ADE7758 (Rev. E) - Analog Devices - Farnell Element 14 - Revenir à l'accueil

 

 

Branding Farnell element14 (France)

 

Farnell Element 14 :

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Everything You Need To Know About Arduino

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Tutorial 01 for Arduino: Getting Acquainted with Arduino

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The Cube® 3D Printer

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What's easier- DIY Dentistry or our new our website features?

 

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Ben Heck's Getting Started with the BeagleBone Black Trailer

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Ben Heck's Home-Brew Solder Reflow Oven 2.0 Trailer

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Get Started with Pi Episode 3 - Online with Raspberry Pi

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Discover Simulink Promo -- Exclusive element14 Webinar

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Ben Heck's TV Proximity Sensor Trailer

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Ben Heck's PlayStation 4 Teardown Trailer

See the trailer for the next exciting episode of The Ben Heck show. Check back on Friday to be among the first to see the exclusive full show on element…

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Get Started with Pi Episode 4 - Your First Raspberry Pi Project

Connect your Raspberry Pi to a breadboard, download some code and create a push-button audio play project.

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Ben Heck Anti-Pickpocket Wallet Trailer

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Molex Earphones - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tripp Lite Surge Protector - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Microchip ChipKIT Pi - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Beagle Bone Black - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M E26, LED Lamps - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M Colored Duct Tape - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tenma Soldering Station - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Duratool Screwdriver Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Cubify 3D Cube - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Bud Boardganizer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Raspberry Pi Starter Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Fluke 323 True-rms Clamp Meter - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Dymo RHINO 6000 Label Printer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M LED Advanced Lights A-19 - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Innovative LPS Resistor Features Very High Power Dissipation

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Charge Injection Evaluation Board for DG508B Multiplexer Demo

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 2

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Introducing element14 TV

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Ben Heck Time to Meet Your Maker Trailer

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Détecteur de composants

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Recherche intégrée

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar Trailer Part 1

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar - Part 2 Trailer

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PiFace Control and Display Introduction

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Flashmob Farnell

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Express Yourself in 3D with Cube 3D Printers from Newark element14

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Farnell YouTube Channel Move

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Farnell: Design with the best

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French Farnell Quest

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Altera - 3 Ways to Quickly Adapt to Changing Ethernet Protocols

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Cy-Net3 Network Module

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MC AT - Professional and Precision Series Thin Film Chip Resistors

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Solderless LED Connector

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PSA-T Series Spectrum Analyser: PSA1301T/ PSA2701T

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3-axis Universal Motion Controller For Stepper Motor Drivers: TMC429

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Voltage Level Translation

Puce électronique / Microchip :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 2 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 3 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 1 of 3

Sans fil - Wireless :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Wireless Power Solutions - Wurth Electronics, Texas Instruments, CadSoft and element14

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Analog Devices - Remote Water Quality Monitoring via a Low Power, Wireless Network

Texas instrument :

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Texas Instruments - Automotive LED Headlights

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Texas Instruments - Digital Power Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Sensor Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Wireless Pen Input Demo (Mobile World Congress)

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Automation System Components

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x - Industry's first 10-GHz fixed/floating point DSP

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x KeyStone Multicore Architecture

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Interfaces

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Texas Instruments - Concerto™ MCUs - Connectivity without compromise

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Texas Instruments - Stellaris Robot Chronos

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Texas Instruments - DRV8412-C2-KIT, Brushed DC and Stepper Motor Control Kit

Ordinateurs :

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Ask Ben Heck - Connect Raspberry Pi to Car Computer

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Ben's Portable Raspberry Pi Computer Trailer

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Ben's Raspberry Pi Portable Computer Trailer 2

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Ben Heck's Pocket Computer Trailer

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Ask Ben Heck - Atari Computer

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Ask Ben Heck - Using Computer Monitors for External Displays

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Raspberry Pi Partnership with BBC Computer Literacy Project - Answers from co-founder Eben Upton

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Installing RaspBMC on your Raspberry Pi with the Farnell element14 Accessory kit

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Raspberry Pi Served - Joey Hudy

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Happy Birthday Raspberry Pi

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Raspberry Pi board B product overview

Logiciels :

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Opensource or Free CAD Software

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Tektronix FPGAView™ software makes debugging of FPGAs faster than ever!

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Open-Source Schematic Capture and PCB Layout Software

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Introduction to Cadsoft EAGLE PCB Design Software in Chinese

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Altera - Developing Software for Embedded Systems on FPGAs

Tutoriels :

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 1

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the knode tutorial - element14

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Ben's Autodesk 123D Tutorial Trailer

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Ben's CadSoft EAGLE Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Soldering Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's AVR Dev Board tutorial

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Ben Heck's Pinball Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Interface Tutorial Trailer

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First Stage with Python and PiFace Digital

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Cypress - Getting Started with PSoC® 3 - Part 2

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Energy Harvesting Challenge

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New Features of CadSoft EAGLE v6

