can also use the Find dialog to search the text for specific words or a phrase. Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro 19 Apple Websites There are a variety of Apple websites that you can visit to find additional information. Soundtrack Pro Website For general information and updates, as well as the latest news on Soundtrack Pro, go to:  http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/soundtrackpro Apple Service and Support Website Go here for software updates and answers to the most frequently asked questions for all Apple products, including Soundtrack Pro. You’ll also have access to product specifications, reference documentation, and Apple and third-party product technical articles. To access the Apple Service and Support webpage, go to:  http://www.apple.com/support To access the Soundtrack Pro support webpage, go to:  http://www.apple.com/support/soundtrackpro To access the Soundtrack Pro discussion webpage, go to:  http://discussions.info.apple.com Other Apple Websites Start at the Apple homepage to find the latest and greatest information about Apple products:  http://www.apple.com QuickTime is industry-standard technology for handling video, sound, animation, graphics, text, music, and 360-degree virtual reality (VR) scenes. QuickTime provides a high level of performance, compatibility, and quality for delivering digital video. Go to the QuickTime website for information on the types of media supported, a tour of the QuickTime interface, specifications, and more:  http://www.apple.com/quicktime FireWire is one of the fastest peripheral standards ever developed, which makes it great for use with multimedia peripherals, such as video camcorders and the latest high-speed hard disk drives. Visit this website for information about FireWire technology and available third-party FireWire products:  http://www.apple.com/firewire 20 Preface An Introduction to Soundtrack Pro For information about seminars, events, and third-party tools used in web publishing, design and print, music and audio, desktop movies, digital imaging, and the media arts, go to:  http://www.apple.com/pro For resources, stories, and information about projects developed by users in education using Apple software, including Soundtrack Pro, go to:  http://www.apple.com/education Go to the Apple Store to buy software, hardware, and accessories direct from Apple and to find special promotions and deals that include third-party hardware and software products:  http://www.apple.com/store 1 21 1 Setting Up Your System The way you set up your system depends on the audio equipment you plan to use. You can use your computer’s speaker or headphone jack to monitor the audio output from Soundtrack Pro. For better results, you may want to connect external monitors or speakers to your system, so that you can monitor the audio output at a higher level of quality. You may want to connect other external audio equipment such as an audio interface or a mixer, particularly if you plan to record your own audio in Soundtrack Pro.  For information on system and hardware requirements, see the Read Before You Install document on the installation DVD.  For information on installing the software, see the Installing Your Software booklet. System Considerations To achieve the most effective results, you should consider the following issues when setting up your system. Processor Speed and RAM Digital audio files require intensive processing by your computer. If you plan to work on longer or more complex projects, or use multiple effects plug-ins in your projects, a computer with a faster processor can facilitate your productivity. Soundtrack Pro is optimized for use with computers that have a multiprocessor architecture. Working with Soundtrack Pro projects on a multiprocessor-equipped computer can make your workflow more efficient, especially when creating longer or more complex projects. If you plan to work on large projects, it’s useful to have extra random-access memory, or RAM, installed in your computer. Additional RAM allows you to play back more files simultaneously, use a greater number of effects plug-ins, and keep several multimedia applications open at the same time. 22 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System Hard Disks It’s also a good idea to have a large hard disk with plenty of available space to store the media (audio and video) files you use with Soundtrack Pro. As you work with the application, you’ll likely want to acquire a large collection of sounds to use in your Soundtrack Pro projects. Hard disk performance is a critical aspect of your editing system: the storage capacity and data rate of your disks must match or exceed the requirements of the audio (and video) formats you are using. If you store media files on an external hard disk, make sure the disk has a fast enough seek time and a high enough sustained data transfer rate for use with video and audio files. Consult the manufacturer’s specifications. Dedicated Hard Disk Every minute of stereo digital audio (recorded using a 44.1 kHz sample rate and 16-bit depth) requires roughly 10 MB of hard disk space. If you plan to record large amounts of audio in Soundtrack Pro, you may want to record to a hard disk dedicated to storage for your Soundtrack Pro projects. Setting the Audio Input and Output You can set the default input and output devices for Soundtrack Pro with the Audio MIDI Setup utility. To select a default output device: 1 Double-click Audio MIDI Setup in the Utilities folder. 2 Choose the device from the Default Output pop-up menu. Note: Optionally, you can choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Sound, then click Output. Select the audio interface in the list that appears. To select a default input device: 1 Double-click Audio MIDI Setup in the Utilities folder. 2 Choose the device from the Default Input pop-up menu. Note: Optionally, you can choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Sound, then click Input. Select the audio interface in the list that appears. Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System 23 Audio MIDI Setup The Audio MIDI Setup utility is a program that comes with the Mac OS X for adjusting a computer’s audio input and output settings and managing MIDI devices. You can select audio channel input and output devices, configure output speakers, set clock rates, and control levels. You may also be able to open a configuration utility provided by your audio device. For more information, go to: http://www.apple.com/macosx/features/coreaudio Adding Audio Units Plug-ins to Your Computer Soundtrack Pro includes an extensive set of professional-quality effects plug-ins. Soundtrack Pro uses effects in the Audio Units plug-in format, the native plug-in format of Mac OS X. Audio Units plug-ins are also available from third-party manufacturers. When adding third-party effects to your computer, be sure to read the documentation, including any Read Me and installation files, that came with the plug-in. Supported Audio Units effects plug-ins appear in the Effects window under the manufacturer’s name. Soundtrack Pro does not support VST, ASIO, MAS, or RTAS effects plug-ins. Connecting Equipment You can use a variety of audio equipment with Soundtrack Pro for both recording and playback. For information on connecting a specific piece of equipment to your computer, read the documentation that came with the equipment. Final Cut Studio editing systems can be configured to meet the most demanding professional requirements. An advanced editing system can be built by expanding the basic system described in the Final Cut Pro User Manual. The following list includes equipment commonly used in Final Cut Studio editing systems:  Macintosh computer with Final Cut Studio installed: The core of your editing system  Professional video and audio devices: For capturing footage and outputting finished projects. (For more information about video and audio devices, see Appendix C, “Working with Professional Video and Audio Equipment,” on page 477.)  External video and audio monitors: For viewing and listening to your program in its final image and audio quality  Video and audio interfaces: For connecting professional and non-FireWire devices to your editing system  RS-422 serial device control interfaces: For remote device control during capture and output 24 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System  Video, audio, and remote device control cables: For separate video, audio, and remote device control connections. Unlike a basic DV editing system that uses a solitary FireWire cable to transfer video, audio, and remote control signals, many professional configurations require separate cables for each of these signals.  Additional scratch disks: One or more internal or external hard disks, a RAID, or a connection to a storage area network (SAN)  Control surfaces: Hardware controls that let you mix and edit your projects with greater flexibility and precision than using a mouse to move onscreen controls Video and Audio Input and Output Devices An input device is used to transfer footage into your computer. For output, you record your finished movie to an output device. Basic editing systems use a DV camcorder or deck as both an input and output device. Professional editing systems may use multiple video decks to capture and output to different video formats. While Soundtrack Pro does not support video capture from devices such as camcorders or VTRs, it does support recording from a variety of digital audio devices. To connect non-FireWire devices to your computer, you also need a third-party video or audio interface. For more information, see “About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors” on page 477. Video Device This is a VTR or camcorder you connect to your computer to capture and output media. The connectors and signal format on your video device determine what kind of video interface your computer needs to connect to your device. Audio Device This is a device, such as a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder or multitrack audio recorder, that lets you capture or output audio independently from video. Note: When using external audio devices, it’s a good idea to connect them before opening Soundtrack Pro. Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System 25 Video and Audio Interfaces An interface is a device that adds physical video or audio connectors to your computer so that you can connect your Final Cut Studio system to other professional equipment (such as video or audio decks and monitors). Interfaces provide input and output connectors that aren’t included with your computer. For example, if you want to output multiple audio channels to an analog audio mixer or digital multitrack, you need an audio interface that has XLR, 1/4” tip-ring-sleeve (TRS), AES/EBU, or ADAT Lightpipe output connectors. You may also want to consider adding a third-party interface to your system if:  You need to capture or output many audio channels at once  You are integrating Final Cut Studio into a professional broadcast environment that requires SDI, HD-SDI, or other non-FireWire video and audio connections  You need to capture, edit, and output full-resolution, uncompressed video signals instead of DV video (which is compressed)  You are digitizing video from an older analog VTR (such as a Betacam SP deck) that does not have digital video outputs or remote control via FireWire Third-party video and audio interfaces can be installed in one of your computer’s PCI slots, connected to the USB port, or connected via FireWire. For more information about selecting and connecting an audio interface for use with Soundtrack Pro, see “Setting Up an Audio Interface” on page 485. External Audio and Video Monitoring In the final stages of post-production, external video and audio monitors are essential to ensure the quality of your movie. Editing systems focused on these final phases of post-production are often called finishing systems. External Audio Speakers and Monitors You can play back audio through your computer’s speakers or headphone jack, but the audio output may not be high enough for you to evaluate your music at a professional level of quality. Connecting external speakers or monitors to your system allows you to hear the audio output with greater fidelity and a wider dynamic range. During the final mix, it is important to monitor your audio so that it matches the listening environment where the final project will be shown. For detailed information on connecting external speakers to your audio interface, see the documentation that came with the speakers. 26 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System Setting Up a Proper Audio Monitoring Environment Room shape and material are just as important as the quality of the speakers themselves. Every surface in a room potentially reflects sound, and these reflections mix together with the sound originating from the speakers. Rooms with parallel walls can create standing waves, which are mostly low-frequency sound waves that reinforce and cancel each other as they bounce back and forth. Standing waves cause some frequencies to be emphasized or attenuated more than others, depending on your listening position. When you mix in a room that creates standing waves, you may adjust certain frequencies more than necessary. However, you may not notice until you play back your audio in a different listening environment, in which those frequencies may sound overbearing or nonexistent. Π Tip: A much cheaper alternative to building new walls is to mount angled pieces of material to the existing walls to eliminate parallel surfaces. If the material in a room is very reflective, the room sounds “brighter” because high frequencies are easily reflected. Mounting absorbing material (such as acoustic foam) on the walls can reduce the brightness of a room. A “dead room” is one that has very little reflection (or reverberation). Try to cover any reflective surfaces in your monitoring environment. Amplifiers If you are recording audio from microphones and are not running the microphone’s signal through a mixer with a microphone pre-amplifier, you need to connect an amplifier to boost the microphone’s signal before sending it to the computer. If you are connecting monitors or speakers that are not self-powered, you also need to connect them through an amplifier. Mixers Connecting a mixer to your system allows you to record audio from multiple microphones or instruments simultaneously, to play back the output from your computer through connected monitors or speakers, and to control the volume levels of both the audio input and output. Professional-quality mixers have a number of additional features, including equalization (EQ) controls, auxiliary sends and returns for adding external effects, and separate monitor and mix level controls. Mixers may also include inboard pre-amplification for microphones, making the use of a separate amplifier unnecessary. Control Surfaces Soundtrack Pro supports control surfaces that use the Mackie Control and Logic Control protocols. For information on connecting and using control surfaces, see Chapter 15, “Using Control Surfaces with Soundtrack Pro,” on page 391. Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System 27 External Video Monitors When you design and edit a video soundtrack, it’s ideal to watch the video on a monitor similar to the one you will use for the final screening. An external video monitor can display color, frame rate, and interlaced scanning more accurately than your computer display. (For information on connecting professional video devices, see “Connecting Professional Video Devices” on page 498.) If you are working on an NTSC or a PAL project, you should watch it on an external video monitor that shows the video interlaced. For more information about external video monitoring, see the Final Cut Pro User Manual. Example Hardware Setups The following sections provide several examples of different hardware setups. Setting Up a System Using Powered Speakers With this setup, you can monitor the audio output through a set of connected powered speakers. This setup uses the following equipment:  Your computer and display  A set of powered speakers, including speaker wire and a power adaptor Computer Speakers Speaker cables Power cables 28 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System Setting Up a System Using a USB Audio Interface With this setup, you can record audio input from microphones and musical instruments, and monitor audio output, through a USB audio interface. This setup uses the following equipment:  Your computer and display  USB audio interface (from 2 to 8 channels) with USB cable to connect to your computer  Microphone  Musical instruments (guitar, bass, and keyboard)  Cables to connect microphones and instruments to the audio interface  Set of monitors or speakers Monitors Audio interface USB cable Speaker cables Microphone Computer Instrument Power cables Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System 29 Setting Up a System Using a FireWire Interface and a Control Surface With this setup, you can record audio input from several sources simultaneously and monitor audio output channels independently, through a mixer connected to a FireWire audio interface. This setup uses the following equipment:  Your computer and display  FireWire audio interface with FireWire cable to connect to your computer  Control surface and MIDI interface with USB cable to connect MIDI interface to your computer  MIDI cables to connect control surface to MIDI interface  Set of powered monitors or speakers  Speaker cables Monitors Control surface Audio interface FireWire cable Speaker cables Computer Power cables Midi interface 30 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System Setting Up a System Using a Video Output Device With this setup, you can play video and audio through an external video output device. Because using a video output device can result in increased latency, you may want to combine this setup with an audio-only setup (as shown in the preceding pages), and switch between the two setups. This setup uses the following equipment:  Your computer and display  Video output device (FireWire device or PCI card)  High-quality video monitor  Audio monitors Computer Video output device FireWire cable Audio monitors Speaker cables Mixer Video monitor Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System 31 Setting Up a System Using a PCI Video Interface Card with Breakout Box Many PCI cards aren’t big enough to fit all of the necessary video and audio connectors. In these situations, a breakout box is connected to the PCI card via a multipin connector on a long cable, and the connectors are accessible on the breakout box instead of on the back of the PCI card. A breakout box is also useful because it allows you to place the connectors somewhere more convenient than the back of your computer, such as on an equipment rack or a desktop. This setup uses the following equipment:  Your computer and display  Video interface (PCI card with breakout box)  High-quality video monitor  Audio speakers Computer Analog or digital VTR (with PCI card) Breakout box BNC connector 32 Chapter 1 Setting Up Your System Setting Up a System for Stereo Mixing By default, Soundtrack Pro is set up for stereo mixing. Stereo Speaker Placement and Listening Position Most video editing suites use nearfield monitors, which are speakers designed to be listened to at fairly close range. Speakers should be at least a foot or two away from any walls to prevent early reflections of sound that combine with and muddy the original sound. Position the speakers as far from your listening position as they are from each other (forming an equilateral triangle). For example, if the distance between the speakers is six feet, you should place yourself six feet from each speaker. The apparent width of the sound stage, or stereo image, increases as the distance between the speakers increases. However, if the two speakers get too far apart, sound information appearing in the center (between both speakers) starts to disappear. Setting Up a System for Surround Mixing For complete instructions on setting up the surround mixing tools in Soundtrack Pro, see “Setting Up for Surround” on page 294. 2 33 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface In Soundtrack Pro, you work in multiple windows and tabs that you can arrange to suit your workflow. Soundtrack Pro is designed to handle every aspect of creating audio for a video or film project, from multitrack recording to advanced audio processing and mixing. You can use Soundtrack Pro together with Final Cut Pro as a complete audio post-production solution that is powerful, yet also elegant and flexible. Video tab Details tab Toolbar Standard layout Meters tab Browser tab Mixer tab Transport controls 34 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Soundtrack Pro Window Organization The Soundtrack Pro window is arranged into several areas: the project pane and three surrounding panes: the left pane, the lower pane, and the right pane. The project pane is reserved as the central “canvas” for the multitrack Timeline and for individual audio file projects. Use the transport controls at the bottom of the window to play back projects that you open in the project pane. Task-specific tabs are docked in the left, lower, and right panes. By default, the tabs are grouped by function and are laid out for a streamlined audio post-production workflow. Nonetheless, you can easily rearrange the tabs and resize the panes to suit your needs and then save the custom layouts for future use. Showing and Hiding the Panes The tabs are grouped by function to optimize your workflow. For example, the media I O-related tabs (Meters, Recording, Search, Browser, and Favorites) are located in the right pane by default. When you are finished with media input, you can close the entire right pane by choosing Window > Toggle Right Pane, and thereby allow more horizontal space for the project pane and the lower pane. Left pane Project pane Lower pane Transport controls (project pane) Right pane Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 35 Or, for example, you may wish to work exclusively in the Timeline or the File Editor project view and dedicate the entire Soundtrack Pro window to that view. 36 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Because hiding and showing different panes of the Soundtrack Pro window is so convenient, you will probably use this feature frequently during the course of a project. Here are the keyboard shortcuts for hiding and showing the various panes. Rearranging Tabs At any time, you can rearrange the layout by tearing off individual tabs and docking them in other panes, or simply have them float over the Soundtrack Pro window. There are numerous possible combinations. Mix and match the tabs to suit your particular workflow needs. Note: At any time, you can revert to the default layout by choosing Window > Layouts > Standard, or pressing F1. Also, you can save any custom layouts you create. For more information on managing layouts, see “Using Project Layouts” on page 68. Pane Keyboard Shortcut Left pane Lower pane Right pane control A control S control D The Meters, Search, and Browser tabs have been moved from the right pane and docked in the left pane. Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 37 Project Pane The project pane is the central “canvas” where you work on your projects in either the multitrack Timeline or the File Editor project view. Use the Timeline (shown below) to arrange audio clips in multitrack projects. Use the File Editor project view for individual audio file projects.  Toolbar: Includes tools for common functions. You can customize which tools appear in the Toolbar.  Tabs: You can switch between any projects open in the Timeline or File Editor project view.  Transport controls: Control playback and the position of the playhead, and turn recording on or off. (For more information, see “Transport Controls” on page 38.)  Monitor Volume slider: Adjusts the overall monitor volume when you play the project. The volume level defaults to 0 dB when you create a project. Adjusting the Monitor Volume slider does not affect the mix signal or the export volume.  Mono Mix button: Click to listen to a temporary mono mix of the project.  Playhead Location value slider: Displays the current playhead position. You can move the playhead by clicking the arrows, dragging, or typing a value.  Selection Length value slider: Displays the length of the current Timeslice (in the Timeline) or selection (in the File Editor). You can change the Timeslice or selection length by clicking the arrows, dragging, or typing a value. Tabs Playhead Location value slider Monitor Volume slider Mono Mix button Transport controls Toolbar Selection Length value slider 38 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Toolbar The Toolbar is located at the top of the Soundtrack Pro window. When you first open Soundtrack Pro, the Toolbar includes buttons for creating a new project, creating a new audio file, creating a new track, and other common functions. You can customize the Toolbar, adding buttons for functions you want to access frequently. For information about customizing the Toolbar, see “Customizing the Toolbar” on page 69. Transport Controls You use the transport controls to control playback, set the position of the playhead, start recording, and activate the cycle region.  Playhead Location value slider: Displays the current playhead position. You can move the playhead by clicking the arrows, dragging, or typing a value.  Record button: Starts and stops the recording process, and arms tracks for recording when no tracks are pre-armed.  Play from Beginning button: Starts playback from the beginning of the project.  Go to Beginning button: Moves the playhead to the beginning of the project or to the beginning of the cycle region if it is active.  Play/Pause button: Starts playback at the current playhead position. If the project is playing, stops playback.  Go to End button: Moves the playhead to the end of the project or to the end of the cycle region if it is active.  Cycle button: Activates the cycle region, if one is set in the Time ruler. If no cycle region is set, loops the project.  MIDI Sync button: Synchronizes playback with incoming MIDI Clock and MIDI Timecode (MTC) signals. Record Go to End MIDI Sync Play from Beginning Play Playhead Location value slider Selection Length value slider Go to Beginning Cycle Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 39  Selection Length value slider: Displays the length of the current Timeslice (in the Timeline) or selection (in the File Editor). You can change the Timeslice or selection length by clicking the arrows, dragging, or typing a value. For information on using the transport controls, see “Controlling Playback with the Transport Controls” on page 77. Timeline The Timeline gives you a visual representation of a multitrack project, showing the position of clips, the playhead, and other items in time. The Timeline is organized into three groups of horizontal rows called tracks, busses, and submixes, as well as a video track, a podcast track, and a Master bus. You can add and arrange audio clips in the audio tracks, use sends to create auxiliary busses, and route audio to physical output channels using submixes. You can control the sound of each audio track, bus, and submix using the controls in its header.  Previous and Next Selection buttons: Move backward and forward through Timeslice selections you’ve made in the waveform display.  Timeline editing tools: Select items using the Selection (arrow) tool, make time-based selections with the Timeslice tool, split audio clips using the Blade and Blade All tools, copy and paste attributes with the Lift and Stamp tools, and scrub the Timeline with the Scrub tool. For more information, see “Using the Timeline Editing Tools” on page 164.  Automation Mode pop-up menu: Choose the mode for recording automation using either the onscreen controls or an external control surface. Timeline controls Scroll bar Audio tracks, busses, and submixes Project controls Track area Timeline editing tools Time display Global Timeline view Time ruler Show pop-up menu Track headers Automation Mode pop-up menu Previous and Next Selection buttons 40 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface  Project controls: Set the project’s sample rate and other properties using these controls.  Show pop-up menu: Choose whether the video track, podcast track, audio tracks, busses, submixes, and master envelopes are visible in the Timeline.  Global Timeline view: Shows a miniature view of the entire Timeline and the playhead position, and lets you move quickly to different parts of a project.  Time display: Shows the current playhead position in both Time-based and Beats-based formats. You can set the playhead by typing a new playhead position in the time display.  Time ruler: You can precisely position clips, the playhead, and other items to a specific point in time (minutes, seconds, frames) or to a musical beat using the Time ruler.  Track area: Includes horizontal rows for tracks, busses, and submixes. Also includes the playhead, envelopes, and markers.  Headers: Each track, bus, and submix has a header with an icon, name, volume slider, and other controls. (For more information, see the next section.)  Timeline controls: Include controls to show the master envelopes, turn snapping on or off, set the track height, and zoom in or out. (For more information, see “Timeline Controls” on page 42.)  Scroll bar: Moves the Timeline horizontally so you can see different parts of the project. Headers Each track, bus, and submix in the Timeline has a header that includes the track name, track icon, and a set of track controls.  Color label: Indicates the track color, which is applied to any clips on the track (unless you choose to override the color for individual clips).  Icon: You can choose an icon for the track, bus, or submix, making it easy to quickly distinguish it in a large project.  Name field: You can type a new name for the track, bus, or submix in the name field. You cannot rename the Master bus.  Bypass Effects button: Select this button to hear the track without any of the applied realtime effects. Name field Mute button Color label Submix pop-up menu Envelopes Solo button disclosure triangle Panner Icon Arm for Recording Bypass Effects Input Routing buttons Volume slider Input menu Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 41  Arm for Recording button: Enables (or disables) the track for recording when you click the Record button. Only tracks have Arm for Recording buttons, not busses or submixes.  Mute button: Mutes (or unmutes) the track, bus, or submix.  Solo button: Solos (or unsolos) the track, bus, or submix. Soundtrack Pro supports both multiple solo and exclusive solo.  Envelopes disclosure triangle: Shows the track, bus, or submix envelopes in the area directly below the track.  Volume slider: Sets the track, bus, or submix relative volume in the overall mix.  Submix pop-up menu: Choose a submix for the track or bus from the menu. (Tracks and busses only.)  Input Device pop-up menu: Use the Input Device pop-up menu to choose the recording input device, and its Channels submenu to choose the channel (or set of channels).  Input Routing buttons: Use the Input Routing buttons to confirm or change recording input signal routing.  Output pop-up menu: Choose the physical outputs for the submix from the menu. Submixes only. (Not shown in the illustration.)  Panner: Sets the pan position of the track or bus. Has two modes: stereo slider or surround panner. Appears in track and bus headers only, not in submix headers or the Master bus header. Note: The Input Device pop-up menu and Input Routing buttons are visible only when the track height is set to Medium or Large. For detailed information on using the track controls, see “Using the Track Controls” on page 142. 42 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Timeline Controls The lower-left corner of the project pane contains controls for various aspects of Timeline display and operation.  Master Envelopes button: In the Timeline, shows or hides the master envelopes. In the File Editor project view, shows or hides the envelopes for the current audio file project.  Snapping button: Turns snapping on or off.  Snap To Value pop-up menu: Sets the value to which items in the Timeline snap.  Height control: Sets the height of tracks, busses, and submixes to one of four settings, from Reduced to Large. In the File Editor project view, sets the height of the envelopes for the current audio file project to one of four settings, from Reduced to Large.  Zoom control: Click the control or drag the slider to change the zoom level. You can zoom in to edit clips precisely, or zoom out to display more of the Timeline. For information about using master envelopes, see “Master Bus” on page 364. For information about snapping, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. For information about using the Height control and Zoom control, see “Moving Around in the Timeline” on page 128. Master Envelopes button Height control Zoom control Snapping button Snap to Value pop-up menu Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 43 File Editor You can edit individual audio files in the File Editor using actions. Actions give you a powerful and flexible way to edit audio files nondestructively using professional audio processing effects and other operations. You can turn individual actions on or off, reorder actions, flatten actions, and compare the project with and without actions. You can also analyze audio files in the File Editor and fix common audio problems, including clicks and pops, hum, and phase problems. The File Editor can take two forms: the File Editor project view, for detailed work on individual audio files, and the File Editor tab, for convenient editing within the context of a multitrack project.  Waveform editing tools: Include the Selection, Sample Edit, Audio Stretching, and Zoom tools that you can use to graphically edit audio files.  Automation Mode pop-up menu: Choose the automation mode from the pop-up menu.  Previous and Next Selection buttons: Move back and forward through selections you’ve made in the waveform display.  Waveform View and Frequency Spectrum View buttons: Change the display between Waveform view and Frequency Spectrum view.  Time display: Shows the current position of the playhead.  Global Waveform view: Shows you a miniature view of the entire waveform and the playhead position, and lets you move quickly to different parts of an audio file.  Waveform display (and editing area): Shows the waveform of the audio file (or its frequency spectrum in Frequency Spectrum view). You can select parts of the audio file to apply different actions to. Waveform editing tools Time display Playhead Location value slider Monitor volume slider Waveform View and Frequency Spectrum View buttons Global Waveform view Actions tab Waveform display Previous and Next Selection buttons Transport controls Automation mode pop-up menu Playhead 44 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface  Transport controls: Control playback and the position of the playhead, and turn recording on or off. (For more information, see “Transport Controls” on page 38.)  Playhead: Shows the part of the audio file currently playing.  Monitor Volume slider: Adjusts the overall monitor volume when you play the project. The volume level defaults to 0 dB when you create a project. Adjusting the monitor volume slider does not affect the mix signal or the export volume.  Mono Mix button: Click to listen to a temporary mono mix of the project.  Playhead Location value slider: Displays the current playhead position. You can move the playhead by clicking the arrows, dragging, or typing a value.  Actions tab: Displays the currently applied actions. Mixer You mix your project in the Mixer. All tracks, busses, and submixes (as well as the Master bus) have channel strips in the Mixer with volume controls, mute and solo buttons, slots for adding effects, and other controls. You can view the levels for tracks, busses, submixes, and the Master bus using level meters in their channel strips. You can also record audio and automate volume and pan changes in the Mixer.  Automation Mode pop-up menu: Choose the automation mode from the pop-up menu.  Channel Strip and Mixer pop-up menus: Show or hide different sections of the channel strips and of the Mixer window.  Channel strips: Each track, bus, and submix has a channel strip with controls and level meters. Channel strips Channel Strip and Mixer pop-up menus Automation Mode pop-up menu Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 45 Each channel strip includes the following controls:  Color label: Indicates the track color, which is applied to any clips on the track (unless you choose to override the color for individual clips).  Name field: You can type a new name for the channel strip.  Icon: Icons let you visually distinguish channel strips in the Mixer. Double-click an icon to change it.  Effects slots: Show the effects and sends for the channel strip, and let you add effects and sends.  Panning controls: Set the pan position of a track or bus. In surround mode, drag anywhere inside the black circle to position the puck. In stereo mode, drag the pan slider left or right or change the value in the value slider. You can automate pan changes by setting the appropriate automation mode for the project. These appear in track and bus channel strips only, not in submix channel strips.  Volume fader and value slider: Set the channel strip’s volume level by dragging the fader or changing the value in the value slider. You can automate volume changes by dragging the slider with the project set to the appropriate automation mode.  Level meters with peak indicator: Show the volume level of the channel strip in real time as the project plays. The peak indicator shows the highest level played and changes color to indicate that clipping has occurred.  Arm for Recording button: Click to enable the track for recording. When you click a track’s Arm for Recording button, the Recording tab appears, showing the track’s current recording settings. The button appears in track channel strips only, not in bus or submix channel strips. Icon Volume fader Effects slots Solo button Panning controls Level meters and peak indicator Color label Arm for Recording button Name Submix pop-up menu Mute button Volume value slider 46 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface  Mute button: Click to mute (or unmute) the channel strip.  Solo button: Click to solo (or unsolo) the channel strip.  Submix pop-up menu: Choose a submix for the track or bus from the menu. (Tracks and busses only.)  Output pop-up menu: Choose the outputs for the submix from the menu. Submixes only. (Not shown in the illustration.) Multitake Editor Use the Multitake Editor to edit multitake and synced audio that is created by performing multitake recording (such as in automatic dialogue replacement, or ADR). This tool allows you to easily mix and match parts of different takes. Once you are done editing a multitake clip, you can collapse it into a single clip, hiding the constituent edits that are not relevant to the surrounding multitrack Timeline. For more information about the Multitake Editor, see Chapter 7, “Using the Multitake Editor,” on page 251. Take editing tools Take tracks Comp track Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 47 Conform The Conform tool helps sound editors handle picture changes. Conforming a sequence is the act of incorporating changes sent from the picture editor into a different, changed version of a sequence being used by the sound editor. The sound editor revisits all of the audio edits, ensuring that they line up with new video footage and inserting or deleting any added or deleted media. Soundtrack Pro Conform makes this merging procedure more efficient and less tedious. For more information about the Conform tool, see Chapter 18, “Using Conform with Final Cut Pro,” on page 439. 48 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Bin The Bin tab lists information about items in all open projects. The Bin provides a hierarchical display of projects, their media files, and other information about each item, including duration, timecode, sample rate, Timeline information, and so on. You can drag files from the Bin tab to the Timeline. You can add files to the Bin for easy access at any time. The Bin also features sort and search functions to help you locate an item in any open project. For more information about the Bin, see “Using the Bin” on page 87.  Item list: Displays the files, clips, markers, and podcasts in the currently open projects.  Items pop-up menu: Choose what types of items (files, clips, markers, or podcasts) to display in the Bin.  Columns pop-up menu: Choose what types of columns of information (Timeline information, audio clip information, file information, metadata tags, or music information) to display in the Bin.  Preview controls: Include a Play button, a volume slider, and a “Preview on selection” button. For information on using the preview controls, see “Using the Preview Controls” on page 91.  Media pop-up menu: Choose menu items to Show in Timeline, Spot to Timeline, open a file in the File Editor, and perform other functions. Item list Preview controls Media pop-up menu Items pop-up menu Columns pop-up menu Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 49 Meters Tab The Meters tab displays mono, stereo, multichannel, and surround level meters that you can use to observe the volume of all submixes assigned to physical outputs or the overall output for an audio file project.  Level meters: Show the output volume of the overall project as the project plays.  Peaks Value and Location display: Displays the highest (peak) value played for each jack, and its timecode. Double-click any item in the Peaks Value and Location display to move the playhead to that point in the Timeline.  Reset button: Resets all items in the Peaks Value and Location display. Level meters Reset button Peaks Value and Location display 2-channel meter 6-channel meter 50 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Recording Tab The Recording tab is where you edit a track’s recording settings. When you click a track’s Arm for Recording button, the Recording tab appears, displaying the track’s current recording settings.  Peak indicator: Shows the highest level reached by the recording input signal. If the level rises above 0 dB, the peak indicator becomes red to indicate clipping.  Track pop-up menu: Displays the recording settings for the selected track.  Level meter(s): Show the input volume for the selected track during recording. Adjust automatically to the number of channels and the channel valence selected in the Input Channel pop-up menu.  Input Device pop-up menu: Choose the input device for recording.  Input Channel pop-up menu: Choose the input channel (or channels) for recording.  Input Routing buttons: Use the Input Routing buttons to route the input signal to different channels.  Configure Device button: Opens the Audio MIDI Setup utility for adjusting the computer’s audio input and output configuration settings, or setting up software specific to your audio interface.  Monitor Device pop-up menu: Choose the output device and output channel (or channels) for monitoring during recording.  Mute Project checkbox: Select to mute the project during recording, so you hear only the sound being recorded. Level meter Peak indicator Input device pop-up menu Monitor Device pop-up menu Configure Device button Input channel pop-up menu Mute Project checkbox Input Routing buttons Track pop-up menu Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 51 Browser The Browser tab displays the disks connected to your computer in a view similar to the Finder’s list view. You can also preview files in the Browser tab and drag them to the Timeline.  Back and Forward buttons: Move through previously viewed levels of the folder hierarchy.  Computer button: Displays your computer’s hard disk and other storage media connected to your computer.  Home button: Displays the contents of your home directory.  Path pop-up menu: Displays the levels of the file path to the current location, letting you move back to a previous level.  File list: Displays the files and folders at the current location.  Preview controls: Include a Play button, a volume slider, and a “Preview on selection” button. For information on using the Preview controls, see “Using the Preview Controls” on page 91.  Media pop-up menu: Choose menu items to add a Favorite, add a file to the Bin, open a file in the File Editor, and perform other functions. Preview controls Path pop-up menu Media pop-up menu Tabs Back and Forward buttons Computer and Home buttons File list 52 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Search Tab The Search tab lets you locate audio files using a variety of criteria. You can perform text searches and search for Apple Loops and other tagged file formats using keywords for instrument, genre, mood descriptors, and other categories. Matching files are displayed in the Search Results list. Once you locate the files you want to use, you can preview them in the Search Results list or drag them to the Timeline. The Search tab has two views, Column view and Button view. Column view features a Keywords list containing keywords and a Matches list with subcategories you can use to refine your searches. Button view displays a matrix of keyword buttons you can click to see matching files.  Button and Column View buttons: Change the view to either Button or Column view.  Category pop-up menu: Restricts the available keywords to a particular category. Search Text field Matches list Scale Type pop-up menu Nearby Keys button Setup button Keywords list Button and Column View buttons Search Results list Preview controls Media pop-up menu Time Signature pop-up menu File Type pop-up menu Category pop-up menu Keyword buttons Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 53  Setup button: Displays the Search Setup dialog, from which you add items to the Search database.  Time Signature pop-up menu: Restricts search results to files with the selected time signature.  File Type pop-up menu: Choose whether to display all files, or only looping or non-looping files.  Scale Type pop-up menu: Restricts search results to audio files using the selected scale.  Keyword buttons (Button view only): Displays files matching the keyword in the Results list.  Keywords list (Column view only): Displays files matching the keyword in the Results list, and displays subcategories in the Matches list.  Matches list (Column view only): Displays subcategories of the selected keywords.  Search Text field: Type text in the field to display matching files whose filename or path contains the search text.  Nearby Keys button: Restricts search results to keys within two semitones above or below the project key.  Search Results list: Displays the files matching the selected search criteria, in alphabetical order. Includes columns displaying the tempo, key, and number of beats of each file. You can click files to preview them.  Preview controls: Include a Play button, a volume slider, and a “Preview on selection” button. For information on using the preview controls, see “Using the Preview Controls” on page 91.  Media pop-up menu: Choose menu items to add a Favorite, add a file to the Bin, open a file in the File Editor, and perform other functions. 54 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Favorites Tab You can store frequently used items in Favorites so that you can easily access them directly. You can also preview files in Favorites and drag them to the Timeline.  Back and Forward buttons: Move through previously viewed levels of the folder hierarchy.  Path pop-up menu: Displays the levels of the file path to the current location, letting you move back to a previous level.  Favorites list: Displays the files and folders at the current location.  Preview controls: Include Play button, a volume slider, and a “Preview on selection” button. For information on using the preview controls, see “Using the Preview Controls” on page 91.  Media pop-up menu: Choose menu items to remove a Favorite, add a file to the Bin, open a file in the File Editor, and perform other functions. Favorites list Preview controls Media pop-up menu Path pop-up menu Button and Column View buttons Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 55 Video Tab Use the Video tab to add a video to a project and view the video.  Video Scale pop-up menu: Choose the scale of the video in the Video tab from the pop-up menu.  Video viewing area: You add a video by dragging it into the viewing area, where you may also watch it play. Note: You control playback of the video within the project using the transport controls at the bottom of the Soundtrack Pro window. For more information about the transport controls, see “Transport Controls” on page 38. Project Tab This tab contains controls and information for the currently active project as well as any metadata (tags) associated with the project. Video Scale pop-up menu Video viewing area 56 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface The Project tab features the following controls and categories of information:  General project information: This information includes file size, creation and modification dates, and location on the hard drive.  Pullup/Pulldown pop-up menus: Use these menus to adjust the video and audio playback to compensate for film-to-video and video-to-film conversions as well as international television standards conversions.  Project properties: Includes project length (duration) and sample rate.  Initial Timecode value slider: Use this slider to set the timecode for the first frame of the project. For more information about value sliders, see “About Changing Values and Timecode Entries” on page 75.  Ruler Units pop-up menu: Use this menu to set the project ruler to be either Timebased or Beats-based. Each multitrack project has a project time format, which can be either Time (seconds)–based or Beats-based. Setting the time format controls the appearance of the Time display, Time ruler, Timeline gridlines, and available Snap To values. For projects set to Time-based format, time is displayed using the Time Ruler units chosen in the View menu. For projects set to Beats-based format, the time is displayed in measures, beats, and beat divisions. The default format is Time-based. For information on setting the project time format, see “Project Time Format” on page 109.  Document file management: Use these controls to set project preferences for file saving and media management. These controls are available for multitrack projects only. For more information, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111. Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 57  Metadata: Use this area to add metadata to your project or to view your project’s metadata. If you export this project to certain output formats (such as a podcast), Soundtrack Pro passes through the metadata to the target output file. Metadata categories include Name, Copyright, Origination Date, Keywords, and so on.  Music settings: Use the controls in this area to set music properties (including tempo, time signature, and key) for the currently active project. Tempo, time signature, and key are important for projects set to Beats-based format. For projects set to Time-based format, you can usually leave the tempo, time signature, and key properties at their default settings. For more information, see “Setting Project Properties” on page 106. Details Tab The Details tab shows information about the currently selected media file, clip, marker, envelope point, cycle region, or Timeslice selection, and gives you a way to edit details about each. You can also view and edit details for a selection in the File Editor. File and Clip Details  Name: Name of the selected clip.  Position value slider: Sets the position (start point) of the selected clip.  Duration value slider: Sets the duration (length) of the selected clip.  Offset value slider: Sets the offset of the selected clip.  Measure in pop-up menu: Sets the units shown in the Position, Duration, and Offset value sliders.  Color pop-up menu: Sets the color of the selected clip. 58 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface  Enabled checkbox: Enables or disables the selected clip. For more information, see “Enabling and Disabling Clips” on page 118.  Locked checkbox: Locks or unlocks the selected clip. For more information, see “Locking and Unlocking Clips and Tracks” on page 118.  Transpose pop-up menu: Sets the number of semitones to transpose a looping clip.  Clip Speed pop-up menu: Sets the playback speed for a looping clip.  Created: Displays the creation date.  Modified: Displays the modification date.  Size: Displays the file size.  Properties: Displays the following information for the clip or file: duration, sample rate, the timecode for the first frame of the clip or file, bit depth, and channel valence.  Metadata: Use this section to view the metadata for a file or a clip. Metadata categories include Name, Copyright, Origination Date, Keywords, and so on.  Music: Use to view music information for a clip or file, primarily music loops in the Search tab. The music information includes tempo, time signature, key, scale type, looping (yes or no), beats, instrument, and loop genre. Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 59 Marker Details  Type buttons: Select whether the marker is a beat marker or a time marker.  Name field: Enter a name for the marker.  Position value slider: Sets the time position of the selected marker.  Duration value slider: Sets the duration for the selected marker.  Comment: Enter comments or notes for the marker. Envelope Point Details  Position value slider: Sets the time position of the selected envelope point.  Measure in pop-up menu: Sets the units shown in the Position value slider.  Value value slider: Sets the value of the selected envelope point. In some cases, this control is a pop-up menu (for envelope types that only allow specific values).  Minimum and Maximum value: Displays minimum and maximum values for the selected envelope point.  Copy from Previous Point button: Sets the value of the selected envelope point to the value of the preceding one in the envelope.  Copy from Next Point button: Sets the value of the selected envelope point to the value of the next one in the envelope. File Editor Selection Details  Measure in pop-up menu: Sets the units shown in the Beginning, End, and Duration value sliders.  Beginning value slider: Sets the start position of the selection.  End value slider: Sets the end position of the selection.  Duration value slider: Sets the duration (length) of the selection. 60 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Effects Tab You add effects and sends to your project and adjust effect parameters in the Effects tab. When you select a track or a bus in the Timeline or the Mixer, you can add and adjust the following effects and send settings. You can also apply effects to audio file projects.  Category list: Lists the categories of available effects. Click a category to see the effects for that category in the Effect list.  Effect list: Lists the effects in the selected category. Double-click an effect to add it to the track, bus, or submix.  Add Effect (+) button: Adds the selected effect to the current effects chain.  Remove Effect (–) button: Removes the selected effect from the current effects chain.  Effect Parameters area: Displays the parameters for effects in the current effects chain. Click an effect’s disclosure triangle to see its parameters. You can adjust effect parameters using the controls in the Effect Parameters area.  Add Send button: Adds a send to the end of the current effects chain for the track. You can add sends only to tracks, not to busses or submixes.  Reset Effect button: Resets the selected parameter or group of parameters to the default value (or values). Effect Parameters area Category list Effect list Reset Effect button Add Effect button Remove Effect button Add Send button Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 61 Tracks Tab Use the Tracks tab to easily view, select, and group tracks, busses, and submixes. Groups provide another layer of organization and a way to easily make changes (such as volume adjustments) to many tracks, busses, or submixes at once.  Mixer Objects outline: Displays an outline view of the Timeline.  Groups outline: Displays an outline view of any grouped tracks, busses, or submixes in the project. You can use the Groups outline to group Mixer objects, disable or enable groups, rename groups, delete groups, and delete items from groups.  Channel strip: The Tracks tab channel strip is a quick way to access the mixing controls for a particular Mixer object. This channel strip is identical to the corresponding channel strip in the Mixer in every way, including all controls and current settings. Mixer Objects outline Groups outline Channel strip 62 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface Actions Tab Use the Actions tab to perform edits nondestructively using actions, which include processing effects and other operations. You can also turn off or completely reorder actions.  Actions list: You can add, select, and reorder actions in the list.  Actions pop-up menu: Choose menu items to flatten actions, delete actions, and perform other operations.  Actions list: Shows the actions you apply to the project. You can add, select, and reorder actions in the list.  Action Insert bar: Shows where new actions will be added in the Actions list and which actions are heard when you play the project. Actions list Actions pop-up menu Action Insert bar Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface 63 Analysis Tab Use the Analysis tab to analyze audio files for a range of common audio problems, including clicks and pops, hum, and phase issues. You can fix the problems detected by analysis either individually or in a single operation. Selected problems are highlighted in the File Editor waveform display for easy viewing.  Analysis Type list: Lists the types of analysis you can select.  Parameter list: Some analysis types (Click/Pop and Silence) have parameters you can adjust before analyzing the file. The parameters appear in this list.  Analyze button: Click to analyze the file for the problems selected in the Analysis Type list.  Analysis Results list: Lists items found by analyzing the file.  Clear Fixed button: Removes fixed items from the Analysis Results list.  Magnify button: Zooms in on the selected item in the Analysis Results list for as long as you hold down the button.  Fix All button: Fixes all items in the Analysis Results list.  Fix button: Fixes the selected items in the Analysis Results list. Parameter list Analysis Results list Analyze button Magnify button Fix All button Clear Fixed button Fix button Analysis Type list 64 Chapter 2 The Soundtrack Pro Interface HUDs A heads-up display (HUD) is a semi-transparent floating window with controls and displays that you can use to accomplish specific tasks. All of these windows float over the main Soundtrack Pro window. To open any of these windows, choose Window > HUDs. Timecode HUD The resizable Timecode HUD makes reading current timecode very easy, particularly from a distance. You can also use the Timecode HUD to navigate in the Timeline or the File Editor by dragging the displayed hours, minutes, seconds, or frames up or down. Sound Palette You can use the Sound Palette HUD to lift attributes from selections in the Timeline and apply them to one or more clips (or regions of clips). For more information on the Sound Palette HUD, see “Using the Lift and Stamp Tools” on page 179. Multipoint Video HUD You can use the resizable Multipoint Video HUD as a visual guide for precisely spotting (placing) sound effects and other audio clips to specific frames of a video program. For more information on the Multipoint Video HUD, see “Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD” on page 322. 3 65 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro This chapter describes two kinds of projects you can create in Soundtrack Pro and how to work with windows, use layouts, play projects, and set Soundtrack Pro preferences. Two Kinds of Projects Soundtrack Pro has two native project file formats to support state-of-the-art multitrack audio editing and powerful nondestructive audio waveform editing. Multitrack Projects Multitrack projects contain multiple audio tracks in the Timeline. As in a Final Cut Pro project, importing a media file creates a clip in Soundtrack Pro that then refers to the original media file. You can arrange audio clips within tracks and synchronize them to a single video clip in the video track. You can mix a multitrack project using track controls for volume, pan, mute, solo, effects, and effect parameters. These controls are available both in the Timeline and in channel strips in the Mixer. You can create additional audio busses for effect sends. You can group audio track outputs together with submixes. Tracks, busses, and submixes can be exported to individual audio files, or a mixdown of all the tracks can be exported to a stereo or multichannel audio file. These exported files can then be imported into Final Cut Pro. Project File extension Description Multitrack project .stmp Similar to a Final Cut Pro project, this file contains multiple tracks with clips that refer to media files elsewhere on your disk. Audio file project .stap Allows nondestructive editing of audio files. 66 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro For more information, see:  “Creating and Opening Multitrack Projects” on page 105  Chapter 5, “Working in the Timeline,” on page 127  Chapter 8, “Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro,” on page 261 Audio File Projects Soundtrack Pro allows you to edit individual audio files (sometimes known as waveform editing) using Soundtrack Pro audio file projects. However, unlike most waveform editing applications, Soundtrack Pro allows you to edit your audio files nondestructively by keeping track of the actions you have performed on your audio file. For more information about Soundtrack Pro audio file projects, see Chapter 6, “Editing Audio Files,” on page 191. You can remove, disable, or reorder past actions at any time or save actions as AppleScript documents that you can use to batch process other audio files. Actions you can perform include trimming audio, copying and pasting parts of the waveform, normalizing or amplifying levels, applying effects, and applying noise, pop, and click reduction. Soundtrack Pro audio file projects are stored in Mac OS X packages (or bundles). A package appears to be a single file in the Finder but actually contains a collection of files such as the original audio file, temporary render files, and the list of actions applied to your audio file. Important: So that you benefit from nondestructive editing, the default option for saving edited audio files is as a Soundtrack Pro audio file project. Soundtrack Pro usually does this automatically any time you apply any command or effect from the Process menu or the Edit menu to a clip in the Timeline. For more information on when Soundtrack Pro automatically creates audio file projects, see “How Source Audio File Editing Works in a Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project” on page 166. You can open the following audio file formats in the File Editor:  Soundtrack Pro audio file project  AIFF  WAVE  Sound Designer II  NeXT  QuickTime movie containing audio tracks  CAF (Apple Core Audio Format) Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 67 Compressed formats such as MP3 and AAC files are also supported, although these must be internally decompressed to a linear PCM format. Soundtrack Pro supports audio files with any sample rate between 8 kHz and 192 kHz and any of the following bit depths: 8, 16, 24, 32, and 32-bit floating point. Up to 24 audio channels are supported in a single file. Audio files can be a maximum of 4 hours in length. Note: When you set a sample rate and play a file, Soundtrack Pro plays at the nearest sample rate your hardware can support. Setting Up Your Workspace You can choose from several ways to set up the Soundtrack Pro workspace to suit your display size and workflow, depending on the type of project you are creating. You can arrange, reorder, and detach tabs throughout Soundtrack Pro and add and reorder buttons in the Toolbar. You can show and hide different panes (areas) of the Soundtrack Pro window. You can also create layouts for different tasks and switch between them. Basic Window Controls You can move, resize, or minimize a project’s windows. Most windows feature tabs, which give you flexibility in arranging the visual elements of a project. To move a window: m Drag the window by its title bar to a new location. To resize the Soundtrack Pro window: m Drag the resize control in the lower-right corner of the window until the window is the desired size. To minimize the Soundtrack Pro window to the Dock: m Click the minimize button in the window’s title bar. To close the Soundtrack Pro window: m Click the window’s close button (or press Command-W with the window active). 68 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Using Tabs Soundtrack Pro uses tabs so you can quickly access different project views and controls. You can switch between projects and between different tabs. Clicking the tab you want makes it active and brings it to the front. You can rearrange and reorder the tabs to easily access the ones you use frequently. To reorder tabs: m Drag a tab left or right in the window’s tab area. You can also detach a tab from its docked position, which creates a separate resizable window for the tab that can be dragged or resized. For example, you can drag the Favorites tab to a new location so that you can easily move items from the Search tab to the Bin tab. To detach a tab: m Drag the tab out of its docked position in the window to create a separate window for the tab. To attach (dock) a tab: m Drag the tab to the top of any pane of the Soundtrack Pro window (except the top-center project pane, which is reserved for the Timeline and the File Editor project view). Using Project Layouts Soundtrack Pro lets you save and recall preset window arrangements called layouts, so that you can optimize your workspace for different tasks and different display sizes. You can show, hide, and resize windows, then save each window arrangement as a layout. To save a project layout: 1 Arrange the application windows as you want them to appear. 2 Choose Window > Save Layout. 3 In the Save dialog, type a name for the layout, then click Save. The layout is saved, and appears in the Layouts submenu. Note: By default, layouts are saved to the location /Users/username/Library/Application Support/Soundtrack Pro/Layouts/. Do not change the location or Soundtrack Pro may not be able to find and use your saved layouts. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 69 To switch to a saved project layout: m Choose Window > Layouts, then choose the layout you want to use from the submenu. To delete a saved layout: 1 Choose Window > Manage Layouts. 2 In the Manage Layouts dialog, select the layout you want to delete. 3 Click the – (minus) button to delete the layout, then click Done. To transfer a saved project layout file to another computer: 1 Locate the layout file in /Users/username/Library/Application Support/Soundtrack Pro/ Layouts/. 2 Transfer a copy of the file to the corresponding location in the second computer. Customizing the Toolbar The Toolbar at the top of the Soundtrack Pro window contains buttons for frequently used commands. You can customize the Toolbar, adding buttons for the actions you use most often, and can return to the default set later. The default set of Toolbar buttons includes buttons for creating new projects, opening project tabs, adding markers, and other common commands. You can customize the Toolbar with additional buttons for adding fade-ins and fade-outs, processing an audio file, playing the current project through a video output device, and other commands. You can also hide the Toolbar to maximize available screen space. You customize the Toolbar by dragging items from the Customize dialog to the Toolbar. 70 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro To show the Customize dialog, do one of the following: m Choose View > Customize Toolbar. m Control-click the Toolbar, then choose Customize Toolbar from the shortcut menu. The Customize dialog appears, and spaces between buttons in the Toolbar are outlined in gray. To add a button to the Toolbar: m Drag a button from the Customize dialog to the Toolbar. If you drag a button between two existing buttons, the buttons move to make room for the new button. To move a button in the Toolbar: m Command-drag the button to a new location on the Toolbar. You can also rearrange the Toolbar using set-width spaces, flexible spaces, and separators. To add space or a separator to the Toolbar: m Drag a space, flexible space, or separator from the Customize dialog to the Toolbar. To return the Toolbar to the default set of buttons: m Drag the default button set, located at the bottom of the Customize dialog, to the Toolbar. You can also change the Toolbar so that it shows only icons or only text. To show only icons in the Toolbar, do one of the following: m Control-click the Toolbar, then choose Icon Only from the shortcut menu. m In the Customize dialog, choose Icon Only from the Show pop-up menu. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 71 To show only text in the Toolbar, do one of the following: m Control-click the Toolbar, then choose Text Only from the shortcut menu. m In the Customize dialog, choose Text Only from the Show pop-up menu. To show both icons and text in the Toolbar, do one of the following: m Control-click the Toolbar, then choose Icon & Text from the shortcut menu. m In the Customize dialog, choose Icon & Text from the Show pop-up menu. To dismiss the Customize dialog: m When you have finished customizing the Toolbar, click Done. To hide the Toolbar: m Choose View > Hide Toolbar. When the Toolbar is hidden, the menu item becomes Show Toolbar. Using the Shortcut Menu You can quickly and easily access many Soundtrack Pro features with the shortcut menu (also known as the contextual menu). Using the shortcut menu by Control-clicking items in the Soundtrack Pro interface is often more convenient than using the menu bar at the top of the screen. If you have a three-button mouse connected to your computer, you can right-click to access the same controls specified by the Control-click commands in the user documentation (for example, “Control-click the Toolbar, then choose Customize Toolbar from the shortcut menu”). Playing Projects You can play both multitrack and audio file projects as you work, so you can hear the audio in the project along with the changes you’ve made. To play the project: m Click the Play button in the transport controls (or press the Space bar). Click the Play button (or press the Space bar) again to stop playback. As the project plays, the playhead shows the point in the project currently playing. Soundtrack Pro lets you set the playhead and control playback of your projects in several different ways. You can use the transport controls or keyboard commands to start and stop playback and set the playhead to different points in time. You can also set a cycle region to repeat playback of a specific part of the project. 72 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Setting the Playhead Quickly The playhead appears as a thin black line running vertically through the Timeline in multitrack projects, and through the waveform display in audio file projects. Where it crosses the Time ruler, the top of the playhead has a triangular handle that makes it easier to see its position onscreen and drag the playhead. To set the playhead, do one of the following: m Click anywhere in the Timeline (in a multitrack project) or the File Editor (in an audio file project) to set the playhead to that position. m Drag the triangular handle at the top of the playhead to the position you want to set it. As you drag the playhead, you hear the audio at the current playhead position. When you set the playhead, it snaps to the nearest Snap To position if snapping is turned on. For information on setting the Snap To value, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. You can also set the playhead by using the transport controls or the Playhead Location value slider. Note: If you click the Time ruler, you may accidentally activate the cycle region. Press Option-X to remove the cycle region. Press C to turn the cycle region on or off. For more information about using the cycle region, see “Working with the Cycle Region” on page 134. Drag the playhead where you want it or click in the Timeline. Drag the playhead where you want it or click in the waveform display. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 73 Setting the Playhead Using the Time Display When a project is playing, the Time display constantly updates to show the current position of the playhead in both Time-based and Beats-based formats. You can also set the playhead to a new position by entering the position in the Time display. The arrangement of the Time-based and Beats-based positions in the Time display changes depending on the time format of the project. The position matching the time format of the project appears in large, white numerals in the upper part of the Time display, and the other position appears below it in smaller, gray numerals. Each position is labeled for quick visual recognition. For information on setting the project time format, see “Setting Project Properties” on page 106. To set the playhead using the Time display: m Select either the Time or Beats position in the Time display, then enter a new position. You can select the entire position or part of the position. Entering Time-Based Units When you set the playhead by entering a Time-based position in the Time display, you don’t need to enter all of the punctuation. Soundtrack Pro automatically adds the correct punctuation for the format of the Time display. For example:  If you enter 01234321, Soundtrack Pro interprets it as 01:23:43;21. This stands for 1 hour, 23 minutes, 43 seconds, and 21 frames. If you enter a partial number, Soundtrack Pro formats it with the rightmost pair of numbers as frames and with each successive pair of numbers to the left as seconds, minutes, and hours. Numbers omitted from a complete time position are interpreted as zeros. For best results, always enter delimiters to separate each division of time. For example:  If you enter 01.23, Soundtrack Pro interprets it as 00:00:01;23. This stands for 1 second and 23 frames. You can select only part of the position in the Time display and enter a new number for that position. For example, you can select only seconds, or minutes and seconds. The other categories keep their present values. You can enter a time position in timecode format, in a way similar to the way you enter timecode in Final Cut Pro. Enter a time position in the Time area. Enter a beat position in the Beats area. 74 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Entering Beats-Based Units When you set the playhead by entering a Beats-based position in the Time display, you enter periods between numbers to separate measures, beats, and beat divisions. Soundtrack Pro fills out the digits in the beat division category with zeros. For example:  If you enter 123, Soundtrack Pro interprets it as 123.1.000. This stands for the 123rd measure, 1st beat, with no added beat divisions.  If you enter 12.3, Soundtrack Pro interprets it as 12.3.000. This stands for the 12th measure, the 3rd beat, with no added beat divisions.  If you enter 1.2.3, Soundtrack Pro interprets it as 1.2.300. This stands for the 1st measure, the 2nd beat, and 300/1000ths of a beat (because each beat division is 1/1000 of a beat). You can select only part of the position in the Time display and enter a new number for that position. For example, you can select only measures, or measures and beats. The other categories keep their present values. Setting the Playhead Using the Playhead Location Value Slider Below and to the left of the transport controls is the Playhead Location value slider. When a project is playing, the Playhead Location value slider constantly updates to show the current position of the playhead. You can set the playhead by entering a new position in the Playhead Location value slider. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 75 About Changing Values and Timecode Entries Soundtrack Pro includes several types of value entry methods. Most of them have features that can make changing the values or timecode fields easy to do. Using Value Sliders There are two methods used to enter general numeric values: traditional sliders with separate numeric entry fields and value sliders that combine the slider with the numeric entry field. Value sliders allow you to enter a specific number in the value field or to drag in the value field to set a value. When using the value sliders, you can use a modifier key to make normal, small, or large value adjustments. Dragging in the middle area (where the number is) works the same as an ordinary slider; dragging to the right increases the value and dragging to the left decreases the value. Additionally, you can click the right or left arrow to change the value one step at a time. You can also double-click the number itself and type a new number to enter a specific number in the value field. To change values in normal increments, do one of the following: m Drag left or right in the value field. m Click the left arrow to decrease a value, or click the right arrow to increase a value. m If you have a three-button mouse with a scrollwheel, click in the value field and use the scrollwheel on the mouse. To change values in fine increments, do one of the following: m Option-drag in the value field. m Option-click the left arrow to decrease a value, or Option-click the right arrow to increase a value. m If you have a mouse with a scrollwheel, Option-scroll in the value field. Separate slider and numeric entry field Value slider with combined slider and numeric entry field 76 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro To change values in coarse increments, do one of the following: m Shift-drag in the value field. m Shift-click the left arrow to decrease a value, or Shift-click the right arrow to increase a value. m If you have a mouse with a scrollwheel, Shift-scroll in the value field. When a value slider or value field is active (highlighted), press Tab to move to the next field. Using Timecode Value Sliders Soundtrack Pro uses timecode value sliders for timecode entry fields. In addition to being able to enter timecode values directly, you are able to scrub the timecode value by dragging. If you place the pointer over a segment of the timecode, small arrows appear above and below that segment. You can drag up or to the right to increase the value in that segment (values in segments to the left also increment if your dragging causes the selected segment to roll over). Dragging to the left or down decreases the value. You can hold down the Option key to make the value changes slower or the Shift key to make them faster. Alternatively, you can click the up and down arrows on each side of the timecode value or press the keyboard’s Up and Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the timecode value. You can control which segment is affected by the up and down arrows by selecting a segment so that a caret (^) appears below the segment. You can also use the keyboard’s Left and Right Arrow keys to select other segments. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 77 Scrubbing Audio You can scrub a multitrack project in the Timeline or scrub an audio file project in the File Editor. Scrubbing the project lets you hear the audio at the playhead position as you drag the playhead, so you can find a particular sound or event in the audio file. You can scrub audio using either the Scrub tool or the playhead. For information about scrubbing, see “Scrubbing Audio Files” on page 200. Scrubbing Video In projects containing a video file, the video scrubs in the Video tab in sync with the audio as you scrub in the Timeline or the File Editor tab. As you drag audio clips, markers, envelope points, or other items in the Timeline or the File Editor tab, the video scrubs at the start point of the item being dragged. Dragging multiple items scrubs the video at the start point of the item under the pointer. You can use the Multipoint Video HUD as a visual tool for precisely positioning sound effects and other audio clips in a video program. For more information, see “Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD” on page 322. Controlling Playback with the Transport Controls You use the transport controls to control playback of your project. The transport controls let you set the playhead to various points in time, start and stop playback, activate the cycle region, and start a recording session to record your own audio.  Record: Starts recording at the playhead position on the track you have enabled for recording. If no track is enabled, a new track is created when recording starts.  Play from Beginning: Starts playback from the beginning of the project. Playback begins immediately, whether the project is playing or is stopped when you click the button.  Go to Beginning: Sets the playhead to the beginning of the project. If the cycle region is active, and the playhead is after the beginning of the cycle region in time, the playhead is set to the beginning of the cycle region.  Previous Frame: Moves the playhead backward by one frame.  Play: Starts playing back the project from the current playhead position. Clicking the Play button again stops playback at the current playhead position. MIDI Sync Go to Beginning Play Go to End Record Play from Beginning Cycle Previous Frame Next Frame 78 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro  Next Frame: Moves the playhead forward by one frame.  Go to End: Sets the playhead to the end of the project. If the cycle region is active, and the playhead is before the end of the cycle region in time, the playhead is set to the end of the cycle region.  Cycle: If a cycle region is set, clicking the Cycle button toggles whether the cycle region is active or inactive. If no cycle region is set, clicking the Cycle button sets the project to repeat from the beginning when the playhead reaches the end of the project. For information on setting the cycle region, see “Working with the Cycle Region” on page 134.  MIDI Sync: Synchronizes playback with incoming MIDI Clock and MIDI Timecode (MTC) signals. Controlling Playback Using Keyboard Shortcuts There are a number of keyboard shortcuts you can use to control playback of your project. To use keyboard shortcuts, the pointer cannot be in a text field.  Space bar: Plays back the project from the current playhead position. If the project is playing, pressing the Space bar sets the playhead back to the point from which the project started playing. This is equivalent to clicking the Play button.  Return: Sets the playhead to the beginning of the project. If the cycle region is active, pressing Return sets the playhead to the beginning of the cycle region. This is equivalent to clicking the Go to Beginning button.  Shift-Return: Sets the playhead to the beginning of the project, and starts playback if it is stopped. This is equivalent to clicking the Start from Beginning button.  Option–Right/Left Arrow: Moves the playhead forward/backward by one frame. For more tips on keyboard shortcuts for playback, see “Using the J, K, and L Keys for Shuttling” on page 130. For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. Locating and Adding Audio Files You can locate audio files to use in a project using the media tabs, or drag files from the Finder. There are three media tabs for locating audio files: the Browser, Favorites, and Search tabs. You can also store media files for a project in the Bin for easy access in a project. The Bin also features a search function to help you locate an item in any open project. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 79 Supported Audio File Formats You can add audio files in the following formats: AIFF, WAVE, Broadcast WAVE, Sound Designer II, NeXT, QuickTime (.mov) audio files, and CAF (Apple Core Audio Format). Compressed formats such as MP3 and AAC (except protected AAC) files are also supported, although these must be internally decompressed to a linear PCM format. You can also add the following types of multichannel files: AIFF, WAV, Broadcast WAVE, QuickTime, and Single Folder Multi-mono AIFF and WAV. You can import audio files with any combination of the following sample rates and bit depths: Sample Rates  Any sample rate from 8 kHz to 192 kHz Bit Depths  8 bit  16 bit  24 bit  32 bit (both integer and floating point) Note: Files with lower bit depths or sample rates do not have the same playback quality as formats with higher bit depths or sample rates. Supported Video File Formats Soundtrack Pro supports standard QuickTime-compatible file formats. You can import a QuickTime movie (.mov) file into a Soundtrack Pro project, and you can import an MPEG-2 (.m2v) file if you have installed the QuickTime MPEG-2 Playback Component. Video files using NTSC, PAL, HD, and other formats supported by QuickTime can be imported into Soundtrack Pro. Imported video files can be up to four hours in length. For more information about importing video files, see Chapter 10, “Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro,” on page 315. Looping and Non-Looping Files Soundtrack Pro supports two types of audio files: looping and non-looping files. Most audio files are non-looping files unless they contain tags for tempo, key, and other information. Many of the Apple Loops that come with Soundtrack Pro, as well as other tagged audio files, can be looping files. Looping files may contain music, rhythmic sounds, or other repeating patterns. You can resize a looping file to fill any amount of time. Looping files adjust to the project tempo and key, letting you use loops recorded in different keys and at different tempos in the same project. 80 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Non-looping files do not adjust to the project tempo and key. You can shorten or lengthen a non-looping file, but lengthening it beyond the size of the original file adds only silence to the lengthened part. You can search for non-looping files in the Search tab using the Search text field. Both looping and non-looping files can contain tags with information about the file, including mood, genre, and musical instrument. Soundtrack Pro recognizes tags in audio files intended for use with loop-based music applications. You can open an audio file in Apple Loops Utility and add tags, and can convert a looping file to a non-looping file, or convert a non-looping file to a looping file. For information about tagging audio files using Apple Loops Utility, see the Apple Loops Utility User Manual. Using the Browser to Locate Files The Browser tab shows the hard disks and other storage media connected to your computer, and lets you browse through the file hierarchy to find audio files located on disk. To locate audio files using the Browser: m Double-click a volume or folder in the Browser to view its contents. You can move back through the previous locations in the Browser using the Forward and Back buttons, or through the levels of the file hierarchy using the Path pop-up menu. Double-click a folder to view items inside. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 81 Using Favorites to Locate Files Favorites let you store frequently used file locations, so that you can access them directly. You can add and remove Favorites from the Media pop-up menu at the lower-right corner of the Favorites tab. To locate audio files in Favorites: m Double-click the disk or folder you want to open. You can move back through the previous locations in the Favorites tab using the Forward and Back buttons, or through the levels of the file hierarchy using the Path pop-up menu. Using Search to Locate Files Using Search, you can search for media files to add to your project. Search has two views: Column view and Button view. You choose which view to display by clicking the Columns View or Button View button in the upper-left area of the window. In both views, the files matching your search criteria appear in the Search Results area, along with columns displaying additional information for tagged files. You can sort these columns by clicking the heading on top of each column. You can also perform text searches in both views, and refine your searches. If you use Apple Loops or other tagged audio files in a project, you can search based on a variety of criteria, including musical instrument, genre, time signature, mood descriptor, and scale type. You can also search using specific keywords. To search for items: m Click the Search tab. The Search tab becomes active. Double-click an item to open it. 82 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Searching for Files in Column View In Column view, the upper area of the Search tab displays two columns: Keywords shows the categories of files that meet the search criteria, and Matches shows the total number of matching files and any subcategories containing matching files, with the number of matching files in each. Clicking a keyword displays the files matching that keyword in the Search Results area. You can refine your search results by narrowing the criteria using the subcategories in the Matches column. To search for files in Column view: 1 Choose the type of keywords to display in the Keywords list from the Keywords pop-up menu. You can use the Time Signature and Scale Type pop-up menus to restrict matches by those categories. 2 Select a keyword in the Keywords list to display matching files in the Search Results area. The hints, tempo, key, and number of beats for each matching file are also displayed. You can also perform text searches, which can be especially helpful for non-tagged files. When you type text in the Search Text field, any files with the text in their file path or filename appear in the Search Results list. The number of files appears in the Matches column under “No Category.” To search using the Search Text field: m Enter text in the Search Text field. As you type, files matching the characters you type appear in the Search Results field. Select a keyword to display the matching files in the Search Results area. Search Text field Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 83 Refining a Search in Column View There are several ways you can refine your searches in Column view. You can select items in the Matches column to add the matching files for each category to the search results, and you can enter text in the Search Text field to narrow your search to files that include the text in their file path. Selecting multiple keywords in the Keywords list narrows the search results to files matching all the selected keywords. To refine your search using the Matches column: m Click to select a match category, or Command-click to select multiple match categories. To refine your search by selecting multiple keywords: m Shift-click to select adjacent keywords, or Command-click to select nonadjacent keywords. Searching for Files in Button View In Button view, the upper area of the Search tab displays a grid of buttons, each of which is labeled with a keyword. The keywords displayed are determined by the Keywords pop-up menu; the choices are Music Beds, Instruments, Genre, Descriptors, and Custom. The keywords for each choice are fixed, and appear whether or not matching files for the keyword exist. Keywords for which no matching files exist are dimmed. Click a match category to refine your search. These are files that match the category selected above. Search Text field 84 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro To search for files in Button view: 1 Choose the type of keywords to display on the keyword buttons from the Keywords pop-up menu. 2 You can optionally use the File Type, Time Signature, and Scale Type pop-up menus to restrict matches by those categories. 3 Click a keyword button to display matching files in the Search Results area. You can also perform text searches, which can be especially helpful for non-tagged files. When you type text in the Search Text field, any files with the text in their file path or filename appear in the Search Results list. To search by file path or filename: m Enter text in the Search Text field. As you type, files matching the characters you type appear in the Search Results field. Refining a Search in Button View There are several ways you can refine your searches in Button view. You can select multiple keyword buttons to narrow your search results to files matching all the selected keywords, and you can enter text in the Search Text field to narrow your search to files that include the text in their file path. Click a button to display the matching files in the Search Results area. Search Text field Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 85 To refine your search using multiple keywords: m Click multiple keyword buttons. Adding Custom Keywords You can add custom keywords, which appear in the Keywords list in Column view and on the keyword buttons in Button view. Custom keywords can be added only in Button view. To add a custom keyword: 1 Choose Custom from the Keyword Type pop-up menu. 2 Control-click one of the buttons in the grid, then choose a custom keyword from the shortcut menu. These are files that match both of the keywords selected above. Select additional keywords to refine your search. Choose Custom from this pop-up menu. Control-click a button, then choose the desired keyword from the submenu. 86 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Adding a Directory to the Search Database Search looks through all indexed directories (volumes and folders) for files that match your search criteria. Before a file can appear in Search, you must add the directory containing the file to the Search database and index the directory. Note: The Search database does not update automatically. If you add files to an indexed directory, you must index the directory again before the files will appear in the Search tab. To add a directory to the Search database: 1 Click the Setup button at the top of the Search tab. 2 In the Setup dialog, click the Add Directory button. 3 In the file dialog, navigate to the directory you want to add, then click Open. The directory appears in the list in the Setup dialog. You can resize the Search dialog if you need to see more items in the list. 4 Select the directory in the list, then click the Index Now button. Note: Indexing a large collection of files may take several minutes. The bottom of the Add Directory dialog displays the progress of the directory being indexed. If you need to interrupt the indexing process, click the Stop Indexing button. You can re-index the directory later. You can deselect items you do not wish to re-index. 5 When Soundtrack Pro is finished indexing the directory, click Done to return to the Search tab. Click here to display the Setup dialog. Click the Add Directory button, then select a directory to add. Click here to index the directory. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 87 Removing a Directory from the Search Database If you move or change your collection of audio files, you can remove a folder from the Search database. Removing unneeded folders from the database can shorten search times and eliminate extraneous results. To remove a folder from the Search database: 1 Click the Setup button at the top of the Search tab. 2 In the Setup dialog, select the directory you want to remove, then click the Remove Directory button. 3 Click Done to return to the Search tab. Once you have added the folders containing your audio files to the Search database and indexed them, you can use Search to find the files. In both Column view and Button view, the audio files that match the search criteria appear in the Search Results area in alphabetical order. You can preview files in the File list and drag them to the Timeline. You can also add a folder to your Favorites from the Search tab. Using the Bin The Bin is a hierarchical list of all of the items in each open project. You can also add files to the Bin for easy access at a later time. Files appear in the Bin alphabetically by project and hierarchically within each project. Click the Remove Directory button to remove the selected directory. 88 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro The Bin Hierarchy The items in the Bin are organized by project. In this hierarchy, projects contain media files, and media files contain clips. To add a file to the Bin, do one of the following: m Drag the file from the Finder to the Bin. m Drag the file from the Browser, Favorites, or Search tab to the Bin. Viewing and Editing Projects in the Bin The Bin can display the following categories of information: audio clip information (looping, transposition, and so on), file information (timecode, sample rate, file size, and so on), Timeline information (duration, position, and so on), metadata tags (author, copyright, and so on) and music information (beats, key, and so on). To control the display of information categories in the Bin: m Choose a category from the Columns pop-up menu. Searching Bin Information You can search across all information displayed in the Bin. Matching text and numbers from any of the fields causes that item to appear in the list. To search information categories in the Bin: 1 Click the Bin’s Search field. 2 Enter the search text. 3 Press Return. Objects Description Contents Projects Projects make up the top level of the hierarchy. You can view multiple projects at once. Media files Project markers Media files Audio and video source files Clips Markers (File Editor only) Clips If the source media file is used ten different times in the Timeline, it will have ten clips nested in the Bin. None Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 89 Using the Shortcut Menu and the Media Pop-Up Menu in the Bin You can use the shortcut menu and the Media pop-up menu in the Bin for a variety of tasks. One of the most common tasks involves removing unused items from a project. This simple step will keep the media associated with a project to a minimum. You can also rename clips, markers, and podcast region markers that you’ve selected in the Bin. To use the shortcut menu or the Media pop-up menu to affect an entire project: 1 Select a project file in the Bin. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Removed Unused from the Media pop-up menu.  Control-click the item, then choose Removed Unused from the shortcut menu. To use the shortcut menu or the Media pop-up menu to affect an individual item in the Bin: 1 Select an item in the Bin. 2 Choose an option from the Media pop-up menu. You can also Control-click the item, then choose an option from the shortcut menu.  Show in Timeline: Selects the corresponding clip in the Timeline.  Spot to Timeline: Spots the clip to the Timeline with the Spot to Timecode dialog.  Spot to Playhead: Spots the clip to the playhead position in the Timeline.  Open in Editor: Opens the file in the File Editor project view.  Reconnect: Allows you to locate and reconnect any offline files.  Rename: Selects the item in the Bin so that you can enter a new name.  Reveal in Browser: Selects the item in the Browser tab.  Show in Finder: Selects the item in the Finder.  Replace Selected Clips with: Replaces the clip with a clip of your choosing. 90 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Bin Column Information The following list describes the contents of the various Bin columns. Many Bin columns change their display style to match the settings of the dominant ruler (such as drop frame, non-drop frame, and so on). Much of this information can also be seen in the Details tab.  Name: Displays the icon and name for the various objects (projects, files, clips, markers, and podcast marker regions).  Position: Displays the position of the object, in the dominant ruler setting. Displays values for projects, clips, markers, and podcasts. Some items do not have a position. Others do not always display a position. (For example, a multitrack document only shows the position when the Initial Timecode value in the Project tab has been changed from the default 0 value.)  Duration: Displays the duration information for projects, files, clips, markers, and podcasts.  Track name: Lists the current track name for audio clips.  Offset: Shows the slip offset value: the difference between the start of the original file and the start of the clip (using the dominant ruler setting). Clips that start from the beginning show 0; others have a positive time value.  Sample rate: Shows the native sample rate of the item, in Hz (projects, files, and clips).  Timecode: This is the embedded timecode of the file, if present (in the dominant ruler setting). Displays the initial timecode for items (projects, files, clips).  Channels: The number of channels in the item (files, clips)  Takes: The number of takes in the item (files, clips)  File size: The disk size of the item (projects, files)  Path: The path to the item on disk (projects, files)  Annotation: Displays annotation metadata (projects, files, clips).  Author: Displays author metadata (projects, files, clips).  Copyright: Displays copyright metadata (projects, files, clips).  Tempo: The tempo of the item, in beats per minute (projects, files, clips)  Time Signature: Displays time signature data (projects, files, clips).  Key: Displays the musical key of the item, being the letter (A, A#, B, and so on), or “None” (projects, files, clips).  Scale: Displays musical scale type (projects, files, clips).  Looping: Indicates a looping file (Yes/No) (files, clips).  Beats: Displays the number of beats in the file (projects, files, clips).  Instrument: Displays instrument type, from Apple Loop tagged information (files, clips).  Genre: Displays genre name, from Apple Loop tagged information (files, clips).  Hint Quality: Displays the quantitative display of the amount of information saved in the file—keywords, beat information, and transients (files, clips). Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 91 Previewing Audio Files You can preview files in the Bin or any of the media tabs. When you preview files, Soundtrack Pro matches the sample rate of the file to the project sample rate. When you preview looping files, Soundtrack Pro matches their tempo and key to the project tempo and key. To preview an audio file: m Select the file in the Bin or any of the media tabs. The selected file starts playing. If the project is playing when you preview a file, Soundtrack Pro starts playback of the previewed file on the downbeat of the next measure of the project. You can turn preview playback on and off by holding down Option and pressing the Space bar. Audio files tagged as loops play back repeatedly when previewed. You can control the playback of the file being previewed using the preview controls. You can only preview one audio file at a time. Using the Preview Controls The preview area at the bottom of the Bin and the media tabs contains controls you can use when previewing audio files. Select an audio file in the Search tab to preview it. Play button Preview on selection button Media pop-up menu Volume slider 92 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro  Play button: Starts playback of the preview file. If the file is playing, stops playback.  Volume slider: Sets the playback volume of the preview file.  Preview on selection button: When activated, triggers immediate playback of the selected clip.  Media pop-up menu: Choose whether to add the file to Favorites, open it in the File Editor or Apple Loops Utility, or reveal it in the Finder. To preview an audio file with a project: 1 Click the Play button in the transport controls to play the project. 2 When the project reaches the point in time where you want to hear the preview file, select the file in the Search tab. To preview a file without the project (solo): 1 If the project is playing, click the Stop button in the transport controls to stop playback of the project. 2 Select the file in the Search tab to preview the file. You can also preview a video file using the preview controls. For information about previewing a video file, see “Playing the Video” on page 317. Viewing File and Clip Information You can view information in the Details tab about audio and video files and clips in the Bin, the media tabs, and the Timeline. When you select a file or clip in the Bin, the media tabs, or the Timeline, the Details tab displays the file path and other information about the item. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 93 For a complete description of the items listed in the Details tab, see “Details Tab” on page 57 and “Viewing and Editing Clip and Track Properties” on page 114. Note: The information that is displayed depends on whether or not the file is tagged. Untagged files may not display information for all categories. Using Undo and Redo As you edit clips and perform other operations in both multitrack and audio file projects, you might need to use the Undo and Redo commands. For example, if you don’t like the last change you’ve made to a project, it can usually be undone. Then, if you decide you prefer to keep the change you just undid, you can redo the command immediately after using Undo. You can also use the Undo and Redo commands as a quick way of trying out changes to your project. You can make changes to any aspect of the project, then use Undo to step back through changes you don’t like to the project’s previous state. If you change your mind after undoing a change or set of changes, you can always use Redo to recover the changes. At any point, you can save a new version of the project using the File > Save As command. You can use the Undo command repeatedly to undo every change made since the project was last saved. To undo the last change: m Choose Edit > Undo [item] (or press Command-Z). The [item] in the menu changes to show the last command or operation. You can use the Redo command repeatedly to redo every undone change since the project was last saved. To redo the last change: m Choose Edit > Redo [item] (or press Command-Shift-Z). The [item] in the menu changes to show the last command or operation. 94 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Using Snapping When you move and resize clips in the Timeline, or select part of an audio file in the File Editor, you usually want them to start and end at a specific point in time. To synchronize clips with a video, you may want to position them in line with a specific frame. In a music-based project, you may want to align clips with measures and beats. Soundtrack Pro includes a snapping feature that causes clips, the playhead, and other items in the Timeline and File Editor to “snap” to the nearest Snap To position. Snapping applies to the following operations:  Dragging audio clips to the Timeline  Moving audio clips  Resizing audio clips  Setting the playhead  Setting the cycle region  Inserting markers  Moving markers  Selecting Timeslices  Adding envelope points  Moving envelope points  Moving crossfade edges You can use snapping to ensure that audio clips are synchronized to a measure or beat, that they begin playing back at a precise point in time, and that they are precisely aligned with other clips in the Timeline. When you turn on snapping, the item you are moving snaps to the nearest Snap To position in the Timeline. The available Snap To values depend on the time format of the project. For projects set to Time-based format, the available Snap To values are:  Ruler ticks  Seconds  Frames  Clips on Adjacent Tracks  Markers Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 95 For projects set to Beats-based format, the available Snap To values are:  Ruler ticks  1/4 notes  1/8 notes  1/16 notes  1/32 notes  1/64 notes  Markers  Clips on Adjacent Tracks To turn snapping on: m Choose View > Snap (or press G). A checkmark next to the menu item indicates that snapping is turned on. Choose View > Snap again to turn snapping off. To set the Snap To value: m Choose View > Snap To, then choose a value from the submenu. You can temporarily reverse the current snapping state while you work in the Timeline. When snapping is turned on and Markers is chosen in the Snap To submenu, clips in the Timeline snap to the playhead as well as to markers. To temporarily reverse the snapping state: m Select the item in the Timeline, then hold down the Command key as you drag the item. If snapping is turned on, Command-dragging lets you move the item without having it snap to the nearest Snap To position. If snapping is turned off, the item snaps to the nearest Snap To position. When you release the Command key, items moved in the Timeline follow the normal snapping state. 96 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Reconnecting Media Files Because Soundtrack Pro multitrack projects contain references to media files, and not the files themselves, a multitrack project cannot play back if the media files it uses are erased or moved. When you open a multitrack project in Soundtrack Pro, the application checks to see if the media files it uses exist in the same location as they did when the project was last opened. If the media files are not in the expected location, Soundtrack Pro displays a Can’t Find File dialog with three choices:  Skip All: Opens the project without reconnecting any missing files.  Skip File: Opens the project without reconnecting the missing file.  Locate: Presents a dialog that lets you locate the missing file and reconnect it to the project. If you choose to open the project without reconnecting its files, you can reconnect individual audio files from the Timeline or the Bin tab and reconnect a video file in the video track in the Timeline. To reconnect an audio file: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the clip in the Timeline, then choose Clip > Reconnect [filename].  Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Reconnect [filename] from the shortcut menu.  Select the clip in the Bin tab, then choose Reconnect [filename] from the Media popup menu.  Control-click the audio file in the Bin tab, then choose Reconnect [filename] from the shortcut menu. 2 In the dialog that appears, locate the audio file you want to reconnect. 3 Click Open to reconnect the file. To reconnect a video file: 1 Control-click the video clip in the video track, then choose Reconnect Media Files from the shortcut menu. 2 In the dialog that appears, locate the video file. 3 Click Open to reconnect the file. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 97 Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences You set preferences for various aspects of both the appearance and operation of Soundtrack Pro in the Preferences window. Some preferences apply to the current project, and some apply to new projects you create. You may want to specify some preferences before you begin working in Soundtrack Pro. To open the Preferences window: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences. General Preferences The General preferences include program startup behavior, Timeline defaults, and options for alerts, saving, fades, and handles. Startup These preferences let you set the startup behavior when you open Soundtrack Pro.  Last Project: Reopens the last project on startup.  New Multitrack Project: Creates a new, blank multitrack project on startup. This is the default behavior.  New Audio File Project: Creates a new, blank audio file project on startup.  Meters Channel Display pop-up menu: Choose whether meters display labeled channels in surround order (Ls, L, C, R, Rs, LFE) or output order (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). 98 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Timeline  Move playhead by clicking pop-up menu: Choose whether you can move the playhead by clicking in both the Timeline and the Time ruler or only in the Time ruler.  Scrollwheel pop-up menu: Choose whether an attached mouse with a scrollwheel scrolls the Timeline or zooms in or out at the playhead position.  Use ellipses(...) in clip names checkbox: When selected, clips in the Timeline with long names are center-truncated with an ellipsis. “Use ellipses (...) in clip names” is deselected by default. Note: Selecting “Use ellipses (...) in clip names” can impact the speed at which the screen is redrawn during playback.  Automation Recording Sensitivity slider: Drag to set the level of sensitivity with which onscreen and control surface movements are recorded. Setting the slider to High results in all movements being recorded. Alerts and File Management  Show Alerts pop-up menu: Choose whether to show the alerts when various conditions occur (such as disk overload, unsupported sample rates, and so on).  Save Audio File Project pop-up menu: Choose whether saved audio file projects include the source audio file in the project or reference it. Note that if you move or delete the source audio file from a project that references source audio, the project cannot play.  Scratch Location button and display: Click this button, then browse to the location of the disk or folder you want to use as the location for storing temporary files. The current location is shown in the Scratch Location display.  Edited Media Location button and display: Click this button, then browse to the location of the disk or folder you want to use as the location for edited media such as audio file projects. The current location is shown in the Edited Media Location display.  New File Handle Length value slider: Enter a handle length (in seconds) for new files. For more information, see “Modifying a Clip Without Affecting Its Source Media” on page 197. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 99 Project Preferences These preferences let you set project properties and other default settings for new projects you create.  Tracks pop-up menu: Sets the default number of tracks for a new multitrack project.  Track Height pop-up menu: Sets the default track height for new multitrack projects. The choices are Mini, Small, Medium, and Large.  Snapping: Sets the default snapping mode for a new project.  Move Envelope Points with Clips checkbox: Sets the default envelope selection mode.  Overlap Mode pop-up menu: Sets whether overlapped clips are crossfaded or truncated for new multitrack projects.  Default Fade Type pop-up menu: Sets default fade type.  Audio Pulldown pop-up menu: Sets default audio playback compensation.  Video Pulldown pop-up menu: Sets default video playback compensation.  Sample Rate pop-up menu: Sets the default sample rate for new projects. The choices range from 32 kHz to 192 kHz.  Starting Timecode field: You can set the starting timecode for new projects to a value other than 00:00:00;00 by entering a timecode value in the Starting Timecode field. You can only enter positive values in the field. When you open the project, the Time ruler and time display start from the starting timecode value.  Timescale pop-up menu: Choose whether the overall project uses Time-based or Beats-based time format.  Export Bit Depth pop-up menu: Sets the export bit depth for the current project and new projects. The choices are 16-bit (CD-quality audio) and 24-bit.  Video Frames per Second pop-up menu: Choose which video frame rate to use for new projects. 100 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro  Tempo value slider: Sets the default tempo for new projects in beats per minute (bpm). The range is 60 to 200 bpm.  Key pop-up menu: Sets the default key for new projects. The range is any key in the chromatic scale from A to G#, or None.  Time Signature pop-up menu: Sets the default time signature for new projects. The choices are 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, 6/8, and 7/8. Recording Preferences These preferences let you specify settings for recording audio.  Input pop-up menu: Displays the available devices for audio input. Choose an input device from the pop-up menu. Note: For more information about setting inputs and outputs, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22.  Channels: Use these buttons to confirm or change default input signal routing settings.  Monitor pop-up menu: Displays the available devices for monitoring audio output. Choose an output device from the pop-up menu.  Latency Compensation slider: Sets the amount of latency compensation in milliseconds. If recorded audio is late, drag the slider right. If the recorded audio is early, drag the slider left. For information on eliminating latency, see “Eliminating Recording Latency” on page 516.  Recordings Location display: Displays the default location to which recording sessions are saved. You can set the save location by clicking the Choose button and navigating to a new location. To select an audio interface as the output device: m Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Sound, then click the Output button. Select the audio interface in the list that appears. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 101 Synchronization Preferences These preferences let you specify synchronization settings. Input  Sync To MIDI Clock checkbox: Sets Soundtrack Pro to receive MIDI Clock signals from a MIDI application or external device.  Sync To MIDI Time Code checkbox: Sets Soundtrack Pro to receive MIDI Time Code (MTC) signals from a MIDI application or external device. Output  MIDI Clock pop-up menu: Choose the device to send MIDI Clock to, or choose None.  MIDI Clock Virtual MIDI Device checkbox: Sets Soundtrack Pro to send MIDI Clock signals to MIDI applications as “Soundtrack Sync Source.”  MIDI Time Code pop-up menu: Choose a device to send MTC signals to, or choose None.  MIDI Time Code Virtual MIDI Device checkbox: Sets Soundtrack Pro to send MTC signals to MIDI applications as “Soundtrack Sync Source.”  Frame Rate pop-up menu: Sets the frame rate for outgoing MTC signals. (Note that Soundtrack Pro automatically detects the frame rate for incoming MTC signals.) Time Code Offset  Bar 1 At field: Sets the offset of Measure 1 of your Soundtrack Pro project in SMPTE format. The offset affects both incoming and outgoing MTC signals. This should be set to the same value in all applications and devices. 102 Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro Control Surfaces Preferences These preferences let you specify settings for communicating with attached control surfaces.  Control Surfaces field: Shows the control surfaces connected to your computer. Channels and banks are assigned to control surfaces in the order they appear in the field, starting from the left.  Add and Delete buttons: Add or delete the selected control surface so that Soundtrack Pro no longer connects to it.  Previous and Next buttons: Change the order of the selected control surface in the Control Surfaces field.  Summary information: Displays information about the selected control surface including type, input port, and output port.  Control Surface Buttons button: Click to show the Control Surface Mapping window, where you can assign control surface buttons and other controls to specific commands and operations. For information about connecting and using control surfaces, see Chapter 15, “Using Control Surfaces with Soundtrack Pro,” on page 391. Chapter 3 Setting Up Soundtrack Pro 103 Video Out Preferences These preferences let you specify settings for video output from Soundtrack Pro.  Video Output Device pop-up menu: Choose a video output device, or choose None.  Use Quarter-size Frames checkbox: Select to send video to the output device as quarter-size frames. Quarter-size frames require less data throughput and can be sent more efficiently than full-size frames. 4 105 4 Working with Multitrack Projects You can arrange and mix audio clips in a multitrack project. Multitrack projects include tracks, busses, and submixes you can use to create sophisticated signal routing and mixes. Creating and Opening Multitrack Projects When you open Soundtrack Pro, a new, blank project appears. You can change the default startup behavior in the Preferences window. For information about setting preferences, see “Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences” on page 97. To create a new multitrack project: m Choose File > New > Multitrack Project (or press Command-N). A new, untitled project appears. You can name the project when you save it. For information on saving projects, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111. To open an existing project: 1 Choose File > Open (or press Command-O). 2 Optionally, to view only multitrack projects in the dialog, choose Multitrack Document from the File Type pop-up menu. 3 Locate and select the project, then click Open. You can also open a recently open project by choosing it from the File > Open Recent menu, or open a project by dragging it onto the Soundtrack Pro icon in the Dock. You can have multiple projects open in Soundtrack Pro and cut and paste between them, but you can only play one project at a time. You can open projects created with earlier versions of Soundtrack and Soundtrack Pro, but you can only save them as multitrack projects (with the extension .stmp). 106 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Creating a Multitrack Project from Final Cut Pro Clips or Sequences A convenient and powerful audio post-production workflow for any film or video project is sending a Final Cut Pro sequence or clip to a Soundtrack Pro multitrack project. For example, when the picture edit in a Final Cut Pro sequence is near completion, you simply choose File > Send To > Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project. Soundtrack Pro opens a new multitrack project with the tracks, clips, and edits from the Final Cut Pro sequence, including the synchronized video. For information on sending Final Cut Pro sequences and clips to Soundtrack Pro, see “Using Soundtrack Pro with Final Cut Pro” on page 421. Closing Multitrack Projects At any time while you are working, you can close a multitrack project. To close a project: m Select the project’s tab in the project pane, then choose File > Close Project (or press Command-W). Setting Project Properties Each project has a set of project properties that include sample rate, overlap mode, selection mode, timecode, file management, and music-related properties. You can change the project properties for a particular project using the multitrack project controls at the top of the project pane or the Project tab. Each project property has a default setting. You can also change the default project properties for new projects in the Project pane of the Preferences window. For information on setting preferences, see “Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences” on page 97. Automation Mode You can automatically record movements you make to faders, sliders, and other onscreen controls using the pointer. You record automation in Soundtrack Pro by selecting either Touch or Latch automation mode in the project controls, then changing volume, pan, and effects settings as the project plays. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 107 To set the automation mode: m Choose Read, Latch, or Touch from the Automation Mode pop-up menu. For more information about the automation mode, see “Recording Automation Data” on page 365. Sample Rate The project sample rate determines the number of samples per second Soundtrack Pro uses for audio playback and export. When you add audio files to your project, their sample rate is matched (upsampled or downsampled) on the fly to the project sample rate with no change to their pitch or file duration. The available sample rates are 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4 kHz, and 192 kHz. The default is 48 kHz, which is the standard for digital video and DVD projects. Note: When creating a soundtrack for a video, be sure you save and export your project at the same sample rate the final video project will use. To set the sample rate: m Choose the sample rate from the Sample Rate pop-up menu. The choices are:  32.0  44.1  48.0  88.2  96.0  176.4  192.0 Note: If you open your project on a computer that cannot support the project sample rate, the project is resampled to the nearest rate the hardware supports for playback. When you export your project, it is exported at the project sample rate, regardless of hardware limitations. For more information on hardware sample rates, see Chapter 1, “Setting Up Your System,” on page 21. Automation Mode pop-up menu Sample Rate pop-up menu 108 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Overlap Mode The project overlap mode determines what happens when you move an audio clip so that it partially or completely overlaps another clip in the Timeline. There are two overlap modes: crossfade mode and truncate mode. In crossfade mode, when you drag an audio clip so that it partially overlaps another audio clip in a track in the Timeline, a crossfade is created for the overlapped part of the two audio files. You can adjust the boundaries of the crossfade in the Timeline. In truncate mode, when you drag an audio clip so that it partially overlaps another audio clip in a track in the Timeline, the overlapped part of the clip is truncated. To set the project overlap mode: m Click the Crossfade Mode button to set the project to crossfade mode, or click the Truncate Mode button to set the project to truncate mode. Envelope Selection Mode The project selection envelope mode determines whether, when you select or move a clip in the Timeline, the associated envelope points are also selected or moved with the clip. You can set Soundtrack Pro to either the Select Only Clips mode or the Select Envelope Points With Clips mode. To select and move clips and envelope points together: m Click the Select Envelope Points With Clips button at the top of the Timeline. To select and move clips and envelope points independently of each other: m Click the Select Only Clips button at the top of the Timeline. For more information about the envelope selection mode, see “Selecting and Moving Envelope Points with Clips” on page 359. Truncate Mode button Crossfade Mode button Select Only Clips button Select Envelope Points With Clips button Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 109 Project Time Format Each multitrack project has a project time format, which can be either Time (seconds)–based or Beats-based. Setting the time format controls the appearance of the Time display, Time ruler, Timeline gridlines, and available Snap To values. For projects set to Time-based format, time is displayed using the Time Ruler units chosen in the View menu. For projects set to Beats-based format, the time is displayed in measures, beats, and beat divisions. The default format is Time-based. Setting the format to Time-based lets you align clips and other items in the Timeline with specific points in time, for example, specific frames in a video file. Setting the format to Beats-based lets you align items in the Timeline with measures, beats, and other musical units of time, regardless of tempo. You can switch between Time-based and Beats-based formats while working on a project. You can also set individual tracks to use a different time format than the project’s time format. For information on setting a track’s time format, see “Changing Track Time Format” on page 146. Setting the Project Ruler Units You can switch the ruler units for a project in the Project tab and define the details for the ruler units in the View menu. To choose the ruler units for a project: m In the Project tab, use the Ruler Units pop-up menu to choose either Seconds or Beats. When you import a video file into a Soundtrack Pro project, the Time display and Time ruler adjust to show the timecode format of the video. The Time display and Time ruler can display time in seconds, frames, drop frames, or non-drop frames. You can choose the format for timecode display, and you can set the video frame rate for projects not containing a video file. You can also set the default frame rate for new projects in the Project Preferences pane. To specify the details of the units shown in the Time display and Time ruler: m Choose View > Time Ruler Units, then choose one of the following time formats from the submenu:  HH:MM:SS  Seconds  Samples (Audio file projects only)  Frames  Drop frame (timecode)  Non-drop frame (timecode) Additionally, you can specify the following settings for your project if it does not contain video:  Set Video Frame Rate: Choose from the following: 23.98, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 59.94, 60.  Set Starting Timecode: Enter the timecode for the first frame of your project. 110 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Time Ruler Units and Grid Lines The number of grid lines drawn will depend on the dominant ruler type and zoom level. For example, when the dominant ruler is Seconds and the Timeline is zoomed out, grid lines appear only on the hour marks. As you zoom in, grid lines are drawn on the minute mark. Zoom in more, and grid lines are drawn on the second marks, and so on. Setting the Project Length By default, the length of a project depends on the media in the project. The project length is set to the end of the last clip in the project. If the project uses a time-based effect, and the effect extends past the end of the last clip, the project length extends to include the effect’s “tail.” Adding a clip to the end of the project, or adding an effect that produces a “tail,” extends the project length to include the new clip or the effect’s tail. You can optionally set the project to a definite length. To set the project length: m In the Timeline, place the playhead at the point where you want the project to end, then choose Mark > Set End of Project. You can move the end-of-project marker to change the length of the project, or delete it if you decide you no longer want it in the project. To delete the end-of-project marker: m Select the marker in the Timeline, then choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key.) End-of-project marker Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 111 Saving Multitrack Projects To save your project: 1 Choose File > Save. 2 In the dialog that appears, enter a name for the project in the Save As field. 3 Navigate to the folder in which you want to save the project. 4 Select any of the following checkboxes:  Save Compacted: Saves the project without display data, which can save disk space, but the project may take longer to open.  Collect Audio Files: Saves a copy of every audio file the project uses to the selected location. This makes it easy to move projects between computers, and ensures that all needed audio files are available for playback. When you select this checkbox, the setting is retained for any subsequent saves. In other words, the File > Save menu option changes to File > Save (Collected), and any new media you add to the project is collected the next time you save the project. Note: To play a project on another computer, you must install the audio files the project uses on that computer, or on a disk it can access. If you remove the audio files used in a project so that your computer cannot access them, missing files will not play.  Collect Unused Audio Files: Includes media files you have deleted from the project but that remain in the Bin. If you do not want to include these media files, deselect this checkbox. Note: Optionally, you can open the Bin, select the audio files you want to remove, then choose Remove Unused from the Media pop-up menu.  Collect Video File: Saves the project’s video file in the same folder as the project.  Save Edited Media Locally: Saves the project’s edited audio files in the same folder as the project (in a subfolder named Media). If this checkbox is not selected, edited media is saved to the edited media location defined in Soundtrack Pro preferences. Note: Multitrack projects are saved as documents with the extension .stmp. 5 You can optionally click the New Folder button to create a new folder for the collected project. 6 Click Save to save the project. If the folder already contains any of the media files, an alert appears, asking if you want to replace the existing files. Note: Since video files can be very large, if you save a multitrack project collected (by selecting the Collect Audio Files or Collect Video File checkbox in the Save As dialog), it may take several minutes and may require a large amount of disk space to save the project. 