Autres documentations :
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Poly Phase Multifunction Energy Metering IC with Per Phase Information Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 www.analog.com Fax: 781.461.3113 ©2004–2011 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. FEATURES Highly accurate; supports IEC 60687, IEC 61036, IEC 61268, IEC 62053-21, IEC 62053-22, and IEC 62053-23 Compatible with 3-phase/3-wire, 3-phase/4-wire, and other 3-phase services Less than 0.1% active energy error over a dynamic range of 1000 to 1 at 25°C Supplies active/reactive/apparent energy, voltage rms, current rms, and sampled waveform data Two pulse outputs, one for active power and the other selectable between reactive and apparent power with programmable frequency Digital power, phase, and rms offset calibration On-chip, user-programmable thresholds for line voltage SAG and overvoltage detections An on-chip, digital integrator enables direct interface-to-current sensors with di/dt output A PGA in the current channel allows direct interface to current transformers An SPI®-compatible serial interface with IRQ Proprietary ADCs and DSP provide high accuracy over large variations in environmental conditions and time Reference 2.4 V (drift 30 ppm/°C typical) with external overdrive capability Single 5 V supply, low power (70 mW typical) GENERAL DESCRIPTION The ADE7758 is a high accuracy, 3-phase electrical energy measurement IC with a serial interface and two pulse outputs. The ADE7758 incorporates second-order Σ-Δ ADCs, a digital integrator, reference circuitry, a temperature sensor, and all the signal processing required to perform active, reactive, and apparent energy measurement and rms calculations. The ADE7758 is suitable to measure active, reactive, and apparent energy in various 3-phase configurations, such as WYE or DELTA services, with both three and four wires. The ADE7758 provides system calibration features for each phase, that is, rms offset correction, phase calibration, and power calibration. The APCF logic output gives active power information, and the VARCF logic output provides instantaneous reactive or apparent power information. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM PHASE BANDPHASE CDATA4AVDDPOWERSUPPLYMONITOR12REFIN/OUT11AGNDADC–+9ICP10ICNPGA1ADC–+14VCP13VNPGA2ACTIVE/REACTIVE/APPARENT ENERGIESAND VOLTAGE/CURRENT RMS CALCULATIONFOR PHASE C(SEE PHASE A FOR DETAILED SIGNALPATH)ADC–+7IBP8IBNPGA1ADC–+15VBPPGA2ACTIVE/REACTIVE/APPARENT ENERGIESAND VOLTAGE/CURRENT RMS CALCULATIONFOR PHASE B(SEE PHASE A FOR DETAILED SIGNALPATH)ADC–+5IAP6IANPGA1ADC–+16VAPPGA2AVRMSGAIN[11:0]AVAG[11:0]|X|APHCAL[6:0]ΦHPFINTEGRATORdtAVAROS[11:0]AVARG[11:0]LPF290° PHASESHIFTING FILTERπ2AWATTOS[11:0]AWG[11:0]LPF222DIN24DOUT23SCLK21CS18IRQADE7758 REGISTERSANDSERIAL INTERFACEWDIV[7:0]%VARDIV[7:0]%VADIV[7:0]%AIRMSOS[11:0]X2LPF2.4VREF4kΩDFC÷APCFNUM[11:0]APCFDEN[11:0]ACTIVE POWER1APCF3DVDD2DGND19CLKIN20CLKOUTDFCVARCFNUM[11:0]VARCFDEN[11:0]REACTIVE ORAPPARENT POWER17VARCFADE7758AVRMSOS[11:0]04443-001÷ Figure 1. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 2 of 72 TABLE OF CONTENTS Features..............................................................................................1 General Description.........................................................................1 Functional Block Diagram..............................................................1 General Description.........................................................................4 Specifications.....................................................................................5 Timing Characteristics................................................................6 Timing Diagrams..............................................................................7 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................8 ESD Caution..................................................................................8 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions.............................9 Terminology....................................................................................11 Typical Performance Characteristics...........................................12 Test Circuits.....................................................................................17 Theory of Operation......................................................................18 Antialiasing Filter.......................................................................18 Analog Inputs..............................................................................18 Current Channel ADC...............................................................19 di/dt Current Sensor and Digital Integrator...............................20 Peak Current Detection.............................................................21 Overcurrent Detection Interrupt.............................................21 Voltage Channel ADC...............................................................22 Zero-Crossing Detection...........................................................23 Phase Compensation..................................................................23 Period Measurement..................................................................25 Line Voltage SAG Detection.....................................................25 SAG Level Set..............................................................................26 Peak Voltage Detection..............................................................26 Phase Sequence Detection.........................................................26 Power-Supply Monitor...............................................................27 Reference Circuit........................................................................27 Temperature Measurement.......................................................27 Root Mean Square Measurement.............................................28 Active Power Calculation..........................................................30 Reactive Power Calculation......................................................35 Apparent Power Calculation.....................................................39 Energy Registers Scaling...........................................................41 Waveform Sampling Mode.......................................................41 Calibration...................................................................................42 Checksum Register.....................................................................55 Interrupts.....................................................................................55 Using the Interrupts with an MCU..........................................56 Interrupt Timing........................................................................56 Serial Interface............................................................................56 Serial Write Operation...............................................................57 Serial Read Operation................................................................59 Accessing the On-Chip Registers.............................................59 Registers...........................................................................................60 Communications Register.........................................................60 Operational Mode Register (0x13)..........................................64 Measurement Mode Register (0x14).......................................64 Waveform Mode Register (0x15).............................................65 Computational Mode Register (0x16).....................................66 Line Cycle Accumulation Mode Register (0x17)...................67 Interrupt Mask Register (0x18)................................................68 Interrupt Status Register (0x19)/Reset Interrupt Status Register (0x1A)...........................................................................69 Outline Dimensions.......................................................................70 Ordering Guide..........................................................................70 Revision History 10/11—Rev. D to Rev. E Changes to Figure 1..........................................................................1 Changes to Figure 41......................................................................19 Changes to Figure 60......................................................................27 Added Figure 61; Renumbered Sequentially..............................27 Changes to Phase Sequence Detection Section..........................27 Changes to Power-Supply Monitor Section................................27 Changes to Figure 62......................................................................28 Changes to Figure 67......................................................................32 Changes to Figure 68......................................................................32 Changes to Equation 25.................................................................34 Changes to Figure 69......................................................................34 Changes to Table 17.......................................................................62 Change to Table 18.........................................................................64 Changes to Table 24.......................................................................69 Changes to Ordering Guide..........................................................70 10/08—Rev. C to Rev. D Changes to Figure 1...........................................................................1 Changes to Phase Sequence Detection Section and Figure 60.27 Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 3 of 72 Changes to Current RMS Calculation Section............................28 Changes to Voltage Channel RMS Calculation Section and Figure 63...........................................................................................29 Changes to Table 17........................................................................60 Changes to Ordering Guide...........................................................70 7/06—Rev. B to Rev. C Updated Format..................................................................Universal Changes to Figure 1...........................................................................1 Changes to Table 2............................................................................6 Changes to Table 4............................................................................9 Changes to Figure 34 and Figure 35.............................................17 Changes to Current Waveform Gain Registers Section and Current Channel Sampling Section..............................................19 Changes to Voltage Channel Sampling Section..........................22 Changes to Zero-Crossing Timeout Section...............................23 Changes to Figure 60......................................................................27 Changes to Current RMS Calculation Section............................28 Changes to Current RMS Offset Compensation Section and Voltage Channel RMS Calculation Section.................................29 Added Table 7 and Table 9; Renumbered Sequentially..............29 Changes to Figure 65......................................................................30 Changes to Active Power Offset Calibration Section.................31 Changes to Reactive Power Frequency Output Section.............38 Changes to Apparent Power Frequency Output Section and Waveform Sampling Mode Section..............................................41 Changes to Gain Calibration Using Line Accumulation Section....................................................................49 Changes to Example: Power Offset Calibration Using Line Accumulation Section....................................................................53 Changes to Calibration of IRMS and VRMS Offset Section.....54 Changes to Table 18........................................................................64 Changes to Table 20........................................................................65 11/05—Rev. A to Rev. B Changes to Table 1............................................................................5 Changes to Figure 23 Caption.......................................................14 Changes to Current Waveform Gain Registers Section.............19 Changes to di/dt Current Sensor and Digital Integrator Section............................................................................20 Changes to Phase Compensation Section....................................23 Changes to Figure 57......................................................................25 Changes to Figure 60......................................................................27 Changes to Temperature Measurement Section and Root Mean Square Measurement Section............................28 Inserted Table 6................................................................................28 Changes to Current RMS Offset Compensation Section..........29 Inserted Table 7................................................................................29 Added Equation 17.........................................................................31 Changes to Energy Accumulation Mode Section.......................33 Changes to the Reactive Power Calculation Section..................35 Added Equation 32...........................................................................36 Changes to Energy Accumulation Mode Section.......................38 Changes to the Reactive Power Frequency Output Section......38 Changes to the Apparent Energy Calculation Section...............40 Changes to the Calibration Section..............................................42 Changes to Figure 76 through Figure 84...............................43–54 Changes to Table 15........................................................................59 Changes to Table 16........................................................................63 Changes to Ordering Guide...........................................................69 9/04—Rev. 0 to Rev. A Changed Hexadecimal Notation......................................Universal Changes to Features List...................................................................1 Changes to Specifications Table......................................................5 Change to Figure 25........................................................................16 Additions to the Analog Inputs Section.......................................19 Added Figures 36 and 37; Renumbered Subsequent Figures....19 Changes to Period Measurement Section....................................26 Change to Peak Voltage Detection Section.................................26 Added Figure 60..............................................................................27 Change to the Current RMS Offset Compensation Section.....29 Edits to Active Power Frequency Output Section......................33 Added Figure 68; Renumbered Subsequent Figures..................33 Changes to Reactive Power Frequency Output Section.............37 Added Figure 73; Renumbered Subsequent Figures..................38 Change to Gain Calibration Using Pulse Output Example.......44 Changes to Equation 37.................................................................45 Changes to Example—Phase Calibration of Phase A Using Pulse Output.........................................................................45 Changes to Equations 56 and 57...................................................53 Addition to the ADE7758 Interrupts Section.............................54 Changes to Example-Calibration of RMS Offsets......................54 Addition to Table 20.......................................................................66 1/04—Revision 0: Initial Version ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 4 of 72 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The ADE7758 has a waveform sample register that allows access to the ADC outputs. The part also incorporates a detection circuit for short duration low or high voltage variations. The voltage threshold levels and the duration (number of half-line cycles) of the variation are user programmable. A zero-crossing detection is synchronized with the zero-crossing point of the line voltage of any of the three phases. This information can be used to measure the period of any one of the three voltage inputs. The zero-crossing detection is used inside the chip for the line cycle energy accumulation mode. This mode permits faster and more accurate calibration by synchronizing the energy accumulation with an integer number of line cycles. Data is read from the ADE7758 via the SPI serial interface. The interrupt request output (IRQ) is an open-drain, active low logic output. The IRQ output goes active low when one or more interrupt events have occurred in the . A status register indicates the nature of the interrupt. The is available in a 24-lead SOIC package. ADE7758ADE7758 Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 5 of 72 SPECIFICATIONS AVDD = DVDD = 5 V ± 5%, AGND = DGND = 0 V, on-chip reference, CLKIN = 10 MHz XTAL, TMIN to TMAX = −40°C to +85°C. Table 1. Parameter1, 2 Specification Unit Test Conditions/Comments ACCURACY Active Energy Measurement Error (per Phase) 0.1 % typ Over a dynamic range of 1000 to 1 Phase Error Between Channels Line frequency = 45 Hz to 65 Hz, HPF on PF = 0.8 Capacitive ±0.05 °max Phase lead 37° PF = 0.5 Inductive ±0.05 °max Phase lag 60° AC Power Supply Rejection AVDD = DVDD = 5 V + 175 mV rms/120 Hz Output Frequency Variation 0.01 % typ V1P = V2P = V3P = 100 mV rms DC Power Supply Rejection AVDD = DVDD = 5 V ± 250 mV dc Output Frequency Variation 0.01 % typ V1P = V2P = V3P = 100 mV rms Active Energy Measurement Bandwidth 14 kHz IRMS Measurement Error 0.5 % typ Over a dynamic range of 500:1 IRMS Measurement Bandwidth 14 kHz VRMS Measurement Error 0.5 % typ Over a dynamic range of 20:1 VRMS Measurement Bandwidth 260 Hz ANALOG INPUTS See the Analog Inputs section Maximum Signal Levels ±500 mV max Differential input Input Impedance (DC) 380 kΩ min ADC Offset Error3 ±30 mV max Uncalibrated error, see the Terminology section Gain Error3 ±6 % typ External 2.5 V reference WAVEFORM SAMPLING Sampling CLKIN/128, 10 MHz/128 = 78.1 kSPS Current Channels See the Current Channel ADC section Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion 62 dB typ Bandwidth (−3 dB) 14 kHz Voltage Channels See the Voltage Channel ADC section Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion 62 dB typ Bandwidth (−3 dB) 260 Hz REFERENCE INPUT REFIN/OUT Input Voltage Range 2.6 V max 2.4 V + 8% 2.2 V min 2.4 V − 8% Input Capacitance 10 pF max ON-CHIP REFERENCE Nominal 2.4 V at REFIN/OUT pin Reference Error ±200 mV max Current Source 6 μA max Output Impedance 4 kΩ min Temperature Coefficient 30 ppm/°C typ CLKIN All specifications CLKIN of 10 MHz Input Clock Frequency 15 MHz max 5 MHz min LOGIC INPUTS DIN, SCLK, CLKIN, and CS Input High Voltage, VINH 2.4 V min DVDD = 5 V ± 5% Input Low Voltage, VINL 0.8 V max DVDD = 5 V ± 5% Input Current, IIN ±3 μA max Typical 10 nA, VIN = 0 V to DVDD Input Capacitance, CIN 10 pF max ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 6 of 72 Parameter1, 2 Specification Unit Test Conditions/Comments LOGIC OUTPUTS DVDD = 5 V ± 5% IRQ, DOUT, and CLKOUT IRQ is open-drain, 10 kΩ pull-up resistor Output High Voltage, VOH 4 V min ISOURCE = 5 mA Output Low Voltage, VOL 0.4 V max ISINK = 1 mA APCF and VARCF Output High Voltage, VOH 4 V min ISOURCE = 8 mA Output Low Voltage, VOL 1 V max ISINK = 5 mA POWER SUPPLY For specified performance AVDD 4.75 V min 5 V − 5% 5.25 V max 5 V + 5% DVDD 4.75 V min 5 V − 5% 5.25 V max 5 V + 5% AIDD 8 mA max Typically 5 mA DIDD 13 mA max Typically 9 mA 1 See the Typical Performance Characteristics. 2 See the Terminology section for a definition of the parameters. 3 See the Analog Inputs section. TIMING CHARACTERISTICS AVDD = DVDD = 5 V ± 5%, AGND = DGND = 0 V, on-chip reference, CLKIN = 10 MHz XTAL, TMIN to TMAX = −40°C to +85°C. Table 2. Parameter1, 2 Specification Unit Test Conditions/Comments WRITE TIMING t1 50 ns (min) CS falling edge to first SCLK falling edge t2 50 ns (min) SCLK logic high pulse width t3 50 ns (min) SCLK logic low pulse width t4 10 ns (min) Valid data setup time before falling edge of SCLK t5 5 ns (min) Data hold time after SCLK falling edge t6 1200 ns (min) Minimum time between the end of data byte transfers t7 400 ns (min) Minimum time between byte transfers during a serial write t8 100 ns (min) CS hold time after SCLK falling edge READ TIMING t93 4 μs (min) Minimum time between read command (that is, a write to communication register) and data read t10 50 ns (min) Minimum time between data byte transfers during a multibyte read t114 30 ns (min) Data access time after SCLK rising edge following a write to the communications register t125 100 ns (max) Bus relinquish time after falling edge of SCLK 10 ns (min) t135 100 ns (max) Bus relinquish time after rising edge of CS 10 ns (min) 1 Sample tested during initial release and after any redesign or process change that may affect this parameter. All input signals are specified with tr = tf = 5 ns (10% to 90%) and timed from a voltage level of 1.6 V. 2 See the timing diagrams in Figure 3 and Figure 4 and the Serial Interface section. 3 Minimum time between read command and data read for all registers except waveform register, which is t9 = 500 ns min. 4 Measured with the load circuit in Figure 2 and defined as the time required for the output to cross 0.8 V or 2.4 V. 5 Derived from the measured time taken by the data outputs to change 0.5 V when loaded with the circuit in Figure 2. The measured number is then extrapolated back to remove the effects of charging or discharging the 50 pF capacitor. This means that the time quoted here is the true bus relinquish time of the part and is independent of the bus loading. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 7 of 72 TIMING DIAGRAMS 200μAIOL1.6mAIOH2.1VTO OUTPUTPINCL50pF04443-002 Figure 2. Load Circuit for Timing Specifications DINSCLKCSt2t3t1t4t5t7t6t8COMMAND BYTEMOST SIGNIFICANT BYTELEAST SIGNIFICANT BYTE1A6A4A5A3A2A1A0DB7DB0DB7DB0t704443-003 Figure 3. Serial Write Timing SCLKCSt1t10t130A6A4A5A3A2A1A0DB0DB7DB0DB7DINDOUTt11t12COMMAND BYTEMOST SIGNIFICANT BYTELEAST SIGNIFICANT BYTEt904443-004 Figure 4. Serial Read Timing ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 8 of 72 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted. Table 3. Parameter Rating AVDD to AGND –0.3 V to +7 V DVDD to DGND –0.3 V to +7 V DVDD to AVDD –0.3 V to +0.3 V Analog Input Voltage to AGND, IAP, IAN, IBP, IBN, ICP, ICN, VAP, VBP, VCP, VN –6 V to +6 V Reference Input Voltage to AGND –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V Digital Input Voltage to DGND –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V Digital Output Voltage to DGND –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V Operating Temperature Industrial Range –40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature Range –65°C to +150°C Junction Temperature 150°C 24-Lead SOIC, Power Dissipation 88 mW θJA Thermal Impedance 53°C/W Lead Temperature, Soldering Vapor Phase (60 sec) 215°C Infrared (15 sec) 220°C Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those listed in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ESD CAUTION Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 9 of 72 PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS APCF1DGND2DVDD3AVDD4DOUT24SCLK23DIN22CS21IAP5CLKOUT20IAN6CLKIN19IBP7IRQ18IBN8VARCF17ICP9VAP16ICN10VBP15AGND11VCP14REFIN/OUT12VN13ADE7758TOP VIEW(Not to Scale)04443-005 Figure 5. Pin Configuration Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions Pin No. Mnemonic Description 1 APCF Active Power Calibration Frequency (APCF) Logic Output. It provides active power information. This output is used for operational and calibration purposes. The full-scale output frequency can be scaled by writing to the APCFNUM and APCFDEN registers (see the Active Power Frequency Output section). 2 DGND This provides the ground reference for the digital circuitry in the ADE7758, that is, the multiplier, filters, and digital-to-frequency converter. Because the digital return currents in the ADE7758 are small, it is acceptable to connect this pin to the analog ground plane of the whole system. However, high bus capacitance on the DOUT pin can result in noisy digital current that could affect performance. 3 DVDD Digital Power Supply. This pin provides the supply voltage for the digital circuitry in the ADE7758. The supply voltage should be maintained at 5 V ± 5% for specified operation. This pin should be decoupled to DGND with a 10 μF capacitor in parallel with a ceramic 100 nF capacitor. 4 AVDD Analog Power Supply. This pin provides the supply voltage for the analog circuitry in the ADE7758. The supply should be maintained at 5 V ± 5% for specified operation. Every effort should be made to minimize power supply ripple and noise at this pin by the use of proper decoupling. The Typical Performance Characteristics show the power supply rejection performance. This pin should be decoupled to AGND with a 10 μF capacitor in parallel with a ceramic 100 nF capacitor. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 IAP, IAN, IBP, IBN, ICP, ICN Analog Inputs for Current Channel. This channel is used with the current transducer and is referenced in this document as the current channel. These inputs are fully differential voltage inputs with maximum differential input signal levels of ±0.5 V, ±0.25 V, and ±0.125 V, depending on the gain selections of the internal PGA (see the Analog Inputs section). All inputs have internal ESD protection circuitry. In addition, an overvoltage of ±6 V can be sustained on these inputs without risk of permanent damage. 11 AGND This pin provides the ground reference for the analog circuitry in the ADE7758, that is, ADCs, temperature sensor, and reference. This pin should be tied to the analog ground plane or the quietest ground reference in the system. This quiet ground reference should be used for all analog circuitry, for example, antialiasing filters, current, and voltage transducers. To keep ground noise around the ADE7758 to a minimum, the quiet ground plane should be connected to the digital ground plane at only one point. It is acceptable to place the entire device on the analog ground plane. 12 REFIN/OUT This pin provides access to the on-chip voltage reference. The on-chip reference has a nominal value of 2.4 V ± 8% and a typical temperature coefficient of 30 ppm/°C. An external reference source can also be connected at this pin. In either case, this pin should be decoupled to AGND with a 1 μF ceramic capacitor. 13, 14, 15, 16 VN, VCP, VBP, VAP Analog Inputs for the Voltage Channel. This channel is used with the voltage transducer and is referenced as the voltage channels in this document. These inputs are single-ended voltage inputs with the maximum signal level of ±0.5 V with respect to VN for specified operation. These inputs are voltage inputs with maximum input signal levels of ±0.5 V, ±0.25 V, and ±0.125 V, depending on the gain selections of the internal PGA (see the Analog Inputs section). All inputs have internal ESD protection circuitry, and in addition, an overvoltage of ±6 V can be sustained on these inputs without risk of permanent damage. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 10 of 72 Pin No. Mnemonic Description 17 VARCF Reactive Power Calibration Frequency Logic Output. It gives reactive power or apparent power information depending on the setting of the VACF bit of the WAVMODE register. This output is used for operational and calibration purposes. The full-scale output frequency can be scaled by writing to the VARCFNUM and VARCFDEN registers (see the Reactive Power Frequency Output section). 18 IRQ Interrupt Request Output. This is an active low open-drain logic output. Maskable interrupts include: an active energy register at half level, an apparent energy register at half level, and waveform sampling up to 26 kSPS (see the Interrupts section). 19 CLKIN Master Clock for ADCs and Digital Signal Processing. An external clock can be provided at this logic input. Alternatively, a parallel resonant AT crystal can be connected across CLKIN and CLKOUT to provide a clock source for the ADE7758. The clock frequency for specified operation is 10 MHz. Ceramic load capacitors of a few tens of picofarad should be used with the gate oscillator circuit. Refer to the crystal manufacturer’s data sheet for the load capacitance requirements 20 CLKOUT A crystal can be connected across this pin and CLKIN as previously described to provide a clock source for the ADE7758. The CLKOUT pin can drive one CMOS load when either an external clock is supplied at CLKIN or a crystal is being used. 21 CS Chip Select. Part of the 4-wire serial interface. This active low logic input allows the ADE7758 to share the serial bus with several other devices (see the Serial Interface section). 22 DIN Data Input for the Serial Interface. Data is shifted in at this pin on the falling edge of SCLK (see the Serial Interface section). 23 SCLK Serial Clock Input for the Synchronous Serial Interface. All serial data transfers are synchronized to this clock (see the Serial Interface section). The SCLK has a Schmidt-trigger input for use with a clock source that has a slow edge transition time, for example, opto-isolator outputs. 24 DOUT Data Output for the Serial Interface. Data is shifted out at this pin on the rising edge of SCLK. This logic output is normally in a high impedance state, unless it is driving data onto the serial data bus (see the Serial Interface section). Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 11 of 72 TERMINOLOGY Measurement Error The error associated with the energy measurement made by the ADE7758 is defined by %100–×=EnergyTrueEnergyTrueADE7758byRegisteredEnergyErrortMeasuremen (1) Phase Error Between Channels The high-pass filter (HPF) and digital integrator introduce a slight phase mismatch between the current and the voltage channel. The all-digital design ensures that the phase matching between the current channels and voltage channels in all three phases is within ±0.1° over a range of 45 Hz to 65 Hz and ±0.2° over a range of 40 Hz to 1 kHz. This internal phase mismatch can be combined with the external phase error (from current sensor or component tolerance) and calibrated with the phase calibration registers. Power Supply Rejection (PSR) This quantifies the ADE7758 measurement error as a percentage of reading when the power supplies are varied. For the ac PSR measurement, a reading at nominal supplies (5 V) is taken. A second reading is obtained with the same input signal levels when an ac signal (175 mV rms/100 Hz) is introduced onto the supplies. Any error introduced by this ac signal is expressed as a percentage of reading—see the Measurement Error definition. For the dc PSR measurement, a reading at nominal supplies (5 V) is taken. A second reading is obtained with the same input signal levels when the power supplies are varied ±5%. Any error introduced is again expressed as a percentage of the reading. ADC Offset Error This refers to the dc offset associated with the analog inputs to the ADCs. It means that with the analog inputs connected to AGND that the ADCs still see a dc analog input signal. The magnitude of the offset depends on the gain and input range selection (see the Typical Performance Characteristics section). However, when HPFs are switched on, the offset is removed from the current channels and the power calculation is not affected by this offset. Gain Error The gain error in the ADCs of the ADE7758 is defined as the difference between the measured ADC output code (minus the offset) and the ideal output code (see the Current Channel ADC section and the Voltage Channel ADC section). The difference is expressed as a percentage of the ideal code. Gain Error Match The gain error match is defined as the gain error (minus the offset) obtained when switching between a gain of 1, 2, or 4. It is expressed as a percentage of the output ADC code obtained under a gain of 1. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 12 of 72 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS 0.5–0.5–0.4–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.30.40.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)+25°CPF = 1+85°C–40°C04443-006 Figure 6. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Temperature with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = +1, +25°CPF = +0.5, +25°CPF =–0.5, +25°CPF = +0.5, +85°CPF = +0.5,–40°C04443-007 Figure 7. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Power Factor with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)GAIN = +2GAIN = +4PF = 1GAIN = +104443-008 Figure 8. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading over Gain with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.20–0.20–0.15–0.10–0.0500.050.100.150.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF =–0.5, +25°CPF = +0.5, +25°CPF = +0.5,–40°CPF = +0.5, +85°C04443-009 Figure 9. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Temperature with External Reference and Integrator Off 0.50.6–0.2–0.3–0.4–0.100.10.20.30.44547495153555759616365LINE FREQUENCY (Hz)PERCENT ERROR (%)WITH RESPECT TO 55HzPF = 1PF = 0.504443-010 Figure 10. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Frequency with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.080.10–0.06–0.08–0.10–0.04–0.0200.020.040.060.010.1110100PERCENTFULL-SCALECURRENT(%)PERCENT ERROR (%)WITH RESPECTTO 5V; 3AVDD=5VVDD=5.25VVDD=4.75VPF=104443-011 Figure 11. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Power Supply with Internal Reference and Integrator Off Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 13 of 72 0.200.25–0.15–0.20–0.25–0.10–0.0500.050.100.150.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PHASE APHASE BPHASE CALL PHASESPF = 104443-012 Figure 12. APCF Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.4–0.4–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.30.010.1110100PF = 0, +25°CPF = 0, +85°CPF = 0,–40°CPERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)04443-013 Figure 13. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Temperature with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.8–0.8–0.6–0.4–0.200.20.40.60.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 0, +25°CPF =–0.866, +25°CPF = +0.866, +25°CPF = +0.866, +85°CPF = +0.866,–40°C04443-014 Figure 14. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Power Factor with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 0, +25°CPF = 0, +85°CPF = 0,–40°C04443-015 Figure 15. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Temperature with External Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 0, +25°CPF =–0.866, +25°CPF = +0.866, +25°CPF = +0.866, +85°CPF = +0.866,–40°C04443-016 Figure 16. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Power Factor with External Reference and Integrator Off 0.8–0.8–0.6–0.4–0.200.20.40.64547495153555759616365LINE FREQUENCY (Hz)PERCENT ERROR (%)WITH RESPECT TO 55HzPF = 0PF = 0.86604443-017 Figure 17. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Frequency with Internal Reference and Integrator Off ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 14 of 72 0.10–0.10–0.08–0.06–0.04–0.0200.020.040.060.080.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)WITH RESPECT TO 5V; 3A5V5.25V4.75V04443-018 Figure 18. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Supply with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)GAIN = +1GAIN = +2GAIN = +4PF = 004443-019 Figure 19. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading over Gain with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.4–0.4–0.2–0.3–0.100.10.20.30.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PHASE AALL PHASESPHASE CPHASE BPF = 104443-020 Figure 20. VARCF Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.3–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)+25°C+85°C–40°C04443-021 Figure 21. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Temperature with Internal Reference and Integrator On 0.50.4–0.5–0.4–0.2–0.3–0.100.10.20.30.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = +1, +25°CPF =–0.5, +25°CPF = +0.5, +25°CPF = +0.5, +85°CPF = +0.5,–40°C04443-022 Figure 22. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Power Factor with Internal Reference and Integrator On 0.8–0.8–0.4–0.6–0.200.20.40.60.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 0, +25°CPF = +0.866, +25°CPF =–0.866, +25°CPF =–0.866, +85°CPF =–0.866,–40°C04443-023 Figure 23. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Power Factor with Internal Reference and Integrator On Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 15 of 72 0.4–0.5–0.4–0.2–0.3–0.100.10.20.30.010.1110100PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)+25°C+85°C–40°CPF = 004443-024 Figure 24. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Temperature with Internal Reference and Integrator On 0.50.4–0.5–0.4–0.2–0.3–0.100.10.20.34547495153555759616365LINE FREQUENCY (Hz)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 1PF = 0.504443-025 Figure 25. Active Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Frequency with Internal Reference and Integrator On 1.21.0–0.8–0.6–0.2–0.400.20.40.60.84547495153555759616365LINE FREQUENCY (Hz)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 0.866PF = 004443-026 Figure 26. Reactive Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) over Frequency with Internal Reference and Integrator On 0.80.6–1.2–1.0–0.6–0.8–0.4–0.200.20.40.010.1110100PF = 0.5PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)PF = 104443-027 Figure 27. IRMS Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) with Internal Reference and Integrator Off 0.80.6–1.0–0.6–0.8–0.4–0.200.20.40.1110100PF = +1PF =–0.5PERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)04443-028 Figure 28. IRMS Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +4) with Internal Reference and Integrator On 0.4–0.4–0.3–0.2–0.100.10.20.3110100VOLTAGE (V)PERCENT ERROR (%)04443-029 Figure 29. VRMS Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) with Internal Reference ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 16 of 72 1.5–1.5–1.0–0.500.51.00.011100.1100+25°C+85°C–40°CPERCENT FULL-SCALE CURRENT (%)PERCENT ERROR (%)04443-030 –2024681012182115129630CH 1 PhB OFFSET (mV)HITSMEAN: 6.5149SD: 2.81604443-032 Figure 30. Apparent Energy Error as a Percentage of Reading (Gain = +1) over Temperature with Internal Reference and Integrator Off Figure 32. Phase B Channel 1 Offset Distribution 2468101412121086420CH 1 PhC OFFSET (mV)HITSMEAN: 6.69333SD: 2.7044304443-033 –4–20246810121815129630CH 1 PhA OFFSET (mV)HITSMEAN: 5.55393SD: 3.298504443-031 Figure 33. Phase C Channel 1 Offset Distribution Figure 31. Phase A Channel 1 Offset Distribution Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 17 of 72 TEST CIRCUITS REFIN/OUT33nF1kΩ100nF33nF1kΩ10μFVDDVNIANIBPIBNICPICNVAPAVDDDVDDVBPVCPAGNDDGNDDOUTSCLKAPCFCLKOUTCLKINCSDINIRQ10MHz22pF22pFPS2501-1131121TO FREQ.COUNTER142320IAPRBSAMEASIAP, IAN98710161514100nF10μF33nF1kΩ1MΩ220V33nF1kΩ825ΩITO SPI BUS341956242321221812SAMEASIAP, IANSAMEAS VAPSAMEAS VAPADE7758CURRENTTRANSFORMER17VARCFCT TURN RATIO 1800:1CHANNEL 2 GAIN = +1CHANNEL 1 GAINRB110Ω25Ω42.5Ω81.25Ω04443-034 Figure 34. Test Circuit for Integrator Off REFIN/OUT33nF1kΩ33nF1kΩ33nF1kΩ33nF1kΩ100nF10μFVDDVNIANIBPIBNICPICNVAPAVDDDVDDVBPVCPAGNDDGNDDOUTSCLKAPCFCLKOUTCLKINCSDINIRQ10MHz22pF22pFPS2501-1131121TO FREQ.COUNTER142320IAPSAMEASIAP, IAN98710161514100nF10μF33nF1kΩ1MΩ220V33nF1kΩ825ΩTO SPI BUS341956242321221812SAMEASIAP, IANSAMEAS VAPSAMEAS VAPADE7758Idi/dt SENSOR17VARCFCHANNEL 1 GAIN = +8CHANNEL 2 GAIN = +104443-035 Figure 35. Test Circuit for Integrator On ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 18 of 72 THEORY OF OPERATION ANTIALIASING FILTER This filter prevents aliasing, which is an artifact of all sampled systems. Input signals with frequency components higher than half the ADC sampling rate distort the sampled signal at a fre-quency below half the sampling rate. This happens with all ADCs, regardless of the architecture. The combination of the high sampling rate Σ-Δ ADC used in the ADE7758 with the relatively low bandwidth of the energy meter allows a very simple low-pass filter (LPF) to be used as an antialiasing filter. A simple RC filter (single pole) with a corner frequency of 10 kHz produces an attenuation of approximately 40 dB at 833 kHz. This is usually sufficient to eliminate the effects of aliasing. ANALOG INPUTS The ADE7758 has six analog inputs divided into two channels: current and voltage. The current channel consists of three pairs of fully differential voltage inputs: IAP and IAN, IBP and IBN, and ICP and ICN. These fully differential voltage input pairs have a maximum differential signal of ±0.5 V. The current channel has a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) with possible gain selection of 1, 2, or 4. In addition to the PGA, the current channels also have a full-scale input range selection for the ADC. The ADC analog input range selection is also made using the gain register (see Figure 38). As mentioned previously, the maximum differential input voltage is ±0.5 V. However, by using Bit 3 and Bit 4 in the gain register, the maximum ADC input voltage can be set to ±0.5 V, ±0.25 V, or ±0.125 V on the current channels. This is achieved by adjusting the ADC reference (see the Reference Circuit section). Figure 36 shows the maximum signal levels on the current channel inputs. The maximum common-mode signal is ±25 mV, as shown in Figure 37. DIFFERENTIAL INPUTV1 + V2 = 500mV MAX PEAK+500mVVCMV1IAP, IBP,OR ICPVCM–500mVCOMMON-MODE±25mV MAXV1 + V2V2IAN, IBN,OR ICN04443-036 Figure 36. Maximum Signal Levels, Current Channels, Gain = 1 The voltage channel has three single-ended voltage inputs: VAP, VBP, and VCP. These single-ended voltage inputs have a maximum input voltage of ±0.5 V with respect to VN. Both the current and voltage channel have a PGA with possible gain selections of 1, 2, or 4. The same gain is applied to all the inputs of each channel. Figure 37 shows the maximum signal levels on the voltage channel inputs. The maximum common-mode signal is ±25 mV, as shown in Figure 36. SINGLE-ENDED INPUT±500mV MAX PEAK+500mVAGNDVCMV2VAP, VBP,OR VCPVCM–500mVCOMMON-MODE±25mV MAXVNV204443-037 Figure 37. Maximum Signal Levels, Voltage Channels, Gain = 1 The gain selections are made by writing to the gain register. Bit 0 to Bit 1 select the gain for the PGA in the fully differential current channel. The gain selection for the PGA in the single-ended voltage channel is made via Bit 5 to Bit 6. Figure 38 shows how a gain selection for the current channel is made using the gain register. IAP, IBP, ICPIAN, IBN, ICNVINK ×VINGAIN[7:0]GAIN (K)SELECTION04443-038 Figure 38. PGA in Current Channel Figure 39 shows how the gain settings in PGA 1 (current channel) and PGA 2 (voltage channel) are selected by various bits in the gain register. GAIN REGISTER1CURRENT AND VOLTAGE CHANNEL PGA CONTROL7 6 5 4 3 2 1 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ADDRESS: 0x23RESERVED1REGISTER CONTENTS SHOW POWER-ON DEFAULTSPGA 2 GAIN SELECT00 = ×101 = ×210 = ×4INTEGRATOR ENABLE0 = DISABLE1 = ENABLEPGA 1 GAIN SELECT00 = ×101 = ×210 = ×4CURRENT INPUT FULL-SCALE SELECT00 = 0.5V01 = 0.25V10 = 0.125V04443-039 Figure 39. Analog Gain Register Bit 7 of the gain register is used to enable the digital integrator in the current signal path. Setting this bit activates the digital integrator (see the DI/DT Current Sensor and Digital Integrator section). Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 19 of 72 CURRENT CHANNEL ADC Figure 41 shows the ADC and signal processing path for the input IA of the current channels (same for IB and IC). In waveform sampling mode, the ADC outputs are signed twos complement 24-bit data-words at a maximum of 26.0 kSPS (thousand samples per second). With the specified full-scale analog input signal of ±0.5 V, the ADC produces its maximum output code value (see Figure 41). This diagram shows a full-scale voltage signal being applied to the differential inputs IAP and IAN. The ADC output swings between 0xD7AE14 (−2,642,412) and 0x2851EC (+2,642,412). Current Channel Sampling The waveform samples of the current channel can be routed to the WFORM register at fixed sampling rates by setting the WAVSEL[2:0] bit in the WAVMODE register to 000 (binary) (see Table 20). The phase in which the samples are routed is set by setting the PHSEL[1:0] bits in the WAVMODE register. Energy calculation remains uninterrupted during waveform sampling. When in waveform sample mode, one of four output sample rates can be chosen by using Bit 5 and Bit 6 of the WAVMODE register (DTRT[1:0]). The output sample rate can be 26.04 kSPS, 13.02 kSPS, 6.51 kSPS, or 3.25 kSPS. By setting the WFSM bit in the interrupt mask register to Logic 1, the interrupt request output IRQ goes active low when a sample is available. The timing is shown in . The 24-bit waveform samples are transferred from the one byte (8-bits) at a time, with the most significant byte shifted out first. Figure 40ADE7758READ FROMWAVEFORM0SGNCURRENT CHANNEL DATA–24 BITS0x12SCLKDINDOUTIRQ04443-040 Figure 40. Current Channel Waveform Sampling The interrupt request output IRQ stays low until the interrupt routine reads the reset status register (see the section). InterruptsDIGITALINTEGRATOR1GAIN[7]ADCREFERENCEACTIVEAND REACTIVEPOWER CALCULATIONWAVEFORM SAMPLEREGISTERCURRENT RMS (IRMS)CALCULATIONIAPIANPGA1VINGAIN[4:3]2.42V, 1.21V, 0.6VGAIN[1:0]×1, ×2, ×4ANALOGINPUTRANGEVIN0V0.5V/GAIN0.25V/GAIN0.125V/GAINADC OUTPUTWORD RANGECHANNEL 1(CURRENTWAVEFORM)DATA RANGE0xD7AE140x0000000x2851EC50HzCHANNEL 1 (CURRENTWAVEFORM)DATA RANGEAFTER INTEGRATOR(50HzANDAIGAIN[11:0] = 0x000)0xCB2E480x0000000x34D1B860HzCHANNEL 1 (CURRENTWAVEFORM)DATA RANGEAFTER INTEGRATOR(60HzANDAIGAIN[11:0] = 0x000)0xD4176D0x0000000x2BE893HPF04443-0411WHEN DIGITAL INTEGRATOR IS ENABLED, FULL-SCALE OUTPUT DATA ISATTENUATED DEPENDING ON THE SIGNAL FREQUENCY BECAUSE THE INTEGRATOR HAS A –20dB/DECADE FREQUENCY RESPONSE. WHEN DISABLED, THE OUTPUT WILL NOT BE FURTHERATTENUATED. Figure 41. Current Channel Signal Path ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 20 of 72 DI/DT CURRENT SENSOR AND DIGITAL INTEGRATOR The di/dt sensor detects changes in the magnetic field caused by the ac current. Figure 42 shows the principle of a di/dt current sensor. MAGNETIC FIELD CREATED BY CURRENT (DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO CURRENT) + EMF (ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE) – INDUCED BY CHANGES IN MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY (di/dt) 04443-042 Figure 42. Principle of a di/dt Current Sensor The flux density of a magnetic field induced by a current is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current. The changes in the magnetic flux density passing through a conductor loop generate an electromotive force (EMF) between the two ends of the loop. The EMF is a voltage signal that is propor- tional to the di/dt of the current. The voltage output from the di/dt current sensor is determined by the mutual inductance between the current carrying conductor and the di/dt sensor. The current signal needs to be recovered from the di/dt signal before it can be used. An integrator is therefore necessary to restore the signal to its original form. The ADE7758 has a built- in digital integrator to recover the current signal from the di/dt sensor. The digital integrator on Channel 1 is disabled by default when the ADE7758 is powered up. Setting the MSB of the GAIN[7:0] register turns on the integrator. Figure 43 to Figure 46 show the magnitude and phase response of the digital integrator. 10 100 1k 10k 20 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 FREQUENCY (Hz) GAIN (dB) 04443-043 Figure 43. Combined Gain Response of the Digital Integrator and Phase Compensator 10 100 1k 10k 80 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 FREQUENCY (Hz) PHASE (Degrees) 04443-044 Figure 44. Combined Phase Response of the Digital Integrator and Phase Compensator 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 5 –1 0 1 2 3 4 FREQUENCY (Hz) MAGNITUDE (dB) 04443-045 Figure 45. Combined Gain Response of the Digital Integrator and Phase Compensator (40 Hz to 70 Hz) 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 89.80 90.10 90.05 90.00 89.95 89.90 89.85 FREQUENCY (Hz) PHASE (Degrees) 04443-046 Figure 46. Combined Phase Response of the Digital Integrator and Phase Compensator (40 Hz to 70 Hz) Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 21 of 72 Note that the integrator has a −20 dB/dec attenuation and approximately −90° phase shift. When combined with a di/dt sensor, the resulting magnitude and phase response should be a flat gain over the frequency band of interest. However, the di/dt sensor has a 20 dB/dec gain associated with it and generates significant high frequency noise. A more effective antialiasing filter is needed to avoid noise due to aliasing (see the Theory of Operation section). When the digital integrator is switched off, the ADE7758 can be used directly with a conventional current sensor, such as a current transformer (CT) or a low resistance current shunt. PEAK CURRENT DETECTION The ADE7758 can be programmed to record the peak of the current waveform and produce an interrupt if the current exceeds a preset limit. Peak Current Detection Using the PEAK Register The peak absolute value of the current waveform within a fixed number of half-line cycles is stored in the IPEAK register. Figure 47 illustrates the timing behavior of the peak current detection. L2 L1 CONTENT OF IPEAK[7:0] 00 L1L2L1 NO. OF HALF LINE CYCLES SPECIFIED BY LINECYC[15:0] REGISTER CURRENT WAVEFORM (PHASE SELECTED BY PEAKSEL[2:0] IN MMODE REGISTER) 04443-047 Figure 47. Peak Current Detection Using the IPEAK Register Note that the content of the IPEAK register is equivalent to Bit 14 to Bit 21 of the current waveform sample. At full-scale analog input, the current waveform sample is 0x2851EC. The IPEAK at full-scale input is therefore expected to be 0xA1. In addition, multiple phases can be activated for the peak detection simultaneously by setting more than one of the PEAKSEL[2:4] bits in the MMODE register to logic high. These bits select the phase for both voltage and current peak measurements. Note that if more than one bit is set, the VPEAK and IPEAK registers can hold values from two different phases, that is, the voltage and current peak are independently processed (see the Peak Current Detection section). Note that the number of half-line cycles is based on counting the zero crossing of the voltage channel. The ZXSEL[2:0] bits in the LCYCMODE register determine which voltage channels are used for the zero-crossing detection. The same signal is also used for line cycle energy accumulation mode if activated (see the Line Cycle Accumulation Mode Register (0X17) section). OVERCURRENT DETECTION INTERRUPT Figure 48 illustrates the behavior of the overcurrent detection. IPINTLVL[7:0] READ RSTATUS REGISTER PKI INTERRUPT FLAG (BIT 15 OF STATUS REGISTER) PKI RESET LOW WHEN RSTATUS REGISTER IS READ CURRENT PEAK WAVEFORM BEING MONITORED (SELECTED BY PKIRQSEL[2:0] IN MMODE REGISTER) 04443-048 Figure 48. ADE7758 Overcurrent Detection Note that the content of the IPINTLVL[7:0] register is equivalent to Bit 14 to Bit 21 of the current waveform sample. Therefore, setting this register to 0xA1 represents putting peak detection at full-scale analog input. Figure 48 shows a current exceeding a threshold. The overcurrent event is recorded by setting the PKI flag (Bit 15) in the interrupt status register. If the PKI enable bit is set to Logic 1 in the interrupt mask register, the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the Interrupts section). Similar to peak level detection, multiple phases can be activated for peak detection. If any of the active phases produce waveform samples above the threshold, the PKI flag in the interrupt status register is set. The phase of which overcurrent is monitored is set by the PKIRQSEL[2:0] bits in the MMODE register (see Table 19). ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 22 of 72 ADCTO VOLTAGE RMSCALCULATION ANDWAVEFORM SAMPLINGTO ACTIVE ANDREACTIVE ENERGYCALCULATIONVAP+–VNPGAVAGAIN[6:5]×1, ×2, ×4LPF OUTPUTWORD RANGE0xD8690x00x279750HzLPF OUTPUTWORD RANGE0xD8B80x00x274860Hz0xD7AE0x00x2852PHASECALIBRATIONPHCAL[6:0]ΦANALOG INPUTRANGEVA0V0.5VGAINLPF1f3dB = 260Hz04443-049 Figure 49. ADC and Signal Processing in Voltage Channel VOLTAGE CHANNEL ADC Figure 49 shows the ADC and signal processing chain for the input VA in the voltage channel. The VB and VC channels have similar processing chains. For active and reactive energy measurements, the output of the ADC passes to the multipliers directly and is not filtered. This solution avoids the much larger multibit multiplier and does not affect the accuracy of the measurement. An HPF is not implemented on the voltage channel to remove the dc offset because the HPF on the current channel alone should be sufficient to eliminate error due to ADC offsets in the power calculation. However, ADC offset in the voltage channels produces large errors in the voltage rms calculation and affects the accuracy of the apparent energy calculation. Voltage Channel Sampling The waveform samples on the voltage channels can also be routed to the WFORM register. However, before passing to the WFORM register, the ADC outputs pass through a single-pole, low-pass filter (LPF1) with a cutoff frequency at 260 Hz. Figure 50 shows the magnitude and phase response of LPF1. This filter attenuates the signal slightly. For example, if the line frequency is 60 Hz, the signal at the output of LPF1 is attenuated by 3.575%. The waveform samples are 16-bit, twos complement data ranging between 0x2748 (+10,056d) and 0xD8B8 (−10,056d). The data is sign extended to 24-bit in the WFORM register. ()dB225.0974.0Hz260Hz60112−==⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛+=fH (3) 0–20–40–60–800–10–20–30–40101001kFREQUENCY (Hz)PHASE (Degrees)GAIN (dB)(60Hz;–0.2dB)(60Hz;–13°)04443-050 Figure 50. Magnitude and Phase Response of LPF1 Note that LPF1 does not affect the active and reactive energy calculation because it is only used in the waveform sampling signal path. However, waveform samples are used for the voltage rms calculation and the subsequent apparent energy accumulation. The WAVSEL[2:0] bits in the WAVMODE register should be set to 001 (binary) to start the voltage waveform sampling. The PHSEL[1:0] bits control the phase from which the samples are routed. In waveform sampling mode, one of four output sample rates can be chosen by changing Bit 5 and Bit 6 of the WAVMODE register (see Table 20). The available output sample rates are 26.0 kSPS, 13.5 kSPS, 6.5 kSPS, or 3.3 kSPS. By setting the WFSM bit in the interrupt mask register to Logic 1, the interrupt request output IRQ goes active low when a sample is available. The 24-bit waveform samples are transferred from the one byte (8 bits) at a time, with the most significant byte shifted out first. ADE7758 The sign of the register is extended in the upper 8 bits. The timing is the same as for the current channels, as seen in Figure 40. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 23 of 72 ZERO-CROSSING DETECTION The ADE7758 has zero-crossing detection circuits for each of the voltage channels (VAN, VBN, and VCN). Figure 51 shows how the zero-cross signal is generated from the output of the ADC of the voltage channel. REFERENCEADCZERO-CROSSINGDETECTORPGAVAN,VBN,VCNGAIN[6:5]×1,×2,×4LPF1f–3dB=260Hz24.8°@60HzANALOGVOLTAGEWAVEFORM(VAN,VBN, ORVCN)LPF1OUTPUTREADRSTATUSIRQ1.00.90804443-051 Figure 51. Zero-Crossing Detection on Voltage Channels The zero-crossing interrupt is generated from the output of LPF1. LPF1 has a single pole at 260 Hz (CLKIN = 10 MHz). As a result, there is a phase lag between the analog input signal of the voltage channel and the output of LPF1. The phase response of this filter is shown in the Voltage Channel Sampling section. The phase lag response of LPF1 results in a time delay of approximately 1.1 ms (at 60 Hz) between the zero crossing on the voltage inputs and the resulting zero-crossing signal. Note that the zero-crossing signal is used for the line cycle accumulation mode, zero-crossing interrupt, and line period/frequency measurement. When one phase crosses from negative to positive, the corresponding flag in the interrupt status register (Bit 9 to Bit 11) is set to Logic 1. An active low in the IRQ output also appears if the corresponding ZX bit in the interrupt mask register is set to Logic 1. Note that only zero crossing from negative to positive generates an interrupt. The flag in the interrupt status register is reset to 0 when the interrupt status register with reset (RSTATUS) is read. Each phase has its own interrupt flag and mask bit in the interrupt register. Zero-Crossing Timeout Each zero-crossing detection has an associated internal timeout register (not accessible to the user). This unsigned, 16-bit register is decreased by 1 every 384/CLKIN seconds. The registers are reset to a common user-programmed value, that is, the zero-crossing timeout register (ZXTOUT[15:0], Address 0x1B), every time a zero crossing is detected on its associated input. The default value of ZXTOUT is 0xFFFF. If the internal register decrements to 0 before a zero crossing at the corresponding input is detected, it indicates an absence of a zero crossing in the time determined by the ZXTOUT[15:0]. The ZXTOx detection bit of the corresponding phase in the interrupt status register is then switched on (Bit 6 to Bit 8). An active low on the IRQ output also appears if the ZXTOx mask bit for the corresponding phase in the interrupt mask register is set to Logic 1. shows the mechanism of the zero-crossing timeout detection when the Line Voltage A stays at a fixed dc level for more than 384/CLKIN × ZXTOUT[15:0] seconds. Figure 52ZXTOADETECTION BITREADRSTATUSVOLTAGECHANNEL AZXTOUT[15:0]16-BIT INTERNALREGISTER VALUE04443-052 Figure 52. Zero-Crossing Timeout Detection PHASE COMPENSATION When the HPF in the current channel is disabled, the phase error between the current channel (IA, IB, or IC) and the corresponding voltage channel (VA, VB, or VC) is negligible. When the HPF is enabled, the current channels have phase response (see Figure 53 through Figure 55). The phase response is almost 0 from 45 Hz to 1 kHz. The frequency band is sufficient for the requirements of typical energy measurement applications. However, despite being internally phase compensated, the ADE7758 must work with transducers that may have inherent phase errors. For example, a current transformer (CT) with a phase error of 0.1° to 0.3° is not uncommon. These phase errors can vary from part to part, and they must be corrected to perform accurate power calculations. The errors associated with phase mismatch are particularly noticeable at low power factors. The ADE7758 provides a means of digitally calibrating these small phase errors. The ADE7758 allows a small time delay or time advance to be introduced into the signal processing chain to compensate for the small phase errors. The phase calibration registers (APHCAL, BPHCAL, and CPHCAL) are twos complement, 7-bit sign-extended registers that can vary the time advance in the voltage channel signal path from +153.6 μs to −75.6 μs (CLKIN = 10 MHz), ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 24 of 72 407065605550450.200.150.100.050–0.05–0.10FREQUENCY (Hz)PHASE (Degrees)04443-054 respectively. Negative values written to the PHCAL registers represent a time advance, and positive values represent a time delay. One LSB is equivalent to 1.2 μs of time delay or 2.4 μs of time advance with a CLKIN of 10 MHz. With a line frequency of 60 Hz, this gives a phase resolution of 0.026° (360° × 1.2 μs × 60 Hz) at the fundamental in the positive direction (delay) and 0.052° in the negative direction (advance). This corresponds to a total correction range of −3.32° to +1.63° at 60 Hz. Figure 56 illustrates how the phase compensation is used to remove a 0.1° phase lead in IA of the current channel from the external current transducer. To cancel the lead (0.1°) in the current channel of Phase A, a phase lead must be introduced into the corresponding voltage channel. The resolution of the phase adjustment allows the introduction of a phase lead of 0.104°. The phase lead is achieved by introducing a time advance into VA. A time advance of 4.8 μs is made by writing −2 (0x7E) to the time delay block (APHCAL[6:0]), thus reducing the amount of time delay by 4.8 μs or equivalently, 360° × 4.8 μs × 60 Hz = 0.104° at 60 Hz. Figure 54. Phase Response of the HPF and Phase Compensation (40 Hz to 70 Hz) 445654525048460.100.080.060.040.020–0.02FREQUENCY (Hz)PHASE (Degrees)04443-055 01002003004005006007008001k9009001020304050607080FREQUENCY (Hz)PHASE (Degrees)04443-053 Figure 55. Phase Response of HPF and Phase Compensation (44 Hz to 56 Hz) Figure 53. Phase Response of the HPF and Phase Compensation (10 Hz to 1 kHz) Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 25 of 72 PGA1IAPIANIAADCHPFPGA2VAPVNVAADC60Hz0.1°IAVARANGE OF PHASECALIBRATION111110060APHCAL[6:0]–153.6μsTO +75.6μsVAVAADVANCED BY 4.8μs(+0.104° @ 60Hz)0x7EIA60HzDIGITALINTEGRATORACTIVE ANDREACTIVEENERGYCALCULATION+1.36°, –2.76° @ 50Hz; 0.022°, 0.043°+1.63°, –3.31° @ 60Hz; 0.026°, 0.052°04443-056 Figure 56. Phase Calibration on Voltage Channels PERIOD MEASUREMENT The ADE7758 provides the period or frequency measurement of the line voltage. The period is measured on the phase specified by Bit 0 to Bit 1 of the MMODE register. The period register is an unsigned 12-bit FREQ register and is updated every four periods of the selected phase. Bit 7 of the LCYCMODE selects whether the period register displays the frequency or the period. Setting this bit causes the register to display the period. The default setting is logic low, which causes the register to display the frequency. When set to measure the period, the resolution of this register is 96/CLKIN per LSB (9.6 μs/LSB when CLKIN is 10 MHz), which represents 0.06% when the line frequency is 60 Hz. At 60 Hz, the value of the period register is 1737d. At 50 Hz, the value of the period register is 2084d. When set to measure frequency, the value of the period register is approximately 960d at 60 Hz and 800d at 50 Hz. This is equivalent to 0.0625 Hz/LSB. LINE VOLTAGE SAG DETECTION The ADE7758 can be programmed to detect when the absolute value of the line voltage of any phase drops below a certain peak value for a number of half cycles. Each phase of the voltage channel is controlled simultaneously. This condition is illustrated in Figure 57. Figure 57 shows a line voltage fall below a threshold, which is set in the SAG level register (SAGLVL[7:0]), for nine half cycles. Because the SAG cycle register indicates a six half-cycle threshold (SAGCYC[7:0] = 0x06), the SAG event is recorded at the end of the sixth half cycle by setting the SAG flag of the corresponding phase in the interrupt status register (Bit 1 to Bit 3 in the interrupt status register). If the SAG enable bit is set to Logic 1 for this phase (Bit 1 to Bit 3 in the interrupt mask register), the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). The phases are compared to the same parameters defined in the SAGLVL and SAGCYC registers. InterruptsSAGLVL[7:0]FULL-SCALEREAD RSTATUSREGISTERSAGCYC[7:0]=0x066HALFCYCLESSAG INTERRUPT FLAG(BIT 3 TO BIT 5 OFSTATUS REGISTER)VAP, VBP, OR VCPSAG EVENT RESET LOWWHEN VOLTAGE CHANNELEXCEEDS SAGLVL[7:0]04443-057 Figure 57. ADE7758 SAG Detection Figure 57 shows a line voltage fall below a threshold, which is set in the SAG level register (SAGLVL[7:0]), for nine half cycles. Because the SAG cycle register indicates a six half-cycle threshold (SAGCYC[7:0] = 0x06), the SAG event is recorded at the end of the sixth half cycle by setting the SAG flag of the corresponding phase in the interrupt status register (Bit 1 to Bit 3 in the interrupt status register). If the SAG enable bit is set to Logic 1 for this phase (Bit 1 to Bit 3 in the interrupt mask register), the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). The phases are compared to the same parameters defined in the SAGLVL and SAGCYC registers. Interrupts ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 26 of 72 SAG LEVEL SET The contents of the single-byte SAG level register, SAGLVL[0:7], are compared to the absolute value of Bit 6 to Bit 13 from the voltage waveform samples. For example, the nominal maximum code of the voltage channel waveform samples with a full-scale signal input at 60 Hz is 0x2748 (see the Voltage Channel Sampling section). Bit 13 to Bit 6 are 0x9D. Therefore, writing 0x9D to the SAG level register puts the SAG detection level at full scale and sets the SAG detection to its most sensitive value. The detection is made when the content of the SAGLVL[7:0] register is greater than the incoming sample. Writing 0x00 puts the SAG detection level at 0. The detection of a decrease of an input voltage is disabled in this case. PEAK VOLTAGE DETECTION The ADE7758 can record the peak of the voltage waveform and produce an interrupt if the current exceeds a preset limit. Peak Voltage Detection Using the VPEAK Register The peak absolute value of the voltage waveform within a fixed number of half-line cycles is stored in the VPEAK register. Figure 58 illustrates the timing behavior of the peak voltage detection. L2L1CONTENT OFVPEAK[7:0]00L1L2L1NO. OF HALFLINE CYCLESSPECIFIED BYLINECYC[15:0]REGISTERVOLTAGE WAVEFORM(PHASE SELECTED BYPEAKSEL[2:4]IN MMODE REGISTER)04443-058 Figure 58. Peak Voltage Detection Using the VPEAK Register Note that the content of the VPEAK register is equivalent to Bit 6 to Bit 13 of the 16-bit voltage waveform sample. At full-scale analog input, the voltage waveform sample at 60 Hz is 0x2748. The VPEAK at full-scale input is, therefore, expected to be 0x9D. In addition, multiple phases can be activated for the peak detection simultaneously by setting multiple bits among the PEAKSEL[2:4] bits in the MMODE register. These bits select the phase for both voltage and current peak measurements. Note that if more than one bit is set, the VPEAK and IPEAK registers can hold values from two different phases, that is, the voltage and current peak are independently processed (see the Peak Current Detection section). Note that the number of half-line cycles is based on counting the zero crossing of the voltage channel. The ZXSEL[2:0] bits in the LCYCMODE register determine which voltage channels are used for the zero-crossing detection (see Table 22). The same signal is also used for line cycle energy accumulation mode if activated. Overvoltage Detection Interrupt Figure 59 illustrates the behavior of the overvoltage detection. VPINTLVL[7:0]READ RSTATUSREGISTERPKV INTERRUPT FLAG(BIT 14 OF STATUSREGISTER)PKV RESET LOWWHEN RSTATUSREGISTER IS READVOLTAGE PEAK WAVEFORM BEING MONITORED(SELECTED BY PKIRQSEL[5:7] IN MMODE REGISTER)04443-059 Figure 59. ADE7758 Overvoltage Detection Note that the content of the VPINTLVL[7:0] register is equivalent to Bit 6 to Bit 13 of the 16-bit voltage waveform samples; therefore, setting this register to 0x9D represents putting the peak detection at full-scale analog input. Figure 59 shows a voltage exceeding a threshold. By setting the PKV flag (Bit 14) in the interrupt status register, the overvoltage event is recorded. If the PKV enable bit is set to Logic 1 in the interrupt mask register, the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). Interrupts Multiple phases can be activated for peak detection. If any of the active phases produce waveform samples above the threshold, the PKV flag in the interrupt status register is set. The phase in which overvoltage is monitored is set by the PKIRQSEL[5:7] bits in the MMODE register (see Table 19). PHASE SEQUENCE DETECTION The ADE7758 has an on-chip phase sequence error detection interrupt. This detection works on phase voltages and considers all associated zero crossings. The regular succession of these zero crossings events is a negative to positive transition on Phase A, followed by a positive to negative transition on Phase C, followed by a negative to positive transition on Phase B, and so on. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 27 of 72 On the ADE7758, if the regular succession of the zero crossings presented above happens, the SEQERR bit (Bit 19) in the STATUS register is set (Figure 60). If SEQERR is set in the mask register, the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). Interrupts If the regular zero crossing succession does not occur, that is when a negative to positive transition on Phase A followed by a positive to negative transition on Phase B, followed by a negative to positive transition on Phase C, and so on, the SEQERR bit (Bit 19) in the STATUS register is cleared to 0. To have the ADE7758 trigger SEQERR status bit when the zero crossing regular succession does not occur, the analog inputs for Phase C and Phase B should be swapped. In this case, the Phase B voltage input should be wired to the VCP pin, and the Phase C voltage input should be wired to the VBP pin. 04443-060ABSEQERR BIT OF STATUS REGISTER IS SETA = 0°B = –120°C = +120°CVOLTAGEWAVEFORMSZEROCROSSINGSCABCACAB Figure 60. Regular Phase Sequence Sets SEQERR Bit to 1 04443-160ACSEQERR BIT OF STATUS REGISTER IS NOT SETA = 0°C = –120°B = +120°BZEROCROSSINGSVOLTAGEWAVEFORMSBACBABAC Figure 61. Erroneous Phase Sequence Clears SEQERR Bit to 0 POWER-SUPPLY MONITOR The ADE7758 also contains an on-chip power-supply monitor. The analog supply (AVDD) is monitored continuously by the ADE7758. If the supply is less than 4 V ± 5%, the ADE7758 goes into an inactive state, that is, no energy is accumulated when the supply voltage is below 4 V. This is useful to ensure correct device operation at power-up and during power-down. The power-supply monitor has built-in hysteresis and filtering. This gives a high degree of immunity to false triggering due to noisy supplies. When AVDD returns above 4 V ± 5%, the ADE7758 waits 18 μs for the voltage to achieve the recommended voltage range, 5 V ± 5% and then becomes ready to function. Figure 62 shows the behavior of the ADE7758 when the voltage of AVDD falls below the power-supply monitor threshold. The power supply and decoupling for the part should be designed such that the ripple at AVDD does not exceed 5 V ± 5% as specified for normal operation. AVDD5V4V0VADE7758INTERNALCALCULATIONSACTIVEINACTIVEINACTIVETIME04443-061 Figure 62. On-Chip, Power-Supply Monitoring REFERENCE CIRCUIT The nominal reference voltage at the REFIN/OUT pin is 2.42 V. This is the reference voltage used for the ADCs in the ADE7758. However, the current channels have three input range selections (full scale is selectable among 0.5 V, 0.25 V, and 0.125 V). This is achieved by dividing the reference internally by 1, ½, and ¼. The reference value is used for the ADC in the current channels. Note that the full-scale selection is only available for the current inputs. The REFIN/OUT pin can be overdriven by an external source, for example, an external 2.5 V reference. Note that the nominal reference value supplied to the ADC is now 2.5 V and not 2.42 V. This has the effect of increasing the nominal analog input signal range by 2.5/2.42 × 100% = 3% or from 0.5 V to 0.5165 V. The voltage of the ADE7758 reference drifts slightly with temperature; see the Specifications section for the temperature coefficient specification (in ppm/°C). The value of the temperature drift varies from part to part. Because the reference is used for all ADCs, any ×% drift in the reference results in a 2×% deviation of the meter accuracy. The reference drift resulting from temperature changes is usually very small and typically much smaller than the drift of other components on a meter. Alternatively, the meter can be calibrated at multiple temperatures. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT The ADE7758 also includes an on-chip temperature sensor. A temperature measurement is made every 4/CLKIN seconds. The output from the temperature sensing circuit is connected to an ADC for digitizing. The resultant code is processed and placed in the temperature register (TEMP[7:0]). This register can be read by the user and has an address of 0x11 (see the Serial Interface section). The contents of the temperature register are signed (twos complement) with a resolution of 3°C/LSB. The offset of this register may vary significantly from part to part. To calibrate this register, the nominal value should be measured, and the equation should be adjusted accordingly. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 28 of 72 Temp (°C) = [(TEMP[7:0] − Offset) × 3°C/LSB] + Ambient(°C) (4) For example, if the temperature register produces a code of 0x46 at ambient temperature (25°C), and the temperature register currently reads 0x50, then the temperature is 55°C : Temp (°C) = [(0x50 – 0x46) × 3°C/LSB] + 25°C = 55°C Depending on the nominal value of the register, some finite temperature can cause the register to roll over. This should be compensated for in the system master (MCU). The ADE7758 temperature register varies with power supply. It is recommended to use the temperature register only in applications with a fixed, stable power supply. Typical error with respect to power supply variation is show in Table 5. Table 5. Temperature Register Error with Power Supply Variation 4.5 V 4.75 V 5 V 5.25 V 5.5 V Register Value 219 216 214 211 208 % Error +2.34 +0.93 0 −1.40 −2.80 ROOT MEAN SQUARE MEASUREMENT Root mean square (rms) is a fundamental measurement of the magnitude of an ac signal. Its definition can be both practical and mathematical. Defined practically, the rms value assigned to an ac signal is the amount of dc required to produce an equivalent amount of power in the load. Mathematically, the rms value of a continuous signal f(t) is defined as ()dtT120TtfFRMS∫= (5) For time sampling signals, rms calculation involves squaring the signal, taking the average, and obtaining the square root. ][112nfNFRMSNnΣ== (6) The method used to calculate the rms value in the ADE7758 is to low-pass filter the square of the input signal (LPF3) and take the square root of the result (see Figure 63). i(t) = √2 × IRMS × sin(ωt) (7) then i2(t) = IRMS2 − IRMS2 × cos(ωt) (8) The rms calculation is simultaneously processed on the six analog input channels. Each result is available in separate registers. While the ADE7758 measures nonsinusoidal signals, it should be noted that the voltage rms measurement, and therefore the apparent energy, are bandlimited to 260 Hz. The current rms as well as the active power have a bandwidth of 14 kHz. Current RMS Calculation Figure 63 shows the detail of the signal processing chain for the rms calculation on one of the phases of the current channel. The current channel rms value is processed from the samples used in the current channel waveform sampling mode. The current rms values are stored in 24-bit registers (AIRMS, BIRMS, and CIRMS). One LSB of the current rms register is equivalent to one LSB of the current waveform sample. The update rate of the current rms measurement is CLKIN/12. SGN224223222216215214CURRENT SIGNALFROM HPF ORINTEGRATOR(IF ENABLED)0x1D37810x00++0x2851EC0x00xD7AE14X2LPF3AIRMS[23:0]AIRMSOS[11:0]04443-062 Figure 63. Current RMS Signal Processing With the specified full-scale analog input signal of 0.5 V, the ADC produces an output code that is approximately ±2,642,412d (see the Current Channel ADC section). The equivalent rms value of a full-scale sinusoidal signal at 60 Hz is 1,914,753 (0x1D3781). The accuracy of the current rms is typically 0.5% error from the full-scale input down to 1/500 of the full-scale input. Additionally, this measurement has a bandwidth of 14 kHz. It is recommended to read the rms registers synchronous to the voltage zero crossings to ensure stability. The IRQ can be used to indicate when a zero crossing has occurred (see the Interrupts section). Table 6 shows the settling time for the IRMS measurement, which is the time it takes for the rms register to reflect the value at the input to the current channel. Table 6. Settling Time for IRMS Measurement 63% 100% Integrator Off 80 ms 960 ms Integrator On 40 ms 1.68 sec Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 29 of 72 Current RMS Offset Compensation The ADE7758 incorporates a current rms offset compensation register for each phase (AIRMSOS, BIRMSOS, and CIRMSOS). These are 12-bit signed registers that can be used to remove offsets in the current rms calculations. An offset can exist in the rms calculation due to input noises that are integrated in the dc component of I2(t). Assuming that the maximum value from the current rms calculation is 1,914,753d with full-scale ac inputs (60 Hz), one LSB of the current rms offset represents 0.94% of the measurement error at 60 dB down from full scale. The IRMS measurement is undefined at zero input. Calibration of the offset should be done at low current and values at zero input should be ignored. For details on how to calibrate the current rms measurement, see the Calibration section. IRMS IRMS 2 IRMSOS 0    16384 (9) where IRMS0 is the rms measurement without offset correction. Table 7. Approximate IRMS Register Values Frequency (Hz) Integrator Off (d) Integrator On (d) 50 1,921,472 2,489,581 60 1,914,752 2,067,210 Voltage Channel RMS Calculation Figure 64 shows the details of the signal path for the rms estimation on Phase A of the voltage channel. This voltage rms estimation is done in the ADE7758 using the mean absolute value calculation, as shown in Figure 64.The voltage channel rms value is processed from the waveform samples after the low-pass filter LPF1. The output of the voltage channel ADC can be scaled by ±50% by changing VRMSGAIN[11:0] registers to perform an overall rms voltage calibration. The VRMSGAIN registers scale the rms calculations as well as the apparent energy calculation because apparent power is the product of the voltage and current rms values. The voltage rms values are stored in 24-bit registers (AVRMS, BVRMS, and CVRMS). One LSB of a voltage waveform sample is approximately equivalent to 256 LSBs of the voltage rms register. The update rate of the voltage rms measurement is CLKIN/12. With the specified full-scale ac analog input signal of 0.5 V, the LPF1 produces an output code that is approximately 63% of its full-scale value, that is, ±9,372d, at 60 Hz (see the Voltage Channel ADC section). The equivalent rms value of a full-scale ac signal is approximately 1,639,101 (0x1902BD) in the VRMS register. The accuracy of the VRMS measurement is typically 0.5% error from the full-scale input down to 1/20 of the full-scale input. Additionally, this measurement has a bandwidth of 260 Hz. It is recommended to read the rms registers synchronous to the voltage zero crossings to ensure stability. The IRQ can be used to indicate when a zero crossing has occurred (see the Interrupts section). VAN AVRMSGAIN[11:0] 0x2748 LPF OUTPUT WORD RANGE 0x0 60Hz 0xD8B8 0x2797 LPF OUTPUT WORD RANGE 0x0 50Hz 0xD869 LPF1 VOLTAGE SIGNAL–V(t) 0.5 GAIN 0x193504 50Hz 0x0 0x1902BD 60Hz 0x0 |X| AVRMS[23:0] LPF3 SGN216 215 214 28 27 26 VRMSOS[11:0] + + 04443-063 Figure 64. Voltage RMS Signal Processing Table 8 shows the settling time for the VRMS measurement, which is the time it takes for the rms register to reflect the value at the input to the voltage channel. Table 8. Settling Time for VRMS Measurement 63% 100% 100 ms 960 ms Voltage RMS Offset Compensation The ADE7758 incorporates a voltage rms offset compensation for each phase (AVRMSOS, BVRMSOS, and CVRMSOS). These are 12-bit signed registers that can be used to remove offsets in the voltage rms calculations. An offset can exist in the rms calculation due to input noises and offsets in the input samples. It should be noted that the offset calibration does not allow the contents of the VRMS registers to be maintained at 0 when no voltage is applied. This is caused by noise in the voltage rms calculation, which limits the usable range between full scale and 1/50th of full scale. One LSB of the voltage rms offset is equivalent to 64 LSBs of the voltage rms register. Assuming that the maximum value from the voltage rms calculation is 1,639,101d with full-scale ac inputs, then 1 LSB of the voltage rms offset represents 0.042% of the measurement error at 1/10 of full scale. VRMS = VRMS0 + VRMSOS × 64 (10) where VRMS0 is the rms measurement without the offset correction. Table 9. Approximate VRMS Register Values Frequency (Hz) Value (d) 50 1,678,210 60 1,665,118 ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 30 of 72 Voltage RMS Gain Adjust The ADC gain in each phase of the voltage channel can be adjusted for the rms calculation by using the voltage rms gain registers (AVRMSGAIN, BVRMSGAIN, and CVRMSGAIN). The gain of the voltage waveforms before LPF1 is adjusted by writing twos complement, 12-bit words to the voltage rms gain registers. Equation 11 shows how the gain adjustment is related to the contents of the voltage gain register.        212 ValuesWithout Gain 1 VRMSGAIN RMS Nominal VRMSRegister ofContent (11) For example, when 0x7FF is written to the voltage gain register, the RMS value is scaled up by 50%. 0x7FF = 2047d 2047/212 = 0.5 Similarly, when 0x800, which equals –2047d (signed twos complement), is written the ADC output is scaled by –50%. ACTIVE POWER CALCULATION Electrical power is defined as the rate of energy flow from source to load. It is given by the product of the voltage and current waveforms. The resulting waveform is called the instantaneous power signal and it is equal to the rate of energy flow at every instant of time. The unit of power is the watt or joules/sec. Equation 14 gives an expression for the instantaneous power signal in an ac system. v(t) = √2 × VRMS × sin(ωt) (12) i(t) = √2 × IRMS × sin(ωt) (13) where VRMS = rms voltage and IRMS = rms current. p(t) = v(t) × i(t) p(t) = IRMS × VRMS − IRMS × VRMS × cos(2ωt) (14) The average power over an integral number of line cycles (n) is given by the expression in Equation 15.   VRMS IRMS dttp nT p nT     0 1 (15) where: t is the line cycle period. P is referred to as the active or real power. Note that the active power is equal to the dc component of the instantaneous power signal p(t) in Equation 14, that is, VRMS × IRMS. This is the relationship used to calculate the active power in the ADE7758 for each phase. The instantaneous power signal p(t) is generated by multiplying the current and voltage signals in each phase. The dc component of the instantaneous power signal in each phase (A, B, and C) is then extracted by LPF2 (the low-pass filter) to obtain the average active power information on each phase. Figure 65 shows this process. The active power of each phase accumulates in the corresponding 16-bit watt-hour register (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, or CWATTHR). The input to each active energy register can be changed depending on the accumulation mode setting (see Table 22). INSTANTANEOUS POWER SIGNAL p(t) = VRMS×IRMS – VRMS×IRMS×cos(2ωt) ACTIVE REAL POWER SIGNAL = VRMS × IRMS 0x19999A VRMS ×IRMS 0xCCCCD 0x00000 CURRENT i(t) = 2 ×IRMS ×sin(ωt) VOLTAGE v(t) = 2 ×VRMS ×sin(ωt) 04443-064 Figure 65. Active Power Calculation Because LPF2 does not have an ideal brick wall frequency response (see Figure 66), the active power signal has some ripple due to the instantaneous power signal. This ripple is sinusoidal and has a frequency equal to twice the line frequency. Because the ripple is sinusoidal in nature, it is removed when the active power signal is integrated over time to calculate the energy. 0 –4 –8 –12 GAIN (dB) –16 –20 –24 1 3 18 0 FREQUENCY(Hz) 30 100 04443-065 Figure 66. Frequency Response of the LPF Used to Filter Instantaneous Power in Each Phase Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 31 of 72 Active Power Gain Calibration Note that the average active power result from the LPF output in each phase can be scaled by ±50% by writing to the phase’s watt gain register (AWG, BWG, or CWG). The watt gain registers are twos complement, signed registers and have a resolution of 0.024%/LSB. Equation 16 describes mathematically the function of the watt gain registers. ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛+×=12212gisterReGainWattOutputLPFDataPowerAverage (16) The REVPAP bit (Bit 17) in the interrupt status register is set if the average power from any one of the phases changes sign. The phases monitored are selected by TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register (see Table 21). The TERMSEL bits are also used to select which phases are included in the APCF and VARCF pulse outputs. If the REVPAP bit is set in the mask register, the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). Note that this bit is set whenever there are sign changes, that is, the REVPAP bit is set for both a positive-to-negative change and a negative-to-positive change of the sign bit. The response time of this bit is approximately 176 ms for a full-scale signal, which has an average value of 0xCCCCD at the low pass filter output. For smaller inputs, the time is longer. Interrupts The output is scaled by −50% by writing 0x800 to the watt gain registers and increased by +50% by writing 0x7FF to them. These registers can be used to calibrate the active power (or energy) calculation in the ADE7758 for each phase. CLKINValueAveragemsTimesponseRe4252601×⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡+≅(17) Active Power Offset Calibration The APCFNUM [15:13] indicate reverse power on each of the individual phases. Bit 15 is set if the sign of the power on Phase A is negative, Bit 14 for Phase B, and Bit 13 for Phase C. The ADE7758 also incorporates a watt offset register on each phase (AWATTOS, BWATTOS, and CWATTOS). These are signed twos complement, 12-bit registers that are used to remove offsets in the active power calculations. An offset can exist in the power calculation due to crosstalk between channels on the PCB or in the chip itself. The offset calibration allows the contents of the active power register to be maintained at 0 when no power is being consumed. One LSB in the active power offset register is equivalent to 1/16 LSB in the active power multiplier output. At full-scale input, if the output from the multiplier is 0xCCCCD (838,861d), then 1 LSB in the LPF2 output is equivalent to 0.0075% of measurement error at 60 dB down from full scale on the current channel. At −60 dB down on full scale (the input signal level is 1/1000 of full-scale signal inputs), the average word value from LPF2 is 838.861 (838,861/1000). One LSB is equivalent to 1/838.861/16 × 100% = 0.0075% of the measured value. The active power offset register has a correction resolution equal to 0.0075% at −60 dB. No-Load Threshold The ADE7758 has an internal no-load threshold on each phase. The no-load threshold can be activated by setting the NOLOAD bit (Bit 7) of the COMPMODE register. If the active power falls below 0.005% of full-scale input, the energy is not accumulated in that phase. As stated, the average multiplier output with full-scale input is 0xCCCCD. Therefore, if the average multiplier output falls below 0x2A, the power is not accumulated to avoid creep in the meter. The no-load threshold is implemented only on the active energy accumulation. The reactive and apparent energies do not have the no-load threshold option. Active Energy Calculation As previously stated, power is defined as the rate of energy flow. This relationship can be expressed mathematically as dtdEnergyPower= (18) Sign of Active Power Calculation Note that the average active power is a signed calculation. If the phase difference between the current and voltage waveform is more than 90°, the average power becomes negative. Negative power indicates that energy is being placed back on the grid. The ADE7758 has a sign detection circuitry for active power calculation. Conversely, Energy is given as the integral of power. ()dtp∫=tEnergy (19) ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 32 of 72 AWG[11:0]WDIV[7:0]DIGITALINTEGRATORMULTIPLIERIVHPFCURRENT SIGNAL–i(t)0x2851EC0x000xD7AE14VOLTAGE SIGNAL–v(t)0x2852000x0xD7AE++++LPF2%SIGN26202–12–22–32–4AWATTOS[11:0]AWATTHR[15:0]150400TOTAL ACTIVE POWER ISACCUMULATED (INTEGRATED) INTHE ACTIVE ENERGY REGISTERTIME (nT)TAVERAGE POWERSIGNAL–P0xCCCCD0x00000PHCAL[6:0]Φ04443-066 Figure 67. ADE7758 Active Energy Accumulation The ADE7758 achieves the integration of the active power signal by continuously accumulating the active power signal in the internal 41-bit energy registers. The watt-hr registers (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, and CWATTHR) represent the upper 16 bits of these internal registers. This discrete time accumulation or summation is equivalent to integration in continuous time. Equation 20 expresses the relationship. ()()⎭⎬⎫⎩⎨⎧×==Σ∫∞=→00TLimnTnTpdttpEnergy (20) where: n is the discrete time sample number. T is the sample period. Figure 67 shows a signal path of this energy accumulation. The average active power signal is continuously added to the internal active energy register. This addition is a signed operation. Negative energy is subtracted from the active energy register. Note the values shown in Figure 67 are the nominal full-scale values, that is, the voltage and current inputs at the corresponding phase are at their full-scale input level. The average active power is divided by the content of the watt divider register before it is added to the corresponding watt-hr accumulation registers. When the value in the WDIV[7:0] register is 0 or 1, active power is accumulated without division. WDIV is an 8-bit unsigned register that is useful to lengthen the time it takes before the watt-hr accumulation registers overflow. Figure 68 shows the energy accumulation for full-scale signals (sinusoidal) on the analog inputs. The three displayed curves show the minimum time it takes for the watt-hr accumulation register to overflow when the watt gain register of the corre-sponding phase equals to 0x7FF, 0x000, and 0x800. The watt gain registers are used to carry out a power calibration in the ADE7758. As shown, the fastest integration time occurs when the watt gain registers are set to maximum full scale, that is, 0x7FF. This is the time it takes before overflow can be scaled by writing to the WDIV register and therefore can be increased by a maximum factor of 255. Note that the active energy register content can roll over to full-scale negative (0x8000) and continue increasing in value when the active power is positive (see Figure 67). Conversely, if the active power is negative, the energy register would under flow to full-scale positive (0x7FFF) and continue decreasing in value. By setting the AEHF bit (Bit 0) of the interrupt mask register, the ADE7758 can be configured to issue an interrupt (IRQ) when Bit 14 of any one of the three watt-hr accumulation registers has changed, indicating that the accumulation register is half full (positive or negative). Setting the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYMODE register enables a read-with-reset for the watt-hr accumulation registers, that is, the registers are reset to 0 after a read operation. CONTENTS OFWATT-HRACCUMULATION REGISTER0x7FFF0x3FFF0x00000xC0000x8000TIME (Sec)0.340.681.021.361.702.04WATT GAIN = 0x7FFWATT GAIN = 0x000WATT GAIN = 0x80004443-067 Figure 68. Energy Register Roll-Over Time for Full-Scale Power (Minimum and Maximum Power Gain) Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 33 of 72 Integration Time Under Steady Load The discrete time sample period (T) for the accumulation register is 0.4 μs (4/CLKIN). With full-scale sinusoidal signals on the analog inputs and the watt gain registers set to 0x000, the average word value from each LPF2 is 0xCCCCD (see Figure 65 and Figure 67). The maximum value that can be stored in the watt-hr accumulation register before it overflows is 215 − 1 or 0x7FFF. Because the average word value is added to the internal register, which can store 240 − 1 or 0xFF, FFFF, FFFF before it overflows, the integration time under these conditions with WDIV = 0 is calculated as sec0.524μs0.40xCCCCDFFFFFFFF,0xFF,=×=Time (21) When WDIV is set to a value different from 0, the time before overflow is scaled accordingly as shown in Equation 22. Time = Time (WDIV = 0) × WDIV[7:0] (22) Energy Accumulation Mode The active power accumulated in each watt-hr accumulation register (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, or CWATTHR) depends on the configuration of the CONSEL bits in the COMPMODE register (Bit 0 and Bit 1). The different configurations are described in Table 10. Table 10. Inputs to Watt-Hr Accumulation Registers CONSEL[1, 0] AWATTHR BWATTHR CWATTHR 00 VA × IA VB × IB VC × IC 01 VA × (IA – IB) 0 VC × (IC – IB) 10 VA × (IA – IB) 0 VC × IC 11 Reserved Reserved Reserved Depending on the poly phase meter service, the appropriate formula should be chosen to calculate the active energy. The American ANSI C12.10 Standard defines the different configurations of the meter. Table 11 describes which mode should be chosen in these different configurations. Table 11. Meter Form Configuration ANSI Meter Form CONSEL (d) TERMSEL (d) 5S/13S 3-Wire Delta 0 3, 5, or 6 6S/14S 4-Wire Wye 1 7 8S/15S 4-Wire Delta 2 7 9S/16S 4-Wire Wye 0 7 Active Power Frequency Output Pin 1 (APCF) of the ADE7758 provides frequency output for the total active power. After initial calibration during manufac-turing, the manufacturer or end customer often verifies the energy meter calibration. One convenient way to verify the meter calibration is for the manufacturer to provide an output frequency that is proportional to the energy or active power under steady load conditions. This output frequency can provide a simple, single-wire, optically isolated interface to external calibration equipment. Figure 69 illustrates the energy-to-frequency conversion in the ADE7758. INPUTTOBWATTHRREGISTERINPUTTOAWATTHRREGISTERINPUTTOCWATTHRREGISTERDFCAPCFAPCFNUM[11:0]APCFDEN[11:0]÷+++÷404443-068 Figure 69. Active Power Frequency Output A digital-to-frequency converter (DFC) is used to generate the APCF pulse output from the total active power. The TERMSEL bits (Bit 2 to Bit 4) of the COMPMODE register can be used to select which phases to include in the total power calculation. Setting Bit 2, Bit 3, and Bit 4 includes the input to the AWATTHR, BWATTHR, and CWATTHR registers in the total active power calculation. The total active power is signed addition. However, setting the ABS bit (Bit 5) in the COMPMODE register enables the absolute-only mode; that is, only the absolute value of the active power is considered. The output from the DFC is divided down by a pair of frequency division registers before being sent to the APCF pulse output. Namely, APCFDEN/APCFNUM pulses are needed at the DFC output before the APCF pin outputs a pulse. Under steady load conditions, the output frequency is directly proportional to the total active power. The pulse width of APCF is 64/CLKIN if APCFNUM and APCFDEN are both equal. If APCFDEN is greater than APCFNUM, the pulse width depends on APCFDEN. The pulse width in this case is T × (APCFDEN/2), where T is the period of the APCF pulse and APCFDEN/2 is rounded to the nearest whole number. An exception to this is when the period is greater than 180 ms. In this case, the pulse width is fixed at 90 ms. The maximum output frequency (APCFNUM = 0x00 and APCFDEN = 0x00) with full-scale ac signals on one phase is approximately 16 kHz. The ADE7758 incorporates two registers to set the frequency of APCF (APCFNUM[11:0] and APCFDEN[11:0]). These are unsigned 12-bit registers that can be used to adjust the frequency of APCF by 1/212 to 1 with a step of 1/212. For example, if the output frequency is 1.562 kHz while the contents of APCFDEN are 0 (0x000), then the output frequency can be set to 6.103 Hz by writing 0xFF to the APCFDEN register. If 0 were written to any of the frequency division registers, the divider would use 1 in the frequency division. In addition, the ratio APCFNUM/APCFDEN should be set not greater than 1 to ensure proper operation. In other words, the APCF output frequency cannot be higher than the frequency on the DFC output. The output frequency has a slight ripple at a frequency equal to 2× the line frequency. This is due to imperfect filtering of the instantaneous power signal to generate the active power signal ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 34 of 72 (see the Active Power Calculation section). Equation 14 gives an expression for the instantaneous power signal. This is filtered by LPF2, which has a magnitude response given by Equation 23. ()22811Hff+= (23) –E(t)tVltVI×cos(4π×f1 ×t)4π×f11 +22f1804443-069 The active power signal (output of the LPF2) can be rewritten as ()()(tffIRMSVRMSIRMSVRMStp12214cos821π×⎥⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎢⎢⎣⎡+×−×= (24) Figure 70. Output Frequency Ripple where f1 is the line frequency, for example, 60 Hz. Line Cycle Active Energy Accumulation Mode From Equation 24, E(t) equals The ADE7758 is designed with a special energy accumulation mode that simplifies the calibration process. By using the on-chip, zero-crossing detection, the ADE7758 updates the watt-hr accumulation registers after an integer number of zero crossings (see Figure 71). The line-active energy accumulation mode for watt-hr accumulation is activated by setting the LWATT bit (Bit 0) of the LCYCMODE register. The total energy accumu-lated over an integer number of half-line cycles is written to the watt-hr accumulation registers after the LINECYC number of zero crossings is detected. When using the line cycle accumulation mode, the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYCMODE register should be set to Logic 0. ())4cos(8214–12211tfffIRMSVRMStIRMSVRMSππ×⎥⎥⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎢⎢⎢⎣⎡+××× (25) From Equation 25, it can be seen that there is a small ripple in the energy calculation due to the sin(2ωt) component (see Figure 70). The ripple gets larger with larger loads. Choosing a lower output frequency for APCF during calibration by using a large APCFDEN value and keeping APCFNUM relatively small can significantly reduce the ripple. Averaging the output frequency over a longer period achieves the same results. ZXSEL01ZERO-CROSSINGDETECTION(PHASEA)ZXSEL11ZERO-CROSSINGDETECTION(PHASEB)ZXSEL21ZERO-CROSSINGDETECTION(PHASEC)1ZXSEL[0:2]AREBITS3TO5 INTHELCYCMODEREGISTERCALIBRATIONCONTROLLINECYC[15:0]WATTOS[11:0]WG[11:0]WDIV[7:0]++%++WATTHR[15:0]ACCUMULATEACTIVEPOWERFORLINECYCNUMBER OFZERO-CROSSINGS;WATT-HRACCUMULATIONREGISTERSAREUPDATED ONCEEVERYLINECYCNUMBER OFZERO-CROSSINGSACTIVEPOWER15040004443-070 Figure 71. ADE7758 Line Cycle Active Energy Accumulation Mode Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 35 of 72 Phase A, Phase B, and Phase C zero crossings are, respectively, included when counting the number of half-line cycles by setting ZXSEL[0:2] bits (Bit 3 to Bit 5) in the LCYCMODE register. Any combination of the zero crossings from all three phases can be used for counting the zero crossing. Only one phase should be selected at a time for inclusion in the zero crossings count during calibration (see the Calibration section). The number of zero crossings is specified by the LINECYC register. LINECYC is an unsigned 16-bit register. The ADE7758 can accumulate active power for up to 65535 combined zero crossings. Note that the internal zero-crossing counter is always active. By setting the LWATT bit, the first energy accumulation result is, therefore, incorrect. Writing to the LINECYC register when the LWATT bit is set resets the zero-crossing counter, thus ensuring that the first energy accumulation result is accurate. At the end of an energy calibration cycle, the LENERGY bit (Bit 12) in the STATUS register is set. If the corresponding mask bit in the interrupt mask register is enabled, the IRQ output also goes active low; thus, the IRQ can also be used to signal the end of a calibration. Because active power is integrated on an integer number of half-line cycles in this mode, the sinusoidal component is reduced to 0, eliminating any ripple in the energy calculation. Therefore, total energy accumulated using the line-cycle accumulation mode is E(t) = VRMS × IRMS × t (26) where t is the accumulation time. Note that line cycle active energy accumulation uses the same signal path as the active energy accumulation. The LSB size of these two methods is equivalent. Using the line cycle accumula-tion to calculate the kWh/LSB constant results in a value that can be applied to the WATTHR registers when the line accumulation mode is not selected (see the Calibration section). REACTIVE POWER CALCULATION A load that contains a reactive element (inductor or capacitor) produces a phase difference between the applied ac voltage and the resulting current. The power associated with reactive elements is called reactive power, and its unit is VAR. Reactive power is defined as the product of the voltage and current waveforms when one of these signals is phase shifted by 90°. Equation 30 gives an expression for the instantaneous reactive power signal in an ac system when the phase of the current channel is shifted by +90°. ()(θ=–sin2ωtVtv (27) ()()()⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛π+=′=2sin2isin2ωtItωtIti (28) where: v = rms voltage. i = rms current. θ = total phase shift caused by the reactive elements in the load. Then the instantaneous reactive power q(t) can be expressed as ()()()()⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛πθ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛πθ=′×=2––2cos–2––cosωtVIVItqtitvtq (29) where ()ti′ is the current waveform phase shifted by 90°. Note that q(t) can be rewritten as ()()(θ +θ=–2sinsinωtVIVItq (30) The average reactive power over an integral number of line cycles (n) is given by the expression in Equation 31. ()()∫××==nT0θsindtnT1IVtqQ (31) where: T is the period of the line cycle. Q is referred to as the average reactive power. The instantaneous reactive power signal q(t) is generated by multiplying the voltage signals and the 90° phase-shifted current in each phase. The dc component of the instantaneous reactive power signal in each phase (A, B, and C) is then extracted by a low-pass filter to obtain the average reactive power information on each phase. This process is illustrated in Figure 72. The reactive power of each phase is accumulated in the corresponding 16-bit VAR-hour register (AVARHR, BVARHR, or CVARHR). The input to each reactive energy register can be changed depending on the accumulation mode setting (see Table 21). The frequency response of the LPF in the reactive power signal path is identical to that of the LPF2 used in the average active power calculation (see Figure 66). VRMS × IRMS × sin(φ)θ0x00000CURRENTi(t) = 2×IRMS×sin(ωt)VOLTAGEv(t) = 2×VRMS×sin(ωt –θ)INSTANTANEOUSREACTIVE POWER SIGNALq(t) = VRMS × IRMS × sin(φ) + VRMS × IRMS × sin(2ωt + θ)AVERAGE REACTIVE POWER SIGNAL =VRMS × IRMS × sin(θ)04443-071 Figure 72. Reactive Power Calculation The low-pass filter is nonideal, so the reactive power signal has some ripple. This ripple is sinusoidal and has a frequency equal to 2× the line frequency. Because the ripple is sinusoidal in nature, it is removed when the reactive power signal is integrated over time to calculate the reactive energy. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 36 of 72 The phase-shift filter has –90° phase shift when the integrator is enabled and +90° phase shift when the integrator is disabled. In addition, the filter has a nonunity magnitude response. Because the phase-shift filter has a large attenuation at high frequency, the reactive power is primarily for the calculation at line frequency. The effect of harmonics is largely ignored in the reactive power calculation. Note that because of the magnitude characteristic of the phase shifting filter, the LSB weight of the reactive power calculation is slightly different from that of the active power calculation (see the Energy Registers Scaling section). The ADE7758 uses the line frequency of the phase selected in the FREQSEL[1:0] bits of the MMODE[1:0] to compensate for attenuation of the reactive energy phase shift filter over frequency (see the Period Measurement section). Reactive Power Gain Calibration The average reactive power from the LPF output in each phase can be scaled by ±50% by writing to the phase’s VAR gain register (AVARG, BVARG, or CVARG). The VAR gain registers are twos complement, signed registers and have a resolution of 0.024%/LSB. The function of the VAR gain registers is expressed by ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛+×=12212gisterReGainVAROutputLPFPowerReactiveAverage (32) The output is scaled by –50% by writing 0x800 to the VAR gain registers and increased by +50% by writing 0x7FF to them. These registers can be used to calibrate the reactive power (or energy) calculation in the ADE7758 for each phase. Reactive Power Offset Calibration The ADE7758 incorporates a VAR offset register on each phase (AVAROS, BVAROS, and CVAROS). These are signed twos complement, 12-bit registers that are used to remove offsets in the reactive power calculations. An offset can exist in the power calculation due to crosstalk between channels on the PCB or in the chip itself. The offset calibration allows the contents of the reactive power register to be maintained at 0 when no reactive power is being consumed. The offset registers’ resolution is the same as the active power offset registers (see the Apparent Power Offset Calibration section). Sign of Reactive Power Calculation Note that the average reactive power is a signed calculation. As stated previously, the phase shift filter has –90° phase shift when the integrator is enabled and +90° phase shift when the integrator is disabled. Table 12 summarizes the relationship between the phase difference between the voltage and the current and the sign of the resulting VAR calculation. The ADE7758 has a sign detection circuit for the reactive power calculation. The REVPRP bit (Bit 18) in the interrupt status register is set if the average reactive power from any one of the phases changes. The phases monitored are selected by TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register (see Table 21). If the REVPRP bit is set in the mask register, the IRQ logic output goes active low (see the section). Note that this bit is set whenever there is a sign change; that is, the bit is set for either a positive-to-negative change or a negative-to-positive change of the sign bit. The response time of this bit is approximately 176 ms for a full-scale signal, which has an average value of 0xCCCCD at the low-pass filter output. For smaller inputs, the time is longer. InterruptsCLKINueAverageValmssponseTimeRe4260125×⎥⎦⎤⎢⎣⎡+≅ (33) Table 12. Sign of Reactive Power Calculation Φ1 Integrator Sign of Reactive Power Between 0 to +90 Off Positive Between −90 to 0 Off Negative Between 0 to +90 On Positive Between −90 to 0 On Negative 1 Φ is defined as the phase angle of the voltage signal minus the current signal; that is, Φ is positive if the load is inductive and negative if the load is capacitive. Reactive Energy Calculation Reactive energy is defined as the integral of reactive power. ()dttqEnergyReactive∫= (34) Similar to active power, the ADE7758 achieves the integration of the reactive power signal by continuously accumulating the reactive power signal in the internal 41-bit accumulation registers. The VAR-hr registers (AVARHR, BVARHR, and CVARHR) represent the upper 16 bits of these internal registers. This discrete time accumulation or summation is equivalent to integration in continuous time. Equation 35 expresses the relationship ()()⎭⎬⎫⎩⎨⎧×==Σ∫∞=→0n0LimdtTnTqtqEnergyReactiveT (35) where: n is the discrete time sample number. T is the sample period. Figure 73 shows the signal path of the reactive energy accumula-tion. The average reactive power signal is continuously added to the internal reactive energy register. This addition is a signed operation. Negative energy is subtracted from the reactive energy register. The average reactive power is divided by the content of the VAR divider register before it is added to the corresponding VAR-hr accumulation registers. When the value in the VARDIV[7:0] register is 0 or 1, the reactive power is accumulated without any division. VARDIV is an 8-bit unsigned register that is useful to lengthen the time it takes before the VAR-hr accumulation registers overflow. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 37 of 72 Similar to reactive power, the fastest integration time occurs when the VAR gain registers are set to maximum full scale, that is, 0x7FF. The time it takes before overflow can be scaled by writing to the VARDIV register; and, therefore, it can be increased by a maximum factor of 255. By setting the REHF bit (Bit 1) of the interrupt mask register, the ADE7758 can be configured to issue an interrupt (IRQ) when Bit 14 of any one of the three VAR-hr accumulation registers has changed, indicating that the accumulation register is half full (positive or negative). When overflow occurs, the VAR-hr accumulation registers content can rollover to full-scale negative (0x8000) and continue increasing in value when the reactive power is positive. Con-versely, if the reactive power is negative, the VAR-hr accumulation registers content can roll over to full-scale positive (0x7FFF) and continue decreasing in value. Setting the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYMODE register enables a read-with-reset for the VAR-hr accumulation registers; that is, the registers are reset to 0 after a read operation. VARG[11:0]VARDIV[7:0]90°PHASESHIFTINGFILTERMULTIPLIERIVHPFCURRENTSIGNAL–i(t)0x2851EC0x000xD7AE14VOLTAGESIGNAL–v(t)0x28520x000xD7AE++++LPF2%SIGN26202–12–22–32–4VAROS[11:0]VARHR[15:0]150400TOTALREACTIVEPOWER ISACCUMULATED(INTEGRATED) INTHEVAR-HRACCUMULATIONREGISTERSπ2PHCAL[6:0]Φ04443-072 Figure 73. ADE7758 Reactive Energy Accumulation ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 38 of 72 Integration Time Under Steady Load The discrete time sample period (T) for the accumulation register is 0.4 μs (4/CLKIN). With full-scale sinusoidal signals on the analog inputs, a 90° phase difference between the voltage and the current signal (the largest possible reactive power), and the VAR gain registers set to 0x000, the average word value from each LPF2 is 0xCCCCD. The maximum value that can be stored in the reactive energy register before it overflows is 215 − 1 or 0x7FFF. Because the average word value is added to the internal register, which can store 240 − 1 or 0xFF, FFFF, FFFF before it overflows, the integration time under these conditions with VARDIV = 0 is calculated as sec0.5243μs0.40xCCCCDFFFFFFFF,0xFF,=×=Time (36) When VARDIV is set to a value different from 0, the time before overflow are scaled accordingly as shown in Equation 37. Time = Time(VARDIV = 0) × VARDIV (37) Energy Accumulation Mode The reactive power accumulated in each VAR-hr accumulation register (AVARHR, BVARHR, or CVARHR) depends on the configuration of the CONSEL bits in the COMPMODE register (Bit 0 and Bit 1). The different configurations are described in Table 13. Note that IA’/IB’/IC’ are the current phase-shifted current waveform. Table 13. Inputs to VAR-Hr Accumulation Registers CONSEL[1, 0] AVARHR BVARHR CVARHR 00 VA × IA’ VB × IB VC × IC’ 01 VA (IA’ – IB’) 0 VC (IC’ – IB’) 10 VA (IA’ – IB’) 0 VC × IC’ 11 Reserved Reserved Reserved Reactive Power Frequency Output Pin 17 (VARCF) of the ADE7758 provides frequency output for the total reactive power. Similar to APCF, this pin provides an output frequency that is directly proportional to the total reactive power. The pulse width of VARPCF is 64/CLKIN if VARCFNUM and VARCFDEN are both equal. If VARCFDEN is greater than VARCFNUM, the pulse width depends on VARCFDEN. The pulse width in this case is T × (VARCFDEN/2), where T is the period of the VARCF pulse and VARCFDEN/2 is rounded to the nearest whole number. An exception to this is when the period is greater than 180 ms. In this case, the pulse width is fixed at 90 ms. A digital-to-frequency converter (DFC) is used to generate the VARCF pulse output from the total reactive power. The TERMSEL bits (Bit 2 to Bit 4) of the COMPMODE register can be used to select which phases to include in the total reactive power calcu-lation. Setting Bit 2, Bit 3, and Bit 4 includes the input to the AVARHR, BVARHR, and CVARHR registers in the total reactive power calculation. The total reactive power is signed addition. However, setting the SAVAR bit (Bit 6) in the COMPMODE register enables absolute value calculation. If the active power of that phase is positive, no change is made to the sign of the reactive power. However, if the sign of the active power is negative in that phase, the sign of its reactive power is inverted before summing and creating VARCF pulses. This mode should be used in conjunction with the absolute value mode for active power (Bit 5 in the COMPMODE register) for APCF pulses. The effects of setting the ABS and SAVAR bits of the COMPMODE register are as follows when ABS = 1 and SAVAR = 1: If watt > 0, APCF = Watts, VARCF = +VAR. If watt < 0, APCF = |Watts|, VARCF = −VAR. INPUTTO BVARHRREGISTERINPUTTOAVARHRREGISTERINPUTTO CVARHRREGISTER+++INPUTTO BVAHRREGISTERINPUTTOAVAHRREGISTERINPUTTO CVAHRREGISTER+++01VARCFVARCFNUM[11:0]VARCFDEN[11:0]÷DFCVACF BIT (BIT 7) OFWAVMODE REGISTER÷404443-073 Figure 74. Reactive Power Frequency Output The output from the DFC is divided down by a pair of frequency division registers before sending to the VARCF pulse output. Namely, VARCFDEN/VARCFNUM pulses are needed at the DFC output before the VARCF pin outputs a pulse. Under steady load conditions, the output frequency is directly proportional to the total reactive power. Figure 74 illustrates the energy-to-frequency conversion in the ADE7758. Note that the input to the DFC can be selected between the total reactive power and total apparent power. Therefore, the VARCF pin can output frequency that is proportional to the total reactive power or total apparent power. The selection is made by setting the VACF bit (Bit 7) in the WAVMODE register. Setting this bit switches the input to the total apparent power. The default value of this bit is logic low. Therefore, the default output from the VARCF pin is the total reactive power. All other operations of this frequency output are similar to that of the active power frequency output (see the Active Power Frequency Output section). Line Cycle Reactive Energy Accumulation Mode The line cycle reactive energy accumulation mode is activated by setting the LVAR bit (Bit 1) in the LCYCMODE register. The total reactive energy accumulated over an integer number of zero crossings is written to the VAR-hr accumulation registers after the LINECYC number of zero crossings is detected. The operation of this mode is similar to watt-hr accumulation (see the Line Cycle Active Energy Accumulation Mode section). Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 39 of 72 When using the line cycle accumulation mode, the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYCMODE register should be set to Logic 0. APPARENT POWER CALCULATION Apparent power is defined as the amplitude of the vector sum of the active and reactive powers. Figure 75 shows what is typically referred to as the power triangle. REACTIVE POWERACTIVE POWERAPPARENTPOWERθ04443-074 Figure 75. Power Triangle There are two ways to calculate apparent power: the arithmetical approach or the vectorial method. The arithmetical approach uses the product of the voltage rms value and current rms value to calculate apparent power. Equation 38 describes the arithmetical approach mathematically. S = VRMS × IRMS (38) where S is the apparent power, and VRMS and IRMS are the rms voltage and current, respectively. The vectorial method uses the square root of the sum of the active and reactive power, after the two are individually squared. Equation 39 shows the calculation used in the vectorial approach. 22QPS+= (39) where: S is the apparent power. P is the active power. Q is the reactive power. For a pure sinusoidal system, the two approaches should yield the same result. The apparent energy calculation in the ADE7758 uses the arithmetical approach. However, the line cycle energy accumulation mode in the ADE7758 enables energy accumula-tion between active and reactive energies over a synchronous period, thus the vectorial method can be easily implemented in the external MCU (see the Line Cycle Active Energy Accumulation Mode section). Note that apparent power is always positive regardless of the direction of the active or reactive energy flows. The rms value of the current and voltage in each phase is multiplied to produce the apparent power of the corresponding phase. The output from the multiplier is then low-pass filtered to obtain the average apparent power. The frequency response of the LPF in the apparent power signal path is identical to that of the LPF2 used in the average active power calculation (see Figure 66). Apparent Power Gain Calibration Note that the average active power result from the LPF output in each phase can be scaled by ±50% by writing to the phase’s VAGAIN register (AVAG, BVAG, or CVAG). The VAGAIN registers are twos complement, signed registers and have a resolution of 0.024%/LSB. The function of the VAGAIN registers is expressed mathematically as ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛+×=12212RegisterVAGAINOutputLPFPowerApparentAverage (40) The output is scaled by –50% by writing 0x800 to the VAR gain registers and increased by +50% by writing 0x7FF to them. These registers can be used to calibrate the apparent power (or energy) calculation in the ADE7758 for each phase. Apparent Power Offset Calibration Each rms measurement includes an offset compensation register to calibrate and eliminate the dc component in the rms value (see the Current RMS Calculation section and the Voltage Channel RMS Calculation section). The voltage and current rms values are then multiplied together in the apparent power signal processing. As no additional offsets are created in the multiplication of the rms values, there is no specific offset compensation in the apparent power signal processing. The offset compensation of the apparent power measurement in each phase should be done by calibrating each individual rms measurement (see the Calibration section). ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 40 of 72 Apparent Energy Calculation Apparent energy is defined as the integral of apparent power. Apparent Energy = ∫ S(t)dt (41) Similar to active or reactive power accumulation, the fastest integration time occurs when the VAGAIN registers are set to maximum full scale, that is, 0x7FF. When overflow occurs, the content of the VA-hr accumulation registers can roll over to 0 and continue increasing in value. Similar to active and reactive energy, the ADE7758 achieves the integration of the apparent power signal by continuously accumulating the apparent power signal in the internal 41-bit, unsigned accumulation registers. The VA-hr registers (AVAHR, BVAHR, and CVAHR) represent the upper 16 bits of these internal registers. This discrete time accumulation or summation is equivalent to integration in continuous time. Equation 42 expresses the relationship By setting the VAEHF bit (Bit 2) of the mask register, the ADE7758 can be configured to issue an interrupt (IRQ) when the MSB of any one of the three VA-hr accumulation registers has changed, indicating that the accumulation register is half full. Setting the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYMODE register enables a read-with-reset for the VA-hr accumulation registers; that is, the registers are reset to 0 after a read operation. ()()⎭⎬⎫⎩⎨⎧×==Σ∫∞=→0n0TLimdtTnTStSEnergyApparent (42) Integration Time Under Steady Load The discrete time sample period (T) for the accumulation register is 0.4 μs (4/CLKIN). With full-scale, 60 Hz sinusoidal signals on the analog inputs and the VAGAIN registers set to 0x000, the average word value from each LPF2 is 0xB9954. The maximum value that can be stored in the apparent energy register before it overflows is 216 − 1 or 0xFFFF. As the average word value is first added to the internal register, which can store 241 − 1 or 0x1FF, FFFF, FFFF before it overflows, the integration time under these conditions with VADIV = 0 is calculated as where: n is the discrete time sample number. T is the sample period. Figure 76 shows the signal path of the apparent energy accumu-lation. The apparent power signal is continuously added to the internal apparent energy register. The average apparent power is divided by the content of the VA divider register before it is added to the corresponding VA-hr accumulation register. When the value in the VADIV[7:0] register is 0 or 1, apparent power is accumulated without any division. VADIV is an 8-bit unsigned register that is useful to lengthen the time it takes before the VA-hr accumulation registers overflow. sec1.157μs0.40xB9954FFFFFFFF,0x1FF,=×=Time (43) When VADIV is set to a value different from 0, the time before overflow is scaled accordingly, as shown in Equation 44. Time = Time(VADIV = 0) × VADIV (44) VOLTAGE RMS SIGNAL0x174BAC60Hz0x00x17F26350Hz0x0CURRENT RMS SIGNAL0x1C82B0x00MULTIPLIERIRMSVRMSVAG[11:0]VADIV[7:0]++LPF2%VARHR[15:0]150400APPARENT POWER ISACCUMULATED (INTEGRATED) INTHE VA-HR ACCUMULATION REGISTERS04443-075 Figure 76. ADE7758 Apparent Energy Accumulation Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 41 of 72 Table 14. Inputs to VA-Hr Accumulation Registers CONSEL[1, 0] AVAHR1 BVAHR CVAHR 00 AVRMS × AIRMS BVRMS × BIRMS CVRMS × CIRMS 01 AVRMS × AIRMS AVRMS + CVRMS/2 × BIRMS CVRMS × CIRMS 10 AVRMS × AIRMS BVRMS × BIRMS CVRMS × CIRMS 11 Reserved Reserved Reserved 1 AVRMS/BVRMS/CVRMS are the rms voltage waveform, and AIRMS/BIRMS/CIRMS are the rms values of the current waveform. Energy Accumulation Mode The apparent power accumulated in each VA-hr accumulation register (AVAHR, BVAHR, or CVAHR) depends on the con- figuration of the CONSEL bits in the COMPMODE register (Bit 0 and Bit 1). The different configurations are described in Table 14. The contents of the VA-hr accumulation registers are affected by both the registers for rms voltage gain (VRMSGAIN), as well as the VAGAIN register of the corresponding phase. Apparent Power Frequency Output Pin 17 (VARCF) of the ADE7758 provides frequency output for the total apparent power. By setting the VACF bit (Bit 7) of the WAVMODE register, this pin provides an output frequency that is directly proportional to the total apparent power. A digital-to-frequency converter (DFC) is used to generate the pulse output from the total apparent power. The TERMSEL bits (Bit 2 to Bit 4) of the COMPMODE register can be used to select which phases to include in the total power calculation. Setting Bit 2, Bit 3, and Bit 4 includes the input to the AVAHR, BVAHR, and CVAHR registers in the total apparent power calculation. A pair of frequency divider registers, namely VARCFDEN and VARCFNUM, can be used to scale the output frequency of this pin. Note that either VAR or apparent power can be selected at one time for this frequency output (see the Reactive Power Frequency Output section). Line Cycle Apparent Energy Accumulation Mode The line cycle apparent energy accumulation mode is activated by setting the LVA bit (Bit 2) in the LCYCMODE register. The total apparent energy accumulated over an integer number of zero crossings is written to the VA-hr accumulation registers after the LINECYC number of zero crossings is detected. The operation of this mode is similar to watt-hr accumulation (see the Line Cycle Active Energy Accumulation Mode section). When using the line cycle accumulation mode, the RSTREAD bit (Bit 6) of the LCYCMODE register should be set to Logic 0. Note that this mode is especially useful when the user chooses to perform the apparent energy calculation using the vectorial method. By setting LWATT and LVAR bits (Bit 0 and Bit 1) of the LCYCMODE register, the active and reactive energies are accumulated over the same period. Therefore, the MCU can perform the squaring of the two terms and then take the square root of their sum to determine the apparent energy over the same period. ENERGY REGISTERS SCALING The ADE7758 provides measurements of active, reactive, and apparent energies that use separate signal paths and filtering for calculation. The differences in the datapaths can result in small differences in LSB weight between the active, reactive, and apparent energy registers. These measurements are internally compensated so that the scaling is nearly one to one. The relationship between the registers is shown in Table 15. Table 15. Energy Registers Scaling Frequency 60 Hz 50 Hz Integrator Off VAR 1.004 × WATT 1.0054 × WATT VA 1.00058 × WATT 1.0085 × WATT Integrator On VAR 1.0059 × WATT 1.0064 × WATT VA 1.00058 × WATT 1.00845 × WATT WAVEFORM SAMPLING MODE The waveform samples of the current and voltage waveform, as well as the active, reactive, and apparent power multiplier out- puts, can all be routed to the WAVEFORM register by setting the WAVSEL[2:0] bits (Bit 2 to Bit 4) in the WAVMODE register. The phase in which the samples are routed is set by setting the PHSEL[1:0] bits (Bit 0 and Bit 1) in the WAVMODE register. All energy calculation remains uninterrupted during waveform sampling. Four output sample rates can be chosen by using Bit 5 and Bit 6 of the WAVMODE register (DTRT[1:0]). The output sample rate can be 26.04 kSPS, 13.02 kSPS, 6.51 kSPS, or 3.25 kSPS (see Table 20). By setting the WFSM bit in the interrupt mask register to Logic 1, the interrupt request output IRQ goes active low when a sample is available. The 24-bit waveform samples are transferred from the ADE7758 one byte (8 bits) at a time, with the most significant byte shifted out first. The interrupt request output IRQ stays low until the interrupt routine reads the reset status register (see the Interrupts section). ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 42 of 72 CALIBRATION A reference meter or an accurate source is required to calibrate the ADE7758 energy meter. When using a reference meter, the ADE7758 calibration output frequencies APCF and VARCF are adjusted to match the frequency output of the reference meter under the same load conditions. Each phase must be calibrated separately in this case. When using an accurate source for calibration, one can take advantage of the line cycle accumulation mode and calibrate the three phases simultaneously. There are two objectives in calibrating the meter: to establish the correct impulses/kW-hr constant on the pulse output and to obtain a constant that relates the LSBs in the energy and rms registers to Watt/VA/VAR hours, amps, or volts. Additionally, calibration compensates for part-to-part variation in the meter design as well as phase shifts and offsets due to the current sensor and/or input networks. Calibration Using Pulse Output The ADE7758 provides a pulsed output proportional to the active power accumulated by all three phases, called APCF. Additionally, the VARCF output is proportional to either the reactive energy or apparent energy accumulated by all three phases. The following section describes how to calibrate the gain, offset, and phase angle using the pulsed output information. The equations are based on the pulse output from the ADE7758 (APCF or VARCF) and the pulse output of the reference meter or CFEXPECTED. Figure 77 shows a flowchart of how to calibrate the ADE7758 using the pulse output. Because the pulse outputs are proportional to the total energy in all three phases, each phase must be calibrated individually. Writing to the registers is fast to reconfigure the part for calibrating a different phase; therefore, Figure 77 shows a method that calibrates all phases at a given test condition before changing the test condition. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 43 of 72 STARTCALIBRATE IRMSOFFSETCALIBRATE VRMSOFFSETMUST BE DONEBEFORE VA GAINCALIBRATIONWATT AND VACAN BE CALIBRATEDSIMULTANEOUSLY @PF = 1 BECAUSE THEYHAVE SEPARATE PULSE OUTPUTSALLPHASESVA AND WATTGAIN CAL?YESNOSET UP PULSEOUTPUT FORA, B, OR CCALIBRATEWATT AND VAGAIN @ ITEST,PF = 1ALLPHASESGAIN CALVAR?YESNOSET UP FORPHASEA, B, OR CCALIBRATEVAR GAIN@ ITEST, PF = 0,INDUCTIVEALLPHASESPHASE ERROR CAL?YESNOSET UP PULSEOUTPUT FORA, B, OR CCALIBRATEPHASE @ ITEST,PF = 0.5,INDUCTIVEALL PHASESVAR OFFSETCAL?YESNOSET UP PULSEOUTPUT FORA, B, OR CCALIBRATEVAR OFFSET@ IMIN, PF = 0,INDUCTIVEALL PHASESWATT OFFSETCAL?YESNOSET UP PULSEOUTPUT FORA, B, OR CCALIBRATEWATT OFFSET@ IMIN, PF = 1END04443-076 Figure 77. Calibration Using Pulse Output Gain Calibration Using Pulse Output Gain calibration is used for meter-to-meter gain adjustment, APCF or VARCF output rate calibration, and determining the Wh/LSB, VARh/LSB, and VAh/LSB constant. The registers used for watt gain calibration are APCFNUM (0x45), APCFDEN (0x46), and xWG (0x2A to 0x2C). Equation 50 through Equation 52 show how these registers affect the Wh/LSB constant and the APCF pulses. For calibrating VAR gain, the registers in Equation 50 through Equation 52 should be replaced by VARCFNUM (0x47), VARCFDEN (0x48), and xVARG (0x2D to 0x2F). For VAGAIN, they should be replaced by VARCFNUM (0x47), VARCFDEN (0x48), and xVAG (0x30 to 0x32). Figure 78 shows the steps for gain calibration of watts, VA, or VAR using the pulse outputs. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 44 of 72 STARTSTEP1STEP1AENABLEAPCFANDVARCFPULSEOUTPUTSSTEP2CLEAR GAINREGISTERS:xWG,xVAG,xVARGSELECTVAFORVARCF OUTPUTCFNUM/VARCFNUMSETTOCALCULATEVALUES?NOYESALLPHASESVAANDWATTGAINCAL?YESNOSTEP3SETUPPULSEOUTPUTFORPHASEA,B, ORCSTEP5SETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOMPF=1STEP6MEASURE%ERRORFORAPCFANDVARCFSTEP7CALCULATEANDWRITETOxWG,xVAGCALCULATEWh/LSBANDVAh/LSBCONSTANTSSETCFNUM/VARCFNUMANDCFDEN/VARCFDENTOCALCULATEDVALUESSTEP4ENDALLPHASESVAR GAINCALIBRATED?YESNOSELECTVARFORVARCFOUTPUTSTEP3SETUPPULSEOUTPUTFORPHASEA,B, ORCVARCFNUM/VARCFDENSETTOCALCULATEDVALUES?NOYESSTEP5SETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOMPF=0, INDUCTIVESTEP6MEASURE%ERRORFORVARCFSTEP7CALCULATEANDWRITETOxVARGCALCULATEVARh/LSBCONSTANTSETVARCFNUM/VARCFDENTOCALCULATEDVALUESSTEP404443-077SELECTPHASEA,B, ORCFORLINEPERIODMEASUREMENT Figure 78. Gain Calibration Using Pulse Output Step 1: Enable the pulse output by setting Bit 2 of the OPMODE register (0x13) to Logic 0. This bit enables both the APCF and VARCF pulses. Step 1a: VAR and VA share the VARCF pulse output. WAVMODE[7], Address (0x15), should be set to choose between VAR or VA pulses on the output. Setting the bit to Logic 1 selects VA. The default is Logic 0 or VARCF pulse output. Step 2: Ensure the xWG/xVARG/xVAG are zero. Step 3: Disable the Phase B and Phase C contribution to the APCF and VARCF pulses. This is done by the TERMSEL[2:4] bits of the COMPMODE register (0x16). Setting Bit 2 to Logic 1 and Bit 3 and Bit 4 to Logic 0 allows only Phase A to be included in the pulse outputs. Select Phase A, Phase B, or Phase C for a line period measurement with the FREQSEL[1:0] bits in the MMODE register (0x14). For example, clearing Bit 1 and Bit 0 selects Phase A for line period measurement. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 45 of 72 Step 4: Set APCFNUM (0x45) and APCFDEN (0x46) to the calculated value to perform a coarse adjustment on the imp/kWh ratio. For VAR/VA calibration, set VARCFNUM (0x47) and VARCFDEN (0x48) to the calculated value. The pulse output frequency with one phase at full-scale inputs is approximately 16 kHz. A sample set of meters could be tested to find a more exact value of the pulse output at full scale in the user application. To calculate the values for APCFNUM/APCFDEN and VARCFNUM/VARCFDEN, use the following formulas: FULLSCALETESTFULLSCALENOMNOMINALIIVVAPCF××=kHz16 (45) ()θ××××=cos36001000NOMTESTEXPECTEDVIMCAPCF (46) ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛=EXPECTEDNOMINALAPCFAPCFINTAPCFDEN (47) where: MC is the meter constant. ITEST is the test current. VNOM is the nominal voltage at which the meter is tested. VFULLSCALE and IFULLSCALE are the values of current and voltage, which correspond to the full-scale ADC inputs of the ADE7758. θ is the angle between the current and the voltage channel. APCFEXPECTED is equivalent to the reference meter output under the test conditions. APCFNUM is written to 0 or 1. The equations for calculating the VARCFNUM and VARCFDEN during VAR calibration are similar: ()θ××××=sin36001000NOMTESTEXPECTEDVIMCVARCF (48) Because the APCFDEN and VARCFDEN values can be calculated from the meter design, these values can be written to the part automatically during production calibration. Step 5: Set the test system for ITEST, VNOM, and the unity power factor. For VAR calibration, the power factor should be set to 0 inductive in this step. For watt and VA, the unity power factor should be used. VAGAIN can be calibrated at the same time as WGAIN because VAGAIN can be calibrated at the unity power factor, and both pulse outputs can be measured simultaneously. However, when calibrating VAGAIN at the same time as WGAIN, the rms offsets should be calibrated first (see the Calibration of IRMS and VRMS Offset section). Step 6: Measure the percent error in the pulse output, APCF and/or VARCF, from the reference meter: %100–%×=REFREFCFCFAPCFError (49) where CFREF = APCFEXPECTED = the pulse output of the reference meter. Step 7: Calculate xWG adjustment. One LSB change in xWG (12 bits) changes the WATTHR register by 0.0244% and therefore APCF by 0.0244%. The same relationship holds true for VARCF. [][][]⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛+××=1220:1110:110:11xWGAPCFDENAPCFNUMAPCFAPCFNOMINALEXPECTED (50) %0244.0%–ErrorxWG= (51) When APCF is calibrated, the xWATTHR registers have the same Wh/LSB from meter to meter if the meter constant and the APCFNUM/APCFDEN ratio remain the same. The Wh/LSB constant is WDIVAPCFNUMAPCFDENMCLSBWh1100041×××= (52) Return to Step 2 to calibrate Phase B and Phase C gain. Example: Watt Gain Calibration of Phase A Using Pulse Output For this example, ITEST = 10 A, VNOM = 220 V, VFULLSCALE = 500 V, IFULLSCALE = 130 A, MC = 3200 impulses/kWh, Power Factor = 1, and Frequency = 50 Hz. Clear APCFNUM (0x45) and write the calculated value to APCFDEN (0x46) to perform a coarse adjustment on the imp/kWh ratio, using Equation 45 through Equation 47. kHz542.013010500220kHz16=××=NOMINALAPCF ()Hz9556.10cos36001000220103200=××××=EXPECTEDAPCF 277Hz9556.1Hz542=⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛=INTAPCFDEN With Phase A contributing to CF, at ITEST, VNOM, and the unity power factor, the example ADE7758 meter shows 2.058 Hz on the pulse output. This is equivalent to a 5.26% error from the reference meter value using Equation 49. %26.5%100Hz9556.1Hz9556.1–Hz058.2=×=%Error The AWG value is calculated to be −216 d using Equation 51, which means the value 0xF28 should be written to AWG. 2802165.215%0244.0%26.5–xFAWG=−=−== ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 46 of 72 PHASE CALIBRATION USING PULSE OUTPUT The ADE7758 includes a phase calibration register on each phase to compensate for small phase errors. Large phase errors should be compensated by adjusting the antialiasing filters. The ADE7758 phase calibration is a time delay with different weights in the positive and negative direction (see the Phase Compensation section). Because a current transformer is a source of phase error, a fixed nominal value can be decided on to load into the xPHCAL registers at power-up. During calibration, this value can be adjusted for CT-to-CT error. Figure 79 shows the steps involved in calibrating the phase using the pulse output. START ALL PHASES PHASEERROR CALIBRATED? END YES NO STEP1 SET UPPULSE OUTPUTFOR PHASEA,B, ORC ANDENABLECF OUTPUTS STEP2 SET UPSYSTEM FOR ITEST, VNOM, PF=0.5, INDUCTIVE STEP3 MEASURE% ERROR INAPCF STEP4 CALCULATEPHASE ERROR(DEGREES) STEP5 PERIOD OF SYSTEM KNOWN? MEASURE PERIODUSING FREQ[11:0] REGISTER NO YES CALCULATEAND WRITETO xPHCAL 04443-078 SELECTPHASE FORLINEPERIOD MEASUREMENT CONFIGURE FREQ[11:0]FORA LINEPERIOD MEASUREMENT Figure 79. Phase Calibration Using Pulse Output Step 1: Step 1 and Step 3 from the gain calibration should be repeated to configure the ADE7758 pulse output. Ensure the xPHCAL registers are zero. Step 2: Set the test system for ITEST, VNOM, and 0.5 power factor inductive. Step 3: Measure the percent error in the pulse output, APCF, from the reference meter using Equation 49. Step 4: Calculate the Phase Error in degrees by           100%3 – %Error Error Arcsin Phase (53) Step 5: Calculate xPHCAL.      360 1 ) ( 1 _ _ 1 s PeriodLine PHCAL LSB Weight Error Phase xPHCAL (54) where PHCAL_LSB_Weight is 1.2 μs if the %Error is negative or 2.4 μs if the %Error is positive (see the Phase Compensation section). If it is not known, the line period is available in the ADE7758 frequency register, FREQ (0x10). To configure line period measurement, select the phase for period measurement in the MMODE[1:0] and set LCYCMODE[7]. Equation 55 shows how to determine the value that needs to be written to xPHCAL using the period register measurement.      360 ] 0:11[ _ _ 6 .9 FREQ PHCAL LSB Weight s Error Phase xPHCAL (55) Example: Phase Calibration of Phase A Using Pulse Output For this example, ITEST = 10 A, VNOM = 220 V, VFULLSCALE = 500 V, IFULLSCALE = 130 A, MC = 3200 impulses/kWh, power factor = 0.5 inductive, and frequency = 50 Hz. With Phase A contributing to CF, at ITEST, VNOM, and 0.5 inductive power factor, the example ADE7758 meter shows 0.9668 Hz on the pulse output. This is equivalent to −1.122% error from the reference meter value using Equation 49. The Phase Error in degrees using Equation 53 is 0.3713°.             3713 .0 3 %100 1.122% – Error – Arcsin Phase If at 50 Hz the FREQ register = 2083d, the value that should be written to APHCAL is 17d, or 0x11 using Equation 55. Note that a PHCAL_LSB_Weight of 1.2 μs is used because the %Error is negative. 11 01719.17 360 2083 μs 2.1 μs 6.9 3713 .0 APHCAL  x     Power Offset Calibration Using Pulse Output Power offset calibration should be used for outstanding performance over a wide dynamic range (1000:1). Calibration of the power offset is done at or close to the minimum current where the desired accuracy is required. The ADE7758 has power offset registers for watts and VAR (xWATTOS and xVAROS). Offsets in the VA measurement are compensated by adjusting the rms offset registers (see the Calibration of IRMS and VRMS Offset section). Figure 80 shows the steps to calibrate the power offsets using the pulse outputs. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 47 of 72 STARTSTEP1ENABLECFOUTPUTSSTEP2CLEAR OFFSETREGISTERSxWATTOS,xVAROSALLPHASESWATT OFFSETCALIBRATED?YESNOALLPHASESVAR OFFSETCALIBRATED?YESNOSETUPAPCFPULSE OUTPUTFORPHASEA,B,ORCSTEP4STEP3SETUPSYSTEMFORIMIN,VNOM,PF=1STEP5MEASURE%ERRORFORAPCFSTEP6CALCULATEANDWRITETOxWATTOSENDSETUPVARCFPULSE OUTPUTFORPHASEA,B,ORCSTEP4STEP3SETUPSYSTEMFORIMIN,VNOM,PF=0, INDUCTIVESTEP5MEASURE%ERRORFORVARCFMEASUREPERIODUSINGFREQ[11:0]REGISTERSTEP6CALCULATEANDWRITETOxVAROSSTEP7.REPEATSTEP3TOSTEP6FORxVAROSSELECTPHASEFORLINEPERIODMEASUREMENTCONFIGUREFREQ[11:0]FORALINEPERIODMEASUREMENT04443-079 Figure 80. Offset Calibration Using Pulse Output Step 1: Repeat Step 1 and Step 3 from the gain calibration to configure the ADE7758 pulse output. Step 2: Clear the xWATTOS and xVAROS registers. Step3: Disable the Phase B and Phase C contribution to the APCF and VARCF pulses. This is done by the TERMSEL[2:4] bits of the COMPMODE register (0x16). Setting Bit 2 to Logic 1 and Bit 3 and Bit 4 to Logic 0 allows only Phase A to be included in the pulse outputs. Select Phase A, Phase B, or Phase C for a line period measurement with the FREQSEL[1:0] bits in the MMODE register (0x14). For example, clearing Bit 1 and Bit 0 selects Phase A for line period measurement. Step 4: Set the test system for IMIN, VNOM, and unity power factor. For Step 6, set the test system for IMIN, VNOM, and zero-power factor inductive. Step 5: Measure the percent error in the pulse output, APCF or VARCF, from the reference meter using Equation 49. Step 6: Calculate xWATTOS using Equation 56 (for xVAROS use Equation 57). APCFNUMAPCFDENQAPCF%APCFxWATTOSEXPECTEDERROR××⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛×=42%100– (56) ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 48 of 72 VARCFNUMVARCFDENQVARCF%VARCFxVAROSEXPECTEDERROR××⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛×=42%100– (57) where Q is defined in Equation 58 and Equation 59. For xWATTOS, 4121425××=CLKINQ (58) For xVAROS, 4140]:[1120221424×⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛××=FREQCLKINQ (59) where the FREQ (0x10) register is configured for line period measurements. Step 7: Repeat Step 3 to Step 6 for xVAROS calibration. Example: Offset Calibration of Phase A Using Pulse Output For this example, IMIN = 50 mA, VNOM = 220 V, VFULLSCALE = 500 V, IFULLSCALE = 130 A, MC = 3200 impulses/kWh, Power Factor = 1, Frequency = 50 Hz, and CLKIN = 10 MHz. With IMIN, VNOM, and unity power factor, the example ADE7758 meter shows 0.009789 Hz on the APCF pulse output. When the power factor is changed to 0.5 inductive, the VARCF output is 0.009769 Hz. This is equivalent to 0.1198% for the watt measurement and −0.0860% for the VAR measurement. Using Equation 56 through Equation 59, the values 0xFFD and 0x3 should be written to AWATTOS (0x39) and AVAROS (0x3C), respectively. 0xFFD3– –2.812770.0186320.009778%1000.1198%–4===××⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛×=AWATTOS 32.612770.0144420.009778%1000.0860%––4==××⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛×=AVAROS For AWATTOS, 01863.04121461025=××=EQ For AVAROS, 0.01444414208320221461024=×××=EQ Calibration Using Line Accumulation Line cycle accumulation mode configures the nine energy registers such that the amount of energy accumulated over an integer number of half line cycles appears in the registers after the LENERGY interrupt. The benefit of using this mode is that the sinusoidal component of the active energy is eliminated. Figure 81 shows a flowchart of how to calibrate the ADE7758 using the line accumulation mode. Calibration of all phases and energies can be done simultaneously using this mode to save time during calibration. STARTCAL IRMS OFFSETCAL VRMS OFFSETCAL WATT AND VAGAIN ALL PHASES@ PF = 1CAL VAR GAIN ALLPHASES @ PF = 0,INDUCTIVECALIBRATE PHASEALL PHASES@ PF = 0.5,INDUCTIVECALIBRATE ALLPHASES WATTOFFSET @ IMIN ANDPF = 1CALIBRATE ALLPHASES VAROFFSETS @ IMINAND PF = 0,INDUCTIVEEND04443-080 Figure 81. Calibration Using Line Accumulation Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 49 of 72 Gain Calibration Using Line Accumulation Step 2: Select Phase A, Phase B, or Phase C for a line period measurement with the FREQSEL[1:0] bits in the MMODE register (0x14). For example, clearing Bit 1 and Bit 0 selects Phase A for line period measurement. Gain calibration is used for meter-to-meter gain adjustment, APCF or VARCF output rate calibration, and determining the Wh/LSB, VARh/LSB, and VAh/LSB constant. Step 3: Set up ADE7758 for line accumulation by writing 0xBF to LCYCMODE. This enables the line accumulation mode on the xWATTHR, xVARHR, and xVAHR (0x01 to 0x09) registers by setting the LWATT, LVAR, and LVA bits, LCYCMODE[0:2] (0x17), to Logic 1. It also sets the ZXSEL bits, LCYCMODE[3:5], to Logic 1 to enable the zero-crossing detection on all phases for line accumulation. Additionally, the FREQSEL bit, LCYCMODE[7], is set so that FREQ (0x10) stores the line period. When using the line accumulation mode, the RSTREAD bit of LCYCMODE should be set to 0 to disable the read with reset mode. Select the phase for line period measurement in MMODE[1:0]. Step 0: Before performing the gain calibration, the APCFNUM/ APCFDEN (0x45/0x46) and VARCFNUM/ VARCFDEN (0x47/0x48) values can be set to achieve the correct impulses/kWh, impulses/kVAh, or impulses/kVARh using the same method outlined in Step 4 in the Gain Calibration Using Pulse Output section. The calibration of xWG/xVARG/xVAG (0x2A through 0x32) is done with the line accumulation mode. Figure 82 shows the steps involved in calibrating the gain registers using the line accumulation mode. Step 1: Clear xWG, xVARG, and xVAG. Step 4: Set the number of half-line cycles for line accumulation by writing to LINECYC (0x1C). FREQUENCYKNOWN?NOYESSTEP0SETAPCFNUM/APCFDENANDVARCFNUM/VARCFDENSTEP1STEP2CLEARxWG/xVAR/xVAGSTEP3SETLYCMODEREGISTERSTEP4SETACCUMULATIONTIME(LINECYC)STEP5SETMASKFORLENERGY INTERRUPTSTEP6SETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOM,PF=1STEP7READFREQ[11:0]REGISTERSTEP8RESETSTATUSREGISTERSTEP9READALLxWATTHRANDxVAHRAFTERLENERGYINTERRUPTSTEP9ACALCULATExWGSTEP9BCALCULATExVAGSTEP10WRITETOxWGANDxVAGCALIBRATEWATTANDVA@PF=1STEP11SETUPTESTSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOM,PF=0, INDUCTIVESTEP12RESETSTATUSREGISTERSTEP13READALLxVARHRAFTERLENERGYINTERRUPTSTEP14CALCULATExVARGSTEP15WRITETOxVARGSTEP16CALCULATEWh/LSB,VAh/LSB,VARh/LSBEND04443-081SELECTPHASEFORLINEPERIODMEASUREMENTCONFIGUREFREQ[11:0]FORALINEPERIODMEASUREMENT Figure 82. Gain Calibration Using Line Accumulation ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 50 of 72 Step 5: Set the LENERGY bit, MASK[12] (0x18), to Logic 1 to enable the interrupt signaling the end of the line cycle accumulation. Step 6: Set the test system for ITEST, VNOM, and unity power factor (calibrate watt and VA simultaneously and first). Step 7: Read the FREQ (0x10) register if the line frequency is unknown. Step 8: Reset the interrupt status register by reading RSTATUS (0x1A). Step 9: Read all six xWATTHR (0x01 to 0x03) and xVAHR (0x07 to 0x09) energy registers after the LENERGY interrupt and store the values. Step 9a: Calculate the values to be written to xWG registers according to the following equations: ()WDIVAPCFNUMAPCFDENAccumTimeθcosVIMCWATTHRNOMTESTEXPECTED1360010004××××××××= (60) where AccumTime is []SelectedPhasesofNo.FrequencyLine :LINECYC××2015 (61) where: MC is the meter constant. θ is the angle between the current and voltage. Line Frequency is known or calculated from the FREQ[11:0] register. With the FREQ[11:0] register configured for line period measurements, the line frequency is calculated with Equation 62. 6-109.60]:[111××=FREQFrequencyLine (62) No. of Phases Selected is the number of ZXSEL bits set to Logic 1 in LCYCMODE (0x17). Then, xWG is calculated as 1221×⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛−=MEASUREDEXPECTEDWATTHRWATTHRxWG (63) Step 9b: Calculate the values to be written to the xVAG registers according to the following equation: VADIVVARCFNUMVARCFDENAccumTimeVIMCVAHRNOMTESTEXPECTED1360010004×××××××= (64) 1221×⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛−=MEASUREDEXPECTEDVAHRVAHRxVAG Step 10: Write to xWG and xVAG. Step 11: Set the test system for ITEST, VNOM, and zero power factor inductive to calibrate VAR gain. Step 12: Repeat Step 7. Step 13: Read the xVARHR (0x04 to 0x06) after the LENERGY interrupt and store the values. Step 14: Calculate the values to be written to the xVARG registers (to adjust VARCF to the expected value). ()VARDIVVARCFNUMVARCFDENAccumTimeθsinVIMCVARHRNOMTESTEXPECTED1360010004××××××××= (65) 1221×⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛−=MEASUREDEXPECTEDVARHRVARHRxVARG Step 15: Write to xVARG. Step 16: Calculate the Wh/LSB, VARh/LSB, and VAh/LSB constants. ()xWATTHRAccumTimeθcosVILSBWhNOMTEST××××=3600 (66) xVAHRAccumTimeVILSBVAhNOMTEST×××=3600 (67) ()xVARHRAccumTimeθsinVILSBVARhNOMTEST××××=3600 (68) Example: Watt Gain Calibration Using Line Accumulation This example shows only Phase A watt calibration. The steps outlined in the Gain Calibration Using Line Accumulation section show how to calibrate watt, VA, and VAR. All three phases can be calibrated simultaneously because there are nine energy registers. For this example, ITEST = 10 A, VNOM = 220 V, Power Factor = 1, Frequency = 50 Hz, LINECYC (0x1C) is set to 0x800, and MC = 3200 imp/kWhr. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 51 of 72 To set APCFNUM (0x45) and APCFDEN (0x46) to the calculated value to perform a coarse adjustment on the imp/kW-hr ratio, use Equation 45 to Equation 47. kHz5415.013010500220kH16=××=zAPCFNOMINAL ()Hz1.956cos36001000220103200=θ××××=EXPECTEDAPCF 277Hz956.1Hz5.541INT=⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛=APCFDEN Under the test conditions above, the AWATTHR register value is 15559d after the LENERGY interrupt. Using Equation 60 and Equation 61, the value to be written to AWG is −199d, 0xF39. []SelectedPhasesofNo.FREQ:LINECYCAccumTime××××=−6106.9]0:11[12015 6.832128s3106.920851280006=××××=−xAccumTime 148041127736001000832.612201032004=××××××××=EXPECTEDWATTHR 0xF39–199–198.8764021155591480412===×⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛−=xWG Using Equation 66, the Wh/LSB constant is 00.000282148043600832.622010=×××=LSBWh Phase Calibration Using Line Accumulation The ADE7758 includes a phase calibration register on each phase to compensate for small phase errors. Large phase errors should be compensated by adjusting the antialiasing filters. The ADE7758 phase calibration is a time delay with different weights in the positive and negative direction (see the Phase Compensation section). Because a current transformer is a source of phase error, a fixed nominal value can be decided on to load into the xPHCAL (0x3F to 0x41) registers at power-up. During calibration, this value can be adjusted for CT-to-CT error. Figure 83 shows the steps involved in calibrating the phase using the line accumulation mode. STEP1SETLCYCMODE,LINECYCANDMASKREGISTERSSTEP2SETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOM,PF=0.5,INDUCTIVESTEP3RESETSTATUSREGISTERSTEP4READALLxWATTHRREGISTERSAFTERLENERGYINTERRUPTSTEP5CALCULATEPHASEERROR INDEGREESFORALLPHASESSTEP6CALCULATEANDWRITETOALLxPHCALREGISTERS04443-082 Figure 83. Phase Calibration Using Line Accumulation Step 1: If the values were changed after gain calibration, Step 1, Step 3, and Step 4 from the gain calibration should be repeated to configure the LCYCMODE and LINECYC registers. Step 2: Set the test system for ITEST, VNOM, and 0.5 power factor inductive. Step 3: Reset the interrupt status register by reading RSTATUS (0x1A). Step 4: The xWATTHR registers should be read after the LENERGY interrupt. Measure the percent error in the energy register readings (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, and CWATTHR) compared to the energy register readings at unity power factor (after gain calibration) using Equation 69. The readings at unity power factor should have been repeated after the gain calibration and stored for use in the phase calibration routine. 22–1PF1PF5PF====xWATTHRxWATTHRxWATTHRError (69) Step 5: Calculate the Phase Error in degrees using the equation ()⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛=°3–ErrorArcsinErrorPhase (70) Step 6: Calculate xPHCAL and write to the xPHCAL registers (0x3F to 0x41). °×××=3601)(1__1sPeriodLineWeightLSBPHCALErrorPhasexPHCAL(71) where PHCAL_LSB_Weight is 1.2 μs if the %Error is negative or 2.4 μs if the %Error is positive (see the Phase Compensation section). ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 52 of 72 If it is not known, the line period is available in the ADE7758 frequency register, FREQ (0x10). To configure line period measurement, select the phase for period measurement in the MMODE[1:0] and set LCYCMODE[7]. Equation 72 shows how to determine the value that needs to be written to xPHCAL using the period register measurement. °××=360]0:11[__μs6.9FREQWeightLSBPHCALErrorPhasexPHCAL (72) Example: Phase Calibration Using Line Accumulation This example shows only Phase A phase calibration. All three PHCAL registers can be calibrated simultaneously using the same method. For this example, ITEST = 10 A, VNOM = 220 V, power factor = 0.5 inductive, and frequency = 50 Hz. Also, LINECYC = 0x800. With ITEST, VNOM, and 0.5 inductive power factor, the example ADE7758 meter shows 7318d in the AWATTHR (0x01) register. 