112 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Setting Default Locations for Saving Media Files During the course of a large sound editing project, you may generate numerous project files, clips, render files, and audio recordings. Soundtrack Pro helps you manage all this media by saving the files to default scratch locations. You can change the scratch locations using Soundtrack Pro preferences. Edited Media Location When Soundtrack Pro creates and saves audio file projects, the default location for those files is: /Users/username/Documents/Soundtrack Pro Documents/Edited Media/ Project Name/. To change the edited media location, do one of the following: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General, then click Choose to enter a new location. m In the Project tab, choose one of the following in the Create Media section:  In Edited Media (from Preferences)  In Media folder with project Scratch Location When Soundtrack Pro creates temporary render files, the default location for those files is: /Users/username/Documents/Soundtrack Pro Documents/Temporary Files/. To change the scratch location: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General, then click Choose to enter a new location. Recordings Location When you record audio with Soundtrack Pro, the default location for those audio recordings is: /Users/username/Documents/Soundtrack Pro Documents/Recordings/. To change the recordings location: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > Recording, then click Choose to enter a new location. Collecting Media for a Project When you save a Soundtrack Pro multitrack project, you have the option to collect the associated audio and video files in one folder, alongside the multitrack project. You can make these choices at the time you save a project, or in the Project tab in the Project File Management section. For more information on these options, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 113 Adding Files to a Multitrack Project Once you’ve located and previewed an audio file you want to add, you drag the file to the Timeline to add it to the project. When you drag an audio file to the Timeline, Soundtrack Pro creates an audio clip from the audio file and adds the clip to the project. An audio clip does not contain the actual audio data; instead, it contains a reference to the file stored on disk. Editing an audio clip in the Timeline does not change the source audio file. To add an audio file from the media tabs, do one of the following: m Drag the file from one of the media tabs to a track in the Timeline. m Drag the file from the File list to the strip between two existing tracks. A new track is created and the clip is added to the track. m Drag the file from the File list to the empty part of the Timeline below the Master bus. A new track is created and the clip is added to the track. m Drag a file from the File list to a track or to the part of the Timeline below the existing tracks. To spot the clip to the playhead, do one of the following: m Select the clip and choose Clip > Spot to Playhead (or press Command-\). m Control-click the clip, then choose Spot to Playhead from the shortcut menu. To spot the clip to the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip and choose Clip > Spot to Timeline (or press Command-Shift-\). m Control-click the clip, then choose Spot to Timeline from the shortcut menu. For more information, see “Spotting Clips to the Timeline” on page 153. Drag the file from a media tab to the Timeline. 114 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects To add an audio file from the Finder: m Drag the file from the Finder to the Timeline (to a track, between two existing tracks, or to the area below all existing tracks). When the Bin tab is active, the Bin shows all of the audio clips in the project. You can drag a clip from the list to the Timeline to add a new clip from the same audio file at a different point in time, or to a different track. To add an audio file from the Bin tab: m Drag the file from the Bin tab to the Timeline, either to a track or to the area below the existing tracks. Note: When you drag an audio file to the Timeline, the file snaps to the nearest Snap To position if snapping is turned on. For information on setting the Snap To value, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. Viewing and Editing Clip and Track Properties In Soundtrack Pro, you can easily view and adjust the specific details about individual clips and tracks. Clip Properties When you create an audio clip by dragging an audio file to the Timeline, the audio clip has a set of properties. These properties are specific to the clip and can be different for two clips created from the same source audio file. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 115 The following properties for the selected clip are displayed and can be edited in the Details tab: File and Clip Details  Name: Name of the selected clip.  Position value slider: Sets the position (start point) of the selected clip.  Duration value slider: Sets the duration (length) of the selected clip.  Offset value slider: Sets the offset of the selected clip.  Measure in pop-up menu: Sets the units shown in the Position, Duration, and Offset value sliders.  Color pop-up menu: Sets the color of the selected clip.  Enabled checkbox: Enables or disables the selected clip.  Locked checkbox: Locks or unlocks the selected clip.  Transpose pop-up menu: Sets the number of semitones to transpose a looping clip.  Clip Speed pop-up menu: Sets the playback speed for a looping clip.  Created: Displays the creation date.  Modified: Displays the modification date.  Size: Displays the file size.  Properties: Displays the following information for the clip or file: duration, sample rate, the timecode for the first frame of the clip or file, bit depth, and channel valence.  Metadata: Use this section to view the metadata for a file or a clip. Metadata categories include Name, Copyright, Origination Date, Keywords, and so on.  Music: Use to view music information for a clip or file, primarily music loops in the Search tab. The music information includes tempo, time signature, key, scale type, looping (yes or no), beats, instrument, and loop genre. 116 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Some properties can be changed by editing the clip in the Timeline. For detailed information on editing audio clips, see “Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline” on page 147. The name of an audio clip appears on the clip in the Timeline. By default, the entire name appears on the clip if the clip is long enough to display it. You can change the default behavior in the General pane of the Preferences window, so that long clip names are truncated from the center. For information on setting preferences, see “Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences” on page 97. Setting Clip and Track Colors Soundtrack Pro allows you to set colors for clips and tracks. Setting a clip or track color is a useful way to differentiate a set of clips from the rest of the clips or tracks in the Timeline. For example, you could color-code your clips by category: dialogue, music, and effects. This helps you organize your project visually. By default, video clips are set to blue and audio clips are set to green, but you can change the color of audio clips and tracks at any time. There are four ways to set the color of a clip or a selection of clips. You can change the colors of audio clips and tracks. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 117 To set the color of a clip, do one of the following: m Select the clip in the Timeline or the Bin, choose Clip > Color, then choose a color from the submenu. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline or the Bin, then choose Color from the shortcut menu and choose a color from the submenu. m Select the clip. In the Details tab, choose a color from the Color pop-up menu. m Drag the clip to a track that already has a color. The clip takes on the track color. Note: If you have already applied a color to a clip, the clip does not take on the track color. You can set the color for a track, so that any clip you add to the track takes on the track color. To set a track color, do one of the following: m Select the track, then choose Multitrack > Track Color, and choose a color from the submenu. m Control-click the track, then choose Color from the shortcut menu and choose a color from the submenu. Choose a clip color from the shortcut menu. 118 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Enabling and Disabling Clips In addition to muting entire tracks, you can disable (mute) individual clips in the Timeline in Soundtrack Pro. To disable a clip in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Disable Clip. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Disable Clip from the shortcut menu. m Select the clip. In the Details tab, deselect the Enable checkbox. To enable a clip in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Enable Clip. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Enable Clip from the shortcut menu. m Select the clip. In the Details tab, select the Enable checkbox. Locking and Unlocking Clips and Tracks You can prevent any changes to a clip or a track by locking it. Locking Clips A locked clip cannot be moved, resized, or otherwise modified in the Timeline. A locked clip can be enabled or disabled. A clip can overlap a locked clip. The envelope points under a locked clip are locked based on the envelope mode: if attached to a clip, envelope points are locked; if not attached to a clip, envelope points are unlocked. For more information about attaching envelope points, see “Adding Envelope Points” on page 357. Choose Disable Clip from the shortcut menu. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 119 To lock a clip in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Lock Clip. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Lock Clip from the shortcut menu. m Select the clip. In the Details tab, select the Locked checkbox. To unlock a clip in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Unlock Clip. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Unlock Clip from the shortcut menu. m Select the clip. In the Details tab, select the Locked checkbox. Locking Tracks When an audio track is locked, the clips on the track cannot be moved, resized, or otherwise modified in the Timeline. Clips and effects cannot be added to or removed from a locked track. Effects and other parameters (such as pan, gain, and output) are not editable on a locked track. Choose Lock Clip from the shortcut menu. 120 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects To lock a track, do one of the following: m Select the track, then choose Multitrack > Lock Selected Track. m Control-click the track, then choose Lock Selected Track from the shortcut menu. To unlock a track, do one of the following: m Select the track, then choose Multitrack > Unlock Selected Track. m Control-click the track, then choose Unlock Clip from the shortcut menu. Making Clip Channel Selections A production sound recording often results in a stereo file or a multichannel file that contains distinct data on different channels (for example, a lapel microphone on one channel and a boom microphone on another channel). In such cases, you may want to adjust a stereo clip so that it represents just one of its two channels in the Timeline. You can also adjust a multichannel clip to represent just one of its channels, an adjacent pair of its channels, or six channels. Soundtrack Pro provides two different ways to make these channel selections in a clip. Using the Shortcut Menu to Make a Channel Selection Once a clip is in the Timeline, you can select (solo) an individual channel of a stereo file. Or you can select an individual channel or various pairs of channels of a multichannel file. The clip retains this channel selection throughout the life of the multitrack project. If you duplicate the clip, the copy also inherits the same channel selection. Changing any one instance of a clip does not affect any other instance. For stereo files, there are two options: channel 1 and channel 2. For six-channel files, there are nine different options. Note: You can change the channel selection at any time by repeating the following steps. Choose Lock Selected Track from the shortcut menu. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 121 To use the shortcut menu to make a mono channel selection from a stereo clip: m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose one of the following options from the shortcut menu:  Channel Select > Mono > 1  Channel Select > Mono > 2 The clip waveform display changes to a single (mono) waveform, and the clip functions in the project as a mono file. To use the shortcut menu to make a channel selection from a multichannel clip: m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose one of the options from the shortcut menu. If you choose a mono option, the clip waveform display changes to a single (mono) waveform, and the clip functions in the project as a mono file. If you pick a stereo option, the clip waveform display changes to a stereo waveform, and the clip functions in the project as a stereo file. Choose a channel from the shortcut menu. The clip’s waveform display updates to a single (mono) waveform. 122 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Separating Channels by Option-Dragging You can separate the channels of stereo and multichannel clips into individual clips as you drag them to the Timeline. When adding a clip to the Timeline from either the Browser, Bin, or Finder, holding down the Option key while dragging will automatically generate mono clips from a stereo or multichannel file. The dragged clip becomes a vertical stack of clips, with the first under the pointer and the rest on subsequent tracks. To convert the channels of a stereo or multichannel clip into individual clips as you add it to the Timeline: 1 Option-click the clip in any of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs. 2 Continue to press the Option key as you drag the clip to the Timeline. The dragged clip becomes a vertical stack of clips, with the top clip under the pointer and the rest on subsequent tracks. If you dragged a stereo clip, the stack consists of two clips, one for each channel. If you dragged a six-channel clip, the stack consists of six clips, one for each channel. Option-drag a stereo file from the Browser to the Timeline. The stereo file is split into two mono files–each in its own track. Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 123 Combining Separate Clips to Create Multichannel Clips In Soundtrack Pro, you can create a single multichannel clip by combining separate clips. To create a single multichannel clip from separate clips: 1 Select up to 24 separate source clips in any one of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs (Bin, Browser, Search, or Favorites). 2 Drag the clips to a track in the Timeline. The clips are combined into a single multichannel clip. Note: This feature is available for mono source files only. Drag multiple mono source files into the Timeline to create a multichannel clip. 124 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects Tracks, Busses, Submixes, and the Master Bus Multitrack projects contain tracks, busses, and submixes. Tracks, busses, and submixes appear as horizontal rows in the Timeline and as vertical channel strips in the Mixer. In both the Timeline and Mixer, tracks, busses, and submixes are grouped together, with a separator between each category. You can move each type within its own category but cannot move it to either of the other categories. Each track, bus, and submix has a header with its icon, name, and a set of controls. The Master bus represents the final mix that goes to physical outputs. The Master bus has no icon or editable name. Tracks Tracks contain the audio you add to your project in the Timeline. Each track has a color label, a name, an icon, and a set of controls that appear in the track’s header in the Timeline and in its channel strip in the Mixer. Track controls include a volume slider, a pan control, a submix pop-up menu, and buttons to mute or solo the track, bypass effects, and enable the track for recording. In addition, each channel strip includes level meters you can use to watch the track’s levels and a set of effects slots where you can add and order track effects and sends. Busses In Soundtrack Pro, a bus is a separate but parallel audio signal created with a send. A send can tap an audio signal and create a separate signal known as a bus. (Some might call this an auxiliary bus.) Busses can be processed or combined independently of the main signal. They can be combined with other signals in a submix or at the final mix, or they can be routed to altogether separate outputs. Each bus has a color label, a name, an icon, and a set of controls that appear in the bus’s header in the Timeline and in its channel strip in the Mixer. Bus controls are the same as track controls, except that a bus does not have an Arm for Recording button (because you can’t record audio to a bus). The bus controls affect the audio of every track sent (routed) to that bus. Send Track Submix bus Bus 1 Audio clip Effects Volume fader Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects 125 For example, you could route every dialogue track for a particular actor to a bus with the actor’s name. You could adjust the volume of all the actor’s dialogue using the bus volume fader and add an EQ effect that brings out the actor’s voice in the mix. You could then route that audio bus to a particular submix. The main reason to apply effects this way (rather than directly on the track) is so you can control the amount and characteristics of the effect on multiple tracks using one set of controls. For more information about using busses and sends, see “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270. Submixes Submixes let you combine the audio from different tracks and busses and route the audio to physical outputs. If you are using external audio hardware that supports multiple physical outputs, you can add submixes to a project and choose the physical output to which each submix routes its audio. For more information about signal routing in Soundtrack Pro, see “Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro” on page 263. For example, you could route the audio from the dialogue tracks for each actor to a submix called “Dialogue” and then route all of the dialogue from that submix to a single output jack. You could route all music tracks to another submix and all effects tracks to a third submix. Then you could adjust the volume or add effects separately to each submix. For a final stereo mix, you could route all submixes to the same pair of physical output channels (channels 1 and 2, for example), or to separate outputs. In the case of a surround mix, you could route all submixes to channels 1–6. For a detailed explanation of this example, see “Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes” on page 266. Each submix has a color label, a name, an icon, and a set of controls that appear in the submix’s header in the Timeline and in its channel strip in the Mixer. Submix controls include a volume slider, a pop-up menu where you can choose the physical output channels for the submix, and buttons to mute or solo the submix and add effects. Each submix channel strip includes level meters you can use to watch the submix’s levels and a set of effects slots where you can add and order effects and sends. Submixes do not have pan controls or Arm for Recording buttons. 126 Chapter 4 Working with Multitrack Projects For information about working with tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline, see “Working with Tracks, Busses, and Submixes in the Timeline” on page 135. For information about working with tracks, busses, and submixes in the Mixer, see “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270. The Master Bus The Master bus represents the final mix from Soundtrack Pro: what will be heard from physical output jacks. On a signal routing basis, the Master bus is practically a mirror image of the connected hardware output device. It has a single volume control but does not have panners. You can apply effects to the Master bus, but you cannot automate those effects. Effects applied to the Master bus are placed across all channels. For more information about the Master bus, see “Using the Master Bus” on page 290. Tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline Tracks, busses, and submixes in the Mixer 5 127 5 Working in the Timeline The Timeline is where you arrange audio clips to build your soundtrack. You can also adjust volume and panning, add effects, and edit envelopes to control automation. Note: This chapter covers the mechanics of working with clips, tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline. For strategies on setting up a sound-for-picture post-production project, see “Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes” on page 266. For information on signal routing in Soundtrack Pro, see “Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro” on page 263. Working in the Timeline The Timeline displays a visual representation of a project, showing the point in time when audio clips start playing and their duration. You control when and how long clips play by moving and resizing them in the Timeline. The Timeline is arranged in three sets of horizontal rows: tracks, busses, and submixes. You add audio clips to tracks, create submixes using busses, and send audio to physical output devices using submixes. For information about working with tracks, busses, and submixes, see “Tracks, Busses, Submixes, and the Master Bus” on page 124. The Timeline also displays vertical gridlines that make it easy to position clips precisely in time. The gridlines correspond to the divisions of time in the Time ruler. The units of time the gridlines display change depending on the Ruler Units setting in the Project tab and the current zoom level. 128 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Moving Around in the Timeline Soundtrack Pro provides several controls that let you change the view of the Timeline and move to different parts of your project. You can zoom in or out for a closer or wider view of the Timeline, control how many tracks are displayed in the Timeline, and change which part of the project is currently visible using the scroll bars and project controls. You can split the Timeline view and use the Global Timeline view to quickly move to different parts of your project. Using the Scroll Bars If the entire project cannot be displayed in the Timeline, you can scroll through the project using the horizontal scroll bar located at the bottom of the Timeline. Drag the horizontal scroll bar left or right to move the visible part of the Timeline. If your project contains more tracks than can be displayed in the Timeline, a vertical scroll bar appears along the right edge of the Timeline. Drag the vertical scroll bar up or down to change which tracks are visible. In the lower left of the project pane are the Timeline controls, including the Track Height control and Zoom control. Vertical scroll bar Horizontal scroll bar Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 129 Using the Zoom Control You can zoom in to make precise edits in the Timeline, or zoom out for a wider view of your project using the Zoom control. The Zoom control features a slider on a graduated scale. Moving the slider to the left or clicking the left side of the control zooms in for a closer view, displaying a smaller area of the Timeline close up. Moving the slider to the right or clicking the right side of the control zooms out for a wider view, displaying a wider area of the Timeline. You can also zoom in and out using menu commands or keyboard shortcuts. If your mouse has a scrollwheel, you can use it to zoom in and out. You can also fit the entire project in the visible area of the Timeline. Timeline zoomed out Timeline zoomed in 130 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To zoom in, do one of the following: m Move the Zoom slider to the left. m Click the left side of the Zoom control. m Choose View > Zoom In. m Press Command-plus (+). m If the mouse connected to your computer has a scrollwheel, position the pointer over the Zoom control and move the scrollwheel. To zoom out, do one of the following: m Move the Zoom slider to the right. m Click the right side of the Zoom control. m Choose View > Zoom Out. m Press the Down Arrow key. m Press Command-minus (–). m If your mouse has a scrollwheel, position the pointer over the Zoom control and move the scrollwheel. Note: Optionally, you can change the default scrollwheel behavior in the General pane in Soundtrack Pro preferences to zoom in to the playhead in the Timeline or the File Editor using the scrollwheel. To fit the project in the visible area of the Timeline: m Choose View > Fit in Window (or press Shift-Z). Using the J, K, and L Keys for Shuttling You can use the keyboard commands (the J, K, and L keys) to speed playback up to eight times normal speed. When you use the keyboard shortcuts, the only speed available under 1x is 1/2x. { Moves through reverse speeds Pause “ Moves through forward speeds Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 131 To begin forward playback at normal (1x) speed: m Press L. To begin reverse playback at normal (1x) speed: m Press J. To pause playback: m Press K. To double the current playback speed: m Press L or J again. You can play back up to eight times normal speed, switching from 1x to 2x to 4x to 8x normal speed (pressing either key a total of four times). Pressing the key for playback in the opposite direction halves the playback speed, slowing down playback in that direction until it reaches 1x playback. Playback then begins doubling in reverse, starting from 1x. To immediately reverse the playback direction: m Press K to pause, then press the key for the direction you want. To move the playhead one frame at a time: m Hold down the K key, then press J or L. To move the playhead at below 1/2x speed: Hold down the K key, then press and hold down J or L. Moving the Playhead with Keyboard Shortcuts Soundtrack Pro provides a variety of keyboard shortcuts to move the playhead. To move the playhead to the previous edit: m Press the Up Arrow key. To move the playhead to the next edit: m Press the Down Arrow key. To move the playhead to the previous edit and toggle the clip selection: m Press Shift–Up Arrow. To move the playhead to the next edit and toggle the clip selection: m Press Shift–Down Arrow. To move the playhead one gridline to the left: m Press the Left Arrow key. To move the playhead one gridline to the right: m Press the Right Arrow key. 132 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. Note: The gridlines correspond to the divisions of time in the Time ruler. The units of time the gridlines display change depending on the Ruler Units setting in the Project tab and the current zoom level. Setting Track Height You set the height of tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline using the Track Height control. The Track Height control has four settings. The smallest rectangle sets the track height to a minimized setting, with each track (and track header) reduced to half-height, allowing more tracks to be displayed in the Timeline. To set the height of tracks, busses, and submixes, do one of the following: m Click one of the four rectangles on the Track Height control. m Press Command-6, Command-7, Command-8, or Command-9. Note: Track header controls for setting up recording appear in the two tallest track heights only. Reduced track height Large track height Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 133 Using the Global Timeline View The Global Timeline view, located above the Time display and Time ruler, shows a miniature view of the entire project. The playhead appears as a black vertical line with a triangular handle. The part of the project currently visible in the Timeline is indicated by a blue rectangle in the Global Timeline view. To move to a new area of the Timeline using the Global Timeline view: m Drag the visible area rectangle to a new position. You can quickly move to different parts of the Timeline by dragging the blue rectangle. This is especially useful when working on longer projects. You can also drag the rectangle up or down to move vertically in the Global Timeline view. This is useful if your project contains more tracks, busses, and submixes than can be displayed in the project pane. Using the Time Ruler The Timeline has a Time ruler that shows the divisions of time in a project. You can set the playhead to a precise frame, point in time, or sample number using the Time-based units on the Time ruler, or to a specific musical measure or beat using the Beats-based units, to synchronize playback of audio clips in the Timeline. The Time ruler changes depending on the time format of the project and the Time ruler units. If the project is currently set to Time-based format, Time-based units appear in the upper part of the ruler. If the project is set to Beats-based format, Beats-based units appear in the upper half of the ruler. You can use the Time ruler to position clips or the playhead at a precise point in time, including synchronizing them to a specific timecode reference in a video file. To set the playhead to a specific point in the Time ruler: m Click the Time ruler at the point where you want to set the playhead. Drag this rectangle to a new position. 134 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Working with the Cycle Region You can create a cycle region in a project, an area that plays back repeatedly. This is sometimes called cycling or looping playback. A project has only one cycle region, but you can move and resize it as often as you want. Additionally, for selecting, marking, and exporting purposes, the cycle region functions much like In and Out points in Final Cut Pro. You also use the cycle region when recording multiple takes. For information on recording, see Chapter 13, “Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro,” on page 367. To set the cycle region, do one of the following: m Drag in the Time ruler from the beginning of where you want the cycle region to the end. m Position the playhead and press I to set the cycle region In point. Position the playhead and press O to set the cycle region Out point. m Press X to set the cycle region In and Out points at the boundaries of the clip that currently intersects the playhead. The clip on the uppermost track is used. Note: For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. The cycle region is lighter in color than the rest of the Time ruler, with triangular markers indicating its start and end points. If a cycle region already exists, you can drag anywhere in the Time ruler outside of the current cycle region to set the cycle region to a new position. If cycling is turned off, you must turn it on for the cycle region to be active. The Cycle button darkens to indicate that the cycle region is activated. To activate or deactivate the cycle region, do one of the following: m Click the Cycle button in the transport controls. m Press C. To move the cycle region: m Click in the bottom half of the cycle region and drag it to a new position in the Timeline. Drag in the Time ruler to set the cycle region. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 135 To resize the cycle region: m Drag either the In point or Out point handle in the Time ruler to resize the cycle region. To remove the cycle region, do one of the following: m Choose Edit > Cycle Region > Remove Cycle Region (or press Option-X). m Control-click the cycle region, then choose Cycle Region from the shortcut menu and Remove Cycle Region from the submenu. Working with Tracks, Busses, and Submixes in the Timeline The Timeline is arranged sets of horizontal rows: tracks, busses, and submixes. You add audio to tracks in your project, use busses to create effect sends, and route audio to physical output channels using submixes. The tracks in a project appear in the upper part of the Timeline. Busses appear below tracks, and submixes appear below busses. The Master bus appears below submixes. The Master bus represents the final mix that will be heard from physical output jacks. It has a single volume control and no panners or meters. You can apply effects to the Master bus. A separator between each set of Timeline rows helps visually distinguish them, and disclosure triangles on each separator let you show or hide the different sets. Tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline correspond to channel strips in the Mixer. When you add a track, bus, or submix, adjust its controls, or add effects, the same changes appear in the corresponding channel strip when you open the Mixer. Tracks, busses, and submixes are described in greater detail in “Tracks, Busses, Submixes, and the Master Bus” on page 124. Adding Tracks, Busses, and Submixes There are several ways to add tracks, busses, and submixes. To add a track, do one of the following: m Choose Multitrack > Add Track (or press Command-T). m Control-click an open area of the Timeline, then choose Add Track from the shortcut menu. m Control-click a track, then choose either Add Track Above or Add Track Below from the shortcut menu. To add a bus, do one of the following: m Choose Multitrack > Add Bus. m Control-click a bus, then choose either Insert Bus Before or Insert Bus After from the shortcut menu. 136 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To add a submix, do one of the following: m Choose Multitrack > Add Submix. m Control-click a submix, then choose either Insert Submix Before or Insert Submix After from the shortcut menu. Selecting Tracks, Busses, and Submixes You can select a track, bus, or submix in order to move, copy, or remove it, and you can also select tracks, busses, and submixes to export. The headers of selected tracks, busses, and submixes appear darker in the Timeline. To select a track, bus, or submix, do one of the following: m Click in the header for the track, bus, or submix. m Click anywhere in the row for the track, bus, or submix in the Timeline. m Press Control-Up Arrow or Control-Down Arrow. You can select multiple tracks, busses, or submixes in the Timeline. To select adjacent tracks, busses, or submixes, do one of the following: m Shift-click in the header of each track, bus, or submix. m Press Shift-Control-Up Arrow or Shift-Control-Down Arrow. To select nonadjacent tracks, busses, or submixes: m Command-click in the header of each track, bus, or submix. Grouping Tracks, Busses, and Submixes You can create groups of tracks, groups of busses, and groups of submixes. Groups provide a way to easily select and make changes (such as volume, mute, solo, and lock adjustments) to many tracks, busses, or submixes at once. When Mixer objects are grouped, selecting one item in the group selects all items in that group. Note: It is not possible to group Mixer objects from different categories. For example, you cannot group tracks with busses or tracks with submixes. The selected track is highlighted. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 137 To group tracks, busses, or submixes: 1 Confirm that grouping is enabled by choosing Multitrack > Groups Enabled. 2 Do one of the following:  Select any combination of tracks.  Select any combination of busses.  Select any combination of submixes. 3 Choose Multitrack > Group Tracks (or press Command-G). The selected items are grouped. Applying Changes to Groups of Selected Tracks, Busses, and Submixes When multiple tracks, busses, or submixes are selected (whether they are officially grouped or not) you can apply the following changes to all the selected items at once: Changes in the track header or the shortcut menu:  Toggling the envelopes  Volume  Effect bypass  Mute  Solo  Setting track color  Track locking  Remove track  Switching between stereo/surround panner Changes in the Timeline:  Blade tool  Creating a Timeslice selection  Marquee-selecting multiple clips with the Selection tool 138 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Managing Track Selections with the Tracks Tab The Soundtrack Pro Tracks tab is a convenient tool for selecting and grouping tracks, busses, and submixes. The Tracks tab consists of three sections: the Mixer Objects outline, the Groups outline, and a channel strip for the currently selected item. Mixer Objects Outline The upper left of the Tracks tab displays an outline view of the Timeline, including all tracks, busses, and submixes. Use this outline to quickly manage, select, and group Mixer objects (track, bus, or submix) without having to view the entire Timeline. To select an individual Mixer object (track, bus, or submix) in the Tracks tab: m Click the track, bus, or submix in the Mixer Objects outline. You can also use the Up and Down Arrow keys to navigate through individual Mixer objects. To select adjacent Mixer objects in the Tracks tab: m Shift-click the adjacent tracks, busses, or submixes in the Mixer Objects outline. To select nonadjacent tracks, busses, or submixes: m Command-click the nonadjacent tracks, busses, or submixes in the Mixer Objects outline. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 139 Groups Outline The Groups outline displays an outline view of any grouped tracks, busses, or submixes in the project. You can use the Groups outline to group Mixer objects, disable or enable groups, rename groups, delete groups, and delete items from groups. To group tracks, busses, or submixes in the Groups outline: 1 Confirm that grouping is enabled by choosing Multitrack > Groups Enabled. 2 In the Mixer Objects outline, do one of the following:  Select any combination of tracks.  Select any combination of busses.  Select any combination of submixes. For more information on selecting, see “Selecting Tracks, Busses, and Submixes” on page 136. 3 Choose Multitrack > Group Tracks (or press Command-G). The selected items are grouped and the new group appears in the Groups outline. To enable or disable groups in the Groups outline: m Click the checkbox next to the group in the Groups outline to enable or disable it. Note: Three standard groups (All Tracks, All Busses, and All Submixes) are disabled by default. 140 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To rename a group in the Groups outline: 1 Double-click the name. 2 Enter the new name. To delete a group or remove an item from a group: 1 Select the group or item in the Groups outline. 2 Press Delete. Channel Strip The right side of the Tracks tab displays a single channel strip for the currently selected track, bus, or submix. (This channel strip is identical to the corresponding channel strip in the Mixer in every way, including all controls and current settings.) It is a quick way to access the mixing controls for a particular Mixer object. Note: The channel strip is displayed only if a single track, bus, or submix is selected. For more information about channel strips, see “Working with Channel Strips in the Mixer” on page 273. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 141 Moving and Copying Tracks, Busses, and Submixes As you work on your project, you may want to rearrange tracks, busses, and submixes. You can move and copy them to change their vertical arrangement in the track, bus, or submix section of the Timeline. You cannot move one to the area for another (as indicated by the rows labeled “Tracks,” “Busses,” “Submixes,” and “Master” in the Timeline). You can only move or copy one track, bus, or submix at a time. To move a track, bus, or submix: m Drag the track, bus, or submix header up or down to a new vertical position. A light blue horizontal line in the header area indicates the place the track, bus, or submix is moved to when you release the mouse button. To copy a track, bus, or submix: m Option-click in the header for the track, bus, or submix, then drag it up or down. A copy of the track, bus, or submix appears when you release the mouse button. Renaming Tracks, Busses, and Submixes By default, tracks are numbered when created and take the name of the first audio clip you add to them. Busses and submixes are numbered starting from 1 (Bus 1, Submix 1, and so on). You can rename a track, bus, or submix and use the names to distinguish the type of audio it contains (for example, dialogue, voiceovers, music, or sound effects), its part in the overall project, or to identify it in some other way. To rename a track, bus, or submix: m Click the name field in the header for the track, bus, or submix and type a new name. Note: You cannot rename the Master bus. Changing a Track, Bus, or Submix Icon You can choose a new icon from the icon grid or add your own image to the grid. To change the icon for a track, bus, or submix, do one of the following: m Double-click the icon, then select a new icon from the icon grid that appears. m Drag a graphics file from the Finder to the icon. 142 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Using the Track Controls Tracks, busses, and submixes have headers, located along the left side of the Timeline. Each header contains track controls that you can use to mute or solo the track, bus, or submix, adjust its volume level and pan position, add effects, and show or hide its envelopes. Adjusting Volume The volume slider controls the volume (the loudness relative to other tracks) of the track, bus, or submix. To adjust the volume level of a track, bus, or submix: m Drag the volume slider left or right. The range is –96 dB to +6 dB, with the default at 0 dB. Double-clicking the slider resets it to the 0 dB position. Adjusting Pan Position Tracks and busses also include panning controls. The stereo pan slider controls the stereo pan position (the left-to-right placement in the stereo field) of the track. The surround panner controls the surround pan position, placing sounds in a multidimensional space defined by 5.1-surround speaker systems. To adjust the pan position of a track or bus, do one of the following: m In stereo mode, drag the pan slider left or right. The range is –100 (full left) to +100 (full right), with the default at 0 (center position). Double-clicking the slider resets it to the center position. Drag the volume slider left or right. Drag the slider to pan the sound. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 143 m In surround mode, drag anywhere inside the black circle to position the puck. For finer panning adjustments and other surround controls, double-click the surround panner to open the Surround Panner HUD. For more information about using surround panners, see “Using Surround Panners to Create a Surround Mix” on page 299. For more information about the Surround Panner HUD, see “The Surround Panner HUD” on page 300. Muting and Soloing Tracks, Busses, and Submixes The Mute button mutes (silences) the track, bus, or submix. You can mute multiple tracks, busses, and submixes, which allows you to hear only the remaining, unmuted ones. Muting lets you compare the sound of the project using different combinations of tracks, busses, and submixes, and hear the result of changes you make to them. To mute a track, bus, or submix: m Click the Mute button. Click the Mute button again to unmute the track, bus, or submix. Muted tracks, busses, and submixes appear darker in the Timeline and their clips appear translucent, making it easy to identify which tracks are currently audible. The Solo button solos the track, bus, or submix, muting all others. Soloing a track, bus, or submix lets you quickly isolate it from the rest of the project, so you can adjust the sound of the soloed track, bus, or submix and make changes. Drag the puck to pan the sound. Click the Mute button to mute the track, bus, or submix. muted track 144 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Soundtrack Pro supports multiple solo and exclusive solo. Clicking the Solo button for multiple tracks, busses, or submixes solos them and mutes all others. When you exclusively solo a track, bus, or submix, all others are muted, regardless of whether they are soloed. To solo a track, bus, or submix (multiple solo): m Click the Solo button. Click the Solo button again to unsolo the track, bus, or submix. To exclusively solo a track, bus, or submix: m Option-click the Solo button. Click the Solo button again to unsolo the track, bus, or submix. When you solo tracks, busses, or submixes, the ones not soloed appear darker in the Timeline, and their clips appear translucent. Adding Effects to a Track, Bus, or Submix You can use the Effects tab, which you use to add effects. The Effects tab also displays any effects currently assigned to the track, bus, or submix. To add effects to a track, bus, or submix: 1 Do one of the following:  Control-click the header for the track, bus, or submix, then choose Show (Track, Bus, or Submix) Effects from the shortcut menu. This activates the Effects tab.  Click the header for the track, bus, or submix to select it. If it is not already active, click the Effects tab to activate it. Click the Solo button to solo the track, bus, or submix. soloed track Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 145 2 Select a category in the Category list to display the effects for that category in the Effect list. 3 In the Effect list, do one of the following:  Double-click the effect you want to add.  Select the effect name, then click the Add Effect button.  Drag the effect to the Effect Parameters area. The effect’s advanced settings window appears, and the effect name appears in the Effect Parameters area with its checkbox selected. For detailed information about adding and adjusting effects, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. Showing and Hiding Track, Bus, and Submix Envelopes Clicking the automation disclosure triangle for a track or bus shows the volume and pan envelopes, which you can use to automate changes to pan position and volume level over the course of the project. Clicking the triangle for a submix shows the submix’s volume envelope. The envelopes appear in the Timeline below the track, bus, or submix. You can also add envelopes for effect parameters, which appear below the other envelopes. For information on adding envelopes for effect parameters, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. Select the category of effects you want to use from this list. ...to the Effect Parameters area. Drag the effect from the Effect list... 146 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To show or hide the envelopes for a track, bus, or submix, do one of the following: m Click the envelopes disclosure triangle in the header for a track, bus, or submix. Click the disclosure triangle again to hide the envelopes. m Press E to show envelopes for any selected tracks. Press E again to hide the envelopes. Note: If you automate controls or effects using envelopes, you hear the results whether or not the envelopes are visible. For information on automating changes to volume, pan, and other settings, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. Changing Track Time Format By default, tracks use the same time format as the project (Time-based or Beats-based). You can change the time format of a track, which changes the behavior of tagged clips when you change the project tempo. When the track time format is Time-based, clips remain at the same time position (the same second or frame) when you change the project tempo. When the track time format is Beats-based, clips remain at the same beat position (the same measure, beat, and beat division) when you change the project tempo. When you set a track to Beats-based time format, a metronome appears in the corner of the track icon. To change a track’s time format: 1 Select the track. 2 Choose Multitrack > Track Time Base, then choose a format from the submenu. Click the envelopes disclosure triangle. The envelopes appear below the track in the Timeline. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 147 Removing Tracks, Busses, and Submixes You can remove a track, bus, or submix if you decide you no longer want it in a project. To remove a track, bus, or submix, do one of the following: m Select the track, bus, or submix, then choose Multitrack > Remove [item] (or press Command-Shift-T). m Control-click the track, bus, or submix, then choose Remove [item] from the shortcut menu. The [item] changes depending on whether a track, bus, or submix is selected. Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline You select the audio clips you want to edit. You can select a single clip or multiple clips, including clips in different tracks. When you select a clip, it appears darker than unselected clips, and it has a white border. Selecting individual clips is as straightforward as clicking, as long as you are clicking with the right tool. Also included here are the tricks you need to know for selecting multiple contiguous and noncontiguous clips quickly. To select an individual clip: 1 Click the Selection tool at the top of the Timeline (or press A). 2 In the Timeline, click anywhere in a clip. To select multiple audio clips in the same track: 1 Click the Selection tool at the top of the Timeline (or press A). 2 Do one of the following:  Hold down the Command key while selecting the desired clips using the Selection tool.  Drag from a point in the track before the first clip you want to select to a point after the last clip you want to select, encompassing the clips.  If the clips are adjacent, select a clip item, then hold down the Shift key and select another clip item farther down on the Timeline. All of the clips between the two are selected. 148 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To select multiple audio clips in different tracks, do one of the following: m Shift-click the clips in the Timeline. All clips between those two tracks are selected as well. m Command-click the clips in the Timeline. m Drag across multiple tracks to select the clips. Note: If there is no track background available because the tracks in your project are too dense, you can also make the selection by dragging in the track separator. To deselect an individual clip item within a selection: 1 Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press A). 2 Command-click the item you want to deselect. To select all clips using the same source audio file, do one of the following: m Select the clip in the Timeline or the Bin tab, then choose Clip > Select All Occurrences of [filename]. m Control-click the source audio file in the Bin tab, then choose Show in Timeline from the shortcut menu. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 149 Selecting the Entire Contents of a Track Sometimes you may find that you want to select all of the clips on a track in order to drag them to close a gap or to create space to accommodate new clips in your project. After selecting a track’s contents, you can perform different operations on all the track’s items at once, such as moving, copying, or deleting them. This feature also works with multiple tracks. To select all the clips on selected tracks: 1 Select one or more tracks. For more information on selecting tracks, see “Selecting Tracks, Busses, and Submixes” on page 136. 2 Choose Edit > Select > Across Tracks (or press Shift-T). All clips in the track are selected. If you make this selection in Selection tool mode, all clips on currently selected tracks are selected. Any clips that were selected before choosing the menu item are included in the new selection. Note: Double-clicking a track in Selection tool mode selects all clips in that track. Any previously selected clips are not included in the new selection. Triple-clicking a track selects all clips in the Timeline. If you make this selection in Timeslice tool mode, any existing Timeslice selection is extended horizontally to cover the entire duration of the project. If there is no existing Timeslice, Soundtrack Pro creates a Timeslice across the entire length of all selected tracks (or all tracks if none are selected). Note: Double-clicking a track in Timeslice tool mode creates a timeslice over the double-clicked area (either a clip or the gap between two clips). Triple-clicking a track creates a Timeslice across the entire track. 150 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Selecting Partial Contents of One or More Tracks When there are many clips in a multitrack project, it’s difficult to see and select many of them at once, especially if you don’t want to zoom in and out frequently. The Select Forward and Select Backward commands let you easily select all clips before or after the playhead. To select all the clips to the right or the left of the playhead on selected tracks: 1 Select one or more tracks. For more information on selecting tracks, see “Selecting Tracks, Busses, and Submixes” on page 136. 2 Position the playhead in the Timeline. 3 Do one of the following:  To select everything to the right of the playhead in the selected tracks, choose Edit > Select > Forward (or press Shift-End).  To select everything to the right of the playhead in the selected tracks, choose Edit > Select > Backward (or press Shift-Home). If you make this selection in Selection tool mode, all clips to the right (Forward) or left (Backward) of the playhead in the selected tracks are selected. Any clips that were selected before choosing the menu item are included in the new selection. The clips at and to the right of the playhead are selected. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 151 If you make this selection in Timeslice tool mode, any existing Timeslice selection is extended to the end of the project (for the Forward option) and to the beginning of the project (for the Backward option). If there is not an existing Timeslice, Soundtrack Pro creates a Timeslice across selected tracks starting at the playhead and extending to the end of the project (for the Forward option) and to the beginning of the project (for the Backward option). Note: If you hold down the Option key, the menu items read Select > All Forward and Select > All Backward and behave the same as described above except the selection is across all tracks instead of just the selected tracks. Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Audio Clips You can cut, copy, and paste audio clips in the Timeline. You can also paste multiple copies of a clip. To cut an audio clip: m Select the clip in the Timeline, then choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). The clip is removed from the Timeline and placed on the Clipboard. To copy an audio clip, do one of the following: m Select the clip in the Timeline, then choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). m Option-drag the clip to the position where you want to copy it. To paste an audio clip: m Set the playhead at the position where you want to paste the clip, then choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). The clip is pasted in the currently selected track, starting at the current playhead position. If no track is selected, the clip is pasted in the track from which it was cut or copied. When pasting clips cut or copied from different positions in the Timeline or from multiple tracks, the following conditions apply:  Pasting clips from different Timeline positions: The clip closest to the beginning of the project is pasted at the current playhead position, and the remaining clips are pasted at the same positions in time relative to the first clip as when they were cut or copied.  Pasting clips from multiple tracks: The clip from the topmost track is pasted in the currently selected track, and the remaining clips are pasted at the same positions relative to the first clip as when they were cut or copied. If there are not enough tracks to accommodate the clips being pasted, a dialog appears asking if you want to create new tracks for the clips. If you choose not to create new tracks, only the clips for which tracks already exist are pasted. 152 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline When pasting audio clips, you can choose to paste multiple copies of the clip in succession. Using the Paste Repeat command, you can paste any number of copies of a clip in the selected track. To paste multiple copies of a clip: 1 Cut or copy the clip. 2 Set the playhead to the point where you want to paste the first copy of the clip. 3 If you want to paste the copies in a different track, select the track. 4 Choose Edit > Paste Special > Paste Repeat (or press Option-Command-V). 5 In the Paste Repeat dialog, enter the number of times you want to paste the clip. The copies are pasted in the selected track, starting at the current playhead position. If no track is selected, the copies are pasted in the same track as the cut or copied clip. Removing Audio Clips As you work on a project, you may decide that a clip that sounded great on its own no longer fits with the overall composition. You can remove clips from a project by deleting them from the Timeline. To remove an audio clip: m Select the clip, then choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key). Type the number of times you want to paste the clip in the Paste Repeat dialog. The copies are pasted in the selected track, starting at the current playhead position. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 153 Spotting Clips to the Timeline Soundtrack Pro allows you to easily spot clips to the Timeline. You can spot clips to the playhead location or you can spot clips to the Timeline based on timecode information inherent in the clip or that you enter in the Spot to Timecode dialog. To spot a clip to the playhead: 1 Position the playhead where you would like to spot the clip. 2 Select the track on which you would like to spot the clip. 3 Do one of the following:  Select the clip in one of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs (such as the Bin, Browser, Favorites, or Search tab), then choose Clip > Spot to Playhead (or press Command-\).  Control-click the clip in one of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs (such as the Bin, Browser, Favorites, or Search tab), then choose Spot to Playhead from the shortcut menu. The clip is added to the Timeline at the specified playhead location. To spot a clip to the Timeline using timecode: 1 Select the track on which you would like to spot the clip. 2 Do one of the following:  Select the clip in one of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs (such as the Bin, Browser, Favorites, or Search tab), then choose Clip > Spot to Timeline (or press Command-Shift-\).  Control-click the clip in one of the Soundtrack Pro media tabs (such as the Bin, Browser, Favorites, or Search tab), then choose Spot to Timeline from the shortcut menu. 3 Do one of the following:  Select Use Embedded Timecode if the clip contains timecode intended to place it in the proper location in the Timeline.  Enter the target Timeline timecode location. 4 Click Spot. The clip is added to the Timeline at the specified timecode location. The Spot to Timeline dialog appears. 154 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Moving Clips As you work in Soundtrack Pro, you may want to move tracks to new positions. There are several ways to do this: dragging clips, entering timecode values, and using keyboard shortcuts. Moving Audio Clips You can move an audio clip in the Timeline by dragging the clip to a new position. You can also move the clip to a different track. To move an audio clip to a new time position: m Drag the clip left or right to a new position in the Timeline. To move an audio clip to a new track: m Drag the clip up or down to a different track. You can also move an audio clip using the Left and Right Arrow keys with various modifier keys. Using the Option key with the arrow keys moves the clip by one pixel at a time; using the Option and Shift keys with the arrow keys moves the clip to the next gridline in the Timeline. When you move a clip by one pixel, the amount the clip moves in time depends on the current zoom setting. You can lock the horizontal (time) position of an audio clip when moving the clip between tracks in the Timeline. This makes it easy to keep the clip’s start point when moving the clip or copying it by Option-dragging. To lock the time position of a clip as you move it between tracks: m Hold down the Shift key while dragging the clip up or down to a different track. Drag a clip up or down to move it to a different track. Drag a clip left or right to move it to a new position. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 155 Moving Clips Numerically When you want to move clips precisely, you can move them by entering positive or negative timecode values. To move an item by entering a timecode value: 1 In the Timeline, select the clip item or items you want to move. 2 Type a relative timecode value for where you want the clip to be positioned. For example, type +48 (or simply 48) to move the item 48 frames forward. To move 48 frames backward in time, type –48. When you type a number, a Move field appears at the top of the Timeline. Note: Don’t click in the Current Timecode field before you do this, or you’ll move the playhead instead. Moving Clips with Keyboard Shortcuts Soundtrack Pro provides a variety of keyboard shortcuts to move selected clips. To move a selected clip up one track: m Press Command-Option-Up Arrow. To move a selected clip down one track: m Press Command-Option-Down Arrow. To nudge a selected clip one video frame to the left: m Press Command-Option-Left Arrow. To nudge a selected clip one video frame to the right: m Press Command-Option-Right Arrow. To nudge a selected clip one gridline to the left: m Press Command-Left Arrow. To nudge a selected clip one gridline to the right: m Press Command-Right Arrow. To move a selected clip one edit point to the left: m Press Command-Up Arrow. To move a selected clip one edit point to the right: m Press Command-Down Arrow. Note: These commands are also available as menu commands by choosing Edit > Move Selection. For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. 156 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Snapping Clips to Clips on Adjacent Tracks If snapping is turned on, you can snap a clip to the edges of a clip in an adjacent track (the track either directly above or directly below the track containing the clip). This is especially useful when the start and end points of clips do not fall on the current Snap To value. To snap a clip to adjacent clips: m Choose View > Snap To > Adjacent Tracks. Resizing Audio Clips You control the duration of an audio clip (the amount of time the clip plays back) by resizing the clip. When you add a clip to the Timeline, the clip has the same duration as the source audio file. You can shorten clips to play back only a part of the source file. When you lengthen a clip with looping playback mode, it repeats the source file multiple times. To resize an audio clip: 1 Place the pointer at either the left or right edge of the audio clip. The pointer changes to a Clip Resize pointer. 2 Click the edge of the clip and drag left or right to resize it. When you lengthen a regular, nonlooping clip beyond its original length, Soundtrack Pro adds blank space at the end of the clip. When you lengthen a clip with looping playback mode, the notches at the top and bottom of the clip indicate the end of each repetition of the source audio file. A blank space appears when a nonlooping clip is lengthened beyond its original length. Notches indicate the points where a looping clip repeats. Drag the clip to the left or right to resize it. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 157 When you resize a clip by shortening its left edge, you change the point in the source audio file at which the clip starts playing, making the earlier part of the source audio inaudible. When you resize a clip by shortening its right edge, the part you shorten becomes inaudible. You cannot lengthen the left edge of a clip with non-looping playback mode beyond the beginning of the source audio file. When you resize a clip, the edge being resized jumps to the nearest Snap To position if snapping is turned on. If you want to resize the clip independently of the Snap To value, change the Snap To value or turn off snapping before you resize the clip. For information about snapping, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. Changing the Offset of an Audio Clip When you add an audio clip to the Timeline, the clip plays back from the beginning of the source audio file. The point in the audio file where the clip starts playing is called the offset. By default, a clip’s offset is zero, the beginning of the source audio file. You can change the offset so that the clip starts playing from a later point in the source audio file. (In Final Cut Pro, this is known as a slip.) This allows you to use the audio from a later part of the source file without splitting the clip. To slip (change the offset of) a clip: m Select the clip, then Command-Option-drag left (toward the beginning of the project). Once you have changed the offset by dragging to the left, you can also drag to the right to change the offset. Note: You can only drag the offset to a later part of the clip’s source audio file, not to a point before the beginning of the file. When you change the offset of a clip, the waveform moves inside the clip’s boundary to indicate the change in offset. The length of the clip stays the same. If the clip has not been resized, it will reach the end of the source audio file and start looping. As you move the offset by dragging, the clip’s notches move to show the point at which the clip will start looping. Command-Option-drag left to change the clip’s offset. The waveform moves inside the clip’s boundary to indicate the change in offset. 158 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Creating Fades and Crossfades in the Timeline One of the most common tasks of a sound editor is adding fade-ins and fade-outs to individual clips and crossfades between clips to smooth the overall sound of a video or motion picture soundtrack. Creating Fade-Ins and Fade-Outs in the Timeline Soundtrack Pro lets you easily add fades and crossfades and adjust the fade type directly in the multitrack Timeline. To create a fade-in or fade-out on a clip in the Timeline: 1 Move the pointer Over the top-left edge of the clip (for a fade-in) or top-right edge of the clip (for a fade-out). The pointer becomes a fade pointer. 