14804d in the AWATTHR register. This is equivalent to −1.132% error. %132.101132.0214804214804–7318−=−==Error ()°=⎟⎠ ⎞⎛−01132.0 50 Hz, the FREQ (0x10) register = 2085d, is 17d. Note that a PHCAL_LSB_Weight of 1.2 μs is used because the %Error is negative. 11x01736020852.16.9374.0==××°=APHCAL F STEP1SETMMODE,LCYCMODE,LINECYCANDMASKREGISTERSSTEP2SETUPSYSTEMFORIMIN,VNOM@PF=1STEP3RESETSTATUSREGISTERSTEP4READALLxWATTHRREGISTERSAFTERLENERGYINTERRUPTENDFORSTEP8READALLxVARHRAFTERLENERGYINTERRUPTFORSTEP8,CALCULATExVAROSFORALLPHASESSTEP5CALCULATExWATTOSFORALLPHASESFORSTEP8,WRITETOALLxVAROSREGISTERSSTEP6WRITETOALLxWATTOSREGISTERSSTEP7SETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOM@PF=0, INDUCTIVESTEP8REPEATSTEP3TOSTEP8FORxVARHR,xVAROS CALIBRATION Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 53 of 72 Power Offset Calibration Using Line Accumulation Power offset calibration should be used for outstanding performance over a wide dynamic range (1000:1). Calibration of the power offset is done at or close to the minimum current. The ADE7758 has power offset registers for watts and VAR, xWATTOS (0x39 to 0x3B) and xVAROS (0x3C to 0x3E). Offsets in the VA measurement are compensated by adjusting the rms offset registers (see the Calibration of IRMS and VRMS Offset section). More line cycles could be required at the minimum current to minimize the effect of quantization error on the offset calibration. For example, if a current of 40 mA results in an active energy accumulation of 113 after 2000 half line cycles, one LSB variation in this reading represents an 0.8% error. This measurement does not provide enough resolution to calibrate out a <1% offset error. However, if the active energy is accumulated over 37,500 half line cycles, one LSB variation results in 0.05% error, reducing the quantization error. Figure 84 shows the steps to calibrate the power offsets using the line accumulation mode. Step 1: If the values change after gain calibration, Step 1, Step 3, and Step 4 from the gain calibration should be repeated to configure the LCYCMODE, LINECYC, and MASK registers. Select Phase A, Phase B, or Phase C for a line period measure-ment with the FREQSEL[1:0] bits in the MMODE register (0x14). For example, clearing Bit 1 and Bit 0 selects Phase A for line period measurement. Step 2: Set the test system for IMIN, VNOM, and unity power factor. Step 3: Reset the interrupt status register by reading RSTATUS (0x1A). Step 4: Read all xWATTHR energy registers (0x01 to 0x03) after the LENERGY interrupt and store the values. Step 4a: If it is not known, the line period is available in the ADE7758 frequency register, FREQ (0x10). To configure line period measurement, select the phase for period measurement in the MMODE[1:0] and set LCYCMODE[7]. Step 5: Calculate the value to be written to the xWATTOS registers according to the following equations: TESTMINMINITESTIMINITESTIIIILINECYCLINECYCxWATTHRIxWATTHROffsetTESTMIN––×⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛××= (73) []29240:11×××=CLKINAccumTimeOffsetxWATTOS (74) where: AccumTime is defined in Equation 61. is the value in the energy register at ITEST. is the value in the energy register at IMIN. LINECYCIMIN is the number of line cycles accumulated at IMIN. LINECYCIMAX is the number of line cycles accumulated at IMAX. TESTIxWATTHRMINIxWATTHR Step 6: Write to all xWATTOS registers (0x39 to 0x3B). Step 7: Set the test system for IMIN, VNOM, and zero power factor inductive to calibrate VAR gain. Step 8: Repeat Steps 3, 4, and 5. Step 9: Calculate the value written to the xVAROS registers according to the following equations: TESTMINMINITESTIMINITESTIIIILINECYCLINECYCxVARHRIxVARHROffsetTESTMIN––×⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛××= (75) 262202]0:11[40]:[11××××=FREQCLKINAccumTimeOffsetxVAROS(76) where the FREQ[11:0] register is configured for line period readings. Example: Power Offset Calibration Using Line Accumulation This example only shows Phase A of the phase active power offset calibration. Both active and reactive power offset for all phases can be calibrated simultaneously using the method explained in the Power Offset Calibration Using Line Accumulation section. For this example, IMIN = 50 mA, ITEST = 10 A, VNOM = 220 V, VFULLSCALE = 500 V, IFULLSCALE = 130 A, MC = 3200 impulses/kWh, Power Factor = 1, Frequency = 50 Hz, and CLKIN = 10 MHz. Also, LINECYCITEST = 0x800 and LINECYCIMIN = 0x4000. After accumulating over 0x800 line cycles for gain calibration at ITEST, the example ADE7758 meter shows 14804d in the AWATTHR (0x01) register. At IMIN, the meter shows 592d in the AWATTHR register. By using Equation 73, this is equivalent to 0.161 LSBs of offset; therefore, using Equation 61 and Equation 74, the value written to AWATTOS is 0d. 0.1610–0.050.050x8000x400014804–10592=×⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛××=Offset s64.453106.9208512400006=×××××=−AccumTime ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 54 of 72 00.0882MHz1054.6440.16129=−=×××=AWATTOS The low-pass filter used to obtain the rms measurements is not ideal; therefore, it is recommended to synchronize the readings with the zero crossings of the voltage waveform and to average a few measurements when reading the rms registers. Calibration of IRMS and VRMS Offset IRMSOS and VRMSOS are used to cancel noise and offset contributions from the inputs. The calibration method is the same whether calibrating using the pulse outputs or line accumulation. Reading the registers is required for this calibration because there is no rms pulse output. The rms offset calibration should be performed before VAGAIN calibration. The rms offset calibration also removes offset from the VA calculation. For this reason, no VA offset register exists in the ADE7758. The ADE7758 IRMS measurement is linear over a 500:1 range, and the VRMS measurement is linear over a 20:1 range. To measure the voltage VRMS offset (xVRMSOS), measure rms values at two different nonzero current levels, for example, VNOM and VFULLSCALE/20. To measure the current rms offset (IRMSOS), measure rms values at two different nonzero current levels, for example, ITEST and IFULLSCALE/500. This translates to two test conditions: ITEST and VNOM, and IFULLSCALE/500 and VFULLSCALE/20. Figure 85 shows a flowchart for calibrating the rms measurements. STEP1SETCONFIGURATIONREGISTERSFORZEROCROSSINGONALLPHASESSTEP2SET INTERRUPTMASKFORZEROCROSSINGONALLPHASESSTEP3STEP4READRMSREGISTERSSTEP5WRITETOxVRMSOSxIRMSOSSETUPSYSTEMFORITEST,VNOMSETUPSYSTEMFORIFULLSCALE/500,VFULLSCALE/20STARTTESTEDALLPHASES?YESNOTESTEDALLCONDITIONS?12STEP4ACHOOSENn=0STEP4DREADxIRMSxVRMSSTEP4ECALCULATETHEAVERAGE OFNSAMPLESSTEP4BRESET INTERRUPTSTATUSREGISTERENDn=n+1n=N?NOYESYESNOSTEP4CINTERRUPT?04443-084 Figure 85. RMS Calibration Routine Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 55 of 72 Step 1: Set configuration registers for zero crossings on all phases by writing the value 0x38 to the LCYCMODE register (0x17). This sets all of the ZXSEL bits to Logic 1. Step 2: Set the interrupt mask register for zero-crossing detection on all phases by writing 0xE00 to the MASK[0:24] register (0x18). This sets all of the ZX bits to Logic 1. Step 3: Set up the calibration system for one of the two test conditions: ITEST and VNOM, and IFULLSCALE/500 and VFULLSCALE/20. Step 4: Read the rms registers after the zero-crossing interrupt and take an average of N samples. This is recommended to get the most stable rms readings. This procedure is detailed in Figure 85: Steps 4a through 4e. Step 4a. Choose the number of samples, N, to be averaged. Step 4b. Reset the interrupt status register by reading RSTATUS (0x1A). Step 4c. Wait for the zero-crossing interrupt. When the zero-crossing interrupt occurs, move to Step 4d. Step 4d. Read the xIRMS and xVRMS registers. These values will be averaged in Step 4e. Step 4e: Average the N samples of xIRMS and xVRMS. The averaged values will be used in Step 5. Step 5: Write to the xVRMSOS (0x33 to 0x35) and xIRMSOS (0x36 to 0x38) registers according to the following equations: ()( 222222163841TESTMINITESTMINIMINTESTI–IIRMSI–IRMSIxIRMSOS×××= (77) where: IMIN is the full scale current/500. ITEST is the test current. IRMSIMIN and IRMSITEST are the current rms register values without offset correction for the inputs IMIN and ITEST, respectively. NOMMINVNOMMINVMINNOMV–VVRMSV–VRMSVxVRMSOS×××=641 (78) where: VMIN is the full scale voltage/20 VNOM is the nominal line voltage. VRMSVMIN and VRMSVNOM are the voltage rms register values without offset correction for the input VMIN and VNOM, respectively. Example: Calibration of RMS Offsets For this example, ITEST = 10 A, IMAX = 100 A, VNOM = 220 V, VFULLSCALE = 500 V, Power Factor = 1, and Frequency = 50 Hz. Twenty readings are taken synchronous to the zero crossings of all three phases at each current and voltage to determine the average xIRMS and xVRMS readings. At ITEST and VNOM, the example ADE7758 meter gets an average AIRMS (0x0A) reading of 148242.2 and 744570.8 in the AVRMS (0x0D) register. Then the current is set to IMIN = IFULLSCALE/500 or 260 mA. At IMIN, the average AIRMS reading is 3885.68. At VMIN = VFULLSCALE/20 or 25 V, the example meter gets an average AVRMS of 86362.36. Using this data, −15d is written to AIRMSOS (0x36) and −31d is written to AVRMSOS (0x33) registers according to the Equation 77 and Equation 78. ()(() 0xFF2158.1410–260.0148242.2260.0–3885.681016384122222=−=−=×××=AIRMSOS ()()()0xFE1319.30220–25744570.825–86362.36220641=−=−=×××=AVRMSOS This example shows the calculations and measurements for Phase A only. However, all three xIRMS and xVRMS registers can be read simultaneously to compute the values for each xIRMSOS and xVRMSOS register. CHECKSUM REGISTER The ADE7758 has a checksum register CHKSUM[7:0] (0x7E) to ensure the data bits received in the last serial read operation are not corrupted. The 8-bit checksum register is reset before the first bit (MSB of the register to be read) is put on the DOUT pin. During a serial read operation, when each data bit becomes available on the rising edge of SCLK, the bit is added to the checksum register. In the end of the serial read operation, the contents of the checksum register are equal to the sum of all the 1s in the register previously read. Using the checksum register, the user can determine if an error has occurred during the last read operation. Note that a read to the checksum register also generates a checksum of the checksum register itself. DOUTADDR: 0x7ECHECKSUMREGISTERCONTENT OF REGISTERS(N-BYTES)04443-085 Figure 86. Checksum Register for Serial Interface Read INTERRUPTS The ADE7758 interrupts are managed through the interrupt status register (STATUS[23:0], Address 0x19) and the interrupt mask register (MASK[23:0], Address 0x18). When an interrupt event occurs in the ADE7758, the corresponding flag in the interrupt status register is set to a Logic 1 (see Table 24). If the mask bit for this interrupt in the interrupt mask register is Logic 1, then the IRQ logic output goes active low. The flag bits ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 56 of 72 in the interrupt status register are set irrespective of the state of the mask bits. To determine the source of the interrupt, the MCU should perform a read from the reset interrupt status register with reset. This is achieved by carrying out a read from RSTATUS, Address 0x1A. The IRQ output goes logic high on completion of the interrupt status register read command (see the section). When carrying out a read with reset, the is designed to ensure that no interrupt events are missed. If an interrupt event occurs just as the interrupt status register is being read, the event is not lost, and the Interrupt TimingADE7758IRQ logic output is guaranteed to go logic high for the duration of the interrupt status register data transfer before going logic low again to indicate the pending interrupt. Note that the reset interrupt bit in the status register is high for only one clock cycle, and it then goes back to 0. USING THE INTERRUPTS WITH AN MCU Figure 87 shows a timing diagram that illustrates a suggested implementation of ADE7758 interrupt management using an MCU. At time t1, the IRQ line goes active low indicating that one or more interrupt events have occurred in the . The ADE7758IRQ logic output should be tied to a negative-edge-triggered external interrupt on the MCU. On detection of the negative edge, the MCU should be configured to start executing its interrupt service routine (ISR). On entering the ISR, all interrupts should be disabled using the global interrupt mask bit. At this point, the MCU external interrupt flag can be cleared to capture interrupt events that occur during the current ISR. When the MCU interrupt flag is cleared, a read from the reset interrupt status register with reset is carried out. (This causes the IRQ line to be reset logic high (t2); see the section.) The reset interrupt status register contents are used to determine the source of the interrupt(s) and hence the appropriate action to be taken. If a subsequent interrupt event occurs during the ISR (t3) that event is recorded by the MCU external interrupt flag being set again. Interrupt Timing On returning from the ISR, the global interrupt mask bit is cleared (same instruction cycle) and the external interrupt flag uses the MCU to jump to its ISR once again. This ensures that the MCU does not miss any external interrupts. The reset bit in the status register is an exception to this and is only high for one clock cycle after a reset event. INTERRUPT TIMING The Serial Interface section should be reviewed before reviewing this section. As previously described, when the IRQ output goes low, the MCU ISR must read the interrupt status register to determine the source of the interrupt. When reading the interrupt status register contents, the IRQ output is set high on the last falling edge of SCLK of the first byte transfer (read interrupt status register command). The IRQ output is held high until the last bit of the next 8-bit transfer is shifted out (interrupt status register contents), as shown in . If an interrupt is pending at this time, the Figure 88IRQ output goes low again. If no interrupt is pending, the IRQ output remains high. SERIAL INTERFACE The ADE7758 has a built-in SPI interface. The serial interface of the ADE7758 is made of four signals: SCLK, DIN, DOUT, and CS. The serial clock for a data transfer is applied at the SCLK logic input. This logic input has a Schmitt trigger input structure that allows slow rising (and falling) clock edges to be used. All data transfer operations are synchronized to the serial clock. Data is shifted into the at the DIN logic input on the falling edge of SCLK. Data is shifted out of the at the DOUT logic output on a rising edge of SCLK. ADE7758ADE7758 The CS logic input is the chip select input. This input is used when multiple devices share the serial bus. A falling edge on CS also resets the serial interface and places the in communications mode. ADE7758 The CS input should be driven low for the entire data transfer operation. Bringing CS high during a data transfer operation aborts the transfer and places the serial bus in a high impedance state. The CS logic input can be tied low if the is the only device on the serial bus. ADE7758 However, with CS tied low, all initiated data transfer operations must be fully completed. The LSB of each register must be transferred because there is no other way of bringing the back into communications mode without resetting the entire device, that is, performing a software reset using Bit 6 of the OPMODE[7:0] register, Address 0x13. ADE7758 The functionality of the ADE7758 is accessible via several on-chip registers (see Figure 89). The contents of these registers can be updated or read using the on-chip serial interface. After a falling edge on CS, the is placed in communications mode. In communications mode, the expects the first communication to be a write to the internal communications register. The data written to the communications register contains the address and specifies the next data transfer to be a read or a write command. Therefore, all data transfer operations with the , whether a read or a write, must begin with a write to the communications register. ADE7758ADE7758ADE7758 Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 57 of 72 GLOBALINTERRUPTMASKISR RETURNGLOBAL INTERRUPTMASK RESETCLEAR MCUINTERRUPTFLAGREADSTATUS WITHRESET (0x1A)ISR ACTION(BASED ON STATUS CONTENTS)MCUINTERRUPTFLAG SETPROGRAMSEQUENCEt1t2t3JUMPTOISRJUMPTOISRIRQ04443-086 Figure 87. ADE7758 Interrupt Management STATUS REGISTER CONTENTSSCLKDINDOUTREAD STATUS REGISTER COMMANDt1CS0001000DB15DB8DB7DB01t9t11t12IRQ04443-087 Figure 88. ADE7758 Interrupt Timing COMMUNICATIONSREGISTERINOUTINOUTINOUTINOUTINOUTREGISTER NO. 1REGISTER NO. 2REGISTER NO. 3REGISTER NO. n–1REGISTER NO. nREGISTERADDRESSDECODEDINDOUT04443-088 Figure 89. Addressing ADE7758 Registers via the Communications Register The communications register is an 8-bit, write-only register. The MSB determines whether the next data transfer operation is a read or a write. The seven LSBs contain the address of the register to be accessed (see Table 16). Figure 90 and Figure 91 show the data transfer sequences for a read and write operation, respectively. MULTIBYTECOMMUNICATIONS REGISTER WRITEDINSCLKDOUTREAD DATAADDRESS0CS04443-089 Figure 90. Reading Data from the ADE7758 via the Serial Interface COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER WRITEDINSCLKADDRESS1CSMULTIBYTEREAD DATA04443-090 Figure 91. Writing Data to the ADE7758 via the Serial Interface On completion of a data transfer (read or write), the ADE7758 once again enters into communications mode, that is, the next instruction followed must be a write to the communications register. A data transfer is completed when the LSB of the ADE7758 register being addressed (for a write or a read) is transferred to or from the ADE7758. SERIAL WRITE OPERATION The serial write sequence takes place as follows. With the ADE7758 in communications mode and the CS input logic low, a write to the communications register takes place first. The MSB of this byte transfer must be set to 1, indicating that the next data transfer operation is a write to the register. The seven LSBs of this byte contain the address of the register to be written to. The starts shifting in the register data on the next falling edge of SCLK. All remaining bits of register data are shifted in on the falling edge of the subsequent SCLK pulses (see ). ADE7758Figure 92 ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 58 of 72 As explained earlier, the data write is initiated by a write to the communications register followed by the data. During a data write operation to the ADE7758, data is transferred to all on-chip registers one byte at a time. After a byte is transferred into the serial port, there is a finite time duration before the content in the serial port buffer is transferred to one of the ADE7758 on-chip registers. Although another byte transfer to the serial port can start while the previous byte is being transferred to the destination register, this second-byte transfer should not finish until at least 900 ns after the end of the previous byte transfer. This functionality is expressed in the timing specification t6 (see Figure 92). If a write operation is aborted during a byte transfer (CS brought high), then that byte is not written to the destination register. Destination registers can be up to 3 bytes wide (see the Accessing the On-Chip Registers section). Therefore, the first byte shifted into the serial port at DIN is transferred to the most significant byte (MSB) of the destination register. If the destination register is 12 bits wide, for example, a two-byte data transfer must take place. The data is always assumed to be right justified; therefore, in this case, the four MSBs of the first byte would be ignored, and the four LSBs of the first byte written to the ADE7758 would be the four MSBs of the 12-bit word. Figure 93 illustrates this example. DINSCLKCSt2t3t1t4t5t7t6t8COMMAND BYTEMOST SIGNIFICANT BYTELEAST SIGNIFICANT BYTE1A6A4A5A3A2A1A0DB7DB0DB7DB0t704443-091 Figure 92. Serial Interface Write Timing Diagram SCLKDINXXXXDB11DB10DB9DB8DB7DB6DB5DB4DB3DB2DB1DB0MOST SIGNIFICANT BYTELEAST SIGNIFICANT BYTE04443-092 Figure 93. 12-Bit Serial Write Operation SCLKCSt1t10t130A6A4A5A3A2A1A0DB0DB7DB0DB7DINDOUTt11t12COMMAND BYTEMOST SIGNIFICANT BYTELEAST SIGNIFICANT BYTEt904443-093 Figure 94. Serial Interface Read Timing Diagram Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 59 of 72 SERIAL READ OPERATION During a data read operation from the ADE7758, data is shifted out at the DOUT logic output on the rising edge of SCLK. As was the case with the data write operation, a data read must be preceded with a write to the communications register. With the ADE7758 in communications mode and CS logic low, an 8-bit write to the communications register takes place first. The MSB of this byte transfer must be a 0, indicating that the next data transfer operation is a read. The seven LSBs of this byte contain the address of the register that is to be read. The starts shifting out of the register data on the next rising edge of SCLK (see ). At this point, the DOUT logic output switches from a high impedance state and starts driving the data bus. All remaining bits of register data are shifted out on subsequent SCLK rising edges. The serial interface enters communications mode again as soon as the read is completed. The DOUT logic output enters a high impedance state on the falling edge of the last SCLK pulse. ADE7758Figure 94 The read operation can be aborted by bringing the CS logic input high before the data transfer is completed. The DOUT output enters a high impedance state on the rising edge of CS. When an ADE7758 register is addressed for a read operation, the entire contents of that register are transferred to the serial port. This allows the ADE7758 to modify its on-chip registers without the risk of corrupting data during a multibyte transfer. Note that when a read operation follows a write operation, the read command (that is, write to communications register) should not happen for at least 1.1 μs after the end of the write operation. If the read command is sent within 1.1 μs of the write operation, the last byte of the write operation can be lost. ACCESSING THE ON-CHIP REGISTERS All ADE7758 functionality is accessed via the on-chip registers. Each register is accessed by first writing to the communications register and then transferring the register data. For a full description of the serial interface protocol, see the Serial Interface section. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 60 of 72 REGISTERS COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER The communications register is an 8-bit, write-only register that controls the serial data transfer between the ADE7758 and the host processor. All data transfer operations must begin with a write to the communications register. The data written to the communications register determines whether the next operation is a read or a write and which register is being accessed. Table 16 outlines the bit designations for the communications register. Table 16. Communications Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Description 0 to 6 A0 to A6 The seven LSBs of the communications register specify the register for the data transfer operation. Table 17 lists the address of each ADE7758 on-chip register. 7 W/R When this bit is a Logic 1, the data transfer operation immediately following the write to the communications register is interpreted as a write to the ADE7758. When this bit is a Logic 0, the data transfer operation immediately following the write to the communications register is interpreted as a read operation. DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0 W/R A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Table 17. ADE7758 Register List Address [A6:A0] Name R/W1 Length Type2 Default Value Description 0x00 Reserved – Reserved. 0x01 AWATTHR R 16 S 0 Watt-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase A. Active power is accumulated over time in this read-only register. The AWATTHR register can hold a maximum of 0.52 seconds of active energy information with full-scale analog inputs before it overflows (see the Active Energy Calculation section). Bit 0 and Bit 1 of the COMPMODE register determine how the active energy is processed from the six analog inputs. 0x02 BWATTHR R 16 S 0 Watt-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase B. 0x03 CWATTHR R 16 S 0 Watt-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase C. 0x04 AVARHR R 16 S 0 VAR-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase A. Reactive power is accumulated over time in this read-only register. The AVARHR register can hold a maximum of 0.52 seconds of reactive energy information with full-scale analog inputs before it overflows (see the Reactive Energy Calculation section). Bit 0 and Bit 1 of the COMPMODE register determine how the reactive energy is processed from the six analog inputs. 0x05 BVARHR R 16 S 0 VAR-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase B. 0x06 CVARHR R 16 S 0 VAR-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase C. 0x07 AVAHR R 16 S 0 VA-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase A. Apparent power is accumulated over time in this read-only register. The AVAHR register can hold a maximum of 1.15 seconds of apparent energy information with full-scale analog inputs before it overflows (see the Apparent Energy Calculation section). Bit 0 and Bit 1 of the COMPMODE register determine how the apparent energy is processed from the six analog inputs. 0x08 BVAHR R 16 S 0 VA-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase B. 0x09 CVAHR R 16 S 0 VA-Hour Accumulation Register for Phase C. 0x0A AIRMS R 24 S 0 Phase A Current Channel RMS Register. The register contains the rms component of the Phase A input of the current channel. The source is selected by data bits in the mode register. 0x0B BIRMS R 24 S 0 Phase B Current Channel RMS Register. 0x0C CIRMS R 24 S 0 Phase C Current Channel RMS Register. 0x0D AVRMS R 24 S 0 Phase A Voltage Channel RMS Register. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 61 of 72 Address [A6:A0] Name R/W1 Length Type2 Default Value Description 0x0E BVRMS R 24 S 0 Phase B Voltage Channel RMS Register. 0x0F CVRMS R 24 S 0 Phase C Voltage Channel RMS Register. 0x10 FREQ R 12 U 0 Frequency of the Line Input Estimated by the Zero-Crossing Processing. It can also display the period of the line input. Bit 7 of the LCYCMODE register determines if the reading is frequency or period. Default is frequency. Data Bit 0 and Bit 1 of the MMODE register determine the voltage channel used for the frequency or period calculation. 0x11 TEMP R 8 S 0 Temperature Register. This register contains the result of the latest temperature conversion. Refer to the Temperature Measurement section for details on how to interpret the content of this register. 0x12 WFORM R 24 S 0 Waveform Register. This register contains the digitized waveform of one of the six analog inputs or the digitized power waveform. The source is selected by Data Bit 0 to Bit 4 in the WAVMODE register. 0x13 OPMODE R/W 8 U 4 Operational Mode Register. This register defines the general configuration of the ADE7758 (see Table 18). 0x14 MMODE R/W 8 U 0xFC Measurement Mode Register. This register defines the channel used for period and peak detection measurements (see Table 19). 0x15 WAVMODE R/W 8 U 0 Waveform Mode Register. This register defines the channel and sampling frequency used in the waveform sampling mode (see Table 20). 0x16 COMPMODE R/W 8 U 0x1C Computation Mode Register. This register configures the formula applied for the energy and line active energy measurements (see Table 22). 0x17 LCYCMODE R/W 8 U 0x78 Line Cycle Mode Register. This register configures the line cycle accumulation mode for WATT-HR, VAR-HR, and VA-Hr (see Table 23). 0x18 Mask R/W 24 U 0 IRQ Mask Register. It determines if an interrupt event generates an active-low output at the IRQ pin (see the section). Interrupts 0x19 Status R 24 U 0 IRQ Status Register. This register contains information regarding the source of the interrupts (see the section). ADE7758Interrupts 0x1A RSTATUS R 24 U 0 IRQ Reset Status Register. Same as the STATUS register, except that its contents are reset to 0 (all flags cleared) after a read operation. 0x1B ZXTOUT R/W 16 U 0xFFFF Zero-Cross Timeout Register. If no zero crossing is detected within the time period specified by this register, the interrupt request line (IRQ) goes active low for the corresponding line voltage. The maximum timeout period is 2.3 seconds (see the section). Zero-Crossing Detection 0x1C LINECYC R/W 16 U 0xFFFF Line Cycle Register. The content of this register sets the number of half-line cycles that the active, reactive, and apparent energies are accumulated for in the line accumulation mode. 0x1D SAGCYC R/W 8 U 0xFF SAG Line Cycle Register. This register specifies the number of consecutive half-line cycles where voltage channel input may fall below a threshold level. This register is common to the three line voltage SAG detection. The detection threshold is specified by the SAGLVL register (see the Line Voltage SAG Detection section). 0x1E SAGLVL R/W 8 U 0 SAG Voltage Level. This register specifies the detection threshold for the SAG event. This register is common to all three phases’ line voltage SAG detections. See the description of the SAGCYC register for details. 0x1F VPINTLVL R/W 8 U 0xFF Voltage Peak Level Interrupt Threshold Register. This register sets the level of the voltage peak detection. Bit 5 to Bit 7 of the MMODE register determine which phases are to be monitored. If the selected voltage phase exceeds this level, the PKV flag in the IRQ status register is set. 0x20 IPINTLVL R/W 8 U 0xFF Current Peak Level Interrupt Threshold Register. This register sets the level of the current peak detection. Bit 5 to Bit 7 of the MMODE register determine which phases are to be monitored. If the selected current phase exceeds this level, the PKI flag in the IRQ status register is set. 0x21 VPEAK R 8 U 0 Voltage Peak Register. This register contains the value of the peak voltage waveform that has occurred within a fixed number of half-line cycles. The number of half-line cycles is set by the LINECYC register. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 62 of 72 Address [A6:A0] Name R/W1 Length Type2 Default Value Description 0x22 IPEAK R 8 U 0 Current Peak Register. This register holds the value of the peak current waveform that has occurred within a fixed number of half-line cycles. The number of half-line cycles is set by the LINECYC register. 0x23 Gain R/W 8 U 0 PGA Gain Register. This register is used to adjust the gain selection for the PGA in the current and voltage channels (see the Analog Inputs section). 0x24 AVRMSGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase A VRMS Gain Register. The range of the voltage rms calculation can be adjusted by writing to this register. It has an adjustment range of ±50% with a resolution of 0.0244%/LSB. 0x25 BVRMSGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase B VRMS Gain Register. 0x26 CVRMSGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase C VRMS Gain Register. 0x27 AIGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase A Current Gain Register. This register is not recommended to be used and it should be kept at 0, its default value. 0x28 BIGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase B Current Gain Register. This register is not recommended to be used and it should be kept at 0, its default value. 0x29 CIGAIN R/W 12 S 0 Phase C Current Gain Register. This register is not recommended to be used and it should be kept at 0, its default value. 0x2A AWG R/W 12 S 0 Phase A Watt Gain Register. The range of the watt calculation can be adjusted by writing to this register. It has an adjustment range of ±50% with a resolution of 0.0244%/LSB. 0x2B BWG R/W 12 S 0 Phase B Watt Gain Register. 0x2C CWG R/W 12 S 0 Phase C Watt Gain Register. 0x2D AVARG R/W 12 S 0 Phase A VAR Gain Register. The range of the VAR calculation can be adjusted by writing to this register. It has an adjustment range of ±50% with a resolution of 0.0244%/LSB. 0x2E BVARG R/W 12 S 0 Phase B VAR Gain Register. 0x2F CVARG R/W 12 S 0 Phase C VAR Gain Register. 0x30 AVAG R/W 12 S 0 Phase A VA Gain Register. The range of the VA calculation can be adjusted by writing to this register. It has an adjustment range of ±50% with a resolution of 0.0244%/LSB. 0x31 BVAG R/W 12 S 0 Phase B VA Gain Register. 0x32 CVAG R/W 12 S 0 Phase C VA Gain Register. 0x33 AVRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase A Voltage RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x34 BVRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase B Voltage RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x35 CVRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase C Voltage RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x36 AIRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase A Current RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x37 BIRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase B Current RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x38 CIRMSOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase C Current RMS Offset Correction Register. 0x39 AWATTOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase A Watt Offset Calibration Register. 0x3A BWATTOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase B Watt Offset Calibration Register. 0x3B CWATTOS R/W 12 S 0 Phase C Watt Offset Calibration Register. 0x3C AVAROS R/W 12 S 0 Phase A VAR Offset Calibration Register. 0x3D BVAROS R/W 12 S 0 Phase B VAR Offset Calibration Register. 0x3E CVAROS R/W 12 S 0 Phase C VAR Offset Calibration Register. 0x3F APHCAL R/W 7 S 0 Phase A Phase Calibration Register. The phase relationship between the current and voltage channel can be adjusted by writing to this signed 7-bit register (see the Phase Compensation section). 0x40 BPHCAL R/W 7 S 0 Phase B Phase Calibration Register. 0x41 CPHCAL R/W 7 S 0 Phase C Phase Calibration Register. 0x42 WDIV R/W 8 U 0 Active Energy Register Divider. 0x43 VARDIV R/W 8 U 0 Reactive Energy Register Divider. 0x44 VADIV R/W 8 U 0 Apparent Energy Register Divider. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 63 of 72 Address [A6:A0] Name R/W1 Length Type2 Default Value Description 0x45 APCFNUM R/W 16 U 0 Active Power CF Scaling Numerator Register. The content of thisregister is used in the numerator of the APCF output scaling calculation. Bits [15:13] indicate reverse polarity active power measurement for Phase A, Phase B, and Phase C in order; that is, Bit 15 is Phase A, Bit 14 is Phase B, and so on. 0x46 APCFDEN R/W 12 U 0x3F Active Power CF Scaling Denominator Register. The content of this register is used in the denominator of the APCF output scaling. 0x47 VARCFNUM R/W 16 U 0 Reactive Power CF Scaling Numerator Register. The content of this register is used in the numerator of the VARCF output scaling. Bits [15:13] indicate reverse polarity reactive power measurement for Phase A, Phase B, and Phase C in order; that is, Bit 15 is Phase A, Bit 14 is Phase B, and so on. 0x48 VARCFDEN R/W 12 U 0x3F Reactive Power CF Scaling Denominator Register. The content of this register is used in the denominator of the VARCF output scaling. 0x49 to 0x7D Reserved − − – − Reserved. 0x7E CHKSUM R 8 U − Checksum Register. The content of this register represents the sum of all the ones in the last register read from the SPI port. 0x7F Version R 8 U − Version of the Die. 1 This column specifies the read/write capability of the register. R = Read only register. R/W = Register that can be both read and written. 2 Type decoder: U = unsigned; S = signed. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 64 of 72 OPERATIONAL MODE REGISTER (0x13) The general configuration of the ADE7758 is defined by writing to the OPMODE register. Table 18 summarizes the functionality of each bit in the OPMODE register. Table 18. OPMODE Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Default Value Description 0 DISHPF 0 The HPFs in all current channel inputs are disabled when this bit is set. 1 DISLPF 0 The LPFs after the watt and VAR multipliers are disabled when this bit is set. 2 DISCF 1 The frequency outputs APCF and VARCF are disabled when this bit is set. 3 to 5 DISMOD 0 By setting these bits, the ADE7758 ADCs can be turned off. In normal operation, these bits should be left at Logic 0. DISMOD[2:0] Description 0 0 0 Normal operation. 1 0 0 Redirect the voltage inputs to the signal paths for the current channels and the current inputs to the signal paths for the voltage channels. 0 0 1 Switch off only the current channel ADCs. 1 0 1 Switch off current channel ADCs and redirect the current input signals to the voltage channel signal paths. 0 1 0 Switch off only the voltage channel ADCs. 1 1 0 Switch off voltage channel ADCs and redirect the voltage input signals to the current channel signal paths. 0 1 1 Put the ADE7758 in sleep mode. 1 1 1 Put the ADE7758 in power-down mode (reduces AIDD to 1 mA typ). 6 SWRST 0 Software Chip Reset. A data transfer to the ADE7758 should not take place for at least 166 μs after a software reset. 7 Reserved 0 This should be left at 0. MEASUREMENT MODE REGISTER (0x14) The configuration of the PERIOD and peak measurements made by the ADE7758 is defined by writing to the MMODE register. Table 19 summarizes the functionality of each bit in the MMODE register. Table 19. MMODE Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Default Value Description 0 to 1 FREQSEL 0 These bits are used to select the source of the measurement of the voltage line frequency. FREQSEL1 FREQSEL0 Source 0 0 Phase A 0 1 Phase B 1 0 Phase C 1 1 Reserved 2 to 4 PEAKSEL 7 These bits select the phases used for the voltage and current peak registers. Setting Bit 2 switches the IPEAK and VPEAK registers to hold the absolute values of the largest current and voltage waveform (over a fixed number of half-line cycles) from Phase A. The number of half-line cycles is determined by the content of the LINECYC register. At the end of the LINECYC number of half-line cycles, the content of the registers is replaced with the new peak values. Similarly, setting Bit 3 turns on the peak detection for Phase B, and Bit 4 for Phase C. Note that if more than one bit is set, the VPEAK and IPEAK registers can hold values from two different phases, that is, the voltage and current peak are independently processed (see the Peak Current Detection section). 5 to 7 PKIRQSEL 7 These bits select the phases used for the peak interrupt detection. Setting Bit 5 switches on the monitoring of the absolute current and voltage waveform to Phase A. Similarly, setting Bit 6 turns on the waveform detection for Phase B, and Bit 7 for Phase C. Note that more than one bit can be set for detection on multiple phases. If the absolute values of the voltage or current waveform samples in the selected phases exceeds the preset level specified in the VPINTLVL or IPINTLVL registers the corresponding bit(s) in the STATUS registers are set (see the Peak Current Detection section). Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 65 of 72 WAVEFORM MODE REGISTER (0x15) The waveform sampling mode of the ADE7758 is defined by writing to the WAVMODE register. Table 20 summarizes the functionality of each bit in the WAVMODE register. Table 20. WAVMODE Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Default Value Description 0 to 1 PHSEL 0 These bits are used to select the phase of the waveform sample. PHSEL[1:0] Source 0 0 Phase A 0 1 Phase B 1 0 Phase C 1 1 Reserved 2 to 4 WAVSEL 0 These bits are used to select the type of waveform. WAVSEL[2:0] Source 0 0 0 Current 0 0 1 Voltage 0 1 0 Active Power Multiplier Output 0 1 1 Reactive Power Multiplier Output 1 0 0 VA Multiplier Output Others- Reserved 5 to 6 DTRT 0 These bits are used to select the data rate. DTRT[1:0] Update Rate 0 0 26.04 kSPS (CLKIN/3/128) 0 1 13.02 kSPS (CLKIN/3/256) 1 0 6.51 kSPS (CLKIN/3/512) 1 1 3.25 kSPS (CLKIN/3/1024) 7 VACF 0 Setting this bit to Logic 1 switches the VARCF output pin to an output frequency that is proportional to the total apparent power (VA). In the default state, Logic 0, the VARCF pin outputs a frequency proportional to the total reactive power (VAR). ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 66 of 72 COMPUTATIONAL MODE REGISTER (0x16) The computational method of the ADE7758 is defined by writing to the COMPMODE register. Table 21 summarizes the functionality of each bit in the COMPMODE register. Table 21. COMPMODE Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Default Value Description 0 to 1 CONSEL 0 These bits are used to select the input to the energy accumulation registers. CONSEL[1:0] = 11 is reserved. IA, IB, and IC are IA, IB, and IC phase shifted by –90°, respectively. Registers CONSEL[1, 0] = 00 CONSEL[1, 0] = 01 CONSEL[1, 0] = 10 AWATTHR VA × IA VA × (IA – IB) VA × (IA–IB) BWATTHR VB × IB 0 0 CWATTHR VC × IC VC × (IC – IB) VC × IC AVARHR VA × IA VA × (IA – IB) VA × (IA–IB) BVARHR VB × IB 0 0 CVARHR VC × IC VC × (IC – IB) VC × IC AVAHR VARMS × IARMS VARMS × IARMS VARMS × ARMS BVAHR VBRMS × IBRMS (VARMS + VCRMS)/2 × IBRMS VARMS × IBRMS CVAHR VCRMS × ICRMS VCRMS × ICRMS VCRMS × ICRMS 2 to 4 TERMSEL 7 These bits are used to select the phases to be included in the APCF and VARCF pulse outputs. Setting Bit 2 selects Phase A (the inputs to AWATTHR and AVARHR registers) to be included. Bit 3 and Bit 4 are for Phase B and Phase C, respectively. Setting all three bits enables the sum of all three phases to be included in the frequency outputs (see the Active Power Frequency Output and the Reactive Power Frequency Output sections). 5 ABS 0 Setting this bit places the APCF output pin in absolute only mode. Namely, the APCF output frequency is proportional to the sum of the absolute values of the watt-hour accumulation registers (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, and CWATTHR). Note that this bit only affects the APCF pin and has no effect on the content of the corresponding registers. 6 SAVAR 0 Setting this bit places the VARCF output pin in the signed adjusted mode. Namely, the VARCF output frequency is proportional to the sign-adjusted sum of the VAR-hour accumulation registers (AVARHR, BVARHR, and CVARHR). The sign of the VAR is determined from the sign of the watt calculation from the corresponding phase, that is, the sign of the VAR is flipped if the sign of the watt is negative, and if the watt is positive, there is no change to the sign of the VAR. Note that this bit only affects the VARCF pin and has no effect on the content of the corresponding registers. 7 NOLOAD 0 Setting this bit activates the no-load threshold in the ADE7758. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 67 of 72 LINE CYCLE ACCUMULATION MODE REGISTER (0x17) The functionalities involved the line-cycle accumulation mode in the ADE7758 are defined by writing to the LCYCMODE register. Table 22 summarizes the functionality of each bit in the LCYCMODE register. Table 22. LCYCMODE Register Bit Location Bit Mnemonic Default Value Description 0 LWATT 0 Setting this bit places the watt-hour accumulation registers (AWATTHR, BWATTHR, and CWATTHR registers) into line-cycle accumulation mode. 1 LVAR 0 Setting this bit places the VAR-hour accumulation registers (AVARHR, BVARHR, and CVARHR registers) into line-cycle accumulation mode. 2 LVA 0 Setting this bit places the VA-hour accumulation registers (AVAHR, BVAHR, and CVAHR registers) into line-cycle accumulation mode. 3 to 5 ZXSEL 7 These bits select the phases used for counting the number of zero crossings in the line-cycle accumulation mode. Bit 3, Bit 4, and Bit 5 select Phase A, Phase B, and Phase C, respectively. More than one phase can be selected for the zero-crossing detection, and the accumulation time is shortened accordingly. 6 RSTREAD 1 Setting this bit enables the read-with-reset for all the WATTHR, VARHR, and VAHR registers for all three phases, that is, a read to those registers resets the registers to 0 after the content of the registers have been read. This bit should be set to Logic 0 when the LWATT, LVAR, or LVA bits are set to Logic 1. 7 FREQSEL 0 Setting this bit causes the FREQ (0x10) register to display the period, instead of the frequency of the line input. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 68 of 72 INTERRUPT MASK REGISTER (0x18) When an interrupt event occurs in the ADE7758, the IRQ logic output goes active low if the mask bit for this event is Logic 1 in the MASK register. The IRQ logic output is reset to its default collector open state when the RSTATUS register is read. describes the function of each bit in the interrupt mask register. Table 23 Table 23. Function of Each Bit in the Interrupt Mask Register Bit Location Interrupt Flag Default Value Description 0 AEHF 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a change in Bit 14 of any one of the three WATTHR registers, that is, the WATTHR register is half full. 1 REHF 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a change in Bit 14 of any one of the three VARHR registers, that is, the VARHR register is half full. 2 VAEHF 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a 0 to 1 transition in the MSB of any one of the three VAHR registers, that is, the VAHR register is half full. 3 SAGA 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase A. 4 SAGB 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase B. 5 SAGC 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase C. 6 ZXTOA 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero-crossing timeout detection on Phase A. 7 ZXTOB 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero-crossing timeout detection on Phase B. 8 ZXTOC 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero-crossing timeout detection on Phase C. 9 ZXA 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase A (see the Zero-Crossing Detection section). 10 ZXB 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase B (see the Zero-Crossing Detection section). 11 ZXC 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase C (see the Zero-Crossing Detection section). 12 LENERGY 0 Enables an interrupt when the energy accumulations over LINECYC are finished. 13 Reserved 0 Reserved. 14 PKV 0 Enables an interrupt when the voltage input selected in the MMODE register is above the value in the VPINTLVL register. 15 PKI 0 Enables an interrupt when the current input selected in the MMODE register is above the value in the IPINTLVL register. 16 WFSM 0 Enables an interrupt when data is present in the WAVEMODE register. 17 REVPAP 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a sign change in the watt calculation among any one of the phases specified by the TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register. 18 REVPRP 0 Enables an interrupt when there is a sign change in the VAR calculation among any one of the phases specified by the TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register. 19 SEQERR 0 Enables an interrupt when the zero crossing from Phase A is followed not by the zero crossing of Phase C but with that of Phase B. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 69 of 72 INTERRUPT STATUS REGISTER (0x19)/RESET INTERRUPT STATUS REGISTER (0x1A) The interrupt status register is used to determine the source of an interrupt event. When an interrupt event occurs in the ADE7758, the corresponding flag in the interrupt status register is set. The IRQ pin goes active low if the corresponding bit in the interrupt mask register is set. When the MCU services the interrupt, it must first carry out a read from the interrupt status register to determine the source of the interrupt. All the interrupts in the interrupt status register stay at their logic high state after an event occurs. The state of the interrupt bit in the interrupt status register is reset to its default value once the reset interrupt status register is read. Table 24. Interrupt Status Register Bit Location Interrupt Flag Default Value Event Description 0 AEHF 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a change in Bit 14 among any one of the three WATTHR registers, that is, the WATTHR register is half full. 1 REHF 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a change in Bit 14 among any one of the three VARHR registers, that is, the VARHR register is half full. 2 VAEHF 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a 0 to 1 transition in Bit 15 among any one of the three VAHR registers, that is, the VAHR register is half full. 3 SAGA 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase A. 4 SAGB 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase B. 5 SAGC 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a SAG on the line voltage of the Phase C. 6 ZXTOA 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a missing zero crossing on the line voltage of the Phase A. 7 ZXTOB 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a missing zero crossing on the line voltage of the Phase B. 8 ZXTOC 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a missing zero crossing on the line voltage of the Phase C. 9 ZXA 0 Indicates a detection of a rising edge zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase A. 10 ZXB 0 Indicates a detection of a rising edge zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase B. 11 ZXC 0 Indicates a detection of a rising edge zero crossing in the voltage channel of Phase C. 12 LENERGY 0 In line energy accumulation, indicates the end of an integration over an integer number of half-line cycles (LINECYC). See the Calibration section. 13 Reset 1 After Bit 6 (SWRST) in OPMODE register is set to 1, the ADE7758 enters software reset. This bit becomes 1 after 166 μsec, indicating the reset process has ended and the registers are set to their default values. It stays 1 until the reset interrupt status register is read and then becomes 0. 14 PKV 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused when the selected voltage input is above the value in the VPINTLVL register. 15 PKI 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused when the selected current input is above the value in the IPINTLVL register. 16 WFSM 0 Indicates that new data is present in the waveform register. 17 REVPAP 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a sign change in the watt calculation among any one of the phases specified by the TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register. 18 REVPRP 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a sign change in the VAR calculation among any one of the phases specified by the TERMSEL bits in the COMPMODE register. 19 SEQERR 0 Indicates that an interrupt was caused by a zero crossing from Phase A followed not by the zero crossing of Phase C but by that of Phase B. ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 70 of 72 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS COMPLIANTTOJEDECSTANDARDSMS-013-ADCONTROLLINGDIMENSIONSAREINMILLIMETERS;INCHDIMENSIONS(INPARENTHESES)AREROUNDED-OFFMILLIMETEREQUIVALENTSFORREFERENCEONLYANDARENOTAPPROPRIATEFORUSEINDESIGN.15.60(0.6142)15.20(0.5984)0.30(0.0118)0.10(0.0039)2.65(0.1043)2.35(0.0925)10.65(0.4193)10.00(0.3937)7.60(0.2992)7.40(0.2913)0.75(0.0295)0.25(0.0098)45°1.27(0.0500)0.40(0.0157)COPLANARITY0.100.33(0.0130)0.20(0.0079)0.51(0.0201)0.31(0.0122)SEATINGPLANE8°0°24131211.27(0.0500)BSC12-09-2010-A Figure 95. 24-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_W] Wide Body (RW-24) Dimensions shown in millimeters and (inches) ORDERING GUIDE Model1 Temperature Range Package Description Package Option ADE7758ARWZ −40°C to + 85°C 24-Lead Wide Body SOIC_W RW-24 ADE7758ARWZRL −40°C to + 85°C 24-Lead Wide Body SOIC_W RW-24 EVAL-ADE7758ZEB Evaluation Board 1 Z = RoHS Compliant Part. Data Sheet ADE7758 Rev. E | Page 71 of 72 NOTES ADE7758 Data Sheet Rev. E | Page 72 of 72 NOTES ©2004–2011 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. D04443-0-10/11(E) 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 GND TRIG OUT RESET VCC DISCH THRES CONT 3 2 1 20 19 9 10 11 12 13 4 5 6 7 8 18 17 16 15 14 NC DISCH NC THRES NC NC TRIG NC OUT NC NC GND NC CONT NC VCC NC NC RESET NC NC – No internal connection NA555...D OR P PACKAGE NE555...D, P, PS, OR PW PACKAGE SA555...D OR P PACKAGE SE555...D, JG, OR P PACKAGE (TOP VIEW) SE555...FK PACKAGE (TOP VIEW) NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 PRECISION TIMERS Check for Samples: NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 1FEATURES • Timing From Microseconds to Hours • Adjustable Duty Cycle • Astable or Monostable Operation • TTL-Compatible Output Can Sink or Source up to 200 mA DESCRIPTION/ORDERING INFORMATION These devices are precision timing circuits capable of producing accurate time delays or oscillation. In the time-delay or monostable mode of operation, the timed interval is controlled by a single external resistor and capacitor network. In the astable mode of operation, the frequency and duty cycle can be controlled independently with two external resistors and a single external capacitor. The threshold and trigger levels normally are two-thirds and one-third, respectively, of VCC. These levels can be altered by use of the control-voltage terminal. When the trigger input falls below the trigger level, the flip-flop is set, and the output goes high. If the trigger input is above the trigger level and the threshold input is above the threshold level, the flip-flop is reset and the output is low. The reset (RESET) input can override all other inputs and can be used to initiate a new timing cycle. When RESET goes low, the flip-flop is reset, and the output goes low. When the output is low, a low-impedance path is provided between discharge (DISCH) and ground. The output circuit is capable of sinking or sourcing current up to 200 mA. Operation is specified for supplies of 5 V to 15 V. With a 5-V supply, output levels are compatible with TTL inputs. 1 Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet. PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not On products compliant to MIL-PRF-38535, all parameters are necessarily include testing of all parameters. tested unless otherwise noted. On all other products, production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters. NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com ORDERING INFORMATION(1) T VTHRES MAX A V PACKAGE(2) ORDERABLE PART NUMBER TOP-SIDE MARKING CC = 15 V PDIP – P Tube of 50 NE555P NE555P Tube of 75 NE555D SOIC – D NE555 Reel of 2500 NE555DR 0°C to 70°C 11.2 V SOP – PS Reel of 2000 NE555PSR N555 Tube of 150 NE555PW TSSOP – PW N555 Reel of 2000 NE555PWR PDIP – P Tube of 50 SA555P SA555P –40°C to 85°C 11.2 V Tube of 75 SA555D SOIC – D SA555 Reel of 2000 SA555DR PDIP – P Tube of 50 NA555P NA555P –40°C to 105°C 11.2 V Tube of 75 NA555D SOIC – D NA555 Reel of 2000 NA555DR PDIP – P Tube of 50 SE555P SE555P Tube of 75 SE555D SOIC – D SE555D –55°C to 125°C 10.6 Reel of 2500 SE555DR CDIP – JG Tube of 50 SE555JG SE555JG LCCC – FK Tube of 55 SE555FK SE555FK (1) For the most current package and ordering information, see the Package Option Addendum at the end of this document, or see the TI web site at www.ti.com. (2) Package drawings, thermal data, and symbolization are available at www.ti.com/packaging. Table 1. FUNCTION TABLE RESET TRIGGER THRESHOLD OUTPUT DISCHARGE VOLTAGE(1) VOLTAGE(1) SWITCH Low Irrelevant Irrelevant Low On High <1/3 VCC Irrelevant High Off High >1/3 VCC >2/3 VCC Low On High >1/3 VCC <2/3 VCC As previously established (1) Voltage levels shown are nominal. 2 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 1 S R R1 TRIG THRES VCC CONT RESET OUT DISCH GND ÎÎÎ ÎÎÎ ÎÎÎ ÎÎÎ Î ÎÎÎ 8 4 5 6 2 1 7 3 NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM A. Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. B. RESET can override TRIG, which can override THRES. Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 3 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com Absolute Maximum Ratings(1) over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) MIN MAX UNIT VCC Supply voltage(2) 18 V VI Input voltage CONT, RESET, THRES, TRIG VCC V IO Output current ±225 mA D package 97 P package 85 qJA Package thermal impedance(3) (4) °C/W PS package 95 PW package 149 FK package 5.61 qJC Package thermal impedance(5) (6) °C/W JG package 14.5 TJ Operating virtual junction temperature 150 °C Case temperature for 60 s FK package 260 °C Lead temperature 1, 6 mm (1/16 in) from case for 60 s JG package 300 °C Tstg Storage temperature range –65 150 °C (1) Stresses beyond those listed under "absolute maximum ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under "recommended operating conditions" is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. (2) All voltage values are with respect to GND. (3) Maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(max), qJA, and TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any allowable ambient temperature is PD = (TJ(max) - TA)/qJA. Operating at the absolute maximum TJ of 150°C can affect reliability. (4) The package thermal impedance is calculated in accordance with JESD 51-7. (5) Maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(max), qJC, and TC. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any allowable case temperature is PD = (TJ(max) - TC)/qJC. Operating at the absolute maximum TJ of 150°C can affect reliability. (6) The package thermal impedance is calculated in accordance with MIL-STD-883. Recommended Operating Conditions over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) MIN MAX UNIT NA555, NE555, SA555 4.5 16 VCC Supply voltage V SE555 4.5 18 VI Input voltage CONT, RESET, THRES, and TRIG VCC V IO Output current ±200 mA NA555 –40 105 NE555 0 70 TA Operating free-air temperature °C SA555 –40 85 SE555 –55 125 4 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 Electrical Characteristics VCC = 5 V to 15 V, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise noted) NA555 SE555 NE555 PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS SA555 UNIT MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX VCC = 15 V 9.4 10 10.6 8.8 10 11.2 THRES voltage level V VCC = 5 V 2.7 3.3 4 2.4 3.3 4.2 THRES current(1) 30 250 30 250 nA 4.8 5 5.2 4.5 5 5.6 VCC = 15 V TA = –55°C to 125°C 3 6 TRIG voltage level V 1.45 1.67 1.9 1.1 1.67 2.2 VCC = 5 V TA = –55°C to 125°C 1.9 TRIG current TRIG at 0 V 0.5 0.9 0.5 2 mA 0.3 0.7 1 0.3 0.7 1 RESET voltage level V TA = –55°C to 125°C 1.1 RESET at VCC 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4 RESET current mA RESET at 0 V –0.4 –1 –0.4 –1.5 DISCH switch off-state 20 100 20 100 nA current 9.6 10 10.4 9 10 11 VCC = 15 V CONT voltage TA = –55°C to 125°C 9.6 10.4 (open circuit) V 2.9 3.3 3.8 2.6 3.3 4 VCC = 5 V TA = –55°C to 125°C 2.9 3.8 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.25 VCC = 15 V, IOL = 10 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.75 VCC = 15 V, IOL = 50 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 1 2 2.2 2 2.5 VCC = 15 V, IOL = 100 mA Low-level output voltage TA = –55°C to 125°C 2.7 V VCC = 15 V, IOL = 200 mA 2.5 2.5 VCC = 5 V, IOL = 3.5 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 0.35 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.35 VCC = 5 V, IOL = 5 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 0.8 VCC = 5 V, IOL = 8 mA 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.4 13 13.3 12.75 13.3 VCC = 15 V, IOL = –100 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 12 High-level output voltage VCC = 15 V, IOH = –200 mA 12.5 12.5 V 3 3.3 2.75 3.3 VCC = 5 V, IOL = –100 mA TA = –55°C to 125°C 2 VCC = 15 V 10 12 10 15 Output low, No load VCC = 5 V 3 5 3 6 Supply current mA VCC = 15 V 9 10 9 13 Output high, No load VCC = 5 V 2 4 2 5 (1) This parameter influences the maximum value of the timing resistors RA and RB in the circuit of Figure 12. For example, when VCC = 5 V, the maximum value is R = RA + RB ≉ 3.4 MΩ, and for VCC = 15 V, the maximum value is 10 MΩ. Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 5 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com Operating Characteristics VCC = 5 V to 15 V, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise noted) NA555 TEST SE555 NE555 PARAMETER CONDITIONS(1) SA555 UNIT MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX Initial error of timing Each timer, monostable(3) TA = 25°C 0.5 1.5(4) 1 3 interval(2) % Each timer, astable(5) 1.5 2.25 Temperature coefficient of Each timer, monostable(3) TA = MIN to MAX 30 100(4) 50 ppm/ timing interval Each timer, astable(5) 90 150 °C Supply-voltage sensitivity of Each timer, monostable(3) TA = 25°C 0.05 0.2(4) 0.1 0.5 timing interval %/V Each timer, astable(5) 0.15 0.3 Output-pulse rise time CL = 15 pF, 100 200(4) 100 300 ns TA = 25°C Output-pulse fall time CL = 15 pF, 100 200(4) 100 300 ns TA = 25°C (1) For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. (2) Timing interval error is defined as the difference between the measured value and the average value of a random sample from each process run. (3) Values specified are for a device in a monostable circuit similar to Figure 9, with the following component values: RA = 2 kΩ to 100 kΩ, C = 0.1 mF. (4) On products compliant to MIL-PRF-38535, this parameter is not production tested. (5) Values specified are for a device in an astable circuit similar to Figure 12, with the following component values: RA = 1 kΩ to 100 kΩ, C = 0.1 mF. 6 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 125°C ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 25°C IOL − Low-Level Output Current − mA ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ VCC = 5 V LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = −55°C 0.1 0.04 0.01 1 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 100 0.07 1 0.4 0.7 10 4 7 0.02 0.2 2 VOL − Low-Level Output Voltage − V ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ VCC = 10 V LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT VOL − Low-Level Output Voltage − V IOL − Low-Level Output Current − mA 0.1 0.04 0.01 1 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 100 0.07 1 0.4 0.7 10 4 7 0.02 0.2 2 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 125°C ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 25°C TA= −55°C TA = 125°C TA = 25°C TA = −55°C ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ VCC = 15 V LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT VOL − Low-Level Output Voltage − V IOL − Low-Level Output Current − mA 0.1 0.04 0.01 1 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 100 0.07 1 0.4 0.7 10 4 7 0.02 0.2 2 1 0.6 0.2 0 1.4 1.8 2.0 0.4 1.6 0.8 1.2 − IOH − High-Level Output Current − mA ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 125°C ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = 25°C 1 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 100 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ VCC = 5 V to 15 V ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ TA = −55°C (VCC VOH) − Voltage Drop − V DROP BETWEEN SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND OUTPUT vs HIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS Data for temperatures below 0°C and above 70°C are applicable for SE555 circuits only. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 7 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 5 4 2 1 0 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 − Supply Current − mA 7 6 8 SUPPLY CURRENT vs SUPPLY VOLTAGE 10 12 13 14 15 TA = 25°C TA = 125°C TA = −55°C Output Low, No Load ICC VCC − Supply Voltage − V 1 0.995 0.990 0.985 0 5 10 1.005 1.010 NORMALIZED OUTPUT PULSE DURATION (MONOSTABLE OPERATION) vs SUPPLY VOLTAGE 1.015 15 20 Pulse Duration Relative to Value at V C C = 10 V VCC − Supply Voltage − V 1 0.995 0.990 0.985 −75 −25 25 1.005 1.010 NORMALIZED OUTPUT PULSE DURATION (MONOSTABLE OPERATION) vs FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE 1.015 75 125 TA − Free-Air Temperature − °C −50 0 50 100 VCC = 10 V Pulse Duration Relative to Value at TA = 25C 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Lowest Level of Trigger Pulse – ×VCC tPD – Propagation Delay Time – ns TA = 125°C TA = 70°C TA = 25°C TA = 0°C TA = –55°C PROPAGATION DELAY TIME vs LOWEST VOLTAGE LEVEL OF TRIGGER PULSE NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Data for temperatures below 0°C and above 70°C are applicable for SE555 circuits only. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. 8 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 VCC (5 V to 15 V) RA RL Output GND OUT CONT VCC RESET DISCH THRES Input TRIG ÎÎÎ 5 8 4 7 6 2 3 1 Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 APPLICATION INFORMATION Monostable Operation For monostable operation, any of these timers can be connected as shown in Figure 9. If the output is low, application of a negative-going pulse to the trigger (TRIG) sets the flip-flop (Q goes low), drives the output high, and turns off Q1. Capacitor C then is charged through RA until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the threshold voltage of the threshold (THRES) input. If TRIG has returned to a high level, the output of the threshold comparator resets the flip-flop (Q goes high), drives the output low, and discharges C through Q1. Figure 9. Circuit for Monostable Operation Monostable operation is initiated when TRIG voltage falls below the trigger threshold. Once initiated, the sequence ends only if TRIG is high for at least 10 μs before the end of the timing interval. When the trigger is grounded, the comparator storage time can be as long as 10 μs, which limits the minimum monostable pulse width to 10 μs. Because of the threshold level and saturation voltage of Q1, the output pulse duration is approximately tw = 1.1RAC. Figure 11 is a plot of the time constant for various values of RA and C. The threshold levels and charge rates both are directly proportional to the supply voltage, VCC. The timing interval is, therefore, independent of the supply voltage, so long as the supply voltage is constant during the time interval. Applying a negative-going trigger pulse simultaneously to RESET and TRIG during the timing interval discharges C and reinitiates the cycle, commencing on the positive edge of the reset pulse. The output is held low as long as the reset pulse is low. To prevent false triggering, when RESET is not used, it should be connected to VCC. Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 9 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 − Output Pulse Duration − s C − Capacitance − mF 10 1 10−1 10−2 10−3 10−4 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 10−5 0.001 tw RA = 10 MW RA = 10 kW RA = 1 kW RA = 100 kW RA = 1 MW Voltage − 2 V/div Time − 0.1 ms/div ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Capacitor Voltage Output Voltage Input Voltage ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ RA = 9.1 kW CL = 0.01 mF RL = 1 kW See Figure 9 Voltage − 1 V/div Time − 0.5 ms/div tH Capacitor Voltage tL Output Voltage ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ RA = 5 k RL = 1 k RB = 3 k See Figure 12 C = 0.15 mF GND OUT CONT VCC RESET DISCH THRES TRIG C RB RA Output RL 0.01 mF VCC (5 V to 15 V) (see Note A) ÎÎÎ NOTE A: Decoupling CONT voltage to ground with a capacitor can improve operation. This should be evaluated for individual applications. Open 5 8 4 7 6 2 3 1 Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com Figure 10. Typical Monostable Waveforms Figure 11. Output Pulse Duration vs Capacitance Astable Operation As shown in Figure 12, adding a second resistor, RB, to the circuit of Figure 9 and connecting the trigger input to the threshold input causes the timer to self-trigger and run as a multivibrator. The capacitor C charges through RA and RB and then discharges through RB only. Therefore, the duty cycle is controlled by the values of RA and RB. This astable connection results in capacitor C charging and discharging between the threshold-voltage level (≉0.67 × VCC) and the trigger-voltage level (≉0.33 × VCC). As in the monostable circuit, charge and discharge times (and, therefore, the frequency and duty cycle) are independent of the supply voltage. Figure 12. Circuit for Astable Operation Figure 13. Typical Astable Waveforms 10 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 tH  0.693 (RARB) C tL  0.693 (RB) C Other useful relationships are shown below. period  tHtL  0.693 (RA2RB) C frequency  1.44 (RA2RB) C Output driver duty cycle  tL tHtL  RB RA2RB Output waveform duty cycle  tL tH  RB RARB Low-to-high ratio  tH tHtL  1– RB RA2RB f − Free-Running Frequency − Hz C − Capacitance − mF 100 k 10 k 1 k 100 10 1 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0.1 0.001 RA + 2 RB = 10 MW RA + 2 RB = 1 MW RA + 2 RB = 100 kW RA + 2 RB = 10 kW RA + 2 RB = 1 kW Time − 0.1 ms/div Voltage − 2 V/div ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ VCC = 5 V RA = 1 kW C = 0.1 mF See Figure 15 Capacitor Voltage ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Output Voltage Input Voltage VCC (5 V to 15 V) DISCH OUT RESET VCC RL RA A5T3644 C THRES GND CONT TRIG Input 0.01 mF ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Output 4 8 3 7 6 2 5 1 Pin numbers shown are shown for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 Figure 12 shows typical waveforms generated during astable operation. The output high-level duration tH and low-level duration tL can be calculated as follows: Figure . Figure 14. Free-Running Frequency Missing-Pulse Detector The circuit shown in Figure 15 can be used to detect a missing pulse or abnormally long spacing between consecutive pulses in a train of pulses. The timing interval of the monostable circuit is retriggered continuously by the input pulse train as long as the pulse spacing is less than the timing interval. A longer pulse spacing, missing pulse, or terminated pulse train permits the timing interval to be completed, thereby generating an output pulse as shown in Figure 16. Figure 15. Circuit for Missing-Pulse Detector Figure 16. Completed Timing Waveforms for Missing-Pulse Detector Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 11 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 Voltage − 2 V/div Time − 0.1 ms/div Capacitor Voltage Output Voltage ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏInput Voltage VCC = 5 V RA = 1250 W C = 0.02 mF See Figure 9 NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com Frequency Divider By adjusting the length of the timing cycle, the basic circuit of Figure 9 can be made to operate as a frequency divider. Figure 17 shows a divide-by-three circuit that makes use of the fact that retriggering cannot occur during the timing cycle. Figure 17. Divide-by-Three Circuit Waveforms 12 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 THRES GND C RL RA VCC (5 V to 15 V) Output DISCH OUT RESET VCC TRIG CONT Modulation Input (see Note A) Clock Input NOTE A: The modulating signal can be direct or capacitively coupled to CONT. For direct coupling, the effects of modulation source voltage and impedance on the bias of the timer should be considered. 4 8 3 7 6 2 5 Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. 1 Voltage − 2 V/div Time − 0.5 ms/div ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Capacitor VoltageÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Output Voltage ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Clock Input Voltage ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ RA = 3 kW C = 0.02 mF RL = 1 kW See Figure 18 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Modulation Input Voltage NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 Pulse-Width Modulation The operation of the timer can be modified by modulating the internal threshold and trigger voltages, which is accomplished by applying an external voltage (or current) to CONT. Figure 18 shows a circuit for pulse-width modulation. A continuous input pulse train triggers the monostable circuit, and a control signal modulates the threshold voltage. Figure 19 shows the resulting output pulse-width modulation. While a sine-wave modulation signal is shown, any wave shape could be used. Figure 18. Circuit for Pulse-Width Modulation Figure 19. Pulse-Width-Modulation Waveforms Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 13 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 Voltage − 2 V/div ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ RA = 3 kW RB = 500 W RL = 1 kW See Figure 20 ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Capacitor Voltage ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Output Voltage ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Modulation Input Voltage Time − 0.1 ms/div RB Modulation Input (see Note A) CONT TRIG RESET VCC OUT DISCH VCC (5 V to 15 V) RL RA C GND THRES NOTE A: The modulating signal can be direct or capacitively coupled to CONT. For direct coupling, the effects of modulation source voltage and impedance on the bias of the timer should be considered. Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. 