2 Drag from the corner toward the center of the clip. A fade is superimposed over the clip. 3 Drag the edge of the fade left or right to adjust the fade duration. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 159 To adjust the fade type: 1 Double-click the fade in the Timeline. The Fade Selector window appears. 2 Click one of the four buttons on the left side of the Fade Selector to select a fade type.  Linear: The rate of attenuation stays constant over the length of the fade.  Logarithmic: Starts quickly, then slowly tapers off toward the end.  Exponential: Starts slowly, then moves quickly toward the end.  S-curve: Eases in and out of the fade, with the midpoint at 0 dB. Note: This list describes the different types of fade-ins. The reverse behavior is true for fade-outs in the logarithmic and exponential cases. The fade in the Timeline is updated to reflect your choice of fade type. Note: The default fade type is +3 dB. Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General to change the default fade type. Linear Logarithmic Exponential S-curve 160 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Creating Crossfades Between Audio Clips Crossfades let you create smooth transitions between one audio clip and the next and avoid clicks or sudden changes in loudness that can result when placing audio files one after another. To create a crossfade between audio clips, you set the project to crossfade mode, then drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another clip. A crossfade is created for the length of the overlapped area. To set the project to crossfade mode: m Click the Crossfade Mode button, located above the Global Timeline view. In crossfade mode, when you drag an audio clip so that it partially overlaps another audio clip in a track in the Timeline, a crossfade is created for the overlapped part of the two audio files. You can adjust the boundaries of the crossfade in the Timeline. To create a crossfade: m In the Timeline, drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. The crossfade appears in the overlapped area of the two clips. You can adjust crossfades in several ways. You can change the edges of the crossfaded clips or move the position of the crossfade without changing its length. To adjust crossfade boundaries: 1 Move the pointer over the left or right edge of the crossfade. The pointer becomes a crossfade pointer. 2 Drag the edge of the crossfade to adjust the crossfade boundary. To move the crossfade without changing its length: m Drag the lower area of the crossfade left or right. As with other edits you make in the Timeline, creating a crossfade between two audio clips does not change the source audio files. Crossfade Mode button Crossfade Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 161 To adjust the crossfade type: 1 Double-click the crossfade. The Fade Selector window appears with two columns of the four fade type choices. Note: For descriptions of the four fade types, see “To adjust the fade type:” on page 159. 2 Click one of the four buttons in the column on the left to select a fade-out type for the left clip. The crossfade in the Timeline is updated to reflect your choice of fade type. 3 Click one of the four buttons in the column on the right to select a fade-in type for the right clip. The crossfade in the Timeline is updated to reflect your choice of fade type. Π Tip: Fades and crossfades can be applied using keyboard shortcuts. For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. 162 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Truncating Overlapping Audio Clips You can have Soundtrack Pro truncate the overlapping part of audio clips in the Timeline instead of crossfading them. To truncate audio clips, you set the project to truncate mode, then drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another clip. To set the project to truncate mode: m Click the Overlap Mode button, located above the Global Timeline view. In truncate mode, when you drag an audio clip so that it partially overlaps another audio clip in a track in the Timeline, the overlapped part of the clip is truncated. To truncate an audio clip: m In the Timeline, drag another audio clip over part of the clip. Editing Audio Clips in the Multitrack Timeline Most audio applications focus on multitrack editing or waveform editing, but not both. Furthermore, most waveform editing applications handle media destructively—making permanent changes to your media files. Soundtrack Pro provides the best of both worlds: nondestructive waveform editing while working in a multitrack project. You can edit audio clips in a variety of ways in the Timeline. You can select, cut, copy, and paste clips, move, resize, transpose, split and join them, and edit them in other ways. You can also apply any actions and process menu operations to any clip directly in the Timeline. You can view and modify a clip’s media file in the File Editor tab without losing the context of your multitrack timeline. This is called editing in place. Simply select a clip in the Timeline and it appears in the File Editor tab below. The playhead in the Timeline and the File Editor tab are synchronized so you can play the media file within the context of your whole multitrack project. Any changes you make to the media file are updated in the Timeline immediately. You can also solo any item in the File Editor tab. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 163 If you prefer, you can also double-click a clip in your multitrack project and its media file opens in the File Editor project view, ready for waveform editing. Changes you make to the file are instantly reflected in the multitrack project. 164 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Using the Timeline Editing Tools The Timeline includes editing tools you can use to edit and adjust clips in the Timeline. Selection Tool When you open the Timeline, the pointer is a selection pointer (arrow). You can use the Selection tool to select clips and tracks by clicking them and use it to make marquee selections across multiple tracks. When you are done using another Timeline editing tool, you can return the pointer to a selection pointer by clicking the Selection Tool button or by pressing A. Timeslice Tool You can use the Timeslice tool to make time-based selections. Timeslice tool selections are entirely time-based, so you can use the Timeslice tool to select portions of clips or portions of multiple clips. (This is unlike selections across multiple tracks with the default Selection tool, which can only select whole clips.) Timeslice selections in the Timeline will also appear as selections in the File Editor tab. For more information about the Timeslice tool, see “Editing with the Timeslice Tool” on page 174. Blade and Blade All Tools Using the Blade tool, you can perform many splits consecutively without moving the playhead each time. Use the Blade All tool to split across all tracks. For more information about the Blade and Blade All tools, see “Splitting and Joining Audio Clips” on page 170. Selection tool Timeslice tool Blade tool Blade All tool Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 165 Lift and Stamp Tools The Lift and Stamp tools provide an efficient way to transfer properties from one clip to one or more other clips. Use the Lift tool to copy properties from selected clips and create a processing template in the Sound Palette that can be applied to other clips. Use the Stamp tool to apply those properties to the other clips. For more information about the Lift and Stamp tools, see “Using the Lift and Stamp Tools” on page 179. Scrub Tool The Soundtrack Pro Scrub tool provides detailed scrubbing that realistically approximates the “rock-the-reels” scrubbing on analog tape decks. For more information about the Scrub Tool, see “Scrubbing Audio Files” on page 200. Timeline Editing Tools HUD The Timeline includes a handy HUD that provides all of the graphical Timeline editing tools at the stroke of a single keyboard shortcut. This saves you the time and effort of having to move the pointer up to the top of the Timeline whenever you need to select (or deselect) a Timeline editing tool. To use the Timeline Editing Tools HUD: 1 Press the grave accent key ( ` ). The Timeline Editing Tools HUD appears at the pointer location. 2 In the HUD, do one of the following to choose the Timeline editing tool that you want to use:  Click the tool’s icon.  Press the corresponding number key (1–7, left to right).  Use the Left and Right Arrow keys and press Enter. When you have finished using a Timeline editing tool, it is a good idea to immediately return to the default Selection tool. Lift tool Stamp tool Scrub tool 166 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Editing in Place Editing a clip’s media file in place (directly in the Timeline) is nearly identical to editing any other media file in the Soundtrack Pro File Editor. All of the same effects, editing tools, and waveform views are available. However, there are a few differences:  Timeline and File Editor playhead synchronization: When you edit a clip’s media file in place, the Timeline and File Editor playhead are synchronized so you can work with the media file within the context of your multitrack project.  Multiple region markers: Because a media file may be referred to by multiple clips in a multitrack project, you may see multiple region markers above a media file in the File Editor. Each region marker shows the In and Out points of a clip in the Timeline that refers to this media file. This alerts you to the fact that changes you make to this media file may affect multiple clips. How Clips Are Affected by Media File Editing When you modify a media file in a multitrack project, all clips that refer to that media file are updated simultaneously. For example, if you have ten clips referring to the same media file and you double-click one of the clips to modify its underlying media file, any changes you make to the media file affect all ten clips. How Source Audio File Editing Works in a Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project When you edit a clip in place or open a clip in the File Editor tab, the way the source audio file is handled depends on its file format.  If the clip’s audio file format is a native Soundtrack Pro audio file project: The audio file project is opened directly in the File Editor tab, allowing you to make nondestructive changes to the media. Multiple In and Out points Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 167  If the clip’s audio file format is a flat file such as an AIFF or WAVE file: Soundtrack Pro automatically creates a Soundtrack Pro audio file project for the flat file and relinks all clips in the project to the new audio file project. This allows you to work with this media nondestructively. Each time you save your multitrack project, any newly created audio file project media files are saved to the Edited Media Location on your hard disk. (You can change this location by choosing Soundtrack Pro > Preferences and then clicking General.) Modifying a Clip Without Affecting Its Source Media Any time you use multiple instances of the same clip in a multitrack project, the clip refers to the same source media file. This means that any time you modify the media file, all of the clips that refer to the media file are affected. How do you edit just one clip without editing its source media? In cases where you only want to make changes to a single clip, you can make a new copy of the clip’s media file in a new audio file project and link this clip to the new audio file project. To create a copy of a clip’s media file and link the clip to the new audio file project: 1 Select the clip whose source media file you want to copy. 2 Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Replace with Independent Audio File Project from the shortcut menu. A new Soundtrack Pro audio file project is created that includes a copy of the original audio file. Only media between the clip’s In and Out points is copied, plus handles on either side for later trimming, if necessary. The new audio file project opens in the File Editor tab and the clip now links to the new audio file project. Note: The default handle duration is 5 seconds. To adjust the handle duration, go to Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General. 168 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Using the Multitrack Timeline and the File Editor Together One of the unique advantages of Soundtrack Pro is the combination of nondestructive waveform editing in the context of a multitrack Timeline. This section focuses on how you can exploit this powerful toolset in your sound editing project. Making Changes in the File Editor and Hearing Them in the Timeline When you arrange a multitrack project, you frequently need to edit and adjust individual audio files, and immediately hear the results in the context of the larger multitrack Timeline. You can do this by using the Timeline and File Editor in tandem. To make changes in the File Editor and hear the results in the Timeline: 1 With the File Editor tab active, select a clip in the Timeline that you would like to adjust. The waveform for the clip appears in the File Editor. 2 Make adjustments and edits to the clip in the File Editor. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 169 For information on making basic edits, see “Editing Audio Files in the File Editor” on page 198. For information on processing effects, see “Processing Audio Files” on page 219. For information on analyzing files, see “Analyzing an Audio File” on page 236. 3 As you make changes to the clip in the File Editor, the Actions tab records the changes. You can adjust, edit, and reorder the actions as needed. For information on using actions, see “Working with Actions” on page 230. Note: Any time you apply a command from either the Edit menu or the Process menu, Soundtrack Pro creates an audio file project (.stap) for the source audio file if one doesn’t exist already. Clips that reference the audio source file all have their audio source replaced with that audio file project. 4 Play the clip. Soundtrack Pro plays the clip together with any other active tracks in the Timeline. 5 Make any other adjustments and edits to the clip in the File Editor (or to the actions in the Actions tab) and play the clip again. Repeat as necessary. 170 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Spotting Sound Effects from the File Editor to the Timeline A common task for sound editors is adding sound effects or ambient clips to a multitrack project. Often you will use one or more small sections from a longer source file. You can make quick work of this by using the File Editor tab in conjunction with the Timeline. To add small sections of a longer audio file to a multitrack project: 1 Open the multitrack project in the Timeline. 2 Drag an audio file to the File Editor tab. 3 Select a portion of the audio file in the File Editor tab. 4 Drag it to a track in the Timeline. 5 Select another portion of the audio file in the File Editor tab. 6 Drag it to a track in the Timeline. Optionally, you can open the Multipoint Video HUD to give you visual context for spotting the sound effects to the Timeline. For more information about the Multipoint Video HUD, see “Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD” on page 322. ‘ Splitting and Joining Audio Clips You may want to use only part of the source audio file in an audio clip. Soundtrack Pro lets you split the clip into segments and use the segments in the Timeline as independent clips. You can move the segments, edit them, and split each one into additional segments. You can also easily (re)join clips. You can split clips by using the Split command or by using the Blade (razor) and Blade All tools. Each method has advantages, depending on the situation. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 171 Splitting Clips with the Blade Tool Using the Blade tool, you can perform many splits consecutively without moving the playhead each time. To split audio clips with the Blade tool: 1 Click the Blade Tool button above the Timeline. The pointer changes to the Blade All pointer. 2 Click a clip at the point where you want to split it. The clip is split at the point where you clicked. Splitting Clips Across All Tracks with the Blade All Tool Use the Blade All tool to split across all tracks. To split audio clips on all tracks with the Blade All tool: 1 Click the Blade All Tool button above the Timeline. The pointer changes to the Blade All pointer. Note: To toggle between the Blade and the Blade All tools, hold down the Shift key while either tool is selected. 2 Click anywhere in the Timeline where you want to split clips on all tracks. Blade Tool button Click the clip with the Blade tool to split it. Blade All Tool button 172 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Note: If you use the Blade All tool in the podcast track, it cuts the podcast track as well as any audio clips that are also under the Blade All tool. However, if you use the Blade All tool in an audio track, it does not make a cut in the podcast track. Splitting Clips with the Playhead Using the playhead, you can split clips while a project is playing, split clips on selected tracks, and split clips without having to use the mouse. To split selected audio clips with the playhead: 1 Set the playhead at the point where you want to split the clip, then select the clip or clips you want to split. You can split multiple clips in the same operation. 2 Choose Clip > Split (or press S). Every selected clip under the playhead is split into two segments. The first segment ends at the playhead position, and the second segment begins at the playhead position. Use the Blade All tool to split clips across all tracks. Move the playhead to where you want to split the selected clip. The clip is split into two segments, each of which plays part of the source audio file. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 173 You can split an audio clip into three segments with the Timeslice tool by making a selection in the middle of the audio clip (any part not including either the beginning or the end), and then pressing the S key. The clip is split into three segments, defined by the beginning and end of the selection. For more information about the Timeslice tool, see “Editing with the Timeslice Tool” on page 174. To split audio clips on selected tracks: 1 Set the playhead at the point where you want to split the clip or clips. 2 Select the track or tracks containing the clip or clips you want to split. 3 Choose Clip > Split (or press S). Every clip under the playhead on the selected tracks is split into two segments. The first segment ends at the playhead position, and the second segment begins at the playhead position. Note: Any clip selections will supersede track selections: if both clips and tracks are selected under the playhead, Soundtrack Pro will split only the clips. To split audio clips while playing a project: 1 Do one the following:  Select the clip or clips you want to split.  Select the track or tracks containing the clip or clips you want to split. 2 Play the section of the Timeline containing the clip or clips you want to split. 3 While the project is playing, press S as often as you like. The clip or clips are split at the playhead each time you press S. Joining Audio Clips You can join clips from the same original audio file, including segments of split clips. Clips being joined must be adjacent to each other and in the same track. To join audio clips: 1 Place the clips next to each other in the same track. 2 Select the clips, then choose Clip > Join (or press Option-S). When you join looping files or segments of looping files, the joined file plays to the end of the source audio file before looping. The notches in the joined file indicate the end of the source audio file. 174 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Editing with the Timeslice Tool You can use the Timeslice Tool to make time-based selections. Unlike selections of multiple clips with the default Selection tool (which can only select whole clips), Timeslice tool selections are entirely time-based. This means you can use the Timeslice tool to select portions of clips or portions of multiple clips. You can also easily move and adjust the size of a Timeslice tool selection and add or remove entire tracks from the selection. This is most important for processing effects. Use the Timeslice tool to select any combination of the following:  One or more clips or tracks and their envelopes  Portions of one or more clips or tracks and their envelopes To make a selection with the Timeslice tool: 1 Click the Timeslice tool at the top of the Timeline (or press W). 2 Drag across any portion of the Timeline to make a Timeslice selection. A Timeslice selection rectangle appears over the area. By default, the selection includes all of the clips within the rectangle and their envelopes. To select a portion of a clip with the Timeslice tool: 1 Click the Timeslice tool at the top of the Timeline (or press W). 2 Drag across any portion of the clip with the Timeslice tool. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 175 A Timeslice selection rectangle appears over the portion of the clip and the File Editor tab displays the same selection in its waveform view. By default, the selection includes all of the clip’s envelopes. To adjust the size of a Timeslice selection, do one of the following: m Drag any of the four edges of the selection to extend or shorten that side of the selection rectangle. m Shift-click any track you want to include in the Timeslice at the opposite end of the area you want to select. Timeslice selection File Editor selection 176 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To move a Timeslice selection: m Click the center of the Timeslice selection, then drag it to a new location in the Timeline. To add a noncontiguous track, bus, or submix to a Timeslice selection: m Command-click anywhere in the track, bus, or submix. Note: You can add tracks, busses, and submixes that are not adjacent to or contiguous with the selection. To remove a track, bus, or submix from a Timeslice selection: m Command-click anywhere in the track. You can select a master Timeslice that includes the audio content and the envelopes of all tracks, busses, and submixes, including the video’s audio track. (Only a master Timeslice contains busses and submixes.) To make a master Timeslice selection: m Using the Timeslice tool, drag in the selection bar of the video track, located above the Time ruler. Drag in the selection bar of the video track to create a master Timeslice. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 177 Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Timeslices You can cut or copy a Timeslice and paste it at a different position in the Timeline. To cut a Timeslice: m Select the Timeslice, then choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). To copy a Timeslice: m Select the Timeslice, then choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). To paste a Timeslice: m Set the playhead at the position where you want to paste the Timeslice, then choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). If the Timeslice is from a single track, it is pasted in the same track at the current playhead position. If the Timeslice includes multiple tracks, the topmost track of the Timeslice is pasted in the currently selected track, and the remaining tracks are pasted in the tracks below the selected track. If not enough tracks exist for the number of tracks in the Timeslice, a dialog appears asking if you want to create additional tracks. Deleting the Contents of Timeslices To delete the contents of a Timeslice selection: m Select the Timeslice, then choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key). Changing the Timeslice Selection Area You can change the height or the length of a Timeslice selection area to include more of the Timeline, either graphically or numerically. To extend the Timeslice selection area graphically: m Shift-click any track at the point to which you want to extend it. Shift-click the Timeline to extend a Timeslice. 178 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To change the In point, Out point, or duration of a Timeslice numerically: 1 Make a Timeslice selection in the Timeline. The Details tab displays Timeslice controls. 2 In the Details tab, type a new value in the In value slider, the Out value slider, or the Duration value slider. 3 Press Tab or Enter to confirm the new value. Note: To the right of the Timeline transport controls is the Selection Length value slider. When a Timeslice is active, the Selection Length value slider shows the length (duration) of the active Timeslice. You can use this value slider the same way you use the Duration value slider in the Timeslice section of the Details tab. For more information on how to use value sliders, see “About Changing Values and Timecode Entries” on page 75. Using the Timeslice Tool with Keyboard Shortcuts Soundtrack Pro provides a variety of keyboard shortcuts to adjust Timeslice selections. To extend the left edge of the Timeslice selection by one gridline: m Press Shift-Left Arrow. To extend the right edge of the Timeslice selection by one gridline: m Press Shift-Right Arrow. For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 179 Using the Lift and Stamp Tools The Lift and Stamp tools provide a time-saving way to apply work you have done on one clip to one or more other clips. Use the Lift tool to copy properties from selected clips and create a processing template in the Sound Palette that can be applied to other clips. Use the Stamp tool to apply those properties to the other clips. You can use the Sound Palette to customize the processing template by enabling and disabling various properties, naming the template, and saving it as a preset. You can also add a thumbnail image to represent the preset. Presets are saved in the Sound Palette so that you can select and edit them and apply them in multiple multitrack projects. To lift properties from a clip in the Timeline: 1 Click the Lift tool at the top of the Timeline (or press UU). The Sound Palette appears. As you move the pointer over clips in the Timeline, it changes into the Lift pointer. 2 If you want to limit the type of properties lifted, deselect either of the two checkboxes at the top of the Sound Palette:  Lift Analysis Items: These include Clicks and Pops, Power Line Hum, DC Offset, Phase, Clipped Signal, and Silence.  Lift Process Items: These include processing effects in these categories: Dynamics, Distortion, EQ and Filter, Modulation, Reverb/Delay, Miscellaneous, and Mac OS. 3 Click a clip in the Timeline whose properties you want to lift. Soundtrack Pro creates a temporary template named Lifted Data (Track Name) with Track Name being the track holding the source clip. The clip properties appear in the list on the right of the Sound Palette HUD. The pointer immediately changes to the Stamp pointer, ready for you to stamp the template of lifted properties to another clip. The properties in the Sound Palette template appear in the same order they appear in the Actions tab for the source clip. 180 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To stamp properties on one or more clips in the Timeline: 1 If you are stamping on more than one clip, select the target clips in the Timeline. 2 In the Sound Palette, select the template or preset containing the properties you want to stamp. (This is only necessary if there are already presets on the left side of the Sound Palette.) 3 Choose one of the following from the pop-up menu at the center-bottom of the Sound Palette:  Add: Adds the properties selected in the Sound Palette to the list of actions in the target clip’s Actions tab.  Replace: Replaces the actions in the target clip’s Actions tab with the properties selected in the Sound Palette. 4 Do one of the following:  Click the Stamp tool at the top of the Timeline (or press U), then click the target clip or clips in the Timeline.  If the target clip is already selected in the Timeline, click Stamp in the lower-right corner of the Sound Palette. Choose Add or Replace from the pop-up menu Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 181 Actions appear in the target clip’s Actions tab for each property listed in the selected template or preset in the Sound Palette. They appear in the same order as they appear in the Sound Palette. Note: By default, Soundtrack Pro applies equalization every time you use the Lift and Stamp feature. This equalization automates the Match EQ effect, which matches the average frequency spectrum of the target clip to that of the source clip. When you first lift properties with the Lift tool, Soundtrack Pro creates a temporary template in the Sound Palette named Lifted Data (Track Name), with Track Name being the track holding the source clip. To save a Sound Palette preset: m With a template loaded on the right of the Sound Palette, click Save as Preset in the lower-right corner. The template is listed as a preset on the left of the Sound Palette. To enable or disable properties in a Sound Palette preset: 1 If there are already presets on the left of the Sound Palette, click the template or a preset to edit it. 2 In the Enabled column, click the checkbox next to the property you want to enable or disable. 182 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To name or rename a Sound Palette preset: 1 If there are already presets on the left of the Sound Palette, click the template name or a preset name that you want to name or rename. The template or preset details are loaded on the right of the Sound Palette. 2 Click the name field at the top-right corner of the Sound Palette. 3 Enter the new name. 4 Press Return or Tab to confirm the new name. To attach a thumbnail image to a Sound Palette preset: 1 Click the preset name in the list on the left of the Sound Palette. 2 Do one of the following:  Drag a still image from the Finder or from iPhoto to the image well at the top of the Sound Palette.  Copy an image in an image editing application and paste it into the image well at the top of the Sound Palette. The image appears in the image well each time you select the preset. To delete a Sound Palette preset: m Control-click the preset name in the list on the left of the Sound Palette, then choose Delete from the shortcut menu. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 183 Working with Markers Markers have a variety of uses in the Timeline and the File Editor. For example, you can use markers to:  Mark the start and end points of major sections in your project  Indicate places you want to come back to and work on later  Mark points where you want to synchronize the audio with the picture in a video  Indicate where particular sounds begin and end in an audio file Markers extend vertically through the Timeline, like the playhead. Each marker has a handle in the area above the Time ruler, letting you position the marker precisely in the Timeline. Types of Markers Soundtrack Pro displays Final Cut Pro scoring markers, and lets you add your own markers to a project. You can add two kinds of markers: time markers and beat markers. The two types can be distinguished by their handles: Time markers have green handles, and beat markers have purple handles. Final Cut Pro scoring markers have orange handles. By default, time and beat markers can only occupy a single frame of time, but their duration can be extended to any length. This section discusses how to work with time markers and beat markers in a project. For information about working with Final Cut Pro scoring markers, see “Using Final Cut Pro Scoring Markers” on page 185. Inserting Markers You can insert a beat marker or time marker at any point in the Timeline. To insert a time marker: m Set the playhead to the point where you want to add the marker, then choose Project > Insert Time Marker (or press the M key). To insert a beat marker: m Set the playhead to the point where you want to add the marker, then choose Project > Insert Beat Marker (or press Option-B). End-of-project marker (red) Time marker (green) Final Cut Pro scoring marker (orange) Beat marker (purple) 184 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Naming Markers You can name time markers and beat markers, so that each marker can provide a unique visual cue to a specific point in the Timeline or File Editor. For example, you can name markers to define sections of your project (Introduction, Verse, or Chorus), to reflect what’s happening in the music (Latin Rhythm or Fast Groove), or to serve as reminders for your workflow (Add Horns Here, Transpose to D, Insert Delay Effect). To name a time marker or beat marker: m Make the Details tab active, select the marker, then type a name in the Name field of the Details tab. To view marker titles in the Timeline: m Choose View > Show Marker Titles. Moving Markers You can move a marker either by dragging the marker’s handle, or by entering a new position for the marker in the Details tab. To move either a beat marker or time marker, do one of the following: m Drag the marker by its handle, located in the area above the Time ruler, to a new position in the Timeline. m Show the Details tab, click the marker you want to move, then enter a new position in the Position field. You can also select and drag multiple markers. When you move a marker by dragging, the marker’s position snaps to the nearest Snap To position if snap is turned on. For information on setting the Snap To value, see “Creating Fades and Crossfades in the Timeline” on page 158. Type a name in the Marker Name field. Enter a time position here to move the marker to that position. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 185 Adjusting a Marker’s Duration By default, Time markers and Beat markers have a duration of zero, but you can create Time or Beat region markers by changing the duration of any marker. You adjust a marker’s duration either by entering a new duration for the marker in the Details tab, or, if it is already a region marker, by dragging the ends of a marker handle. To adjust a marker’s duration, do one of the following: m Show the Details tab, click the marker you want to adjust, then enter a new duration in the Duration field. m Adjust a region marker by dragging the end of its handle. Deleting Markers If you decide you don’t want a time or beat marker that you’ve added, you can delete it at any time. To delete a marker: m Click the marker handle to select the marker, then choose Edit > Delete (or press Delete). Note: You cannot delete Final Cut Pro scoring markers in Soundtrack Pro. Using Markers with Video Soundtrack Pro displays Final Cut Pro scoring markers included in a video file imported from Final Cut Pro. You can add time markers at points in time corresponding to specific timecode positions in the video clip, and align audio clips with markers using the snapping feature. When you add a marker to a project containing a video, the video clip displays the frame of the video that occurs at the marker’s position in time. For more information about adding and moving markers, see “Working with Markers” on page 183. You can score both Final Cut Pro scoring markers and time markers to the playhead, letting you synchronize the audio with specific points in the video. Using Final Cut Pro Scoring Markers When you import a video file from Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express HD, Soundtrack Pro displays any Final Cut Pro scoring markers included in the video file in the Timeline. Scoring markers have an orange handle in the area above the Time ruler. You cannot move or edit Final Cut Pro scoring markers in Soundtrack Pro. 186 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Using Markers to Align Audio Clips to Timecode You can add a time marker at a specific timecode position in a video clip, and align audio clips with the time marker or with a Final Cut Pro scoring marker. To add a time marker at a specific timecode position in a video clip, do one of the following: m Type the timecode position where you want to add the marker in the Time display, press Return, then choose Mark > Insert Time Marker (or press M). m Make the Details tab active, add a time marker, select the marker handle, then enter a new position in the Position value slider in the Details tab. In order to add a marker at a specific timecode position, the Time ruler units must be set to the timecode format of the video in your project. To align an audio clip with a marker: m Make sure that snapping is turned on and that Markers is selected in the View > Snap to menu, then drag the clip to the position of the marker in the Timeline. Note: You can momentarily toggle snapping by pressing N. Scoring a Marker to the Playhead For tracks set to Beats-based time format, you can score a time marker or Final Cut Pro scoring marker to the playhead, so that you can synchronize the audio with the video. Scoring a marker to the playhead adjusts the tempo so that the required number of beats exactly fills the amount of time between the last tempo change and the marker’s position in the Time ruler. When you score a marker to the playhead, a set of special envelope points is created in the project’s tempo envelope, from the previous envelope point (or the beginning of the tempo envelope, if no previous envelope point exists) to the position of the marker. These special envelope points are locked and cannot be moved (but can be deleted). The locked envelope points, and the segment of the tempo envelope between them, appear red. With Markers selected, you can align a clip with a marker. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 187 The tempo change created when you score a marker to the playhead is always instantaneous; that is, the tempo changes from the previous tempo immediately, without ramping. The distance between the two envelope points determines whether the resulting tempo change can be heard easily. If the resulting change in tempo sounds too abrupt, you can edit the tempo envelope to make the tempo change less noticeable. To score a marker to the playhead: 1 Select the marker’s handle at the top of the Timeline, above the Time ruler. 2 Choose Mark > Score Marker to Playhead. You can also adjust the tempo relative to a marker’s position by Option-dragging the marker in the Timeline. As you drag, the red segment of the tempo envelope moves vertically as the tempo changes. By Option-dragging a marker, you can synchronize the marker’s position with the Beats-based units. Note: If you score a marker to the playhead, and the tempo change resulting from the scoring operation sounds too noticeable or extreme, you can undo the scoring operation. After undoing the scoring operation, add an envelope point to the tempo envelope at a point after any audio clips you do not want to be affected by the tempo change, but before the marker to be scored, then repeat the scoring operation. Click the marker handle at the top of the Timeline. The marker is scored to the playhead. 188 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline Working with Tagged and Looping Clips Soundtrack Pro includes a large selection of Apple Loops that you can use to add Foley effects, background ambience, sound effects, and music transitions to your projects. Apple Loops tagged as looping files automatically match the tempo and key of the project. Transposing Tagged Audio Clips When you drag an audio file tagged with key information to the Timeline, Soundtrack Pro transposes the clip to the project key. You can transpose tagged clips to another key to create chord progressions from the same audio file or to achieve other musical effects. You can transpose a tagged clip to any interval from one octave above (+12 semitones) to one octave below (–12 semitones) its current key. Note: Soundtrack Pro uses the key tag in the audio file to transpose it. In order to be correctly transposed, the file must be tagged. To transpose a tagged audio clip, do one of the following: m Select the clip, choose Clip > Transpose, then choose the number of semitones by which you want to transpose the clip up or down. m Select the clip, open the Details tab, then use the Transpose pop-up menu to choose the number of semitones by which you want to transpose the clip up or down. Changing a Clip’s Playback Mode Audio files you add to the Timeline can be either looping or non-looping. Looping files are special audio files that can be used to create repeating patterns, and include musical phrases useful for creating music beds. Audio files containing discrete, non-rhythmic sounds, sound effects, and other non-musical sounds such as dialogue or sound effects should be used as non-looping files in most cases. When you add an audio file to the Timeline, the audio file is added as a clip with non-looping playback mode unless the audio file is tagged as a looping file. You can change the playback mode of a clip after you add it to the Timeline. To convert the playback mode to looping, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Convert to Looping. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Convert to Looping from the shortcut menu. To convert the playback mode to non-looping, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Convert to Non-Looping. m Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Convert to Non-looping from the shortcut menu. Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline 189 Replacing the Source Audio in a Clip Each audio clip in the Timeline has a set of properties specific to the clip, including duration, speed, and transposition. You can replace the source audio in the clip while preserving the clip’s properties. This feature has a variety of uses, such as letting you try out similar audio files (for example, music beds or sound effects) while maintaining the clip’s duration, position in the Timeline, and transposition. For information about properties of audio clips, see “Reconnecting Media Files” on page 96. To replace the source audio file for a clip: 1 In the Timeline, select the clip for which you want to replace the source audio. 2 In any media tab, Control-click the audio file that will replace the selected clip’s audio, then choose Replace Selected Clips With [filename] from the shortcut menu. When you replace the source audio in a clip, the clip’s duration and offset stay the same. Only the portion of the new source audio file equal to the clip’s length plays. If the new source audio file is a music loop and it is shorter than the clip’s length, the clip loops when it reaches the end of the new source audio file. Notches appear on the clip to indicate the point at which the clip starts looping. You can replace the source audio in all clips using the same source audio file with another source audio file by using the Select All Occurrences and Replace Selected Loops commands together. Select a clip, Control-click the audio file that will replace the original audio... ...then choose the Replace option from the shortcut menu. 190 Chapter 5 Working in the Timeline To replace the source audio file in all clips using the same source file: 1 Select all occurrences of the clip for which you want to replace the source audio file, following the steps described in “Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline” on page 147. Every clip using the same source audio file is selected. 2 In the Timeline, select the clip for which you want to replace the source audio. 3 In any media tab, Control-click the audio file that will replace the selected clip’s audio, then choose Replace Selected Clips With [filename] from the shortcut menu. 6 191 6 Editing Audio Files In Soundtrack Pro, you can edit audio files nondestructively, analyze and fix common audio problems, and create AppleScript documents to batch process other audio files. The Soundtrack Pro File Editor gives you extensive audio file editing capabilities. You can open and edit an audio file with up to 24 channels in the File Editor, view it in Waveform or Frequency Spectrum view, process the file using actions, analyze it for common audio problems, fix analyzed problems individually or together, and then save the edited file as an audio file project or as a standard audio file. Waveform view 192 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files And you can do all this while working interactively with same audio file in the multitrack Timeline and while hearing (and seeing) the file in the context of other audio files in a multitrack project. In addition, the File Editor project view includes realtime effects and effects automation, AppleScript droplet creation, and other useful features. For more information about the File Editor project view, see “Using the File Editor Project View” on page 240. Important: In order to edit nondestructively and save a file with actions, you need to convert standard audio files (such as AIFF or WAVE files) to Soundtrack Pro audio file projects (with the .stap file extension). You can easily do this by opening an AIFF or a WAVE file in Soundtrack Pro and then saving it as a Soundtrack Pro audio file project. You can open the following audio file formats in the File Editor:  Soundtrack Pro audio file project  AIFF (including Apple Loops)  WAVE  Sound Designer II  NeXT  QuickTime movie containing audio tracks  CAF (Apple Core Audio Format) Spectrum view Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 193 Compressed formats such as MP3 and AAC files are also supported, although these must be internally decompressed to a linear PCM format. Soundtrack Pro supports audio files with any sample rate between 8 kHz and 192 kHz and any of the following bit depths: 8, 16, 24, 32, and 32-bit floating point. You can edit up to 24 tracks in a single file. You can play back up to six channels in a single file in the multitrack Timeline. Audio files can be a maximum of 4 hours in length. Note: When you play the file, Soundtrack Pro plays at the nearest sample rate your hardware can support. Audio File Projects Soundtrack Pro allows you to edit individual audio files (sometimes known as waveform editing) using Soundtrack Pro audio file projects. However, unlike most waveform editing applications, Soundtrack Pro allows you to edit your audio files nondestructively by keeping track of the actions you have performed on your audio file. You can remove, disable, or reorder past actions at any time or save actions as AppleScript documents that you can use to batch process other audio files. Actions you can perform include trimming audio, copying and pasting parts of the waveform, normalizing or amplifying levels, applying effects, and applying noise, pop, and click reduction. Editing Audio Files Directly in a Multitrack Project Most audio applications focus on multitrack editing or waveform editing, but not both. Furthermore, most waveform editing applications handle media destructively—making permanent changes to your media files. Soundtrack Pro provides the best of both worlds: nondestructive waveform editing while working in a multitrack project. 194 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files You can view and modify a clip’s media file in the File Editor tab without losing the context of your multitrack Timeline. This is called editing in place. Simply select a clip in the Timeline and it appears in the File Editor tab below. The playheads in the Timeline and the File Editor tab are synchronized so you can play the media file within the context of your whole multitrack project. Any changes you make to the media file are updated in the Timeline immediately. If you prefer, you can also double-click a clip in your multitrack project and its media file opens in a new File Editor project view, ready for waveform editing. Changes you make to the file are instantly reflected in the multitrack project. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 195 Editing in Place Editing an audio file directly in the multitrack Timeline is nearly identical to editing any other audio file in the Soundtrack Pro File Editor. All of the same effects, editing tools, and waveform views are available. However, there are several differences:  Timeline and File Editor playhead synchronization: When you edit a clip’s media file in place, the Timeline and File Editor playheads are synchronized so you can work with the media file within the context of your multitrack project.  Multiple region markers: Because a media file may be referred to by multiple clips in a multitrack project, you may see multiple region markers above the ruler in the File Editor tab. Each region marker shows the In and Out points of a clip in the Timeline that refers to this media file. In addition, the display of the name of the file in the File Editor tab changes to reflect the number of clips that refer to this media file; for example, “Scene8.aiff (1 of 4).” These indications alert you to the fact that changes you make to this media file may affect multiple clips. How Clips Are Affected by Media File Editing When you modify a media file in a multitrack project, all clips that refer to that media file are updated simultaneously. For example, if you have ten clips referring to the same media file and you double-click one of the clips to modify its underlying media file, any changes you make to the media file affect all ten clips. Multiple In and Out points 196 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files How Media File Editing Works in a Multitrack Project When you edit a clip in place or open a clip in a new File Editor tab, the way the media file is handled depends on its file format.  If the clip’s audio file format is a native Soundtrack Pro audio file project: The audio file project is opened directly in the File Editor tab, allowing you to make nondestructive changes to the media. When you save the multitrack project, Soundtrack Pro automatically saves all of the associated audio file projects.  If the clip refers to a standard-format audio file (such as AIFF or WAVE): Soundtrack Pro automatically creates a Soundtrack Pro audio file project for the file and relinks all clips in the project to the new audio file project. This allows you to work with this media nondestructively. Each time you save your multitrack project, any newly created audio file project media files are saved to the Edited Media Location on your hard disk. (You can change this location by choosing Soundtrack Pro > Preferences, and then clicking General.) How Source Audio File Editing Works in an Audio File Project When you edit an audio file in the File Editor project view, the source audio file is handled as follows:  If the clip’s audio file format is a native Soundtrack Pro audio file project: Any changes you make are saved to the audio file project, allowing you to make nondestructive changes to the media.  If the clip refers to a standard-format audio file (such as AIFF or WAVE): Soundtrack Pro automatically creates a Soundtrack Pro audio file project for the flat file. When you attempt to save the changes to the audio file project, the default File Type is Audio File Project, which retains the nondestructive changes in the form of an Actions list. If you change the File Type in the Save dialog to a flat file format (such as AIFF or WAVE), you lose the nondestructive characteristics of a Soundtrack Pro audio file project. For more information about the File Editor project view, see “Using the File Editor Project View” on page 240. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 197 Modifying a Clip Without Affecting Its Source Media Any time you use multiple instances of the same clip in a multitrack project, the clip refers to the same source media file. This means that any time you modify the media file, all of the clips that refer to the media file are affected. How do you edit just one clip without editing its source media? In cases where you only want to make changes to a single clip, you can make a new copy of the clip’s media file in a new audio file project and link this clip to the new audio file project. To create a copy of a clip’s media file and link the clip to the new audio file project: 1 Select the clip whose source media file you want to copy. 2 Control-click the clip in the Timeline, then choose Replace with Independent Audio File Project from the shortcut menu. A new Soundtrack Pro audio file project is created that includes a copy of the original audio file. Only media between the clip’s In and Out points is copied, plus handles on either side for later trimming if necessary. The new audio file project opens in the File Editor tab and the clip now links to the new audio file project. Note: The default handle duration is 5 seconds. To adjust the handle duration, choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General. 198 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Editing Audio Files in the File Editor You can edit audio files in many different ways in the File Editor tab and File Editor project view. You can edit the entire file or select part of the file to edit. You can cut, copy, and paste audio, and graphically edit audio files using a variety of tools in the File Editor. Opening Audio Files in the File Editor Tab You can play an audio file in the File Editor so you can hear the file and any changes you make to it. To open an audio file in the File Editor tab, do one of the following: m With the File Editor tab active, select a clip in the Timeline. The waveform for the clip appears in the File Editor tab. m Drag a clip into the File Editor tab from one of the media tabs. The waveform for the clip appears in the File Editor. Note: You can drag from the Bin, Browser, Search, and Favorites tabs. If there is already a clip in the File Editor, it is replaced by the new clip. Select a clip in the Timeline... ...to work with it in the File Editor. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 199 Playing Audio Files in the File Editor You can play an audio file in the File Editor so you can hear the file and any changes you make to it. To play an audio file: m Click the Play button in the transport controls (or press the Space bar). Click the Play button (or press the Space bar) again to stop playback. You can set the playhead in the File Editor in the same way you set it in the Timeline, by clicking in the waveform display or in the Time ruler, using the transport controls, or using the Playhead Location value slider. For more information, see “Setting the Playhead Quickly” on page 72. Soloing an Audio File in the File Editor You can use the Solo button in the File Editor tab to mute all other tracks so that you can hear the audio file outside the context of the multitrack project. To solo an audio file in the File Editor tab: 1 With the File Editor tab active, select a clip in the Timeline. The waveform for the clip appears in the File Editor tab. 2 Click the Solo button in the File Editor tab. All other tracks in the Timeline are muted and the Preview Volume slider next to the Solo button becomes active. 3 Play the file and adjust the volume using the Preview Volume slider, as needed. Solo button Preview Volume slider Link button 200 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Linking the File Editor Selection and the Cycle Region You can link the File Editor tab to the Cycle Region so that when you make selections in the File Editor tab (or selections of clips in the Timeline with the Timeslice tool), Soundtrack Pro automatically adjusts the Cycle Region to match the selection. To link the Cycle Region to File Editor and Timeslice selections: 1 Click the Link button in the File Editor tab. 2 Make one of the following kinds of selections:  Make a selection in the File Editor tab.  Using the Timeslice tool, select a portion of a clip in the Timeline. The Cycle Region adjusts accordingly. Scrubbing Audio Files Scrubbing an audio file lets you hear the audio at the playhead position as you drag the playhead so you can quickly find a particular sound or event in the audio file. The Soundtrack Pro Scrub tool provides detailed scrubbing that realistically approximates the “rock-the-reels” scrubbing on analog tape decks. To scrub an audio file with the Scrub tool: 1 In the Timeline or the File Editor, click the Scrub tool or press H. 2 Drag the Scrub tool left or right across a clip in the Timeline or across the File Editor. When you use the Scrub tool in the multitrack Timeline, you can only scrub one clip at a time. To scrub multiple tracks at once, scrub with the playhead. Scrub tool Use the Scrub tool to scrub through an audio file. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 201 To scrub an audio file with the playhead: 1 Press and hold the triangular part of the playhead. 2 While holding the playhead, drag left or right at the speed you want to scrub the audio file. Scrubbing is useful to help identify the part of an audio file that you want to edit. While you are scrubbing an audio file, you can also select the part of the file that you want to edit. To make a selection while scrubbing with the playhead: m As you move the playhead, press and hold the Shift key. For projects containing a video file, dragging to create a selection scrubs the video at the selection point. To scrub using keyboard shortcuts: m As you move the playhead, press and hold the Shift key. For projects containing a video file, dragging to create a selection scrubs the video at the selection point. Shift-drag to create a selection with the Scrub tool. 202 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Selecting Part of an Audio File When you apply an action to an audio file in the File Editor, the action is applied to the entire file unless you select part of the file. You can select different parts of the audio file and apply different actions to each selection. To select part of an audio file: m In the waveform display, drag horizontally across the part of the waveform you want to select. Some actions can only be applied to a selection. The selection can contain the entire audio file. To select the entire audio file: m Choose Edit > Select All. You can select one channel (left or right) of a stereo audio file and apply actions to only the selected channel. You can also select only part of one channel. To select the left channel of an audio file: 1 Move the pointer near the upper edge of the waveform display. The pointer changes to the letter “L.” Selected area Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 203 2 Drag the pointer to select the part of the left channel you want to work with. As you drag, the right (lower) channel of the audio file becomes darker in the waveform display. You can also double-click in the upper part of the waveform display to select the entire left channel. To select the right channel of an audio file: 1 Move the pointer near the lower edge of the waveform display. The pointer changes to the letter “R.” 2 Drag the pointer to select the part of the right channel with which you want to work. As you drag, the left (upper) channel of the audio file becomes darker in the waveform display. You can also double-click in the lower part of the waveform display to select the entire right channel. Left channel selected Right channel selected 204 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files If you have added markers to an audio file project, you can select the area between two markers. To select the area between two markers in the File Editor project view: m Double-click the waveform display in the area between the two markers. If there are additional markers, you can expand the selection by dragging toward them. To select the entire contents of one or more channels: 1 Click the File Editor tab or the File Editor project view to make it the active window. 2 Choose Edit > Select > Across Channels (or press Shift-T). If there is an existing selection, it is extended across the entire duration of the file (but only for the currently selected channels). If there is not an existing selection, Soundtrack Pro creates a new selection across active channels for the entire length of the file. To select the partial contents of one or more channels: 1 Click the File Editor tab or the File Editor project view to make it the active window. 2 Position the playhead. 3 Do one of the following:  To select everything to the right of the playhead in the active channels, choose Edit > Select > Forward (or press Shift-End).  To select everything to the right of the playhead in the active channels, choose Edit > Select > Backward (or press Shift-Home). If there is an existing selection, the selection is extended to the end of the audio file (for Forward) or to the beginning of the audio file (for Backward). If there is no existing selection, Soundtrack Pro creates a new selection across active channels from the end of the audio file (for Forward) or from the beginning of the audio file (for Backward). Note: If you hold down the Option key, the menu items will read Select > All Forward and Select > All Backward, and behave the same as described earlier except the selection will be across all channels instead of just the selected channels. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 205 Adjusting Selections to a Zero Crossing A zero crossing is a point in an audio file where the amplitude is zero. When you edit an audio file in the File Editor, if the beginning or end points of your edit do not occur at a zero crossing, the edited audio file can have unwanted noise at the beginning and/or end of the edited area. Subsequent editing of the file, such as normalizing or increasing the gain, can increase this unwanted noise. Once you have made a selection in the File Editor, you can fine-tune the selection so that it begins or ends at the nearest zero-crossing point. To adjust a selection to the zero crossing: 1 Make a selection in the File Editor. 2 Choose Edit > Adjust Selection to Zero Crossing and choose one of the following from the submenu:  Inward  Outward  In Point to Left  In Point to Right  Out Point to Left  Out Point to Right The edit point is adjusted to occur at the specified zero-crossing. Moving Between Selections You can select different areas of the audio file to apply different actions or to play different areas. Any selection can include the same part of an audio file as another selection. As you work on the audio file, you can move back and forth between selections. To move to the previous selection: m Click the Previous Selection button above the waveform display. The previous selection becomes the current selection. The selection area appears darker than the rest of the waveform. To move to the next selection: m Click the Next Selection button above the waveform display. The next selection becomes the current selection. The selection area appears darker than the rest of the waveform. Previous Selection button Next Selection button 206 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Cutting, Copying, and Pasting in the File Editor You can cut, copy, and paste audio in the File Editor. Cutting, copying, and pasting can change the length of an audio file. To cut part of an audio file in the File Editor: 1 Select the part of the file you want to cut. 2 Choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). The selected part of the file is removed, and the file shortens by the cut amount. To copy audio in the File Editor: 1 Select the part of the file you want to copy. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). You can paste audio in the File Editor. You can paste at the playhead position, paste mix, or paste repeat. To paste audio in the File Editor: 1 Set the playhead to the point where you want to paste the audio. 2 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). The cut or copied audio is pasted starting at the playhead position. The audio after the playhead in the file moves to accommodate the pasted audio, and the file lengthens by the pasted amount. You can also paste mix in the File Editor. When you paste mix, the pasted audio is mixed (or blended) with the existing audio in the audio file. You can control the mix of the pasted audio and existing audio and can crossfade the pasted audio. To paste mix audio in the File Editor: 1 Set the playhead to the point where you want to paste the audio. 2 Choose Edit > Paste Special > Paste Mix. 3 In the Paste Mix dialog, drag the Original Material Level slider to set the mix level of the existing audio in the pasted area. 4 Drag the Clipboard Level slider to set the mix level of the pasted audio. 5 Optionally, you can crossfade the pasted audio by selecting the Crossfade In and Out Points checkbox and typing crossfade values (in milliseconds) in the Fade In Length and Fade Out Length fields. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 207 6 Click OK. The cut or copied audio is mixed with the existing audio. You can also paste repeat in the File Editor. When you paste repeat, the cut or copied audio is pasted the number of times you specify in succession, so that each copy starts at the end of the previous one. To paste repeat in the File Editor: 1 Set the playhead to the point where you want to paste the audio. 2 Choose Edit > Paste Special > Paste Repeat. 3 In the Paste Repeat dialog, type the number of copies you want to paste in the field. 4 Click OK. The copies are pasted starting at the playhead position. The audio after the playhead in the file moves to accommodate the pasted audio, and the file lengthens by the pasted amount. Zooming In and Out in the File Editor You can zoom in on a specific part of an audio file to make precise edits and perform other tasks. To zoom in or out, do one of the following: m Drag the Zoom control left to zoom in for a closer view, or drag right to zoom out for a wider view. m Choose View > Zoom In to zoom in one level. m Choose View > Zoom Out to zoom out one level. If you have a mouse with a scrollwheel connected to your computer, you can set Soundtrack Pro to zoom in or out when you move the scrollwheel. You can select part of the audio file and zoom in on the selected area, zoom in to see individual samples in the waveform, or zoom out to peaks. To set Soundtrack Pro to zoom the waveform display when you move the scrollwheel: 1 Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences. 2 If the General preferences pane is not visible, click the General button. 3 In the Timeline section of the General preferences pane, choose “Zooms at playhead” from the Scrollwheel pop-up menu. To zoom in or out using a scrollwheel: m Move the scrollwheel up to zoom in, or move it down to zoom out. 208 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files To zoom in on a selection: 1 In the waveform display, select the area you want to zoom in on. 2 Choose View > Zoom to Selection. To zoom in to see individual samples: m Choose View > Zoom to Samples. Note: If you have previously zoomed in to a level where individual samples are visible in the waveform display, choosing Zoom to Samples zooms in to the same zoom level. To zoom out to see the entire waveform: m Choose View > Fit to Window. To return to the original zoom level: m Choose View > Zoom Normal. You can also zoom in on a selected area using the Zoom tool. For information about using the Zoom tool, see “Zoom Tool” on page 211. Editing Audio Files Graphically with Waveform Editing Tools The File Editor includes waveform editing tools you can use to graphically edit the audio file in the waveform display. Selection Tool You can use the Selection tool to select part of an audio file, as described in “Selecting Part of an Audio File” on page 202. When you open the File Editor, the pointer is a selection pointer (arrow). When you are done using another waveform editing tool, you can return the pointer to a selection pointer by clicking the Selection Tool button. Frequency Selection Tool You can use the Frequency Selection tool to make selections in Frequency Spectrum View not just of time ranges but also of frequency ranges. You can copy, paste, and delete frequency selections as well as adjust the amplitude of frequency selections. For more information, see “Viewing an Audio File in Frequency Spectrum View” on page 214. Selection Tool button Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 209 Sample Edit Tool You can graphically edit samples in the audio file using the Sample Edit tool. To use the Sample Edit tool, the waveform display must be zoomed in enough to see individual samples, which appear as small squares connected by a thin line. To edit samples using the Sample Edit tool: 1 Click the Sample Edit Tool button above the time display. The pointer becomes a Sample Edit pointer. 2 Zoom in on the part of the waveform you want to edit. 3 To graphically edit samples, do one of the following:  Drag a sample up or down to a new value.  Click directly above or below a sample.  Drag left or right to reshape the waveform. You can also edit samples numerically in the waveform display. To edit samples numerically: 1 Control-click a sample, then choose Set Value from the shortcut menu. 2 In the dialog that appears, type a new value for the sample. 3 Click OK. Sample Edit Tool button Use the Sample Edit tool to reshape the waveform. 210 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Audio Stretching Tool You can time stretch all or part of an audio file to change the amount of time it occupies. When you stretch an audio file, the length of time changes but not the pitch (letting you fill dialogue, music, or other audio to a specific amount of time). For audio files with music or other repeating patterns, stretching the file changes the tempo of the music without changing the key. The range of the Audio Stretching tool is limited to between 25% to 400% of the length of the original audio. To graphically time stretch an audio file: 1 Click the Audio Stretching Tool button above the time display. 2 In the waveform display, drag horizontally across the waveform to select the part you want to time stretch. 3 Move the pointer over the right edge of the selection. The pointer becomes a Stretch pointer. 4 Drag the right edge of the selection left to shorten the selected area, or drag it right to lengthen the selected area. When you shorten a selection of an audio file using the Audio Stretching tool in the File Editor, the empty part of the selection area is filled with ambient noise if an ambient noise print exists. If no ambient noise print exists, the empty part of the selection area is filled with silence. Shortening a selection using the Audio Stretching tool does not change the length of the audio file. Audio Stretching Tool button Use the Audio Stretching tool to shorten or lengthen the selected area of the waveform. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 211 When you lengthen the selection using the Audio Stretching tool, any audio overlapped by the lengthened selection area is deleted. Lengthening the selection past the end of the file changes the length of the audio file. If you hold down the Option key while dragging the selection with the Audio Stretching tool, the audio following the selection area ripples forward when you lengthen the selection and ripples backward when you shorten the selection. In both cases, using the Option key changes the length of the audio file. Note: Stretching an audio file by a large amount can degrade the sound quality of the audio file. For information about stretching an audio file numerically using the Process menu, see “Time Stretch” on page 224. Zoom Tool You can zoom in on a specific part of the waveform display to make precise edits. To zoom in using the Zoom tool: 1 Click the Zoom Tool button above the time display. The pointer changes to a Zoom pointer. 2 In the waveform display, do one of the following:  Click to zoom in.  Option-click to zoom out.  Drag horizontally to select the part of the waveform you want to zoom in on. The waveform display zooms in on the selected area. For information on other ways to zoom in and out in the waveform display, see “Zooming In and Out in the File Editor” on page 207. Zoom Tool button 212 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Choosing the Sample Units in the File Editor Along the left edge of the File Editor is a scale of sample units for the audio file. You can set this scale to any of the following sample units:  Sample Value  Normalized  Percent  Decibels To set the sample units in the waveform display, do one of the following: m Choose View > Sample Ruler Units, then choose a format from the submenu. m Control-click along the left edge of the waveform display where the sample units appear, then choose the sample units you want from the shortcut menu. Editing Multichannel Files In Soundtrack Pro, you can edit multichannel files with up to 24 channels, including the following types of multichannel files: AIFF, WAV, Broadcast Wave, QuickTime, and single folder/multi-mono file AIFF. Each channel row is identified by a number. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 213 Selecting and Editing Channels in Multichannel Files Editing multichannel files in the File Editor is similar to editing in a multitrack Timeline. To make a selection across all channels: m Drag in the bottom 90 percent of any channel. To make a selection in an individual channel: 1 Move the pointer to the top 10 percent of a channel row. The pointer changes to indicate the channel name or number. 2 Drag in the channel row over the area you want to select. To make a selection in multiple, adjacent channels: 1 Move the pointer to the top 10 percent of a channel row. The pointer changes to indicate the channel name or number. 2 Drag in the channel row to the area you want to select. 3 Continue dragging up or down to include the adjacent channels. To make a selection in multiple, nonadjacent channels: 1 Move the pointer to the top 10 percent of a channel row. The pointer changes to indicate the channel name or number. 2 Drag in the channel row over the area you want to select. 3 Command-click in the bottom 10 percent of any nonadjacent channels. Note: Nonadjacent selections must be within the same time range. To disable or enable an individual channel: m Control-click a channel, then choose Enabled from the shortcut menu to toggle it on or off. To enable all channels: m Control-click a channel, then choose Enable All from the shortcut menu. To disable all channels: m Control-click a channel, then choose Disable All from the shortcut menu. To reorder channels: m Choose Process > Reorder Channels, then use the dialog that appears to rearrange the channel order. For more information, see “Reorder Channels” on page 229. 214 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Creating a New Multichannel Audio File You can create a new multichannel file and specify the number of channels and the sample rate. To open a new multichannel audio file: 1 Do one of the following:  Choose File > New > Audio File (or press Command-Shift-N).  Click New Audio File in the Toolbar. 2 Choose an option from the Channels pop-up menu:  Mono  Stereo  Surround (5.1)  Other Note: If you choose Other, use the value slider to enter the number of channels for the new audio file. 3 Enter a sample rate in the Sample Rate field or choose one from the pop-up menu. 4 Click OK. Using Frequency Spectrum View When you first open the File Editor, it shows the audio file in Waveform view. You can also view and edit an audio file in Frequency Spectrum view. Frequency Spectrum view gives you a way to find areas of significant frequency change that aren’t visible in a waveform. Viewing an Audio File in Frequency Spectrum View In Frequency Spectrum view, the display shows the frequency spectrum of each channel of a stereo audio file on a scale from 0 Hertz (Hz) to half the sample rate of the file. For example, for a 48 kHz audio file, the scale progresses from 0 Hz to 24 kHz. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 215 To view an audio file in Frequency Spectrum view, do one the following: m Choose View > File Editor Display > Show Spectrum. m Click the Frequency Spectrum View button in the upper-right corner of the File Editor tab or the File Editor project view. The display changes to show the audio file’s frequency spectrum. You can select parts of the audio file, apply actions, and edit the audio file in Frequency Spectrum view in the same way as in Waveform view. In addition, you can make selections of frequency ranges as well as copy, paste, delete, and adjust the amplitude of frequency selections. You can also change the Frequency Spectrum view display to show the frequency spectrum linearly or logarithmically, use different analysis windows, and change the number of samples used to calculate the view. To return to Waveform view, do one the following: m Choose View > File Editor Display > Show Waveform. m Click the Waveform View button. Frequency Spectrum View button Waveform View button 216 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Using the Spectrum View HUD The Spectrum View HUD is a floating window that provides extensive controls for Frequency Spectrum view.  Preemphasis: Applies gain per octave. Drag the slider to the right to emphasize high frequency content.  Minimum Frequency: Allows you to view a subset of the frequency range (for example, only the frequencies over 1 kHz).  Maximum Frequency: Allows you to view a subset of the frequency range (for example, only the frequencies under 9 kHz).  Minimum Power: Defines the bottom of the scale (where the blue portion of the gradient starts).  Maximum Power: Defines the top of the scale (where the red portion of the gradient ends).  Analysis Window: To display the audio file in Frequency Spectrum view, part of the audio data for each given point in time is analyzed. Each method of analysis represents a slightly different compromise between frequency resolution and spectral leakage. You can choose between several different analysis methods, called analysis windows, used to display the frequency spectrum in Frequency Spectrum view.  Window Size: The number of samples used for Frequency Spectrum view. This parameter trades off frequency resolution for time resolution. Smaller window sizes are more accurate timewise, but smear frequency information across adjacent frequencies (vertical lines, or transients, appear sharper). Larger window sizes provide a more accurate frequency display, but will smear things horizontally (horizontal lines appear sharper, but transients are smeared).  Frequency Scale: Use Frequency Scale to switch between linear display (in which harmonics appear evenly spaced) and logarithmic display (in which octaves appear evenly spaced). Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 217  Color pop-up menu and gradient slider: Use the menu and slider to customize the gradient for Frequency Spectrum view.  Reset button: Resets all controls to their default values. To open the Spectrum View HUD: 1 Turn on Frequency Spectrum view. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose View > File Editor Display > Show Spectrum Controls.  Control-click the spectrum display, then choose Show Spectrum Controls from the shortcut menu. Adjusting the Frequency Spectrum View with the Shortcut Menu You can also Control-click the Frequency Spectrum view to change the settings. To show the frequency spectrum on a logarithmic scale: m Control-click the Sample ruler along the left edge of the display, then choose Logarithmic from the shortcut menu. To show the frequency spectrum on a linear scale: m Control-click the Sample ruler along the left edge of the display, then choose Linear from the shortcut menu. To display the audio file in Frequency Spectrum view, part of the audio data for each given point in time is analyzed. Each method of analysis represents a slightly different compromise between frequency resolution and spectral leakage. You can choose among several different analysis methods, called analysis windows, used to display the frequency spectrum in Frequency Spectrum view. To choose an analysis window for Frequency Spectrum view: m Control-click the spectrum display, then choose an analysis window from the upper part of the shortcut menu. Frequency Spectrum view changes the display using the analysis window you selected. Experiment with these options to see which one shows the data the best. 218 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files You can also choose the number of samples used to calculate the spectrum display. To choose the window size (number of samples used) for Frequency Spectrum view: m Control-click the spectrum display, then choose a number from the lower part of the shortcut menu. Editing in Frequency Spectrum View Use the Frequency Spectrum view and the Frequency Selection tool to select frequency ranges as well as to copy, paste, delete, and adjust the amplitude of frequency selections. You can also select parts of the audio file, apply actions, and edit the audio file in Frequency Spectrum view in the same way as in Waveform view. To select a frequency range: 1 Turn on Frequency Spectrum view. 2 Click the Frequency Selection Tool button at the top of the File Editor tab or the top of the File Editor project view. In general, editing in Frequency Spectrum view uses the same conventions as editing in Waveform view. For more information about editing in Waveform view, see “Using the Global Waveform View” on page 249. Frequency Selection Tool button Frequency Spectrum view selection Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 219 Frequency Selection Tool Guidelines Here are some further guidelines for editing in Frequency Spectrum view with the Frequency Selection tool:  All paste edits, including paste, paste mix, and paste repeat, are supported for frequency selections.  Pasting to an ordinary (full frequency range) selection follows the same conventions as in the Waveform view.  Pasting to a narrow frequency range causes the contents of the Clipboard to be filtered before being pasted. This filtered result is added to the result of applying the complementary filter to the original audio with any necessary truncation or zero-padding if the length of the selection is greater than or less than, respectively, the length of the Clipboard audio data.  When you switch between Frequency Spectrum view and Waveform view, ordinary (full frequency range) selections are preserved, but any narrow frequency range selections are reset. Processing Audio Files You can process audio files in the File Editor in a variety of ways. You can choose processing effects and other operations from the Process menu and apply them to an entire file, or select part of the file and apply the effect to the selection. When you choose an item from the Process menu, the item appears as an action in the Actions list. The Process menu contains the items described in the following sections. Choosing Processing Effects The Effects submenu contains an extensive set of professional audio effects you can apply to an audio file or a selection. The audio effects in the Effects submenu are the same as the realtime effects you can apply to tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline. For information about individual effects in the Effects submenu, see “Audio Effects Included with Soundtrack Pro” on page 331 and the Soundtrack Pro Effects Reference document, available in the Help menu. The effects included with Soundtrack Pro are categorized by type in the Effects submenu. Below these effect categories is a submenu for Mac OS effects. If you have installed third-party Audio Units effects on your computer, additional submenus for the third-party effects appear at the bottom of the Effects submenu. When you apply a processing effect from the Effects submenu, the floating advanced settings window for the effect appears. Processing effects windows are nonmodal, allowing you to click a window behind the effects window (for instance, the Timeline or File Editor window) to move the playhead or adjust the selection range. 220 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files The advanced settings window contains controls for previewing the effect in the File Editor, bypassing, applying, or canceling the effect, resetting effect parameters, and applying effect presets.  Play button: Plays the audio file or selection with the effect.  Volume slider: Controls the volume of the audio file or selection as you play it.  Bypass button: Bypasses the effect so you can hear the difference in the sound of the audio file or selection with and without the effect.  Reset button: Resets all effect parameters to their default values.  Cancel button: Closes the advanced settings window without applying the effect.  Apply button: Applies the effect to the audio file or selection and closes the advanced settings window.  Show/Hide Presets button: Shows or hides the Presets drawer so you can apply effect presets. For information about applying effect presets in the File Editor, see “Working with Effect Presets” on page 330. For information about the effects in the Effects submenu, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. Fade In Choosing this command fades in the audio file or selection. The fade-in progresses in linear fashion from the beginning to the end of the audio file or selection. Fade Out Choosing this command fades out the audio file or selection. The fade-out progresses in linear fashion from the beginning to the end of the audio file or selection. Show/Hide Presets button Bypass button Reset button Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 221 Normalize Choosing this command normalizes (adjusts the gain of ) the audio file or selection to the decibel level shown in the Normalization Level field. The highest peak in the file is raised or lowered to the level you set, and the rest of the audio file is raised or lowered by the same amount. When you choose Process > Normalize, the level is set to 0 dB. To set the normalization level: 1 Choose Process > Normalize. 2 In the Normalize dialog, drag the Normalization Level slider or select the value in the Normalization Level field and type a new value. 3 Click OK. You can preview the audio file at the normalization level before closing the Normalize dialog. This makes it easy to set the level before normalizing the file. To preview the file at the normalization level: m In the Normalize dialog, select the Preview checkbox. Adjust Amplitude Choosing this command raises or lowers the gain of the audio file or selection by the amount shown in the Amplitude Level field. When you choose Process > Adjust Amplitude, the level shown in the field is zero (0) dB, or unity gain. To set the amplitude level: 1 Choose Process > Adjust Amplitude. 2 In the Adjust Amplitude dialog, drag the Amplitude Level slider or select the value in the Amplitude Level field and type a new value. 3 Click OK. Silence Choosing this command replaces the audio file or selection with complete silence. Invert Choosing this command inverts the phase of each sample in the audio file or selection. Each sample’s amplitude is unchanged, but the phase is inverted. In the waveform display, the wave’s crests become troughs and vice versa. Reverse Choosing this command reverses the order of the samples in the audio file or selection so that the first sample becomes the last and vice versa. 222 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Insert You can insert silence, noise, or a waveform in an audio file or selection. When you choose Process > Insert, then choose one of the three items from the Insert submenu, the silence, noise, or waveform is inserted at the current playhead position. The remainder of the audio file ripples so that it continues after the inserted silence, noise, or waveform. Inserting Silence When you choose Process > Insert, then choose Silence from the Insert submenu, the Insert Silence sheet appears. You can set the length of silence to insert, and choose the format for setting the length of the silence (any of the Time Ruler Units formats). To set the length of the inserted silence: 1 In the Insert Silence sheet, choose the format you want to use from the Format pop-up menu. 2 In the “Length of silence to insert” value slider, do one of the following:  Click the left arrow to shorten the length of the inserted silence, or click the right arrow to increase the length.  Click the center of the value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the length of inserted silence.  Click the value in the value slider, then type a new value. 3 Click OK. Inserting Noise When you choose Process > Insert, then choose Noise from the Insert submenu, the Noise Generator dialog appears. You can set the type of noise to insert, set the length of the inserted noise, choose the format for setting the noise length (any of the Time Ruler Units formats), and set the volume of the inserted noise. The inserted noise can be white noise (emphasizing higher frequencies) or pink noise (equal distribution of frequencies). Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 223 To choose the type of noise to insert: m In the Noise Generator dialog, choose the type of noise from the Waveform Type pop-up menu. To set the length of the inserted noise: 1 In the Noise Generator dialog, choose the format you want to use from the Duration pop-up menu. 2 In the Duration value slider, do one of the following:  Click the left arrow to shorten the length of the inserted noise, or click the right arrow to increase the length.  Click the center of the value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the length of inserted noise.  Click the value in the value slider, then type a new value. 3 Click OK. To set the volume level of the inserted noise: m In the Noise Generator dialog, drag the Volume slider left or right to set the noise level. You can also type a level (in decibels) in the Volume field. Inserting a Waveform When you choose Process > Insert, then choose Waveform from the Insert submenu, the Wave Generator dialog appears. You can set the type of waveform to insert, set the length of the inserted waveform, choose the format for setting the waveform length (any of the Time Ruler Units formats), and set the volume of the inserted waveform. The inserted waveform can be a sine, sawtooth, square, or triangle wave. To choose the type of waveform to insert: m In the Wave Generator dialog, choose the type of waveform from the Waveform Type pop-up menu. To set the frequency of the inserted waveform: m In the Wave Generator dialog, drag the Frequency slider left or right to set the frequency. You can also type a frequency (in Hertz) in the Frequency field. 224 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files To set the length of the inserted waveform: 1 In the Wave Generator dialog, choose the format you want to use from the Duration pop-up menu. 2 In the Duration value slider, do one of the following:  Click the left arrow to shorten the length of the inserted waveform, or click the right arrow to increase the length.  Click the center of the value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the length of the inserted waveform.  Click the value in the value slider, then type a new value. 3 Click OK. Time Stretch You can time stretch an audio file or selection. When you time stretch an audio file, you change the duration (length) of the file without changing the frequency (pitch) of the file. For example, for a file containing music, the tempo of the music is changed, but not the pitch. When you time stretch an audio file, you can choose the format for time values you enter. To time stretch an audio file: 1 Select the part of the file you want to time stretch (it can be the entire file). 2 Choose Process > Time Stretch. The Time Stretch sheet appears. 3 In the Time Stretch sheet, choose the format for setting the amount to time stretch the file from the Format pop-up menu. 4 In the “Length of selection” value slider, do one of the following:  Click the left arrow to shorten the length, or click the right arrow to increase the length.  Click the center of the value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the length.  Click the value in the value slider, then type a new value. 5 Click OK. For information on stretching a file graphically using the Audio Stretching tool, see “Audio Stretching Tool” on page 210. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 225 Noise Reduction Some audio files contain unwanted noise, making it difficult to hear the voices, music, or other content of the file. Soundtrack Pro features two commands, Set Noise Print and Reduce Noise, that you can use together to reduce noise in an audio file or selection. Set Noise Print The Set Noise Print command lets you select part of an audio file containing only the noise that you want to remove as a “noise print.” The noise print provides a signature of the frequencies to reduce or remove from the file. Setting the noise print before reducing noise is optional. If you do not set a noise print before using the Reduce Noise command, Soundtrack Pro extracts a noise print from the selected part of the audio file. If there is an existing noise print, it will be used, even if it is from a different audio file, unless you set a new noise print. To set part of an audio file as a noise print: 1 In the waveform display, select the part of the audio file containing only the noise you want to reduce. 2 Choose Process > Noise Reduction > Set Noise Print. The selected noise is stored as a noise print. Reduce Noise The Reduce Noise command uses the frequency content of the noise print to reduce noise in the audio file or selection. To reduce noise using the noise print: 1 In the waveform display, select the part of the audio file in which you want to reduce noise. 2 Choose Process > Noise Reduction > Reduce Noise. The Reduce Noise dialog appears. In the Reduce Noise dialog, you can optionally set the noise threshold and tone for noise reduction. You can also preview the noise reduction with the dialog open. The noise threshold determines the level below which audio in the noise print is considered to be noise. Lowering the threshold results in only very low signals being reduced, while raising the threshold results in more high-level signals being reduced. 226 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files To set the threshold of the noise reduction: m In the Reduce Noise dialog, drag the Noise Threshold slider left to lower the threshold, or drag it right to raise the threshold. You can also type a value (in decibels) in the Noise Threshold field. To set the amount of noise reduction: m Drag the Reduction slider left to decrease the amount of noise reduction, or drag it right to increase the amount of noise reduction. To change the tone of the noise reduction: m In the Reduce Noise dialog, drag the Tone Control slider left to preserve more low-frequency content (bass), or drag it right to preserve high-frequency content (treble) during noise reduction. You can preview noise reduction with the Reduce Noise dialog open and adjust the threshold and tone of noise reduction. You can also hear the audio file or selection with and without noise reduction, or hear only the noise to be removed. To preview the file with noise reduction: m Click the Play button in the lower part of the Reduce Noise dialog. To set the preview volume level: m Drag the Volume slider in the lower part of the Reduce Noise dialog left to lower the volume or right to raise the volume. To compare the file with and without noise reduction: m Click the Bypass button to hear the file without noise reduction. Click the button again to hear the file with noise reduction. To hear only the noise to be removed: m Select the Noise Only checkbox. To use a noise reduction preset: 1 In the Reduce Noise dialog, click Show Presets. The Presets drawer appears. 2 In the Presets drawer, select a preset from either the Factory Presets or User Presets list. 3 Click Apply. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 227 Adding Ambient Noise When editing an audio file, you may want to remove some sounds from the file while preserving the room tone or other ambient background noise in the file. Soundtrack Pro features commands you can use to set a selection as an ambient noise print and add the noise print to existing audio or replace the audio with the noise print. Set Ambient Noise Print The Set Ambient Noise Print command lets you copy part of an audio file containing only ambient noise that you want to add to another part of the file (or another file). To set part of an audio file as an ambient noise print: 1 In the waveform display, select the part of the audio file containing only ambient noise. 2 Choose Process > Set Ambient Noise Print. The ambient noise is stored in a special buffer separate from the Clipboard, and is saved to the project. If you have copied audio to the Clipboard, you can set the contents of the Clipboard as an ambient noise print. To set the contents of the Clipboard as an ambient noise print: m Choose Process > Set Ambient Noise From Clipboard. Add Ambient Noise The Add Ambient Noise command adds the ambient noise stored in the ambient noise buffer to the audio file or selection. To add ambient noise to an audio file: 1 In the waveform display, select the part of the audio file to which you want to add the ambient noise. 2 Choose Process > Add Ambient Noise. The ambient noise is added to the selected audio. If the selection is longer than the copied ambient noise, the ambient noise repeats to fill the selection. Replace With Ambient Noise The Replace With Ambient Noise command replaces the selected audio with the ambient noise stored in the ambient noise buffer. To replace existing audio with ambient noise: 1 In the waveform display, select the part of the audio file you want to replace with ambient noise. 2 Choose Process > Replace With Ambient Noise. The ambient noise replaces the selected audio. If the selection is longer than the copied ambient noise, the ambient noise repeats to fill the selection. 228 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Equalization Matching Equalization matching matches the average frequency spectrum of the target clip to that of the source clip. Set Equalization Print The Set Equalization Print command lets you select part of an audio file and create an equalization print from it. The equalization print provides an equalization signature that you can apply to other files. To set an equalization print: 1 Select the audio file (or part of the audio file) containing the equalization you want to match. 2 Choose Process > Equalization Matching > Set Equalization Print. The selection is stored as a equalization print. Apply Equalization The Apply Equalization command uses the average frequency spectrum of the equalization print to match the equalization in the audio file or selection. To match equalization using the equalization print: 1 Select the audio file (or part of the audio file) in which you want to match the equalization. 2 Choose Process > Equalization Matching > Apply Equalization. The equalization print is applied to the target file. Convert to Mono Choosing this command converts a stereo audio file to mono. You can choose whether to convert the file to mono by using only the left channel, using only the right channel, or combining the two channels. Combining the left and right channels sums them as an equal gain mix. To select how a stereo file is converted to mono: 1 Choose Process > Convert to Mono. 2 In the Convert to Mono dialog, select the button corresponding to the method by which you want to convert the file to mono. 3 Click OK. The Convert to Mono action converts the entire stereo file to mono. You cannot convert only a selection of a file to mono. The Convert to Mono action flattens the file, removing existing actions from the Actions list. For information about flattening actions, see “Flattening Actions” on page 233. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 229 Resample Choosing this command resamples the audio file to a new sample rate. To choose the new sample rate: 1 Choose Process > Resample. 2 In the Resample sheet, choose a sample rate from the Sample Rate pop-up menu. You can also type a sample rate (in Hertz) in the Sample Rate field. 3 Click OK. The Resample action flattens the file, removing existing actions from the Actions list. For information about flattening actions, see “Flattening Actions” on page 233. Swap Channels Choosing this command swaps the left and right channel of a stereo audio file or selection. If the file is mono or multichannel (more than two channels), Swap Channels is disabled. Reorder Channels This command opens a dialog that allows you to rearrange the order of channels in a multichannel file. If the file is mono, Reorder Channels is disabled. To reorder channels in an audio file: 1 Choose Process > Reorder Channels. 2 Drag the name of the channel to a different location in the channel list. 3 Click OK. Render to Action This command renders realtime effects to actions. It is available in the File Editor project view only. For more information, see “Rendering Realtime Effects to Actions” on page 243. Applying Realtime Effects to Individual Audio Files In addition to processing effects, you can apply realtime effects to an audio file project. You can apply realtime effects in the Effects tab, and you can automate realtime effect parameters in the File Editor project view. For more information, see “Applying Realtime Effects in the File Editor Project View” on page 242. 230 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Working with Actions Actions give you an extremely flexible and powerful way to edit audio files in the File Editor. You can apply an action to an entire file or a selected part of the file, including applying an action to only one channel of a stereo audio file. You can turn individual actions on or off and reorder actions in the Actions list, changing the sequence in which the actions change the audio file. You can adjust action settings after applying the action, and can flatten actions. Applying Actions You start working with actions by applying an action to the audio file or the currently selected part of the file. To apply an action: 1 With the file open in the File Editor, choose an item from the Process menu. The item appears in the Actions list. 2 Some actions have a dialog that appears when you choose the item from the Process menu. Adjust the settings in the dialog, then click Apply. The action is added to the Actions list, and the waveform display updates to show the change to the audio file. You can hear the change when you play the project. Some actions may take a moment to apply. In this case, a progress bar appears, indicating that the action is being applied. Some effects, including reverb and delay, add audio that extends past the end of the file. This is called an effect tail. When you apply a processing effect that produces an effect tail to an audio file in the File Editor, the file is lengthened to include the tail until the point at which the tail falls below –96 dB. If you apply a processing effect that produces a tail to a selection, the tail is mixed with the audio following the selection. If the tail extends past the end of the file, the file is lengthened to include the effect tail until the point at which the tail falls below –96 dB. When you apply an action that adds a short (0.1 second or less) tail to an Apple Loop, the tail is shortened to preserve the overall length of the loop. Action Insert bar Actions Resulting waveform Actions tab Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 231 Editing Actions Many actions have settings that you can edit. When you apply an action that has editable settings, a dialog appears, letting you edit the action’s settings. You can edit an action’s settings any time you are working in the File Editor. To show an action’s settings, do one of the following: m In the Actions list, Control-click the action you want to edit, then choose “Edit Settings For [action name]” from the shortcut menu. m Double-click the action in the Actions list. m In the Actions list, select the action you want to edit, then choose “Edit Settings For [action name]” from the Actions pop-up menu. If the action has no editable settings, the Edit Settings menu item appears dimmed. Adjusting and Applying Action Selections You can adjust the selection for an action or set the current selection in the File Editor to an action’s selection. To adjust an action’s selection, do one of the following: m Make a selection in the File Editor, then in the Actions list, Control-click the action, then choose “Set Selection For [action name]” from the shortcut menu. m Make a selection in the File Editor, then in the Actions list, choose “Set Selection For [action name]” from the Actions pop-up menu. The action is shifted to the selected region. To set the File Editor’s current selection to the action’s selection, do one of the following: m In the Actions list, Control-click the action, then choose “Selection For [action name]” from the shortcut menu. m In the Actions list, choose “Selection For [action name]” from the Actions pop-up menu. The action’s selection becomes the current selection in the File Editor. Turning Actions On and Off You can turn individual actions on and off in the Actions list and hear the result when you play the audio file. The waveform display updates to show the change to the audio file. Depending on the length of the file, turning actions on and off can take time. To turn an action off: m In the Actions list, deselect the checkbox next to the action name. To turn an action on: m In the Actions list, select the checkbox next to the action name. 232 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Reordering Actions You can reorder actions after applying them to an audio file. The order in which effects and other actions occur can drastically change the resulting sound of the audio file. Depending on the length of the file, reordering actions can take time. To reorder actions: m In the Actions list, drag the actions you want to reorder up or down to new positions. You hear the change when you play the audio file. The waveform display updates to show the change to the audio file. Using the Action Insert Bar The Action Insert bar appears as a purple marker along the left side of the Actions list with an associated bar that extends across the list. As you apply actions, the Action Insert bar moves below the last action applied. You can move the Action Insert bar up or down to a new position in the Actions list. Only actions before the Action Insert bar are heard when you play the project, so you can control which actions are heard by moving the bar. The purple strip to the left of the checkboxes in the Actions list indicates the actions that are heard when you play the project. When you choose an item from the Process menu, it is applied directly following the Action Insert bar. By moving the bar, you set where in the list the next action is applied. To set the position of the next applied action: m Drag the Action Insert bar up or down in the Actions list to the position you want. Action Insert bar Drag the Action Insert bar to the position you want. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 233 Reversing the Order of the Actions List You can reverse the order in which actions are shown in the Actions list, so the last action applied appears at the top of the list. This is useful when your project has a large number of actions. To reverse the order of the Actions list: m Click the triangle at the upper-right corner of the Actions list. Click the triangle again to return the list to its default order. When you reverse the order of the Actions list, the Action Insert bar appears at the top of the list instead of at the bottom. You hear actions below the Action Insert bar in the list, rather than above it. When you choose an item from the Process menu, it is applied directly above the position of the Action Insert bar. Reversing the order of the Actions list affects only the visual appearance of the list. The order in which actions are applied to the audio file is unchanged. Flattening Actions You can flatten the actions in a project to a single action. Flattening actions renders the actions into the file, reducing the complexity of the file and the file size. When you flatten actions, all existing actions are removed from the Actions list, and you can no longer reorder the actions or edit their action settings, unless you undo flattening the actions. Some items in the Process menu, including Convert to Mono and Resample, flatten all actions in the project. To flatten all audible actions: 1 Move the Action Insert bar directly below the last action you want to flatten. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Process > Flatten Audible Actions.  Choose “Flatten audible actions” from the Actions pop-up menu. To flatten all actions, do one of the following: m Choose Process > Flatten All Actions. m Choose “Flatten all actions” from the Actions pop-up menu. Click the triangle to reverse the order of the Actions list. 234 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Comparing the Project With and Without Actions When you are adding and adjusting actions, you may want to compare the results of your changes to the original file. To hear the file without actions: 1 Choose “Play without actions” from the Actions pop-up menu. 2 Click Play or press the Space bar. To hear the file with all actions: 1 Choose “Play with all actions” from the Actions pop-up menu. 2 Click Play or press the Space bar. To hear the file with only selected actions: 1 In the Actions list, deselect the checkboxes for the actions you do not want to hear. 2 Click Play or press the Space bar. When you deselect an action, its settings are saved and are available when you select the action again. Comparing the Last Two Actions You can quickly compare the last two actions applied to an audio file or selection. This is helpful when you want to try out two similar actions, and hear which one you like better. To compare the last two actions: 1 Do one of the following:  Choose Process > A/B Last Two Actions.  Choose A/B from the Actions pop-up menu (or press Command-F1). 2 Click Play or press the Space bar. You hear the first of the two actions. The checkbox of the second action appears deselected in the Actions list. 3 Do one of the following:  Choose Process > A/B Last Two Actions again.  Choose A/B from the Actions pop-up menu (or press Command-F1) again. You hear the second of the two actions. The checkbox of the first action appears deselected in the Actions list. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 235 Deleting Actions You can delete an action if you decide you no longer want it in the project. To delete an action: m Select the action in the Actions list, then press Delete. Limitations of Actions That Change the File’s Length Some actions change the overall length of the audio file by inserting or deleting audio. These include inserting silence, noise, or a waveform, time stretching, and deleting part of a file. Recording audio, pasting, and adding an effect with a “tail” can also change the file’s length. In the Actions list, the selection checkbox for each action that changes the file’s length appears red, making it easy to visually distinguish those actions. Each selection you make in the File Editor applies to a specific range of time, and each action applies to a range of time defined by the selection at the time the action is applied. Because selections and actions apply to a range of time, changing the file’s length can change the audio to which a selection or action applies. In the File Editor, you see the selection remain in the same place (the same range of time as shown in the Time ruler) and see the waveform under the selection change. When you apply an action that changes the file’s length, any existing selections apply to the same range of time, but the audio occupying that range of time may be different than when you applied the action. For example, if you select a range of time beginning five seconds after the start of an audio file, then insert one second of silence at the beginning of the file, the selection still begins five seconds after the start of the file, but the audio at the beginning of the selection corresponds to what was previously four seconds after the start of the file. If a project includes an action that increases the file’s length, and you turn off or reorder that action, any selection that includes audio added by the length-changing action may extend past the end of the shortened file. In this case, the selection applies to the remaining audio in the selected range of time, but has no effect past the end of the file. For example, if you have a five-second project that includes a one-second Insert Silence action at the beginning of the project, and you select the last half-second of the project, then turn off the Insert Silence action, the selection applies to the last halfsecond of the project. However, the remaining half-second of the selection is empty. 236 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Analyzing an Audio File Soundtrack Pro includes a set of audio analysis tools. You can analyze an audio file for common problems such as clicks and pops, hum, phase issues, and clipping, and fix them individually or in a single operation. When you analyze an audio file, you can select which types of analysis to perform. To show the analysis lists and tools: m In the File Editor, click the Analysis button. The Analysis Type list, Parameter list, and Analysis Results list replace the Actions list in the window. To analyze an audio file: m Click the Analyze button, located below the Parameter list. Types of Audio Analysis The following types of analysis can be performed in the File Editor: Clicks and Pops Sudden, short peaks in the audio file can result from a variety of causes, including mechanical defects in analog recordings. You can set the threshold above which Soundtrack Pro considers peaks to be clicks or pops. (Power Line) Hum Power lines and other electrical equipment can produce a steady hum, often at 50 or 60 Hz. The hum can also include low-order harmonics of the fundamental frequency. Analysis Type list Parameter list Analyze button Analysis Results list Fix buttons and Magnify button Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 237 DC Offset DC offset is a shift in the audio, causing the positive and negative parts of the signal not to average to zero. DC offset can limit the dynamic range of an audio file. Phase Issues Phase issues can result from a distorted or inaccurate stereo image, caused by poor microphone placement or other issues. When converting a stereo file to mono, the presence of phase issues can cause the left and right channels to cancel each other out partially or completely. Clipped Signal A clipped or overloaded signal can result from several causes, including poor gain staging in a preamp during recording, bad electrical cables, or surface damage to an analog recording. If analysis identifies a clipped signal, Soundtrack Pro gives you the option to soften the abrasive nature of the truncation. Silence Silence detects the parts of the audio file at which the audio signal falls to zero (0). You can set the threshold below which Soundtrack Pro considers the signal to be silence. To select the types of analysis to perform: 1 In the Analysis Type list, select the checkboxes next to the types of analysis you want to perform on the audio file. 2 To analyze the file, click Analyze. When analyzing an audio file in the File Editor, some analysis types might produce better results if you select a part of the audio file instead of the entire audio file. The Power Line Hum, DC Offset, and Phase analysis types determine whether the audio file or selection exhibits these problems. Because hum, DC offset, and phase issues tend to last for long times, up to the entire length of the file, better results might be achieved when analyzing the entire audio file or the part of the file you think has the problem. On the other hand, the Clicks and Pops, Clipped Signal, and Silence analysis types tend to be momentary and isolated rather than constant. If part of an audio file or selection contains a large number of clicks and pops, for example, the analyzed waveform might display the entire region as being problematic, rather than each individual click or pop. However, when you fix these problems using the Fix button, Soundtrack Pro correctly fixes each individual click or pop. The Clicks and Pops Threshold slider uses an algorithm to detect transients that are clicks or pops. Moving the slider to the right results in fewer clicks or pops being detected. The Silence Threshold slider ranges from 0% to 10% of the full-scale level of the audio file, which corresponds to a range of –infinity dB to –20 dB. 238 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Setting Analysis Parameters The Clicks and Pops and Silence analysis types have parameters you can set. Each type has a Threshold slider you can drag to set the threshold for detecting clicks and pops or detecting silence. To set analysis parameters: 1 In the Analysis Type list, click the disclosure triangle for the analysis types for which you want to set parameters. 2 Drag the Threshold slider left to lower the threshold or right to raise the threshold. You can also type a value in the Threshold field. Reading Analysis Results When you analyze an audio file, the problems detected through analysis are shown in the Results list. For each item, the following information appears in the Results list.  Status: Shows whether the problem is fixed or not fixed.  Problem: Shows the analysis type to which the problem belongs.  Start: Shows the point at which the problem begins.  Length: Shows the duration of the problem.  Channels: Shows whether the problem occurs in the left channel (L), the right channel (R), or both channels (LR) of a stereo audio file. You can select items in the Results list. When you select an item in the Results list, the part of the audio file to which the problem applies becomes red in the waveform display, making it easy to see where in the audio file the problem occurs. If you select multiple items, the parts of the audio file to which any of the selected problems apply become red. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 239 By default, the region shown in red in the waveform display includes some extra time before the first sample with the problem and some extra time after the last sample with the problem. This extra time is included so that when you play or loop the problem area, you can hear the problem in context. You can narrow the problem area to include only the samples identified as having the problem, with no extra time. To narrow the problem area to include only problem samples: m Option-click the item in the Analysis Results list. Zooming In on Analyzed Problems You can zoom in on an item in the Results list using the Magnify button, so you can see the problem area of the audio file closely. To zoom in on an item in the Results list: 1 In the Results list, select the item. 2 Press and hold the Magnify button, located at the bottom of the Results list. The waveform display zooms in on the problem area for as long as you hold the Magnify button. To zoom in and stay at the new zoom level: 1 In the Results list, select the item. 2 Option-click the Magnify button. The problem area is highlighted in the File Editor. Select an item in the Results list, then press and hold the Magnify button. Magnify button 240 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Fixing Analyzed Problems You can select items in the Results list and fix them individually, in groups, or all together. When you select a single item, the part of the waveform where the item occurs becomes red. To fix an item: m Select the item in the Results list, then click the Fix button. You can select multiple items to fix by Shift-clicking or Command-clicking. You can also fix all items in a single operation. To fix all items in one operation: m Click the Fix All button. Once you have fixed a problem, you can remove it from the Results list, so that you can focus on remaining problems. To clear fixed items from the Results list: m Click the Clear Fixed button. Using the File Editor Project View You can open the File Editor so that it appears in the top-center pane of the Soundtrack Pro window (in place of the Timeline). The File Editor project view has several unique properties that allow you to:  Apply realtime effects and automation to an individual file and render those effects to actions  Save an individual audio file as an audio file project  Save an audio file project as a standard audio file  Create AppleScript droplets from Soundtrack Pro actions  View and navigate the Global Waveform view  Add and edit markers in an audio file project Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 241 Opening the File Editor Project View You start working in the File Editor project view by creating an audio file project, opening an existing audio file project, or opening an audio file in the File Editor. To create a new, blank audio file project: m Choose File > New > Audio File. You can create an audio file project from a clip and open it in the File Editor. Audio file (.stap) projects let you edit nondestructively. To open an audio file project in the File Editor project view, do one of the following: m Choose File > Open (or press Command-O), locate and select the project or file, then click Open. m Drag the project or file over the Soundtrack Pro icon in the Dock. m In the Timeline, double-click the audio clip. m In Final Cut Pro, select a clip, then choose File > Send To > Soundtrack Pro Audio File Project. m In Motion, select an audio track, then choose Edit > Send Audio to Soundtrack Pro. You can also open the original file in its native format in the File Editor. Editing the original audio file means that when you save your changes, you overwrite (replace) the original file with the edited one. To open an audio file in its native format in the File Editor project view, do one of the following: m Select the clip, then choose Clip > Open in Editor. m In the Timeline or in one of the media tabs, Control-click a project or file, then choose Open in Editor from the shortcut menu. m In Final Cut Pro or Motion, Control-click an audio clip, then choose Open in Editor from the shortcut menu. When you open a clip from the multitrack window, if the clip is part of a larger audio file, the File Editor zooms in to the length of the clip. A marker is added to mark the start and end points of the clip. When you open a stereo audio file in the File Editor, the left channel appears in the upper part of the waveform display, and the right channel appears in the lower part. You can have multiple audio file projects open in Soundtrack Pro and cut and paste between them, but only one project can play back at a time. 242 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Setting the Time Ruler Units in the File Editor Project View You can set the Time Ruler units in the File Editor project view to any format in the Time Ruler Units submenu. To set the Time Ruler units in the File Editor project view: m Choose View > Time Ruler Units, then choose a format from the submenu. For more information, see “Setting the Project Ruler Units” on page 109. Closing Audio File Projects You can close the project when you no longer want to work on it, or close the Soundtrack Pro window and close all open projects (both multitrack and audio file projects). To close a project: m Choose File > Close Tab (or press Command-W). To close all open projects and close the Soundtrack Pro window: m Click the close button in the upper-left corner of the window. Applying Realtime Effects in the File Editor Project View Using the File Editor project view, you can apply realtime effects to an individual audio file project and automate those effects. You can also render realtime effects to actions. To add a realtime effect to an audio file project in the File Editor project view: 1 Open an audio file or audio file project in the File Editor project view. 2 In the Effects tab, select a category in the Category list to display the effects for that category in the Effect list. 3 In the Effect list, do one of the following:  Double-click the effect you want to add to the track.  Select the effect name, then click the Add Effect button.  Drag the effect to the Effect Parameters area. The effect’s advanced settings window appears, and the effect name appears in the Effect Parameters area with its checkbox selected. For more information on applying realtime effects, see “Working with Realtime Effects” on page 343. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 243 Automating Realtime Effects in the File Editor Project View Once you have applied realtime effects to an individual audio file project, you can automate those effects in the File Editor project view. To automate a realtime effect parameter: 1 In the Effects tab, select the Auto checkbox next to the parameter’s control. 2 In the File Editor project view, click the Master Envelope button (in the lower-left corner of the project pane) to show the envelopes for the audio file project. 3 Add and adjust envelope points in the effect’s envelope. For information on adding and adjusting envelope points, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. Rendering Realtime Effects to Actions Choosing this command renders any realtime effects applied to the audio file project and the project’s envelopes to an action in the Actions list, letting you turn these effects and envelopes on or off, reorder them in the list, and save them with the audio file project. 244 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files To render realtime effects and envelopes to an action: m Choose Process > Render to Action. Once you render realtime effects and envelopes to an action, the realtime effects are deleted from the project, and the envelopes are reset to their default values. Some effects, including reverb and delay, add audio that extends past the end of the file. This is called an effect tail. When you render realtime effects to an action, if any of the effects creates an effect tail that extends past the end of the audio file, the file lengthens to include the effect tail. Saving Audio File Projects from the File Editor Project View You can save a project as an audio file project or as a standard audio file and can choose other options when you first save the file. Audio file projects are saved with the extension .stap. Saving a project as an audio file project lets you make changes to actions and other edits when you reopen the project in the File Editor. To save a project as an audio file project: 1 Choose File > Save. 2 In the Save dialog, type a name for the file and browse to the location where you want to save it. 3 Choose the file type for the project from the File Type pop-up menu. The available choices in the Save dialog change depending on whether you choose Audio File Project or an audio file format as the file type. 4 Optionally, select the Update Multitrack Documents checkbox to switch all instances of the original file in open multitrack projects to the new audio file project. 5 Click Save. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 245 Saving Audio File Projects Containing Video For audio file projects containing video, the video file is saved as a reference movie. If the video file is moved or deleted, or if you copy the project to another computer, the video may be missing when you open the project. To add the video to the project again, drag the video file into the Video tab or the video track of the Timeline. When you open a QuickTime movie in the File Editor as an audio file project, or send an audio clip from Final Cut Pro to an audio file project, by default the source audio is referenced. When you save the project by choosing File > Save As, you can include the source audio in the project. If the source audio is moved or deleted, or if you copy the project to another computer, the audio might not play correctly. The first time you save an audio file project with referenced audio, a dialog appears asking if you want to include or reference the source audio. Your choice becomes the default behavior for new audio file projects and can be changed in the General preferences pane. About Saving QuickTime Movies and File Size When you lengthen or shorten the duration of a QuickTime movie in the File Editor by adding or deleting audio, the file size of the movie might be larger than expected when you save the movie. For example, if you shorten the duration of the movie by deleting audio, the file size of the movie does not decrease. When you change the sample rate, bit depth, or number of channels in a QuickTime movie, the file size of the saved movie might be larger than expected. Also, when saving to a QuickTime movie that uses a compressed audio format, the audio is saved uncompressed and the file size might be larger than expected. In all of the above cases, saving the movie to a different location results in the file being saved at the correct file size. 246 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Saving Audio Files from the File Editor Project View You can also save a project as a standard audio file from the File Editor project view. In this case, the edits you have made are rendered into the audio file and cannot be changed or undone the next time you open the audio file in the File Editor. To save a project as an audio file: 1 Choose File > Save. 2 In the Save dialog, type a name for the file and browse to the location where you want to save it. 3 Choose the file type for the project from the File Type pop-up menu. You can save a project to any of the following standard audio file formats:  AIFF  WAVE  NeXT  Sound Designer II  Core Audio File  QuickTime Movie 4 Choose the bit depth for the project from the Bit Depth pop-up menu. 5 Choose the sample rate for the project from the Sample Rate pop-up menu. 6 Optionally, select any of the following checkboxes:  Dither: Select to dither the file. Dithering is useful when saving a project at a lower bit depth or sample rate. In general, you should dither a project only when saving it as a standard audio file, and only when you have finished all bit depth or sample rate conversions. Dithering is not appropriate for 32-bit files.  Include Source Audio: Select to include the source audio in the project. If you don’t select this checkbox, the project refers to the external source audio file. Referenced files must be present to open the project correctly.  Update Multitrack Documents: Select to switch all instances of the original file in open multitrack projects to the new audio file project. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 247 7 Click Save. When you save an audio file with the same name, location, and extension as the original audio file, you overwrite the existing audio file. Using the Timeline Controls in the File Editor Project View You can use the Timeline controls, located at the lower-left corner of the project pane, while working in the File Editor project view. Some of these controls have slightly different functions in the File Editor than they do in the Timeline.  Master Envelopes button: You can show or hide the envelopes for the audio file.  Snapping button: You can turn snapping on or off in the File Editor.  Snap To button: You can choose the Snap To value that the playhead and other items snap to. In the File Editor, the choices for snap are Ruler Ticks and Zero Crossings.  Track Height control: This sets the height of the envelope rows when you show envelopes in the File Editor. 248 Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files Scripting Actions in the File Editor Project View You can save a series of actions in the File Editor project view as an AppleScript droplet and use the droplet to modify other audio files. You can apply the actions in a saved droplet while you are working in Final Cut Pro using the Send To shortcut menu. You can also drag files or folders onto a droplet, making it easy to batch process files. You can edit the droplet in the AppleScript Script Editor to adjust action settings. This is especially helpful when you want to apply the same series of actions to multiple files, or when you want to apply actions repeatedly, changing one or several settings each time. You can apply a droplet to another audio file, or group of files, by dragging files or folders containing a group of files onto the droplet. To save a series of actions as a droplet: 1 Open an audio file in the File Editor. 2 Apply the actions to the audio file. 3 Choose File > Save as AppleScript. 