4 8 3 7 6 2 5 Output NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 www.ti.com Pulse-Position Modulation As shown in Figure 20, any of these timers can be used as a pulse-position modulator. This application modulates the threshold voltage and, thereby, the time delay, of a free-running oscillator. Figure 21 shows a triangular-wave modulation signal for such a circuit; however, any wave shape could be used. Figure 20. Circuit for Pulse-Position Modulation Figure 21. Pulse-Position-Modulation Waveforms 14 Submit Documentation Feedback Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 S VCC RESET VCC OUT DISCH GND CONT TRIG 4 8 3 7 6 1 5 2 THRES RC CC 0.01 CC = 14.7 mF RC = 100 kW Output C RESET VCC OUT DISCH GND CONT TRIG 4 8 3 7 6 1 5 2 THRES RB 33 kW 0.001 0.01 mF CB = 4.7 mF RB = 100 kW RA = 100 kW Output A Output B CA = 10 mF mF 0.01 mF 0.001 RA 33 kW THRES 2 5 1 6 7 3 4 8 TRIG CONT GND DISCH OUT RESET VCC mF mF CA CB Pin numbers shown are for the D, JG, P, PS, and PW packages. NOTE A: S closes momentarily at t = 0. Voltage − 5 V/div t − Time − 1 s/div ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ See Figure 22 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Output A ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Output B ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Output C ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ t = 0 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ twC = 1.1 RCCC ÏÏÏÏÏÏ twC ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ twB = 1.1 RBCB ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ twA = 1.1 RACA ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ twA ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ twB NA555, NE555, SA555, SE555 www.ti.com SLFS022H –SEPTEMBER 1973–REVISED JUNE 2010 Sequential Timer Many applications, such as computers, require signals for initializing conditions during start-up. Other applications, such as test equipment, require activation of test signals in sequence. These timing circuits can be connected to provide such sequential control. The timers can be used in various combinations of astable or monostable circuit connections, with or without modulation, for extremely flexible waveform control. Figure 22 shows a sequencer circuit with possible applications in many systems, and Figure 23 shows the output waveforms. Figure 22. Sequential Timer Circuit Figure 23. Sequential Timer Waveforms Copyright © 1973–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback 15 Product Folder Link(s): NA555 NE555 SA555 SE555 PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 24-May-2014 Addendum-Page 1 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish (6) MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Device Marking (4/5) Samples JM38510/10901BPA ACTIVE CDIP JG 8 1 TBD A42 N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 JM38510 /10901BPA M38510/10901BPA ACTIVE CDIP JG 8 1 TBD A42 N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 JM38510 /10901BPA NA555D ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 105 NA555 NA555DG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 105 NA555 NA555DR ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 105 NA555 NA555DRG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 105 NA555 NA555P ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type -40 to 105 NA555P NA555PE4 ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type -40 to 105 NA555P NE555D ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DE4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DR ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU | CU SN Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DRE4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DRG3 PREVIEW SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555DRG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555 NE555P ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU | CU SN N / A for Pkg Type 0 to 70 NE555P NE555PE3 PREVIEW PDIP P 8 50 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 NE555P PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 24-May-2014 Addendum-Page 2 Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish (6) MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Device Marking (4/5) Samples NE555PE4 ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type 0 to 70 NE555P NE555PSLE OBSOLETE SO PS 8 TBD Call TI Call TI 0 to 70 NE555PSR ACTIVE SO PS 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PSRE4 ACTIVE SO PS 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PSRG4 ACTIVE SO PS 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PW ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 150 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PWE4 ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 150 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PWG4 ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 150 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PWR ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PWRE4 ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555PWRG4 ACTIVE TSSOP PW 8 2000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM 0 to 70 N555 NE555Y OBSOLETE 0 TBD Call TI Call TI 0 to 70 SA555D ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555DE4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555DG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555DR ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU | CU SN Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555DRE4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555DRG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 SA555 SA555P ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type -40 to 85 SA555P PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 24-May-2014 Addendum-Page 3 Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish (6) MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Device Marking (4/5) Samples SA555PE4 ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type -40 to 85 SA555P SE555D ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -55 to 125 SE555 SE555DG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 75 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -55 to 125 SE555 SE555DR ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -55 to 125 SE555 SE555DRG4 ACTIVE SOIC D 8 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-1-260C-UNLIM -55 to 125 SE555 SE555FKB ACTIVE LCCC FK 20 1 TBD POST-PLATE N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 SE555FKB SE555JG ACTIVE CDIP JG 8 1 TBD A42 N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 SE555JG SE555JGB ACTIVE CDIP JG 8 1 TBD A42 N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 SE555JGB SE555N OBSOLETE PDIP N 8 TBD Call TI Call TI -55 to 125 SE555P ACTIVE PDIP P 8 50 Pb-Free (RoHS) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type -55 to 125 SE555P (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. (2) Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material) (3) MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature. PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 24-May-2014 Addendum-Page 4 (4) There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device. (5) Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device. (6) Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish value exceeds the maximum column width. Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. 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OTHER QUALIFIED VERSIONS OF SE555, SE555M : • Catalog: SE555 • Military: SE555M • Space: SE555-SP, SE555-SP NOTE: Qualified Version Definitions: • Catalog - TI's standard catalog product • Military - QML certified for Military and Defense Applications • Space - Radiation tolerant, ceramic packaging and qualified for use in Space-based application TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Type Package Drawing Pins SPQ Reel Diameter (mm) Reel Width W1 (mm) A0 (mm) B0 (mm) K0 (mm) P1 (mm) W (mm) Pin1 Quadrant NA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.8 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 NE555PSR SO PS 8 2000 330.0 16.4 8.2 6.6 2.5 12.0 16.0 Q1 NE555PWR TSSOP PW 8 2000 330.0 12.4 7.0 3.6 1.6 8.0 12.0 Q1 SA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 SA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.8 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 SA555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 SE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 SE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 330.0 12.4 6.4 5.2 2.1 8.0 12.0 Q1 PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.com 15-Oct-2013 Pack Materials-Page 1 *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Type Package Drawing Pins SPQ Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) NA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 340.5 338.1 20.6 NA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 367.0 367.0 35.0 NE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 364.0 364.0 27.0 NE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 340.5 338.1 20.6 NE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 340.5 338.1 20.6 NE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 367.0 367.0 35.0 NE555PSR SO PS 8 2000 367.0 367.0 38.0 NE555PWR TSSOP PW 8 2000 367.0 367.0 35.0 SA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 340.5 338.1 20.6 SA555DR SOIC D 8 2500 364.0 364.0 27.0 SA555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 340.5 338.1 20.6 SE555DR SOIC D 8 2500 367.0 367.0 35.0 SE555DRG4 SOIC D 8 2500 367.0 367.0 35.0 PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.com 15-Oct-2013 Pack Materials-Page 2 MECHANICAL DATA MCER001A – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED JANUARY 1997 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 JG (R-GDIP-T8) CERAMIC DUAL-IN-LINE 0.310 (7,87) 0.290 (7,37) 0.014 (0,36) 0.008 (0,20) Seating Plane 4040107/C 08/96 5 4 0.065 (1,65) 0.045 (1,14) 8 1 0.020 (0,51) MIN 0.400 (10,16) 0.355 (9,00) 0.015 (0,38) 0.023 (0,58) 0.063 (1,60) 0.015 (0,38) 0.200 (5,08) MAX 0.130 (3,30) MIN 0.245 (6,22) 0.280 (7,11) 0.100 (2,54) 0°–15° NOTES: A. All linear dimensions are in inches (millimeters). B. This drawing is subject to change without notice. C. This package can be hermetically sealed with a ceramic lid using glass frit. D. Index point is provided on cap for terminal identification. E. Falls within MIL STD 1835 GDIP1-T8 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment. 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Products Applications Audio www.ti.com/audio Automotive and Transportation www.ti.com/automotive Amplifiers amplifier.ti.com Communications and Telecom www.ti.com/communications Data Converters dataconverter.ti.com Computers and Peripherals www.ti.com/computers DLP® Products www.dlp.com Consumer Electronics www.ti.com/consumer-apps DSP dsp.ti.com Energy and Lighting www.ti.com/energy Clocks and Timers www.ti.com/clocks Industrial www.ti.com/industrial Interface interface.ti.com Medical www.ti.com/medical Logic logic.ti.com Security www.ti.com/security Power Mgmt power.ti.com Space, Avionics and Defense www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense Microcontrollers microcontroller.ti.com Video and Imaging www.ti.com/video RFID www.ti-rfid.com OMAP Applications Processors www.ti.com/omap TI E2E Community e2e.ti.com Wireless Connectivity www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265 Copyright © 2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated CC1100 SWRS038D Page 1 of 92 CC1100 Low-Power Sub- 1 GHz RF Transceiver Applications • Ultra low-power wireless applications operating in the 315/433/868/915 MHz ISM/SRD bands • Wireless alarm and security systems • Industrial monitoring and control • Wireless sensor networks • AMR – Automatic Meter Reading • Home and building automation Product Description The CC1100 is a low-cost sub- 1 GHz transceiver designed for very low-power wireless applications. The circuit is mainly intended for the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) and SRD (Short Range Device) frequency bands at 315, 433, 868, and 915 MHz, but can easily be programmed for operation at other frequencies in the 300-348 MHz, 400-464 MHz and 800-928 MHz bands. The RF transceiver is integrated with a highly configurable baseband modem. The modem supports various modulation formats and has a configurable data up to 500 kBaud. CC1100 provides extensive hardware support for packet handling, data buffering, burst transmissions, clear channel assessment, link quality indication, and wake-on-radio. The main operating parameters and the 64- byte transmit/receive FIFOs of CC1100 can be controlled via an SPI interface. In a typical system, the CC1100 will be used together with a microcontroller and a few additional passive components. 6 7 8 9 10 20 19 18 17 16 1 2 3 4 5 15 14 13 12 11 CC1100 This product shall not be used in any of the following products or systems without prior express written permission from Texas Instruments: (i) implantable cardiac rhythm management systems, including without limitation pacemakers, defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization devices, (ii) external cardiac rhythm management systems that communicate directly with one or more implantable medical devices; or (iii) other devices used to monitor or treat cardiac function, including without limitation pressure sensors, biochemical sensors and neurostimulators. Please contact lpw-medical-approval@list.ti.com if your application might fall within the category described above. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 2 of 92 Key Features RF Performance • High sensitivity (–111 dBm at 1.2 kBaud, 868 MHz, 1% packet error rate) • Low current consumption (14.4 mA in RX, 1.2 kBaud, 868 MHz) • Programmable output power up to +10 dBm for all supported frequencies • Excellent receiver selectivity and blocking performance • Programmable data rate from 1.2 to 500 kBaud • Frequency bands: 300-348 MHz, 400-464 MHz and 800-928 MHz Analog Features • 2-FSK, GFSK, and MSK supported as well as OOK and flexible ASK shaping • Suitable for frequency hopping systems due to a fast settling frequency synthesizer: 90us settling time • Automatic Frequency Compensation (AFC) can be used to align the frequency synthesizer to the received centre frequency • Integrated analog temperature sensor Digital Features • Flexible support for packet oriented systems: On-chip support for sync word detection, address check, flexible packet length, and automatic CRC handling • Efficient SPI interface: All registers can be programmed with one “burst” transfer • Digital RSSI output • Programmable channel filter bandwidth • Programmable Carrier Sense (CS) indicator • Programmable Preamble Quality Indicator (PQI) for improved protection against false sync word detection in random noise • Support for automatic Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) before transmitting (for listen-before-talk systems) • Support for per-package Link Quality Indication (LQI) • Optional automatic whitening and dewhitening of data Low-Power Features • 400nA SLEEP mode current consumption • Fast startup time: 240us from sleep to RX or TX mode (measured on EM reference design [5] and [6]) • Wake-on-radio functionality for automatic low-power RX polling • Separate 64-byte RX and TX data FIFOs (enables burst mode data transmission) General • Few external components: Completely onchip frequency synthesizer, no external filters or RF switch needed • Green package: RoHS compliant and no antimony or bromine • Small size (QLP 4x4 mm package, 20 pins) • Suited for systems targeting compliance with EN 300 220 (Europe) and FCC CFR Part 15 (US). • Support for asynchronous and synchronous serial receive/transmit mode for backwards compatibility with existing radio communication protocols CC1100 SWRS038D Page 3 of 92 Abbreviations Abbreviations used in this data sheet are described below. ACP Adjacent Channel Power MSK Minimum Shift Keying ADC Analog to Digital Converter N/A Not Applicable AFC Automatic Frequency Compensation NRZ Non Return to Zero (Coding) AGC Automatic Gain Control OOK On-Off Keying AMR Automatic Meter Reading PA Power Amplifier ASK Amplitude Shift Keying PCB Printed Circuit Board BER Bit Error Rate PD Power Down BT Bandwidth-Time product PER Packet Error Rate CCA Clear Channel Assessment PLL Phase Locked Loop CFR Code of Federal Regulations POR Power-On Reset CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check PQI Preamble Quality Indicator CS Carrier Sense PQT Preamble Quality Threshold CW Continuous Wave (Unmodulated Carrier) PTAT Proportional To Absolute Temperature DC Direct Current QLP Quad Leadless Package DVGA Digital Variable Gain Amplifier QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying ESR Equivalent Series Resistance RC Resistor-Capacitor FCC Federal Communications Commission RF Radio Frequency FEC Forward Error Correction RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator FIFO First-In-First-Out RX Receive, Receive Mode FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum SAW Surface Aqustic Wave 2-FSK Binary Frequency Shift Keying SMD Surface Mount Device GFSK Gaussian shaped Frequency Shift Keying SNR Signal to Noise Ratio IF Intermediate Frequency SPI Serial Peripheral Interface I/Q In-Phase/Quadrature SRD Short Range Devices ISM Industrial, Scientific, Medical TBD To Be Defined LC Inductor-Capacitor T/R Transmit/Receive LNA Low Noise Amplifier TX Transmit, Transmit Mode LO Local Oscillator UHF Ultra High frequency LSB Least Significant Bit VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator LQI Link Quality Indicator WOR Wake on Radio, Low power polling MCU Microcontroller Unit XOSC Crystal Oscillator MSB Most Significant Bit XTAL Crystal CC1100 SWRS038D Page 4 of 92 Table Of Contents APPLICATIONS..................................................................................................................................................1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................1 KEY FEATURES .................................................................................................................................................2 RF PERFORMANCE ..........................................................................................................................................2 ANALOG FEATURES ........................................................................................................................................2 DIGITAL FEATURES.........................................................................................................................................2 LOW-POWER FEATURES................................................................................................................................2 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................................2 ABBREVIATIONS...............................................................................................................................................3 TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................................4 1 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS.....................................................................................................7 2 OPERATING CONDITIONS .................................................................................................................7 3 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.........................................................................................................7 4 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS.......................................................................................................8 4.1 CURRENT CONSUMPTION ............................................................................................................................8 4.2 RF RECEIVE SECTION..................................................................................................................................9 4.3 RF TRANSMIT SECTION .............................................................................................................................13 4.4 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR..............................................................................................................................14 4.5 LOW POWER RC OSCILLATOR...................................................................................................................15 4.6 FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER CHARACTERISTICS..........................................................................................15 4.7 ANALOG TEMPERATURE SENSOR ..............................................................................................................16 4.8 DC CHARACTERISTICS ..............................................................................................................................16 4.9 POWER-ON RESET .....................................................................................................................................16 5 PIN CONFIGURATION........................................................................................................................17 6 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................18 7 APPLICATION CIRCUIT....................................................................................................................19 8 CONFIGURATION OVERVIEW........................................................................................................22 9 CONFIGURATION SOFTWARE........................................................................................................24 10 4-WIRE SERIAL CONFIGURATION AND DATA INTERFACE..................................................24 10.1 CHIP STATUS BYTE ...................................................................................................................................26 10.2 REGISTER ACCESS.....................................................................................................................................26 10.3 SPI READ ..................................................................................................................................................27 10.4 COMMAND STROBES .................................................................................................................................27 10.5 FIFO ACCESS ............................................................................................................................................27 10.6 PATABLE ACCESS...................................................................................................................................28 11 MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACE AND PIN CONFIGURATION ..........................................28 11.1 CONFIGURATION INTERFACE.....................................................................................................................28 11.2 GENERAL CONTROL AND STATUS PINS .....................................................................................................28 11.3 OPTIONAL RADIO CONTROL FEATURE ......................................................................................................29 12 DATA RATE PROGRAMMING..........................................................................................................29 13 RECEIVER CHANNEL FILTER BANDWIDTH..............................................................................30 14 DEMODULATOR, SYMBOL SYNCHRONIZER, AND DATA DECISION..................................30 14.1 FREQUENCY OFFSET COMPENSATION........................................................................................................30 14.2 BIT SYNCHRONIZATION.............................................................................................................................30 14.3 BYTE SYNCHRONIZATION..........................................................................................................................31 15 PACKET HANDLING HARDWARE SUPPORT..............................................................................31 15.1 DATA WHITENING.....................................................................................................................................31 15.2 PACKET FORMAT.......................................................................................................................................32 15.3 PACKET FILTERING IN RECEIVE MODE......................................................................................................34 15.4 PACKET HANDLING IN TRANSMIT MODE...................................................................................................34 15.5 PACKET HANDLING IN RECEIVE MODE .....................................................................................................35 CC1100 SWRS038D Page 5 of 92 15.6 PACKET HANDLING IN FIRMWARE.............................................................................................................35 16 MODULATION FORMATS.................................................................................................................36 16.1 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING.......................................................................................................................36 16.2 MINIMUM SHIFT KEYING...........................................................................................................................36 16.3 AMPLITUDE MODULATION ........................................................................................................................36 17 RECEIVED SIGNAL QUALIFIERS AND LINK QUALITY INFORMATION ............................37 17.1 SYNC WORD QUALIFIER............................................................................................................................37 17.2 PREAMBLE QUALITY THRESHOLD (PQT) ..................................................................................................37 17.3 RSSI..........................................................................................................................................................37 17.4 CARRIER SENSE (CS).................................................................................................................................39 17.5 CLEAR CHANNEL ASSESSMENT (CCA) .....................................................................................................40 17.6 LINK QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI)..............................................................................................................40 18 FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION WITH INTERLEAVING.....................................................40 18.1 FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION (FEC)......................................................................................................40 18.2 INTERLEAVING ..........................................................................................................................................41 19 RADIO CONTROL................................................................................................................................42 19.1 POWER-ON START-UP SEQUENCE.............................................................................................................42 19.2 CRYSTAL CONTROL...................................................................................................................................43 19.3 VOLTAGE REGULATOR CONTROL..............................................................................................................43 19.4 ACTIVE MODES .........................................................................................................................................44 19.5 WAKE ON RADIO (WOR)..........................................................................................................................44 19.6 TIMING ......................................................................................................................................................45 19.7 RX TERMINATION TIMER ..........................................................................................................................46 20 DATA FIFO ............................................................................................................................................46 21 FREQUENCY PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................48 22 VCO.........................................................................................................................................................48 22.1 VCO AND PLL SELF-CALIBRATION ..........................................................................................................48 23 VOLTAGE REGULATORS .................................................................................................................49 24 OUTPUT POWER PROGRAMMING ................................................................................................49 25 SHAPING AND PA RAMPING............................................................................................................50 26 SELECTIVITY.......................................................................................................................................52 27 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR....................................................................................................................53 27.1 REFERENCE SIGNAL ..................................................................................................................................54 28 EXTERNAL RF MATCH .....................................................................................................................54 29 PCB LAYOUT RECOMMENDATIONS.............................................................................................54 30 GENERAL PURPOSE / TEST OUTPUT CONTROL PINS.............................................................55 31 ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL OPERATION..............................................57 31.1 ASYNCHRONOUS OPERATION....................................................................................................................57 31.2 SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL OPERATION ..........................................................................................................57 32 SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS AND GUIDELINES.........................................................................57 32.1 SRD REGULATIONS...................................................................................................................................57 32.2 FREQUENCY HOPPING AND MULTI-CHANNEL SYSTEMS............................................................................58 32.3 WIDEBAND MODULATION NOT USING SPREAD SPECTRUM .......................................................................58 32.4 DATA BURST TRANSMISSIONS...................................................................................................................58 32.5 CONTINUOUS TRANSMISSIONS ..................................................................................................................59 32.6 CRYSTAL DRIFT COMPENSATION ..............................................................................................................59 32.7 SPECTRUM EFFICIENT MODULATION.........................................................................................................59 32.8 LOW COST SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................................59 32.9 BATTERY OPERATED SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................59 32.10 INCREASING OUTPUT POWER ................................................................................................................59 33 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS........................................................................................................60 33.1 CONFIGURATION REGISTER DETAILS – REGISTERS WITH PRESERVED VALUES IN SLEEP STATE...............64 33.2 CONFIGURATION REGISTER DETAILS – REGISTERS THAT LOSE PROGRAMMING IN SLEEP STATE............84 33.3 STATUS REGISTER DETAILS.......................................................................................................................85 CC1100 SWRS038D Page 6 of 92 34 PACKAGE DESCRIPTION (QLP 20).................................................................................................88 34.1 RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT FOR PACKAGE (QLP 20) ...........................................................................88 34.2 SOLDERING INFORMATION ........................................................................................................................88 35 ORDERING INFORMATION..............................................................................................................89 36 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................90 37 GENERAL INFORMATION................................................................................................................91 37.1 DOCUMENT HISTORY ................................................................................................................................91 CC1100 SWRS038D Page 7 of 92 1 Absolute Maximum Ratings Under no circumstances must the absolute maximum ratings given in Table 1 be violated. Stress exceeding one or more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. Caution! ESD sensitive device. Precaution should be used when handling the device in order to prevent permanent damage. Parameter Min Max Units Condition Supply voltage –0.3 3.9 V All supply pins must have the same voltage Voltage on any digital pin –0.3 VDD+0.3 max 3.9 V Voltage on the pins RF_P, RF_N, and DCOUPL –0.3 2.0 V Voltage ramp-up rate 120 kV/μs Input RF level +10 dBm Storage temperature range –50 150 °C Solder reflow temperature 260 °C According to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020C ESD <500 V According to JEDEC STD 22, method A114, Human Body Model Table 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings 2 Operating Conditions The operating conditions for CC1100 are listed Table 2 in below. Parameter Min Max Unit Condition Operating temperature -40 85 °C Operating supply voltage 1.8 3.6 V All supply pins must have the same voltage Table 2: Operating Conditions 3 General Characteristics Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Frequency range 300 348 MHz 400 464 MHz 800 928 MHz Data rate 1.2 1.2 26 500 250 500 kBaud kBaud kBaud 2-FSK GFSK, OOK, and ASK (Shaped) MSK (also known as differential offset QPSK) Optional Manchester encoding (the data rate in kbps will be half the baud rate) Table 3: General Characteristics CC1100 SWRS038D Page 8 of 92 4 Electrical Specifications 4.1 Current Consumption Tc = 25°C, VDD = 3.0V if nothing else stated. All measurement results are obtained using the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Reduced current settings (MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1) gives a slightly lower current consumption at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity. See Table 5 for additional details on current consumption and sensitivity. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition 400 nA Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values retained (SLEEP state). All GDO pins programmed to 0x2F (HW to 0) 900 nA Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values retained, lowpower RC oscillator running (SLEEP state with WOR enabled 95 μA Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values retained, XOSC running (SLEEP state with MCSM0.OSC_FORCE_ON set) Current consumption in power down modes 160 μA Voltage regulator to digital part on, all other modules in power down (XOFF state) 9.8 μA Automatic RX polling once each second, using low-power RC oscillator, with 460 kHz filter bandwidth and 250 kBaud data rate, PLL calibration every 4th wakeup. Average current with signal in channel below carrier sense level (MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI=1). 34.2 μA Same as above, but with signal in channel above carrier sense level, 1.95 ms RX timeout, and no preamble/sync word found. 1.5 μA Automatic RX polling every 15th second, using low-power RC oscillator, with 460kHz filter bandwidth and 250 kBaud data rate, PLL calibration every 4th wakeup. Average current with signal in channel below carrier sense level (MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI=1). 39.3 μA Same as above, but with signal in channel above carrier sense level, 29.3 ms RX timeout, and no preamble/sync word found. 1.6 mA Only voltage regulator to digital part and crystal oscillator running (IDLE state) Current consumption 8.2 mA Only the frequency synthesizer is running (FSTXON state). This currents consumption is also representative for the other intermediate states when going from IDLE to RX or TX, including the calibration state. 15.1 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud, reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 13.9 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud, reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 14.9 mA Receive mode, 38.4 kBaud, reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.1 mA Receive mode,38.4 kBaud, reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 15.9 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud, reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.5 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud, reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 27.0 mA Transmit mode, +10 dBm output power 14.8 mA Transmit mode, 0 dBm output power Current consumption, 315MHz 12.3 mA Transmit mode, –6 dBm output power CC1100 SWRS038D Page 9 of 92 Table 4: Electrical Specifications 4.2 RF Receive Section Tc = 25°C, VDD = 3.0V if nothing else stated. All measurement results are obtained using the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Digital channel filter bandwidth 58 812 kHz User programmable. The bandwidth limits are proportional to crystal frequency (given values assume a 26.0 MHz crystal). 315 MHz, 1.2 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 5.2 kHz deviation, 58 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity -111 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 17.1 mA to 15.1 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -109 dBm 315 MHz, 500 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1 cannot be used for data rates > 250 kBaud) (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 812 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) -88 dBm Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition 15.5 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.5 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 15.4 mA Receive mode, 38.4 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.4 mA Receive mode, 38.4 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 16.5 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 15.2 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 28.9 mA Transmit mode, +10 dBm output power 15.5 mA Transmit mode, 0 dBm output power Current consumption, 433MHz 13.1 mA Transmit mode, –6 dBm output power 15.4 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.4 mA Receive mode, 1.2 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 15.2 mA Receive mode, 38.4 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 14.4 mA Receive mode,38.4 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 16.4 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud , reduced current, input at sensitivity limit 15.1 mA Receive mode, 250 kBaud , reduced current, input well above sensitivity limit 31.1 mA Transmit mode, +10 dBm output power 16.9 mA Transmit mode, 0 dBm output power Current consumption, 868/915MHz 13.5 mA Transmit mode, –6 dBm output power CC1100 SWRS038D Page 10 of 92 Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note 433 MHz, 1.2 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 5.2 kHz deviation, 58 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth Receiver sensitivity –110 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 17.4 mA to 15.5 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -108 dBm 433 MHz, 38.4 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 20 kHz deviation, 100 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –103 dBm 433 MHz, 250 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 540 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –94 dBm 433 MHz, 500 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1 cannot be used for data rates > 250 kBaud) (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 812 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –88 dBm 868 MHz, 1.2 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 5.2 kHz deviation, 58 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –111 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 17.7 mA to 15.4 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -109 dBm Saturation –15 dBm Adjacent channel rejection 33 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 100 kHz channel spacing Alternate channel rejection 33 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 100 kHz channel spacing See Figure 25 for plot of selectivity versus frequency offset Image channel rejection, 868MHz 30 dB IF frequency 152 kHz Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 868 MHz, 38.4 kBaud data rate (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 20 kHz deviation, 100 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –103 dBm Saturation –16 dBm Adjacent channel rejection 20 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 200 kHz channel spacing Alternate channel rejection 28 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 200 kHz channel spacing See Figure 26 for plot of selectivity versus frequency offset Image channel rejection, 868MHz 23 dB IF frequency 152 kHz Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 11 of 92 Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note 868 MHz, 250 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 540 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –93 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 18.8 mA to 16.4 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -91 dBm Saturation –16 dBm Adjacent channel rejection 24 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 750 kHz channel spacing Alternate channel rejection 37 dB Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 750 kHz channel spacing See Figure 27 for plot of selectivity versus frequency offset Image channel rejection, 868MHz 14 dB IF frequency 254 kHz Desired channel 3 dB above the sensitivity limit. 868 MHz, 500 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1 cannot be used for data rates > 250 kBaud ) (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 812 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –88 dBm 868 MHz, 250 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (OOK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 540 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity -86 dBm 915 MHz, 1.2 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 5.2kHz deviation, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 58 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –111 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 17.7 mA to 15.4 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -109 dBm 915 MHz, 38.4 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 20 kHz deviation, 100 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –104 dBm 915 MHz, 250 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 540 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –93 dBm Sensitivity can be traded for current consumption by setting MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1. The typical current consumption is then reduced from 18.8 mA to 16.4 mA at sensitivity limit. The sensitivity is typically reduced to -92 dBm 915 MHz, 500 kBaud data rate, sensitivity optimized, MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=0 (MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1 cannot be used for data rates > 250 kBaud ) (MSK, 1% packet error rate, 20 bytes packet length, 812 kHz digital channel filter bandwidth) Receiver sensitivity –87 dBm CC1100 SWRS038D Page 12 of 92 Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Blocking Blocking at ±2 MHz offset, 1.2 kBaud, 868 MHz -53 dBm Desired channel 3dB above the sensitivity limit. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 220 class 2 receiver requirement. Blocking at ±2 MHz offset, 500 kBaud, 868 MHz -51 dBm Desired channel 3dB above the sensitivity limit. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 220 class 2 receiver requirement. Blocking at ±10 MHz offset, 1.2 kBaud, 868 MHz -43 dBm Desired channel 3dB above the sensitivity limit. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 220 class 2 receiver requirement. Blocking at ±10 MHz offset, 500 kBaud, 868 MHz -43 dBm Desired channel 3dB above the sensitivity limit. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 220 class 2 receiver requirement. General Spurious emissions -68 -66 –57 –47 dBm dBm 25 MHz – 1 GHz (Maximum figure is the ETSI EN 300 220 limit) Above 1 GHz (Maximum figure is the ETSI EN 300 220 limit) RX latency 9 bit Serial operation. Time from start of reception until data is available on the receiver data output pin is equal to 9 bit. Table 5: RF Receive Section CC1100 SWRS038D Page 13 of 92 4.3 RF Transmit Section Tc = 25°C, VDD = 3.0V, +10dBm if nothing else stated. All measurement results are obtained using the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Differential load impedance 315 MHz 433 MHz 868/915 MHz 122 + j31 116 + j41 86.5 + j43 Ω Differential impedance as seen from the RF-port (RF_P and RF_N) towards the antenna. Follow the CC1100EM reference design ([5] and [6]) available from theTI website. Output power, highest setting +10 dBm Output power is programmable, and full range is available in all frequency bands (Output power may be restricted by regulatory limits. See also Application Note AN039 [3]. Delivered to a 50Ω single-ended load via CC1100EM reference design ([5] and [6]) RF matching network. Output power, lowest setting -30 dBm Output power is programmable, and full range is available in all frequency bands. Delivered to a 50Ω single-ended load via CC1100EM reference design([5] and [6]) RF matching network. Harmonics, radiated 2nd Harm, 433 MHz 3rd Harm, 433 MHz 2nd Harm, 868 MHz 3rd Harm, 868 MHz -50 -40 -34 -45 dBm Measured on CC1100EM reference designs([5] and [6]) with CW, 10 dBm output power The antennas used during the radiated measurements (SMAFF- 433 from R.W.Badland and Nearson S331 868/915) plays a part in attenuating the harmonics Harmonics, conducted 315 MHz 433 MHz 868 MHz 915 MHz < -33 < -38 < -51 < -34 < -32 < -30 dBm Measured with 10 dBm CW, TX frequency at 315.00 MHz, 433.00 MHz, 868.00 MHz, or 915.00 MHz Frequencies below 960 MHz Frequencies above 960 MHz Frequencies below 1 GHz Frequencies above 1 GHz CC1100 SWRS038D Page 14 of 92 Spurious emissions, conducted Harmonics not included 315 MHz 433 MHz 868 MHz 915 MHz < -58 < -53 < -50 < -54 < -56 < -50 < -51 < -53 < -51 < -51 dBm Measured with 10 dBm CW, TX frequency at 315.00 MHz, 433.00 MHz, 868.00 MHz or 915.00 MHz Frequencies below 960 MHz Frequencies above 960 MHz Frequencies below 1 GHz Frequencies above 1 GHz Frequencies within 47-74, 87.5-118, 174-230, 470-862 MHz Frequencies below 1 GHz Frequencies above 1 GHz Frequencies within 47-74, 87.5-118, 174-230, 470-862 MHz. The peak conducted spurious emission is -53dBm @ 699 MHz, which is in an EN300220 restricted band limited to -54dBm. All radiated spurious emissions are within the limits of ETSI. Frequencies below 960 MHz Frequencies above 960 MHz General TX latency 8 bit Serial operation. Time from sampling the data on the transmitter data input DIO pin until it is observed on the RF output ports. Table 6: RF Transmit Section 4.4 Crystal Oscillator Tc = 25°C @ VDD = 3.0 V if nothing else is stated. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Crystal frequency 26 26 27 MHz Tolerance ±40 ppm This is the total tolerance including a) initial tolerance, b) crystal loading, c) aging, and d) temperature dependence. The acceptable crystal tolerance depends on RF frequency and channel spacing / bandwidth. ESR 100 Ω Start-up time 150 μs Measured on the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]) using crystal AT-41CD2 from NDK. This parameter is to a large degree crystal dependent. Table 7: Crystal Oscillator Parameters CC1100 SWRS038D Page 15 of 92 4.5 Low Power RC Oscillator Tc = 25°C, VDD = 3.0 V if nothing else is stated. All measurement results obtained using the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Calibrated frequency 34.7 34.7 36 kHz Calibrated RC Oscillator frequency is XTAL frequency divided by 750 Frequency accuracy after calibration ±1 % Temperature coefficient +0.5 % / °C Frequency drift when temperature changes after calibration Supply voltage coefficient +3 % / V Frequency drift when supply voltage changes after calibration Initial calibration time 2 ms When the RC Oscillator is enabled, calibration is continuously done in the background as long as the crystal oscillator is running. Table 8: RC Oscillator Parameters 4.6 Frequency Synthesizer Characteristics Tc = 25°C @ VDD = 3.0 V if nothing else is stated. All measurement results are obtained using the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Min figures are given using a 27 MHz crystal. Typ and max are given using a 26 MHz crystal. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Programmed frequency resolution 397 FXOSC/ 216 412 Hz 26-27 MHz crystal. The resolution (in Hz) is equal for all frequency bands. Synthesizer frequency tolerance ±40 ppm Given by crystal used. Required accuracy (including temperature and aging) depends on frequency band and channel bandwidth / spacing. RF carrier phase noise –89 dBc/Hz @ 50 kHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –89 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –90 dBc/Hz @ 200 kHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –98 dBc/Hz @ 500 kHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –107 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –113 dBc/Hz @ 2 MHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –119 dBc/Hz @ 5 MHz offset from carrier RF carrier phase noise –129 dBc/Hz @ 10 MHz offset from carrier PLL turn-on / hop time 85.1 88.4 88.4 μs Time from leaving the IDLE state until arriving in the RX, FSTXON or TX state, when not performing calibration. Crystal oscillator running. PLL RX/TX settling time 9.3 9.6 9.6 μs Settling time for the 1·IF frequency step from RX to TX PLL TX/RX settling time 20.7 21.5 21.5 μs Settling time for the 1·IF frequency step from TX to RX PLL calibration time 694 721 721 μs Calibration can be initiated manually or automatically before entering or after leaving RX/TX. Table 9: Frequency Synthesizer Parameters CC1100 SWRS038D Page 16 of 92 4.7 Analog Temperature Sensor The characteristics of the analog temperature sensor at 3.0 V supply voltage are listed in Table 10 below. Note that it is necessary to write 0xBF to the PTEST register to use the analog temperature sensor in the IDLE state. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Output voltage at –40°C 0.651 V Output voltage at 0°C 0.747 V Output voltage at +40°C 0.847 V Output voltage at +80°C 0.945 V Temperature coefficient 2.45 mV/°C Fitted from –20 °C to +80 °C Error in calculated temperature, calibrated -2 * 0 2 * °C From –20 °C to +80 °C when using 2.45 mV / °C, after 1-point calibration at room temperature * The indicated minimum and maximum error with 1- point calibration is based on simulated values for typical process parameters Current consumption increase when enabled 0.3 mA Table 10: Analog Temperature Sensor Parameters 4.8 DC Characteristics Tc = 25°C if nothing else stated. Digital Inputs/Outputs Min Max Unit Condition Logic "0" input voltage 0 0.7 V Logic "1" input voltage VDD-0.7 VDD V Logic "0" output voltage 0 0.5 V For up to 4 mA output current Logic "1" output voltage VDD-0.3 VDD V For up to 4 mA output current Logic "0" input current N/A –50 nA Input equals 0V Logic "1" input current N/A 50 nA Input equals VDD Table 11: DC Characteristics 4.9 Power-On Reset When the power supply complies with the requirements in Table 12 below, proper Power-On-Reset functionality is guaranteed. Otherwise, the chip should be assumed to have unknown state until transmitting an SRES strobe over the SPI interface. See Section 19.1 on page 42 for further details. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Condition/Note Power-up ramp-up time. 5 ms From 0V until reaching 1.8V Power off time 1 ms Minimum time between power-on and power-off Table 12: Power-On Reset Requirements CC1100 SWRS038D Page 17 of 92 5 Pin Configuration 1 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 6 7 8 9 10 5 4 3 2 GND Exposed die attach pad SCLK SO (GDO1) GDO2 DVDD DCOUPL GDO0 (ATEST) XOSC_Q1 AVDD XOSC_Q2 AVDD RF_P RF_N GND AVDD RBIAS DGUARD GND SI CSn AVDD Figure 1: Pinout Top View Note: The exposed die attach pad must be connected to a solid ground plane as this is the main ground connection for the chip. Pin # Pin Name Pin type Description 1 SCLK Digital Input Serial configuration interface, clock input 2 SO (GDO1) Digital Output Serial configuration interface, data output. Optional general output pin when CSn is high 3 GDO2 Digital Output Digital output pin for general use: • Test signals • FIFO status signals • Clear Channel Indicator • Clock output, down-divided from XOSC • Serial output RX data 4 DVDD Power (Digital) 1.8 - 3.6 V digital power supply for digital I/O’s and for the digital core voltage regulator 5 DCOUPL Power (Digital) 1.6 - 2.0 V digital power supply output for decoupling. NOTE: This pin is intended for use with the CC1100 only. It can not be used to provide supply voltage to other devices. 6 GDO0 (ATEST) Digital I/O Digital output pin for general use: • Test signals • FIFO status signals • Clear Channel Indicator • Clock output, down-divided from XOSC • Serial output RX data • Serial input TX data Also used as analog test I/O for prototype/production testing 7 CSn Digital Input Serial configuration interface, chip select 8 XOSC_Q1 Analog I/O Crystal oscillator pin 1, or external clock input 9 AVDD Power (Analog) 1.8 - 3.6 V analog power supply connection 10 XOSC_Q2 Analog I/O Crystal oscillator pin 2 CC1100 SWRS038D Page 18 of 92 Pin # Pin Name Pin type Description 11 AVDD Power (Analog) 1.8 -3.6 V analog power supply connection 12 RF_P RF I/O Positive RF input signal to LNA in receive mode Positive RF output signal from PA in transmit mode 13 RF_N RF I/O Negative RF input signal to LNA in receive mode Negative RF output signal from PA in transmit mode 14 AVDD Power (Analog) 1.8 - 3.6 V analog power supply connection 15 AVDD Power (Analog) 1.8 - 3.6 V analog power supply connection 16 GND Ground (Analog) Analog ground connection 17 RBIAS Analog I/O External bias resistor for reference current 18 DGUARD Power (Digital) Power supply connection for digital noise isolation 19 GND Ground (Digital) Ground connection for digital noise isolation 20 SI Digital Input Serial configuration interface, data input Table 13: Pinout Overview 6 Circuit Description BIAS PA RBIAS XOSC_Q1 XOSC_Q2 CSn SI SO (GDO1) XOSC SCLK LNA 0 90 FREQ SYNTH ADC ADC DEMODULATOR FEC / INTERLEAVER PACKET HANDLER RXFIFO MODULATOR TXFIFO DIGITAL INTERFACE TO MCU RADIO CONTROL RF_P RF_N GDO2 GDO0 (ATEST) RC OSC Figure 2: CC1100 Simplified Block Diagram A simplified block diagram of CC1100 is shown in Figure 2. CC1100 features a low-IF receiver. The received RF signal is amplified by the lownoise amplifier (LNA) and down-converted in quadrature (I and Q) to the intermediate frequency (IF). At IF, the I/Q signals are digitised by the ADCs. Automatic gain control (AGC), fine channel filtering and demodulation bit/packet synchronization are performed digitally. The transmitter part of CC1100 is based on direct synthesis of the RF frequency. The frequency synthesizer includes a completely on-chip LC VCO and a 90 degree phase shifter for generating the I and Q LO signals to the down-conversion mixers in receive mode. A crystal is to be connected to XOSC_Q1 and XOSC_Q2. The crystal oscillator generates the reference frequency for the synthesizer, as well as clocks for the ADC and the digital part. A 4-wire SPI serial interface is used for configuration and data buffer access. The digital baseband includes support for channel configuration, packet handling, and data buffering. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 19 of 92 7 Application Circuit Only a few external components are required for using the CC1100. The recommended application circuits are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. The external components are described in Table 14, and typical values are given in Table 15. Bias Resistor The bias resistor R171 is used to set an accurate bias current. Balun and RF Matching The components between the RF_N/RF_P pins and the point where the two signals are joined together (C131, C121, L121 and L131 for the 315/433 MHz reference design [5]. L121, L131, C121, L122, C131, C122 and L132 for the 868/915 MHz reference design [6]) form a balun that converts the differential RF signal on CC1100 to a single-ended RF signal. C124 is needed for DC blocking. Together with an appropriate LC network, the balun components also transform the impedance to match a 50 Ω antenna (or cable). Suggested values for 315 MHz, 433 MHz, and 868/915 MHz are listed in Table 15. The balun and LC filter component values and their placement are important to keep the performance optimized. It is highly recommended to follow the CC1100EM reference design [5] and [6]. Crystal The crystal oscillator uses an external crystal with two loading capacitors (C81 and C101). See Section 27 on page 53 for details. Additional Filtering Additional external components (e.g. an RF SAW filter) may be used in order to improve the performance in specific applications. Power Supply Decoupling The power supply must be properly decoupled close to the supply pins. Note that decoupling capacitors are not shown in the application circuit. The placement and the size of the decoupling capacitors are very important to achieve the optimum performance. The CC1100EM reference design ([5] and [6]) should be followed closely. Component Description C51 Decoupling capacitor for on-chip voltage regulator to digital part C81/C101 Crystal loading capacitors, see Section 27 on page 53 for details C121/C131 RF balun/matching capacitors C122 RF LC filter/matching filter capacitor (315 and 433 MHz). RF balun/matching capacitor (868/915 MHz). C123 RF LC filter/matching capacitor C124 RF balun DC blocking capacitor C125 RF LC filter DC blocking capacitor (only needed if there is a DC path in the antenna) L121/L131 RF balun/matching inductors (inexpensive multi-layer type) L122 RF LC filter/matching filter inductor (315 and 433 MHz). RF balun/matching inductor (868/915 MHz). (inexpensive multi-layer type) L123 RF LC filter/matching filter inductor (inexpensive multi-layer type) L124 RF LC filter/matching filter inductor (inexpensive multi-layer type) L132 RF balun/matching inductor. (inexpensive multi-layer type) R171 Resistor for internal bias current reference. XTAL 26MHz - 27MHz crystal, see Section 27 on page 53 for details. Table 14: Overview of External Components (excluding supply decoupling capacitors) CC1100 SWRS038D Page 20 of 92 Antenna (50 Ohm) Digital Inteface 1.8V-3.6V power supply 6 GDO0 7 CSn 8 XOSC_Q1 9 AVDD 10 XOSC_Q2 SI 20 GND 19 DGUARD 18 RBIAS 17 GND 16 1 SCLK 2 SO (GDO1) 3 GDO2 4 DVDD 5 DCOUPL AVDD 15 AVDD 14 RF_N 13 RF_P 12 AVDD 11 XTAL L122 L123 C122 C123 C125 R171 C81 C101 C51 CSn GDO0 (optional) GDO2 (optional) SO (GDO1) SCLK SI CC1100 DIE ATTACH PAD: C131 C121 L121 L131 C124 Figure 3: Typical Application and Evaluation Circuit 315/433 MHz (excluding supply decoupling capacitors) Antenna (50 Ohm) Digital Inteface 1.8V-3.6V power supply 6 GDO0 7 CSn 8 XOSC_Q1 9 AVDD 10 XOSC_Q2 SI 20 GND 19 DGUARD 18 RBIAS 17 GND 16 1 SCLK 2 SO (GDO1) 3 GDO2 4 DVDD 5 DCOUPL AVDD 15 AVDD 14 RF_N 13 RF_P 12 AVDD 11 XTAL C121 C122 L122 L132 C131 L121 L123 C125 R171 C81 C101 C51 CSn GDO0 (optional) GDO2 (optional) SO (GDO1) SCLK SI DIE ATTACH PAD: L131 C124 C123 L124 Figure 4: Typical Application and Evaluation Circuit 868/915 MHz (excluding supply decoupling capacitors) CC1100 SWRS038D Page 21 of 92 Component Value at 315MHz Value at 433MHz Value at 868/915MHz Manufacturer C51 100 nF ± 10%, 0402 X5R Murata GRM1555C series C81 27 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C101 27 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C121 6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0 3.9 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 1.0 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C122 12 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 8.2 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0 1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C123 6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0 5.6 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0 3.3 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C124 220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C125 220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series C131 6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0 3.9 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0 Murata GRM1555C series L121 33 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 27 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 12 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series L122 18 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 22 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 18 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series L123 33 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 27 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 12 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series L124 12 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series L131 33 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 27 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic 12 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series L132 18 nH ± 5%, 0402 monolithic Murata LQG15HS series R171 56 kΩ ± 1%, 0402 Koa RK73 series XTAL 26.0 MHz surface mount crystal NDK, AT-41CD2 Table 15: Bill Of Materials for the Application Circuit The Gerber files for the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]) are available from the TI website. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 22 of 92 8 Configuration Overview CC1100 can be configured to achieve optimum performance for many different applications. Configuration is done using the SPI interface. The following key parameters can be programmed: • Power-down / power up mode • Crystal oscillator power-up / power-down • Receive / transmit mode • RF channel selection • Data rate • Modulation format • RX channel filter bandwidth • RF output power • Data buffering with separate 64-byte receive and transmit FIFOs • Packet radio hardware support • Forward Error Correction (FEC) with interleaving • Data Whitening • Wake-On-Radio (WOR) Details of each configuration register can be found in Section 33, starting on page 60. Figure 5 shows a simplified state diagram that explains the main CC1100 states, together with typical usage and current consumption. For detailed information on controlling the CC1100 state machine, and a complete state diagram, see Section 19, starting on page 42. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 23 of 92 Transmit mode Receive mode IDLE Manual freq. synth. calibration RX FIFO overflow TX FIFO underflow Frequency synthesizer on SFSTXON SRX or wake-on-radio (WOR) STX STX STX or RXOFF_MODE=10 RXOFF_MODE = 00 SFTX SRX or TXOFF_MODE = 11 SIDLE SCAL SFRX IDLE TXOFF_MODE = 00 SFSTXON or RXOFF_MODE = 01 SRX or STX or SFSTXON or wake-on-radio (WOR) Sleep SPWD or wake-on-radio (WOR) Crystal oscillator off SXOFF CSn = 0 CSn = 0 TXOFF_MODE = 01 Frequency synthesizer startup, optional calibration, settling Optional freq. synth. calibration Default state when the radio is not receiving or transmitting. Typ. current consumption: 1.6 mA. Lowest power mode. Most register values are retained. Current consumption typ 400 nA, or typ 900 nA when wake-on-radio (WOR) is enabled. All register values are retained. Typ. current consumption; 0.16 mA. Used for calibrating frequency synthesizer upfront (entering receive or transmit mode can then be done quicker). Transitional state. Typ. current consumption: 8.2 mA. Frequency synthesizer is turned on, can optionally be calibrated, and then settles to the correct frequency. Transitional s Frequency synthesizer is on, tate. Typ. current consumption: 8.2 mA. ready to start transmitting. Transmission starts very quickly after receiving the STX command strobe.Typ. current consumption: 8.2 mA. Typ. current consumption: 13.5 mA at -6 dBm output, 16.9 mA at 0 dBm output, 30.7 mA at +10 dBm output. Typ. current consumption: from 14.4 mA (strong input signal) to 15.4mA (weak input signal). Optional transitional state. Typ. In FIFO-based modes, current consumption: 8.2mA. transmission is turned off and this state entered if the TX FIFO becomes empty in the middle of a packet. Typ. current consumption: 1.6 mA. In FIFO-based modes, reception is turned off and this state entered if the RX FIFO overflows. Typ. current consumption: 1.6 mA. Figure 5: Simplified State Diagram, with Typical Current Consumption at 1.2 kBaud Data Rate and MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF=1 (current optimized). Freq. Band = 868 MHz CC1100 SWRS038D Page 24 of 92 9 Configuration Software CC1100 can be configured using the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. The SmartRF® Studio software is highly recommended for obtaining optimum register settings, and for evaluating performance and functionality. A screenshot of the SmartRF® Studio user interface for CC1100 is shown in Figure 6. After chip reset, all the registers have default values as shown in the tables in Section 33. The optimum register setting might differ from the default value. After a reset all registers that shall be different from the default value therefore needs to be programmed through the SPI interface. Figure 6: SmartRF® Studio [7] User Interface 10 4-wire Serial Configuration and Data Interface CC1100 is configured via a simple 4-wire SPIcompatible interface (SI, SO, SCLK and CSn) where CC1100 is the slave. This interface is also used to read and write buffered data. All transfers on the SPI interface are done most significant bit first. All transactions on the SPI interface start with a header byte containing a R/W;¯ bit, a burst access bit (B), and a 6-bit address (A5 – A0). The CSn pin must be kept low during transfers on the SPI bus. If CSn goes high during the transfer of a header byte or during read/write from/to a register, the transfer will be cancelled. The timing for the address and data transfer on the SPI interface is shown in Figure 7 with reference to Table 16. When CSn is pulled low, the MCU must wait until CC1100 SO pin goes low before starting to transfer the header byte. This indicates that the crystal is running. Unless the chip was in CC1100 SWRS038D Page 25 of 92 the SLEEP or XOFF states, the SO pin will always go low immediately after taking CSn low. Figure 7: Configuration Registers Write and Read Operations Parameter Description Min Max Units SCLK frequency 100 ns delay inserted between address byte and data byte (single access), or between address and data, and between each data byte (burst access). - 10 SCLK frequency, single access No delay between address and data byte - 9 fSCLK SCLK frequency, burst access No delay between address and data byte, or between data bytes - 6.5 MHz tsp,pd CSn low to positive edge on SCLK, in power-down mode 150 - μs tsp CSn low to positive edge on SCLK, in active mode 20 - ns tch Clock high 50 - ns tcl Clock low 50 - ns trise Clock rise time - 5 ns tfall Clock fall time - 5 ns tsd Setup data (negative SCLK edge) to positive edge on SCLK (tsd applies between address and data bytes, and between data bytes) Single access Burst access 55 76 - - ns thd Hold data after positive edge on SCLK 20 - ns tns Negative edge on SCLK to CSn high. 20 - ns Table 16: SPI Interface Timing Requirements Note: The minimum tsp,pd figure in Table 16 can be used in cases where the user does not read the CHIP_RDYn signal. CSn low to positive edge on SCLK when the chip is woken from power-down depends on the start-up time of the crystal being used. The 150 us in Table 16 is the crystal oscillator start-up time measured on CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]) using crystal AT-41CD2 from NDK. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 26 of 92 10.1 Chip Status Byte When the header byte, data byte, or command strobe is sent on the SPI interface, the chip status byte is sent by the CC1100 on the SO pin. The status byte contains key status signals, useful for the MCU. The first bit, s7, is the CHIP_RDYn signal; this signal must go low before the first positive edge of SCLK. The CHIP_RDYn signal indicates that the crystal is running. Bits 6, 5, and 4 comprise the STATE value. This value reflects the state of the chip. The XOSC and power to the digital core is on in the IDLE state, but all other modules are in power down. The frequency and channel configuration should only be updated when the chip is in this state. The RX state will be active when the chip is in receive mode. Likewise, TX is active when the chip is transmitting. The last four bits (3:0) in the status byte contains FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE. For read operations (the R/W;¯ bit in the header byte is set to 1), the FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field contains the number of bytes available for reading from the RX FIFO. For write operations (the R/W;¯ bit in the header byte is set to 0), the FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field contains the number of bytes that can be written to the TX FIFO. When FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE=15, 15 or more bytes are available/free. Table 17 gives a status byte summary. Bits Name Description 7 CHIP_RDYn Stays high until power and crystal have stabilized. Should always be low when using the SPI interface. 6:4 STATE[2:0] Indicates the current main state machine mode Value State Description 000 IDLE IDLE state (Also reported for some transitional states instead of SETTLING or CALIBRATE) 001 RX Receive mode 010 TX Transmit mode 011 FSTXON Fast TX ready 100 CALIBRATE Frequency synthesizer calibration is running 101 SETTLING PLL is settling 110 RXFIFO_OVERFLOW RX FIFO has overflowed. Read out any useful data, then flush the FIFO with SFRX 111 TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW TX FIFO has underflowed. Acknowledge with SFTX 3:0 FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE[3:0] The number of bytes available in the RX FIFO or free bytes in the TX FIFO Table 17: Status Byte Summary 10.2 Register Access The configuration registers on the CC1100 are located on SPI addresses from 0x00 to 0x2E. Table 36 on page 61 lists all configuration registers. It is highly recommended to use SmartRF® Studio [7] to generate optimum register settings. The detailed description of each register is found in Section 33.1 and 33.2, starting on page 64. All configuration registers can be both written to and read. The R/W;¯ bit controls if the register should be written to or read. When writing to registers, the status byte is sent on the SO pin each time a header byte or data byte is transmitted on the SI pin. When reading from registers, the status byte is sent on the SO pin each time a header byte is transmitted on the SI pin. Registers with consecutive addresses can be accessed in an efficient way by setting the burst bit (B) in the header byte. The address bits (A5 – A0) set the start address in an internal address counter. This counter is incremented by one each new byte (every 8 clock pulses). The burst access is either a CC1100 SWRS038D Page 27 of 92 read or a write access and must be terminated by setting CSn high. For register addresses in the range 0x30- 0x3D, the burst bit is used to select between status registers, burst bit is one, and command strobes, burst bit is zero (see 10.4 below). Because of this, burst access is not available for status registers and they must be accesses one at a time. The status registers can only be read. 10.3 SPI Read When reading register fields over the SPI interface while the register fields are updated by the radio hardware (e.g. MARCSTATE or TXBYTES), there is a small, but finite, probability that a single read from the register is being corrupt. As an example, the probability of any single read from TXBYTES being corrupt, assuming the maximum data rate is used, is approximately 80 ppm. Refer to the CC1100 Errata Notes [1] for more details. 10.4 Command Strobes Command Strobes may be viewed as single byte instructions to CC1100. By addressing a command strobe register, internal sequences will be started. These commands are used to disable the crystal oscillator, enable receive mode, enable wake-on-radio etc. The 13 command strobes are listed in Table 35 on page 60. The command strobe registers are accessed by transferring a single header byte (no data is being transferred). That is, only the R/W;¯ bit, the burst access bit (set to 0), and the six address bits (in the range 0x30 through 0x3D) are written. The R/W;¯ bit can be either one or zero and will determine how the FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field in the status byte should be interpreted. When writing command strobes, the status byte is sent on the SO pin. A command strobe may be followed by any other SPI access without pulling CSn high. However, if an SRES strobe is being issued, one will have to waith for SO to go low again before the next header byte can be issued as shown in Figure 8. The command strobes are executed immediately, with the exception of the SPWD and the SXOFF strobes that are executed when CSn goes high. Figure 8: SRES Command Strobe 10.5 FIFO Access The 64-byte TX FIFO and the 64-byte RX FIFO are accessed through the 0x3F address. When the R/W;¯ bit is zero, the TX FIFO is accessed, and the RX FIFO is accessed when the R/W;¯ bit is one. The TX FIFO is write-only, while the RX FIFO is read-only. The burst bit is used to determine if the FIFO access is a single byte access or a burst access. The single byte access method expects a header byte with the burst bit set to zero and one data byte. After the data byte a new header byte is expected; hence, CSn can remain low. The burst access method expects one header byte and then consecutive data bytes until terminating the access by setting CSn high. The following header bytes access the FIFOs: • 0x3F: Single byte access to TX FIFO • 0x7F: Burst access to TX FIFO • 0xBF: Single byte access to RX FIFO • 0xFF: Burst access to RX FIFO When writing to the TX FIFO, the status byte (see Section 10.1) is output for each new data byte on SO, as shown in Figure 7. This status byte can be used to detect TX FIFO underflow while writing data to the TX FIFO. Note that the status byte contains the number of bytes free before writing the byte in progress to the TX FIFO. When the last byte that fits in the TX FIFO is transmitted on SI, the status byte received concurrently on SO will indicate that one byte is free in the TX FIFO. The TX FIFO may be flushed by issuing a SFTX command strobe. Similarly, a SFRX command strobe will flush the RX FIFO. A SFTX or SFRX command strobe can only be issued in the IDLE, TXFIFO_UNDERLOW, or RXFIFO_OVERFLOW states. Both FIFOs are flushed when going to the SLEEP state. Figure 9 gives a brief overview of different register access types possible. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 28 of 92 10.6 PATABLE Access The 0x3E address is used to access the PATABLE, which is used for selecting PA power control settings. The SPI expects up to eight data bytes after receiving the address. By programming the PATABLE, controlled PA power ramp-up and ramp-down can be achieved, as well as ASK modulation shaping for reduced bandwidth. Note that both the ASK modulation shaping and the PA ramping is limited to output powers up to -1 dBm, and the PATABLE settings allowed are 0x00 and 0x30 to 0x3F. See SmartRF® Studio [7] for recommended shaping / PA ramping sequences. See Section 24 on page 49 for details on output power programming. The PATABLE is an 8-byte table that defines the PA control settings to use for each of the eight PA power values (selected by the 3-bit value FREND0.PA_POWER). The table is written and read from the lowest setting (0) to the highest (7), one byte at a time. An index counter is used to control the access to the table. This counter is incremented each time a byte is read or written to the table, and set to the lowest index when CSn is high. When the highest value is reached the counter restarts at zero. The access to the PATABLE is either single byte or burst access depending on the burst bit. When using burst access the index counter will count up; when reaching 7 the counter will restart at 0. The R/W;¯ bit controls whether the access is a read or a write access. If one byte is written to the PATABLE and this value is to be read out then CSn must be set high before the read access in order to set the index counter back to zero. Note that the content of the PATABLE is lost when entering the SLEEP state, except for the first byte (index 0). Figure 9: Register Access Types 11 Microcontroller Interface and Pin Configuration In a typical system, CC1100 will interface to a microcontroller. This microcontroller must be able to: • Program CC1100 into different modes • Read and write buffered data • Read back status information via the 4-wire SPI-bus configuration interface (SI, SO, SCLK and CSn). 11.1 Configuration Interface The microcontroller uses four I/O pins for the SPI configuration interface (SI, SO, SCLK and CSn). The SPI is described in Section 10 on page 24. 