4 In the Save dialog, type a name for the droplet. By default, droplets are saved to the location /Users/username/Library/Scripts/ Soundtrack Pro Scripts/. Do not change the location or Soundtrack Pro and Final Cut Pro may not be able to find and use your saved droplets. Applying a Saved Droplet to a Clip in Final Cut Pro You can apply a series of actions saved as a droplet to a clip in Final Cut Pro. To apply a saved droplet to a clip in Final Cut Pro: m In the Final Cut Pro Timeline or Bin, Control-click the clip, choose Send To > Soundtrack Pro Script from the shortcut menu, then choose the droplet you want to apply from the submenu. Soundtrack Pro opens with the clip visible in the File Editor. The actions are applied to the clip, the clip is saved with the changes, and the File Editor moves to the background, behind the Final Cut Pro windows. Chapter 6 Editing Audio Files 249 Using the Global Waveform View The File Editor includes a Global Waveform view, located directly above the main waveform display. The Global Waveform view displays a miniature view of the entire audio file and shows the current playhead position. The part of the audio file visible in the waveform display appears inside a blue rectangle. You can quickly move to different parts of the audio file by dragging the visible area rectangle. To move to a different part of the audio file using the Global Waveform view: m Drag the blue visible area rectangle to a new position. Using Markers in the File Editor Project View You can insert markers in an audio file project in the same way as in a multitrack project. Markers can be useful for indicating where a specific sound, cue, or event begins or ends in the audio file. They can also be useful for indicating an area of an audio file you want to time stretch. When an audio file project has two or more markers, you can select the area between two markers by double-clicking in the waveform display. For more information, see “Selecting Part of an Audio File” on page 202. For information about inserting, naming, moving, and deleting markers, see “Working with Markers” on page 183. Drag this rectangle to a new position. 7 251 7 Using the Multitake Editor The Multitake Editor presents a new way of dealing with layered audio clips. About the Multitake Editor You use the Multitake Editor to edit multitake (multiple-take), synchronized audio that is created by performing multiple-take recordings (such as in automatic dialogue replacement, or ADR). With this flexible tool, you can mix and match parts of different takes and make adjustments at any time. Once you are done editing a multitake clip, you can collapse it into a single (composite) clip, hiding the constituent edits that are not relevant to the surrounding multitrack Timeline, and move it anywhere in your project as a single item. 252 Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor What Is ADR? Automatic dialogue replacement (ADR) is a process of re-recording dialogue in the studio in synchronization with the picture. There are at least three roles in the ADR process: the actor, the recording engineer, and the sound editor. The actor has to recreate his or her performance and perfectly match up his or her speech to that of the film. The recording engineer has to recreate acoustic spaces so that it doesn’t sound like an actor is in a recording studio. The sound editor has to pick and choose the best parts of multiple takes, combine them into one composite clip, and keep everything synchronized to the picture. The Multitake Editor in Soundtrack Pro was created to address the needs of the sound editor in this scenario. Multitake Clips A multitake clip is a “layered” audio clip. This means it contains multiple versions or “takes” of the same audio material, such as a line of dialogue. Generally, these takes represent overlapping spans of time in your program. In an ADR recording session, an actor may repeat the same line many times. A single multitake clip can contain all of those takes as distinct items. Creating Multitake Clips You can create a multitake clip by either recording one or converting a standard clip to a multitake clip. Recording Multitake Clips For information about recording multitake clips, see “Recording Multiple Takes” on page 372. Converting Standard Clips to Multitake Clips You can convert any clip to a multitake clip. To convert a standard clip to a multitake clip: 1 Select a clip in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:  Control-click the clip and choose Convert to Multitake Clip from the shortcut menu.  Select the Multitake tab and click the Make Multitake Clip button that appears in the center of the Multitake tab. The new multitake clip appears in the Multitake Editor. 3 Add any additional takes, as needed. For information on adding takes, see “Adding and Deleting Takes” on page 256. Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor 253 Overview of the Multitake Editor You can think of the Multitake Editor as a simplified multitrack Timeline that is focussed entirely on the contents of a single multitake clip. In the Multitake Editor, you can audition and choose which take will be used for each section of dialogue. The top row in the Multitake Editor is the comp (or composite) track. This track represents a combination of all of the edits that you make in the Multitake Editor. The other tracks represent individual takes. You use the Blade tool to split the takes into regions. Use the Selection tool to select the active take for each region. Use transition points to adjust the timing and to create crossfades between the selected portions of takes.  Selection tool: Use the Selection tool to select take regions by clicking them.  Blade tool: Use the Blade tool to split takes into regions.  Scrub tool: Use the Scrub tool to quickly find a particular sound or event in the audio.  Comp track: Represents combined edits that you made in the Multitake Editor.  Take tracks: Represent individual takes.  Solo button: Solos the take track.  Snapping button: Toggles snapping for the Multitake Editor.  Snap To pop-up menu: Sets Multitake snapping to Ruler Ticks, Seconds, or Frames.  Track Height: Sets the height of tracks in the Multitake Editor.  Zoom slider: Drag the slider to change the zoom level. Note: When a multitake clip is displayed in the Multitake Editor, the Action Insert bar is moved to the top of the Actions list. When you deselect the clip or you click a different tab, the Action Insert bar is restored to its original position. For more information about the Actions tab, see “Working with Actions” on page 230. Blade tool Scrub tool Solo button Track Height Zoom slider Comp track Take tracks Snapping button Snap To pop-up menu Selection tool 254 Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor Editing in the Multitake Editor Fundamentally, there are three steps in making any multitake edit: splitting, selecting, and adjusting. First, you split the takes into regions using the Blade tool. To split a take using the Blade tool: 1 Select the Blade tool by clicking the Blade tool in the upper-left corner of the Multitake Editor or by pressing B. 2 Click one of the take tracks using the Blade tool pointer. A transition point appears in the Multitake Timeline at the point where you clicked. After you have split the takes into regions, select the active take for each region with the Selection tool. To select an active take for a region: 1 Select the Selection tool by clicking the Selection tool in the upper-left corner of the Multitake Editor or by pressing A. 2 In the region, click the take track you want to select. The take you clicked becomes the active take for that region. Next, use transition points to adjust the timing and to create crossfades between the selected portions of takes. Slip (offset) take regions to synchronize them with the picture. Click a take track using the Blade tool to create a transition point. Select the take track to make it the active take for that region. Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor 255 To adjust a transition point, do one of the following: m Drag the vertical transition point line left or right to adjust the timing of the cut. m Drag the left or right arrow handle at the top of a transition point to create a crossfade between two takes, then double-click the fades to use the Fade Selector. You can also adjust the fade type by double-clicking either part of the crossfade. For more information on fade types, see “Creating Fade-Ins and Fade-Outs in the Timeline” on page 158. To delete a transition point: 1 Select the vertical transition point line. 2 Press Delete. Slipping Take Regions Because it’s common for a particular take to be good but out of sync, you can slip (offset) an individual take region. To slip a take region: 1 Command-Option-click the take region. 2 Without releasing the mouse button, drag to the left or to the right. For more information about slipping (the offset of ) a take region, see “Changing the Offset of an Audio Clip” on page 157. Drag the transition point handles to create a crossfade between takes. 256 Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor Adding and Deleting Takes You can easily add audio files to a multitake clip. Added takes can be any audio files that Soundtrack Pro supports and that match the sample rate and channel valence of the takes already in the Multitake Editor. The takes do not have to be from the same recording session. It is just as easy to remove takes from a multitake clip. Π Tip: Optionally, you can add a take from the original production audio to use a guide track. The waveform in this original recording can be a good reference point during your multitake editing session. To add a take, do one of the following: m Drag a file into the Multitake Editor. m Choose Add Take from the pop-up menu in the upper-left corner of the Multitake tab. In the dialog that appears, navigate to the audio file you want to add and click Open. Note: The sample rate and the channel valence (mono, stereo, surround, and so on) of the files you want to add must match the sample rate and the channel valence of the files already in the Multitake Editor. To remove a take: m Choose Remove Take from the pop-up menu in the upper-left corner of the Multitake tab and choose the take you want to remove from the submenu. Renaming Takes By default, Soundtrack Pro names takes according to the order in which they were recorded and the track in which they were recorded. For example, “Take 3 - Track 1 Recording 3.aiff.” You can easily rename any take to suit your needs. To rename a take in a multitake clip: m Click the name field in the header for the take and enter a new name. Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor 257 Reordering Takes You can vertically rearrange the order of takes in a multitake clip. To rearrange the order of takes in a multitake clip: 1 Click the track header of the take you want to move. 2 Drag the take vertically to a new position in the list. Example: A Multitake Editing Workflow The following example demonstrates how you might create a comp from multiple takes of an ADR session using the Multitake Editor. In this case, there are four takes of the same line: “Would you like to try a sample of our organic Peruvian blend?” To edit multiple takes of a line of dialogue using the Multitake Editor: 1 Select the multitake clip in the Timeline. 2 Control-click the ruler at the top of the multitrack Timeline, then choose Cycle Region from the shortcut menu and Create Cycle Region from Selection from the submenu (or press Shift-A). 3 Click the Multitake Editor tab to open it. The comp track and, in this example, four take tracks, appear in the Multitake Editor. 4 Click the Solo button on the Take 1 track and click the Play button to listen to the first take. Take 1 plays. 5 Repeat this playback for each take to familiarize yourself with how they sound. 6 Optionally, you can choose to add a take from the original sync-sound production audio to use a guide track. (See “Slipping Take Regions” on page 255 for more information.) 7 When you are ready to make the first cut, click the Blade tool in the upper-left corner of the Multitake Editor (or press B). In this example, Take 3 contains the best version of the first few words (“Would you like to...”). Drag a take track header to a new position in the list. A blue bar indicates where the take track will be positioned. 258 Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor 8 Using the Blade tool, click just before the waveform for the word “try” in the Take 2 track. A transition point appears in the Multitake Editor Timeline at the point where you clicked. 9 Click the Selection tool in the upper-left corner of the Multitake Editor. 10 In the Take 3 track, click the waveform for the word “try” to select it. The take you clicked becomes the active take for the region. 11 Repeat steps 6 to 9, selecting the best takes for each of the other phrases or words in the line of dialogue. 12 Slip (offset) individual take regions, as needed, to synchronize them with the picture. (For more information, see “Example: A Multitake Editing Workflow” on page 257.) Click the waveform with the Blade tool to create a transition point. The Take 3 track becomes the active take for that region. Chapter 7 Using the Multitake Editor 259 13 Do one of the following to adjust any of the transition points:  Drag a transition point left or right to adjust the timing of the cut.  Drag the left or right arrow handle at the top of a transition point to create a crossfade between two takes. Note: You can also adjust the fade type by double-clicking either part of the crossfade. For more information on fade types, see “Creating Fade-Ins and Fade-Outs in the Timeline” on page 158. 14 When you are satisfied with the edit, use the multitake clip in the main multitrack Timeline as you would use any other clip. If you need to make additional edits or adjustments to the multitake clip, repeat Steps 1 to 3. Drag the transition point handles to create a crossfade between takes. 8 261 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro gives you the tools to create sophisticated audio mixes for your projects. When you have added audio clips to your project and placed them in the Timeline, you mix the project. Mixing is where you balance different elements, such as dialogue, music, and sound effects, bring focus to key moments and events in the project, and create a sense of perspective by placing sounds in space. When you finish mixing, you have one or more final mixes that you can export. Soundtrack Pro offers you professional mixing capabilities, including the abilities to create busses and submixes and to send audio to multiple physical outputs. The Mixer provides a visual representation of your project in a virtual mixing console, with channel strips where you control different aspects of the sound. You can adjust volume and pan, mute and solo tracks, choose track submixes, add effects, and observe levels as the project plays. This chapter covers basic mixing. For information about mixing surround sound, see Chapter 9, “Mixing Surround Sound,” on page 293. 262 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Steps in Mixing Mixing a project typically involves the following tasks:  Balancing relative volume levels  Panning tracks to create perspective  Adding EQ, compression, and other processing using effects  Using automation to create changes over time  Setting the overall project volume and eliminating clipping You can perform these steps in any order, and move back and forth between them as you create the mix. In most situations, you finish mixing the individual tracks before making changes to the overall project. The following suggested order provides a guideline that may be useful for common situations: Step 1: Mix main dialogue tracks Solo the main voice tracks and pan to your liking. Add any EQ, compression, or other processing. Adjust relative volume, leaving some headroom (typically around –6 dB) for peaks in the signal, in case you need to raise levels later. Step 2: Mix other dialogue and middle ground tracks With main voice tracks still soloed, solo the other dialogue, ADR, and voiceover tracks one at a time and adjust volume and pan relative to the main voice tracks. Add any processing if needed. Step 3: Mix background tracks With the previously mixed tracks still soloed, solo the background tracks one at a time and adjust volume and pan relative to the other tracks. Add any processing if needed. Step 4: Make changes to the overall mix Once you have mixed all the individual tracks in your project, add any EQ, compression, or other processing to the overall project. Adjust the overall volume to an appropriate level and remove any clipping before exporting the project. Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 263 Structuring an Audio Post-Production Project To organize their projects, most video and motion picture sound editors combine the signals of related tracks and busses into submixes (also known as stem mixes). Then they combine these submixes to build a final mix. Soundtrack Pro is designed with this workflow in mind. What Is a Submix and How Do You Use It? In Soundtrack Pro, you use a submix to combine (or “sum”) the audio from different tracks and busses, and route the audio to physical outputs. The name of this feature implies its purpose—to mix the audio signals of a subset of the tracks and busses in your project. If you are using external audio hardware that supports multiple physical outputs, you can have multiple submixes in your project and then choose the physical output to which each submix routes its audio. By default, all tracks are routed to Submix 1, and Submix 1 is routed to the Stereo 1, 2 outputs. You can easily add more submixes, reroute audio, and change the hardware output setting using the Output pop-up menu in each submix. Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro At a minimum, any audio that you edit in the Soundtrack Pro Timeline passes through the following “mixer objects” on its way out to the physical audio outputs: a track, a submix, and the Master bus. 1 Master bus Hardware output Track Submix bus Audio clip Effects Volume fader 264 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Audio post-production projects typically include many tracks and submixes. The following diagram shows the signal flow of multiple tracks to just one submix. While this is an unlikely scenario, it illustrates the fact that you can route as many tracks to a submix as you like. See “Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes” on page 266 for a typical example. Setting the Submixes for Tracks and Busses To be included in a project, the audio signal of each track and each bus must be routed to a submix. By default, in new multitrack projects, there is only one submix (Submix 1) and all tracks are routed to Submix 1. You can add as many submixes as you like and route as many signals from tracks and busses to those submixes as you want. To create a more elaborate project (as described in “Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes” on page 266), you create additional submixes. To add a submix, do one of the following: m Choose Multitrack > Add Submix. m Control-click a submix, then choose either Insert Submix Before or Insert Submix After from the shortcut menu. Once you have created multiple submixes, you can route any combination of tracks or busses to any submix. To set the submix for a track or bus: m Choose the submix from the Submix pop-up menu in the track header or at the bottom of the Mixer channel strip for the track or bus. If you choose None from the pop-up menu, you are effectively removing that track or bus from the mix and from the final output. 1 2 3 4 Tracks Submix bus Stereo panner Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 265 Setting Hardware Outputs Use the Output pop-up menu in each submix to choose an output channel or set of output channels. Your choice defines the output of that submix as either mono, stereo, or surround. To select the hardware output jacks for a submix: m Click None, Surround, Stereo, or Mono from the Output pop-up menu in the track header of each submix, then choose a channel or set of channels from the submenu. The available choices within each of these output categories depend on the number of available physical outputs and number of submixes in your project. Note: You can create submixes independently of the audio hardware connected to your computer and can route audio to an output that does not correspond to a physical output. In most situations, each submix in a project should correspond to a physical output on the audio interface or other hardware connected to your computer. Submixes that do not correspond to a physical output will not be heard. You may set as many submixes in a project to the same physical output device or output channel as you like. If you choose None from the Output pop-up menu, you are effectively removing that submix from the mix and from the final output. For more information about system output settings, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22. For more information about connecting an audio interface, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22. For more information about working with tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline, see “Tracks, Busses, Submixes, and the Master Bus” on page 124 and “Working with Tracks, Busses, and Submixes in the Timeline” on page 135. 266 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Example: Mixing a Project with Dialogue, Music, and Effects Submixes A classic audio post-production practice for film and video is creating separate submixes for the dialogue, the music, and the sound effects. This provides an appropriate degree of flexibility, both in the mixing phase and in distributing the final product. Creating Submixes In this example project, all tracks containing dialogue are routed to a submix called “Dialogue.” The tracks containing sound effects are routed to a submix called “FX.” The tracks containing music are routed to a submix called “Music.” The following diagram shows how audio signals from tracks in each category are routed into their respective submixes. Dialogue tracks Effects tracks Music track Submix bus Music Effects Dialogue Stereo panner Audio clip VO: Debra VO: Jacob Stage Mic FX: Foley Tracks FX: Background FX: Boom Music: Music 1 Music: Music 2 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 267 Once the audio signals are organized in this way, you can apply (and automate) volume settings and effects on any of the submixes, rather than on the individual tracks or busses. You might, for example, add a compressor or EQ effect to a Dialogue submix to enhance all of the dialogue signals at once. Obviously, this saves a lot of time and effort (when compared with applying all of these settings to each dialogue track individually). Using submixes to segment your project provides you with greater control over all aspects of your final mix. Creating a Stereo Mix The next routing decision is the choice of hardware outputs. The following example diagram shows the routing for a traditional final product: a stereo mix. To do this, you would simply choose the Stereo 1,2 output for each of the three submixes. (This also happens to be the default output for every submix in Soundtrack Pro.) In this case, the left and right channels for each submix are routed to the left and right (1 and 2) channels of the hardware output device. All three submixes are combined into one stereo (left and right) signal. This is a “stereo mixdown,” suitable for any stereo-capable playback device. At this stage, the Master bus presents a (final) opportunity to make volume adjustments and apply effects. For information about the Master bus, see “Using the Master Bus” on page 290. 1 2 3 4 Tracks Submix bus Channels 1, 2 Channels 1, 2 Channels 1, 2 5 6 7 8 Right Left Hardware outputs Master bus Music Effects Dialogue Audio clip Stereo panner 4 3 2 1 6 7 8 5 268 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Creating a Separate Music and Effects Mix Using submixes in your workflow becomes very powerful when you consider the many different ways you might be delivering the final program. One common practice is creating a separate music and effects (M & E) submix for foreign distribution. This gives distributors the option to create versions of the program with the dialogue dubbed in foreign languages but to still include the program’s original music and effects in the dubbed versions. As in the stereo mixdown example, the Dialogue submix is routed to the Stereo 1,2 output. But the Music and Effects submixes are routed to the Stereo 3,4 output channels, isolating the dialogue signal from the music and effects signals. Technically, only one output channel is required for the dialogue, because the Dialogue submix is made up of mono signals. But in practice, it is usually routed as two identical mono signals to channels 1 and 2. Most likely, producers making the foreign language version will use the original dialogue as a guide track and then replace it with their edited foreign language track in the final mix. This M & E case is just one simple example of how you can structure a project for an efficient workflow. Each mix project comes with its own particular quirks. The good news is that Soundtrack Pro has a lot of flexibility. For example, the sends and busses features in Soundtrack Pro offer additional options for structuring a project. For more information, see “Working with Sends and Busses in the Mixer” on page 286. 4 3 2 1 6 7 8 5 Hardware outputs Output device Master bus Submix bus Channels 3, 4 Music Channels 3, 4 Effects Channels 1, 2 Dialogue Stereo panner Audio clip 1 2 3 4 Tracks 5 6 7 8 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 269 Signal Routing for a Separate Music and Effects Mix in Surround When you shift from a stereo project to surround, you need to keep in mind some minor signal routing consequences. This section discusses what changes you would make to the submix and output settings. (For information about creating a surround version of a stereo project, see “Converting a Stereo Mix to 5.1 Surround” on page 307.) First, assuming that the music and effects are mixed over six surround channels, those submixes must be routed to the Surround 1-6 output. The Dialogue submix could either remain routed to the Stereo 1,2 output jacks to be added to the Surround 1-6 mix or routed to the center channel at the submix, or could be panned to the center channel in a surround signal, as shown below. To create the surround version of the separate music and effects mix (as described earlier), you route the Dialogue submix to any output channels other than 1-6. This example uses channels 7 and 8, the last two available output channels, thus isolating the dialogue from the music and effects. 1 2 3 4 Tracks 5 6 7 8 Right Left Center Right surround Left surround LFE Submix bus Channels 1–6 Hardware outputs Master bus 4 3 2 1 6 7 8 5 Channels 1–6 Music Channels 1–6 Effects Audio clip Surround panner Dialogue 1 2 3 4 Tracks Submix bus Channels 7, 8 Dialogue 5 6 7 8 Output device Hardware outputs Master bus 4 3 2 1 6 7 8 5 Audio clip Stereo panner Surround panner Channels 1–6 Music Channels 1–6 Effects 270 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Using Sends and Busses You can use sends to split an audio signal into two or more separate signals. A send taps a track’s audio signal and routes it down a separate but parallel path. In Soundtrack Pro, these separate paths are known as busses. (Some might call these auxiliary busses.) This process is analogous to diverting a portion of a river to an alternate (but parallel) stream. Busses are like alternate streams of audio. They can be processed or combined independently of the “main river.” They can rejoin the main signal further “downstream,” at the final mix, or they can be routed to altogether separate outputs. By preparing these alternate versions and combinations of track audio signals, you give yourself more options at the final mix stage, when all of your project’s media elements and adjustments are in place. Example: Adding Effects with Sends and Busses The following example shows how you could add a reverb effect to a music track using a bus. The main reason to apply effects this way (rather than directly on the track) is so you can control the amount and characteristics of the effect (in this case, reverb) on multiple tracks using one set of controls. To accomplish this, you do the following:  Create a new bus. (In this example, the new bus is named “MusicReverb.”)  Add a send to the music track.  Route the new send to the MusicReverb bus.  Apply a reverb effect to the MusicReverb bus. For specific information about how to add sends to tracks and route them to busses, see “Adding Sends to Tracks” on page 349. Send Track Submix bus Bus 1 Audio clip Effects Volume fader Send Track Submix bus MusicReverb bus Music Audio clip Effects Volume fader Reverb effect Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 271 As the diagram shows, the new MusicReverb bus represents an alternate version of the Music track audio signal. Once created, this bus appears as a row in the Timeline and a channel strip in the Mixer. It becomes a resource to draw from during the final mix. Rather than having to tweak the effects settings of individual tracks in the mix, you can simply adjust the volume fader on the MusicReverb bus to increase or decrease the amount of reverb on that music track. By default, new sends are pre-fader sends. This means the signal is tapped before the track’s output fader. In this example, if you used the default pre-fader send setting, adjusting the Volume slider on the Music track would have no effect on the music level in the MusicReverb bus. In contrast, a post-fader send taps the track signal after a track’s output fader. You can change a send to a post-fader send. To make a send a post-fader send: m Click the disclosure triangle for the send in the Effects tab, then select the On button next to Post-Fader. In the post-fader case, adjusting the Volume slider on the Music track would have a direct effect on the music level in the MusicReverb bus. Pre-fader send Track Submix bus Bus 1 Audio clip Effects Volume fader Submix bus Track Post-fader send Bus 1 Audio clip Effects Volume fader 272 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Example: Combining Track Signals with Sends and Busses You can also send the signals from multiple tracks to a single bus, creating “intermediate submixes.” For example, you could route every dialogue track for a particular actor to a bus with the actor’s name. You could adjust the volume of all the actor’s dialogue using the bus volume fader and add an EQ effect that brings out the actor’s voice in the mix. You could then send (route) the bus to a particular submix. In the above diagram, tracks 1 and 4 contain dialogue from the actor, Jacob. Each of these tracks has a send applied to it that taps the signal and routes it to a bus (named “Jacob”). This bus is effectively an intermediate submix. Now, any effects and fader adjustments applied to this bus will be available during the final mix as a single channel strip (named “Jacob.”) For more information about using sends and busses in the Mixer, see “Working with Sends and Busses in the Mixer” on page 286. Submix bus 1 2 3 4 Tracks Jacob bus Audio clip Effects Volume fader Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 273 Using the Mixer While most mixing tasks can be accomplished in the Timeline and elsewhere in the Soundtrack Pro interface, the Mixer offers an interface analogous to hardware mixing consoles found in most audio post-production facilities. Another advantage of the Mixer is that you can view levels on all (or at least many) tracks simultaneously in real time. Working with Channel Strips in the Mixer The Mixer features a series of vertically arranged controls called channel strips, like the channel strips in a hardware mixing console. The channel strips in the Mixer correspond to the horizontal tracks, busses, and submixes in the project Timeline. Channel strip 274 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro The controls a channel strip contains depend on whether it is a track, bus, or submix channel strip. The controls for each type are as follows: The channel strips in the Mixer make it easy to see the settings for all the tracks, busses, and submixes in your project at once and to adjust those settings relative to each other as you create the overall mix. In the Mixer, the channel strips appear in order corresponding to their order in the Timeline. Top-to-bottom order in the Timeline corresponds to left-to-right order in the Mixer. You can reorder tracks in the Mixer and have the new order reflected in the Timeline. Changes you make to controls such as volume and pan also show up in the track controls when you open the project in the Timeline. Using Custom Layouts for Mixing You can rearrange the Soundtrack Pro layout to suit your particular mixing workflow. There are numerous possible combinations. You can tear off tabs and have them float over the Soundtrack Pro window or show them on a second display. One default layout (in addition to the standard layout) floats the Mixer and the Video tabs as separate windows. This allows you to further resize the Mixer and the Video windows to an arrangement that is convenient for mixing. Track channel strips Bus channel strips Submix channel strips Color label Color label Color label Icon Icon Icon Effects slots Effects slots Effects slots Output pop-up menu Output pop-up menu Output pop-up menu Panners (stereo or surround) Panners (stereo or surround) — Volume fader and value slider Volume fader and value slider Volume fader and value slider Level meters with peak indicator Level meters with peak indicator Level meters with peak indicator Arm for Recording button — — Mute button Mute button Mute button Solo button Solo button Solo button Name Name Name Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 275 To display the Mixer and Video tabs as separate windows, do one of the following: m Choose Window > Layouts > Separate Mixer and Video (or press F2). m Using the pointer, drag the Mixer and Video tabs out of their docked positions. The Mixer and the Video tabs float over the Soundtrack Pro window as separate windows. Another useful layout to consider is one showing just the Timeline and the Mixer. This arrangement is convenient for visually positioning the playhead during a mix. Once you have resized or moved the windows to a comfortable arrangement, you can save the layout as a custom layout for future use. For information about saving custom layouts, see “Using Project Layouts” on page 68. Adding Channel Strips to the Mixer You can add a channel strip for a track, bus, or output in the Mixer in the same way you add a track, bus, or output in the Timeline. To add a track channel strip: m Choose Multitrack > Add Track. To add a bus channel strip: m Choose Multitrack > Add Bus. To add an output channel strip: m Choose Multitrack > Add Output. Timeline Mixer 276 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Selecting Channel Strips You can select a channel strip in order to move, copy, or remove it. Selected channel strips appear darker in the Mixer. To select a channel strip, do one of the following: m Click any empty part of the channel strip. You can select multiple channel strips in the Mixer. To select adjacent channel strips: m Shift-click the channel strips you want to select. To select nonadjacent channel strips: m Command-click the channel strips you want to select. Reordering Channel Strips You can change the order of channel strips in the Mixer. When you open the Mixer, the order of channel strips corresponds to the order of tracks, busses, and submixes in the Timeline. Because channel strips are oriented horizontally in the Mixer, top-to-bottom order in the Timeline corresponds to left-to right order in the Mixer. Reordering channel strips in the Mixer also changes their order in the Timeline. In the Mixer, as in the Timeline, channel strips of the same type (track, bus, or output) are grouped together. You can reorder a channel strip within its own group, but cannot move it to a group of a different type. You can only move one channel strip at a time. To reorder a channel strip: m Drag the channel strip left or right to a new position. Copying Channel Strips You can copy channel strips in the Mixer. You can copy a channel strip within its own group, but cannot copy it to a group of a different type. You can only copy one channel strip at a time. To copy a channel strip: m Option-click the channel strip, then drag it left or right. A copy of the channel strip appears when you release the mouse button. Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 277 Setting Channel Strip Volume Levels You set relative volume levels to balance the various parts of the project. You set the volume level of a channel strip using the channel strip volume fader or value slider. Different sounds can have different apparent loudness at the same volume level, so perceived loudness does not precisely correspond to numeric values on the volume faders. You determine the appropriate volume level by listening to the track and adjusting its level in the overall mix. To set the volume level of a channel strip, do one of the following: m Drag the volume fader up to raise (increase) the volume, or drag it down to lower (decrease) the volume. m Click along the length of the volume fader at the point you want to set the volume level. m Click the left or right arrows on the edges of the volume value slider. m With the pointer over the center of the volume value slider, hold down the mouse button and drag left or right. m Click the center of the volume value slider, then type a new value. The scale is from –96 to +6 dB. The default level is 0 (zero) dB. To return the volume fader to the default level: m Double-click the knob in the volume fader. As you adjust track volume, watch the level meters next to the volume fader to make sure that the track is not clipping. For information about preventing clipping, see “Setting the Overall Project Volume Level” on page 288. Volume value slider Volume fader 278 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Setting Channel Strip Pan Position You pan sounds to different positions to place them in the stereo or the surround field. You set the pan position of a track or bus channel strip using the stereo pan slider and value slider or the surround panner. You can’t pan a submix or the Master channel strip. To set the stereo pan position of a channel strip, do one of the following: m Drag the pan slider left or right to the pan position you want. m Click along the length of the pan slider at the point you want to set the pan position. m Click the left or right arrow on the edges of the pan value slider. m With the pointer over the center of the pan value slider, hold down the mouse button and drag left or right. m Click the center of the pan value slider, then type a new value. The scale is from –100 to 100, with 0 (zero) as the center value. Negative values are left of center, and positive values are right of center. The default is 0. To return the stereo pan slider to the default level, do one of the following: m Control-click the slider, then choose Set to Centered from the shortcut menu. m Double-click the knob in the stereo pan slider. To switch the panning controls from stereo to surround in the channel strip, do one of the following: m Select a channel strip in the Mixer, then choose Multitrack > Use Surround Panner. m Control-click the stereo pan slider, then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. Pan slider Pan value slider Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 279 To set the surround pan position of a channel strip: m Drag anywhere inside the black circle to position the puck. To return the surround panner to the default level: m Control-click the panner, then choose Set to Centered from the shortcut menu. For finer surround panning adjustments and other surround controls, double-click the surround panner to open the Surround Panner HUD. For more information about using surround panners, see “Using Surround Panners to Create a Surround Mix” on page 299. For more information about the Surround Panner HUD, see “The Surround Panner HUD” on page 300. Setting Channel Strip Output On a hardware mixing console, you can send signals to different busses and physical outputs. You can create submixes and busses in Soundtrack Pro, assign tracks and busses to different submixes, and assign submixes to physical output channels on connected audio devices. You can send audio from as many tracks and busses to the same output as you want. To set the submix for a track or bus: m Choose the submix from the Submix pop-up menu at the bottom of the channel strip for the track or bus. For submixes in the Mixer, the Output pop-up menu lists the available output channels. To set the output for a submix in the Mixer: m In the channel strip for the submix, choose the output channel or set of channels from the Output pop-up menu. The options listed in the Output pop-up menu depend on the number of available physical outputs and the number of submixes in your project. For more information about setting the output, see “Setting Hardware Outputs” on page 265. Submix pop-up menu 280 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Note: You can create submixes independently of the audio hardware connected to your computer and can route audio to an output that does not correspond to a physical output. In most situations, each submix in a project should correspond to a physical output on the audio interface or other hardware connected to your computer. Submixes that do not correspond to a physical output will not be heard. You may set as many submixes in a project to the same physical output device or output channel as you like. To select an audio interface as the output device: m Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Sound, then click the Output button. Select the audio interface in the list that appears. For more information about these settings, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22. Muting and Soloing Channel Strips You can mute and solo channel strips in the Mixer in order to hear or silence specific tracks, busses, or submixes. To mute a channel strip: m Click the channel strip’s Mute button. Click the button again to unmute the channel strip. To solo a channel strip: m Click the channel strip’s Solo button. Click the button again to unsolo the channel strip. To exclusively solo a channel strip: m Option-click the Solo button. Click the Solo button again to unsolo the track, bus, or output. When you export a project, all unmuted tracks, busses, and submixes are included in the exported file. If you export a track, bus, or output that is muted (including being muted by having another track soloed), the exported file contains no audio. Enabling Track Channel Strips for Recording You can enable a track channel strip for recording. When you enable a track channel strip for recording, audio will be recorded on the track when you click the Record button in the transport controls. You can’t record to a bus or output channel strip. To enable a track channel strip for recording: m Click the Arm for Recording button in the channel strip. Click the button again to disable the channel strip for recording. You can record only to a track, not to a bus or an output. Solo button Arm for Recording Mute button button Bypass Effects button Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 281 Renaming Channel Strips You can rename a channel strip to help you remember its content or purpose in the overall mix. To rename a channel strip: m Click the channel strip’s name (at the top of the channel strip) to select it, then type a new name. Changing a Channel Strip Icon You can change the icon of a channel strip. Icons do not affect the sound, but are useful as a quick visual reference for the channel strip, particularly for projects with many tracks, busses, or submixes. To change a channel strip icon: m Double-click the icon you want to change, then choose a new icon from the icon menu. Showing and Hiding Sections of the Mixer You can show or hide sections of the Mixer window and sections of channel strips. Hiding sections of the Mixer and the channel strips can be helpful, especially when using Soundtrack Pro with a smaller computer display or when working on projects with a large number of tracks, busses, or submixes. You can show or hide any of the following sections of the Mixer:  Audio tracks  Busses  Submixes Double-click the channel strip icon... ...the icon menu appears. 282 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro To hide a section of the Mixer: m Choose the section you want to hide from the Show pop-up menu, located at the upper right of the Mixer. To hide sections of channel strips: m Choose the section you want to hide from the Channel Strip pop-up menu. The visible sections of the channel strips appear with a checkmark in the Channel Strips pop-up menu. You can show or hide any of the following sections of the channel strips:  Icons  Effects slots  Output pop-up menus  Pan controls  Volume faders and level meters Using the Channel Strip Level Meters Each channel strip includes level meters to the left of its volume fader. You can use the level meters to observe each channel strip’s level as the project plays. The level meters range from –96 dB to +6 dB, moving from bottom to top as the level increases. The segments of the level meters run from green through yellow to orange as the level increases. Note: For surround signals, the channel strip meters show the signals in this order: Ls, L, C, R, Rs, LFE. This matches the surround order in the Meters tab. (See “Setting the Overall Project Volume Level” on page 288 for more information.) Show (Mixer) pop-up menu Channel Strip pop-up menu Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 283 At the top of each set of level meters is a peak indicator. As the project plays, the value in decibels of the highest level reached appears in the peak indicator. If the level rises above 0 dB, the peak indicator becomes red. The values shown in each peak indicator remain until you play the project again, close the project, or reset the peak indicator. To reset a peak indicator: m Click the peak indicator. To reset all peak indicators, do one of the following: m Option-click the peak indicator in any channel. m Click the Reset button in the Meters tab. The peak indicators can help identify where clipping occurs in the project. For information about removing clipping, see “Setting the Overall Project Volume Level” on page 288. Removing Channel Strips You can remove a channel strip from the Mixer if you decide you no longer want it in the project. To remove a channel strip, do one of the following: m Select the channel strip, then choose Multitrack > Remove [item]. m Control-click the channel strip, then choose Remove [item] from the shortcut menu. The term indicated by [item] changes in the menu depending on whether a track, bus, or output is selected. Note: If audio from a track is sent to a bus or output, and you remove the bus or output, the audio from the track will not be heard when you play the project. Level meters Peak indicator 284 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Working with Effects in the Mixer You can add effects to a channel strip in the Mixer, show effects settings, turn effects on and off, replace an effect, and delete effects. You can also adjust effects settings in the Effects tab or in the effect’s advanced settings window. Adding Effects to a Channel Strip You can add effects, turn effects off and on, and reorder effects in a channel strip. Note: Before adding an effect to a track, it’s a good idea to solo the track so that you can hear how the effect changes its sound, separate from the other tracks in the project. To add an effect to a channel strip: m Control-click an empty effects slot in the channel strip, choose Add Effect from the shortcut menu, then choose one of the available effects from the categories in the submenu. Showing Channel Strip Effects Settings Once you add an effect, you can view and adjust its settings in the Effects tab. To show an effect’s settings in the Effects tab: m In the channel strip, Control-click the effect, then choose Show [effect name] Settings from the shortcut menu. The Effects tab becomes active, and shows the selected effect’s settings. Some effects have a floating advanced settings window with sliders and other controls you can use to adjust effect parameters. Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 285 To show advanced settings for an effect, do one of the following: m Double-click the effect name in the channel strip. m Control-click the effect, then choose Show [effect name] Advanced Settings from the shortcut menu. The effect’s advanced settings window appears. For information on working in the advanced settings window, see “Automating Realtime Effect Parameters” on page 351. Reordering Effects in the Mixer You can reorder effects in the Mixer as well as in the Effects tab. When you reorder effects, you change the order in which the audio is processed by each effect, which can change the sound drastically. To reorder an effect in the Mixer: m Drag the effect up or down in the effects slot area to change its order. Turning Effects Off and On You can turn off a channel strip’s effects. Turning off an effect lets you hear the channel strip without the effect, while preserving the current effects settings. To turn off an effect in a channel strip, do one of the following: m Deselect the checkbox to the left of the effect name. m Control-click the effect, then choose Disable [effect name] from the shortcut menu. To turn off all effects in a channel strip: m Control-click an effects slot, then choose Disable All Effects from the shortcut menu. To turn on an effect again, do one of the following: m Select the checkbox to the left of the effect name. m Control-click the effect, then choose Enable [effect name] from the shortcut menu. To turn on all effects in a channel strip: m Control-click an effects slot, then choose Enable All Effects from the shortcut menu. 286 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Replacing an Effect You can replace an effect in a channel strip with another effect. When you replace an effect with another effect, the new effect has its own default settings, regardless of the settings of the previous effect. To replace an effect in a channel strip: m Control-click the effect, choose Replace [effect name] from the shortcut menu, then choose a new effect from the submenu. Deleting Effects from a Channel Strip You can delete an effect if you decide you don’t want to use it in a channel strip. You can also delete all effects from a channel strip. To delete an effect from a channel strip, do one of the following: m Select the effect, then choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key.) m Control-click the effect, then choose Delete [effect name] from the shortcut menu. To delete all effects from a channel strip: m Control-click an effects slot, then choose Delete All Effects from the shortcut menu. For more information about working with effects, including information on uses of different effects and adjusting effect parameters, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. Working with Sends and Busses in the Mixer This section covers using sends in Mixer channel strips. For more general information about sends and busses, see “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270 and “Adding Sends to Tracks” on page 349. Adding Sends to a Channel Strip You can add sends to a channel strip, show send settings in the Effects tab, bypass a send, or remove a send in the Mixer. To add a send to a channel strip: m Control-click an empty effects slot in the channel strip, choose Add Send from the shortcut menu, then choose one of the available busses in the submenu. The new send is added. When you add a send, the audio is routed from the send to a bus. By default, the first send you add to an effects chain is routed to Bus 1, the second send is routed to Bus 2, and so on, if the default bus exists. You can choose the bus to which a send is routed. By default, new sends are pre-fader sends. You can change a send to a post-fader send. Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 287 To make a send a post-fader send: m Click the disclosure triangle for the send in the Effects tab, then select the On button next to Post-Fader. Reordering Sends in the Mixer You can reorder sends in the Mixer as well as in the Effects tab. When you reorder sends, you change which effects are routed to the send, which can change the sound drastically. To reorder a send in the Mixer: m Drag the send up or down in the effects slot area to change its order. Showing Send Settings You can show the settings for a send in the Effects tab. Send settings include volume, pan, and the bus to which the send is routed. To show settings for a send: m In the Mixer, Control-click the send, then choose Show Send Settings from the shortcut menu. The Effects tab becomes active, with the settings for the send visible in the Effect Parameters area. Turning Sends Off and On You can turn sends off, and turn them back on. When you turn off a send, the audio is not routed to the send bus, and is not heard. To turn off a send in a channel strip, do one of the following: m Deselect the checkbox to the left of the send name. m Control-click the send, then choose Disable Send from the shortcut menu. To turn on an effect again: m Select the checkbox to the left of the effect name. 288 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Setting the Overall Project Volume Level As you finalize a project mix, you set the overall project volume to the appropriate level. Certain formats or methods of distribution may require that the project conform to a particular maximum level. In general, you set the overall volume of the project to the highest level at which no clipping occurs at any point in the project. Clipping occurs when the digital audio signal exceeds the maximum level that can be reproduced accurately. Unlike analog audio, digital audio is completely unforgiving of clipping, which creates sharp distortion of the audio signal. Soundtrack Pro projects clip whenever the output displayed in the level meters exceeds zero decibels (0 dB). It’s important to eliminate clipping from projects before exporting the final mix. For more information about digital distortion, see Appendix B, “Audio Fundamentals,” on page 463. You can monitor audio output levels using the level meters in the Mixer, the Meters tab, and in individual track headers. In the Mixer, each channel strip has level meters that show the levels for that channel strip. In the Meters tab, the level meters show the levels for all submixes assigned to physical output channels. For more information about setting up physical outputs, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22. The Meters tab includes additional controls and displays to help you maintain proper audio levels and eliminate clipping. As a project plays back, the levels in each channel change constantly with the rising and falling of the audio signal. The level meters show these changes both as bars rising to varying heights and as changes in color from green to yellow. Level meters Reset button Peak Value and Location display 2-channel meter 6-channel meter Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 289 In each channel’s meter, a white horizontal bar displays the current signal level; bars below the white bar display successive levels in a scale that rises from green to yellow as the signal increases. The meters peak at red when the signal clips (rises above 0 dB). Note: The meters can be configured via Soundtrack Pro preferences to display either surround order (Ls, L, C, R, Rs, LFE) or output order (channels 1-n). To change this setting, choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > General. To change the channel order in the meter display: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences > Startup, then select the order using the Meters Channel Display pop-up menu. For more information about Soundtrack Pro preferences, see “Setting Soundtrack Pro Preferences” on page 97. Using the Peak Indicators in the Mixer Channel Strips At the top of the level meters in the Mixer channel strips is a rectangular peak indicator that lights red when that channel clips (exceeds 0 dB). The peak indicators are “sticky,” meaning that if clipping occurs in either channel, the peak indicator lights red and stays red until you reset it, or reset all peak indicators. To reset a peak indicator: m Click the peak indicator. To reset all peak indicators: m Option-click any peak indicator in any of the Mixer level meters. Using the Peaks Value and Location Display in the Meters Tab The Peaks Value and Location display in the Meters tab displays the highest (peak) value played in each output channel in decibels (dB) and its timecode. The Time column shows the location in the Timeline where the peak occurs. You can use the Peaks Value and Location display to quickly locate a section of your project that is clipping or peaking. To move the playhead to the highest (peak) value played in a channel: m Double-click any item in the Peaks Value and Location display. The playhead moves to the corresponding point in the Timeline. The Reset button located in the upper-right corner of the Meters tab display resets the Peaks Value and Location display to a minimum value (–96 dB) and resets the Time column to the beginning of the project. To reset the Peaks Value and Location display values: m Click the Reset button. 290 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Using the Master Bus The Master bus represents the final mix from Soundtrack Pro—what will be heard from the physical output jacks. On a signal routing basis, the Master bus is practically a mirror image of the connected hardware output device. It is as wide as either the hardware device or the number of channels used in the project, whichever number is smaller. Master Bus Details The Master bus includes envelopes for volume, transposition, and tempo. By default, only the Volume envelope is visible. For more information, see “Master Bus” on page 364. The Master bus does not have panners or meters. You can apply effects to the Master bus, but you cannot automate those effects. Effects applied to the Master bus are placed across all channels. You can bypass effects on the Master bus. For more information about bypassing effects, see “Bypassing Realtime Effects” on page 349. Adjusting the Master Volume The steps you take to remove clipping depend on the cause of the clipping. You can lower the master volume of a project by the amount the highest point in the project (as shown in the Value display) exceeds 0 dB. You can also use the Go buttons to locate where clipping occurs and use a different audio clip or lower the volume of individual tracks until clipping no longer occurs. Sometimes adjusting the gain on effects can remove occurrences of clipping as well. Listening to a Temporary Mono Mix In some situations, even where the final mix is stereo, you may want to listen to the mix in mono as well as stereo. If the final project is likely to be viewed using equipment with mono audio output (for example, many television sets have mono output), you may want to make sure the mix is suitable for mono output. Listening to a mono mix can also help identify phase issues that can occur when a stereo project is played in mono. Soundtrack Pro makes it easy to listen to a temporary mono mix of the project so you can hear how it will sound in mono. Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro 291 To listen to a temporary mono mix: 1 Start the project playing. 2 While the project plays, press and hold the Mono Mix button, located to the right of the Monitor volume slider below the Mixer. The Mono Mix button becomes darker to indicate that it is active. When you are finished listening to the temporary mono mix, release the button to hear the project mix. In addition to listening to a temporary mono mix by holding down the Mono Mix button, you can “latch” the Mono Mix button. This keeps the mono mix active until you click the button again or switch to a different project. To latch the Mono Mix button: m Option-click the Mono Mix button. Recording Audio in the Mixer You can record audio while working in the Mixer. When you record audio in the Mixer, recording starts from the current playhead position. Although the playhead is not visible in the Mixer, you can set the playhead position using the transport controls or the Playhead Location value slider located at the bottom of the Soundtrack Pro window. For more information about recording, see Chapter 13, “Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro,” on page 367. Recording Automation in the Mixer You can record automation for volume and pan changes in the Mixer. You record automation in the Mixer by choosing either Touch or Latch automation mode in the project controls, then changing volume or pan settings as the project plays. You can record automation either using the onscreen volume and pan controls, or using a control surface connected to your computer. For more information about working with automation, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. Mono Mix button 292 Chapter 8 Basic Mixing in Soundtrack Pro Creating Multiple Mixes You might want to create multiple mixes of a project for one of the following reasons:  To optimize the project for different playback situations  To try out different settings of the various track and master controls using the same arrangement  To try out changes to the arrangement using the same basic material You can easily create multiple mixes by giving the project a slightly different name when you save each mix, or by using different combinations of tracks, busses, and submixes for each mix. If you are saving the project and its media files together, the different versions can be saved to the same location if they all use the same media files. For information about saving projects and their media files together, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111. Things to Keep in Mind While Mixing The following are intended as guidelines or suggestions to follow when mixing your projects, not as “hard-and-fast” instructions.  Consider the importance of each element in the overall mix.  Keep related tracks close together (in the Timeline and the Mixer).  Don’t create a final mix until the picture is locked.  Listen to the mix with the best possible equipment.  Also listen to the mix as the audience will hear it.  Don’t change output/monitor levels while mixing.  Mix by what you hear, not what you see. 9 293 9 Mixing Surround Sound Soundtrack Pro gives you the tools to create sophisticated surround mixes for your projects. Surround sound uses more than two speakers to expand the spatial experience of audio playback to three dimensions. Surround systems can be found in movie theaters, home entertainment systems, video games, and a growing number of other applications. Soundtrack Pro offers an easy-to-use approach to surround panning, mixing, and automation, including a high degree of flexibility with surround sources and the ability to easily switch between stereo and surround mixes. Soundtrack Pro also includes numerous surround sound effects and surround music beds, as well as a collection of professional surround-specific effect plug-ins for shaping your surround mix. What Is 5.1 Surround? The most common surround format is a six-channel system called 5.1 surround. This format is the standard surround configuration in major motion pictures, music, and digital television. The format consists of three speakers across the front and two speakers in the rear. The .1 is a sixth channel for low-frequency effects (LFE). A typical 5.1 surround layout features left and right speakers (from a traditional stereo system) plus a center speaker, a left surround (rear) speaker, a right surround (rear) speaker, and an LFE speaker, more commonly known as the subwoofer. There are other surround standards that range from three channels to seven channels and nonstandard surround formats that use as many as ten channels. 294 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Creating a Surround Project The following steps outline a general workflow used for editing and mixing surround sound files. Step 1: Acquiring the sound As with any audio track, the first step is finding and recording the sound that you want. Soundtrack Pro is flexible in terms of what kinds of files you can use in the surround mix. Input files can be mono, stereo, or surround. While Soundtrack Pro also includes numerous surround clips for music and sound effects, the production audio for most film and video projects is typically either mono or stereo files. Step 2: Editing and arranging a multitrack project The workflow for editing audio files and arranging them in the multitrack Timeline is very similar for stereo and surround projects. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Working with Multitrack Projects,” on page 105, Chapter 5, “Working in the Timeline,” on page 127, and Chapter 6, “Editing Audio Files,” on page 191. Step 3: Mixing surround Soundtrack Pro provides a flexible toolset for creating and adjusting a surround mix. For more information, see “Surround Mixing Strategies” on page 306. Step 4: Exporting and delivering surround projects Soundtrack Pro supports a variety of workflows and formats for delivering your final surround mix. These include separate audio files for each channel or single multichannel sound files for the entire mix. Setting Up for Surround In order to hear your surround project through a surround speaker system, you need to adjust settings in Soundtrack Pro and set up the related hardware. Setting Up Soundtrack Pro for Surround In Soundtrack Pro, the difference between mixing in stereo and mixing in surround hinges on three different elements: the panner type, the submix output, and the number of physical output channels. All three of these items must be configured correctly to achieve surround playback. If one of these three conditions is not met, playback will be in stereo. (For more information about stereo mixdown, see “Stereo Mixdown” on page 297.) Use the instructions that follow to start using the surround mixing tools in Soundtrack Pro. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 295 Using the Surround Panners You use the panning controls in the track headers to set the pan position of a track or a bus. By default, the panning controls are set to stereo. You can easily switch between stereo panners and surround panners. For surround playback, you must set the appropriate tracks or busses to use the surround panner. To switch the panning controls from stereo to surround, do one of the following: m Select a track or bus in the Timeline, then choose Multitrack > Use Surround Panner. m Select a channel strip in the Mixer, then choose Multitrack > Use Surround Panner. m Control-click the stereo pan slider in a track header, then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. m Control-click the stereo pan slider in a Mixer channel strip, then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. The surround panner replaces the stereo panner. Surround panners Stereo panners Control-click the stereo panner, then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. 296 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound As far as tracks and busses are concerned, switching between surround mode and stereo mode is that simple. At this point, you are mixing this particular track or bus in surround. Any surround panning adjustments and automation that you apply are saved with the current project. Important: To hear these changes through your speakers, make sure you also set the submix outputs to surround and connect the physical outputs. For more information, see the next two sections, “Setting the Submix Outputs to Surround” and “Connecting Physical Outputs.” Setting the Submix Outputs to Surround In Soundtrack Pro, you route the audio from tracks and busses to physical outputs using submixes. By default, all tracks are routed to Submix 1, and Submix 1 is routed to the Stereo 1, 2 outputs. You can easily change this hardware output setting using the Output pop-up menu. To switch the hardware output setting from stereo to surround: m Choose Surround from the Output pop-up menu in the track header, then choose 1-6 from the submenu. The menu displays 1-6, indicating that the audio is now routed to the physical output jacks 1 through 6. At this point, the signal is routed to those six outputs, whether or not the hardware to support those channels is connected. Important: To hear these surround signals through loudspeakers, you must also connect the physical outputs. For more information, see “Connecting Physical Outputs,” next. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 297 Connecting Physical Outputs To hear the six discrete channels of surround sound that Soundtrack Pro can provide, you need external audio hardware that supports multiple physical outputs. At a minimum, this would include a multichannel audio interface and a 5.1-channel surround sound speaker system (totaling six speakers). For more information about audio interfaces, see “Setting Up an Audio Interface” on page 485. To connect physical outputs for monitoring surround sound: 1 Connect the audio interface to your computer. For detailed information on connecting your audio interface to your computer, see the documentation that came with the audio interface. 2 Double-click Audio MIDI Setup in the Utilities folder, then choose the audio interface from the Default Output pop-up menu. For more information, see “Setting the Audio Input and Output” on page 22. 3 Connect your 5.1-channel surround sound speakers to the appropriate outputs of your audio interface. Soundtrack Pro uses the SMPTE/ITU standard for routing output channels. For detailed information on connecting external speakers to your audio interface, see the documentation that came with the speakers. Stereo Mixdown If you have set up a project for surround mixing, including surround panners and surround channel assignments, but you do not have sufficient output jacks for surround playback, Soundtrack Pro automatically provides a surround-to-stereo mixdown of what would otherwise be sent to jacks 1-6. This stereo mixdown follows the Dolby guidelines: the Ls and Rs channels are attenuated by 3 dB and mixed into the Left and Right channels. The Center channel is also attenuated by 3 dB and mixed evenly into the Left and Right channels. The LFE channel is discarded. Audio Interface Output Speaker 1 Left 2 Right 3 Center 4 LFE 5 Left Surround (Ls) 6 Right Surround (Rs) 298 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Surround Speaker Placement There are several ways you can arrange 5.1 surround speakers for playback. You can follow the International Telecommunications Union Operational Bulletin No. 775 or the “ITU Standard” for 5.1 surround sound. Here are the basic points of this recommendation:  Place all the speakers on the same plane. In other words, if you place some speakers on the floor and mount some on the ceiling, you will defeat the psychoacoustical benefit of having surround speakers in the first place.  With the center speaker directly in front, the Left and Right speakers should be positioned 30 degrees away from center at about a 60-degree angle aiming for a spot 3 to 6 inches behind the mixer’s (or listener’s) head. Note: This angle can be reduced to 45 degrees or extended out to 60 or even 90 degrees and still provide satisfactory results.  Place the surround (rear) speakers at about 110 degrees off center (to the sides and somewhat behind the listener). To ensure one cohesive soundfield, do not position these speakers too far to the rear. Ls Left surround speaker Place to the left and slightly behind your listening position. L Left speaker Place in front and to the left. C Center speaker Place on top of or below your viewing screen. R Right speaker Place in front and to the right. Rs Right surround speaker Place to the right and slightly behind your listening position. LFE (LFE) Subwoofer Can be placed anywhere. L R LFE C Ls Rs 80° 30° 30° 80° Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 299 Note: It isn’t always possible to place the speakers where they’re supposed to go due to obstacles in the room (doors, furniture, and so on). You can overcome some bad speaker placement by calibrating your system with a sound pressure meter and a calibration DVD. This way, you can make sure each speaker is providing the appropriate volume. Using Surround Panners to Create a Surround Mix This section explains how to use the surround panners in Soundtrack Pro to create a surround mix. The surround panners provide a straightforward and flexible way to control and monitor panning settings. By changing the panner type in the track header, you can easily switch any track or bus from stereo to surround, or from surround to stereo. Soundtrack Pro offers two different versions of the surround panner: the mini surround panner and the surround panner HUD. The Mini Surround Panner Use the mini surround panner to switch between stereo and surround mixing, to make simple surround adjustments, and to quickly check the pan setting for a track or a bus. To switch the panning controls from stereo to surround, do one of the following: m Select the track or bus, then choose Multitrack > Use Surround Panner. m Control-click the stereo pan slider in the track header, then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. The surround panner replaces the stereo panner. This is the smaller of two different views of the surround panner. To use the larger Surround Panner HUD, see “The Surround Panner HUD,” next. 300 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound The Surround Panner HUD The Surround Panner HUD offers finer panning adjustments, a graphic representation of the current surround setting for the selected track, and other surround controls. To display the surround panner HUD, do one of the following: m Double-click the surround panner in the track header of the track or bus you want to adjust. m Double-click the surround panner in the Mixer channel strip of the track or bus you want to adjust. The surround panner HUD appears in a floating window over the Soundtrack Pro window. The dominant feature of the Surround Panner HUD is the black circle that represents the virtual surround space. The puck, a dot inside the circle, is the primary surround pan control. Input channels are represented by color-coded, semi-circular, translucent arcs emanating from the inside of the circle’s circumference. These arcs indicate the input channel’s gain (by the height of the arc), the channel’s spread (by the width of the arc), and location. Overlapping sounds are represented by overlapping arcs, summing (combining) to white where all channels overlap. The surround pan controls include the following:  Position: The puck is the main control in the panner. To pan the audio, move the puck by clicking anywhere inside the black circle or by dragging the puck to a different position in the circle. The speaker icons around the edge of the circle represent the five main surround channels: L (left), C (center), R (right), Ls (left surround), and Rs (right surround). The closer you move the puck to one of the speaker icons, the louder the sound will be from that speaker. For more information about moving the puck to adjust the position parameter, see “Modifier Keys for Moving the Puck” on page 303. Rotation slider Puck (pan position) Width slider Collapse slider Center bias slider LFE balance slider Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 301 Note: In automation envelopes, this Position parameter is expressed as Surround Pan X and Surround Pan Y.  Rotation: Use this slider to alter the angle at which each signal starts out. This slider ranges from -180 degrees to 180 degrees and affects the input signal. For example, with no other panning, the right channel emanates from a location 45 degrees to the right. With rotation at +65 degrees, the signal appears at 110 degrees—directly out of the right surround speaker. Note: This setting interacts with the position parameter when the panner mode is not fully attenuating.  Width: Use the Width slider to create a widened surround image. This slider is intended primarily for stereo sources in that it spreads the left and right inputs into adjacent channels. This creates the illusion of a widened sound stage without the hole at the center that moving the puck rearward would create. For some movie theaters, it may be necessary to use the Width slider to bleed the center signal in to the left and right speakers. At 0%, all inputs go to their respective outputs. As you drag the Width slider to the right, L and R inputs start to bleed into Ls and Rs respectively, and to a lesser extent, L and R bleed into C, C bleeds slightly into L and R, and Ls and Rs start to merge. ... to alter the angle from which each signal starts. Drag the Rotation slider... 302 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound  Collapse: Typically, panners are either of a collapsing style (panning folds input signals into output speakers) or an attenuating style (panning simply turns down the gain of speakers further from the pan location). The Collapse slider goes from a fully attenuating style, through a hybrid style, to a fully collapsing style. At full attenuate (0% on the slider), no input bleeds to any other output; each channel remains at its original speaker position. The only change is to output gain. At full collapse (100% on the slider), no input gain is changed—instead, inputs have their output divided over adjacent channels. At 50%, a given input channel panned away has its input attenuated by 50% and distributed between the two adjacent channels.  Center Bias: Use this slider to determine how the center channel interacts with the left and right channels. At 0%, all sound that would have gone to the center speaker is equally distributed to the left and right speaker. At 100%, the center is used fully, just like any other speaker. This means that if you move the puck directly in front of the center speaker, all sound emanates exclusively from that speaker. If you move the puck halfway between the center channel and an adjacent channel (yet still on the perimeter of the black circle), the sound is equally and exclusively divided between those two speakers.  LFE Balance: Use this slider to balance control between LFE and the other five channels. At -100, nothing is output from the LFE speaker, even if there was LFE input, and all other channels pass through at unity gain. At its midpoint (0), all six channels passes through at unity gain to their respective speakers, meaning that LFE input passes directly to LFE output. At +100, all six signals get summed to the LFE speaker. Collapse at 0 Collapse at 50 Collapse at 95 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 303  Speaker Disable: Click a speaker icon once to disable or enable it. If you disable a speaker, its output goes to adjacent speakers. Each speaker supports a single-click on/off for that speaker’s output. Surround Panner Automation Automating surround pan settings is very similar to automating stereo pan settings: a track or bus set to use the surround panner has at least seven different panning envelopes, and a stereo track or bus has only one pan envelope. Automation for the Position parameter (the puck) is reflected in two envelopes: Surround Pan X and Surround Pan Y. These are Cartesian X & Y values referring to the puck position within the black panning circle. All other surround panning parameters are expressed with one envelope each, except for Collapse and Speaker Disable, which cannot be automated. For more information about automation, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. Modifier Keys for Moving the Puck Hold down any of the following keys as you move the puck to constrain its movement. These modifier keys offer finer control as you make adjustments to the position parameter.  Shift: Fine adjustment  Option-click: Reset control  Option-drag: Straight movement, restricted to diversity, constant angle  Command: Circular movement, restricted to angle, constant diversity  Command-Option-drag: Restricted to either X or Y movement Click a speaker to disable or enable it. A dim gray color indicates the speaker is off. 304 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Surround Metering Soundtrack Pro provides a variety of level meters to monitor output levels as you make surround panning adjustments. Surround Panner HUD Meters The Surround Panner HUD includes level meters that show volume information from the specific track or bus that you are panning. These meters can be hidden or displayed by using the disclosure triangle. Track-specific meters are a useful reference given the possible psychoacoustical “illusions” in surround mixing, such as the phantom center. Meters Tab The Meters tab displays levels for the current multitrack project. The channels displayed in the Meters tab and in the Mixer meters (described in “Mixer Meters” on page 305) depend on the audio interface connected to your computer, the current panner settings, and the current output settings in System Preferences. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 305 For more information about output settings, see “Connecting Physical Outputs” on page 297. Mixer Meters Each channel strip in the Mixer includes a levels meter capable of displaying up to all six channels. The Mixer is the only place you can view the levels for each track, bus, and submix as well as the Master bus. Level meters Reset button Peak Value and Location display 2-channel meter 6-channel meter 6-channel meter 306 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Surround Mixing Strategies This section includes guidelines and tips for mixing surround projects. Mixing Surround Files The basic steps in mixing are almost the same for stereo and surround projects:  Balancing relative volume levels between tracks  Panning tracks to create a balanced stereo spread  Adding EQ, compression, and other final processing effects  Setting the project’s final volume and eliminating clipping  Creating a sense of perspective by placing sounds in space While the creating a sense of perspective step is also a part of stereo mixing, it is what really sets surround apart from stereo. When mixing, you can enhance the video action by dynamically moving the sounds within the surround field. To give your listeners a “surrounding” audio experience, your sound must be created with that goal in mind. For example, if you want the sound of an explosion coming from behind the listener, you need to put the sound in the rear channels during mixing. Surround mixing adds not only two rear channels, but also includes the subwoofer or LFE channel, which would probably play a part in any onscreen explosion. You’ll have to spend some time planning what elements go where and how much boom you want in your soundtrack. The following are some common approaches to multichannel sound:  Use the surround channels for effects only. Create a stereo mix, then add “sweetening” sound effects in the surround channels. Sound effects and Foley recordings can be placed in stereo space or specifically located where they occur onscreen or offscreen.  Create special sounds for the rear and low-frequency channels (the rumble of an earthquake, the pounding of drums, an airplane buzzing overhead, and so on) and add them to a standard stereo mix. (To create sound for the LFE channel, you can extract low frequencies from the rest of your sound using band-pass filters.)  Position instruments, effects, and voices anywhere in the sound field. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 307 Converting a Stereo Mix to 5.1 Surround Many post-production projects require both a stereo mix and a surround mix. This section reviews some best practices for converting projects from stereo to surround. You can reverse the steps below to convert a project from surround to stereo. Important: When you switch between stereo and surround panners, panning automation (envelope) settings are not automatically copied over to the new panning mode. Volume information is automatically copied over between stereo and surround panners. The recommended workflow for making a surround version of a stereo mix is to maintain at least two separate versions of the project: a stereo version and a surround version. To create a separate copy of your stereo mix for surround mixing: 1 Choose File > Save As in your stereo project to save a separate copy. In the dialog that appears, indicate in the filename that this is the surround version. (For example, “My Great Mix_surround.”) 2 Use this copy of the project to make all the necessary surround panning adjustments. 308 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound In particular, you Control-click the stereo panner in the track header (or Mixer channel strip) of each appropriate track or bus and choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. Π Tip: To save time, you can select or group all tracks or busses in the Tracks tab. When you change the panning settings of one of the tracks or busses, the panning settings on all the grouped items change as well. 3 If you previously applied any left-right panning to any tracks or busses in the stereo version of the project, do the following: a Select the tracks or busses. b Control-click the panner in the track header, then choose Replace Surround L/R with Stereo L/R from the shortcut menu. Any panning automation (envelope) information is copied from the stereo left-right pan to the surround left-right pan (specifically, to the Surround Pan X parameter) in the selected tracks and busses. These settings can be used to provide a starting point for your surround mix. Note: If you are converting a surround project to a stereo project, you can choose Replace Stereo L/R with Surround L/R from the shortcut menu to do the reverse of Step 3. Set all panners to surround panners. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 309 Placing Dialogue and Voiceover in a Surround Mix In a surround mix, dialogue usually goes directly into the center channel. This is particularly true for voiceover narration, which is best left out of the left and right channels. (This is called stereo plus center.) Soundtrack Pro allows you to place sounds exclusively in a specific channel or just outside that channel, which would allow some of the sound to leak into the other speakers. As you get more comfortable with surround mixing, you may want to experiment with alternative placements to further reinforce the voices that you place within your mix. To place dialogue and narration in the center channel: 1 If you haven’t already done so, Control-click the stereo pan slider in the track header of the dialogue track (or bus), then choose Use Surround Panner from the shortcut menu. 2 Double-click the surround panner. The Surround Panner HUD appears. 3 Drag the puck to the center speaker icon. Depending on the current Collapse slider setting, the arc at the center speaker icon either turns white to indicate exclusive output or is elongated to indicate the increased gain. Note: You can hold down the Option key as you drag the puck to constrain its movement to a straight line. 310 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Placing Stereo Music in a Surround Mix The simplest option for stereo music in a surround project is to just leave it in stereo. If you just use the stereo panner for a music track, the left and right signals remain in their respective channels. However, some surround mixes include a hint of music in the rear channels as well. With the Surround Panner HUD, you can place the right music channel somewhere between the right front and right rear position, with more emphasis on the front speaker. Do the same with the left side and listen to the mix. Make adjustments as needed. Using the Center Channel In a multichannel system, there are three ways to achieve a centrally placed sound image:  Create a “phantom center” (mix sound to the left and right equally, as with stereo). This is a common strategy, but it assumes the listener is seated exactly between the speakers. The timbre of sound is not the same as from a direct speaker because of cross-cancelation effects.  Use the center channel alone. This creates a stable center image for listeners in any location. (To prevent the audio from sounding too focused or narrow, its reverb can be spread to the left and right channels.)  Use all three front channels equally or in various proportions. This method allows for greater control of the range of spatial depth and width. The phantom center can be reinforced by additional signals in the center channel, which can be enhanced by signal spread into the left/right pair. The disadvantage is that sound from all three speakers may not blend well or may not arrive at the listener at the same time, causing side effects such as comb filtering, shifts in tone color, or smearing. To counteract these side effects, you can first process the additional signals to change their spatial character, timbre, or prominence relative to the main center signal. Using Surround Channels Subtle surround effects can greatly enhance the listener’s sense of depth compared to conventional stereo. Popular music often benefits from creative use of surround. But don’t overdo it. The film industry guideline for visual effects applies equally well to surround effects—don’t let effects distract the listeners from the story. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 311 Using Surround Effect Plug-ins Soundtrack Pro includes a collection of professional surround-specific effect plug-ins for shaping your surround mix, including Surround Compressor, Delay Designer, Space Designer, and Multichannel Gain. For a complete list of these true surround effects and a full description of each, see the Soundtrack Pro Effects Reference document, available in the Help menu. For information about using processing and realtime effect plug-ins, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. Limitations of the LFE Channel Use the LFE (Low Frequency Effects) channel to enhance the low frequencies of a film or video so you get the extra boom out of an explosion, thump in a car crash, and so on in dramatic scenes involving plenty of low frequencies. The low frequency effects (LFE) channel is a separate signal with a limited frequency range (about 25 Hz to 120 Hz). It is created by the mixing engineer and delivered alongside the main channels in the mix. In soundtracks comprised entirely of music, the LFE channel is not necessary. (An exception to this rule might be the famous cannon shots in Tchaikovsky’s “1812 Overture.”) The LFE signal is also discarded in the downmix process, so that intense bass signals do not stress small stereo systems. Be sure not to include vital information (such as dialogue) in the LFE channel that would be missed in mono or stereo playback. Because LFE is separate from other channels, its ability to blend with higher frequencies can be affected by filters used to generate the LFE signal. To ensure a cohesive audio signal, keep the entire signal together in the main channel or channels. Note: If you are creating Dolby Digital Professional (AC3) output, avoid creating an LFE channel for material originally produced without one. Dolby Digital Professional’s five main channels are all full-range, and the LFE channel does not increase the frequency response. Dolby Digital Professional decoders offer bass management, directing low frequencies to a subwoofer or other suitable speakers. An LFE track may interfere with bass management. For more information about Dolby Digital Professional, see “Frequently Asked Questions about Dolby Digital Professional,” available at the Dolby Laboratories Inc. website: http://www.dolby.com. 312 Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound Accommodating Stereo Playback Even with the popularity of 5.1 systems, you should always address stereo reproduction. There are three basic ways to do this:  Prepare a new stereo mix from the original multitrack elements (using conventional stereo-mixing sessions).  Prepare a studio-adjusted downmix from the multichannel mix. This method takes advantage of the work that has gone into mixing the 5.1 version. It retains flexibility in the exact proportions of each channel represented in the final stereo mix.  Let the decoder derive a stereo downmix, based on preset formulas in the decoder. Downmix options and dynamic range control effects can be previewed and adjusted in the production studio, and a range of adjustments is possible. Π Tip: Always check the mix on an inexpensive surround system to evaluate how well it sounds on modest playback systems. Exporting and Delivering 5.1 Surround Projects Delivery of your finished surround mix can take many forms. Different clients have different file format requirements. In general terms, your options include two broad categories: mixdowns and project files. Mixdowns In this scenario, you would export one of the following:  Six audio files, one for each of the six surround output channels  An interleaved multichannel audio file containing all six surround output channels  A single flat mixdown file either as an exported file or one sent to Final Cut Pro or Motion Soundtrack Pro supports the following file formats for six-channel audio export (either as a set of mono files, or as an interleaved multichannel file):  AIFF  WAVE  NeXT  Sound Designer II You can also encode your surround mix directly to the Dolby Digital Professional (AC3 ) format, which is a very common compressed audio format for DVD-Video discs. For more information about exporting projects, see Chapter 16, “Exporting Multitrack Projects,” on page 395. Chapter 9 Mixing Surround Sound 313 Project Files You can also deliver either an exported AAF file or a copy of the Soundtrack Pro project file.  AAF: Like the Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format, Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) is an industry-standard project interchange format that contains the editing decisions of nonlinear editing projects.  Soundtrack Pro project file: For the greatest flexibility, you could deliver the entire project file with its associated media. This would allow for further adjustments in Soundtrack Pro, as needed. For information on saving projects, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111 and “Distributing a Multitrack Project and Its Media Files Together” on page 419. 10 315 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro You can import a video into a multitrack or audio file project, view the video as you work on your project, edit the video’s audio, and use markers to synchronize audio and video. When you import a video, the video appears in the Video tab. When you import a video into a multitrack project, a video clip also appears in a video track in the Timeline. The video’s audio appears as a clip in an audio track in the Timeline and can be moved and edited like other audio clips. You can mute, solo, and adjust the volume and pan of the video’s audio, add effects, and automate changes. You can also open the video’s audio in the File Editor and perform actions or analysis on it. When you import a video, you can set the Time Ruler units to match the timecode format of the video. Any Final Cut Pro markers contained in the video appear as markers in the Soundtrack Pro Timeline. You can also add markers in Soundtrack Pro and export them to Final Cut Pro with the video file. You can score markers to the playhead, using them to synchronize your soundtrack to the action in the video. You can work with video in Soundtrack Pro in several ways. You can add audio clips for dialogue and voiceover, music, ambience, and sound effects to the Timeline. You can make exchange files between Final Cut Pro and Soundtrack Pro as you work on both the video and the soundtrack, or bring the final video into Soundtrack Pro to finalize the project. When your soundtrack is complete, you can export it as an AIFF file or save it as part of the video. Supported Video File Formats Soundtrack Pro supports standard QuickTime-compatible file formats. You can import a QuickTime movie (.mov) video file into a Soundtrack Pro project and can import an MPEG-2 (.m2v) if you have installed the QuickTime MPEG-2 Playback Component. Video files using NTSC, PAL, HD, and other formats supported by QuickTime can be imported into Soundtrack Pro. Imported video files can be up to four hours in length. 316 Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro Adding a Video to a Project You can import a video file by dragging the file from a media tab or from the Finder. You can import only one video file into a project. To import a video file into a project, do one of the following: m Drag the video file from a media tab or the Finder to the Video tab. m Drag the video file from a media tab or the Finder to the video track in the Timeline. The video is displayed in the Video tab in its correct aspect ratio, and a video clip appears in the video track (the top track in the Timeline), letting you see the duration of the video in the project. The video clip starts at the beginning of the project and cannot be moved to another point in time. Any Final Cut Pro scoring markers included in the video file appear in the Timeline with an orange handle. If the video contains audio, new audio tracks are added below the video track for each audio track in the movie, and the video’s audio tracks appear as audio clips in the new tracks. You can move, resize, and edit these audio clips like any audio clip in the Timeline, and can use the track controls to control volume and pan, mute or solo the track, and add effects or automation. When you add a QuickTime movie containing video or a Broadcast Wave (BWF) file to the File Editor, the Time ruler shows the file’s timecode format if the Time Ruler Units menu item is set to either Frame or Non-drop Frame. Drag a video file to the Video tab to import it into the project. The video’s audio appears in a new audio track. A video clip appears on the video track. The video appears in the Video tab. Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 317 Playing the Video When you play the project, the video plays in the Video tab in time with the audio in your project. You can also control playback using keyboard shortcuts. To view the video, you can make the Video tab active or detach it and move it to another location onscreen. You can also view the video using an external video output device. Controlling Video Playback Using Keyboard Shortcuts There are a number of keyboard shortcuts you can use to control playback of the video in the Video tab. To use keyboard shortcuts, the pointer cannot be in a text field.  Space bar: Plays the video from the current playhead position. This is equivalent to clicking the Play button.  Return: Sets the playhead to the beginning of the video. If the cycle region is active, pressing Return sets the playhead to the beginning of the cycle region. This is equivalent to clicking the Go to Beginning button in the transport controls.  Option-Left Arrow: Moves the playhead back (closer to the beginning) one video frame. This is equivalent to clicking the Previous Frame button.  Option-Right Arrow: Moves the playhead forward (closer to the end) one video frame. This is equivalent to clicking the Previous Frame button.  J, K, and L keys: You can use the keyboard commands (the J, K, and L keys) to speed playback up to eight times normal speed. For complete information on using these keys see “Using the J, K, and L Keys for Shuttling” on page 130. For a complete list of Soundtrack Pro keyboard shortcuts, see Appendix A, “Soundtrack Pro Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 449. 318 Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro Resizing the Video Tab You can detach the Video tab and resize it (to any size, up to filling your entire screen). To resize the Video tab: 1 Detach (undock) the Video tab by clicking the tab at the top of the video frame and dragging it from its pane. 2 Drag the resize control at the lower-right corner of the Video tab until the tab is the size you want. Using Video Output Devices You can connect an external video output device to your computer and play your project through the video output device. This can be especially useful in cases where you are using Soundtrack Pro as the final step in producing the overall project, or when you want to show the current version of the project to a client or other party while working on the project in Soundtrack Pro. When you use an external video output device, the quality of the output is as high as the device can support. If you connect an output device capable of broadcast-quality output, the video is displayed with more accurate colors than on a computer display, with true interlacing, correct pixel sizes, the correct aspect ratio, and broadcast-quality refresh rates. Some broadcast-quality video output devices receive both the video and audio from a project. When you use a video output device that supports both video and audio output, Soundtrack Pro automatically routes your audio output to this device to provide the best possible synchronization of the audio and video. Use the window’s resize control to make the video larger. Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 319 You can also play a project’s video externally using Digital Cinema Desktop. Using Digital Cinema Desktop, you can connect an Apple Cinema Display to your computer and play the video full-screen through the Cinema Display while using another monitor for editing. To play the video through a video output device, you must configure Soundtrack Pro to use the device in Soundtrack Pro Video Out Preferences. To configure Soundtrack Pro for a video output device: 1 Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences, then click the Video Out button. 2 In the Video Out pane, choose the device you want to use from the Video Output Device pop-up menu. The menu lists only devices that are connected to your computer. 3 Optionally, select the Use Quarter-size Frames checkbox to reduce the frames sent to the video output device. Sending quarter-size frames can result in better performance, especially for devices using FireWire DV output. 4 Click the Close button at the upper-left corner of the Preferences window to close the window. You can switch the output to the video output device on or off when the project is not playing. The video appears in the Video tab whether output to the video output device is switched on or off. To switch off output to an external video output device: m Choose View > Show > Show External Video. If you have added the Video Out button to the Toolbar, you can also click the button to switch off the device. To switch on output to an external video output device: m Choose View > Show > Show External Video. If you have added the Video Out button to the Toolbar, you can also click the button to switch on output to the device. A video output device can only be controlled by one application at a time. If you hide Soundtrack Pro or bring another application to the foreground while playing video through a video output device, Soundtrack Pro maintains control of the output device and continues playing. If you hide Soundtrack Pro or bring another application to the foreground when video is not playing through a video output device, Soundtrack Pro releases control of the output device. 320 Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro Viewing Video Details You can view details of a video file, including the video file’s name, dimensions, length, frame rate, and other information. You can view details of a video file that has been added to a project or of a video file in a media tab. To view details of a video file: 1 If the Details tab is not visible, click Details to make it active. 2 Select a video file in a media tab, or select the video clip in the Timeline. The video file’s information appears in the Details tab. Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 321 Working with a Video’s Audio You can edit the audio clip of the video’s audio as with any audio clip in the project. You can move and resize the video’s audio, split and join it, or open it in the File Editor for processing or analysis. You can also change the name or icon of the track containing the video’s audio and use the controls in the track header to adjust volume and pan, mute or solo the track, change the time format, or enable the track for recording. If you remove the video from the project, the audio clip of the video’s audio is not deleted, but remains in the project. You can delete the clip separately if you want to remove it. Using the Time Display and Time Ruler with Video When you import a video file into a Soundtrack Pro project, the Time display and Time ruler adjust to show the timecode format of the video. The Time display and Time ruler can display time in seconds, frames, drop frames, or non-drop frames. You can choose the format for timecode display, and can set the video frame rate for projects not containing a video file. You can also set the default frame rate for new projects in the Project Preferences pane. To choose the units shown in the Time display and Time ruler: m Choose View > Time Ruler Units, then choose a time format from the submenu. You can adjust the The video’s audio track video’s audio using the controls in the track’s header. 322 Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro To choose the video frame rate for projects not containing a video file: 1 Choose View > Time Ruler Units > Set Video Frame Rate. 2 In the dialog that appears, choose a frame rate from the Frame Rate pop-up menu. For more information on the Time ruler, see “Using the Time Ruler” on page 133. Scrubbing and Spotting with the Multipoint Video HUD The Multipoint Video HUD provides context when you are positioning audio clips and making selections in a video-based project. The window intelligently tracks the movements of your pointer as you work in the Timeline and the File Editor, and it shows multiple frames of video, each labeled with its timecode. The Time ruler units adjust to the video’s format. The Time display adjusts to the video’s timecode. Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 323 Opening and Closing the Multipoint Video HUD Use the following methods for opening and closing the Multipoint Video HUD. To open the Multipoint Video HUD: m Choose Window > HUDs > Multipoint Video (or press V). To close the Multipoint Video HUD, do one of the following: m Choose Window > HUDs > Multipoint Video (or press V). m Click the close box in the HUD. Working with the Multipoint Video HUD The following sections describe some examples of situations in which the Multipoint Video HUD can provide useful context for your sound editing tasks on a video project. Making a Selection in the Timeline or in the File Editor When you make a selection of multiple clips or a Timeslice selection, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the selection and the video frame at the end of the selection. Dragging a Clip into the Multitrack Timeline When you drag a new clip into the Timeline, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the clip and the video frame at the end of the clip. Π Tip: You can also press the V key while dragging a clip to show the Multipoint Video HUD just until you release the clip. Once you release the clip, the Multipoint Video HUD closes automatically. 324 Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro Dragging a Clip Around the Multitrack Timeline When you drag an existing clip around in the Timeline, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the clip on the left, the video frame at the end of the clip on the right, and the video frame at the current pointer position in the middle. In the case of dragging multiple clips, the first frame of video would be from the leading edge of the earliest clip in time and the last frame of video would be for the trailing edge of the last clip in time. For example, if you wanted to synchronize a gunshot sound with the frame in the video when the flash from the gun is visible, you would do the following: 1 Click on the gun shot sound effect at the point where the large transient can be seen in the waveform. 2 Drag the clip in the Timeline. Press V while dragging the clip. 3 Drag the clip until you see the flash in the center frame. Resizing a Clip in the Multitrack Timeline When you resize a clip in the Timeline, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the clip and the video frame at the end of the clip. As you resize one edge of the clip, that frame updates. Nudging a Clip in the Multitrack Timeline When you use the nudge keys to nudge a clip, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the clip and the video frame at the end of the clip. Horizontally Moving an Envelope Point in the Timeline and File Editor Project View When you move an envelope point horizontally, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the current envelope point position. If you select multiple envelope points, two or three frames are shown: one for the first envelope point, one for the last envelope point, and one for the envelope point you are dragging, if it is not the first or last point. Time Stretching in the File Editor When you use the Time Audio Stretching tool, the Multipoint Video HUD displays a single frame of video that follows the pointer location. Chapter 10 Working with Video in Soundtrack Pro 325 Dragging the Cycle Region When you modify either end of the Cycle Region, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the start of the Cycle Region and the video frame at the end of the cycle region. You can quickly remove the Cycle Region at any time by pressing Option-X. Dragging Markers When you drag a single marker, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frame at the marker position. When you drag two markers, the Multipoint Video HUD displays the video frames at both marker positions. When you drag three or more markers, the Multipoint Video HUD displays three video frames: the first marker, the marker being dragged, and the last marker. Removing a Video from a Project You can remove a video if you decide you no longer want to use it in the project. To remove a video clip from a project, do one of the following: m Select the video clip in the Timeline, then choose Edit > Delete (or press the Delete key). m Control-click the video clip, then choose Remove Video from the shortcut menu. When you remove the video from a project, the audio clip of the video’s audio is not deleted, but remains in the project. You can delete the clip separately if you want to remove it. For information about using Soundtrack Pro with Final Cut Pro, including transferring a project back and forth between Soundtrack Pro and Final Cut Pro, see Chapter 17, “Using Soundtrack Pro with Other Applications,” on page 421. 11 327 11 Working with Audio Effects You can modify the sound of your project in many ways using audio effects. Soundtrack Pro includes a complete set of professional-quality audio effects you can use in your projects. You can use audio effects to add both subtle and dramatic changes to audio clips in a multitrack project or to an audio file project. Soundtrack Pro includes effects for equalization, compression, reverb, and other effects you can use to clean up audio, perform sound design, and enhance the sound of your audio. You can also use third-party Audio Units effects plug-ins in both multitrack and audio file projects. Processing Effects and Realtime Effects Soundtrack Pro gives you two ways to use audio effects in your projects: processing effects and realtime effects. Audio effects can be applied as processing effects to entire audio clips, or regions of audio clips, resulting in nondestructive actions that can be adjusted at any time. Audio effects can also be applied as realtime effects to tracks, submixes, and busses as real-time effects, enabling parameters of the effects to be automated so that they change over time. 328 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Applying Processing Effects You can apply processing effects to clips and regions of clips in the multitrack Timeline and well as to audio file projects (or regions thereof) in the File Editor. The Process menu includes an Effects submenu where you choose processing effects to add to your project. Processing effects are added as actions, which you can turn on or off, reorder, and adjust in the Actions list. To apply a processing effect to a clip in the Timeline: 1 In the Timeline, select one or more clips, or portions of one or more clips. For more information about selecting clips, see “Selecting Audio Clips in the Timeline” on page 147 and “Editing with the Timeslice Tool” on page 174. 2 Choose Process > Effects and select one of the effects from the submenu. The effect’s advanced settings window appears. 3 Make adjustments in the advanced settings window. You can adjust the effect’s parameters by moving the controls in the window. Each advanced settings window may have unique controls in addition to sliders, buttons, and value fields. For detailed information on adjusting the parameters of specific effects, see the Soundtrack Pro Effects Reference document, available in the Help menu. Advanced settings windows can contain different kinds of controls. Toggle Effect Bypass button Apply button Show Presets button Preview volume slider Play button Reset button Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 329 4 Optionally, do any of the following:  Click the Play button to hear the effect and your adjustments to it.  Click the Reset button to reset the parameters to their default values.  Click the Toggle Effect Bypass button to hear the audio without the effect.  Click the Show Presets button to display the available presets. For more information about presets, see “Working with Effect Presets” on page 330. 5 Click Apply. A corresponding action appears in the Actions tab for the clip. For more information about working with processing effects, see “Processing Audio Files” on page 219. For information on working with actions, see “Working with Actions” on page 230. Applying Realtime Effects You can add realtime effects to entire tracks, busses, and submixes in a multitrack project or to an entire audio file project. You can automate realtime effects parameters to create changes over time. Realtime effects modify the audio as it passes through them, so you hear any changes you make, or any new audio you add, through the sound of the effect. Each realtime effect has effect parameters you can adjust to control how the effect modifies the audio. You can create effects chains on a track, bus, submix, or audio file using realtime effects. An effects chain is a series of effects that modify the audio in a set order. Using busses in the Timeline and Mixer, you can create submixes, and apply the effect to all the tracks in a submix with one set of controls. For information on working with realtime effects in both multitrack and audio file projects, see “Working with Realtime Effects” on page 343. Note: This chapter describes the various categories of effects included with Soundtrack Pro. For complete information on the details of each realtime effect, see the Soundtrack Pro Effects Reference document, available in the Help menu. Rendering Realtime Effects to Actions You can also convert any realtime effect that you have applied in the File Editor project view to an action in the Actions list, which enables you to turn these effects on or off, reorder them in the list, and save them with the audio file project. For information about rendering realtime effects to actions, see “Rendering Realtime Effects to Actions” on page 243. 330 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Working with Effect Presets Many effects come with several combined parameter settings called presets. Presets are a handy way to get up and running with Soundtrack Pro effects without having to learn a lot of details about their various parameters. For example, the MatrixReverb effect (in the Mac OS category) has presets for various sizes of room, hall, and chamber settings, as well as Plate reverb and Cathedral settings. If an effect has presets, the presets appear in a Factory Presets pop-up menu in the list of effect parameters. You can show an effect’s presets, add and delete presets, apply a preset, adjust preset parameters, and create your own presets. To show effect presets from the advanced settings window: m Click the Show Presets button in the advanced settings window. The Presets drawer appears at the bottom of the advanced settings window. To add a preset: 1 Click the Add Preset (+) button. A blank, untitled preset appears in the User Preset list. 2 Click the name “Untitled” and type a name for the preset. To apply an effect preset: 1 Select the preset you want to apply from either the Factory Preset or User Preset list in the Presets drawer. 2 Click the Load Preset button. To adjust effect preset parameters: m Adjust the controls in the advanced settings window for the preset. To delete a preset: 1 Select the preset in the Presets drawer. 2 Click the Delete Preset (–) button. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 331 To hide the Presets drawer: m Click the Hide Presets button in the advanced settings window. To apply a preset to an effect from the Effects tab: m In the Effect Parameters area, choose the preset from the Presets pop-up menu. Audio Effects Included with Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro includes the following types of audio effects:  Dynamics: Dynamics effects let you shape the volume of your projects over time. Bundled dynamics effects include Compressor, Multipressor, Adaptive Limiter, Noise Gate, Expander, and Limiter.  Distortion: Distortion effects change the tone of the audio signal to re-create the sound of overdriven tube amplifiers or digital distortion. Bundled distortion effects include Bitcrusher, Clip Distortion, Distortion, Distortion II, Exciter, Overdrive, and Phase Distortion.  EQ and Filter: EQ (short for equalization) effects let you change the level of selected frequencies. EQ provides a powerful way of shaping the sound of your projects. Bundled EQ effects include AutoFilter, Fat EQ, High Cut and Low Cut, High Pass and Low Pass filters, Channel EQ, High and Low Shelving EQ, Linear Phase EQ, Match EQ, Parametric EQ, and Soundtrack Pro Autofilter.  Modulation: Modulation effects delay an audio signal and shift (modulate) when the delayed signal plays back relative to the original signal. Bundled modulation effects include Chorus, Ensemble, Flanger, Modulation Delay, Phaser, Scanner Vibrato, and Tremolo.  Reverb and Delay: Reverb effects can be used to simulate the sound of acoustic spaces, both realistic and unnatural. Delay effects can be used to add echoes and other recurring sounds. Bundled reverb and delay effects include PlatinumVerb, Soundtrack Pro Reverb, Stereo Delay, Tape Delay, and Space Designer, a powerful tool for sound design.  Meters and Diagnostic: You can use realtime diagnostic effects to clean up audio files in a variety of ways, including pitch, intensity, and phase problems. Bundled diagnostic effects include Correlation Meter, MultiMeter, Test Oscillator, and Tuner. These are only available as realtime effects, not processing effects.  Miscellaneous: Miscellaneous effects fall outside the other categories, providing additional ways to modify your audio. Bundled miscellaneous effects include Delay Designer, Denoiser, Direction Mixer, Enveloper, Gain, Multichannel Gain, PitchShifter II, Ringshifter, Spectral Gate, Stereo Spread, SubBass, Surround Compressor, and Vocal Transformer. 332 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Dynamics Effects Dynamics effects let you adjust the dynamic range (the range between the softest and loudest sounds) of your projects. You can use dynamics effects to make sounds more focused and to optimize the sound for specific playback situations. Dynamics effects include compressors, limiters, and noise gates. Compressors Compressors work like an automatic volume control, lowering the volume whenever it rises above a certain level, called the threshold. But why would you want to reduce the dynamic level? By cutting the peak levels, the compressor lets you raise the overall volume of the signal. This gives the sound more focus by making the foreground parts stand out while preventing the background parts from becoming lost in the mix. Compression also tends to make sounds tighter or “punchier.” Because the peaks are lower, the maximum volume is reached more quickly. In addition, a compressor can make a project sound better when played back in different situations. For example, the speakers on a television set or in a car sound system typically reproduce a narrower dynamic range than does the sound system in a theater. Compressing the overall mix can help make the sound reproduce more clearly in lower-fidelity situations. Compressors have two main parameters. The threshold lets you set the amplitude above which the compressor lowers the volume. The ratio lets you control the amount by which sounds above the threshold will be lowered, as a percentage of the original signal. For example, if you set the threshold to –12 dB, and the ratio to 2:1, a sound at –7 dB (5 dB above the threshold) is reduced by 2.5 dB, and a sound at –2 dB (10 dB above the threshold) is reduced by 5 dB. Compressor plug-in Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 333 Compressors can also include parameters for attack and release. These parameters let you set how quickly the compressor reacts once the threshold is reached (for attack) or once the signal falls below the threshold again (for release). Use these parameters to make the compressor’s effect more subtle or more pronounced. Another parameter on some compressors is the knee (or soft knee), which lets you control how gradually the compressor transitions between no compression and the compression ratio at the threshold. Compressors are typically used on vocal tracks to make the vocals prominent in the overall mix. They can also be used on music and sound effects tracks, but are rarely used on ambience tracks. Limiters Limiters (also called peak limiters) prevent the audio signal from exceeding a maximum volume level. A compressor gradually attenuates levels above the threshold, but a limiter puts a hard limit on any signal louder than the threshold, usually at a high ratio. You use a limiter mainly to prevent clipping. Noise Gates A noise gate alters the signal in the opposite direction from a compressor. While a compressor lowers the volume of sounds above the threshold, a noise gate lowers the sounds below the threshold. Loud signals pass through unchanged, but softer signals, such as the decay of a loud instrument, are cut off. Noise gates can be used to eliminate low-level noise or hum from an audio signal. Distortion Effects Distortion effects simulate the sound of analog and digital distortion. After working to eliminate the digital distortion caused by clipping from a project, why would you add distortion as an effect? The distortion produced by overdriven vacuum tubes (which were used in amplifiers and music recording equipment before the development of digital recording technology) produces an effect which many people find pleasing, and which is integral to many styles of popular music. Analog tube distortion adds a distinctive warmth and bite to the signal. There are also distortion effects which intentionally cause clipping and digital distortion of the signal. These can be used to modify vocal, music, and other tracks to produce an intense, unnatural effect, or for creating sound effects. Distortion effects include parameters for tone, which let you shape the way in which the distortion alters the signal, and for gain, which let you control how much the distortion increases the output level of the signal. 334 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects EQ and Filter Effects EQ is likely the most common audio effect used in postproduction. You can use EQ to shape the sound of a project by adjusting specific frequencies or frequency ranges. Using EQ, you can create both subtle and extreme changes to the sound of your projects. Most EQ effects make use of filters. As the name suggests, a filter allows certain frequencies to “pass through” to the output while stopping or attenuating other frequencies. EQ effects include highpass, lowpass, and band pass filters. When the audio signal passes through an EQ filter, the frequencies that pass through can be raised or lowered in volume. Raising and lowering frequencies using EQ is often referred to as boosting and cutting frequencies. You can create many changes to the sound of your project by boosting and cutting various frequencies. Frequency Ranges Used with EQ Sounds can be categorized into one of three basic frequency ranges: bass, midrange, or high (also called treble). These can be further divided to include low bass, low and high midrange, and low and high highs. The following table describes some of the sounds affected by each range: Channel EQ plug-in Name Frequency range Description High High 8–20 kHz Includes cymbal sounds and highest harmonics of instruments. Boosting frequencies in this range slightly can add sparkle and presence. High 5–8 kHz This range corresponds roughly to the treble tone control on a stereo. Boosting frequencies in this range can add brightness and shine. Low High 2.5–5 kHz Includes the higher harmonics of voices and musical instruments. This range is important for adding presence. Excessive boosting in this range can sound shrill or harsh. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 335 Note: The frequencies shown for each range are approximate. Any division of sound into frequency ranges is somewhat arbitrary, and is meant only to give a general indication of each range. Roll-Off Filters The simplest types of EQ effects are roll-off filters, which include lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and shelf filters. Lowpass filters affect all frequencies above a specific frequency, called the cutoff frequency. Frequencies above the cutoff are attenuated or “rolled off” gradually, usually by a fixed number of decibels per octave. Highpass filters, by contrast, affect all frequencies below their cutoff frequency. Bandpass filters exclude all frequencies close to their center frequency. You can set the center frequency, and also set the bandwidth or Q, which specifies how wide a range of frequencies around the center frequency is affected. These EQs include parameters for setting the cutoff frequency. Shelf filters add parameters to control the gain (the amount of boost or cut). You can use roll-off filters as “broad brush” effects to boost or cut a large range of frequencies. High Midrange 1.2–2.5 kHz Includes the consonants of voices and the high harmonics of musical instruments, especially brass instruments. Excessive boosting in this range can create a pinched, nasal sound. Midrange 750 Hz–1.2 kHz Includes the vowels of voices and the harmonics of musical instruments that create tone color. Low Midrange 250–750 Hz Includes the fundamentals and lower harmonics of voices and musical instruments; careful EQing of each can keep them from competing. Excessive boosting in this range can result in muddy and unclear audio; excessive cutting can produce thin-sounding audio. Bass 50–250 Hz Corresponds roughly to the bass tone control on a stereo. Includes the fundamental frequencies of voices and of musical instruments. Excessive boosting in this range can sound boomy and thick. Low Bass 50 Hz and below Also called sub bass. Very little of the sound of voices or musical instruments falls in this range. Many sound effects used in movies, such as explosions and earthquakes, fall in this range. Name Frequency range Description 336 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Graphic EQs Graphic EQs give you a set of filters (often with 10 or 31 filters), each with a set center frequency and bandwidth. Using a graphic EQ, you can shape a wide variety of frequencies throughout the frequency range. Graphic EQs can be used to shape the sound of the overall project mix. Parametric EQs Parametric EQs are similar to bandpass EQs, but provide a greater amount of control, and can be used for extremely precise adjustments. With a parametric EQ, you can set the center frequency, the gain, and the bandwidth. Used carefully, a parametric EQ can help a track cut through the mix, or help a track or project sound fuller. Parametric EQs can also be used to remove specific, unwanted frequencies from a mix. Modulation Effects Modulation effects begin with a delayed signal, like time-based effects, but vary (or modulate) the delay time, typically using a low-frequency oscillator (LFO). This can be used to double a sound, making it seem stronger and “fatter,” to simulate a group of voices or instruments playing together, or to add a distinctive character to the sound. Modulation effects include chorus, phase shifters, and flangers. Chorus Chorus effects play back multiple repetitions of the delayed signal (like reverbs), but vary the delay time for each one, using an LFO. As the name implies, this effect can strengthen the sound, and create the impression that the sound is being played by many instruments or voices in unison. The slight variations in delay time created by the LFO simulate the subtle differences in timing and pitch heard when several people play together. Using chorus also adds fullness or richness to the signal, and can add movement to low or sustained sounds. Phase Shifters Phase shifters produce a characteristic “whooshing” sound by combining the original signal with a copy of the signal that is slightly out of phase with the original. This means that the amplitudes of the two signals’ sound waves reach their highest and lowest points at slightly different times. The time between the two signals is modulated, typically using an LFO. As the two signals go in and out of phase, certain frequencies, called notch frequencies, are created, which give phase shifters their distinctive sound. The main difference between chorus and phase shifting is the amount of delay time. Chorus effects typically use delay times between 20 and 30 milliseconds (ms), while phase shifters (and flangers, discussed next) typically use shorter delay times, between 1 and 10 ms. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 337 Flangers Flangers work in much the same way as do phase shifters, but additionally change the pitch of the delayed signal slightly. Flanging is typically used to create a more extreme change than phase shifting, sometimes described as adding a “spacey” or “underwater” effect. All of the modulation effects include parameters for the delay rate (also called speed or frequency), which let you set the minimum delay time; depth (also called width or intensity), which you use to set how much the LFO modulates the delay time; and mix, which you use to control the ratio of the effected (wet) signal to the original (dry) signal. They can also include parameters for feedback (or regeneration), which add part of the output back into the input signal. Reverb and Delay Effects Reverbs and delays work by copying a part of the audio signal, delaying it for a brief period of time, and then playing it back with the original signal. The delayed signal can be played back multiple times, and can be modified in a variety of ways. Delay A delay effect stores the audio signal, and then plays back each repetition at a regular rate of time after the original signal. Delays can be used for doubling individual sounds (for example, making it sound as if a group of instruments is playing the same melody), to achieve echo effects (making it sound as though the sound was occurring in an immense space), and to enhance the stereo position of tracks in a mix. Delay effects are not commonly used on an overall mix except to achieve special effects (such as to create an “otherworldly” sound). Delay effects let you set the delay time, the time between the original signal and the delayed signal. Delays often provide parameters for feedback (also called regeneration), which let you set how much of the delayed signal is fed back into the delay’s input, creating more repetitions of the delay (like the number of “bounces” in an echo). Specific types of delay have other parameters: Tap tempo delays let you set the delay time by physically tapping a key or controller; stereo delays include parameters for the pan position of the output signal, which can be shifted over time using a low-frequency oscillator (called an LFO). 