11.2 General Control and Status Pins The CC1100 has two dedicated configurable pins (GDO0 and GDO2) and one shared pin (GDO1) that can output internal status information useful for control software. These pins can be used to generate interrupts on the MCU. See Section 30 page 55 for more details on the signals that can be programmed. GDO1 is shared with the SO pin in the SPI interface. The default setting for GDO1/SO is 3-state output. By selecting any other of the programming options, the GDO1/SO pin will become a generic pin. When CSn is low, the pin will always function as a normal SO pin. In the synchronous and asynchronous serial modes, the GDO0 pin is used as a serial TX data input pin while in transmit mode. The GDO0 pin can also be used for an on-chip analog temperature sensor. By measuring the voltage on the GDO0 pin with an external ADC, the temperature can be calculated. Specifications for the temperature sensor are found in Section 4.7 on page 16. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 29 of 92 With default PTEST register setting (0x7F) the temperature sensor output is only available when the frequency synthesizer is enabled (e.g. the MANCAL, FSTXON, RX, and TX states). It is necessary to write 0xBF to the PTEST register to use the analog temperature sensor in the IDLE state. Before leaving the IDLE state, the PTEST register should be restored to its default value (0x7F). 11.3 Optional Radio Control Feature The CC1100 has an optional way of controlling the radio, by reusing SI, SCLK, and CSn from the SPI interface. This feature allows for a simple three-pin control of the major states of the radio: SLEEP, IDLE, RX, and TX. This optional functionality is enabled with the MCSM0.PIN_CTRL_EN configuration bit. State changes are commanded as follows: When CSn is high the SI and SCLK is set to the desired state according to Table 18. When CSn goes low the state of SI and SCLK is latched and a command strobe is generated internally according to the pin configuration. It is only possible to change state with this functionality. That means that for instance RX will not be restarted if SI and SCLK are set to RX and CSn toggles. When CSn is low the SI and SCLK has normal SPI functionality. All pin control command strobes are executed immediately, except the SPWD strobe, which is delayed until CSn goes high. CSn SCLK SI Function 1 X X Chip unaffected by SCLK/SI ↓ 0 0 Generates SPWD strobe ↓ 0 1 Generates STX strobe ↓ 1 0 Generates SIDLE strobe ↓ 1 1 Generates SRX strobe 0 SPI mode SPI mode SPI mode (wakes up into IDLE if in SLEEP/XOFF) Table 18: Optional Pin Control Coding 12 Data Rate Programming The data rate used when transmitting, or the data rate expected in receive is programmed by the MDMCFG3.DRATE_M and the MDMCFG4.DRATE_E configuration registers. The data rate is given by the formula below. As the formula shows, the programmed data rate depends on the crystal frequency. ( ) XOSC DRATE E DATA R = + DRATE M ⋅ ⋅ f 28 _ 2 256 _ 2 The following approach can be used to find suitable values for a given data rate: 256 2 2 _ 2 _ log _ 28 20 2 − ⋅ ⋅ = ⎥ ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ ⎢ ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ ⋅ = DRATE E XOSC DATA XOSC DATA f DRATE M R f DRATE E R If DRATE_M is rounded to the nearest integer and becomes 256, increment DRATE_E and use DRATE_M = 0. The data rate can be set from 1.2 kBaud to 500 kBaud with the minimum step size of: Min Data Rate [kBaud] Typical Data Rate [kBaud] Max Data Rate [kBaud] Data rate Step Size [kBaud] 0.8 1.2 / 2.4 3.17 0.0062 3.17 4.8 6.35 0.0124 6.35 9.6 12.7 0.0248 12.7 19.6 25.4 0.0496 25.4 38.4 50.8 0.0992 50.8 76.8 101.6 0.1984 101.6 153.6 203.1 0.3967 203.1 250 406.3 0.7935 406.3 500 500 1.5869 Table 19: Data Rate Step Size CC1100 SWRS038D Page 30 of 92 13 Receiver Channel Filter Bandwidth In order to meet different channel width requirements, the receiver channel filter is programmable. The MDMCFG4.CHANBW_E and MDMCFG4.CHANBW_M configuration registers control the receiver channel filter bandwidth, which scales with the crystal oscillator frequency. The following formula gives the relation between the register settings and the channel filter bandwidth: CHANBW E XOSC channel CHANBW M BW f 8⋅ (4 + _ )·2 _ = The CC1100 supports the following channel filter bandwidths: MDMCFG4. MDMCFG4.CHANBW_E CHANBW_M 00 01 10 11 00 812 406 203 102 01 650 325 162 81 10 541 270 135 68 11 464 232 116 58 Table 20: Channel Filter Bandwidths [kHz] (Assuming a 26MHz crystal) For best performance, the channel filter bandwidth should be selected so that the signal bandwidth occupies at most 80% of the channel filter bandwidth. The channel centre tolerance due to crystal accuracy should also be subtracted from the signal bandwidth. The following example illustrates this: With the channel filter bandwidth set to 500 kHz, the signal should stay within 80% of 500 kHz, which is 400 kHz. Assuming 915 MHz frequency and ±20 ppm frequency uncertainty for both the transmitting device and the receiving device, the total frequency uncertainty is ±40 ppm of 915MHz, which is ±37 kHz. If the whole transmitted signal bandwidth is to be received within 400kHz, the transmitted signal bandwidth should be maximum 400kHz – 2·37 kHz, which is 326 kHz. 14 Demodulator, Symbol Synchronizer, and Data Decision CC1100 contains an advanced and highly configurable demodulator. Channel filtering and frequency offset compensation is performed digitally. To generate the RSSI level (see Section 17.3 for more information) the signal level in the channel is estimated. Data filtering is also included for enhanced performance. 14.1 Frequency Offset Compensation When using 2-FSK, GFSK, or MSK modulation, the demodulator will compensate for the offset between the transmitter and receiver frequency, within certain limits, by estimating the centre of the received data. This value is available in the FREQEST status register. Writing the value from FREQEST into FSCTRL0.FREQOFF the frequency synthesizer is automatically adjusted according to the estimated frequency offset. The tracking range of the algorithm is selectable as fractions of the channel bandwidth with the FOCCFG.FOC_LIMIT configuration register. If the FOCCFG.FOC_BS_CS_GATE bit is set, the offset compensator will freeze until carrier sense asserts. This may be useful when the radio is in RX for long periods with no traffic, since the algorithm may drift to the boundaries when trying to track noise. The tracking loop has two gain factors, which affects the settling time and noise sensitivity of the algorithm. FOCCFG.FOC_PRE_K sets the gain before the sync word is detected, and FOCCFG.FOC_POST_K selects the gain after the sync word has been found. Note that frequency offset compensation is not supported for ASK or OOK modulation. 14.2 Bit Synchronization The bit synchronization algorithm extracts the clock from the incoming symbols. The algorithm requires that the expected data rate is programmed as described in Section 12 on page 29. Re-synchronization is performed continuously to adjust for error in the incoming symbol rate. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 31 of 92 14.3 Byte Synchronization Byte synchronization is achieved by a continuous sync word search. The sync word is a 16 bit configurable field (can be repeated to get a 32 bit) that is automatically inserted at the start of the packet by the modulator in transmit mode. The demodulator uses this field to find the byte boundaries in the stream of bits. The sync word will also function as a system identifier, since only packets with the correct predefined sync word will be received if the sync word detection in RX is enabled in register MDMCFG2 (see Section 17.1). The sync word detector correlates against the user-configured 16 or 32 bit sync word. The correlation threshold can be set to 15/16, 16/16, or 30/32 bits match. The sync word can be further qualified using the preamble quality indicator mechanism described below and/or a carrier sense condition. The sync word is configured through the SYNC1 and SYNC0 registers. In order to make false detections of sync words less likely, a mechanism called preamble quality indication (PQI) can be used to qualify the sync word. A threshold value for the preamble quality must be exceeded in order for a detected sync word to be accepted. See Section 17.2 on page 37 for more details. 15 Packet Handling Hardware Support The CC1100 has built-in hardware support for packet oriented radio protocols. In transmit mode, the packet handler can be configured to add the following elements to the packet stored in the TX FIFO: • A programmable number of preamble bytes • A two byte synchronization (sync) word. Can be duplicated to give a 4-byte sync word (recommended). It is not possible to only insert preamble or only insert a sync word. • A CRC checksum computed over the data field. • • The recommended setting is 4-byte preamble and 4-byte sync word, except for 500 kBaud data rate where the recommended preamble length is 8 bytes. • • In addition, the following can be implemented on the data field and the optional 2-byte CRC checksum: • • Whitening of the data with a PN9 sequence. • Forward error correction by the use of interleaving and coding of the data (convolutional coding). • In receive mode, the packet handling support will de-construct the data packet by implementing the following (if enabled): • Preamble detection. • Sync word detection. • CRC computation and CRC check. • One byte address check. • Packet length check (length byte checked against a programmable maximum length). • De-whitening • De-interleaving and decoding • Optionally, two status bytes (see Table 21 and Table 22) with RSSI value, Link Quality Indication, and CRC status can be appended in the RX FIFO. • Bit Field Name Description 7:0 RSSI RSSI value Table 21: Received Packet Status Byte 1 (first byte appended after the data) Bit Field Name Description 7 CRC_OK 1: CRC for received data OK (or CRC disabled) 0: CRC error in received data 6:0 LQI Indicating the link quality Table 22: Received Packet Status Byte 2 (second byte appended after the data) • • Note that register fields that control the packet handling features should only be altered when CC1100 is in the IDLE state. 15.1 Data Whitening From a radio perspective, the ideal over the air data are random and DC free. This results in the smoothest power distribution over the occupied bandwidth. This also gives the regulation loops in the receiver uniform operation conditions (no data dependencies). CC1100 SWRS038D Page 32 of 92 Real world data often contain long sequences of zeros and ones. Performance can then be improved by whitening the data before transmitting, and de-whitening the data in the receiver. With CC1100, this can be done automatically by setting PKTCTRL0.WHITE_DATA=1. All data, except the preamble and the sync word, are then XOR-ed with a 9-bit pseudo-random (PN9) sequence before being transmitted, as shown in Figure 10. At the receiver end, the data are XOR-ed with the same pseudo-random sequence. This way, the whitening is reversed, and the original data appear in the receiver. The PN9 sequence is initialized to all 1’s. Figure 10: Data Whitening in TX Mode 15.2 Packet Format The format of the data packet can be configured and consists of the following items (see Figure 11): • Preamble • Synchronization word • Optional length byte • Optional address byte • Payload • Optional 2 byte CRC • Preamble bits (1010...1010) Sync word Length field Address field Data field CRC-16 Optional CRC-16 calculation Optionally FEC encoded/decoded 8 x n bits 16/32 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 x n bits 16 bits Optional data whitening Legend: Inserted automatically in TX, processed and removed in RX. Optional user-provided fields processed in TX, processed but not removed in RX. Unprocessed user data (apart from FEC and/or whitening) Figure 11: Packet Format The preamble pattern is an alternating sequence of ones and zeros (10101010…). The minimum length of the preamble is programmable. When enabling TX, the modulator will start transmitting the preamble. When the programmed number of preamble bytes has been transmitted, the modulator will send the sync word and then data from the TX FIFO if data is available. If the TX FIFO is empty, the modulator will continue to send CC1100 SWRS038D Page 33 of 92 preamble bytes until the first byte is written to the TX FIFO. The modulator will then send the sync word and then the data bytes. The number of preamble bytes is programmed with the MDMCFG1.NUM_PREAMBLE value. The synchronization word is a two-byte value set in the SYNC1 and SYNC0 registers. The sync word provides byte synchronization of the incoming packet. A one-byte synch word can be emulated by setting the SYNC1 value to the preamble pattern. It is also possible to emulate a 32 bit sync word by using MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE set to 3 or 7. The sync word will then be repeated twice. CC1100 supports both constant packet length protocols and variable length protocols. Variable or fixed packet length mode can be used for packets up to 255 bytes. For longer packets, infinite packet length mode must be used. Fixed packet length mode is selected by setting PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=0. The desired packet length is set by the PKTLEN register. In variable packet length mode, PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=1, the packet length is configured by the first byte after the sync word. The packet length is defined as the payload data, excluding the length byte and the optional CRC. The PKTLEN register is used to set the maximum packet length allowed in RX. Any packet received with a length byte with a value greater than PKTLEN will be discarded. With PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=2, the packet length is set to infinite and transmission and reception will continue until turned off manually. As described in the next section, this can be used to support packet formats with different length configuration than natively supported by CC1100. One should make sure that TX mode is not turned off during the transmission of the first half of any byte. Refer to the CC1100 Errata Notes [1] for more details. Note that the minimum packet length supported (excluding the optional length byte and CRC) is one byte of payload data. 15.2.1 Arbitrary Length Field Configuration The packet length register, PKTLEN, can be reprogrammed during receive and transmit. In combination with fixed packet length mode (PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=0) this opens the possibility to have a different length field configuration than supported for variable length packets (in variable packet length mode the length byte is the first byte after the sync word). At the start of reception, the packet length is set to a large value. The MCU reads out enough bytes to interpret the length field in the packet. Then the PKTLEN value is set according to this value. The end of packet will occur when the byte counter in the packet handler is equal to the PKTLEN register. Thus, the MCU must be able to program the correct length, before the internal counter reaches the packet length. 15.2.2 Packet Length > 255 Also the packet automation control register, PKTCTRL0, can be reprogrammed during TX and RX. This opens the possibility to transmit and receive packets that are longer than 256 bytes and still be able to use the packet handling hardware support. At the start of the packet, the infinite packet length mode (PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=2) must be active. On the TX side, the PKTLEN register is set to mod(length, 256). On the RX side the MCU reads out enough bytes to interpret the length field in the packet and sets the PKTLEN register to mod(length, 256). When less than 256 bytes remains of the packet the MCU disables infinite packet length mode and activates fixed packet length mode. When the internal byte counter reaches the PKTLEN value, the transmission or reception ends (the radio enters the state determined by TXOFF_MODE or RXOFF_MODE). Automatic CRC appending/checking can also be used (by setting PKTCTRL0.CRC_EN=1). When for example a 600-byte packet is to be transmitted, the MCU should do the following (see also Figure 12) • Set PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=2. • Pre-program the PKTLEN register to mod(600, 256) = 88. • Transmit at least 345 bytes (600 - 255), for example by filling the 64-byte TX FIFO six times (384 bytes transmitted). • Set PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=0. • The transmission ends when the packet counter reaches 88. A total of 600 bytes are transmitted. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 34 of 92 0,1,..........,88,....................255,0,........,88,..................,255,0,........,88,..................,255,0,....................... Internal byte counter in packet handler counts from 0 to 255 and then starts at 0 again Length field transmitted and received. Rx and Tx PKTLEN value set to mod(600,256) = 88 Infinite packet length enabled Fixed packet length enabled when less than 256 bytes remains of packet 600 bytes transmitted and received Figure 12: Packet Length > 255 15.3 Packet Filtering in Receive Mode CC1100 supports three different types of packet-filtering; address filtering, maximum length filtering, and CRC filtering. 15.3.1 Address Filtering Setting PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK to any other value than zero enables the packet address filter. The packet handler engine will compare the destination address byte in the packet with the programmed node address in the ADDR register and the 0x00 broadcast address when PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK=10 or both 0x00 and 0xFF broadcast addresses when PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK=11. If the received address matches a valid address, the packet is received and written into the RX FIFO. If the address match fails, the packet is discarded and receive mode restarted (regardless of the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting). If the received address matches a valid address when using infinite packet length mode and address filtering is enabled, 0xFF will be written into the RX FIFO followed by the address byte and then the payload data. 15.3.2 Maximum Length Filtering In variable packet length mode, PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=1, the PKTLEN.PACKET_LENGTH register value is used to set the maximum allowed packet length. If the received length byte has a larger value than this, the packet is discarded and receive mode restarted (regardless of the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting). 15.3.3 CRC Filtering The filtering of a packet when CRC check fails is enabled by setting PKTCTRL1.CRC_AUTOFLUSH=1. The CRC auto flush function will flush the entire RX FIFO if the CRC check fails. After auto flushing the RX FIFO, the next state depends on the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting. When using the auto flush function, the maximum packet length is 63 bytes in variable packet length mode and 64 bytes in fixed packet length mode. Note that the maximum allowed packet length is reduced by two bytes when PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled, to make room in the RX FIFO for the two status bytes appended at the end of the packet. Since the entire RX FIFO is flushed when the CRC check fails, the previously received packet must be read out of the FIFO before receiving the current packet. The MCU must not read from the current packet until the CRC has been checked as OK. 15.4 Packet Handling in Transmit Mode The payload that is to be transmitted must be written into the TX FIFO. The first byte written must be the length byte when variable packet length is enabled. The length byte has a value equal to the payload of the packet (including the optional address byte). If address recognition is enabled on the receiver, the second byte written to the TX FIFO must be the address byte. If fixed packet length is enabled, then the first byte written to the TX FIFO should be the address (if the receiver uses address recognition). The modulator will first send the programmed number of preamble bytes. If data is available in the TX FIFO, the modulator will send the two-byte (optionally 4-byte) sync word and then the payload in the TX FIFO. If CRC is enabled, the checksum is calculated over all the data pulled from the TX FIFO and the result is sent as two extra bytes following the payload data. If the TX FIFO runs empty before the complete packet has been CC1100 SWRS038D Page 35 of 92 transmitted, the radio will enter TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW state. The only way to exit this state is by issuing an SFTX strobe. Writing to the TX FIFO after it has underflowed will not restart TX mode. If whitening is enabled, everything following the sync words will be whitened. This is done before the optional FEC/Interleaver stage. Whitening is enabled by setting PKTCTRL0.WHITE_DATA=1. If FEC/Interleaving is enabled, everything following the sync words will be scrambled by the interleaver and FEC encoded before being modulated. FEC is enabled by setting MDMCFG1.FEC_EN=1. 15.5 Packet Handling in Receive Mode In receive mode, the demodulator and packet handler will search for a valid preamble and the sync word. When found, the demodulator has obtained both bit and byte synchronism and will receive the first payload byte. If FEC/Interleaving is enabled, the FEC decoder will start to decode the first payload byte. The interleaver will de-scramble the bits before any other processing is done to the data. If whitening is enabled, the data will be dewhitened at this stage. When variable packet length mode is enabled, the first byte is the length byte. The packet handler stores this value as the packet length and receives the number of bytes indicated by the length byte. If fixed packet length mode is used, the packet handler will accept the programmed number of bytes. Next, the packet handler optionally checks the address and only continues the reception if the address matches. If automatic CRC check is enabled, the packet handler computes CRC and matches it with the appended CRC checksum. At the end of the payload, the packet handler will optionally write two extra packet status bytes (see Table 21 and Table 22) that contain CRC status, link quality indication, and RSSI value. 15.6 Packet Handling in Firmware When implementing a packet oriented radio protocol in firmware, the MCU needs to know when a packet has been received/transmitted. Additionally, for packets longer than 64 bytes the RX FIFO needs to be read while in RX and the TX FIFO needs to be refilled while in TX. This means that the MCU needs to know the number of bytes that can be read from or written to the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively. There are two possible solutions to get the necessary status information: a) Interrupt Driven Solution In both RX and TX one can use one of the GDO pins to give an interrupt when a sync word has been received/transmitted and/or when a complete packet has been received/transmitted (IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=0x06). In addition, there are 2 configurations for the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG register that are associated with the RX FIFO (IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=0x00 and IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=0x01) and two that are associated with the TX FIFO (IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=0x02 and IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=0x03) that can be used as interrupt sources to provide information on how many bytes are in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively. See Table 34. b) SPI Polling The PKTSTATUS register can be polled at a given rate to get information about the current GDO2 and GDO0 values respectively. The RXBYTES and TXBYTES registers can be polled at a given rate to get information about the number of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively. Alternatively, the number of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO can be read from the chip status byte returned on the MISO line each time a header byte, data byte, or command strobe is sent on the SPI bus. It is recommended to employ an interrupt driven solution as high rate SPI polling will reduce the RX sensitivity. Furthermore, as explained in Section 10.3 and the CC1100 Errata Notes [1], when using SPI polling there is a small, but finite, probability that a single read from registers PKTSTATUS , RXBYTES and TXBYTES is being corrupt. The same is the case when reading the chip status byte. Refer to the TI website for SW examples ([8] and [9]). CC1100 SWRS038D Page 36 of 92 16 Modulation Formats CC1100 supports amplitude, frequency, and phase shift modulation formats. The desired modulation format is set in the MDMCFG2.MOD_FORMAT register. Optionally, the data stream can be Manchester coded by the modulator and decoded by the demodulator. This option is enabled by setting MDMCFG2.MANCHESTER_EN=1. Manchester encoding is not supported at the same time as using the FEC/Interleaver option. 16.1 Frequency Shift Keying 2-FSK can optionally be shaped by a Gaussian filter with BT = 1, producing a GFSK modulated signal. The frequency deviation is programmed with the DEVIATION_M and DEVIATION_E values in the DEVIATN register. The value has an exponent/mantissa form, and the resultant deviation is given by: xosc DEVIATION E dev f f DEVIATION M _ 17 (8 _ ) 2 2 = ⋅ + ⋅ The symbol encoding is shown in Table 23. Format Symbol Coding 2-FSK/GFSK ‘0’ – Deviation ‘1’ + Deviation Table 23: Symbol Encoding for 2-FSK/GFSK Modulation 16.2 Minimum Shift Keying When using MSK1, the complete transmission (preamble, sync word, and payload) will be MSK modulated. Phase shifts are performed with a constant transition time. The fraction of a symbol period used to change the phase can be modified with the DEVIATN.DEVIATION_M setting. This is equivalent to changing the shaping of the symbol. The MSK modulation format implemented in CC1100 inverts the sync word and data compared to e.g. signal generators. 16.3 Amplitude Modulation CC1100 supports two different forms of amplitude modulation: On-Off Keying (OOK) and Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). OOK modulation simply turns on or off the PA to modulate 1 and 0 respectively. The ASK variant supported by the CC1100 allows programming of the modulation depth (the difference between 1 and 0), and shaping of the pulse amplitude. Pulse shaping will produce a more bandwidth constrained output spectrum. Note that the pulse shaping feature on the CC1100 does only support output power up to about -1dBm. The PATABLE settings that can be used for pulse shaping are 0x00 and 0x30 to 0x3F. 1 Identical to offset QPSK with half-sine shaping (data coding may differ) CC1100 SWRS038D Page 37 of 92 17 Received Signal Qualifiers and Link Quality Information CC1100 has several qualifiers that can be used to increase the likelihood that a valid sync word is detected. 17.1 Sync Word Qualifier If sync word detection in RX is enabled in register MDMCFG2 the CC1100 will not start filling the RX FIFO and perform the packet filtering described in Section 15.3 before a valid sync word has been detected. The sync word qualifier mode is set by MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE and is summarized in Table 24. Carrier sense is described in Section 17.4. MDMCFG2. SYNC_MODE Sync Word Qualifier Mode 000 No preamble/sync 001 15/16 sync word bits detected 010 16/16 sync word bits detected 011 30/32 sync word bits detected 100 No preamble/sync, carrier sense above threshold 101 15/16 + carrier sense above threshold 110 16/16 + carrier sense above threshold 111 30/32 + carrier sense above threshold Table 24: Sync Word Qualifier Mode 17.2 Preamble Quality Threshold (PQT) The Preamble Quality Threshold (PQT) syncword qualifier adds the requirement that the received sync word must be preceded with a preamble with a quality above the programmed threshold. Another use of the preamble quality threshold is as a qualifier for the optional RX termination timer. See Section 19.7 on page 46 for details. The preamble quality estimator increases an internal counter by one each time a bit is received that is different from the previous bit, and decreases the counter by 8 each time a bit is received that is the same as the last bit. The threshold is configured with the register field PKTCTRL1.PQT. A threshold of 4·PQT for this counter is used to gate sync word detection. By setting the value to zero, the preamble quality qualifier of the synch word is disabled. A “Preamble Quality Reached” signal can be observed on one of the GDO pins by setting IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=8. It is also possible to determine if preamble quality is reached by checking the PQT_REACHED bit in the PKTSTATUS register. This signal / bit asserts when the received signal exceeds the PQT. 17.3 RSSI The RSSI value is an estimate of the signal power level in the chosen channel. This value is based on the current gain setting in the RX chain and the measured signal level in the channel. In RX mode, the RSSI value can be read continuously from the RSSI status register until the demodulator detects a sync word (when sync word detection is enabled). At that point the RSSI readout value is frozen until the next time the chip enters the RX state. The RSSI value is in dBm with ½dB resolution. The RSSI update rate, fRSSI, depends on the receiver filter bandwidth (BWchannel defined in Section 13) and AGCCTRL0.FILTER_LENGTH. FILTER LENGTH channel RSSI f BW8 2 _ 2 ⋅ = ⋅ If PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled the last RSSI value of the packet is automatically added to the first byte appended after the payload. The RSSI value read from the RSSI status register is a 2’s complement number. The following procedure can be used to convert the RSSI reading to an absolute power level (RSSI_dBm). 1) Read the RSSI status register 2) Convert the reading from a hexadecimal number to a decimal number (RSSI_dec) 3) If RSSI_dec ≥ 128 then RSSI_dBm = (RSSI_dec - 256)/2 – RSSI_offset 4) Else if RSSI_dec < 128 then RSSI_dBm = (RSSI_dec)/2 – RSSI_offset Table 25 gives typical values for the RSSI_offset. Figure 13 and Figure 14 shows typical plots of RSSI reading as a function of input power level for different data rates. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 38 of 92 Data rate [kBaud] RSSI_offset [dB], 433 MHz RSSI_offset [dB], 868 MHz 1.2 75 74 38.4 75 74 250 79 78 500 79 77 Table 25: Typical RSSI_offset Values Figure 13: Typical RSSI Value vs. Input Power Level for Different Data Rates at 433 MHz Figure 14: Typical RSSI Value vs. Input Power Level for Different Data Rates at 868 MHz -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Input Power [dBm] 1.2 kBuad 38.4 kBaud 250 kBaud 500 kBaud RSSI Readout [dBm] -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Input Power [dBm] RSSI Readout [ dBm] 1.2 kBaud 38.4 kBuad 250 kBaud 500 kBaud CC1100 SWRS038D Page 39 of 92 17.4 Carrier Sense (CS) Carrier Sense (CS) is used as a sync word qualifier and for CCA and can be asserted based on two conditions, which can be individually adjusted: • CS is asserted when the RSSI is above a programmable absolute threshold, and deasserted when RSSI is below the same threshold (with hysteresis). • CS is asserted when the RSSI has increased with a programmable number of dB from one RSSI sample to the next, and de-asserted when RSSI has decreased with the same number of dB. This setting is not dependent on the absolute signal level and is thus useful to detect signals in environments with time varying noise floor. Carrier Sense can be used as a sync word qualifier that requires the signal level to be higher than the threshold for a sync word search to be performed. The signal can also be observed on one of the GDO pins by setting IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG=14 and in the status register bit PKTSTATUS.CS. Other uses of Carrier Sense include the TX-if- CCA function (see Section 17.5 on page 40) and the optional fast RX termination (see Section 19.7 on page 46). CS can be used to avoid interference from other RF sources in the ISM bands. 17.4.1 CS Absolute Threshold The absolute threshold related to the RSSI value depends on the following register fields: • AGCCTRL2.MAX_LNA_GAIN • AGCCTRL2.MAX_DVGA_GAIN • AGCCTRL1.CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR • AGCCTRL2.MAGN_TARGET • For a given AGCCTRL2.MAX_LNA_GAIN and AGCCTRL2.MAX_DVGA_GAIN setting the absolute threshold can be adjusted ±7 dB in steps of 1 dB using CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR. The MAGN_TARGET setting is a compromise between blocker tolerance/selectivity and sensitivity. The value sets the desired signal level in the channel into the demodulator. Increasing this value reduces the headroom for blockers, and therefore close-in selectivity. It is strongly recommended to use SmartRF® Studio to generate the correct MAGN_TARGET setting. Table 26 and Table 27 show the typical RSSI readout values at the CS threshold at 2.4 kBaud and 250 kBaud data rate respectively. The default CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR=0 (0 dB) and MAGN_TARGET=3 (33 dB) have been used. For other data rates the user must generate similar tables to find the CS absolute threshold. MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0] 00 01 10 11 000 -97.5 -91.5 -85.5 -79.5 001 -94 -88 -82.5 -76 010 -90.5 -84.5 -78.5 -72.5 011 -88 -82.5 -76.5 -70.5 100 -85.5 -80 -73.5 -68 101 -84 -78 -72 -66 110 -82 -76 -70 -64 MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0] 111 -79 -73.5 -67 -61 Table 26: Typical RSSI Value in dBm at CS Threshold with Default MAGN_TARGET at 2.4 kBaud, 868 MHz MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0] 00 01 10 11 000 -90.5 -84.5 -78.5 -72.5 001 -88 -82 -76 -70 010 -84.5 -78.5 -72 -66 011 -82.5 -76.5 -70 -64 100 -80.5 -74.5 -68 -62 101 -78 -72 -66 -60 110 -76.5 -70 -64 -58 MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0] 111 -74.5 -68 -62 -56 Table 27: Typical RSSI Value in dBm at CS Threshold with Default MAGN_TARGET at 250 kBaud, 868 MHz If the threshold is set high, i.e. only strong signals are wanted, the threshold should be adjusted upwards by first reducing the MAX_LNA_GAIN value and then the MAX_DVGA_GAIN value. This will reduce power consumption in the receiver front end, since the highest gain settings are avoided. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 40 of 92 17.4.2 CS Relative Threshold The relative threshold detects sudden changes in the measured signal level. This setting is not dependent on the absolute signal level and is thus useful to detect signals in environments with a time varying noise floor. The register field AGCCTRL1.CARRIER_SENSE_REL_THR is used to enable/disable relative CS, and to select threshold of 6 dB, 10 dB, or 14 dB RSSI change. 17.5 Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) The Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) is used to indicate if the current channel is free or busy. The current CCA state is viewable on any of the GDO pins by setting IOCFGx.GDOx_ CFG=0x09. MCSM1.CCA_MODE selects the mode to use when determining CCA. When the STX or SFSTXON command strobe is given while CC1100 is in the RX state, the TX or FSTXON state is only entered if the clear channel requirements are fulfilled. The chip will otherwise remain in RX (if the channel becomes available, the radio will not enter TX or FSTXON state before a new strobe command is sent on the SPI interface). This feature is called TX-if-CCA. Four CCA requirements can be programmed: • Always (CCA disabled, always goes to TX) • If RSSI is below threshold • Unless currently receiving a packet • Both the above (RSSI below threshold and not currently receiving a packet) 17.6 Link Quality Indicator (LQI) The Link Quality Indicator is a metric of the current quality of the received signal. If PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled, the value is automatically added to the last byte appended after the payload. The value can also be read from the LQI status register. The LQI gives an estimate of how easily a received signal can be demodulated by accumulating the magnitude of the error between ideal constellations and the received signal over the 64 symbols immediately following the sync word. LQI is best used as a relative measurement of the link quality (a high value indicates a better link than what a low value does), since the value is dependent on the modulation format. 18 Forward Error Correction with Interleaving 18.1 Forward Error Correction (FEC) CC1100 has built in support for Forward Error Correction (FEC). To enable this option, set MDMCFG1.FEC_EN to 1. FEC is only supported in fixed packet length mode (PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=0). FEC is employed on the data field and CRC word in order to reduce the gross bit error rate when operating near the sensitivity limit. Redundancy is added to the transmitted data in such a way that the receiver can restore the original data in the presence of some bit errors. The use of FEC allows correct reception at a lower SNR, thus extending communication range if the receiver bandwidth remains constant. Alternatively, for a given SNR, using FEC decreases the bit error rate (BER). As the packet error rate (PER) is related to BER by: PER = 1− (1− BER) packet _ length a lower BER can be used to allow longer packets, or a higher percentage of packets of a given length, to be transmitted successfully. Finally, in realistic ISM radio environments, transient and time-varying phenomena will produce occasional errors even in otherwise good reception conditions. FEC will mask such errors and, combined with interleaving of the coded data, even correct relatively long periods of faulty reception (burst errors). The FEC scheme adopted for CC1100 is convolutional coding, in which n bits are generated based on k input bits and the m most recent input bits, forming a code stream able to withstand a certain number of bit errors between each coding state (the m-bit window). The convolutional coder is a rate 1/2 code with a constraint length of m = 4. The coder codes one input bit and produces two output bits; hence, the effective data rate is halved. I.e. to transmit at the same effective datarate when using FEC, it is necessary to use twice as high over-the-air datarate. This will require a higher receiver bandwidth, and thus reduce sensitivity. In other words the improved CC1100 SWRS038D Page 41 of 92 reception by using FEC and the degraded sensitivity from a higher receiver bandwidth will be counteracting factors. 18.2 Interleaving Data received through radio channels will often experience burst errors due to interference and time-varying signal strengths. In order to increase the robustness to errors spanning multiple bits, interleaving is used when FEC is enabled. After de-interleaving, a continuous span of errors in the received stream will become single errors spread apart. CC1100 employs matrix interleaving, which is illustrated in Figure 15. The on-chip interleaving and de-interleaving buffers are 4 x 4 matrices. In the transmitter, the data bits from the rate ½ convolutional coder are written into the rows of the matrix, whereas the bit sequence to be transmitted is read from the columns of the matrix. Conversely, in the receiver, the received symbols are written into the columns of the matrix, whereas the data passed onto the convolutional decoder is read from the rows of the matrix. When FEC and interleaving is used at least one extra byte is required for trellis termination. In addition, the amount of data transmitted over the air must be a multiple of the size of the interleaver buffer (two bytes). The packet control hardware therefore automatically inserts one or two extra bytes at the end of the packet, so that the total length of the data to be interleaved is an even number. Note that these extra bytes are invisible to the user, as they are removed before the received packet enters the RX FIFO. When FEC and interleaving is used the minimum data payload is 2 bytes. Packet Engine FEC Encoder Modulator Interleaver Write buffer Interleaver Read buffer Demodulator FEC Decoder Packet Engine Interleaver Write buffer Interleaver Read buffer Figure 15: General Principle of Matrix Interleaving CC1100 SWRS038D Page 42 of 92 19 Radio Control TX 19,20 RX 13,14,15 IDLE 1 CALIBRATE 8 MANCAL 3,4,5 SETTLING 9,10,11 RX_OVERFLOW 17 TX_UNDERFLOW 22 RXTX_SETTLING 21 FSTXON 18 SFSTXON FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 10 | 11 & SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR STX SRX | WOR STX TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW STX | RXOFF_MODE = 10 RXOFF_MODE = 00 & FS_AUTOCAL = 10 | 11 SFTX SRX | TXOFF_MODE = 11 SIDLE SCAL CAL_COMPLETE FS_AUTOCAL = 01 & SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR RXFIFO_OVERFLOW CAL_COMPLETE SFRX CALIBRATE 12 IDLE 1 TXOFF_MODE = 00 & FS_AUTOCAL = 10 | 11 RXOFF_MODE = 00 & FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 01 TXOFF_MODE = 00 & FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 01 TXOFF_MODE = 10 RXOFF_MODE = 11 SFSTXON | RXOFF_MODE = 01 TXRX_SETTLING 16 SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR SLEEP 0 SPWD | SWOR XOFF 2 SXOFF CSn = 0 CSn = 0 | WOR ( STX | SFSTXON ) & CCA | RXOFF_MODE = 01 | 10 TXOFF_MODE=01 FS_WAKEUP 6,7 SRX Figure 16: Complete Radio Control State Diagram CC1100 has a built-in state machine that is used to switch between different operational states (modes). The change of state is done either by using command strobes or by internal events such as TX FIFO underflow. A simplified state diagram, together with typical usage and current consumption, is shown in Figure 5 on page 23. The complete radio control state diagram is shown in Figure 16. The numbers refer to the state number readable in the MARCSTATE status register. This register is primarily for test purposes. 19.1 Power-On Start-Up Sequence When the power supply is turned on, the system must be reset. This is achieved by one of the two sequences described below, i.e. automatic power-on reset (POR) or manual reset. After the automatic power-on reset or manual reset it is also recommended to change the signal that is output on the GDO0 pin. The default setting is to output a clock signal with a frequency of CLK_XOSC/192, but to optimize CC1100 SWRS038D Page 43 of 92 performance in TX and RX an alternative GDO setting should be selected from the settings found in Table 34 on page 56. 19.1.1 Automatic POR A power-on reset circuit is included in the CC1100. The minimum requirements stated in Table 12 must be followed for the power-on reset to function properly. The internal powerup sequence is completed when CHIP_RDYn goes low. CHIP_RDYn is observed on the SO pin after CSn is pulled low. See Section 10.1 for more details on CHIP_RDYn. When the CC1100 reset is completed the chip will be in the IDLE state and the crystal oscillator will be running. If the chip has had sufficient time for the crystal oscillator to stabilize after the power-on-reset the SO pin will go low immediately after taking CSn low. If CSn is taken low before reset is completed the SO pin will first go high, indicating that the crystal oscillator is not stabilized, before going low as shown in Figure 17. Figure 17: Power-On Reset 19.1.2 Manual Reset The other global reset possibility on CC1100 uses the SRES command strobe. By issuing this strobe, all internal registers and states are set to the default, IDLE state. The manual power-up sequence is as follows (see Figure 18): • Set SCLK = 1 and SI = 0, to avoid potential problems with pin control mode (see Section 11.3 on page 29). • Strobe CSn low / high. • Hold CSn high for at least 40μs relative to pulling CSn low • Pull CSn low and wait for SO to go low (CHIP_RDYn). • Issue the SRES strobe on the SI line. • When SO goes low again, reset is complete and the chip is in the IDLE state. CSn SO XOSC Stable XOSC and voltage regulator switched on SI SRES 40 us Figure 18: Power-On Reset with SRES Note that the above reset procedure is only required just after the power supply is first turned on. If the user wants to reset the CC1100 after this, it is only necessary to issue an SRES command strobe. 19.2 Crystal Control The crystal oscillator (XOSC) is either automatically controlled or always on, if MCSM0.XOSC_FORCE_ON is set. In the automatic mode, the XOSC will be turned off if the SXOFF or SPWD command strobes are issued; the state machine then goes to XOFF or SLEEP respectively. This can only be done from the IDLE state. The XOSC will be turned off when CSn is released (goes high). The XOSC will be automatically turned on again when CSn goes low. The state machine will then go to the IDLE state. The SO pin on the SPI interface must be pulled low before the SPI interface is ready to be used; as described in Section 10.1 on page 26. If the XOSC is forced on, the crystal will always stay on even in the SLEEP state. Crystal oscillator start-up time depends on crystal ESR and load capacitances. The electrical specification for the crystal oscillator can be found in Section 4.4 on page 14. 19.3 Voltage Regulator Control The voltage regulator to the digital core is controlled by the radio controller. When the chip enters the SLEEP state, which is the state with the lowest current consumption, the voltage regulator is disabled. This occurs after CSn is released when a SPWD command strobe has been sent on the SPI interface. The chip is now in the SLEEP state. Setting CSn CC1100 SWRS038D Page 44 of 92 low again will turn on the regulator and crystal oscillator and make the chip enter the IDLE state. When wake on radio is enabled, the WOR module will control the voltage regulator as described in Section 19.5. 19.4 Active Modes CC1100 has two active modes: receive and transmit. These modes are activated directly by the MCU by using the SRX and STX command strobes, or automatically by Wake on Radio. The frequency synthesizer must be calibrated regularly. CC1100 has one manual calibration option (using the SCAL strobe), and three automatic calibration options, controlled by the MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL setting: • Calibrate when going from IDLE to either RX or TX (or FSTXON) • Calibrate when going from either RX or TX to IDLE automatically • Calibrate every fourth time when going from either RX or TX to IDLE automatically If the radio goes from TX or RX to IDLE by issuing an SIDLE strobe, calibration will not be performed. The calibration takes a constant number of XOSC cycles (see Table 28 for timing details). When RX is activated, the chip will remain in receive mode until a packet is successfully received or the RX termination timer expires (see Section 19.7). Note: the probability that a false sync word is detected can be reduced by using PQT, CS, maximum sync word length, and sync word qualifier mode as described in Section 17. After a packet is successfully received the radio controller will then go to the state indicated by the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting. The possible destinations are: • IDLE • FSTXON: Frequency synthesizer on and ready at the TX frequency. Activate TX with STX . • TX: Start sending preamble • RX: Start search for a new packet Similarly, when TX is active the chip will remain in the TX state until the current packet has been successfully transmitted. Then the state will change as indicated by the MCSM1.TXOFF_MODE setting. The possible destinations are the same as for RX. The MCU can manually change the state from RX to TX and vice versa by using the command strobes. If the radio controller is currently in transmit and the SRX strobe is used, the current transmission will be ended and the transition to RX will be done. If the radio controller is in RX when the STX or SFSTXON command strobes are used, the TXif- CCA function will be used. If the channel is not clear, the chip will remain in RX. The MCSM1.CCA_MODE setting controls the conditions for clear channel assessment. See Section 17.5 on page 40 for details. The SIDLE command strobe can always be used to force the radio controller to go to the IDLE state. 19.5 Wake On Radio (WOR) The optional Wake on Radio (WOR) functionality enables CC1100 to periodically wake up from SLEEP and listen for incoming packets without MCU interaction. When the WOR strobe command is sent on the SPI interface, the CC1100 will go to the SLEEP state when CSn is released. The RC oscillator must be enabled before the WOR strobe can be used, as it is the clock source for the WOR timer. The on-chip timer will set CC1100 into IDLE state and then RX state. After a programmable time in RX, the chip will go back to the SLEEP state, unless a packet is received. See Figure 19 and Section 19.7 for details on how the timeout works. Set the CC1100 into the IDLE state to exit WOR mode. CC1100 can be set up to signal the MCU that a packet has been received by using the GDO pins. If a packet is received, the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE will determine the behaviour at the end of the received packet. When the MCU has read the packet, it can put the chip back into SLEEP with the SWOR strobe from the IDLE state. The FIFO will loose its contents in the SLEEP state. The WOR timer has two events, Event 0 and Event 1. In the SLEEP state with WOR activated, reaching Event 0 will turn on the digital regulator and start the crystal oscillator. Event 1 follows Event 0 after a programmed timeout. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 45 of 92 The time between two consecutive Event 0 is programmed with a mantissa value given by WOREVT1.EVENT0 and WOREVT0.EVENT0, and an exponent value set by WORCTRL.WOR_RES. The equation is: WOR RES XOSC Event EVENT f t 5 _ 0 = 750 ⋅ 0 ⋅ 2 ⋅ The Event 1 timeout is programmed with WORCTRL.EVENT1. Figure 19 shows the timing relationship between Event 0 timeout and Event 1 timeout. Figure 19: Event 0 and Event 1 Relationship The time from the CC1100 enters SLEEP state until the next Event0 is programmed to appear (tSLEEP in Figure 19) should be larger than 11.08 ms when using a 26 MHz crystal and 10.67 ms when a 27 MHz crystal is used. If tSLEEP is less than 11.08 (10.67) ms there is a chance that the consecutive Event 0 will occur 750 ⋅128 XOSC f seconds too early. Application Note AN047 [4] explains in detail the theory of operation and the different registers involved when using WOR, as well as highlighting important aspects when using WOR mode. 19.5.1 RC Oscillator and Timing The frequency of the low-power RC oscillator used for the WOR functionality varies with temperature and supply voltage. In order to keep the frequency as accurate as possible, the RC oscillator will be calibrated whenever possible, which is when the XOSC is running and the chip is not in the SLEEP state. When the power and XOSC is enabled, the clock used by the WOR timer is a divided XOSC clock. When the chip goes to the sleep state, the RC oscillator will use the last valid calibration result. The frequency of the RC oscillator is locked to the main crystal frequency divided by 750. In applications where the radio wakes up very often, typically several times every second, it is possible to do the RC oscillator calibration once and then turn off calibration (WORCTRL.RC_CAL=0) to reduce the current consumption. This requires that RC oscillator calibration values are read from registers RCCTRL0_STATUS and RCCTRL1_STATUS and written back to RCCTRL0 and RCCTRL1 respectively. If the RC oscillator calibration is turned off it will have to be manually turned on again if temperature and supply voltage changes. Refer to Application Note AN047 [4] for further details. 19.6 Timing The radio controller controls most of the timing in CC1100, such as synthesizer calibration, PLL lock time, and RX/TX turnaround times. Timing from IDLE to RX and IDLE to TX is constant, dependent on the auto calibration setting. RX/TX and TX/RX turnaround times are constant. The calibration time is constant 18739 clock periods. Table 28 shows timing in crystal clock cycles for key state transitions. Power on time and XOSC start-up times are variable, but within the limits stated in Table 7. Note that in a frequency hopping spread spectrum or a multi-channel protocol the calibration time can be reduced from 721 μs to approximately 150 μs. This is explained in Section 32.2. Description XOSC Periods 26 MHz Crystal IDLE to RX, no calibration 2298 88.4μs IDLE to RX, with calibration ~21037 809μs IDLE to TX/FSTXON, no calibration 2298 88.4μs IDLE to TX/FSTXON, with calibration ~21037 809μs TX to RX switch 560 21.5μs RX to TX switch 250 9.6μs RX or TX to IDLE, no calibration 2 0.1μs RX or TX to IDLE, with calibration ~18739 721μs Manual calibration ~18739 721μs Table 28: State Transition Timing CC1100 SWRS038D Page 46 of 92 19.7 RX Termination Timer CC1100 has optional functions for automatic termination of RX after a programmable time. The main use for this functionality is wake-onradio (WOR), but it may be useful for other applications. The termination timer starts when in RX state. The timeout is programmable with the MCSM2.RX_TIME setting. When the timer expires, the radio controller will check the condition for staying in RX; if the condition is not met, RX will terminate. The programmable conditions are: • MCSM2.RX_TIME_QUAL=0: Continue receive if sync word has been found • MCSM2.RX_TIME_QUAL=1: Continue receive if sync word has been found or preamble quality is above threshold (PQT) If the system can expect the transmission to have started when enabling the receiver, the MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function can be used. The radio controller will then terminate RX if the first valid carrier sense sample indicates no carrier (RSSI below threshold). See Section 17.4 on page 39 for details on Carrier Sense. For ASK/OOK modulation, lack of carrier sense is only considered valid after eight symbol periods. Thus, the MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function can be used in ASK/OOK mode when the distance between “1” symbols is 8 or less. If RX terminates due to no carrier sense when the MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function is used, or if no sync word was found when using the MCSM2.RX_TIME timeout function, the chip will always go back to IDLE if WOR is disabled and back to SLEEP if WOR is enabled. Otherwise, the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting determines the state to go to when RX ends. This means that the chip will not automatically go back to SLEEP once a sync word has been received. It is therefore recommended to always wake up the microcontroller on sync word detection when using WOR mode. This can be done by selecting output signal 6 (see Table 34 on page 56) on one of the programmable GDO output pins, and programming the microcontroller to wake up on an edge-triggered interrupt from this GDO pin. 20 Data FIFO The CC1100 contains two 64 byte FIFOs, one for received data and one for data to be transmitted. The SPI interface is used to read from the RX FIFO and write to the TX FIFO. Section 10.5 contains details on the SPI FIFO access. The FIFO controller will detect overflow in the RX FIFO and underflow in the TX FIFO. When writing to the TX FIFO it is the responsibility of the MCU to avoid TX FIFO overflow. A TX FIFO overflow will result in an error in the TX FIFO content. Likewise, when reading the RX FIFO the MCU must avoid reading the RX FIFO past its empty value, since an RX FIFO underflow will result in an error in the data read out of the RX FIFO. The chip status byte that is available on the SO pin while transferring the SPI header contains the fill grade of the RX FIFO if the access is a read operation and the fill grade of the TX FIFO if the access is a write operation. Section 10.1 on page 26 contains more details on this. The number of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO can be read from the status registers RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES and TXBYTES.NUM_TXBYTES respectively. If a received data byte is written to the RX FIFO at the exact same time as the last byte in the RX FIFO is read over the SPI interface, the RX FIFO pointer is not properly updated and the last read byte is duplicated. To avoid this problem one should never empty the RX FIFO before the last byte of the packet is received. For packet lengths less than 64 bytes it is recommended to wait until the complete packet has been received before reading it out of the RX FIFO. If the packet length is larger than 64 bytes the MCU must determine how many bytes can be read from the RX FIFO (RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES-1) and the following software routine can be used: 1. Read RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES repeatedly at a rate guaranteed to be at least twice that of which RF bytes are received until the same value is returned twice; store value in n. 2. If n < # of bytes remaining in packet, read n-1 bytes from the RX FIFO. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 47 of 92 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until n = # of bytes remaining in packet. 4. Read the remaining bytes from the RX FIFO. The 4-bit FIFOTHR.FIFO_THR setting is used to program threshold points in the FIFOs. Table 29 lists the 16 FIFO_THR settings and the corresponding thresholds for the RX and TX FIFOs. The threshold value is coded in opposite directions for the RX FIFO and TX FIFO. This gives equal margin to the overflow and underflow conditions when the threshold is reached. A signal will assert when the number of bytes in the FIFO is equal to or higher than the programmed threshold. This signal can be viewed on the GDO pins (see Table 34 on page 56). Figure 21 shows the number of bytes in both the RX FIFO and TX FIFO when the threshold signal toggles, in the case of FIFO_THR=13. Figure 20 shows the signal as the respective FIFO is filled above the threshold, and then drained below. 53 54 55 56 57 56 55 54 53 6 7 8 9 10 9 8 7 6 NUM_RXBYTES GDO NUM_TXBYTES GDO Figure 20: FIFO_THR=13 vs. Number of Bytes in FIFO (GDOx_CFG=0x00 in RX and GDOx_CFG=0x02 in TX) FIFO_THR Bytes in TX FIFO Bytes in RX FIFO 0 (0000) 61 4 1 (0001) 57 8 2 (0010) 53 12 3 (0011) 49 16 4 (0100) 45 20 5 (0101) 41 24 6 (0110) 37 28 7 (0111) 33 32 8 (1000) 29 36 9 (1001) 25 40 10 (1010) 21 44 11 (1011) 17 48 12 (1100) 13 52 13 (1101) 9 56 14 (1110) 5 60 15 (1111) 1 64 Table 29: FIFO_THR Settings and the Corresponding FIFO Thresholds 56 bytes 8 bytes Overflow margin Underflow margin FIFO_TH R=13 FIFO_THR=13 RXFIFO TXFIFO Figure 21: Example of FIFOs at Threshold CC1100 SWRS038D Page 48 of 92 21 Frequency Programming The frequency programming in CC1100 is designed to minimize the programming needed in a channel-oriented system. To set up a system with channel numbers, the desired channel spacing is programmed with the MDMCFG0.CHANSPC_M and MDMCFG1.CHANSPC_E registers. The channel spacing registers are mantissa and exponent respectively. The base or start frequency is set by the 24 bit frequency word located in the FREQ2, FREQ1, and FREQ0 registers. This word will typically be set to the centre of the lowest channel frequency that is to be used. The desired channel number is programmed with the 8-bit channel number register, CHANNR.CHAN, which is multiplied by the channel offset. The resultant carrier frequency is given by: ( (( ) _ 2 )) 16 256 _ 2 2 = XOSC ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ CHANSPC E− carrier f f FREQ CHAN CHANSPC M With a 26 MHz crystal the maximum channel spacing is 405 kHz. To get e.g. 1 MHz channel spacing one solution is to use 333 kHz channel spacing and select each third channel in CHANNR.CHAN. The preferred IF frequency is programmed with the FSCTRL1.FREQ_IF register. The IF frequency is given by: f fXOSC FREQ IF IF _ 210 = ⋅ Note that the SmartRF® Studio software [7] automatically calculates the optimum FSCTRL1.FREQ_IF register setting based on channel spacing and channel filter bandwidth. If any frequency programming register is altered when the frequency synthesizer is running, the synthesizer may give an undesired response. Hence, the frequency programming should only be updated when the radio is in the IDLE state. 22 VCO The VCO is completely integrated on-chip. 22.1 VCO and PLL Self-Calibration The VCO characteristics will vary with temperature and supply voltage changes, as well as the desired operating frequency. In order to ensure reliable operation, CC1100 includes frequency synthesizer self-calibration circuitry. This calibration should be done regularly, and must be performed after turning on power and before using a new frequency (or channel). The number of XOSC cycles for completing the PLL calibration is given in Table 28 on page 45. The calibration can be initiated automatically or manually. The synthesizer can be automatically calibrated each time the synthesizer is turned on, or each time the synthesizer is turned off automatically. This is configured with the MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL register setting. In manual mode, the calibration is initiated when the SCAL command strobe is activated in the IDLE mode. Note that the calibration values are maintained in SLEEP mode, so the calibration is still valid after waking up from SLEEP mode (unless supply voltage or temperature has changed significantly). To check that the PLL is in lock the user can program register IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG to 0x0A and use the lock detector output available on the GDOx pin as an interrupt for the MCU (x = 0,1, or 2). A positive transition on the GDOx pin means that the PLL is in lock. As an alternative the user can read register FSCAL1. The PLL is in lock if the register content is different from 0x3F. Refer also to the CC1100 Errata Notes [1]. For more robust operation the source code could include a check so that the PLL is re-calibrated until PLL lock is achieved if the PLL does not lock the first time. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 49 of 92 23 Voltage Regulators CC1100 contains several on-chip linear voltage regulators, which generate the supply voltage needed by low-voltage modules. These voltage regulators are invisible to the user, and can be viewed as integral parts of the various modules. The user must however make sure that the absolute maximum ratings and required pin voltages in Table 1 and Table 13 are not exceeded. The voltage regulator for the digital core requires one external decoupling capacitor. Setting the CSn pin low turns on the voltage regulator to the digital core and starts the crystal oscillator. The SO pin on the SPI interface must go low before the first positive edge of SCLK. (setup time is given in Table 16). If the chip is programmed to enter power-down mode, (SPWD strobe issued), the power will be turned off after CSn goes high. The power and crystal oscillator will be turned on again when CSn goes low. The voltage regulator output should only be used for driving the CC1100. 24 Output Power Programming The RF output power level from the device has two levels of programmability, as illustrated in Figure 22. Firstly, the special PATABLE register can hold up to eight user selected output power settings. Secondly, the 3-bit FREND0.PA_POWER value selects the PATABLE entry to use. This two-level functionality provides flexible PA power ramp up and ramp down at the start and end of transmission, as well as ASK modulation shaping. All the PA power settings in the PATABLE from index 0 up to the FREND0.PA_POWER value are used. The power ramping at the start and at the end of a packet can be turned off by setting FREND0.PA_POWER to zero and then program the desired output power to index 0 in the PATABLE. If OOK modulation is used, the logic 0 and logic 1 power levels shall be programmed to index 0 and 1 respectively. Table 30 contains recommended PATABLE settings for various output levels and frequency bands. Using PA settings from 0x61 to 0x6F is not recommended. See Section 10.6 on page 28 for PATABLE programming details. Table 31 contains output power and current consumption for default PATABLE setting (0xC6). PATABLE must be programmed in burst mode if you want to write to other entries than PATABLE[0]. Note that all content of the PATABLE, except for the first byte (index 0) is lost when entering the SLEEP state. 315 MHz 433 MHz 868 MHz 915 MHz Output Power [dBm] Setting Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Setting Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Setting Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Setting Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] -30 0x04 10.6 0x04 11.5 0x03 11.9 0x11 11.8 -20 0x17 11.1 0x17 12.1 0x0D 12.4 0x0D 12.3 -15 0x1D 11.8 0x1C 12.7 0x1C 13.0 0x1C 13.0 -10 0x26 13.0 0x26 14.0 0x34 14.5 0x26 14.3 -5 0x57 12.9 0x57 13.7 0x57 14.1 0x57 13.9 0 0x60 14.8 0x60 15.6 0x8E 16.9 0x8E 16.7 5 0x85 18.1 0x85 19.1 0x85 20.0 0x83 19.9 7 0xCB 22.1 0xC8 24.2 0xCC 25.8 0xC9 25.8 10 0xC2 27.1 0xC0 29.2 0xC3 31.1 0xC0 32.3 Table 30: Optimum PATABLE Settings for Various Output Power Levels and Frequency Bands CC1100 SWRS038D Page 50 of 92 315 MHz 433 MHz 868 MHz 915 MHz Default Power Setting Output Power [dBm] Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Output Power [dBm] Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Output Power [dBm] Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] Output Power [dBm] Current Consumption, Typ. [mA] 0xC6 8.7 24.5 7.9 25.2 8.9 28.3 7.9 26.8 Table 31: Output Power and Current Consumption for Default PATABLE Setting 25 Shaping and PA Ramping With ASK modulation, up to eight power settings are used for shaping. The modulator contains a counter that counts up when transmitting a one and down when transmitting a zero. The counter counts at a rate equal to 8 times the symbol rate. The counter saturates at FREND0.PA_POWER and 0 respectively. This counter value is used as an index for a lookup in the power table. Thus, in order to utilize the whole table, FREND0.PA_POWER should be 7 when ASK is active. The shaping of the ASK signal is dependent on the configuration of the PATABLE. Note that the ASK shaping feature is only supported for output power levels up to -1 dBm and only values in the range 0x30–0x3F, together with 0x00 can be used. The same is the case when implementing PA ramping for other modulations formats. Figure 23 shows some examples of ASK shaping. e.g 6 PA_POWER[2:0] in FREND0 register PATABLE(0)[7:0] PATABLE(1)[7:0] PATABLE(2)[7:0] PATABLE(3)[7:0] PATABLE(4)[7:0] PATABLE(5)[7:0] PATABLE(6)[7:0] PATABLE(7)[7:0] Index into PATABLE(7:0) The PA uses this setting. Settings 0 to PA_POWER are used during ramp-up at start of transmission and ramp-down at end of transmission, and for ASK/OOK modulation. The SmartRF® Studio software should be used to obtain optimum PATABLE settings for various output powers. Figure 22: PA_POWER and PATABLE 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Bit Sequence FREND0.PA_POWER = 3 FREND0.PA_POWER = 7 Time PATABLE[0] PATABLE[1] PATABLE[2] PATABLE[3] PATABLE[4] PATABLE[5] PATABLE[6] PATABLE[7] Output Power Figure 23: Shaping of ASK Signal CC1100 SWRS038D Page 51 of 92 Output Power [dBm] PATABLE Setting 315 MHz 433 MHz 868 MHz 915 MHz 0x00 -62.0 -62.0 -57.1 -56.0 0x30 -41.7 -39.0 -33.6 -33.1 0x31 -21.8 -21.7 -21.2 -21.0 0x32 -16.2 -16.1 -16.0 -15.8 0x33 -12.8 -12.7 -12.7 -12.5 0x34 -10.5 -10.4 -10.5 -10.3 0x35 -8.6 -8.5 -8.7 -8.5 0x36 -7.2 -7.1 -7.4 -7.2 0x37 -5.9 -5.8 -6.2 -6.0 0x38 -4.8 -4.9 -5.3 -5.1 0x39 -3.9 -4.0 -4.5 -4.3 0x3A -3.2 -3.3 -3.8 -3.7 0x3B -2.5 -2.7 -3.3 -3.1 0x3C -2.1 -2.3 -2.8 -2.7 0x3D -1.7 -1.9 -2.5 -2.3 0x3E -1.3 -1.6 -2.1 -2.0 0x3F -1.1 -1.3 -1.9 -1.7 Table 32: PATABLE Settings used together with ASK Shaping and PA Ramping Assume working in the 433 MHz and using FSK. The desired output power is -10 dBm. Figure 24 shows how the PATABLE should look like in the two cases where no ramping is used (A) and when PA ramping is being implemented (B). In case A, the PATABLE value is taken from Table 30, while in case B, the values are taken from Table 32. PATABLE[7] = 0x00 PATABLE[6] = 0x00 PATABLE[5] = 0x00 PATABLE[4] = 0x00 PATABLE[3] = 0x00 PATABLE[2] = 0x00 PATABLE[1] = 0x00 PATABLE[0] = 0x26 FREND0.PA_POWER = 0 PATABLE[7] = 0x00 PATABLE[6] = 0x00 PATABLE[5] = 0x34 PATABLE[4] = 0x33 PATABLE[3] = 0x32 PATABLE[2] = 0x31 PATABLE[1] = 0x30 PATABLE[0] = 0x00 FREND0.PA_POWER = 5 A: Output Power = -10 dBm, No PA Ramping B: Output Power = -10 dBm, PA Ramping Figure 24: PA Ramping CC1100 SWRS038D Page 52 of 92 26 Selectivity Figure 25 to Figure 27 show the typical selectivity performance (adjacent and alternate rejection). -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 Frequency offset [MHz] Selectivity [dB] Figure 25: Typical Selectivity at 1.2 kBaud Data Rate, 868 MHz, 2-FSK, 5.2 kHz Deviation. IF Frequency is 152.3 kHz and the Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth is 58 kHz -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 Frequency offset [MHz] Selectivity [dB] Figure 26: Typical Selectivity at 38.4 kBaud Data Rate, 868 MHz, 2-FSK, 20 kHz Deviation. IF Frequency is 152.3 kHz and the Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth is 100 kHz CC1100 SWRS038D Page 53 of 92 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 -2.3 1.5 -1.0 -0.8 0.0 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.3 Frequency offset [MHz] Selectivity [dB] Figure 27: Typical Selectivity at 250 kBaud Data Rate, 868 MHz, MSK, IF Frequency is 254 kHz and the Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth is 540 kHz 27 Crystal Oscillator A crystal in the frequency range 26-27 MHz must be connected between the XOSC_Q1 and XOSC_Q2 pins. The oscillator is designed for parallel mode operation of the crystal. In addition, loading capacitors (C81 and C101) for the crystal are required. The loading capacitor values depend on the total load capacitance, CL, specified for the crystal. The total load capacitance seen between the crystal terminals should equal CL for the crystal to oscillate at the specified frequency. L parasitic C C C C + + = 81 101 1 1 1 The parasitic capacitance is constituted by pin input capacitance and PCB stray capacitance. Total parasitic capacitance is typically 2.5 pF. The crystal oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 28. Typical component values for different values of CL are given in Table 33. The crystal oscillator is amplitude regulated. This means that a high current is used to start up the oscillations. When the amplitude builds up, the current is reduced to what is necessary to maintain approximately 0.4 Vpp signal swing. This ensures a fast start-up, and keeps the drive level to a minimum. The ESR of the crystal should be within the specification in order to ensure a reliable start-up (see Section 4.4 on page 14). The initial tolerance, temperature drift, aging and load pulling should be carefully specified in order to meet the required frequency accuracy in a certain application. XOSC_Q1 XOSC_Q2 XTAL C81 C101 Figure 28: Crystal Oscillator Circuit Component CL = 10 pF CL = 13 pF CL = 16 pF C81 15 pF 22 pF 27 pF C101 15 pF 22 pF 27 pF Table 33: Crystal Oscillator Component Values CC1100 SWRS038D Page 54 of 92 27.1 Reference Signal The chip can alternatively be operated with a reference signal from 26 to 27 MHz instead of a crystal. This input clock can either be a fullswing digital signal (0 V to VDD) or a sine wave of maximum 1 V peak-peak amplitude. The reference signal must be connected to the XOSC_Q1 input. The sine wave must be connected to XOSC_Q1 using a serial capacitor. When using a full-swing digital signal this capacitor can be omitted. The XOSC_Q2 line must be left un-connected. C81 and C101 can be omitted when using a reference signal. 28 External RF Match The balanced RF input and output of CC1100 share two common pins and are designed for a simple, low-cost matching and balun network on the printed circuit board. The receive- and transmit switching at the CC1100 front-end is controlled by a dedicated on-chip function, eliminating the need for an external RX/TXswitch. A few passive external components combined with the internal RX/TX switch/termination circuitry ensures match in both RX and TX mode. Although CC1100 has a balanced RF input/output, the chip can be connected to a single-ended antenna with few external low cost capacitors and inductors. The passive matching/filtering network connected to CC1100 should have the following differential impedance as seen from the RFport (RF_P and RF_N) towards the antenna: Zout 315 MHz = 122 + j31 Ω Zout 433 MHz = 116 + j41 Ω Zout 868/915 MHz = 86.5 + j43 Ω To ensure optimal matching of the CC1100 differential output it is recommended to follow the CC1100EM reference design ([5] or [6]) as closely as possible. Gerber files for the reference designs are available for download from the TI website. 29 PCB Layout Recommendations The top layer should be used for signal routing, and the open areas should be filled with metallization connected to ground using several vias. The area under the chip is used for grounding and shall be connected to the bottom ground plane with several vias. In the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]) we have placed 5 vias inside the exposed die attached pad. These vias should be “tented” (covered with solder mask) on the component side of the PCB to avoid migration of solder through the vias during the solder reflow process. The solder paste coverage should not be 100%. If it is, out gassing may occur during the reflow process, which may cause defects (splattering, solder balling). Using “tented” vias reduces the solder paste coverage below 100%. See Figure 29 for top solder resist and top paste masks. Each decoupling capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the supply pin it is supposed to decouple. Each decoupling capacitor should be connected to the power line (or power plane) by separate vias. The best routing is from the power line (or power plane) to the decoupling capacitor and then to the CC1100 supply pin. Supply power filtering is very important. Each decoupling capacitor ground pad should be connected to the ground plane using a separate via. Direct connections between neighboring power pins will increase noise coupling and should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. The external components should ideally be as small as possible (0402 is recommended) and surface mount devices are highly recommended. Please note that components smaller than those specified may have differing characteristics. Precaution should be used when placing the microcontroller in order to avoid noise interfering with the RF circuitry. A CC1100/1150DK Development Kit with a fully assembled CC1100EM Evaluation Module is available. It is strongly advised that this reference layout is followed very closely in order to get the best performance. The schematic, BOM and layout Gerber files are all available from the TI website ([5] and [6]). CC1100 SWRS038D Page 55 of 92 Figure 29: Left: Top Solder Resist Mask (Negative). Right: Top Paste Mask. Circles are Vias 30 General Purpose / Test Output Control Pins The three digital output pins GDO0, GDO1, and GDO2 are general control pins configured with IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG, and IOCFG2.GDO3_CFG respectively. Table 34 shows the different signals that can be monitored on the GDO pins. These signals can be used as inputs to the MCU. GDO1 is the same pin as the SO pin on the SPI interface, thus the output programmed on this pin will only be valid when CSn is high. The default value for GDO1 is 3- stated, which is useful when the SPI interface is shared with other devices. The default value for GDO0 is a 135-141 kHz clock output (XOSC frequency divided by 192). Since the XOSC is turned on at poweron- reset, this can be used to clock the MCU in systems with only one crystal. When the MCU is up and running, it can change the clock frequency by writing to IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG. An on-chip analog temperature sensor is enabled by writing the value 128 (0x80) to the IOCFG0 register. The voltage on the GDO0 pin is then proportional to temperature. See Section 4.7 on page 16 for temperature sensor specifications. If the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG setting is less than 0x20 and IOCFGx_GDOx_INV is 0 (1), the GDO0 and GDO2 pins will be hardwired to 0 (1) and the GDO1 pin will be hardwired to 1 (0) in the SLEEP state. These signals will be hardwired until the CHIP_RDYn signal goes low. If the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG setting is 0x20 or higher the GDO pins will work as programmed also in SLEEP state. As an example, GDO1 is high impedance in all states if IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG=0x2E. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 56 of 92 GDOx_CFG[5:0] Description 0 (0x00) Associated to the RX FIFO: Asserts when RX FIFO is filled at or above the RX FIFO threshold. De-asserts when RX FIFO is drained below the same threshold. 1 (0x01) Associated to the RX FIFO: Asserts when RX FIFO is filled at or above the RX FIFO threshold or the end of packet is reached. De-asserts when the RX FIFO is empty. 2 (0x02) Associated to the TX FIFO: Asserts when the TX FIFO is filled at or above the TX FIFO threshold. De-asserts when the TX FIFO is below the same threshold. 3 (0x03) Associated to the TX FIFO: Asserts when TX FIFO is full. De-asserts when the TX FIFO is drained below theTX FIFO threshold. 4 (0x04) Asserts when the RX FIFO has overflowed. De-asserts when the FIFO has been flushed. 5 (0x05) Asserts when the TX FIFO has underflowed. De-asserts when the FIFO is flushed. 6 (0x06) Asserts when sync word has been sent / received, and de-asserts at the end of the packet. In RX, the pin will de-assert when the optional address check fails or the RX FIFO overflows. In TX the pin will de-assert if the TX FIFO underflows. 7 (0x07) Asserts when a packet has been received with CRC OK. De-asserts when the first byte is read from the RX FIFO. 8 (0x08) Preamble Quality Reached. Asserts when the PQI is above the programmed PQT value. 9 (0x09) Clear channel assessment. High when RSSI level is below threshold (dependent on the current CCA_MODE setting) 10 (0x0A) Lock detector output. The PLL is in lock if the lock detector output has a positive transition or is constantly logic high. To check for PLL lock the lock detector output should be used as an interrupt for the MCU. 11 (0x0B) Serial Clock. Synchronous to the data in synchronous serial mode. In RX mode, data is set up on the falling edge by CC1100 when GDOx_INV=0. In TX mode, data is sampled by CC1100 on the rising edge of the serial clock when GDOx_INV=0. 12 (0x0C) Serial Synchronous Data Output. Used for synchronous serial mode. 13 (0x0D) Serial Data Output. Used for asynchronous serial mode. 14 (0x0E) Carrier sense. High if RSSI level is above threshold. 15 (0x0F) CRC_OK. The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX mode. 16 (0x10) Reserved – used for test. 17 (0x11) Reserved – used for test. 18 (0x12) Reserved – used for test. 19 (0x13) Reserved – used for test. 20 (0x14) Reserved – used for test. 21 (0x15) Reserved – used for test. 22 (0x16) RX_HARD_DATA[1]. Can be used together with RX_SYMBOL_TICK for alternative serial RX output. 23 (0x17) RX_HARD_DATA[0]. Can be used together with RX_SYMBOL_TICK for alternative serial RX output. 24 (0x18) Reserved – used for test. 25 (0x19) Reserved – used for test. 26 (0x1A) Reserved – used for test. 27 (0x1B) PA_PD. Note: PA_PD will have the same signal level in SLEEP and TX states. To control an external PA or RX/TX switch in applications where the SLEEP state is used it is recommended to use GDOx_CFGx=0x2F instead. 28 (0x1C) LNA_PD. Note: LNA_PD will have the same signal level in SLEEP and RX states. To control an external LNA or RX/TX switch in applications where the SLEEP state is used it is recommended to use GDOx_CFGx=0x2F instead. 29 (0x1D) RX_SYMBOL_TICK. Can be used together with RX_HARD_DATA for alternative serial RX output. 30 (0x1E) Reserved – used for test. 31 (0x1F) Reserved – used for test. 32 (0x20) Reserved – used for test. 33 (0x21) Reserved – used for test. 34 (0x22) Reserved – used for test. 35 (0x23) Reserved – used for test. 36 (0x24) WOR_EVNT0 37 (0x25) WOR_EVNT1 38 (0x26) Reserved – used for test. 39 (0x27) CLK_32k 40 (0x28) Reserved – used for test. 41 (0x29) CHIP_RDYn 42 (0x2A) Reserved – used for test. 43 (0x2B) XOSC_STABLE 44 (0x2C) Reserved – used for test. 45 (0x2D) GDO0_Z_EN_N. When this output is 0, GDO0 is configured as input (for serial TX data). 46 (0x2E) High impedance (3-state) 47 (0x2F) HW to 0 (HW1 achieved by setting GDOx_INV=1). Can be used to control an external LNA/PA or RX/TX switch. 48 (0x30) CLK_XOSC/1 49 (0x31) CLK_XOSC/1.5 50 (0x32) CLK_XOSC/2 51 (0x33) CLK_XOSC/3 52 (0x34) CLK_XOSC/4 53 (0x35) CLK_XOSC/6 54 (0x36) CLK_XOSC/8 55 (0x37) CLK_XOSC/12 56 (0x38) CLK_XOSC/16 57 (0x39) CLK_XOSC/24 58 (0x3A) CLK_XOSC/32 59 (0x3B) CLK_XOSC/48 60 (0x3C) CLK_XOSC/64 61 (0x3D) CLK_XOSC/96 62 (0x3E) CLK_XOSC/128 63 (0x3F) CLK_XOSC/192 Note: There are 3 GDO pins, but only one CLK_XOSC/n can be selected as an output at any time. If CLK_XOSC/n is to be monitored on one of the GDO pins, the other two GDO pins must be configured to values less than 0x30. The GDO0 default value is CLK_XOSC/192. To optimize rf performance, these signal should not be used while the radio is in RX or TX mode. Table 34: GDOx Signal Selection (x = 0, 1, or 2) CC1100 SWRS038D Page 57 of 92 31 Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Operation Several features and modes of operation have been included in the CC1100 to provide backward compatibility with previous Chipcon products and other existing RF communication systems. For new systems, it is recommended to use the built-in packet handling features, as they can give more robust communication, significantly offload the microcontroller, and simplify software development. 31.1 Asynchronous Operation For backward compatibility with systems already using the asynchronous data transfer from other Chipcon products, asynchronous transfer is also included in CC1100. When asynchronous transfer is enabled, several of the support mechanisms for the MCU that are included in CC1100 will be disabled, such as packet handling hardware, buffering in the FIFO, and so on. The asynchronous transfer mode does not allow the use of the data whitener, interleaver, and FEC, and it is not possible to use Manchester encoding. Note that MSK is not supported for asynchronous transfer. Setting PKTCTRL0.PKT_FORMAT to 3 enables asynchronous serial mode. In TX, the GDO0 pin is used for data input (TX data). Data output can be on GDO0, GDO1, or GDO2. This is set by the IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG and IOCFG2.GDO2_CFG fields. The CC1100 modulator samples the level of the asynchronous input 8 times faster than the programmed data rate. The timing requirement for the asynchronous stream is that the error in the bit period must be less than one eighth of the programmed data rate. 31.2 Synchronous Serial Operation Setting PKTCTRL0.PKT_FORMAT to 1 enables synchronous serial mode. In the synchronous serial mode, data is transferred on a two wire serial interface. The CC1100 provides a clock that is used to set up new data on the data input line or sample data on the data output line. Data input (TX data) is the GDO0 pin. This pin will automatically be configured as an input when TX is active. The data output pin can be any of the GDO pins; this is set by the IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG, and IOCFG2.GDO2_CFG fields. Preamble and sync word insertion/detection may or may not be active, dependent on the sync mode set by the MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE. If preamble and sync word is disabled, all other packet handler features and FEC should also be disabled. The MCU must then handle preamble and sync word insertion and detection in software. If preamble and sync word insertion/detection is left on, all packet handling features and FEC can be used. One exception is that the address filtering feature is unavailable in synchronous serial mode. When using the packet handling features in synchronous serial mode, the CC1100 will insert and detect the preamble and sync word and the MCU will only provide/get the data payload. This is equivalent to the recommended FIFO operation mode. 32 System Considerations and Guidelines 32.1 SRD Regulations International regulations and national laws regulate the use of radio receivers and transmitters. Short Range Devices (SRDs) for license free operation below 1 GHz are usually operated in the 433 MHz, 868 MHz or 915 MHz frequency bands. The CC1100 is specifically designed for such use with its 300 - 348 MHz, 400 - 464 MHz, and 800 - 928 MHz operating ranges. The most important regulations when using the CC1100 in the 433 MHz, 868 MHz, or 915 MHz frequency bands are EN 300 220 (Europe) and FCC CFR47 part 15 (USA). A summary of the most important aspects of these regulations can be found in Application Note AN001 [2]. Please note that compliance with regulations is dependent on complete system performance. It is the customer’s responsibility to ensure that the system complies with regulations. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 58 of 92 32.2 Frequency Hopping and Multi- Channel Systems The 433 MHz, 868 MHz, or 915 MHz bands are shared by many systems both in industrial, office, and home environments. It is therefore recommended to use frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or a multi-channel protocol because the frequency diversity makes the system more robust with respect to interference from other systems operating in the same frequency band. FHSS also combats multipath fading. CC1100 is highly suited for FHSS or multichannel systems due to its agile frequency synthesizer and effective communication interface. Using the packet handling support and data buffering is also beneficial in such systems as these features will significantly offload the host controller. Charge pump current, VCO current, and VCO capacitance array calibration data is required for each frequency when implementing frequency hopping for CC1100. There are 3 ways of obtaining the calibration data from the chip: 1) Frequency hopping with calibration for each hop. The PLL calibration time is approximately 720 μs. The blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately 810 us. 2) Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by calibrating each frequency at startup and saving the resulting FSCAL3, FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values in MCU memory. Between each frequency hop, the calibration process can then be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2and FSCAL1 register values corresponding to the next RF frequency. The PLL turn on time is approximately 90 μs. The blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately 90 us. The VCO current calibration result available in FSCAL2 is not dependent on the RF frequency. Neither is the charge pump current calibration result available in FSCAL3. The same value can therefore be used for all frequencies. 3) Run calibration on a single frequency at startup. Next write 0 to FSCAL3[5:4] to disable the charge pump calibration. After writing to FSCAL3[5:4] strobe SRX (or STX) with MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL=1 for each new frequency hop. That is, VCO current and VCO capacitance calibration is done but not charge pump current calibration. When charge pump current calibration is disabled the calibration time is reduced from approximately 720 μs to approximately 150 μs. The blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately 240 us. There is a trade off between blanking time and memory space needed for storing calibration data in non-volatile memory. Solution 2) above gives the shortest blanking interval, but requires more memory space to store calibration values. Solution 3) gives approximately 570 μs smaller blanking interval than solution 1). Note that the recommended settings for TEST0.VCO_SEL_CAL_EN will change with frequency. This means that one should always use SmartRF® Studio [7] to get the correct settings for a specific frequency before doing a calibration, regardless of which calibration method is being used. It must be noted that the TESTn registers (n = 0, 1, or 2) content is not retained in SLEEP state, and thus it is necessary to re-write these registers when returning from the SLEEP state. 32.3 Wideband Modulation not Using Spread Spectrum Digital modulation systems under FFC part 15.247 includes 2-FSK and GFSK modulation. A maximum peak output power of 1W (+30 dBm) is allowed if the 6 dB bandwidth of the modulated signal exceeds 500 kHz. In addition, the peak power spectral density conducted to the antenna shall not be greater than +8 dBm in any 3 kHz band. Operating at high data rates and frequency separation, the CC1100 is suited for systems targeting compliance with digital modulation system as defined by FFC part 15.247. An external power amplifier is needed to increase the output above +10 dBm. 32.4 Data Burst Transmissions The high maximum data rate of CC1100 opens up for burst transmissions. A low average data rate link (e.g. 10 kBaud), can be realized using a higher over-the-air data rate. Buffering the data and transmitting in bursts at high data rate (e.g. 500 kBaud) will reduce the time in active mode, and hence also reduce the average current consumption significantly. Reducing the time in active mode will reduce the likelihood of collisions with other systems in the same frequency range. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 59 of 92 32.5 Continuous Transmissions In data streaming applications the CC1100 opens up for continuous transmissions at 500 kBaud effective data rate. As the modulation is done with a closed loop PLL, there is no limitation in the length of a transmission (open loop modulation used in some transceivers often prevents this kind of continuous data streaming and reduces the effective data rate). 32.6 Crystal Drift Compensation The CC1100 has a very fine frequency resolution (see Table 9). This feature can be used to compensate for frequency offset and drift. The frequency offset between an ‘external’ transmitter and the receiver is measured in the CC1100 and can be read back from the FREQEST status register as described in Section 14.1. The measured frequency offset can be used to calibrate the frequency using the ‘external’ transmitter as the reference. That is, the received signal of the device will match the receiver’s channel filter better. In the same way the centre frequency of the transmitted signal will match the ‘external’ transmitter’s signal. 32.7 Spectrum Efficient Modulation CC1100 also has the possibility to use Gaussian shaped 2-FSK (GFSK). This spectrum-shaping feature improves adjacent channel power (ACP) and occupied bandwidth. In ‘true’ 2-FSK systems with abrupt frequency shifting, the spectrum is inherently broad. By making the frequency shift ‘softer’, the spectrum can be made significantly narrower. Thus, higher data rates can be transmitted in the same bandwidth using GFSK. 32.8 Low Cost Systems As the CC1100 provides 500 kBaud multichannel performance without any external filters, a very low cost system can be made. A differential antenna will eliminate the need for a balun, and the DC biasing can be achieved in the antenna topology, see Figure 3 and Figure 4. A HC-49 type SMD crystal is used in the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). Note that the crystal package strongly influences the price. In a size constrained PCB design a smaller, but more expensive, crystal may be used. 32.9 Battery Operated Systems In low power applications, the SLEEP state with the crystal oscillator core switched off should be used when the CC1100 is not active. It is possible to leave the crystal oscillator core running in the SLEEP state if start-up time is critical. The WOR functionality should be used in low power applications. 32.10 Increasing Output Power In some applications it may be necessary to extend the link range. Adding an external power amplifier is the most effective way of doing this. The power amplifier should be inserted between the antenna and the balun, and two T/R switches are needed to disconnect the PA in RX mode. See Figure 30. Figure 30: Block Diagram of CC1100 Usage with External Power Amplifier Balun CC1100 Filter Antenna T/R switch T/R switch PA CC1100 SWRS038D Page 60 of 92 33 Configuration Registers The configuration of CC1100 is done by programming 8-bit registers. The optimum configuration data based on selected system parameters are most easily found by using the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. Complete descriptions of the registers are given in the following tables. After chip reset, all the registers have default values as shown in the tables. The optimum register setting might differ from the default value. After a reset all registers that shall be different from the default value therefore needs to be programmed through the SPI interface. There are 13 command strobe registers, listed in Table 35. Accessing these registers will initiate the change of an internal state or mode. There are 47 normal 8-bit configuration registers, listed in Table 36. Many of these registers are for test purposes only, and need not be written for normal operation of CC1100. There are also 12 Status registers, which are listed in Table 37. These registers, which are read-only, contain information about the status of CC1100. The two FIFOs are accessed through one 8-bit register. Write operations write to the TX FIFO, while read operations read from the RX FIFO. During the header byte transfer and while writing data to a register or the TX FIFO, a status byte is returned on the SO line. This status byte is described in Table 17 on page 26. Table 38 summarizes the SPI address space. The address to use is given by adding the base address to the left and the burst and read/write bits on the top. Note that the burst bit has different meaning for base addresses above and below 0x2F. Address Strobe Name Description 0x30 SRES Reset chip. 0x31 SFSTXON Enable and calibrate frequency synthesizer (if MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL=1). If in RX (with CCA): Go to a wait state where only the synthesizer is running (for quick RX / TX turnaround). 0x32 SXOFF Turn off crystal oscillator. 0x33 SCAL Calibrate frequency synthesizer and turn it off. SCAL can be strobed from IDLE mode without setting manual calibration mode (MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL=0) 0x34 SRX Enable RX. Perform calibration first if coming from IDLE and MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL=1. 0x35 STX In IDLE state: Enable TX. Perform calibration first if MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL=1. If in RX state and CCA is enabled: Only go to TX if channel is clear. 0x36 SIDLE Exit RX / TX, turn off frequency synthesizer and exit Wake-On-Radio mode if applicable. 0x38 SWOR Start automatic RX polling sequence (Wake-on-Radio) as described in Section 19.5 if WORCTRL.RC_PD=0. 0x39 SPWD Enter power down mode when CSn goes high. 0x3A SFRX Flush the RX FIFO buffer. Only issue SFRX in IDLE or, RXFIFO_OVERFLOW states. 0x3B SFTX Flush the TX FIFO buffer. Only issue SFTX in IDLE or TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW states. 0x3C SWORRST Reset real time clock to Event1 value. 0x3D SNOP No operation. May be used to get access to the chip status byte. Table 35: Command Strobes CC1100 SWRS038D Page 61 of 92 Address Register Description Preserved in SLEEP State Details on Page Number 0x00 IOCFG2 GDO2 output pin configuration Yes 64 0x01 IOCFG1 GDO1 output pin configuration Yes 64 0x02 IOCFG0 GDO0 output pin configuration Yes 64 0x03 FIFOTHR RX FIFO and TX FIFO thresholds Yes 65 0x04 SYNC1 Sync word, high byte Yes 65 0x05 SYNC0 Sync word, low byte Yes 65 0x06 PKTLEN Packet length Yes 65 0x07 PKTCTRL1 Packet automation control Yes 66 0x08 PKTCTRL0 Packet automation control Yes 67 0x09 ADDR Device address Yes 67 0x0A CHANNR Channel number Yes 67 0x0B FSCTRL1 Frequency synthesizer control Yes 68 0x0C FSCTRL0 Frequency synthesizer control Yes 68 0x0D FREQ2 Frequency control word, high byte Yes 68 0x0E FREQ1 Frequency control word, middle byte Yes 68 0x0F FREQ0 Frequency control word, low byte Yes 68 0x10 MDMCFG4 Modem configuration Yes 69 0x11 MDMCFG3 Modem configuration Yes 69 0x12 MDMCFG2 Modem configuration Yes 70 0x13 MDMCFG1 Modem configuration Yes 71 0x14 MDMCFG0 Modem configuration Yes 71 0x15 DEVIATN Modem deviation setting Yes 72 0x16 MCSM2 Main Radio Control State Machine configuration Yes 73 0x17 MCSM1 Main Radio Control State Machine configuration Yes 74 0x18 MCSM0 Main Radio Control State Machine configuration Yes 75 0x19 FOCCFG Frequency Offset Compensation configuration Yes 76 0x1A BSCFG Bit Synchronization configuration Yes 77 0x1B AGCTRL2 AGC control Yes 78 0x1C AGCTRL1 AGC control Yes 79 0x1D AGCTRL0 AGC control Yes 80 0x1E WOREVT1 High byte Event 0 timeout Yes 80 0x1F WOREVT0 Low byte Event 0 timeout Yes 81 0x20 WORCTRL Wake On Radio control Yes 81 0x21 FREND1 Front end RX configuration Yes 82 0x22 FREND0 Front end TX configuration Yes 82 0x23 FSCAL3 Frequency synthesizer calibration Yes 82 0x24 FSCAL2 Frequency synthesizer calibration Yes 83 0x25 FSCAL1 Frequency synthesizer calibration Yes 83 0x26 FSCAL0 Frequency synthesizer calibration Yes 83 0x27 RCCTRL1 RC oscillator configuration Yes 83 0x28 RCCTRL0 RC oscillator configuration Yes 83 0x29 FSTEST Frequency synthesizer calibration control No 84 0x2A PTEST Production test No 84 0x2B AGCTEST AGC test No 84 0x2C TEST2 Various test settings No 84 0x2D TEST1 Various test settings No 84 0x2E TEST0 Various test settings No 84 Table 36: Configuration Registers Overview CC1100 SWRS038D Page 62 of 92 Address Register Description Details on page number 0x30 (0xF0) PARTNUM Part number for CC1100 85 0x31 (0xF1) VERSION Current version number 85 0x32 (0xF2) FREQEST Frequency Offset Estimate 85 0x33 (0xF3) LQI Demodulator estimate for Link Quality 85 0x34 (0xF4) RSSI Received signal strength indication 85 0x35 (0xF5) MARCSTATE Control state machine state 86 0x36 (0xF6) WORTIME1 High byte of WOR timer 86 0x37 (0xF7) WORTIME0 Low byte of WOR timer 86 0x38 (0xF8) PKTSTATUS Current GDOx status and packet status 87 0x39 (0xF9) VCO_VC_DAC Current setting from PLL calibration module 87 0x3A (0xFA) TXBYTES Underflow and number of bytes in the TX FIFO 87 0x3B (0xFB) RXBYTES Overflow and number of bytes in the RX FIFO 87 0x3C (0xFC) RCCTRL1_STATUS Last RC oscillator calibration result 87 0x3D (0xFD) RCCTRL0_STATUS Last RC oscillator calibration result 88 Table 37: Status Registers Overview CC1100 SWRS038D Page 63 of 92 Write Read Single Byte Burst Single Byte Burst +0x00 +0x40 +0x80 +0xC0 0x00 IOCFG2 0x01 IOCFG1 0x02 IOCFG0 0x03 FIFOTHR 0x04 SYNC1 0x05 SYNC0 0x06 PKTLEN 0x07 PKTCTRL1 0x08 PKTCTRL0 0x09 ADDR 0x0A CHANNR 0x0B FSCTRL1 0x0C FSCTRL0 0x0D FREQ2 0x0E FREQ1 0x0F FREQ0 0x10 MDMCFG4 0x11 MDMCFG3 0x12 MDMCFG2 0x13 MDMCFG1 0x14 MDMCFG0 0x15 DEVIATN 0x16 MCSM2 0x17 MCSM1 0x18 MCSM0 0x19 FOCCFG 0x1A BSCFG 0x1B AGCCTRL2 0x1C AGCCTRL1 0x1D AGCCTRL0 0x1E WOREVT1 0x1F WOREVT0 0x20 WORCTRL 0x21 FREND1 0x22 FREND0 0x23 FSCAL3 0x24 FSCAL2 0x25 FSCAL1 0x26 FSCAL0 0x27 RCCTRL1 0x28 RCCTRL0 0x29 FSTEST 0x2A PTEST 0x2B AGCTEST 0x2C TEST2 0x2D TEST1 0x2E TEST0 0x2F R/W configuration registers, burst access possible 0x30 SRES SRES PARTNUM 0x31 SFSTXON SFSTXON VERSION 0x32 SXOFF SXOFF FREQEST 0x33 SCAL SCAL LQI 0x34 SRX SRX RSSI 0x35 STX STX MARCSTATE 0x36 SIDLE SIDLE WORTIME1 0x37 WORTIME0 0x38 SWOR SWOR PKTSTATUS 0x39 SPWD SPWD VCO_VC_DAC 0x3A SFRX SFRX TXBYTES 0x3B SFTX SFTX RXBYTES 0x3C SWORRST SWORRST RCCTRL1_STATUS 0x3D SNOP SNOP RCCTRL0_STATUS 0x3E PATABLE PATABLE PATABLE PATABLE 0x3F TX FIFO TX FIFO RX FIFO RX FIFO Command Strobes, Status registers (read only) and multi byte registers Table 38: SPI Address Space CC1100 SWRS038D Page 64 of 92 33.1 Configuration Register Details – Registers with preserved values in SLEEP state 0x00: IOCFG2 – GDO2 Output Pin Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6 GDO2_INV 0 R/W Invert output, i.e. select active low (1) / high (0) 5:0 GDO2_CFG[5:0] 41 (0x29) R/W Default is CHP_RDYn (See Table 34 on page 56). 0x01: IOCFG1 – GDO1 Output Pin Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 GDO_DS 0 R/W Set high (1) or low (0) output drive strength on the GDO pins. 6 GDO1_INV 0 R/W Invert output, i.e. select active low (1) / high (0) 5:0 GDO1_CFG[5:0] 46 (0x2E) R/W Default is 3-state (See Table 34 on page 56). 0x02: IOCFG0 – GDO0 Output Pin Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 TEMP_SENSOR_ENABLE 0 R/W Enable analog temperature sensor. Write 0 in all other register bits when using temperature sensor. 6 GDO0_INV 0 R/W Invert output, i.e. select active low (1) / high (0) 5:0 GDO0_CFG[5:0] 63 (0x3F) R/W Default is CLK_XOSC/192 (See Table 34 on page 56). It is recommended to disable the clock output in initialization, in order to optimize RF performance. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 65 of 92 0x03: FIFOTHR – RX FIFO and TX FIFO Thresholds Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:4 Reserved 0 R/W Write 0 for compatibility with possible future extensions 3:0 FIFO_THR[3:0] 7 (0111) R/W Set the threshold for the TX FIFO and RX FIFO. The threshold is exceeded when the number of bytes in the FIFO is equal to or higher than the threshold value. Setting Bytes in TX FIFO Bytes in RX FIFO 0 (0000) 61 4 1 (0001) 57 8 2 (0010) 53 12 3 (0011) 49 16 4 (0100) 45 20 5 (0101) 41 24 6 (0110) 37 28 7 (0111) 33 32 8 (1000) 29 36 9 (1001) 25 40 10 (1010) 21 44 11 (1011) 17 48 12 (1100) 13 52 13 (1101) 9 56 14 (1110) 5 60 15 (1111) 1 64 0x04: SYNC1 – Sync Word, High Byte Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 SYNC[15:8] 211 (0xD3) R/W 8 MSB of 16-bit sync word 0x05: SYNC0 – Sync Word, Low Byte Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 SYNC[7:0] 145 (0x91) R/W 8 LSB of 16-bit sync word 0x06: PKTLEN – Packet Length Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 PACKET_LENGTH 255 (0xFF) R/W Indicates the packet length when fixed packet length mode is enabled. If variable packet length mode is used, this value indicates the maximum packet length allowed. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 66 of 92 0x07: PKTCTRL1 – Packet Automation Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:5 PQT[2:0] 0 (0x00) R/W Preamble quality estimator threshold. The preamble quality estimator increases an internal counter by one each time a bit is received that is different from the previous bit, and decreases the counter by 8 each time a bit is received that is the same as the last bit. A threshold of 4·PQT for this counter is used to gate sync word detection. When PQT=0 a sync word is always accepted. 4 Reserved 0 R0 3 CRC_AUTOFLUSH 0 R/W Enable automatic flush of RX FIFO when CRC in not OK. This requires that only one packet is in the RXIFIFO and that packet length is limited to the RX FIFO size. 2 APPEND_STATUS 1 R/W When enabled, two status bytes will be appended to the payload of the packet. The status bytes contain RSSI and LQI values, as well as CRC OK. 1:0 ADR_CHK[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Controls address check configuration of received packages. Setting Address check configuration 0 (00) No address check 1 (01) Address check, no broadcast 2 (10) Address check and 0 (0x00) broadcast 3 (11) Address check and 0 (0x00) and 255 (0xFF) broadcast CC1100 SWRS038D Page 67 of 92 0x08: PKTCTRL0 – Packet Automation Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6 WHITE_DATA 1 R/W Turn data whitening on / off 0: Whitening off 1: Whitening on 5:4 PKT_FORMAT[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Format of RX and TX data Setting Packet format 0 (00) Normal mode, use FIFOs for RX and TX 1 (01) Synchronous serial mode, used for backwards compatibility. Data in on GDO0 2 (10) Random TX mode; sends random data using PN9 generator. Used for test. Works as normal mode, setting 0 (00), in RX. 3 (11) Asynchronous serial mode. Data in on GDO0 and Data out on either of the GDO0 pins 3 Reserved 0 R0 2 CRC_EN 1 R/W 1: CRC calculation in TX and CRC check in RX enabled 0: CRC disabled for TX and RX 1:0 LENGTH_CONFIG[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Configure the packet length Setting Packet length configuration 0 (00) Fixed packet length mode. Length configured in PKTLEN register 1 (01) Variable packet length mode. Packet length configured by the first byte after sync word 2 (10) Infinite packet length mode 3 (11) Reserved 0x09: ADDR – Device Address Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 DEVICE_ADDR[7:0] 0 (0x00) R/W Address used for packet filtration. Optional broadcast addresses are 0 (0x00) and 255 (0xFF). 0x0A: CHANNR – Channel Number Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 CHAN[7:0] 0 (0x00) R/W The 8-bit unsigned channel number, which is multiplied by the channel spacing setting and added to the base frequency. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 68 of 92 0x0B: FSCTRL1 – Frequency Synthesizer Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:5 Reserved R0 4:0 FREQ_IF[4:0] 15 (0x0F) R/W The desired IF frequency to employ in RX. Subtracted from FS base frequency in RX and controls the digital complex mixer in the demodulator. f f XOSC FREQ IF IF _ 210 = ⋅ The default value gives an IF frequency of 381kHz, assuming a 26.0 MHz crystal. 0x0C: FSCTRL0 – Frequency Synthesizer Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 FREQOFF[7:0] 0 (0x00) R/W Frequency offset added to the base frequency before being used by the frequency synthesizer. (2s-complement). Resolution is FXTAL/214 (1.59kHz-1.65kHz); range is ±202 kHz to ±210 kHz, dependent of XTAL frequency. 0x0D: FREQ2 – Frequency Control Word, High Byte Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 FREQ[23:22] 0 (00) R FREQ[23:22] is always 0 (the FREQ2 register is less than 36 with 26-27 MHz crystal) 5:0 FREQ[21:16] 30 (0x1E) R/W FREQ[23:22] is the base frequency for the frequency synthesiser in increments of FXOSC/216. [23 : 0] 216 f f XOSC FREQ carrier = ⋅ 0x0E: FREQ1 – Frequency Control Word, Middle Byte Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 FREQ[15:8] 196 (0xC4) R/W Ref. FREQ2 register 0x0F: FREQ0 – Frequency Control Word, Low Byte Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 FREQ[7:0] 236 (0xEC) R/W Ref. FREQ2 register CC1100 SWRS038D Page 69 of 92 0x10: MDMCFG4 – Modem Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 CHANBW_E[1:0] 2 (0x02) R/W 5:4 CHANBW_M[1:0] 0 (0x00) R/W Sets the decimation ratio for the delta-sigma ADC input stream and thus the channel bandwidth. CHANBW E XOSC channel CHANBW M BW f 8 ⋅ (4 + _ )·2 _ = The default values give 203 kHz channel filter bandwidth, assuming a 26.0 MHz crystal. 3:0 DRATE_E[3:0] 12 (0x0C) R/W The exponent of the user specified symbol rate 0x11: MDMCFG3 – Modem Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 DRATE_M[7:0] 34 (0x22) R/W The mantissa of the user specified symbol rate. The symbol rate is configured using an unsigned, floating-point number with 9-bit mantissa and 4-bit exponent. The 9th bit is a hidden ‘1’. The resulting data rate is: ( ) XOSC DRATE E DATA R = + DRATE M ⋅ ⋅ f 28 _ 2 256 _ 2 The default values give a data rate of 115.051 kBaud (closest setting to 115.2 kBaud), assuming a 26.0 MHz crystal. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 70 of 92 0x12: MDMCFG2 – Modem Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 DEM_DCFILT_OFF 0 R/W Disable digital DC blocking filter before demodulator. 0 = Enable (better sensitivity) 1 = Disable (current optimized). Only for data rates ≤ 250 kBaud The recommended IF frequency changes when the DC blocking is disabled. Please use SmartRF® Studio [7] to calculate correct register setting. 6:4 MOD_FORMAT[2:0] 0 (000) R/W The modulation format of the radio signal Setting Modulation format 0 (000) 2-FSK 1 (001) GFSK 2 (010) - 3 (011) ASK/OOK 4 (100) - 5 (101) - 6 (110) - 7 (111) MSK ASK is only supported for output powers up to -1 dBm MSK is only supported for datarates above 26 kBaud 3 MANCHESTER_EN 0 R/W Enables Manchester encoding/decoding. 0 = Disable 1 = Enable 2:0 SYNC_MODE[2:0] 2 (010) R/W Combined sync-word qualifier mode. The values 0 (000) and 4 (100) disables preamble and sync word transmission in TX and preamble and sync word detection in RX. The values 1 (001), 2 (010), 5 (101) and 6 (110) enables 16-bit sync word transmission in TX and 16-bits sync word detection in RX. Only 15 of 16 bits need to match in RX when using setting 1 (001) or 5 (101). The values 3 (011) and 7 (111) enables repeated sync word transmission in TX and 32-bits sync word detection in RX (only 30 of 32 bits need to match). Setting Sync-word qualifier mode 0 (000) No preamble/sync 1 (001) 15/16 sync word bits detected 2 (010) 16/16 sync word bits detected 3 (011) 30/32 sync word bits detected 4 (100) No preamble/sync, carrier-sense above threshold 5 (101) 15/16 + carrier-sense above threshold 6 (110) 16/16 + carrier-sense above threshold 7 (111) 30/32 + carrier-sense above threshold CC1100 SWRS038D Page 71 of 92 0x13: MDMCFG1– Modem Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 FEC_EN 0 R/W Enable Forward Error Correction (FEC) with interleaving for packet payload 0 = Disable 1 = Enable (Only supported for fixed packet length mode, i.e. PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG=0) 6:4 NUM_PREAMBLE[2:0] 2 (010) R/W Sets the minimum number of preamble bytes to be transmitted Setting Number of preamble bytes 0 (000) 2 1 (001) 3 2 (010) 4 3 (011) 6 4 (100) 8 5 (101) 12 6 (110) 16 7 (111) 24 3:2 Reserved R0 1:0 CHANSPC_E[1:0] 2 (10) R/W 2 bit exponent of channel spacing 0x14: MDMCFG0– Modem Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 CHANSPC_M[7:0] 248 (0xF8) R/W 8-bit mantissa of channel spacing. The channel spacing is multiplied by the channel number CHAN and added to the base frequency. It is unsigned and has the format: XOSC ( ) CHANSPC E CHANNEL f f CHANSPC M _ 18 256 _ 2 2 Δ = ⋅ + ⋅ The default values give 199.951 kHz channel spacing (the closest setting to 200 kHz), assuming 26.0 MHz crystal frequency. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 72 of 92 0x15: DEVIATN – Modem Deviation Setting Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6:4 DEVIATION_E[2:0] 4 (0x04) R/W Deviation exponent 3 Reserved R0 2:0 DEVIATION_M[2:0] 7 (111) R/W When MSK modulation is enabled: Sets fraction of symbol period used for phase change. Refer to the SmartRF® Studio software [7] for correct deviation setting when using MSK. When 2-FSK/GFSK modulation is enabled: Deviation mantissa, interpreted as a 4-bit value with MSB implicit 1. The resulting frequency deviation is given by: xosc DEVIATION E dev f f DEVIATION M _ 17 (8 _ ) 2 2 = ⋅ + ⋅ The default values give ±47.607 kHz deviation, assuming 26.0 MHz crystal frequency. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 73 of 92 0x16: MCSM2 – Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:5 Reserved R0 Reserved 4 RX_TIME_RSSI 0 R/W Direct RX termination based on RSSI measurement (carrier sense). For ASK/OOK modulation, RX times out if there is no carrier sense in the first 8 symbol periods. 3 RX_TIME_QUAL 0 R/W When the RX_TIME timer expires, the chip checks if sync word is found when RX_TIME_QUAL=0, or either sync word is found or PQI is set when RX_TIME_QUAL=1. RX_TIME[2:0] 7 (111) R/W Timeout for sync word search in RX for both WOR mode and normal RX operation. The timeout is relative to the programmed EVENT0 timeout. 2:0 The RX timeout in μs is given by EVENT0·C(RX_TIME, WOR_RES) ·26/X, where C is given by the table below and X is the crystal oscillator frequency in MHz: Setting WOR_RES = 0 WOR_RES = 1 WOR_RES = 2 WOR_RES = 3 0 (000) 3.6058 18.0288 32.4519 46.8750 1 (001) 1.8029 9.0144 16.2260 23.4375 2 (010) 0.9014 4.5072 8.1130 11.7188 3 (011) 0.4507 2.2536 4.0565 5.8594 4 (100) 0.2254 1.1268 2.0282 2.9297 5 (101) 0.1127 0.5634 1.0141 1.4648 6 (110) 0.0563 0.2817 0.5071 0.7324 7 (111) Until end of packet As an example, EVENT0=34666, WOR_RES=0 and RX_TIME=6 corresponds to 1.96 ms RX timeout, 1 s polling interval and 0.195% duty cycle. Note that WOR_RES should be 0 or 1 when using WOR because using WOR_RES > 1 will give a very low duty cycle. In applications where WOR is not used all settings of WOR_RES can be used. The duty cycle using WOR is approximated by: Setting WOR_RES=0 WOR_RES=1 0 (000) 12.50% 1.95% 1 (001) 6.250% 9765ppm 2 (010) 3.125% 4883ppm 3 (011) 1.563% 2441ppm 4 (100) 0.781% NA 5 (101) 0.391% NA 6 (110) 0.195% NA 7 (111) NA Note that the RC oscillator must be enabled in order to use setting 0-6, because the timeout counts RC oscillator periods. WOR mode does not need to be enabled. The timeout counter resolution is limited: With RX_TIME=0, the timeout count is given by the 13 MSBs of EVENT0, decreasing to the 7MSBs of EVENT0 with RX_TIME=6. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 74 of 92 0x17: MCSM1– Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5:4 CCA_MODE[1:0] 3 (11) R/W Selects CCA_MODE; Reflected in CCA signal Setting Clear channel indication 0 (00) Always 1 (01) If RSSI below threshold 2 (10) Unless currently receiving a packet 3 (11) If RSSI below threshold unless currently receiving a packet 3:2 RXOFF_MODE[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Select what should happen when a packet has been received Setting Next state after finishing packet reception 0 (00) IDLE 1 (01) FSTXON 2 (10) TX 3 (11) Stay in RX It is not possible to set RXOFF_MODE to be TX or FSTXON and at the same time use CCA. 1:0 TXOFF_MODE[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Select what should happen when a packet has been sent (TX) Setting Next state after finishing packet transmission 0 (00) IDLE 1 (01) FSTXON 2 (10) Stay in TX (start sending preamble) 3 (11) RX CC1100 SWRS038D Page 75 of 92 0x18: MCSM0– Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5:4 FS_AUTOCAL[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Automatically calibrate when going to RX or TX, or back to IDLE Setting When to perform automatic calibration 0 (00) Never (manually calibrate using SCAL strobe) 1 (01) When going from IDLE to RX or TX (or FSTXON) 2 (10) When going from RX or TX back to IDLE automatically 3 (11) Every 4th time when going from RX or TX to IDLE automatically In some automatic wake-on-radio (WOR) applications, using setting 3 (11) can significantly reduce current consumption. 3:2 PO_TIMEOUT 1 (01) R/W Programs the number of times the six-bit ripple counter must expire after XOSC has stabilized before CHP_RDYn goes low. If XOSC is on (stable) during power-down, PO_TIMEOUT should be set so that the regulated digital supply voltage has time to stabilize before CHP_RDYn goes low (PO_TIMEOUT=2 recommended). Typical start-up time for the voltage regulator is 50 us. If XOSC is off during power-down and the regulated digital supply voltage has sufficient time to stabilize while waiting for the crystal to be stable, PO_TIMEOUT can be set to 0. For robust operation it is recommended to use PO_TIMEOUT=2. Setting Expire count Timeout after XOSC start 0 (00) 1 Approx. 2.3 – 2.4 μs 1 (01) 16 Approx. 37 – 39 μs 2 (10) 64 Approx. 149 – 155 μs 3 (11) 256 Approx. 597 – 620 μs Exact timeout depends on crystal frequency. 1 PIN_CTRL_EN 0 R/W Enables the pin radio control option 0 XOSC_FORCE_ON 0 R/W Force the XOSC to stay on in the SLEEP state. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 76 of 92 0x19: FOCCFG – Frequency Offset Compensation Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5 FOC_BS_CS_GATE 1 R/W If set, the demodulator freezes the frequency offset compensation and clock recovery feedback loops until the CS signal goes high. 4:3 FOC_PRE_K[1:0] 2 (10) R/W The frequency compensation loop gain to be used before a sync word is detected. Setting Freq. compensation loop gain before sync word 0 (00) K 1 (01) 2K 2 (10) 3K 3 (11) 4K 2 FOC_POST_K 1 R/W The frequency compensation loop gain to be used after a sync word is detected. Setting Freq. compensation loop gain after sync word 0 Same as FOC_PRE_K 1 K/2 1:0 FOC_LIMIT[1:0] 2 (10) R/W The saturation point for the frequency offset compensation algorithm: Setting Saturation point (max compensated offset) 0 (00) ±0 (no frequency offset compensation) 1 (01) ±BWCHAN/8 2 (10) ±BWCHAN/4 3 (11) ±BWCHAN/2 Frequency offset compensation is not supported for ASK/OOK; Always use FOC_LIMIT=0 with these modulation formats. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 77 of 92 0x1A: BSCFG – Bit Synchronization Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 BS_PRE_KI[1:0] 1 (01) R/W The clock recovery feedback loop integral gain to be used before a sync word is detected (used to correct offsets in data rate): Setting Clock recovery loop integral gain before sync word 0 (00) KI 1 (01) 2KI 2 (10) 3KI 3 (11) 4 KI 5:4 BS_PRE_KP[1:0] 2 (10) R/W The clock recovery feedback loop proportional gain to be used before a sync word is detected. Setting Clock recovery loop proportional gain before sync word 0 (00) KP 1 (01) 2KP 2 (10) 3KP 3 (11) 4KP 3 BS_POST_KI 1 R/W The clock recovery feedback loop integral gain to be used after a sync word is detected. Setting Clock recovery loop integral gain after sync word 0 Same as BS_PRE_KI 1 KI /2 2 BS_POST_KP 1 R/W The clock recovery feedback loop proportional gain to be used after a sync word is detected. Setting Clock recovery loop proportional gain after sync word 0 Same as BS_PRE_KP 1 KP 1:0 BS_LIMIT[1:0] 0 (00) R/W The saturation point for the data rate offset compensation algorithm: Setting Data rate offset saturation (max data rate difference) 0 (00) ±0 (No data rate offset compensation performed) 1 (01) ±3.125% data rate offset 2 (10) ±6.25% data rate offset 3 (11) ±12.5% data rate offset CC1100 SWRS038D Page 78 of 92 0x1B: AGCCTRL2 – AGC Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Reduces the maximum allowable DVGA gain. Setting Allowable DVGA settings 0 (00) All gain settings can be used 1 (01) The highest gain setting can not be used 2 (10) The 2 highest gain settings can not be used 3 (11) The 3 highest gain settings can not be used 5:3 MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0] 0 (000) R/W Sets the maximum allowable LNA + LNA 2 gain relative to the maximum possible gain. Setting Maximum allowable LNA + LNA 2 gain 0 (000) Maximum possible LNA + LNA 2 gain 1 (001) Approx. 2.6 dB below maximum possible gain 2 (010) Approx. 6.1 dB below maximum possible gain 3 (011) Approx. 7.4 dB below maximum possible gain 4 (100) Approx. 9.2 dB below maximum possible gain 5 (101) Approx. 11.5 dB below maximum possible gain 6 (110) Approx. 14.6 dB below maximum possible gain 7 (111) Approx. 17.1 dB below maximum possible gain 2:0 MAGN_TARGET[2:0] 3 (011) R/W These bits set the target value for the averaged amplitude from the digital channel filter (1 LSB = 0 dB). Setting Target amplitude from channel filter 0 (000) 24 dB 1 (001) 27 dB 2 (010) 30 dB 3 (011) 33 dB 4 (100) 36 dB 5 (101) 38 dB 6 (110) 40 dB 7 (111) 42 dB CC1100 SWRS038D Page 79 of 92 0x1C: AGCCTRL1 – AGC Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6 AGC_LNA_PRIORITY 1 R/W Selects between two different strategies for LNA and LNA 2 gain adjustment. When 1, the LNA gain is decreased first. When 0, the LNA 2 gain is decreased to minimum before decreasing LNA gain. 5:4 CARRIER_SENSE_REL_THR[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Sets the relative change threshold for asserting carrier sense Setting Carrier sense relative threshold 0 (00) Relative carrier sense threshold disabled 1 (01) 6 dB increase in RSSI value 2 (10) 10 dB increase in RSSI value 3 (11) 14 dB increase in RSSI value 3:0 CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR[3:0] 0 (0000) R/W Sets the absolute RSSI threshold for asserting carrier sense. The 2-complement signed threshold is programmed in steps of 1 dB and is relative to the MAGN_TARGET setting. Setting Carrier sense absolute threshold (Equal to channel filter amplitude when AGC has not decreased gain) -8 (1000) Absolute carrier sense threshold disabled -7 (1001) 7 dB below MAGN_TARGET setting … … -1 (1111) 1 dB below MAGN_TARGET setting 0 (0000) At MAGN_TARGET setting 1 (0001) 1 dB above MAGN_TARGET setting … … 7 (0111) 7 dB above MAGN_TARGET setting CC1100 SWRS038D Page 80 of 92 0x1D: AGCCTRL0 – AGC Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 HYST_LEVEL[1:0] 2 (10) R/W Sets the level of hysteresis on the magnitude deviation (internal AGC signal that determine gain changes). Setting Description 0 (00) No hysteresis, small symmetric dead zone, high gain 1 (01) Low hysteresis, small asymmetric dead zone, medium gain 2 (10) Medium hysteresis, medium asymmetric dead zone, medium gain 3 (11) Large hysteresis, large asymmetric dead zone, low gain 5:4 WAIT_TIME[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Sets the number of channel filter samples from a gain adjustment has been made until the AGC algorithm starts accumulating new samples. Setting Channel filter samples 0 (00) 8 1 (01) 16 2 (10) 24 3 (11) 32 3:2 AGC_FREEZE[1:0] 0 (00) R/W Control when the AGC gain should be frozen. Setting Function 0 (00) Normal operation. Always adjust gain when required. 1 (01) The gain setting is frozen when a sync word has been found. 2 (10) Manually freeze the analogue gain setting and continue to adjust the digital gain. 3 (11) Manually freezes both the analogue and the digital gain setting. Used for manually overriding the gain. 1:0 FILTER_LENGTH[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Sets the averaging length for the amplitude from the channel filter. Sets the OOK/ASK decision boundary for OOK/ASK reception. Setting Channel filter samples OOK decision 0 (00) 8 4 dB 1 (01) 16 8 dB 2 (10) 32 12 dB 3 (11) 64 16 dB 0x1E: WOREVT1 – High Byte Event0 Timeout Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 EVENT0[15:8] 135 (0x87) R/W High byte of EVENT0 timeout register WOR RES XOSC Event EVENT f t 5 _ 0 = 750 ⋅ 0⋅ 2 ⋅ CC1100 SWRS038D Page 81 of 92 0x1F: WOREVT0 –Low Byte Event0 Timeout Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 EVENT0[7:0] 107 (0x6B) R/W Low byte of EVENT0 timeout register. The default EVENT0 value gives 1.0s timeout, assuming a 26.0 MHz crystal. 0x20: WORCTRL – Wake On Radio Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 RC_PD 1 R/W Power down signal to RC oscillator. When written to 0, automatic initial calibration will be performed 6:4 EVENT1[2:0] 7 (111) R/W Timeout setting from register block. Decoded to Event 1 timeout. RC oscillator clock frequency equals FXOSC/750, which is 34.7 – 36 kHz, depending on crystal frequency. The table below lists the number of clock periods after Event 0 before Event 1 times out. Setting tEvent1 0 (000) 4 (0.111 – 0.115 ms) 1 (001) 6 (0.167 – 0.173 ms) 2 (010) 8 (0.222 – 0.230 ms) 3 (011) 12 (0.333 – 0.346 ms) 4 (100) 16 (0.444 – 0.462 ms) 5 (101) 24 (0.667 – 0.692 ms) 6 (110) 32 (0.889 – 0.923 ms) 7 (111) 48 (1.333 – 1.385 ms) 3 RC_CAL 1 R/W Enables (1) or disables (0) the RC oscillator calibration. 2 Reserved R0 1:0 WOR_RES 0 (00) R/W Controls the Event 0 resolution as well as maximum timeout of the WOR module and maximum timeout under normal RX operation:: Setting Resolution (1 LSB) Max timeout 0 (00) 1 period (28μs – 29μs) 1.8 – 1.9 seconds 1 (01) 25 periods (0.89ms –0.92 ms) 58 – 61 seconds 2 (10) 210 periods (28 – 30 ms) 31 – 32 minutes 3 (11) 215 periods (0.91 – 0.94 s) 16.5 – 17.2 hours Note that WOR_RES should be 0 or 1 when using WOR because WOR_RES > 1 will give a very low duty cycle. In normal RX operation all settings of WOR_RES can be used. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 82 of 92 0x21: FREND1 – Front End RX Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 LNA_CURRENT[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Adjusts front-end LNA PTAT current output 5:4 LNA2MIX_CURRENT[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Adjusts front-end PTAT outputs 3:2 LODIV_BUF_CURRENT_RX[1:0] 1 (01) R/W Adjusts current in RX LO buffer (LO input to mixer) 1:0 MIX_CURRENT[1:0] 2 (10) R/W Adjusts current in mixer 0x22: FREND0 – Front End TX Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5:4 LODIV_BUF_CURRENT_TX[1:0] 1 (0x01) R/W Adjusts current TX LO buffer (input to PA). The value to use in this field is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. 3 Reserved R0 2:0 PA_POWER[2:0] 0 (0x00) R/W Selects PA power setting. This value is an index to the PATABLE, which can be programmed with up to 8 different PA settings. In OOK/ASK mode, this selects the PATABLE index to use when transmitting a ‘1’. PATABLE index zero is used in OOK/ASK when transmitting a ‘0’. The PATABLE settings from index ‘0’ to the PA_POWER value are used for ASK TX shaping, and for power ramp-up/ramp-down at the start/end of transmission in all TX modulation formats. 0x23: FSCAL3 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 FSCAL3[7:6] 2 (0x02) R/W Frequency synthesizer calibration configuration. The value to write in this field before calibration is given by the SmartRF® Studio software. 5:4 CHP_CURR_CAL_EN[1:0] 2 (0x02) R/W Enable charge pump calibration stage when 1 3:0 FSCAL3[3:0] 9 (1001) R/W Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. Digital bit vector defining the charge pump output current, on an exponential scale: IOUT = I0·2FSCAL3[3:0]/4 Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by calibrating upfront for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop, calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values corresponding to the next RF frequency. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 83 of 92 0x24: FSCAL2 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5 VCO_CORE_H_EN 0 R/W Choose high (1) / low (0) VCO 4:0 FSCAL2[4:0] 10 (0x0A) R/W Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. VCO current calibration result and override value Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by calibrating upfront for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop, calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values corresponding to the next RF frequency. 0x25: FSCAL1 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:6 Reserved R0 5:0 FSCAL1[5:0] 32 (0x20) R/W Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. Capacitor array setting for VCO coarse tuning. Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by calibrating upfront for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop, calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2 and FSCAL1 register values corresponding to the next RF frequency. 0x26: FSCAL0 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6:0 FSCAL0[6:0] 13 (0x0D) R/W Frequency synthesizer calibration control. The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. 0x27: RCCTRL1 – RC Oscillator Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved 0 R0 6:0 RCCTRL1[6:0] 65 (0x41) R/W RC oscillator configuration. 0x28: RCCTRL0 – RC Oscillator Configuration Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved 0 R0 6:0 RCCTRL0[6:0] 0 (0x00) R/W RC oscillator configuration. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 84 of 92 33.2 Configuration Register Details – Registers that Lose Programming in SLEEP State 0x29: FSTEST – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Control Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 FSTEST[7:0] 89 (0x59) R/W For test only. Do not write to this register. 0x2A: PTEST – Production Test Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 PTEST[7:0] 127 (0x7F) R/W Writing 0xBF to this register makes the on-chip temperature sensor available in the IDLE state. The default 0x7F value should then be written back before leaving the IDLE state. Other use of this register is for test only. 0x2B: AGCTEST – AGC Test Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 AGCTEST[7:0] 63 (0x3F) R/W For test only. Do not write to this register. 0x2C: TEST2 – Various Test Settings Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 TEST2[7:0] 136 (0x88) R/W The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. 0x2D: TEST1 – Various Test Settings Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 TEST1[7:0] 49 (0x31) R/W The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. 0x2E: TEST0 – Various Test Settings Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:2 TEST0[7:2] 2 (0x02) R/W The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. 1 VCO_SEL_CAL_EN 1 R/W Enable VCO selection calibration stage when 1 0 TEST0[0] 1 R/W The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF® Studio software [7]. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 85 of 92 33.3 Status Register Details 0x30 (0xF0): PARTNUM – Chip ID Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 PARTNUM[7:0] 0 (0x00) R Chip part number 0x31 (0xF1): VERSION – Chip ID Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 VERSION[7:0] 3 (0x03) R Chip version number. 0x32 (0xF2): FREQEST – Frequency Offset Estimate from Demodulator Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 FREQOFF_EST R The estimated frequency offset (2’s complement) of the carrier. Resolution is FXTAL/214 (1.59 - 1.65 kHz); range is ±202 kHz to ±210 kHz, dependent of XTAL frequency. Frequency offset compensation is only supported for 2-FSK, GFSK, and MSK modulation. This register will read 0 when using ASK or OOK modulation. 0x33 (0xF3): LQI – Demodulator Estimate for Link Quality Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 CRC OK R The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX mode. 6:0 LQI_EST[6:0] R The Link Quality Indicator estimates how easily a received signal can be demodulated. Calculated over the 64 symbols following the sync word 0x34 (0xF4): RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indication Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 RSSI R Received signal strength indicator CC1100 SWRS038D Page 86 of 92 0x35 (0xF5): MARCSTATE – Main Radio Control State Machine State Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:5 Reserved R0 4:0 MARC_STATE[4:0] R Main Radio Control FSM State Value State name State (Figure 16, page 42) 0 (0x00) SLEEP SLEEP 1 (0x01) IDLE IDLE 2 (0x02) XOFF XOFF 3 (0x03) VCOON_MC MANCAL 4 (0x04) REGON_MC MANCAL 5 (0x05) MANCAL MANCAL 6 (0x06) VCOON FS_WAKEUP 7 (0x07) REGON FS_WAKEUP 8 (0x08) STARTCAL CALIBRATE 9 (0x09) BWBOOST SETTLING 10 (0x0A) FS_LOCK SETTLING 11 (0x0B) IFADCON SETTLING 12 (0x0C) ENDCAL CALIBRATE 13 (0x0D) RX RX 14 (0x0E) RX_END RX 15 (0x0F) RX_RST RX 16 (0x10) TXRX_SWITCH TXRX_SETTLING 17 (0x11) RXFIFO_OVERFLOW RXFIFO_OVERFLOW 18 (0x12) FSTXON FSTXON 19 (0x13) TX TX 20 (0x14) TX_END TX 21 (0x15) RXTX_SWITCH RXTX_SETTLING 22 (0x16) TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW Note: it is not possible to read back the SLEEP or XOFF state numbers because setting CSn low will make the chip enter the IDLE mode from the SLEEP or XOFF states. 0x36 (0xF6): WORTIME1 – High Byte of WOR Time Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 TIME[15:8] R High byte of timer value in WOR module 0x37 (0xF7): WORTIME0 – Low Byte of WOR Time Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 TIME[7:0] R Low byte of timer value in WOR module CC1100 SWRS038D Page 87 of 92 0x38 (0xF8): PKTSTATUS – Current GDOx Status and Packet Status Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 CRC_OK R The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX mode. 6 CS R Carrier sense 5 PQT_REACHED R Preamble Quality reached 4 CCA R Channel is clear 3 SFD R Sync word found 2 GDO2 R Current GDO2 value. Note: the reading gives the non-inverted value irrespective of what IOCFG2.GDO2_INV is programmed to. It is not recommended to check for PLL lock by reading PKTSTATUS[2] with GDO2_CFG=0x0A. 1 Reserved R0 0 GDO0 R Current GDO0 value. Note: the reading gives the non-inverted value irrespective of what IOCFG0.GDO0_INV is programmed to. It is not recommended to check for PLL lock by reading PKTSTATUS[0] with GDO0_CFG=0x0A. 0x39 (0xF9): VCO_VC_DAC – Current Setting from PLL Calibration Module Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7:0 VCO_VC_DAC[7:0] R Status register for test only. 0x3A (0xFA): TXBYTES – Underflow and Number of Bytes Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW R 6:0 NUM_TXBYTES R Number of bytes in TX FIFO 0x3B (0xFB): RXBYTES – Overflow and Number of Bytes Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 RXFIFO_OVERFLOW R 6:0 NUM_RXBYTES R Number of bytes in RX FIFO 0x3C (0xFC): RCCTRL1_STATUS – Last RC Oscillator Calibration Result Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6:0 RCCTRL1_STATUS[6:0] R Contains the value from the last run of the RC oscillator calibration routine. For usage description refer to AN047 [4] CC1100 SWRS038D Page 88 of 92 0x3D (0xFC): RCCTRL0_STATUS – Last RC Oscillator Calibration Result Bit Field Name Reset R/W Description 7 Reserved R0 6:0 RCCTRL0_STATUS[6:0] R Contains the value from the last run of the RC oscillator calibration routine. For usage description refer to Aplication Note AN047 [4]. 34 Package Description (QLP 20) 34.1 Recommended PCB Layout for Package (QLP 20) Figure 31: Recommended PCB Layout for QLP 20 Package Note: Figure 31 is an illustration only and not to scale. There are five 10 mil via holes distributed symmetrically in the ground pad under the package. See also the CC1100EM reference designs ([5] and [6]). 34.2 Soldering Information The recommendations for lead-free reflow in IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 should be followed. CC1100 SWRS038D Page 89 of 92 35 Ordering Information Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead Finish MSL Peak Temp (3) CC1100RTKR NRND QLP RTK 20 3000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Cu NiPdAu LEVEL3-260C 1 YEAR CC1100RTK NRND QLP RTK 20 92 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Cu NiPdAu LEVEL3-260C 1 YEAR Table 39: Ordering Information CC1100 SWRS038D Page 90 of 92 36 References [1] CC1100 Errata Notes (swrz012.pdf) [2] AN001 SRD Regulations for Licence Free Transceiver Operation (swra090.pdf) [3] AN039 Using the CC1100 in the European 433 and 868 MHz ISM Bands (swra054.pdf) [4] AN047 CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio (swra126.pdf) [5] CC1100EM 315 - 433 MHz Reference Design 1.0 (swrr037.zip) [6] CC1100EM 868 – 915 MHz Reference Design 2.0 (swrr038.zip) [7] SmartRF® Studio (swrc046.zip) [8] CC1100 CC2500 Examples Libraries (swrc021.zip) [9] CC1100/CC1150DK, CC1101DK, and CC2500/CC2550DK Examples and Libraries User Manual (swru109.pdf) CC1100 SWRS038D Page 91 of 92 37 General Information 37.1 Document History Revision Date Description/Changes SWRS038D 2009-05-26 Updated packet and ordering information. Removed Product Status Definition, Address Information and TI World Wide Support section. Removed Low-Cost from datasheet title. SWRS038C 2008-05-22 Added product information on front page SWRS038B 2007-07-09 Added info to ordering information Changes in the General Principle of Matrix Interleaving figure. Changes in Table: Bill Of Materials for the Application Circuit Changes in Figure: Typical Application and Evaluation Circuit 868/915 MHz Changed the equation for channel spacing in the MDMCFG0 register. kbps replaced by kBaud throughout the document. Some of the sections have been re-written to be easier to read without having any new info added. Absolute maximum supply voltage rating increased from 3.6 V to 3.9 V. Changed the frequency accuracy after calibration for the low power RC oscillator from ±0.3 to ±1 %. Updates to sensitivity and current consumption numbers listed under Key Features. FSK changed to 2-FSK throughout the document. Updates to the Abbreviation table. Updates to the Electrical Specifications section. Added info about RX and TX latency. Added info in the Pinout Overview table regarding GDO0 and GDO2. Changed current consumption in RX and TX in the simplified state diagram. Added info about default values after reset vs. optimum register settings in the Configuration Software section Changes to the SPI Interface Timing Requirements. Info added about tsp,pd The following figures have been changed: Configuration Registers Write and Read Operations, SRES Command Strobe, and Register Access Types. In the Register Access section, the address range is changed. In the PATABLE Access section, info is added regarding limitations on output power programming when using PA ramping. In the Packet Format section, preamble pattern is changed to 10101010 and info about bug related to turning off the transmitter in infinite packet length mode is added. Added info to the Frequency Offset Compensation section. Added info about the initial value of the PN9 sequence in the Data Whitening section. In the Packet Handling in Transmit Mode section, info about TX FIFO underflow state is added. Added section Packet Handling in Firmware. 0x00 is added as a valid PATABLE setting in addition to 0x30-0x3F when using ASK. In the PQT section a change is made as to how much the counter decreases. The RSSI value is in dBm and not dB. The whole CS Absolute Threshold section has been re-written and the equation calculating the threshold has been removed. Added info in the CCA section on what happens if the channel is not clear. Added info to the LQI section for better understanding. Removed all references to the voltage regulator in relation with the CHP_RDYn signal, as this signal is only related to the crystal. Removed references to the voltage regulator in the figures: Power-On Reset and Power-On Reset with SRES. Changes to the SI line in the Power-On Reset with SRES figure Added info on the three automatic calibration options. Removed the autosync feature from the WOR section and added info on how to exit WOR mode. Also added info about minimum sleep time and references to App. Note 047 together with info about calibration of the RC oscillator. The figure: Event 0 and Event 1 Relationship is changed for better readability. Info added to the Timing section related to reduced calibration time. The Output Power Programming section is divided into 2 new sections; Output Power Programming and Shaping and PA Ramping. Added info on programming of PATABLE when using OOK, and about PATABLE when entering SLEEP mode. 2 new figures added to the Shaping and PA Ramping section: Shaping of ASK Signal and PA Ramping, together with one new table: PATABLE Settings Used Together with ASK Shaping and PA Ramping. Changed made to current consumption in the Optimum PATABLE Settings for Various Output Power Levels and Frequency Bands table. Added section Layout Recommendations. In section General Purpose / Test Output Control Pins: Added info on GDO pins in SLEEP CC1100 SWRS038D Page 92 of 92 Revision Date Description/Changes state. Better explanation of some of the signals in the GDOx Signal Selection table. Also added some more signals. Asynchronous transparent mode is called asynchronous serial mode throughout the document. Removed comments about having to use NRZ coding in synchronous serial mode. Added info that Manschester encoding cannot be used in this mode. Added a third calibration method plus additional info about the 3 methods in the Frequency Hopping and Multi-Channel Systems section. Added info about differential antenna in the Low Cost Systems section. Changes number of commands strobes from 14 to 13. Changed description of SFRX, SFTX, SWORRST, and SNOP in the Command Strobes table. Added two new registers; RCCTRL1_STATUS and RCCTRL0_STATUS Changed field name and/or description of the following registers: PKTCTRL1, MCSM2, MCSM0, WORCTRL, FSCAL3, FSCAL2, FSCAL1, and TEST0. Changed tray width in the Tray Specification table. Added references. SWRS038A 2006-06-20 Updates to Electrical Specifications due to increased amount of measurement data. Updated application circuit for 868 MHz. Updated balun component values. Updated current consumption figures in state diagrams. Added figures to table on SPI interface timing requirements. Added information about SPI read. Added table for channel filter bandwidths. Added figure showing data whitening. Updates to text and included new figure in section on arbitrary length configuration. References to SAFC strobe removed. Added additional information about support of ASK modulation. Added information about CRC filtering. Added information about sync word qualifier. Added information on RSSI offset, RSSI update rate, RSSI calculation and typical RSSI curves. Added information on CS and tables with register settings versus CS threshold. Updates to text and included new figures in section on power-on start-up sequence. Changes to wake-on-radio current consumption figures under electrical specifications. Updates to text in section on data FIFO. Corrected formula for calculation of output frequency in Frequency Programming section. Added information about how to check for PLL lock in section on VCO. Corrected table with PATABLE setting versus output power. Added typical selectivity curves for selected datarates. Added information on how to interface external clock signal. Added optimal match impedances in RF match section. Better explanation of some of the signals in table of GDO signal selection. Also added some more signals. Added information on system considerations. Added CRC_AUTOFLUSH option in PCTRL1 register. Added information on timeout for sync word search in RX in register MCSM2. Changes to wake-on-radio control register WORCTRL. WOR_RES[1:0] settings 10 b and 11b changed to NA. Added more detailed information on PO_TIMEOUT in register MCSM0. Added description of programming bits in registers FOCCFG, BSCFG, AGCCTRL2, AGCCTRL1, AGCCTRL0, FREND1, FSCAL3. 1.0 2005-04-25 First preliminary Data Sheet release Table 40: Document History PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 24-Apr-2014 Addendum-Page 1 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish (6) MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Device Marking (4/5) Samples CC1100-RTR1 NRND VQFN RTK 20 3000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 CC1100 CC1100-RTY1 NRND VQFN RTK 20 92 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 CC1100 CC1100RTK NRND VQFN RTK 20 92 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 CC1100 CC1100RTKG3 NRND VQFN RTK 20 92 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 CC1100 CC1100RTKR NRND VQFN RTK 20 3000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 CC1100 (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. (2) Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material) (3) MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature. (4) There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device. (5) Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. 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I Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 www.analog.com Fax: 781.461.3113 ©1988–2012 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. FEATURES Converts an ac voltage waveform to a dc voltage and then converts to the true rms, average rectified, or absolute value 200 mV rms full-scale input range (larger inputs with input attenuator) High input impedance: 1012 Ω Low input bias current: 25 pA maximum High accuracy: ±0.3 mV ± 0.3% of reading RMS conversion with signal crest factors up to 5 Wide power supply range: +2.8 V, −3.2 V to ±16.5 V Low power: 200 μA maximum supply current Buffered voltage output No external trims needed for specified accuracy Related device: the AD737—features a power-down control with standby current of only 25 μA; the dc output voltage is negative and the output impedance is 8 kΩ GENERAL DESCRIPTION The AD736 is a low power, precision, monolithic true rms-to-dc converter. It is laser trimmed to provide a maximum error of ±0.3 mV ± 0.3% of reading with sine wave inputs. Furthermore, it maintains high accuracy while measuring a wide range of input waveforms, including variable duty-cycle pulses and triac (phase)-controlled sine waves. The low cost and small size of this converter make it suitable for upgrading the performance of non-rms precision rectifiers in many applications. Compared to these circuits, the AD736 offers higher accuracy at an equal or lower cost. The AD736 can compute the rms value of both ac and dc input voltages. It can also be operated as an ac-coupled device by adding one external capacitor. In this mode, the AD736 can resolve input signal levels of 100 μV rms or less, despite variations in temperature or supply voltage. High accuracy is also maintained for input waveforms with crest factors of 1 to 3. In addition, crest factors as high as 5 can be measured (introducing only 2.5% additional error) at the 200 mV full-scale input level. The AD736 has its own output buffer amplifier, thereby pro-viding a great deal of design flexibility. Requiring only 200 μA of power supply current, the AD736 is optimized for use in portable multimeters and other battery-powered applications. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM CC8kΩ–VSCAVCOMVINCAVOUTFULL WAVERECTIFIERRMSCORE8kΩCF(OPT)CFBIASSECTION+VS00834-001 Figure 1. The AD736 allows the choice of two signal input terminals: a high impedance FET input (1012 Ω) that directly interfaces with High-Z input attenuators and a low impedance input (8 kΩ) that allows the measurement of 300 mV input levels while operating from the minimum power supply voltage of +2.8 V, −3.2 V. The two inputs can be used either single ended or differentially. The AD736 has a 1% reading error bandwidth that exceeds 10 kHz for the input amplitudes from 20 mV rms to 200 mV rms while consuming only 1 mW. The AD736 is available in four performance grades. The AD736J and AD736K grades are rated over the 0°C to +70°C and −20°C to +85°C commercial temperature ranges. The AD736A and AD736B grades are rated over the −40°C to +85°C industrial temperature range. The AD736 is available in three low cost, 8-lead packages: PDIP, SOIC, and CERDIP. PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS 1. The AD736 is capable of computing the average rectified value, absolute value, or true rms value of various input signals. 2. Only one external component, an averaging capacitor, is required for the AD736 to perform true rms measurement. 3. The low power consumption of 1 mW makes the AD736 suitable for many battery-powered applications. 4. A high input impedance of 1012 Ω eliminates the need for an external buffer when interfacing with input attenuators. 5. A low impedance input is available for those applications that require an input signal up to 300 mV rms operating from low power supply voltages. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 1  Low Supply-Voltage Range: 1.8 V to 3.6 V  Ultralow Power Consumption − Active Mode: 330 μA at 1 MHz, 2.2 V − Standby Mode: 1.1 μA − Off Mode (RAM Retention): 0.2 μA  Five Power-Saving Modes  Wake-Up From Standby Mode in Less Than 6 μs  16-Bit RISC Architecture, 125-ns Instruction Cycle Time  Three-Channel Internal DMA  12-Bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter With Internal Reference, Sample-and-Hold, and Autoscan Feature  Dual 12-Bit Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converters With Synchronization  16-Bit Timer_A With Three Capture/Compare Registers  16-Bit Timer_B With Three or Seven Capture/Compare-With-Shadow Registers  On-Chip Comparator  Serial Communication Interface (USART0), Functions as Asynchronous UART or Synchronous SPI or I2CTM Interface  Serial Communication Interface (USART1), Functions as Asynchronous UART or Synchronous SPI Interface  Supply Voltage Supervisor/Monitor With Programmable Level Detection  Brownout Detector  Bootstrap Loader I2C is a registered trademark of Philips Incorporated.  Serial Onboard Programming, No External Programming Voltage Needed, Programmable Code Protection by Security Fuse  Family Members Include − MSP430F155 16KB+256B Flash Memory 512B RAM − MSP430F156 24KB+256B Flash Memory 1KB RAM − MSP430F157 32KB+256B Flash Memory, 1KB RAM − MSP430F167 32KB+256B Flash Memory, 1KB RAM − MSP430F168 48KB+256B Flash Memory, 2KB RAM − MSP430F169 60KB+256B Flash Memory, 2KB RAM − MSP430F1610 32KB+256B Flash Memory 5KB RAM − MSP430F1611 48KB+256B Flash Memory 10KB RAM − MSP430F1612 55KB+256B Flash Memory 5KB RAM  Available in 64-Pin QFP Package (PM) and 64-Pin QFN Package (RTD)  For Complete Module Descriptions, See the MSP430x1xx Family User’s Guide, Literature Number SLAU049 description The Texas Instruments MSP430 family of ultralow power microcontrollers consist of several devices featuring different sets of peripherals targeted for various applications. The architecture, combined with five low power modes is optimized to achieve extended battery life in portable measurement applications. The device features a powerful 16-bit RISC CPU, 16-bit registers, and constant generators that contribute to maximum code efficiency. The digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) allows wake-up from low-power modes to active mode in less than 6 μs. This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage. ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications. These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Copyright © 2011, Texas Instruments Incorporated Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters. Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 2 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 description (continued) The MSP430F15x/16x/161x series are microcontroller configurations with two built-in 16-bit timers, a fast 12-bit A/D converter, dual 12-bit D/A converter, one or two universal serial synchronous/asynchronous communication interfaces (USART), I2C, DMA, and 48 I/O pins. In addition, the MSP430F161x series offers extended RAM addressing for memory-intensive applications and large C-stack requirements. Typical applications include sensor systems, industrial control applications, hand-held meters, etc. AVAILABLE OPTIONS T PACKAGED DEVICES TA PLASTIC 64-PIN QFP (PM) PLASTIC 64-PIN QFN (RTD) −40°C to 85°C MSP430F155IPM MSP430F156IPM MSP430F157IPM MSP430F167IPM MSP430F168IPM MSP430F169IPM MSP430F1610IPM MSP430F1611IPM MSP430F1612IPM MSP430F155IRTD MSP430F156IRTD MSP430F157IRTD MSP430F167IRTD MSP430F168IRTD MSP430F169IRTD MSP430F1610IRTD MSP430F1611IRTD MSP430F1612IRTD † For the most current package and ordering information, see the Package Option Addendum at the end of this document, or see the TI web site at www.ti.com. ‡ Package drawings, thermal data, and symbolization are available at www.ti.com/packaging. DEVELOPMENT TOOL SUPPORT All MSP430 microcontrollers include an Embedded Emulation Module (EEM) allowing advanced debugging and programming through easy to use development tools. Recommended hardware options include the following:  Debugging and Programming Interface − MSP-FET430UIF (USB) − MSP-FET430PIF (Parallel Port)  Debugging and Programming Interface with Target Board − MSP-FET430U64 (PM package)  Standalone Target Board − MSP-TS430PM64 (PM package)  Production Programmer − MSP-GANG430 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 3 pin designation, MSP430F155, MSP430F156, and MSP430F157 17 18 19 P5.4/MCLK P5.3 P5.2 P5.1 P5.0 P4.7/TBCLK P4.6 P4.5 P4.4 P4.3 P4.2/TB2 P4.1/TB1 P4.0/TB0 P3.7 P3.6 P3.5/URXD0 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 DVCC P6.3/A3 P6.4/A4 P6.5/A5 P6.6/A6/DAC0 P6.7/A7/DAC1/SVSIN VREF+ XIN XOUT VeREF+ VREF−/VeREF− P1.0/TACLK P1.1/TA0 P1.2/TA1 P1.3/TA2 P1.4/SMCLK 21 22 23 24 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 25 26 27 28 29 53 52 51 50 49 30 31 32 PM, RTD PACKAGE (TOP VIEW) AVCC DVSS AVSS P6.2/A2 P6.1/A1 P6.0/A0 RST/NMI TCK TMS TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI XT2IN XT2OUT P5.