338 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Reverb Reverberation, usually shortened to reverb, simulates the sound of acoustic environments such as rooms, concert halls, caverns, or the sound of infinite space. In any acoustic space, sounds echo off the surfaces of the space (the floor, walls, and ceiling) over and over, gradually dying out until they become inaudible. Reverb effects consist of thousands of delays, of varying lengths and intensities, that simulate these natural echoes. Reverb helps define the sense of space in which sounds take place, and can be used to simulate both realistic and fantastic acoustic environments. The first form of reverb actually used a room with hard surfaces (called an echo chamber) to add echoes to the signal. Mechanical devices, including plates and springs, were also used to add reverberation to the output of instruments and microphones. Digital sound recording has made it possible to use digital reverbs, which use complex algorithms (sets of equations) to simulate various acoustic environments with greater accuracy and flexibility. Space Designer plug-in Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 339 Simple reverb effects provide parameters for the decay time or reverb time, which let you set how long the reverb lasts before dying away, and the mix or level, which you use to set the ratio of the effected signal (called the wet signal) to the original (the dry signal). More sophisticated reverbs can include the following parameters:  Room type: Lets you set the type of space the reverb will simulate: a small or large room, a hall, or another type of acoustic space.  Predelay time: In an acoustic space, there is a short period of silence between a sound and the time when the initial echoes of the reverb begin. Different spaces have different amounts of predelay, which helps “tell” our ears how large the space is. Longer predelay settings also help separate the original (dry) signal from the effected (wet) signal, making it sound clearer and sometimes larger.  Early reflections: The first echoes to arrive from the surrounding surfaces in a space are determined by the size and shape of the space, and “tell” our ears what type of space it is.  Diffusion: Lets you set the number of the echoes in the reverb. Hall reverbs typically have low diffusion settings, while plate reverbs typically have high diffusion settings.  High-frequency and low-frequency reverb time: These parameters let you specify the decay of higher and lower frequencies separately. Different surfaces, such as wood floors and concrete walls, absorb high and low frequencies at different rates, and these parameters let you simulate the sound of different environments more closely.  Reverb envelope: Lets you control how much the volume of the reverb changes over time. In natural acoustic situations, the reverb echoes decay gradually over time. You can re-create this gradual decay, or gate the reverb so that it cuts off more abruptly. Meters and Diagnostic Effects Diagnostic effects help you analyze and clean up audio in a variety of ways. Each type of diagnostic effect provides a different way to “look at” an audio clip or file, and each has a unique set of parameters. These effects are available only as realtime effects in the Effects tab and the Mixer, not as processing effects. Correlation Meter The Correlation meter displays the phase relationship of a stereo signal. A correlation of +1 (plus one, the far right position) means that the left and right channels “correlate” 100% (that is, they are completely in phase). A correlation of 0 (zero, the center position) indicates the widest permissible left/right divergence, often audible as an extremely wide stereo effect. Correlation values less than zero indicate that out-of-phase material is present, which can lead to phase cancellations if the stereo signal is combined into a monaural signal. 340 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects MultiMeter The MultiMeter combines the functions of the Level Meter and Correlation Meter (as described above) with several other analysis tools:  A Spectrum Analyzer  A Goniometer for judging the phase coherency in the stereo sound field The control panel to the left of the display allows you to switch between the Analyzer and Goniometer and contains parameter controls for the MultiMeter. The Stereo Level and Correlation Meter are always visible. Spectrum Analyzer The Spectrum Analyzer divides the audio signal into 31 independent frequency bands. Each frequency band represents one third of an octave. The filter curves comply to IEC document 1260. You turn on the Spectrum Analyzer by clicking the Analyzer button. Turning on the Spectrum Analyzer turns off the Goniometer. The four buttons below determine what portion of the input signal the Analyzer is displaying. You can choose between Left or Right channel only. LR max shows the maximum band levels of either channel, while Mono displays the levels of the stereo signal summed to mono. The View options determine the level represented by the top line of the scale in the display (Top; range: –40 to +20 dB) and the overall dynamic range of the Spectrum Analyzer (Range; range: 20 to 80 dB). These two parameters can also be set directly in the display: By dragging directly on the bar graph, you can shift the top line of the display. Dragging directly on the dB scale allows you to compress or expand the scale’s range. The View options are useful when analyzing highly compressed material as you can identify smaller level differences more easily by moving and/or reducing the display range. There are three display respond modes: RMS Slow, RMS Fast, and Peak. RMS Slow and RMS Fast modes show the effective signal average (Root Mean Square) and offer a good representation of the perceived volume levels. Peak mode shows level peaks accurately. Goniometer The Goniometer helps you to determine the coherence of the stereo image. Using the Goniometer, you can see phase problems as trace cancellations along the center-line (M=mid/mono). Goniometers developed when early two channel oscilloscopes first appeared. Users would connect the left and right stereo channels to the X and Y inputs while rotating the display by 45 degrees, resulting in a useful visualization of the signal’s stereo phase. The signal trace slowly fades to black, imitating the glow of the tubes found in older Goniometers, and at the same time enhancing readability. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 341 Clicking the Goniometer button turns on the Goniometer and turns off the Spectrum Analyzer. You can use the Auto Gain display parameter in order to obtain a higher readout on low-level passages. Auto Gain allows the display to automatically compensate for low input levels. You can set the amount of compensation with the Auto Gain parameter, or set Auto Gain by dragging directly in the display area of the Goniometer. Note: Auto Gain is a display parameter only and increases the display for better readability. The actual audio levels are not touched by this parameter. Miscellaneous Effects Miscellaneous effects don’t fall into any of the other categories. They include denoising effects, pitch shifting effects, stereo enhancers, bass enhancers, and effects used to transform the sound of vocals. Each effect gives you a different way to modify the audio, and includes a unique set of parameters. Denoiser Using the Denoiser, you can eliminate or reduce many kinds of low-level noise (noise floor) from an audio signal. The main parameters of the Denoiser are Threshold, Reduce, and Noise Type. The Threshold parameter sets how high the noise floor is for the audio signal. The recommended method for setting the Threshold is to find a passage where you hear only noise, then set the Threshold so that signals at this volume level are filtered out. The Reduce parameter sets the level to which the noise floor is reduced. You use the Noise Type parameter to set the type of noise that the Denoiser reduces. There are three choices of noise type:  Setting the Noise Type to 0 (zero) causes the Denoiser to reduce “white noise” (all frequencies reduced equally).  Setting the Noise Type to a positive value causes the Denoiser to reduce “pink noise” (harmonic noise; greater bass response).  Setting the Noise Type to a negative value causes the Denoiser to reduce “blue noise” (hiss, sibilants, tape noise). The Denoiser recognizes frequency bands with a lower volume and less complex harmonic structure, and then reduces them to the desired dB value. This method is not completely precise, and neighboring frequencies are also reduced. Using the Denoiser at too-high settings can produce the “glass-noise” effect, which is usually less desirable than the existing noise. 342 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects There are three smoothing parameters that you can use to minimize the “glass-noise” effect: Frequency smoothing, Time smoothing, and Level smoothing. Raising the Frequency smoothing slider results in a smoother transition of denoising to the neighboring frequencies. When the Denoiser recognizes that only noise is present in a certain frequency band, the higher the Frequency Smoothing parameter is set, the more it will also change the neighboring frequency bands to avoid glass noise. By adjusting the Time smoothing slider, you can set the amount of time the Denoiser takes to reach maximum noise reduction. By adjusting the Level smoothing slider, you can set a factor for a smoother transition between adjacent volume levels. When the Denoiser recognizes that only noise is present in a certain volume range, the higher the Transition smoothing parameter is set, the more it will also change similar level values to avoid glass noise. Stereo Spread The Stereo Spread plug-in is a useful effect for sound design or audio clean-up. It enhances the perception of stereo by extending the stereo base. Some stereo enhancing algorithms function by changing the phase of the signal, which can distort your mix and produce unpredictable results. Instead, the Stereo Spread plug-in extends the stereo base by distributing a selectable number of bands in the middle frequency range alternately left and right. This increases the perception of stereo without causing unnatural-sounding distortion of the mix. The main parameters of the Stereo Spread plug-in are Order, Upper Intensity (Upper Int.), and Lower Intensity (Lower Int.). The Order parameter determines number of frequency bands into which the signal is divided. The Upper Intensity parameter controls the intensity of the base extension of the upper frequency bands. The Lower Intensity parameter controls the intensity of the base extension of the lower frequency bands. Human beings perceive stereo placement of sounds mainly in the middle and high frequencies. If very low frequencies are distributed between the left and right speakers, the energy distribution for both speakers will be significantly worse. Therefore, it is always best to select a lower intensity setting for the lower frequency bands, and avoid setting the Lower Freq. below 300 Hz. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 343 Working with Realtime Effects You can add realtime effects to a track, bus, submix, or the Master bus in a multitrack project, or to an audio file project, and then adjust the effect parameters to control the way in which the effects alter the sound of the track or project. For more information about signal flow in Soundtrack Pro and the various points in the signal flow where you can add effects, see “Basic Signal Routing in Soundtrack Pro” on page 263 and “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270. Working in the Effects Tab The Effects tab is where you add realtime effects and adjust realtime effect parameters. To open the Effects tab, do one of the following: m Choose Window > Tabs > Effects (or press Command-5). m Click the Effects tab to make it active. The Effects tab becomes active and displays the current effects settings for the track, bus, submix, or project. The upper part of the Effects tab contains lists of available effect categories. When you click an item in the Category list, the available effects in that category appear in the Effects list, where you can select and add them to the current effects chain. The lower part of the Effects tab shows the effects and sends in the current effects chain. You can show and edit effect and send parameters in the Effect Parameters area. Track Submix bus Bus 1 Effects Master bus 344 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Adding Realtime Effects You can add realtime effects in the Effects tab. You can create effects chains, which are a series of effects in a specific order. You can reorder effects in an effects chain at any time, and hear the results immediately. To add a realtime effect to a track, bus, or submix in the Timeline: 1 Select a track, bus, submix, or the Master bus in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following to open the Effects tab:  Choose Window > Tabs > Effects (or press Command-5).  Click the Effects tab to make it active. 3 In the Effects list, select a category in the Category list to display the effects for that category in the Effects list. 4 In the Effects list, do one of the following:  Double-click the effect you want to add.  Select the effect name, then click the Add Effect button.  Drag the effect to the Effect Parameters area. The effect’s advanced settings window appears, and the effect name appears in the Effect Parameters area with its checkbox selected. Note: For information about applying effects to individual audio files, see “Applying Processing Effects” on page 328. Select the effect you want to add. Click the Add Effect button, double-click the effect, or drag the effect into the Effect Parameters area to add it. Select a category to display its effects. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 345 To add a realtime effect to a track, bus, or submix in the Mixer, do one of the following: m Control-click an effects slot in the channel strip of the track, bus, or submix, then choose Add Effect from the shortcut menu and an effect from one of the submenus. m Select the channel strip in the Mixer for the track, bus, or submix and follow the steps in the previous task. To add a realtime effect to an audio file project in the File Editor project view: 1 Open an audio file or audio file project in the File Editor. 2 In the Effects tab, select a category in the Category list to display the effects for that category in the Effects list. 3 In the Effect list, do one of the following:  Double-click the effect you want to add to the track.  Select the effect name, then click the Add Effect button.  Drag the effect to the Effect Parameters area. The effect’s advanced settings window appears, and the effect name appears in the Effect Parameters area with its checkbox selected. Important: Some effects, including reverb and delay, add audio that extends past the end of the file. This is called an effect tail. When you export a project mix, or export a track, bus, or submix with an effect that produces a tail, the exported file is lengthened to include the effect tail until the point at which the tail falls below –96 dB. Also, when you choose Process > Render To Action for an audio file project with a realtime effect that produces a tail, the rendered project is lengthened to include the effect tail until the point at which the tail falls below –96 dB. Adjusting Realtime Effect Parameters Once you’ve added a realtime effect, you can adjust the effect parameters to change the way the effect alters the sound of the track, bus, submix, or audio file project. Each type of effect has its own parameters, as discussed earlier. Many realtime effects have an advanced settings window. The advanced settings window appears as a floating window with related controls grouped together, and may provide an appearance that simulates a hardware effects device. Effects with an advanced settings window have an Advanced button at the top of the Effect Parameters area in the Effects tab. Note: Generally, you use the advanced settings window to make adjustments to the effect. While you can also make adjustments in the Effect Parameters area of the Effects tab, its primary purpose is to enable automation, to chain, reorder and bypass effects, and to add and adjust sends. 346 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects To adjust realtime effect parameters in the advanced settings window: 1 Do one of the following to open the window:  Apply the effect to a track, bus, or submix and the effect’s advanced settings window appears automatically.  In the Effects tab, click the Advanced button for the effect.  In the Mixer, Control-click the effect name, then choose Show [effect name] Advanced Settings from the shortcut menu.  In the Mixer, double-click the effect name. The effect’s advanced settings window appears. 2 Play the audio in the Timeline or the File Editor project view. Optionally, you can apply a cycle region or solo the track, bus, or submix in the Timeline. 3 Make adjustments in the advanced settings window as you play the audio. You can adjust the effect’s parameters by moving the controls in the window. Each advanced settings window may have unique controls in addition to sliders, buttons, and value fields. For detailed information on adjusting the parameters of specific effects, see the Soundtrack Pro Effects Reference document in the Help menu. 4 Optionally, do any of the following:  Click the Reset button to reset the parameters to their default values.  Click the Toggle Effect Bypass button to hear the audio without the effect.  Click the Show Presets button to display the available presets. For more information about presets, see “Working with Effect Presets” on page 330. 5 When you are finished, close the advanced settings window. The changes are applied. Toggle Effect Bypass button Advanced settings windows can contain different kinds of controls. Reset button Show Presets button Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 347 To adjust realtime effect parameters in the Effect Parameters area of the Effects tab: 1 Click the disclosure triangle next to the effect in the Effect Parameters area to display its parameters. 2 Adjust the effect parameter by dragging the slider, selecting the checkbox, or choosing an item from the pop-up menu. You can also adjust the parameter by entering a valid value in the field to the right of the parameter’s control. Chaining and Reordering Realtime Effects You can add more than one realtime effect to a track, bus, submix, or audio file project. Adding multiple effects to an effects chain is called chaining effects. When you add multiple effects, the effects are applied in sequence, meaning that the output of the first effect becomes the input for the next effect, and so on, for each effect in the chain. The order in which effects are applied is important, because each alters the input signal, which includes the output of previous effects in the chain. You can reorder effects and hear the difference in the way they alter the sound. Adjust a parameter by dragging its slider. You can also adjust the parameter by entering a value in the field. Click the disclosure triangle to display the effect’s parameters. 348 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects To add multiple effects to an effects chain, do one of the following: m Double-click the effect you want to add in the Effects list. m Select the effect in the Effects list, then click the Add Effect button. The effect appears in the Effect Parameters area below any previously added effects. You can now set the parameters of the added effect. Note: Adding more than a few effects to an effects chain can cause extreme changes to the sound of a project. This may be what you want, but in some cases can produce undesirable results. Listen to the project as you add effects to be sure you are satisfied with the results. To reorder effects in an effects chain: m In the Effect Parameters area, drag the effect up or down in the list to change its order. Select the effect you want to add, then click the Add Effect button. You can also drag the effect to the Effect Parameters area. Drag effects up or down in the list to reorder them. Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 349 Bypassing Realtime Effects You can turn off an effect in the Effects tab, which “bypasses” the effect in the effects chain. When you bypass an effect, the effect is not heard, but all effect parameters are retained. To hear the effect again, reselect the effect’s checkbox. This lets you hear how each effect in a chain alters the sound. To bypass an effect: m In the Effects tab, deselect the checkbox next to the effect. Adding Sends to Tracks You can add sends to a realtime effects chain. When you add a send, the send is added at the end of the current effects chain. You can move the send to another place in the effects chain, choose the bus for a send, adjust send volume and pan, and bypass a send. For more general information about sends and busses, see “Using Sends and Busses” on page 270. To add a send to a track, do one of the following: m Control-click the track in the Timeline or the Mixer, then choose Add Send from the shortcut menu. m In the Effects tab, click the Add Send button. A send appears below the last effect in the track’s effects chain. You can assign the send to a bus in the Effects tab or the Mixer. Deselect the checkbox next to the effect name to bypass the effect. 350 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Choosing the Bus to Which a Send Is Routed When you add a send, the audio is routed from the send to a bus. By default, the first send you add to a track is routed to Bus 1, the second send is routed to Bus 2, and so on, if the bus exists. Once you add a send, you can choose the bus to which the send is routed. To choose the bus to which a send is routed, do one of the following: m In the Effect Parameters area of the Effects tab, choose a bus from the Send pop-up menu. m In the Mixer, control-click an effects slot in the channel strip, choose Add Send from the shortcut menu, then choose one of the available busses in the submenu. Note: If no bus exists, the menus will read “Unconnected.” You must first create a bus by choosing Multitrack > Add Bus. Adjusting Send Volume You can adjust the volume level for the audio routed through a send. To adjust send volume: 1 If the send volume slider is not visible, click the disclosure triangle for the send. 2 Drag the send volume slider left to lower the volume level, or drag it right to raise the volume level. Add Send button Send pop-up menu Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 351 Adjusting Send Pan Position You can adjust the pan position for the audio routed through a send. To adjust send pan position: 1 If the send pan sliders are not visible, click the disclosure triangle for the send. 2 Drag the send pan (x) slider left to pan the send to the left, or drag it right to pan the send to the right. Drag the pan (y) and pan (lfe) sliders to adjust the surround pan settings. Note: For information on surround panning, see Chapter 9, “Mixing Surround Sound,” on page 293. Reordering Sends You can reorder sends in the Effects tab or in the Mixer. To reorder a send: m In the Effect Parameters area or in the Mixer, drag the send up or down in the list to change its order. Bypassing Sends You can bypass a send. When you bypass a send, the audio is not routed to the bus for the send, and is not heard. To bypass an effect: m In the Effects tab, deselect the checkbox next to the send. Automating Realtime Effect Parameters You can automate realtime effect parameters using envelopes. When you automate an effect parameter, you can change the value of the parameter over time. You are basically “recording” effect parameter changes into parameter automation envelopes that can then be edited and re-recorded. For more information about automation, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. Automation-enable checkboxes 352 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects To automate a realtime effect parameter: 1 In the Effects tab, select the Auto (Automation-enable) checkbox next to the parameter’s control. 2 In the Timeline or in the File Editor project view, show the envelopes for the track, bus, submix, or audio file project. In the Timeline, you show the envelopes for the track, bus, or submix with the effect. In the File Editor, you show the envelopes for the audio file project. 3 Add and adjust envelope points in the effect’s envelope. For information on adding and adjusting envelope points, see Chapter 12, “Working with Automation,” on page 355. When you automate an effect parameter with units of time (seconds or milliseconds) or beats per minute (BPM) for values, the parameter is linked to the project tempo. If the tempo changes, the value of the parameter changes to keep the same relationship to the new tempo. Resetting Realtime Effects to Their Default Settings Every realtime effect has default parameter settings that are displayed in the Effect Parameters area when you first add the effect. You can reset an effect to its default parameter settings, or reset an individual parameter to its default setting. To reset a realtime effect to its default settings: m In the Effects tab, select the effect name in the Effect Parameters area, then click the Reset button. To reset an individual effect parameter to its default settings: m Select the parameter in the Effect Parameters area, then click the Reset button. Removing Realtime Effects You can remove a realtime effect from an effects chain. To remove an effect: m Select the effect name in the Effect Parameters area, then click the Remove Effect button on the right edge of the Effects tab (or press the Delete key). Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects 353 Working with Processing Effects You can apply processing effects to an audio file or a selected part of a file in the File Editor. In the File Editor, you apply a processing effect by choosing the effect from the Effects submenu of the Process menu, as described in “Applying Actions” on page 230. Processing effects are applied as actions and appear in the Actions menu of the File Editor. You can reorder processing effects, turn them on or off, and perform all of the operations for actions described in “Working with Actions” on page 230. Advanced Settings for Processing Effects You adjust processing effect parameters in the advanced settings window for the processing effect. When you apply a processing effect by choosing the effect from the Process > Effects submenu, the advanced settings window for the effect appears in front of the Soundtrack Pro window. You can also show the advanced settings window if you want to adjust processing effect parameters. To show the advanced settings window for a processing effect: m Double-click the effect in the Actions list. When you open an advanced settings window for a processing effect, the window includes controls to play the project with the effect, adjust volume level, apply the effect, reset effect parameters, and cancel applying the effect. For information on using the preview controls in the advanced settings window, see “Choosing Processing Effects” on page 219. Advanced settings windows can contain different kinds of controls. Toggle Effect Bypass button Apply button Show Presets button Preview volume slider Play button Reset button 354 Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects Automating Processing Effect Parameters For the effects in the categorized submenus at the top of the Effects submenu of the Process menu (not including Mac OS effects), you can add an envelope for an effect parameter by Control-clicking the parameter in the advanced settings window. You can add envelope points to the envelope to automate changes to the effect parameter. 12 355 12 Working with Automation Using automation, you can create changes over time to volume, pan, effects, and other controls. Automation offers a powerful way to add drama and interest to your projects. You can automate volume and pan changes to tracks, busses, and submixes and automate changes to effect and effect send parameters in multitrack projects. You can also automate volume, pan, and effects changes in audio file projects. Soundtrack Pro gives you three ways to work with automation:  You can add and adjust envelope points on envelopes in the Timeline and in the File Editor.  You can record changes over time to sliders, faders, and other controls in the Timeline, the Mixer, and the Effects tab.  You can record movements with faders on a control surface connected to your computer and mapped to Soundtrack Pro commands and functions. Working with Envelopes In the Timeline, each track, bus, and submix has a set of envelopes. The envelopes appear as horizontal lines stretching across the length of the project directly below the track, bus, or submix. You adjust an envelope by adding envelope points and moving the envelope points to new values at different points in the Timeline. For video editors accustomed to working in Final Cut Pro, envelopes provide the same type of functionality as keyframes. The difference is that you can edit envelopes at a finer level of precision than you can using keyframes, allowing extremely powerful control over automated changes. 356 Chapter 12 Working with Automation Track, Bus, and Submix Envelopes Each track and bus has envelopes for volume and pan, and each submix has a volume envelope. By default, the envelopes are hidden. When you show the envelopes, they appear in rows below the track, bus, or submix in the Timeline. When you add effects to a track, bus, or submix, you can automate the effect parameters by adding an envelope for any parameter to the envelopes for the track, bus, or submix. The envelopes are different for each type of effect. For information on adjusting effect parameters, see Chapter 11, “Working with Audio Effects,” on page 327. To show the envelopes for a track, bus, or submix: m Click the envelope disclosure triangle in the track header. Click the disclosure triangle again to hide the envelopes. Default Stereo Envelopes The default envelopes for tracks using stereo panners are Volume and Pan. The ranges of volume and pan envelopes are equivalent to the ranges of the corresponding track controls:  Volume envelopes: The range is from –96 dB to +6 dB.  Track pan envelope: The range is from 100% Left to 100% Right pan, with Centered at the midpoint, 0 (zero). Default Surround Envelopes The default envelopes for tracks using surround panners are as follows:  Volume  Surround Pan X  Surround Pan Y  Rotation  Width  Collapse  Center Bias  LFE  Left Speaker Disable  Center Speaker Disable Click the envelope disclosure triangle. The envelopes are displayed below the track, bus, or submix. Chapter 12 Working with Automation 357  Right Speaker Disable  Left Surround Speaker Disable  Right Surround Speaker Disable For a complete description of each of these surround parameters, see “The Surround Panner HUD” on page 300. Adding Envelope Points You create changes to an envelope by adding envelope points to the envelope, and moving them to different values. To add an envelope point to an envelope: m Double-click the envelope at the position where you want to add the envelope point. You may want to zoom in to work more precisely. When you add envelope points, they snap to the closest Snap To position if snapping is turned on. For information on setting the Snap To value, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. Selecting Envelope Points You can select a single envelope point or a group of adjacent or nonadjacent envelope points. To select an envelope point: m Click the envelope point. Surround envelopes Double-click an envelope to add an envelope point. 358 Chapter 12 Working with Automation To select multiple envelope points, do one of the following: m Drag from an area in the automation row before the first envelope point you want to select to an area after the last envelope point you want to select. m If the envelope points are adjacent, Shift-click the first envelope point, then the last envelope point you want to select. All envelope points in between are also selected. m Command-click each envelope point you want to select. You can select adjacent or nonadjacent envelope points by Command-clicking. To deselect a selected envelope point, do one of the following: m Command-click the selected envelope point. m Click in the automation row or somewhere else in the Timeline to deselect all selected envelope points. Moving Envelope Points Once you add an envelope point, you can drag it up or down to change its value. As you drag an envelope point up or down, its value appears to the right of the pointer. You can drag an envelope point left or right to change its position in time. You can also select and move multiple envelope points at the same time. When you move an envelope point, the position of the envelope point snaps to the closest Snap To position if snapping is turned on. For information on setting the Snap To value, see “Using Snapping” on page 94. To move an envelope point: m Select the envelope point, then drag it to a new position. Each envelope has an envelope point, at the beginning of the Timeline. You can make adjustments by moving this envelope point up or down. If no envelope points have been added, dragging the envelope’s handle adjusts the envelope for the entire project. If you add more than one envelope point to an envelope, you can move envelope points using the corresponding slider. When you move the slider, the envelope points closest to the playhead (the closest before and the closest after) move by the same amount as the slider. Drag in the envelope’s row to select multiple envelope points. Chapter 12 Working with Automation 359 Selecting and Moving Envelope Points with Clips By default, when you select or move a clip in the Timeline, the associated envelope points are not selected, and they do not move with the clip. You can set Soundtrack Pro to do the opposite: to select associated envelope points when you select a clip. In this case, if you move the clip, the envelope points move with it. To select and move clips and envelope points together: m Click the Select Envelope Points With Clips button at the top of the Timeline. To select and move clips and envelope points independently of each other: m Click the Select Only Clips button at the top of the Timeline. Note: If you have the Select Envelope Points With Clips mode turned on, and you overlap a clip with envelope points on another clip with envelope points to create a crossfade, the moved clip’s envelope points will overwrite the static clip’s envelope points. The Timeslice Tool and the Envelope Selection Mode If Soundtrack Pro is in Select Envelope Points With Clips mode, any Timeslice selection rectangle includes all envelope rows within the selection. If Soundtrack Pro is in the Select Only Clips mode, no envelope rows are included in the Timeslice selection. Note: If you change the envelope mode after you have already drawn the Timeslice marquee, the Timeslice will change to match the current setting. For more information about the Timeslice tool, see “Removing Audio Clips” on page 152. Select Envelope Points with Clips button Select Only Clips button Select Envelope Points With Clips mode Select Only Clips mode 360 Chapter 12 Working with Automation Viewing and Editing Envelope Point Details You can also view and edit the value, position, and other details for an envelope point in the Details tab. To view envelope point details: 1 Click the Details tab. 2 Select the envelope point for which you want to view details. The details for the envelope point appear in the Details tab, including its value and position. You can edit the value and position in the Details tab, change the format for the position, and copy the value of the previous or next envelope point (if one exists). To change the value of an envelope point in the Details tab: 1 With the Details tab active, select the envelope point. 2 In the Details tab, do one of the following: Click the left arrow in the Value value slider to decrease the value, or click the right arrow to increase the value.  Click the center of the value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the value.  Click the text in the value slider to select it, then type a new value. To change the position of an envelope point in the Details tab: 1 With the Details tab active, select the envelope point. 2 In the Details tab, do one of the following:  In the Position value slider, click the left arrow to move the envelope point back (toward the start of the project) or click the right arrow to move the envelope point forward (toward the end of the project).  Click the center of the Position value slider, then drag the slider that appears left or right to change the position.  Click the text in the Position value slider, then type a new value. Chapter 12 Working with Automation 361 To change the units shown in the Position value slider: m Choose the units you want to show from the pop-up menu next to the Position value slider. To copy the value of the previous envelope point: 1 With the Details tab active, select the envelope point to which you want to copy the value. 2 In the Details tab, click Copy From Previous Point. To copy the value of the next envelope point: 1 With the Details tab active, select the envelope point to which you want to copy the value. 2 In the Details tab, click Copy From Next Point. Changing the Values of Envelope Points Numerically You can also change the value of an envelope point numerically. To change the value of an envelope point numerically: 1 Control-click the envelope point, then choose Set Value from the shortcut menu. 2 Enter a new value for the envelope point in the dialog that appears. The envelope point moves to the new value. You can set the envelope point to the same value as the previous or next envelope point on the envelope from the shortcut menu. Changing the Position of Envelope Points Numerically You can change the position of an envelope point in the Timeline numerically. To change the position of an envelope point numerically: 1 Control-click the envelope point, then choose Set Position from the shortcut menu. 2 In the dialog that appears, click the left or right arrow in the value slider, click the center of the value slider and drag left or right, or double-click the value slider and type a new position. The envelope point moves to the new position. For more information about value sliders, see “About Changing Values and Timecode Entries” on page 75. 362 Chapter 12 Working with Automation Nudging Envelope Points There are several ways in which you can nudge envelope points using the arrow keys:  Hold down the Command and Option keys and press the Left or Right Arrow key to move the envelope point to the previous or next video frame.  Hold down the Command key and press the Left or Right Arrow key to move the envelope point to the previous or next gridline.  Hold down the Command key and press the Up or Down Arrow key to move the envelope point up or down by one coarse value.  Hold down the Command and Option keys and press the Up or Down Arrow key to move the envelope point up or down by one fine value. Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Envelope Points You can cut and copy selected envelope points and paste them at a different position in the automation row. To cut envelope points: m Select the envelope point, then choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X). To copy envelope points: m Select the envelope points, then choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). To paste envelope points: m Set the playhead to the point where you want to paste the envelope points, then choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V). When you paste envelope points into an automation row, the new envelope points replace any existing envelope points, and the automation takes the shape of the cut or copied envelope in the pasted area. When pasting envelope points, the following conditions apply:  Envelope points can only be pasted into an envelope of the same type as the envelope from which they were cut or copied. For example, envelope points from a volume envelope can only be pasted into a volume envelope, not a pan or tempo envelope.  Envelope points for an effect parameter can only be pasted into an envelope for exactly the same effect parameter in exactly the same type of effect. You cannot paste envelope points from one effect into another, even if they have parameters with the same name. Pasting envelope points into an envelope replaces the existing area of the envelope with the cut or copied area. Chapter 12 Working with Automation 363 Deleting Envelope Points After listening to the results of your edits, you may decide to delete some envelope points. To delete envelope points: 1 Select the envelope points. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Edit > Delete.  Press the Delete key.  Press Command-X. When you delete envelope points, the envelope adjusts accordingly, moving evenly from the preceding envelope point to the next envelope point. If there are no other envelope points, the envelope becomes horizontal, maintaining its initial value for the entire project. Automating Effect and Send Parameters You can automate effect parameters for tracks, busses, and submixes and for audio file projects by adding envelopes for the effect parameters and then adding and adjusting envelope points. You can also automate send parameters for tracks by adding an envelope for the send parameters, then adding and adjusting envelope points. To add an envelope for an effect or send parameter: 1 Open the Effects tab and select the effect you want to automate. 2 In the Effect Parameters area, select the Auto checkbox for the parameter. Click the Auto checkbox for an effect parameter to add an envelope for the parameter. 364 Chapter 12 Working with Automation To remove an envelope for an effect parameter: m Deselect the Auto checkbox for the parameter in the Effect Parameters area of the Effects window. The range of values for an effect or send parameter envelope is the same as the range for the parameter in the Effects tab. For detailed information on adjusting effect parameters, see “Adjusting Realtime Effect Parameters” on page 345. Master Bus Each project has a Master bus that includes envelopes for volume, transposition, and tempo. By default, only the Volume envelope is visible because Transposition and Tempo are specifically for projects containing only tagged and looping clips. To show or hide the Master bus envelopes, do one of the following: m Click the Master bus disclosure triangle in the Timeline. m Choose Master Envelopes from the Show pop-up menu at the upper-right corner of the Timeline. Repeat the procedure to hide the Master bus envelopes. To show the Transpose or Tempo envelopes: m Choose Transpose or Tempo from the Show Envelopes pop-up menu in the Master bus track header. The ranges of the master envelopes are as follows:  Master transpose envelope: Ranges from –12 semitones to +12 semitones.  Master tempo envelope: Ranges from 60 bpm to 200 bpm. For more information about the Master bus, see “Using the Master Bus” on page 290. The Master bus envelopes appear below the Master bus. Chapter 12 Working with Automation 365 Recording Automation Data In addition to working with envelopes, you can record automation data in Soundtrack Pro. You can record movements you make to faders, sliders, and other onscreen controls using the pointer. You can also connect a supported control surface to your computer and record movements to controls and faders on the control surface. When you record movements to onscreen controls or control surface controls, the corresponding envelope in the Timeline (or File Editor) changes to display the recorded automation data. You can edit the envelope to fine tune the automation data after recording. Automation Modes Soundtrack Pro provides three modes for using and recording automation. The automation modes determine whether automation data is recorded, and what happens when you release the control being recording.  Read: In Read mode, existing automation data is active when you play the project, but no new automation data is recorded.  Touch: In Touch mode, movements to controls are recorded when you play the project, overwriting any existing automation data until you release the control. When you release a control in Touch mode, the control returns to the value it previously had at the point in the Timeline where you release the control. No envelope points after that point are added or changed.  Latch: In Latch mode, movements to controls are recorded when you play the project, overwriting any data from the point you start recording until you stop playing the project. When you release a control in Latch mode, the control maintains the same value at which you released it. To record automation data for movements to controls: 1 Choose either Touch or Latch from the Automation Mode pop-up menu. 2 Set the playhead to a position before the point where you want to start recording. 3 Click Play (or press the Space bar) to start the project playing. 4 While the project plays, move the control you want to record. Once you have recorded automation data, you can show the envelope for the control and add and adjust envelope points on the envelope to fine tune the automation. For information on working with envelopes, see “Working with Envelopes” on page 355. For more information on working with control surfaces, see Chapter 15, “Using Control Surfaces with Soundtrack Pro,” on page 391. 366 Chapter 12 Working with Automation Thinning Envelope Points in Recorded Automation Data Recording automation data can generate a large number of envelope points. The number of envelope points recorded can make editing envelopes difficult, and in some cases affect playback performance. You can reduce or “thin” the number of envelope points recorded from a control surface in the Project Preferences. You set the amount of thinning using the Automation Recording Sensitivity slider. The automation data is thinned when you finish recording automation. To set the amount of thinning: 1 Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences, then click the General button. 2 In the General pane, drag the Automation Recording Sensitivity slider to adjust the amount of thinning. When the slider is set to High, no thinning occurs. The envelope contains every movement of the control. Dragging the slider to any position other than High results in some thinning of envelope points. By default, the slider is set to a moderate amount of thinning. For more information about Soundtrack Pro project preferences, see “Project Preferences” on page 99. 13 367 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro You can record your own audio on one or more tracks in the Timeline, the Mixer, or the File Editor project view as a mono, stereo, or multichannel file. You get ready to record by setting recording preferences and checking that your audio equipment is working. For multitrack projects, you enable a track for recording or record audio in a new track. You can record a single take or record multiple takes. If you record multiple takes, you can review them after recording and choose which one to use in your project or assemble a composite take using segments of each recorded take using the Multitake Editor. Getting Ready to Record Before you start recording, make sure that any audio equipment you plan to use in your recording session (such as microphones, musical equipment, mixers, or external processors) is connected to your computer and is working. When you record, the recorded audio is saved to disk at the location set in the Recording pane of the Preferences window. Audio files, while smaller than video files of comparable duration, can be quite large (each minute of 16-bit, 44.1 kHz stereo audio requires roughly 10 MB of disk space), so you should make sure you have enough free disk space to store your recordings before you start. You can set the input device and output monitoring device for recording in the Preferences Recording pane, or change them in the Recording tab. For detailed information on Recording preferences, see “Recording Preferences” on page 100. For audio file projects, you record in the File Editor. When you record in the File Editor, the recording replaces (overwrites) any audio over which you record. If you record for a longer duration than the current length of the file, the file is lengthened to include the recorded audio. 368 Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro Recording Audio in the Timeline You record in the Timeline by enabling a track for recording, setting the playhead, then clicking Record. You can record a single take or record multiple takes by turning on cycling before you start recording. When you finish recording, your recorded audio appears in a track in the Timeline. If you record multiple takes, you can audition each take to choose which one you want to use in your project. You can also assemble composite takes by splitting and combining your recorded takes. Enabling Tracks for Recording Before you start recording, you enable the tracks you want to record to. You can record audio only to tracks, not to busses or submixes. If no track is enabled for recording, a new track is created below the existing tracks, and the take appears on the new track when you click the Record button. Note: For details on multitrack recording, see “Multitrack Recording” on page 371. To enable a track for recording: m Click the Arm for Recording button (the red letter R) in the track’s header (or Mixer channel strip). The Recording tab becomes active and shows the current recording settings. You can adjust recording settings before you start recording or between recordings. Arm for Recording button Input routing buttons Input Device pop-up menu Configure Device button Monitor pop-up menu Mute Project checkbox Track pop-up menu Input Channel pop-up menu Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 369 Adjusting Recording Settings Before you click the Record button, you may need to configure the input device, the choice of input channels, and other device and monitor settings. To adjust recording settings: 1 In the Recording tab, choose the input device from the Input Device pop-up menu. The available choices include your computer’s Built-in Audio, plus any other installed audio interfaces. Note: You can also access the Input pop-up menus from the track header, but only if the Timeline Track Height is set to either medium or large. 2 Use the Input Channel pop-up menu to choose the channel (or set of channels). The available choices are Mono (one channel), Stereo (two channels), 3 channels, 4 channels, 5 channels, 6 channels, and Surround 5.1. Choose a recording device from the Input Device pop-up menu. Choose the channel from the Input Channel pop-up menu. 370 Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro The Recording tab adjusts the level meter display based on the channel (or set of channels) you choose. For example, for the default Stereo setting, the Recording tab displays the Left and Right level meters. If you choose the 4-channel setting, the Recording tab displays level meters 1 through 4. If you choose the Surround 5.1 setting, the Recording tab displays the standard surround level meters. 3 Confirm the channel routing in the input routing buttons below the Input Channel pop-up menu. If necessary, click any of the active input routing buttons and use the pop-up menus to route a different channel from the input device to the channel in the recorded audio file. If your audio interface allows labeled inputs, the input routing button pop-up menus display the names. 4 Optionally, you can click the Configure Device button to open the Audio MIDI Setup utility. For more information, see “Audio MIDI Setup” on page 23. 5 Use the Monitor Device pop-up menu to choose the device for monitoring the recorded audio. 6 If you want to record without hearing the existing audio clips in the project, select the Mute Project checkbox. The level meters in the Recording tab show the level of the audio signal in the input channels. Before recording, you may want to watch the level meters and set the input level to ensure a high enough signal level and to avoid clipping. Stereo 4-channel Surround Input routing buttons Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 371 Recording a Single Take You record a single take by setting the playhead to the point where you want recording to start, then clicking the Record button. Recording starts at the playhead position, and ends when you click either the Record or Play/Pause button. To record a single take: 1 If you want to record to an existing track, enable the track for recording. 2 Set the playhead to the point where you want recording to start. You can set the playhead using any of the procedures described in “Setting the Playhead Quickly” on page 72. 3 Click the Record button in the transport controls to start recording. As you record, the level meters in the Recording tab show the levels of the input signal being recorded. If the input signal clips (rises above 0 dB), the peak indicator lights red. 4 To stop recording, do one of the following:  Click the Record button again.  Click the Pause/Play button.  Press the Space bar. You can punch in and punch out while recording a single take using the Record button. For example, you can start the project playing, then punch in at the point where you want to start recording by clicking the Record button. To punch out, click the Record button again. When you click the Record button while recording, recording stops, but the project continues playing. You can punch in and punch out multiple times while the project is playing. When you click the Pause/Play button, both recording and playback stop. Multitrack Recording You can record audio to multiple tracks simultaneously. To record to multiple tracks simultaneously: 1 Click the Arm for Recording button on each track you want to record to. 2 For each track you want to record to, choose the track from the Track pop-up menu at the top of the Recording tab and follow these steps: a In the Recording tab, choose the input device from the Input Device pop-up menu. b Use the Input Channel pop-up menu to choose the channel (or set of channels). c Confirm the channel routing in the input routing buttons below the Input Channel pop-up menu. If necessary, click any of the active input routing buttons and use the pop-up menus to route a different channel from the input device to the channel in the recorded audio file. For more information, see “Adjusting Recording Settings” on page 369. 372 Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 3 Set the playhead to the point where you want recording to start, and click the Record button. The audio is recorded to the armed tracks. 4 To stop recording, do one of the following:  Click the Record button again.  Click the Pause/Play button.  Press the Space bar. Recording Multiple Takes You can record multiple takes in the Timeline. You can record multiple takes using the cycle region to define where each take starts and ends, or you can record for the duration of the project. When you record multiple takes, the takes are “stacked” in a single multitake clip in the Timeline. You can audition each take and create composite takes using the Multitake Editor. For information about the Multitake Editor, see Chapter 7, “Using the Multitake Editor,” on page 251. To record multiple takes: 1 If you want to record to an existing track, enable the track. 2 If cycling is turned off, click the Cycle button in the transport controls to turn it on. 3 Set the cycle region to the part of the Timeline where you want recording to start and end. For information on setting the cycle region, see “Working with the Cycle Region” on page 134. If no cycle region is set, recording starts at the beginning of the project and lasts until the end of the last clip in the project. If the project contains no clips, a single take is recorded, starting at the current playhead position. 4 Click the Record button in the transport controls to start recording. As you record, the level meters in the Recording tab show the levels of the input signal being recorded. If the input signal clips (rises above 0 dB), the peak indicator lights red. The playhead advances to the end of the cycle region, then returns to the beginning of the cycle region for the next take. You can record multiple tracks at once. Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 373 5 To stop recording, do one of the following:  Click the Record button.  Click the Pause/Play button.  Press the Space bar. When you record multiple takes, the takes are recorded sequentially to an audio file in the recording location set in Recording preferences. The takes appear in a single multitake clip in the Timeline. Editing Multitake Clips You can do some simple multitake editing directly in the Timeline, for example, splitting the clip and choosing the take for each split segment. Note: For sophisticated editing of multitake clips, see Chapter 7, “Using the Multitake Editor,” on page 251. To choose a take in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the clip, choose Clip > Recording Take, then choose the take number from the submenu. m Control-click the clip, choose Take from the shortcut menu, then choose the take number from the submenu. You can split a recorded clip and choose the take for each segment of the split clip to create a composite take. You can also copy a clip onto several tracks, split the copies, and choose the take for each split copy of the clip. The current take number appears in the lower-right corner of the clip. 374 Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro Recordings Location When you record audio with Soundtrack Pro, the default location for those audio recordings is: /Users/username/Documents/Soundtrack Pro Documents/Recordings/. To change the Recordings location: m Choose Soundtrack Pro > Preferences. Click the Recording button, then click Choose to enter a new location. Note: When you save a multitrack project and select the Collect Audio Files option, a copy of every audio file the project uses (including recordings) is saved with the project file. For more information, see “Saving Multitrack Projects” on page 111. Recording Audio in the Mixer You can record audio in the Mixer in a similar way to recording audio in the Timeline. You can record a single take or record multiple takes. To record audio in the Mixer, you follow the procedures described in “Recording Audio in the Timeline” on page 368, with the following differences:  To enable a track for recording in the Mixer, click the Arm for Recording button (the red letter R) in the track’s channel strip.  Depending on the layout you are using, the playhead may not be visible as you record in the Mixer. In this case, you can set the playhead using the transport controls or the Playhead Location value slider. If you want to record multiple takes using a cycle region, you may need to set the cycle region in the Timeline before you start recording in the Mixer. Transport controls Arm for Recording button Chapter 13 Recording Audio in Soundtrack Pro 375 Recording Audio in the File Editor Project View You can record audio to an audio file project in the File Editor project view. When you record audio in the File Editor, you replace (overwrite) any existing audio in the audio file or selection you record to. You can select part of the file in the File Editor to record to. When you record to a selection, recording starts at the beginning of the selection and ends at the end of the selection. The part of the file after the end of the selection is unchanged. If no part of the file is selected, recording starts at the playhead position, and lasts until you stop recording. If your recording extends past the end of the audio file, the file is lengthened to include the recording. To record audio in the File Editor project view: 1 Open an audio file project in the File Editor project view. 2 Select the part of the project you want to record to. If no part of the audio file is selected, recording starts at the current playhead position and proceeds until you stop recording. 3 Click the Record button in the transport controls. As you record, the recorded area appears red in the waveform display. The level meters in the Recording tab show the levels of the input signal being recorded. If the input signal clips (rises above 0 dB), the peak indicator lights red. 14 377 14 Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro Soundtrack Pro gives you the tools to create professional podcasts of your projects. You can quickly and easily produce audio and video podcasts directly from within Soundtrack Pro projects. And you can take video projects from Final Cut Pro and make podcasts from them using Soundtrack Pro. Podcasts are audio and video broadcasts available on the Internet. Unlike traditional radio and television shows with set schedules, podcasts can be listened to at any time in the iTunes application or on an iPod. You can even publish your podcast to iTunes and reach a potential audience of millions. Besides democratizing what used to be known as radio, the podcasting movement provides new avenues of distribution for recorded lectures and educational materials, audio tours of museums, conference meeting updates, and so on. Soundtrack Pro provides professional and prosumer podcasters the tools to create extremely high-quality podcasts. And with the podcasting workflow built right into Soundtrack Pro, audio post-production personnel can easily lay off iPod-ready versions of their sound for picture mix or edit. This way, a small audience of clients and colleagues can enjoy the convenience of listening to or watching the programs using iPod or iTunes. Podcasts fall into three broad categories:  Audio-only podcasts: At the very least, a podcast contains an audio file. For information about types of compressed audio files, see “Exporting Audio Podcasts” on page 387.  Enhanced podcasts: The audio content may have one or more associated images and web links that can be synchronized with the audio track. Also, chapter markers can be embedded that allow listeners to jump to specific sections of the content.  Video podcasts: Video podcasts typically include both video and audio content. The technical requirements for video podcasts are more specific. For information about video file formats for podcasting, see “Exporting Video Podcasts” on page 388. Podcasts are typically published in a series of episodes. Soundtrack Pro supports the creation of episodes. 378 Chapter 14 Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro Podcasting Media Production Producing podcasts has a lot in common with producing any other audio or video program. Soundtrack Pro can help you with the audio production, editing, and mixing steps as well as with some other tasks unique to podcasting. There are two main ways to create podcasts:  Take a Final Cut Pro project and create a podcast from it in Soundtrack Pro.  Create a podcast from scratch in Soundtrack Pro. Both of these scenarios involve some version of the following steps: Step 1: Record the sound (and video) There are many different ways to record a podcast, ranging from one-person shows, to conference calls, to live events on location, to studio recordings. You can record multitrack and multichannel sound directly into Soundtrack Pro, or you can import pre-recorded files. Step 2: Edit and mix the sound, video, and images Soundtrack Pro gives you many specialized tools and powerful features that you can use to create high-quality audio. And the ability to exchange projects and information between Soundtrack Pro and Final Cut Pro makes video podcasting a very streamlined process. Step 3: Podcast-specific editing and authoring Podcasts range in complexity from a simple audio or video file to enhanced podcasts with chapter markers and associated web links. Besides its many sophisticated audio editing and mixing tools, Soundtrack Pro includes a dedicated podcast track for adding chapter markers, URL links, and images. Step 4: Compress the audio (and video) files Soundtrack Proincludes a robust set of export and compression options for both audio and video podcasting. For complete information about exporting from Soundtrack Pro, see Chapter 16, “Exporting Multitrack Projects,” on page 395. Step 5: Upload the compressed files Once your podcast is complete, you upload the file to your web host using a file transfer protocol (FTP) utility.You can trigger post-export actions (AppleScript documents) to do this automatically as a part of the export process. For more information, see “Using Post-Export Actions” on page 416. Chapter 14 Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro 379 Using the Podcast Track and Podcast Markers You can add chapter markers, images, and web links to your podcasts using the podcast track and the Details tab in Soundtrack Pro. Note: If you want to make a simple audio or video podcast with no markers, images, or web links, skip to “Exporting Podcasts” on page 387. Displaying the Podcast Track and the Details Tab You use the podcast track in conjunction with the Details tab to add enhanced podcast features to your podcast. Any Soundtrack Pro multitrack project can include information on how to output the project as a podcast. This podcast-specific information can be viewed and edited by showing the podcast track. To display the podcast track: m Choose Show > Podcast Track from the Show pop-up menu in the upper-right corner of the Timeline. The podcast track appears near the top of the Timeline, just above the audio tracks. By default, the podcast track appears just below the video track (if you have one in your project) with a single blue podcast marker “region” that spans the entire length of the project. To make the Details tab active, do one of the following: m Choose Window > Tabs > Details (or press Command-I). m Click the Details tab. Choose Podcast Track from the Show pop-up menu. Podcast track Video track 380 Chapter 14 Creating Podcasts in Soundtrack Pro To view or enter information for a podcast marker: 1 Select a podcast marker region in the podcast track. 2 Enter or view the information in the Details tab. Podcast Marker Information in the Details Tab Use the Details tab to enter and display podcast marker information and attributes. The Details tab sets properties for the podcast marker region (e.g. what image will be shown until the next marker in an enhanced podcast) and optionally sets a chapter marker.  Name field: Enter a name for the marke