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT P5.6/ACLK P5.5/SMCLK P1.5/TA0 P1.6/TA1 P1.7/TA2 P2.0/ACLK P2.1/TAINCLK P2.2/CAOUT/TA0 P2.3/CA0/TA1 P2.4/CA1/TA2 P2.5/ROSC P2.6/ADC12CLK/DMAE0 P2.7/TA0 P3.0/STE0 P3.1/SIMO0/SDA P3.2/SOMI0 P3.3/UCLK0/SCL P3.4/UTXD0 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 4 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 pin designation, MSP430F167, MSP430F168, MSP430F169 17 18 19 P5.4/MCLK P5.3/UCLK1 P5.2/SOMI1 P5.1/SIMO1 P5.0/STE1 P4.7/TBCLK P4.6/TB6 P4.5/TB5 P4.4/TB4 P4.3/TB3 P4.2/TB2 P4.1/TB1 P4.0/TB0 P3.7/URXD1 P3.6/UTXD1 P3.5/URXD0 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 DVCC P6.3/A3 P6.4/A4 P6.5/A5 P6.6/A6/DAC0 P6.7/A7/DAC1/SVSIN VREF+ XIN XOUT VeREF+ VREF−/VeREF− P1.0/TACLK P1.1/TA0 P1.2/TA1 P1.3/TA2 P1.4/SMCLK 21 22 23 24 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 25 26 27 28 29 53 52 51 50 49 30 31 32 PM, RTD PACKAGE (TOP VIEW) AVCC DVSS AVSS P6.2/A2 P6.1/A1 P6.0/A0 RST/NMI TCK TMS TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI XT2IN XT2OUT P5.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT P5.6/ACLK P5.5/SMCLK P1.5/TA0 P1.6/TA1 P1.7/TA2 P2.0/ACLK P2.1/TAINCLK P2.2/CAOUT/TA0 P2.3/CA0/TA1 P2.4/CA1/TA2 P2.5/ROSC P2.6/ADC12CLK/DMAE0 P2.7/TA0 P3.0/STE0 P3.1/SIMO0/SDA P3.2/SOMI0 P3.3/UCLK0/SCL P3.4/UTXD0 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 5 pin designation, MSP430F1610, MSP430F1611, MSP430F1612 17 18 19 P5.4/MCLK P5.3/UCLK1 P5.2/SOMI1 P5.1/SIMO1 P5.0/STE1 P4.7/TBCLK P4.6/TB6 P4.5/TB5 P4.4/TB4 P4.3/TB3 P4.2/TB2 P4.1/TB1 P4.0/TB0 P3.7/URXD1 P3.6/UTXD1 P3.5/URXD0 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 DVCC P6.3/A3 P6.4/A4 P6.5/A5 P6.6/A6/DAC0 P6.7/A7/DAC1/SVSIN VREF+ XIN XOUT VeREF+ VREF−/VeREF− P1.0/TACLK P1.1/TA0 P1.2/TA1 P1.3/TA2 P1.4/SMCLK 21 22 23 24 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 25 26 27 28 29 53 52 51 50 49 30 31 32 PM, RTD PACKAGE (TOP VIEW) AVCC DVSS AVSS P6.2/A2 P6.1/A1 P6.0/A0 RST/NMI TCK TMS TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI XT2IN XT2OUT P5.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT P5.6/ACLK P5.5/SMCLK P1.5/TA0 P1.6/TA1 P1.7/TA2 P2.0/ACLK P2.1/TAINCLK P2.2/CAOUT/TA0 P2.3/CA0/TA1 P2.4/CA1/TA2 P2.5/ROSC P2.6/ADC12CLK/DMAE0 P2.7/TA0 P3.0/STE0 P3.1/SIMO0/SDA P3.2/SOMI0 P3.3/UCLK0/SCL P3.4/UTXD0 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 6 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 functional block diagram, MSP430F15x Oscillator ACLK SMCLK CPU Incl. 16 Reg. Bus Conv MCB XIN XOUT P2 P3 P4 XT2IN XT2OUT TMS TCK MDB, 16 Bit MAB, 16 Bit MCLK 4 TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI P5 P6 MAB, 4 Bit DVCC DVSS AVCC AVSS RST/NMI System Clock ROSC P1 32KB Flash 24KB Flash 16KB Flash 1KB RAM 1KB RAM 512B RAM ADC12 12-Bit 8 Channels <10μs Conv. DAC12 12-Bit 2 Channels Voltage out DMA Controller 3 Channels Watchdog Timer 15/16-Bit Timer_B3 3 CC Reg Shadow Reg Timer_A3 3 CC Reg Test JTAG Emulation Module I/O Port 1/2 16 I/Os, with Interrupt Capability I/O Port 3/4 16 I/Os POR SVS Brownout Comparator A USART0 UART Mode SPI Mode I2C Mode I/O Port 5/6 16 I/Os MDB, 16-Bit MDB, 8 Bit MAB, 16-Bit 8 8 8 8 8 8 functional block diagram, MSP430F16x Oscillator ACLK SMCLK CPU Incl. 16 Reg. Bus Conv MCB XIN XOUT P2 P3 P4 XT2IN XT2OUT TMS TCK MDB, 16 Bit MAB, 16 Bit MCLK 4 TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI P5 P6 MAB, 4 Bit DVCC DVSS AVCC AVSS RST/NMI System Clock ROSC P1 Hardware Multiplier MPY, MPYS MAC,MACS 60KB Flash 48KB Flash 32KB Flash 2KB RAM 2KB RAM 1KB RAM ADC12 12-Bit 8 Channels <10μs Conv. DAC12 12-Bit 2 Channels Voltage out DMA Controller 3 Channels Watchdog Timer 15/16-Bit Timer_B7 7 CC Reg Shadow Reg Timer_A3 3 CC Reg Test JTAG Emulation Module I/O Port 1/2 16 I/Os, with Interrupt Capability I/O Port 3/4 16 I/Os POR SVS Brownout Comparator A USART0 UART Mode SPI Mode I2C Mode USART1 UART Mode SPI Mode I/O Port 5/6 16 I/Os MDB, 16-Bit MDB, 8 Bit MAB, 16-Bit 8 8 8 8 8 8 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 7 functional block diagram, MSP430F161x Oscillator ACLK SMCLK CPU Incl. 16 Reg. Bus Conv MCB XIN XOUT P2 P3 P4 XT2IN XT2OUT TMS TCK MDB, 16 Bit MAB, 16 Bit MCLK 4 TDI/TCLK TDO/TDI P5 P6 MAB, 4 Bit DVCC DVSS AVCC AVSS RST/NMI System Clock ROSC P1 Hardware Multiplier MPY, MPYS MAC,MACS 55KB Flash 48KB Flash 32KB Flash 5KB RAM 10KB RAM 5KB RAM ADC12 12-Bit 8 Channels <10μs Conv. DAC12 12-Bit 2 Channels Voltage out DMA Controller 3 Channels Watchdog Timer 15/16-Bit Timer_B7 7 CC Reg Shadow Reg Timer_A3 3 CC Reg Test JTAG Emulation Module I/O Port 1/2 16 I/Os, with Interrupt Capability I/O Port 3/4 16 I/Os POR SVS Brownout Comparator A USART0 UART Mode SPI Mode I2C Mode USART1 UART Mode SPI Mode I/O Port 5/6 16 I/Os MDB, 16-Bit MDB, 8 Bit MAB, 16-Bit 8 8 8 8 8 8 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 8 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 Terminal Functions TERMINAL DESCRIPTION NAME NO. I/O AVCC 64 Analog supply voltage, positive terminal. Supplies only the analog portion of ADC12 and DAC12. AVSS 62 Analog supply voltage, negative terminal. Supplies only the analog portion of ADC12 and DAC12. DVCC 1 Digital supply voltage, positive terminal. Supplies all digital parts. DVSS 63 Digital supply voltage, negative terminal. Supplies all digital parts. P1.0/TACLK 12 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, clock signal TACLK input P1.1/TA0 13 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, capture: CCI0A input, compare: Out0 output/BSL transmit P1.2/TA1 14 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, capture: CCI1A input, compare: Out1 output P1.3/TA2 15 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, capture: CCI2A input, compare: Out2 output P1.4/SMCLK 16 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/SMCLK signal output P1.5/TA0 17 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out0 output P1.6/TA1 18 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out1 output P1.7/TA2 19 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out2 output P2.0/ACLK 20 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/ACLK output P2.1/TAINCLK 21 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, clock signal at INCLK P2.2/CAOUT/TA0 22 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, capture: CCI0B input/Comparator_A output/BSL receive P2.3/CA0/TA1 23 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out1 output/Comparator_A input P2.4/CA1/TA2 24 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out2 output/Comparator_A input P2.5/Rosc 25 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/input for external resistor defining the DCO nominal frequency P2.6/ADC12CLK/ DMAE0 26 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/conversion clock – 12-bit ADC/DMA channel 0 external trigger P2.7/TA0 27 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_A, compare: Out0 output P3.0/STE0 28 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave transmit enable – USART0/SPI mode P3.1/SIMO0/SDA 29 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave in/master out of USART0/SPI mode, I2C data − USART0/I2C mode P3.2/SOMI0 30 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave out/master in of USART0/SPI mode P3.3/UCLK0/SCL 31 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/external clock input − USART0/UART or SPI mode, clock output – USART0/SPI mode, I2C clock − USART0/I2C mode P3.4/UTXD0 32 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/transmit data out – USART0/UART mode P3.5/URXD0 33 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/receive data in – USART0/UART mode P3.6/UTXD1† 34 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/transmit data out – USART1/UART mode P3.7/URXD1† 35 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/receive data in – USART1/UART mode P4.0/TB0 36 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI0A/B input, compare: Out0 output P4.1/TB1 37 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI1A/B input, compare: Out1 output P4.2/TB2 38 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI2A/B input, compare: Out2 output P4.3/TB3† 39 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI3A/B input, compare: Out3 output P4.4/TB4† 40 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI4A/B input, compare: Out4 output P4.5/TB5† 41 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI5A/B input, compare: Out5 output P4.6/TB6† 42 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, capture: CCI6A input, compare: Out6 output P4.7/TBCLK 43 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/Timer_B, clock signal TBCLK input P5.0/STE1† 44 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave transmit enable – USART1/SPI mode P5.1/SIMO1† 45 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave in/master out of USART1/SPI mode P5.2/SOMI1† 46 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/slave out/master in of USART1/SPI mode P5.3/UCLK1† 47 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/external clock input – USART1/UART or SPI mode, clock output – USART1/SPI mode † 16x, 161x devices only MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 9 Terminal Functions (Continued) TERMINAL DESCRIPTION NAME NO. I/O P5.4/MCLK 48 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/main system clock MCLK output P5.5/SMCLK 49 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/submain system clock SMCLK output P5.6/ACLK 50 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/auxiliary clock ACLK output P5.7/TBOUTH/ SVSOUT 51 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/switch all PWM digital output ports to high impedance − Timer_B TB0 to TB6/SVS comparator output P6.0/A0 59 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a0 – 12-bit ADC P6.1/A1 60 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a1 – 12-bit ADC P6.2/A2 61 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a2 – 12-bit ADC P6.3/A3 2 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a3 – 12-bit ADC P6.4/A4 3 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a4 – 12-bit ADC P6.5/A5 4 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a5 – 12-bit ADC P6.6/A6/DAC0 5 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a6 – 12-bit ADC/DAC12.0 output P6.7/A7/DAC1/ SVSIN 6 I/O General-purpose digital I/O pin/analog input a7 – 12-bit ADC/DAC12.1 output/SVS input RST/NMI 58 I Reset input, nonmaskable interrupt input port, or bootstrap loader start (in Flash devices). TCK 57 I Test clock. TCK is the clock input port for device programming test and bootstrap loader start TDI/TCLK 55 I Test data input or test clock input. The device protection fuse is connected to TDI/TCLK. TDO/TDI 54 I/O Test data output port. TDO/TDI data output or programming data input terminal TMS 56 I Test mode select. TMS is used as an input port for device programming and test. VeREF+ 10 I Input for an external reference voltage VREF+ 7 O Output of positive terminal of the reference voltage in the ADC12 VREF−/VeREF− 11 I Negative terminal for the reference voltage for both sources, the internal reference voltage, or an external applied reference voltage XIN 8 I Input port for crystal oscillator XT1. Standard or watch crystals can be connected. XOUT 9 O Output terminal of crystal oscillator XT1 XT2IN 53 I Input port for crystal oscillator XT2. Only standard crystals can be connected. XT2OUT 52 O Output terminal of crystal oscillator XT2 QFN Pad NA NA QFN package pad connection to DVSS recommended (RTD package only) General-Purpose Register Program Counter Stack Pointer Status Register Constant Generator General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register PC/R0 SP/R1 SR/CG1/R2 CG2/R3 R4 R5 R12 R13 General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register R6 R7 General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register R8 R9 General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register R10 R11 General-Purpose Register General-Purpose Register R14 R15 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 10 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 short-form description CPU The MSP430 CPU has a 16-bit RISC architecture that is highly transparent to the application. All operations, other than program-flow instructions, are performed as register operations in conjunction with seven addressing modes for source operand and four addressing modes for destination operand. The CPU is integrated with 16 registers that provide reduced instruction execution time. The register-to-register operation execution time is one cycle of the CPU clock. Four of the registers, R0 to R3, are dedicated as program counter, stack pointer, status register, and constant generator, respectively. The remaining registers are general-purpose registers. Peripherals are connected to the CPU using data, address, and control buses, and can be handled with all instructions. instruction set The instruction set consists of 51 instructions with three formats and seven address modes. Each instruction can operate on word and byte data. Table 1 shows examples of the three types of instruction formats; Table 2 shows the address modes. Table 1. Instruction Word Formats Dual operands, source-destination e.g., ADD R4,R5 R4 + R5 −−−> R5 Single operands, destination only e.g., CALL R8 PC −−>(TOS), R8−−> PC Relative jump, un/conditional e.g., JNE Jump-on-equal bit = 0 Table 2. Address Mode Descriptions ADDRESS MODE S D SYNTAX EXAMPLE OPERATION Register   MOV Rs,Rd MOV R10,R11 R10 −−> R11 Indexed   MOV X(Rn),Y(Rm) MOV 2(R5),6(R6) M(2+R5)−−> M(6+R6) Symbolic (PC relative)   MOV EDE,TONI M(EDE) −−> M(TONI) Absolute   MOV &MEM,&TCDAT M(MEM) −−> M(TCDAT) Indirect  MOV @Rn,Y(Rm) MOV @R10,Tab(R6) M(R10) −−> M(Tab+R6) Indirect autoincrement  MOV @Rn+,Rm MOV @R10+,R11 M(R10) −−> R11 R10 + 2−−> R10 Immediate  MOV #X,TONI MOV #45,TONI #45 −−> M(TONI) NOTE: S = source D = destination MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 11 operating modes The MSP430 has one active mode and five software selectable low-power modes of operation. An interrupt event can wake up the device from any of the five low-power modes, service the request, and restore back to the low-power mode on return from the interrupt program. The following six operating modes can be configured by software:  Active mode AM − All clocks are active  Low-power mode 0 (LPM0) − CPU is disabled − ACLK and SMCLK remain active. MCLK is disabled  Low-power mode 1 (LPM1) − CPU is disabled − ACLK and SMCLK remain active. MCLK is disabled − DCO’s dc generator is disabled if DCO not used in active mode  Low-power mode 2 (LPM2) − CPU is disabled − MCLK and SMCLK are disabled − DCO’s dc generator remains enabled − ACLK remains active  Low-power mode 3 (LPM3) − CPU is disabled − MCLK and SMCLK are disabled − DCO’s dc generator is disabled − ACLK remains active  Low-power mode 4 (LPM4) − CPU is disabled − ACLK is disabled − MCLK and SMCLK are disabled − DCO’s dc generator is disabled − Crystal oscillator is stopped MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 12 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 interrupt vector addresses The interrupt vectors and the power-up starting address are located in the address range 0FFFFh to 0FFE0h. The vector contains the 16-bit address of the appropriate interrupt-handler instruction sequence. INTERRUPT SOURCE INTERRUPT FLAG SYSTEM INTERRUPT WORD ADDRESS PRIORITY Power-up External Reset Watchdog Flash memory WDTIFG KEYV (see Note 1) Reset 0FFFEh 15, highest NMI Oscillator Fault Flash memory access violation NMIIFG (see Notes 1 and 3) OFIFG (see Notes 1 and 3) ACCVIFG (see Notes 1 and 3) (Non)maskable (Non)maskable (Non)maskable 0FFFCh 14 Timer_B7 (see Note 5) TBCCR0 CCIFG (see Note 2) Maskable 0FFFAh 13 Timer_B7 (see Note 5) TBCCR1 to TBCCR6 CCIFGs, TBIFG (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFF8h 12 Comparator_A CAIFG Maskable 0FFF6h 11 Watchdog timer WDTIFG Maskable 0FFF4h 10 USART0 receive URXIFG0 Maskable 0FFF2h 9 USART0 transmit I2C transmit/receive/others UTXIFG0 I2CIFG (see Note 4) Maskable 0FFF0h 8 ADC12 ADC12IFG (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFEEh 7 Timer_A3 TACCR0 CCIFG (see Note 2) Maskable 0FFECh 6 Timer_A3 TACCR1 and TACCR2 CCIFGs, TAIFG (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFEAh 5 I/O port P1 (eight flags) P1IFG.0 to P1IFG.7 (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFE8h 4 USART1 receive URXIFG1 Maskable 0FFE6h 3 USART1 transmit UTXIFG1 Maskable 0FFE4h 2 I/O port P2 (eight flags) P2IFG.0 to P2IFG.7 (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFE2h 1 DAC12 DMA DAC12_0IFG, DAC12_1IFG DMA0IFG, DMA1IFG, DMA2IFG (see Notes 1 and 2) Maskable 0FFE0h 0, lowest NOTES: 1. Multiple source flags 2. Interrupt flags are located in the module. 3. (Non)maskable: the individual interrupt-enable bit can disable an interrupt event, but the general-interrupt enable cannot disable it. 4. I2C interrupt flags located in the module 5. Timer_B7 in MSP430F16x/161x family has 7 CCRs; Timer_B3 in MSP430F15x family has 3 CCRs; in Timer_B3 there are only interrupt flags TBCCR0, 1 and 2 CCIFGs and the interrupt-enable bits TBCCR0, 1 and 2 CCIEs. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 13 special function registers Most interrupt and module-enable bits are collected in the lowest address space. Special-function register bits not allocated to a functional purpose are not physically present in the device. This arrangement provides simple software access. interrupt enable 1 and 2 7 6 5 4 0 UTXIE0 OFIE WDTIE 3 2 1 rw-0 rw-0 rw-0 Address 0h URXIE0 ACCVIE NMIIE rw-0 rw-0 rw-0 WDTIE: Watchdog timer interrupt enable. Inactive if watchdog mode is selected. Active if watchdog timer is configured as general-purpose timer. OFIE: Oscillator fault interrupt enable NMIIE: Nonmaskable interrupt enable ACCVIE: Flash memory access violation interrupt enable URXIE0: USART0: UART and SPI receive-interrupt enable UTXIE0: USART0: UART and SPI transmit-interrupt enable 7 6 5 4 0 UTXIE1 3 2 1 rw-0 rw-0 Address 01h URXIE1 URXIE1†: USART1: UART and SPI receive interrupt enable UTXIE1†: USART1: UART and SPI transmit interrupt enable † URXIE1 and UTXIE1 are not present in MSP430F15x devices. interrupt flag register 1 and 2 7 6 5 4 0 UTXIFG0 OFIFG WDTIFG 3 2 1 rw-0 rw-1 rw-(0) Address 02h URXIFG0 NMIIFG rw-1 rw-0 WDTIFG: Set on watchdog-timer overflow (in watchdog mode) or security key violation Reset on VCC power-on, or a reset condition at the RST/NMI pin in reset mode OFIFG: Flag set on oscillator fault NMIIFG: Set via RST/NMI pin URXIFG0: USART0: UART and SPI receive flag UTXIFG0: USART0: UART and SPI transmit flag 7 6 5 4 0 UTXIFG1 3 2 1 rw-1 rw-0 Address 03h URXIFG1 URXIFG1‡: USART1: UART and SPI receive flag UTXIFG1‡: USART1: UART and SPI transmit flag ‡ URXIFG1 and UTXIFG1 are not present in MSP430F15x devices. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 14 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 module enable registers 1 and 2 7 6 5 4 0 UTXE0 3 2 1 rw-0 rw-0 Address 04h URXE0 USPIE0 URXE0: USART0: UART mode receive enable UTXE0: USART0: UART mode transmit enable USPIE0: USART0: SPI mode transmit and receive enable 7 6 5 4 0 UTXE1 3 2 1 rw-0 rw-0 Address 05h URXE1 USPIE1 URXE1†: USART1: UART mode receive enable UTXE1†: USART1: UART mode transmit enable USPIE1†: USART1: SPI mode transmit and receive enable † URXE1, UTXE1, and USPIE1 are not present in MSP430F15x devices. rw-0: Legend: rw: Bit Can Be Read and Written Bit Can Be Read and Written. It Is Reset by PUC. SFR Bit Not Present in Device MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 15 memory organization, MSP430F15x MSP430F155 MSP430F156 MSP430F157 Memory Main: interrupt vector Main: code memory Size Flash Flash 16KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 0C000h 24KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 0A000h 32KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 08000h Information memory Size Flash 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h Boot memory Size ROM 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h RAM Size 512B 03FFh − 0200h 1KB 05FFh − 0200h 1KB 05FFh − 0200h Peripherals 16-bit 8-bit 8-bit SFR 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h memory organization, MSP430F16x MSP430F167 MSP430F168 MSP430F169 Memory Main: interrupt vector Main: code memory Size Flash Flash 32KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 08000h 48KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 04000h 60KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 01100h Information memory Size Flash 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h Boot memory Size ROM 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h RAM Size 1KB 05FFh − 0200h 2KB 09FFh − 0200h 2KB 09FFh − 0200h Peripherals 16-bit 8-bit 8-bit SFR 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h memory organization, MSP430F161x MSP430F1610 MSP430F1611 MSP430F1612 Memory Main: interrupt vector Main: code memory Size Flash Flash 32KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 08000h 48KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 04000h 55KB 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h 0FFFFh − 02500h RAM (Total) Size 5KB 024FFh − 01100h 10KB 038FFh − 01100h 5KB 024FFh − 01100h Extended Size 3KB 024FFh − 01900h 8KB 038FFh − 01900h 3KB 024FFh − 01900h Mirrored Size 2KB 018FFh − 01100h 2KB 018FFh − 01100h 2KB 018FFh − 01100h Information memory Size Flash 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h 256 Byte 010FFh − 01000h Boot memory Size ROM 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h 1KB 0FFFh − 0C00h RAM (mirrored at 018FFh - 01100h) Size 2KB 09FFh − 0200h 2KB 09FFh − 0200h 2KB 09FFh − 0200h Peripherals 16-bit 8-bit 8-bit SFR 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h 01FFh − 0100h 0FFh − 010h 0Fh − 00h MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 16 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 bootstrap loader (BSL) The MSP430 bootstrap loader (BSL) enables users to program the flash memory or RAM using a UART serial interface. Access to the MSP430 memory via the BSL is protected by user-defined password. For complete description of the features of the BSL and its implementation, see the Application report Features of the MSP430 Bootstrap Loader, Literature Number SLAA089. BSL FUNCTION PM, RTD PACKAGE PINS Data Transmit 13 - P1.1 Data Receive 22 - P2.2 flash memory The flash memory can be programmed via the JTAG port, the bootstrap loader, or in-system by the CPU. The CPU can perform single-byte and single-word writes to the flash memory. Features of the flash memory include:  Flash memory has n segments of main memory and two segments of information memory (A and B) of 128 bytes each. Each segment in main memory is 512 bytes in size.  Segments 0 to n may be erased in one step, or each segment may be individually erased.  Segments A and B can be erased individually, or as a group with segments 0 to n. Segments A and B are also called information memory.  New devices may have some bytes programmed in the information memory (needed for test during manufacturing). The user should perform an erase of the information memory prior to the first use. Segment 0 w/ Interrupt Vectors Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment n-1 Segment n† Segment A Segment B Main Memory Info Memory 32KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 48KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 08400h 083FFh 08200h 081FFh 08000h 024FFh 01100h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h 04400h 043FFh 04200h 041FFh 04000h 038FFh 01100h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h RAM (’F161x only) 48KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 60KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 04400h 043FFh 04200h 041FFh 04000h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h 01400h 013FFh 01200h 011FFh 01100h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h 24KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 32KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 0A400h 0A3FFh 0A200h 0A1FFh 0A000h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h 08400h 083FFh 08200h 081FFh 08000h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h 16KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 0C400h 0C3FFh 0C200h 0C1FFh 0C000h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h MSP430F15x and MSP430F16x MSP430F161x 55KB 0FFFFh 0FE00h 0FDFFh 0FC00h 0FBFFh 0FA00h 0F9FFh 02800h 027FFh 02600h 025FFh 02500h 024FFh 01100h 010FFh 01080h 0107Fh 01000h † MSP430F169 and MSP430F1612 flash segment n = 256 bytes. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 17 peripherals Peripherals are connected to the CPU through data, address, and control busses and can be handled using all instructions. For complete module descriptions, see the MSP430x1xx Family User’s Guide, literature number SLAU049. DMA controller The DMA controller allows movement of data from one memory address to another without CPU intervention. For example, the DMA controller can be used to move data from the ADC12 conversion memory to RAM. Using the DMA controller can increase the throughput of peripheral modules. The DMA controller reduces system power consumption by allowing the CPU to remain in sleep mode without having to awaken to move data to or from a peripheral. oscillator and system clock The clock system in the MSP430F15x and MSP430F16x(x) family of devices is supported by the basic clock module that includes support for a 32768-Hz watch crystal oscillator, an internal digitally-controlled oscillator (DCO) and a high frequency crystal oscillator. The basic clock module is designed to meet the requirements of both low system cost and low-power consumption. The internal DCO provides a fast turn-on clock source and stabilizes in less than 6 μs. The basic clock module provides the following clock signals:  Auxiliary clock (ACLK), sourced from a 32768-Hz watch crystal or a high frequency crystal.  Main clock (MCLK), the system clock used by the CPU.  Sub-Main clock (SMCLK), the sub-system clock used by the peripheral modules. brownout, supply voltage supervisor (SVS) The brownout circuit is implemented to provide the proper internal reset signal to the device during power on and power off. The supply voltage supervisor (SVS) circuitry detects if the supply voltage drops below a user selectable level and supports both supply voltage supervision (the device is automatically reset) and supply voltage monitoring (SVM, the device is not automatically reset). The CPU begins code execution after the brownout circuit releases the device reset. However, VCC may not have ramped to VCC(min) at that time. The user must insure the default DCO settings are not changed until VCC reaches VCC(min). If desired, the SVS circuit can be used to determine when VCC reaches VCC(min). digital I/O There are six 8-bit I/O ports implemented—ports P1 through P6:  All individual I/O bits are independently programmable.  Any combination of input, output, and interrupt conditions is possible.  Edge-selectable interrupt input capability for all the eight bits of ports P1 and P2.  Read/write access to port-control registers is supported by all instructions. watchdog timer The primary function of the watchdog timer (WDT) module is to perform a controlled system restart after a software problem occurs. If the selected time interval expires, a system reset is generated. If the watchdog function is not needed in an application, the module can be configured as an interval timer and can generate interrupts at selected time intervals. hardware multiplier (MSP430F16x/161x only) The multiplication operation is supported by a dedicated peripheral module. The module performs 1616, 168, 816, and 88 bit operations. The module is capable of supporting signed and unsigned multiplication as well as signed and unsigned multiply and accumulate operations. The result of an operation can be accessed immediately after the operands have been loaded into the peripheral registers. No additional clock cycles are required. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 18 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 USART0 The MSP430F15x and the MSP430F16x(x) have one hardware universal synchronous/asynchronous receive transmit (USART0) peripheral module that is used for serial data communication. The USART supports synchronous SPI (3 or 4 pin), asynchronous UART and I2C communication protocols using double-buffered transmit and receive channels. The I2C support is compliant with the Philips I2C specification version 2.1 and supports standard mode (up to 100 kbps) and fast mode (up to 400 kbps). In addition, 7-bit and 10-bit device addressing modes are supported, as well as master and slave modes. The USART0 also supports 16-bit-wide I2C data transfers and has two dedicated DMA channels to maximize bus throughput. Extensive interrupt capability is also given in the I2C mode. USART1 (MSP430F16x/161x only) The MSP430F16x(x) devices have a second hardware universal synchronous/asynchronous receive transmit (USART1) peripheral module that is used for serial data communication. The USART supports synchronous SPI (3 or 4 pin) and asynchronous UART communication protocols, using double-buffered transmit and receive channels. With the exception of I2C support, operation of USART1 is identical to USART0. Timer_A3 Timer_A3 is a 16-bit timer/counter with three capture/compare registers. Timer_A3 can support multiple capture/compares, PWM outputs, and interval timing. Timer_A3 also has extensive interrupt capabilities. Interrupts may be generated from the counter on overflow conditions and from each of the capture/compare registers. TIMER_A3 SIGNAL CONNECTIONS INPUT PIN NUMBER DEVICE INPUT SIGNAL MODULE INPUT NAME MODULE BLOCK MODULE OUTPUT SIGNAL OUTPUT PIN NUMBER 12 - P1.0 TACLK TACLK ACLK ACLK Timer NA SMCLK SMCLK 21 - P2.1 TAINCLK INCLK 13 - P1.1 TA0 CCI0A 13 - P1.1 22 - P2.2 TA0 CCI0B CCR0 TA0 17 - P1.5 DVSS GND 27 - P2.7 DVCC VCC 14 - P1.2 TA1 CCI1A 14 - P1.2 CAOUT (internal) CCI1B CCR1 TA1 18 - P1.6 DVSS GND 23 - P2.3 DVCC VCC ADC12 (internal) 15 - P1.3 TA2 CCI2A 15 - P1.3 ACLK (internal) CCI2B CCR2 TA2 19 - P1.7 DVSS GND 24 - P2.4 DVCC VCC Timer_B3 (MSP430F15x only) Timer_B3 is a 16-bit timer/counter with three capture/compare registers. Timer_B3 can support multiple capture/compares, PWM outputs, and interval timing. Timer_B3 also has extensive interrupt capabilities. Interrupts may be generated from the counter on overflow conditions and from each of the capture/compare registers. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 19 Timer_B7 (MSP430F16x/161x only) Timer_B7 is a 16-bit timer/counter with seven capture/compare registers. Timer_B7 can support multiple capture/compares, PWM outputs, and interval timing. Timer_B7 also has extensive interrupt capabilities. Interrupts may be generated from the counter on overflow conditions and from each of the capture/compare registers. TIMER_B3/B7 SIGNAL CONNECTIONS† INPUT PIN NUMBER DEVICE INPUT SIGNAL MODULE INPUT NAME MODULE BLOCK MODULE OUTPUT SIGNAL OUTPUT PIN NUMBER 43 - P4.7 TBCLK TBCLK ACLK ACLK Timer NA SMCLK SMCLK 43 - P4.7 TBCLK INCLK 36 - P4.0 TB0 CCI0A 36 - P4.0 36 - P4.0 TB0 CCI0B CCR0 TB0 ADC12 (internal) DVSS GND DVCC VCC 37 - P4.1 TB1 CCI1A 37 - P4.1 37 - P4.1 TB1 CCI1B CCR1 TB1 ADC12 (internal) DVSS GND DVCC VCC 38 - P4.2 TB2 CCI2A 38 - P4.2 38 - P4.2 TB2 CCI2B CCR2 TB2 DVSS GND DVCC VCC 39 - P4.3 TB3 CCI3A 39 - P4.3 39 - P4.3 TB3 CCI3B CCR3 TB3 DVSS GND DVCC VCC 40 - P4.4 TB4 CCI4A 40 - P4.4 40 - P4.4 TB4 CCI4B CCR4 TB4 DVSS GND DVCC VCC 41 - P4.5 TB5 CCI5A 41 - P4.5 41 - P4.5 TB5 CCI5B CCR5 TB5 DVSS GND DVCC VCC 42 - P4.6 TB6 CCI6A 42 - P4.6 ACLK (internal) CCI6B CCR6 TB6 DVSS GND DVCC VCC † Timer_B3 implements three capture/compare blocks (CCR0, CCR1 and CCR2 only). MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 20 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 Comparator_A The primary function of the comparator_A module is to support precision slope analog−to−digital conversions, battery−voltage supervision, and monitoring of external analog signals. ADC12 The ADC12 module supports fast, 12-bit analog-to-digital conversions. The module implements a 12-bit SAR core, sample select control, reference generator and a 16 word conversion-and-control buffer. The conversion-and-control buffer allows up to 16 independent ADC samples to be converted and stored without any CPU intervention. DAC12 The DAC12 module is a 12-bit, R-ladder, voltage output DAC. The DAC12 may be used in 8- or 12-bit mode, and may be used in conjunction with the DMA controller. When multiple DAC12 modules are present, they may be grouped together for synchronous operation. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 21 peripheral file map PERIPHERAL FILE MAP DMA DMA channel 2 transfer size DMA2SZ 01F6h DMA channel 2 destination address DMA2DA 01F4h DMA channel 2 source address DMA2SA 01F2h DMA channel 2 control DMA2CTL 01F0h DMA channel 1 transfer size DMA1SZ 01EEh DMA channel 1 destination address DMA1DA 01ECh DMA channel 1 source address DMA1SA 01EAh DMA channel 1 control DMA1CTL 01E8h DMA channel 0 transfer size DMA0SZ 01E6h DMA channel 0 destination address DMA0DA 01E4h DMA channel 0 source address DMA0SA 01E2h DMA channel 0 control DMA0CTL 01E0h DMA module control 1 DMACTL1 0124h DMA module control 0 DMACTL0 0122h DAC12 DAC12_1 data DAC12_1DAT 01CAh DAC12_1 control DAC12_1CTL 01C2h DAC12_0 data DAC12_0DAT 01C8h DAC12_0 control DAC12_0CTL 01C0h ADC12 Interrupt-vector-word register ADC12IV 01A8h Inerrupt-enable register ADC12IE 01A6h Inerrupt-flag register ADC12IFG 01A4h Control register 1 ADC12CTL1 01A2h Control register 0 ADC12CTL0 01A0h Conversion memory 15 ADC12MEM15 015Eh Conversion memory 14 ADC12MEM14 015Ch Conversion memory 13 ADC12MEM13 015Ah Conversion memory 12 ADC12MEM12 0158h Conversion memory 11 ADC12MEM11 0156h Conversion memory 10 ADC12MEM10 0154h Conversion memory 9 ADC12MEM9 0152h Conversion memory 8 ADC12MEM8 0150h Conversion memory 7 ADC12MEM7 014Eh Conversion memory 6 ADC12MEM6 014Ch Conversion memory 5 ADC12MEM5 014Ah Conversion memory 4 ADC12MEM4 0148h Conversion memory 3 ADC12MEM3 0146h Conversion memory 2 ADC12MEM2 0144h Conversion memory 1 ADC12MEM1 0142h Conversion memory 0 ADC12MEM0 0140h MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 22 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 peripheral file map (continued) PERIPHERAL FILE MAP (CONTINUED) ADC12 ADC memory-control register15 ADC12MCTL15 08Fh (continued) ADC memory-control register14 ADC12MCTL14 08Eh ADC memory-control register13 ADC12MCTL13 08Dh ADC memory-control register12 ADC12MCTL12 08Ch ADC memory-control register11 ADC12MCTL11 08Bh ADC memory-control register10 ADC12MCTL10 08Ah ADC memory-control register9 ADC12MCTL9 089h ADC memory-control register8 ADC12MCTL8 088h ADC memory-control register7 ADC12MCTL7 087h ADC memory-control register6 ADC12MCTL6 086h ADC memory-control register5 ADC12MCTL5 085h ADC memory-control register4 ADC12MCTL4 084h ADC memory-control register3 ADC12MCTL3 083h ADC memory-control register2 ADC12MCTL2 082h ADC memory-control register1 ADC12MCTL1 081h ADC memory-control register0 ADC12MCTL0 080h Timer_B7/ Capture/compare register 6 TBCCR6 019Eh Timer_B3 (see Note 1) Capture/compare register 5 TBCCR5 019Ch Capture/compare register 4 TBCCR4 019Ah Capture/compare register 3 TBCCR3 0198h Capture/compare register 2 TBCCR2 0196h Capture/compare register 1 TBCCR1 0194h Capture/compare register 0 TBCCR0 0192h Timer_B register TBR 0190h Capture/compare control 6 TBCCTL6 018Eh Capture/compare control 5 TBCCTL5 018Ch Capture/compare control 4 TBCCTL4 018Ah Capture/compare control 3 TBCCTL3 0188h Capture/compare control 2 TBCCTL2 0186h Capture/compare control 1 TBCCTL1 0184h Capture/compare control 0 TBCCTL0 0182h Timer_B control TBCTL 0180h Timer_B interrupt vector TBIV 011Eh Timer_A3 Reserved 017Eh Reserved 017Ch Reserved 017Ah Reserved 0178h Capture/compare register 2 TACCR2 0176h Capture/compare register 1 TACCR1 0174h Capture/compare register 0 TACCR0 0172h Timer_A register TAR 0170h Reserved 016Eh Reserved 016Ch Reserved 016Ah Reserved 0168h NOTE 1: Timer_B7 in MSP430F16x/161x family has seven CCRs, Timer_B3 in MSP430F15x family has three CCRs. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 23 peripheral file map (continued) PERIPHERAL FILE MAP (CONTINUED) Timer_A3 Capture/compare control 2 TACCTL2 0166h (continued) Capture/compare control 1 TACCTL1 0164h Capture/compare control 0 TACCTL0 0162h Timer_A control TACTL 0160h Timer_A interrupt vector TAIV 012Eh Hardware Sum extend SUMEXT 013Eh Multiplier (MSP430F16x and Result high word RESHI 013Ch MSP430F161x Result low word RESLO 013Ah only) Second operand OP2 0138h Multiply signed +accumulate/operand1 MACS 0136h Multiply+accumulate/operand1 MAC 0134h Multiply signed/operand1 MPYS 0132h Multiply unsigned/operand1 MPY 0130h Flash Flash control 3 FCTL3 012Ch Flash control 2 FCTL2 012Ah Flash control 1 FCTL1 0128h Watchdog Watchdog Timer control WDTCTL 0120h USART1 Transmit buffer U1TXBUF 07Fh (MSP430F16x and MSP430F161x Receive buffer U1RXBUF 07Eh only) Baud rate U1BR1 07Dh Baud rate U1BR0 07Ch Modulation control U1MCTL 07Bh Receive control U1RCTL 07Ah Transmit control U1TCTL 079h USART control U1CTL 078h USART0 Transmit buffer U0TXBUF 077h (UART or SPI mode) Receive buffer U0RXBUF 076h Baud rate U0BR1 075h Baud rate U0BR0 074h Modulation control U0MCTL 073h Receive control U0RCTL 072h Transmit control U0TCTL 071h USART control U0CTL 070h USART0 2 I2C interrupt vector I2CIV 011Ch (I2C mode) I2C slave address I2CSA 011Ah I2C own address I2COA 0118h I2C data I2CDR 076h I2C SCLL I2CSCLL 075h I2C SCLH I2CSCLH 074h I2C PSC I2CPSC 073h I2C data control I2CDCTL 072h I2C transfer control I2CTCTL 071h USART control U0CTL 070h I2C data count I2CNDAT 052h I2C interrupt flag I2CIFG 051h I2C interrupt enable I2CIE 050h MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 24 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 peripheral file map (continued) PERIPHERAL FILE MAP (CONTINUED) Comparator_A Comparator_A port disable CAPD 05Bh Comparator_A control2 CACTL2 05Ah Comparator_A control1 CACTL1 059h Basic Clock Basic clock system control2 BCSCTL2 058h Basic clock system control1 BCSCTL1 057h DCO clock frequency control DCOCTL 056h BrownOUT, SVS SVS control register (reset by brownout signal) SVSCTL 055h Port P6 Port P6 selection P6SEL 037h Port P6 direction P6DIR 036h Port P6 output P6OUT 035h Port P6 input P6IN 034h Port P5 Port P5 selection P5SEL 033h Port P5 direction P5DIR 032h Port P5 output P5OUT 031h Port P5 input P5IN 030h Port P4 Port P4 selection P4SEL 01Fh Port P4 direction P4DIR 01Eh Port P4 output P4OUT 01Dh Port P4 input P4IN 01Ch Port P3 Port P3 selection P3SEL 01Bh Port P3 direction P3DIR 01Ah Port P3 output P3OUT 019h Port P3 input P3IN 018h Port P2 Port P2 selection P2SEL 02Eh Port P2 interrupt enable P2IE 02Dh Port P2 interrupt-edge select P2IES 02Ch Port P2 interrupt flag P2IFG 02Bh Port P2 direction P2DIR 02Ah Port P2 output P2OUT 029h Port P2 input P2IN 028h Port P1 Port P1 selection P1SEL 026h Port P1 interrupt enable P1IE 025h Port P1 interrupt-edge select P1IES 024h Port P1 interrupt flag P1IFG 023h Port P1 direction P1DIR 022h Port P1 output P1OUT 021h Port P1 input P1IN 020h Special Functions SFR module enable 2 ME2 005h SFR module enable 1 ME1 004h SFR interrupt flag2 IFG2 003h SFR interrupt flag1 IFG1 002h SFR interrupt enable2 IE2 001h SFR interrupt enable1 IE1 000h MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 25 absolute maximum ratings over operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)† Voltage applied at VCC to VSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 V to 4.1 V Voltage applied to any pin (see Note) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V Diode current at any device terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ±2 mA Storage temperature, Tstg: Unprogrammed device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −55°C to 150°C Programmed device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −55°C to 85°C † Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. NOTE: All voltages referenced to VSS. The JTAG fuse-blow voltage, VFB, is allowed to exceed the absolute maximum rating. The voltage is applied to the TDI/TCLK pin when blowing the JTAG fuse. recommended operating conditions MIN NOM MAX UNIT Supply voltage during program execution, VCC (AVCC = DVCC = VCC) MSP430F15x/16x/161x 1.8 3.6 V Supply voltage during flash memory programming, VCC (AVCC = DVCC = VCC) MSP430F15x/16x/161x 2.7 3.6 V Supply voltage during program execution, SVS enabled (see Note 1), VCC (AVCC = DVCC = VCC) MSP430F15x/16x/161x 2 3.6 V Supply voltage, VSS (AVSS = DVSS = VSS) 0 0 V Operating free-air temperature range, TA MSP430F15x/16x/161x −40 85 °C LFXT1 t l f f LF selected, XTS=0 Watch crystal 32.768 kHz crystal frequency, f(LFXT1) XT1 selected, XTS=1 Ceramic resonator 450 8000 kHz (see Notes 2 and 3) XT1 selected, XTS=1 Crystal 1000 8000 kHz XT2 crystal frequency f Ceramic resonator 450 8000 frequency, f(XT2) kHz Crystal 1000 8000 Processor frequency (signal MCLK) f VCC = 1.8 V DC 4.15 MCLK), f(System) MHz VCC = 3.6 V DC 8 NOTES: 1. The minimum operating supply voltage is defined according to the trip point where POR is going active by decreasing the supply voltage. POR is going inactive when the VCC is raised above the minimum supply voltage plus the hysteresis of the SVS circuitry. 2. In LF mode, the LFXT1 oscillator requires a watch crystal. A 5.1-MΩ resistor from XOUT to VSS is recommended when VCC < 2.5 V. In XT1 mode, the LFXT1 and XT2 oscillators accept a ceramic resonator or crystal up to 4.15 MHz at VCC ≥ 2.2 V. In XT1 mode, the LFXT1 and XT2 oscillators accept a ceramic resonator or crystal up to 8 MHz at VCC ≥ 2.8 V. 3. In LF mode, the LFXT1 oscillator requires a watch crystal. In XT1 mode, LFXT1 accepts a ceramic resonator or a crystal. f (MHz) 1.8 V 2.7 V 3 V 3.6 V ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ 4.15 MHz 8.0 MHz Supply Voltage − V Supply voltage range, ’F15x/16x/161x, during flash memory programming Supply voltage range, ’F15x/16x/161x, during program execution Figure 1. Frequency vs Supply Voltage, MSP430F15x/16x/161x MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 26 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) MSP430F15x/16x supply current into AVCC + DVCC excluding external current (AVCC = DVCC = VCC) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT Active mode, (see Note 1) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 1 MHz, T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 330 400 A I f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz XTS=0, SELM=(0,1) TA = −3 V 500 600 μA I(AM) Active mode, (see Note 1) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 4,096 Hz, T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 2.5 7 A f(ACLK) = 4,096 Hz XTS=0, SELM=3 TA = −3 V 9 20 μA I Low-power mode, (LPM0) f(MCLK) = 0 MHz, f(SMCLK) = 1 MHz, f 32 768 Hz T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 50 60 I(LPM0) A ( ) ( ) f(ACLK) = 32,768 XTS=0, SELM=(0,1) (see Note 1) TA = −3 V 75 90 μA I Low-power mode, (LPM2), f f 0 MHz T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 11 14 I(LPM2) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = MHz, A f(ACLK) = 32.768 Hz, SCG0 = 0 TA = −3 V 17 22 μA TA = −40°C 1.1 1.6 Low-power mode (LPM3) TA = 25°C 2.2 V 1.1 1.6 I mode, f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 0 MHz, TA = 85°C 2.2 3.0 I(LPM3) A f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz, SCG0 = 1 ( Nt 2) TA = −40°C 2.2 2.8 μA (see Note TA = 25°C 3 V 2.0 2.6 TA = 85°C 3.0 4.3 Low-power mode, (LPM4) TA = −40°C 0.1 0.5 I(LPM4) f(MCLK) = 0 MHz, f(SMCLK) = 0 MHz, TA = 25°C 2.2V / 3 V 0.2 0.5 μA f(ACLK) = 0 Hz, SCG0 = 1 TA = 85°C 1.3 2.5 NOTES: 1. Timer_B is clocked by f(DCOCLK) = 1 MHz. All inputs are tied to 0 V or to VCC. Outputs do not source or sink any current. 2. WDT is clocked by f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz. All inputs are tied to 0 V or to VCC. Outputs do not source or sink any current. The current consumption in LPM2 and LPM3 are measured with ACLK selected. Current consumption of active mode versus system frequency I(AM) = I(AM) [1 MHz] × f(System) [MHz] Current consumption of active mode versus supply voltage I(AM) = I(AM) [3 V] + 210 μA/V × (VCC – 3 V) MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 27 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) MSP430F161x supply current into AVCC + DVCC excluding external current (AVCC = DVCC = VCC) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT Active mode, (see Note 1) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 1 MHz, T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 330 400 A I f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz XTS=0, SELM=(0,1) TA = −3 V 500 600 μA I(AM) Active mode, (see Note 1) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 4,096 Hz, T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 2.5 7 A f(ACLK) = 4,096 Hz XTS=0, SELM=3 TA = −3 V 9 20 μA I Low-power mode, (LPM0) f(MCLK) = 0 MHz, f(SMCLK) = 1 MHz, f 32 768 Hz T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 50 60 I(LPM0) A ( ) ( ) f(ACLK) = 32,768 XTS=0, SELM=(0,1) (see Note 1) TA = −3 V 75 95 μA I Low-power mode, (LPM2), f f 0 MHz T 40°C to 85°C 2.2 V 11 14 I(LPM2) f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = MHz, A f(ACLK) = 32.768 Hz, SCG0 = 0 TA = −3 V 17 22 μA TA = −40°C 1.3 1.6 Low-power mode (LPM3) TA = 25°C 2.2 V 1.3 1.6 I mode, f(MCLK) = f(SMCLK) = 0 MHz, TA = 85°C 3.0 6.0 I(LPM3) A f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz, SCG0 = 1 ( Nt 2) TA = −40°C 2.6 3.0 μA (see Note TA = 25°C 3 V 2.6 3.0 TA = 85°C 4.4 8.0 Low-power mode, (LPM4) TA = −40°C 0.2 0.5 I(LPM4) f(MCLK) = 0 MHz, f(SMCLK) = 0 MHz, TA = 25°C 2.2V / 3 V 0.2 0.5 μA f(ACLK) = 0 Hz, SCG0 = 1 TA = 85°C 2.0 5.0 NOTES: 1. Timer_B is clocked by f(DCOCLK) = 1 MHz. All inputs are tied to 0 V or to VCC. Outputs do not source or sink any current. 2. WDT is clocked by f(ACLK) = 32,768 Hz. All inputs are tied to 0 V or to VCC. Outputs do not source or sink any current. The current consumption in LPM2 and LPM3 are measured with ACLK selected. Current consumption of active mode versus system frequency I(AM) = I(AM) [1 MHz] × f(System) [MHz] Current consumption of active mode versus supply voltage I(AM) = I(AM) [3 V] + 210 μA/V × (VCC – 3 V) MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 28 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) Schmitt-trigger inputs − ports P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, RST/NMI, JTAG (TCK, TMS, TDI/TCLK, TDO/TDI) PARAMETER VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT V Positive going input threshold voltage 2.2 V 1.1 1.5 VIT+ Positive-V 3 V 1.5 1.98 V Negative going input threshold voltage 2.2 V 0.4 0.9 VIT− Negative-V 3 V 0.9 1.3 V Input voltage hysteresis (V V ) 2.2 V 0.3 1.1 Vhys VIT+ − VIT−) V 3 V 0.5 1 inputs Px.x, TAx, TBx PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT t External interrupt timing Port P1, P2: P1.x to P2.x, external trigger 2.2 V 62 t(int) ns signal for the interrupt flag (see Note 1) 3 V 50 TA0, TA1, TA2 2.2 V 62 t(cap) Timer_A, Timer_B capture timing TB0, TB1, TB2, TB3, TB4, TB5, TB6 (see Note 2) 3 V 50 ns f(TAext) Timer_A, Timer_B clock frequency TACLK TBCLK INCLK: t = t 2.2 V 8 MHz f(TBext) externally applied to pin TACLK, TBCLK, t(H) t(L) 3 V 10 f(TAint) Timer A Timer B clock frequency SMCLK or ACLK signal selected 2.2 V 8 MHz f(TBint) Timer_A, Timer_3 V 10 NOTES: 1. The external signal sets the interrupt flag every time the minimum t(int) parameters are met. It may be set even with trigger signals shorter than t(int). 2. Seven capture/compare registers in ’F16x/161x and three capture/compare registers in ’F15x. leakage current − ports P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT Ilkg(Px.y) Leakage current Port Px V(Px.y) (see Note 2) 2.2 V/3 V ±50 nA NOTES: 1. The leakage current is measured with VSS or VCC applied to the corresponding pin(s), unless otherwise noted. 2. The port pin must be selected as input. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 29 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) outputs − ports P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT IOH(max) = −1.5 mA, VCC = 2.2 V, See Note 1 VCC−0.25 VCC V High level output voltage IOH(max) = −6 mA, VCC = 2.2 V, See Note 2 VCC−0.6 VCC VOH High-V IOH(max) = −1.5 mA, VCC = 3 V, See Note 1 VCC−0.25 VCC IOH(max) = −6 mA, VCC = 3 V, See Note 2 VCC−0.6 VCC IOL(max) = 1.5 mA, VCC = 2.2 V, See Note 1 VSS VSS+0.25 V Low level output voltage IOL(max) = 6 mA, VCC = 2.2 V, See Note 2 VSS VSS+0.6 VOL Low-V IOL(max) = 1.5 mA, VCC = 3 V, See Note 1 VSS VSS+0.25 IOL(max) = 6 mA, VCC = 3 V, See Note 2 VSS VSS+0.6 NOTES: 1. The maximum total current, IOH(max) and IOL(max), for all outputs combined, should not exceed ±12 mA to satisfy the maximum specified voltage drop. 2. The maximum total current, IOH(max) and IOL(max), for all outputs combined, should not exceed ±48 mA to satisfy the maximum specified voltage drop. output frequency PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT f (1 ≤ x ≤ 6 0≤ y ≤ 7) CL = 20 pF, f(Px.y) 6, 0 ≤ V 2 2 V / 3 V DC f MHz IL = ±1.5 mA VCC = 2.2 fSystem f(ACLK) f P2.0/ACLK, P5.6/ACLK P5 4/MCLK C 20 pF V 2 2 V / 3 V fSystem MHz f(MCLK) f(SMCLK) P5.4/MCLK, P1.4/SMCLK, P5.5/SMCLK CL = VCC = 2.2 P1.0/TACLK f(ACLK) = f(LFXT1) = f(XT1) 40% 60% CL = 20 pF f(ACLK) = f(LFXT1) = f(LF) 30% 70% VCC = 2.2 V / 3 V f(ACLK) = f(LFXT1) 50% P1.1/TA0/MCLK, f(MCLK) = f(XT1) 40% 60% t(Xdc) Duty cycle of output frequency CL = 20 pF, VCC = 2.2 V / 3 V f(MCLK) = f(DCOCLK) 50%− 15 ns 50% 50%+ 15 ns P1.4/TBCLK/SMCLK, f(SMCLK) = f(XT2) 40% 60% CL = 20 pF, VCC = 2.2 V / 3 V f(SMCLK) = f(DCOCLK) 50%− 15 ns 50% 50%+ 15 ns MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 30 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) outputs − ports P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 (continued) Figure 2 VOL − Low-Level Output Voltage − V 0 5 10 15 20 25 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 VCC = 2.2 V P3.5 TYPICAL LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT vs LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE TA = 25°C TA = 85°C IOL − Low-Level Output Current − mA Figure 3 VOL − Low-Level Output Voltage − V 0 10 20 30 40 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 VCC = 3 V P3.5 TYPICAL LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT vs LOW-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE TA = 25°C TA = 85°C IOL − Low-Level Output Current − mA Figure 4 VOH − High-Level Output Voltage − V −25 −20 −15 −10 −5 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 VCC = 2.2 V P3.5 TYPICAL HIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT vs HIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE TA = 25°C TA = 85°C IOH− High-Level Output Current − mA Figure 5 VOH − High-Level Output Voltage − V −45 −35 −25 −15 −5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 VCC = 3 V P3.5 TYPICAL HIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT CURRENT vs HIGH-LEVEL OUTPUT VOLTAGE TA = 25°C TA = 85°C IOH− High-Level Output Current − mA MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 31 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) wake-up LPM3 PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT t(LPM3) Delay time VCC = 2.2 V/3 V, fDCO ≥ fDCO43 6 μs RAM PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT VRAMh See Note 1 CPU HALTED 1.6 V NOTE 1: This parameter defines the minimum supply voltage when the data in program memory RAM remain unchanged. No program execution should take place during this supply voltage condition. Comparator_A (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT I CAON=1 CARSEL=0 CAREF=0 2.2 V 25 40 I(DD) 1, 0, μA 3 V 45 60 I CAON=1, CARSEL=0, CAREF 1/2/3 no load at 2.2 V 30 50 I(Refladder/Refdiode) CAREF=3, μA P2.3/CA0/TA1 and P2.4/CA1/TA2 3 V 45 71 V(IC) Common-mode input voltage CAON =1 2.2 V/3 V 0 VCC−1 V V(Ref025) Voltage @ 0.25 VCC node VCC PCA0=1, CARSEL=1, CAREF=1, no load at P2.3/CA0/TA1 and P2.4/CA1/TA2 2.2 V/3 V 0.23 0.24 0.25 V(Ref050) Voltage @ 0.5VCC node VCC PCA0=1, CARSEL=1, CAREF=2, no load at P2.3/CA0/TA1 and P2.4/CA1/TA2 2.2 V/3 V 0.47 0.48 0.5 V (see Figure 6 and Figure 7) PCA0=1, CARSEL=1, CAREF=3, no load at P2 3/CA0/TA1 and 2.2 V 390 480 540 V(RefVT) P2.3/mV P2.4/CA1/TA2 TA = 85°C 3 V 400 490 550 V(offset) Offset voltage See Note 2 2.2 V/3 V −30 30 mV Vhys Input hysteresis CAON=1 2.2 V/3 V 0 0.7 1.4 mV TA = 25°C, Overdrive 10 mV, 2.2 V 130 210 300 ns t 25 Without filter: CAF=0 3 V 80 150 240 t(response LH) TA = 25°C, Overdrive 10 mV, 2.2 V 1.4 1.9 3.4 μs 25 With filter: CAF=1 3 V 0.9 1.5 2.6 TA = 25°C, Overdrive 10 mV, 2.2 V 130 210 300 ns t 25 Without filter: CAF=0 3 V 80 150 240 t(response HL) TA = 25°C, Overdrive 10 mV, 2.2 V 1.4 1.9 3.4 μs 25 With filter: CAF=1 3 V 0.9 1.5 2.6 NOTES: 1. The leakage current for the Comparator_A terminals is identical to Ilkg(Px.x) specification. 2. The input offset voltage can be cancelled by using the CAEX bit to invert the Comparator_A inputs on successive measurements. The two successive measurements are then summed together. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 32 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) TA − Free-Air Temperature − °C 400 450 500 550 600 650 −45 −25 −5 15 35 55 75 95 VCC = 3 V Figure 6. V(RefVT) vs Temperature, VCC = 3 V V(REFVT) − Reference Volts −mV Typical Figure 7. V(RefVT) vs Temperature, VCC = 2.2 V TA − Free-Air Temperature − °C 400 450 500 550 600 650 −45 −25 −5 15 35 55 75 95 VCC = 2.2 V V(REFVT) − Reference Volts −mV Typical _ + CAON 0 1 V+ 0 1 CAF Low Pass Filter τ ≈ 2.0 μs To Internal Modules Set CAIFG Flag CAOUT V− VCC 1 0 V 0 Figure 8. Block Diagram of Comparator_A Module Overdrive VCAOUT V+ t(response) V− 400 mV Figure 9. Overdrive Definition MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 33 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) POR/brownout reset (BOR) (see Notes 1 and 2) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT td(BOR) 2000 μs VCC(Start) dVCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 10) 0.7 × V(B_IT−) V V(B_IT−) Brownout dVCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 10 through Figure 12) 1.71 V Vhys(B_IT−) dVCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 10) 70 130 180 mV t(reset) Pulse length needed at RST/NMI pin to accepted reset internally, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 2 μs NOTES: 1. The current consumption of the brownout module is already included in the ICC current consumption data. The voltage level V(B_IT−) + Vhys(B_IT−) is ≤ 1.8 V. 2. During power up, the CPU begins code execution following a period of tBOR(delay) after VCC = V(B_IT−) + Vhys(B_IT−). The default DCO settings must not be changed until VCC ≥ VCC(min), where VCC(min) is the minimum supply voltage for the desired operating frequency. See the MSP430x1xx Family User’s Guide (SLAU049) for more information on the brownout/SVS circuit. typical characteristics 0 1 t d(BOR) VCC V(B_IT−) Vhys(B_IT−) VCC(Start) BOR Figure 10. POR/Brownout Reset (BOR) vs Supply Voltage MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 34 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 typical characteristics (continued) VCC(min) VCC 3 V tpw 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0.001 1 1000 Vcc = 3 V typical conditions 1 ns 1 ns tpw − Pulse Width − μs VCC(min)− V tpw − Pulse Width − μs Figure 11. VCC(min) Level With a Square Voltage Drop to Generate a POR/Brownout Signal VCC 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Vcc = 3 V typical conditions VCC(min) tpw tpw − Pulse Width − μs VCC(min)− V 3 V 0.001 1 1000 tf tr tpw − Pulse Width − μs tf = tr Figure 12. VCC(min) Level With a Triangle Voltage Drop to Generate a POR/Brownout Signal MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 35 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) SVS (supply voltage supervisor/monitor) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN NOM MAX UNIT t dVCC/dt > 30 V/ms (see Figure 13) 5 150 t(SVSR) μs dVCC/dt ≤ 30 V/ms 2000 td(SVSon) SVSON, switch from VLD = 0 to VLD ≠ 0, VCC = 3 V 150 300 μs tsettle VLD ≠ 0‡ 12 μs V(SVSstart) VLD ≠ 0, VCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 13) 1.55 1.7 V VLD = 1 70 120 155 mV Vhys(SVS_IT−) VCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 13) VLD = 2 to 14 V(SVS_IT−) x 0.004 V(SVS_IT−) x 0.008 VCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 13), External voltage applied on A7 VLD = 15 4.4 10.4 mV VLD = 1 1.8 1.9 2.05 VLD = 2 1.94 2.1 2.25 VLD = 3 2.05 2.2 2.37 VLD = 4 2.14 2.3 2.48 VLD = 5 2.24 2.4 2.6 VLD = 6 2.33 2.5 2.71 VCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 13 and Figure 14) VLD = 7 2.46 2.65 2.86 V(SVS IT ) VLD = 8 2.58 2.8 3 SVS_IT−) V VLD = 9 2.69 2.9 3.13 VLD = 10 2.83 3.05 3.29 VLD = 11 2.94 3.2 3.42 VLD = 12 3.11 3.35 3.61† VLD = 13 3.24 3.5 3.76† VLD = 14 3.43 3.7† 3.99† VCC/dt ≤ 3 V/s (see Figure 13 and Figure 14), External voltage applied on A7 VLD = 15 1.1 1.2 1.3 ICC(SVS) (see Note 1) VLD ≠ 0, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 10 15 μA † The recommended operating voltage range is limited to 3.6 V. ‡ tsettle is the settling time that the comparator o/p needs to have a stable level after VLD is switched VLD ≠ 0 to a different VLD value somewhere between 2 and 15. The overdrive is assumed to be > 50 mV. NOTE 1: The current consumption of the SVS module is not included in the ICC current consumption data. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 36 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 typical characteristics VCC(start) AVCC V(B_IT−) Brownout Region V(SVSstart) V(SVS_IT−) Software sets VLD >0: SVS is active td(SVSR) undefined Vhys(SVS_IT−) 0 1 td(BOR) Brownout 0 1 td(SVSon) td(BOR) 0 1 Set POR Brownout Region SVS Circuit is Active From VLD > to VCC < V(B_IT−) SVS out Vhys(B_IT−) Figure 13. SVS Reset (SVSR) vs Supply Voltage 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 VCC VCC 1 ns 1 ns VCC(min) tpw tpw − Pulse Width − μs VCC(min)− V 3 V 1 10 1000 tf tr t − Pulse Width − μs 100 tpw 3 V tf = tr Rectangular Drop Triangular Drop VCC(min) Figure 14. VCC(min): Square Voltage Drop and Triangle Voltage Drop to Generate an SVS Signal (VLD = 1) MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 37 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) DCO (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT f R 0 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 0.08 0.12 0.15 f(DCO03) Rsel = 0, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 0.08 0.13 0.16 f R 1 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 0.14 0.19 0.23 f(DCO13) Rsel = 1, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 0.14 0.18 0.22 f R 2 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 0.22 0.30 0.36 f(DCO23) Rsel = 2, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 0.22 0.28 0.34 f R 3 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 0.37 0.49 0.59 f(DCO33) Rsel = 3, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 0.37 0.47 0.56 f R 4 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 0.61 0.77 0.93 f(DCO43) Rsel = 4, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 0.61 0.75 0.90 f R 5 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 1 1.2 1.5 f(DCO53) Rsel = 5, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 1 1.3 1.5 f R 6 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 1.6 1.9 2.2 f(DCO63) Rsel = 6, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 1.69 2.0 2.29 f R 7 DCO 3 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 2.4 2.9 3.4 f(DCO73) Rsel = 7, = 3, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 2.7 3.2 3.65 f(DCO47) Rsel = 4, DCO = 7, MOD = 0, DCOR = 0, TA = 25°C 2.2 V/3 V fDCO40 × 1.7 fDCO40 × 2.1 fDCO40 × 2.5 MHz f R 7 DCO 7 MOD 0 DCOR 0 T 25°C 2.2 V 4 4.5 4.9 f(DCO77) Rsel = 7, = 7, = 0, = 0, TA = MHz 3 V 4.4 4.9 5.4 SRsel SR = fRsel+1 / fRsel 2.2 V/3 V 1.35 1.65 2 SDCO SDCO = f(DCO+1) / f(DCO) 2.2 V/3 V 1.07 1.12 1.16 D Temperature drift R 4 DCO 3 MOD 0 (see Note 2) 2.2 V −0.31 −0.36 −0.40 Dt drift, Rsel = 4, = 3, = %/°C 3 V −0.33 −0.38 −0.43 DV Drift with VCC variation, Rsel = 4, DCO = 3, MOD = 0 (see Note 2) 2.2 V/3 V 0 5 10 %/V NOTES: 1. The DCO frequency may not exceed the maximum system frequency defined by parameter processor frequency, f(System). 2. This parameter is not production tested. 2.2 3 fDCO_0 Max Min ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Max Min fDCO_7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DCO f DCOCLK 1 ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ VCC − V Frequency Variance Figure 15. DCO Characteristics MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 38 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) main DCO characteristics  Individual devices have a minimum and maximum operation frequency. The specified parameters for f(DCOx0) to f(DCOx7) are valid for all devices.  All ranges selected by Rsel(n) overlap with Rsel(n+1): Rsel0 overlaps Rsel1, ... Rsel6 overlaps Rsel7.  DCO control bits DCO0, DCO1, and DCO2 have a step size as defined by parameter SDCO.  Modulation control bits MOD0 to MOD4 select how often f(DCO+1) is used within the period of 32 DCOCLK cycles. The frequency f(DCO) is used for the remaining cycles. The frequency is an average equal to: faverage  32f(DCO) f(DCO1) MODf(DCO) (32MOD)f(DCO1) DCO when using ROSC (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT f DCO output frequency Rsel = 4, DCO = 3, MOD = 0, DCOR = 1, 2.2 V 1.8±15% MHz fDCO, TA = 25°C 3 V 1.95±15% MHz Dt, Temperature drift Rsel = 4, DCO = 3, MOD = 0, DCOR = 1 2.2 V/3 V ±0.1 %/°C Dv, Drift with VCC variation Rsel = 4, DCO = 3, MOD = 0, DCOR = 1 2.2 V/3 V 10 %/V NOTES: 1. ROSC = 100kΩ. Metal film resistor, type 0257. 0.6 watt with 1% tolerance and TK = ±50ppm/°C. crystal oscillator, LFXT1 oscillator (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT C Integrated input capacitance XTS=0; LF oscillator selected, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 12 CXIN pF XTS=1; XT1 oscillator selected, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 2 C Integrated output capacitance XTS=0; LF oscillator selected, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 12 CXOUT pF XTS=1; XT1 oscillator selected, VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 2 VIL I t l l t XIN VCC = 2.2 V/3 V ( N 2) XTS = 0 or 1 XT1 or LF modes VSS 0.2 × VCC V V Input levels at CC see Note XTS = 0, LF mode 0.9 × VCC VCC VIH XTS = 1, XT1 mode 0.8 × VCC VCC NOTES: 1. The oscillator needs capacitors at both terminals, with values specified by the crystal manufacturer. 2. Applies only when using an external logic-level clock source. Not applicable when using a crystal or resonator. crystal oscillator, XT2 oscillator (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT CXIN Integrated input capacitance VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 2 pF CXOUT Integrated output capacitance VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 2 pF VIL Input levels at XIN V = 2 2 V/3 V (see Note 2) VSS 0.2 × VCC V VIH VCC 2.2 0.8 × VCC VCC V NOTES: 1. The oscillator needs capacitors at both terminals, with values specified by the crystal manufacturer. 2. Applies only when using an external logic-level clock source. Not applicable when using a crystal or resonator. USART0, USART1 (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT t( ) USART0/USART1: deglitch time VCC = 2.2 V 200 430 800 τ) ns VCC = 3 V 150 280 500 NOTE 1: The signal applied to the USART0/USART1 receive signal/terminal (URXD0/1) should meet the timing requirements of t(τ) to ensure that the URXS flip-flop is set. The URXS flip-flop is set with negative pulses meeting the minimum-timing condition of t(τ). The operating conditions to set the flag must be met independently from this timing constraint. The deglitch circuitry is active only on negative transitions on the URXD0/1 line. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 39 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit ADC, power supply and input range conditions (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT AVCC Analog supply voltage AVCC and DVCC are connected together AVSS and DVSS are connected together V(AVSS) = V(DVSS) = 0 V 2.2 3.6 V V(P6.x/Ax) Analog input voltage range (see Note 2) All P6.0/A0 to P6.7/A7 terminals. Analog inputs selected in ADC12MCTLx register and P6Sel.x=1 0 ≤ x ≤ 7; V(AVSS) ≤ VP6.x/Ax ≤ V(AVCC) 0 VAVCC V I Operating supply current into AV terminal fADC12CLK = 5.0 MHz ADC12ON 1 REFON 0 2.2 V 0.65 1.3 IADC12 AVCC mA (see Note 3) = 1, = SHT0=0, SHT1=0, ADC12DIV=0 3 V 0.8 1.6 I Operating supply current i t AV t i l fADC12CLK = 5.0 MHz ADC12ON = 0, REFON = 1, REF2_5V = 1 3 V 0.5 0.8 mA IREF+ into AVCC terminal (see Note 4) fADC12CLK = 5.0 MHz ADC12ON 0 2.2 V 0.5 0.8 mA = 0, REFON = 1, REF2_5V = 0 3 V 0.5 0.8 CI † Input capacitance Only one terminal can be selected at one time, P6.x/Ax 2.2 V 40 pF RI † Input MUX ON resistance 0V ≤ VAx ≤ VAVCC 3 V 2000 Ω † Not production tested, limits verified by design NOTES: 1. The leakage current is defined in the leakage current table with P6.x/Ax parameter. 2. The analog input voltage range must be within the selected reference voltage range VR+ to VR− for valid conversion results. 3. The internal reference supply current is not included in current consumption parameter IADC12. 4. The internal reference current is supplied via terminal AVCC. Consumption is independent of the ADC12ON control bit, unless a conversion is active. The REFON bit enables to settle the built-in reference before starting an A/D conversion. 12-bit ADC, external reference (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT VeREF+ Positive external reference voltage input VeREF+ > VREF−/VeREF− (see Note 2) 1.4 VAVCC V VREF− /VeREF− Negative external reference voltage input VeREF+ > VREF−/VeREF− (see Note 3) 0 1.2 V (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−) Differential external reference voltage input VeREF+ > VREF−/VeREF− (see Note 4) 1.4 VAVCC V IVeREF+ Static input current 0V ≤VeREF+ ≤ VAVCC 2.2 V/3 V ±1 μA IVREF−/VeREF− Static input current 0V ≤ VeREF− ≤ VAVCC 2.2 V/3 V ±1 μA NOTES: 1. The external reference is used during conversion to charge and discharge the capacitance array. The input capacitance, Ci, is also the dynamic load for an external reference during conversion. The dynamic impedance of the reference supply should follow the recommendations on analog-source impedance to allow the charge to settle for 12-bit accuracy. 2. The accuracy limits the minimum positive external reference voltage. Lower reference voltage levels may be applied with reduced accuracy requirements. 3. The accuracy limits the maximum negative external reference voltage. Higher reference voltage levels may be applied with reduced accuracy requirements. 4. The accuracy limits minimum external differential reference voltage. Lower differential reference voltage levels may be applied with reduced accuracy requirements. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 40 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit ADC, built-in reference PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT V built-REF2_5V = 1 for 2.5 V IVREF+max ≤ IVREF+≤ IVREF+min VCC = 3 V 2.4 2.5 2.6 VREF+ V Positive built in reference voltage output REF2_5V = 0 for 1.5 V IVREF+max ≤ IVREF+≤ IVREF+min VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 1.44 1.5 1.56 AVCC minimum voltage, REF2_5V = 0, IVREF+max ≤ IVREF+≤ IVREF+min 2.2 AVCC(min) Positive built-in reference REF2_5V = 1, −0.5mA ≤ IVREF+≤ IVREF+min 2.8 V active REF2_5V = 1, −1mA ≤ IVREF+≤ IVREF+min 2.9 I Load current out of VREF+ VCC = 2.2 V 0.01 −0.5 IVREF+ mA terminal VCC = 3 V 0.01 −1 IVREF+ = 500 μA +/− 100 μA Analog input voltage 0 75 V VCC = 2.2 V ±2 LSB I Load-current regulation ~0.75 V, REF2_5V = 0 VCC = 3 V ±2 IL(VREF)+ † Load VREF+ terminal IVREF+ = 500 μA ± 100 μA Analog input voltage ~1.25 V, REF2_5V = 1 VCC = 3 V ±2 LSB I Load current regulation IVREF+ =100 μA → 900 μA, IDL(VREF) + C 5 μF ax 0 5 x V V 3 V 20 ns ‡ VREF+ terminal CVREF+=μF, ~0.5 VREF+ , Error of conversion result ≤ 1 LSB VCC = CVREF+ Capacitance at pin VREF+ (see Note 1) REFON =1, 0 mA ≤ IVREF+ ≤ IVREF+max VCC = 2.2 V/3 V 5 10 μF TREF+ † Temperature coefficient of built-in reference IVREF+ is a constant in the range of 0 mA ≤ IVREF+ ≤ 1 mA VCC = 2.2 V/3 V ±100 ppm/°C tREFON † Settle time of internal reference voltage (see Figure 16 and Note 2) IVREF+ = 0.5 mA, CVREF+ = 10 μF, VREF+ = 1.5 V, VAVCC = 2.2 V 17 ms † Not production tested, limits characterized ‡ Not production tested, limits verified by design NOTES: 1. The internal buffer operational amplifier and the accuracy specifications require an external capacitor. All INL and DNL tests uses two capacitors between pins VREF+ and AVSS and VREF−/VeREF− and AVSS: 10 μF tantalum and 100 nF ceramic. 2. The condition is that the error in a conversion started after tREFON is less than ±0.5 LSB. The settling time depends on the external capacitive load. CVREF+ 1 μF 0 1 ms 10 ms 100 ms tREFON tREFON ≈ .66 x CVREF+ [ms] with CVREF+ in μF 100 μF 10 μF Figure 16. Typical Settling Time of Internal Reference tREFON vs External Capacitor on VREF+ MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 41 + − 10 μF 100 nF AVSS MSP430F15x MSP430F16x + − + − 10 μF 100 nF 10 μF 100 nF AVCC 10 μF 100 nF DVSS From DVCC Power Supply Apply External Reference + − Apply External Reference [VeREF+] or Use Internal Reference [VREF+] VREF+ or VeREF+ VREF−/VeREF− MSP430F161x Figure 17. Supply Voltage and Reference Voltage Design VREF−/VeREF− External Supply + − 10 μF 100 nF AVSS MSP430F15x MSP430F16x + − 10 μF 100 nF AVCC 10 μF 100 nF DVSS From DVCC Power Supply + − Apply External Reference [VeREF+] or Use Internal Reference [VREF+] VREF+ or VeREF+ Reference Is Internally VREF−/VeREF− Switched to AVSS MSP430F161x Figure 18. Supply Voltage and Reference Voltage Design VREF−/VeREF− = AVSS, Internally Connected MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 42 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit ADC, timing parameters PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT fADC12CLK For specified performance of ADC12 linearity parameters 2.2V/3 V 0.45 5 6.3 MHz fADC12OSC Internal ADC12 oscillator ADC12DIV=0, fADC12CLK=fADC12OSC 2.2 V/ 3 V 3.7 5 6.3 MHz t Conversion time CVREF+ ≥ 5 μF, Internal oscillator, fADC12OSC = 3.7 MHz to 6.3 MHz 2.2 V/ 3 V 2.06 3.51 μs tCONVERT External fADC12CLK from ACLK, MCLK or SMCLK: ADC12SSEL ≠ 0 13×ADC12DIV× 1/fADC12CLK μs tADC12ON ‡ Turn on settling time of the ADC (see Note 1) 100 ns t ‡ Sampling time RS = 400 Ω, RI = 1000 Ω, C 30 pF 3 V 1220 tSample ns CI = τ = [RS + RI] x CI;(see Note 2) 2.2 V 1400 † Not production tested, limits characterized ‡ Not production tested, limits verified by design NOTES: 1. The condition is that the error in a conversion started after tADC12ON is less than ±0.5 LSB. The reference and input signal are already settled. 2. Approximately ten Tau (τ) are needed to get an error of less than ±0.5 LSB: tSample = ln(2n+1) x (RS + RI) x CI+ 800 ns where n = ADC resolution = 12, RS = external source resistance. 12-bit ADC, linearity parameters PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT E Integral linearity error 1.4 V ≤ (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−) min ≤ 1.6 V 2 2 V/3 V ±2 EI LSB 1.6 V < (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−) min ≤ [VAVCC] 2.2 ±1.7 ED Differential linearity error (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−)min ≤ (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−), CVREF+ = 10 μF (tantalum) and 100 nF (ceramic) 2.2 V/3 V ±1 LSB EO Offset error (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−)min ≤ (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−), Internal impedance of source RS < 100 Ω, CVREF+ = 10 μF (tantalum) and 100 nF (ceramic) 2.2 V/3 V ±2 ±4 LSB EG Gain error (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−)min ≤ (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−), CVREF+ = 10 μF (tantalum) and 100 nF (ceramic) 2.2 V/3 V ±1.1 ±2 LSB ET Total unadjusted error (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−)min ≤ (VeREF+ − VREF−/VeREF−), CVREF+ = 10 μF (tantalum) and 100 nF (ceramic) 2.2 V/3 V ±2 ±5 LSB MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 43 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit ADC, temperature sensor and built-in VMID PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT I Operating supply current into REFON = 0, INCH = 0Ah, 2.2 V 40 120 ISENSOR A AVCC terminal (see Note 1) ADC12ON=NA, TA = 25C 3 V 60 160 μA V (see Note 2) ADC12ON = 1, INCH = 0Ah, 2.2 V 986 VSENSOR mV † TA = 0°C 3 V 986 TC † ADC12ON 1 INCH 0Ah 2.2 V 3.55 3.55±3% TCSENSOR mV/°C = 1, = 3 V 3.55 3.55±3% t Sample time required if channel ADC12ON = 1, INCH = 0Ah, Error of conversion result ≤ 1 2.2 V 30 tSENSOR(sample) s † 10 is selected (see Note 3) LSB 3 V 30 μs I Current into divider at channel 11 ADC12ON 1 INCH 0Bh 2.2 V NA IVMID A (see Note 4) = 1, = 0Bh, 3 V NA μA V AV divider at channel 11 ADC12ON = 1, INCH = 0Bh, 2.2 V 1.1 1.1±0.04 VMID AVCC V VMID is ~0.5 x VAVCC 3 V 1.5 1.50±0.04 t Sample time required if channel ADC12ON = 1, INCH = 0Bh, Error of conversion result ≤ 1 2.2 V 1400 tVMID(sample) ns 11 is selected (see Note 5) LSB 3 V 1220 † Not production tested, limits characterized NOTES: 1. The sensor current ISENSOR is consumed if (ADC12ON = 1 and REFON=1), or (ADC12ON=1 AND INCH=0Ah and sample signal is high). When REFON = 1, ISENSOR is already included in IREF+. 2. The temperature sensor offset can be as much as ±20C. A single-point calibration is recommended in order to minimize the offset error of the built-in temperature sensor. 3. The typical equivalent impedance of the sensor is 51 kΩ. The sample time required includes the sensor-on time tSENSOR(on) 4. No additional current is needed. The VMID is used during sampling. 5. The on-time tVMID(on) is included in the sampling time tVMID(sample); no additional on time is needed. 12-bit DAC, supply specifications PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT AVCC Analog supply voltage AVCC = DVCC, AVSS = DVSS =0 V 2.20 3.60 V DAC12AMPx=2, DAC12IR=0, DAC12_xDAT=0800h 2.2V/3V 50 110 I Supply Current: DAC12AMPx=2, DAC12IR=1, DAC12_xDAT=0800h , VeREF+=VREF+= AVCC 2.2V/3V 50 110 IDD Single DAC Channel A (see Notes 1 and 2) DAC12AMPx=5, DAC12IR=1, DAC12_xDAT=0800h, VeREF+=VREF+= AVCC 2.2V/3V 200 440 μA DAC12AMPx=7, DAC12IR=1, DAC12_xDAT=0800h, VeREF+=VREF+= AVCC 2.2V/3V 700 1500 PSRR Power supply DAC12_xDAT = 800h, VREF = 1.5 V ΔAVCC = 100mV 2.2V rejection ratio 70 dB (see Notes 3 and 4) DAC12_xDAT = 800h, VREF = 1.5 V or 2.5 V ΔAVCC = 100mV 3V NOTES: 1. No load at the output pin, DAC12_0 or DAC12_1, assuming that the control bits for the shared pins are set properly. 2. Current into reference terminals not included. If DAC12IR = 1 current flows through the input divider; see Reference Input specifications. 3. PSRR = 20*log{ΔAVCC/ΔVDAC12_xOUT}. 4. VREF is applied externally. The internal reference is not used. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 44 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit DAC, linearity specifications (see Figure 19) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT Resolution (12-bit Monotonic) 12 bits INL Vref = 1.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 2.2V ±2 0 ±8 0 LSB Integral nonlinearity (see Note 1) Vref = 2.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 3V 2.0 8.0 DNL Vref = 1.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 2.2V ±0 4 ±1 0 LSB Differential nonlinearity (see Note 1) Vref = 2.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 3V 0.4 1.0 Offset voltage w/o Vref = 1.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 2.2V ±21 EO calibration (see Notes 1, 2) Vref = 2.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 3V mV Offset voltage with Vref = 1.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 2.2V ±2 5 calibration (see Notes 1, 2) Vref = 2.5 V DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12IR = 1 3V 2.5 dE(O)/dT Offset error temperature coefficient (see Note 1) 2.2V/3V 30 uV/C E Gain error (see Note 1) VREF = 1.5 V 2.2V EG ±3 50 % FSR VREF = 2.5 V 3V 3.50 dE(G)/dT Gain temperature coefficient (see Note 1) 2.2V/3V 10 ppm of FSR/°C Time for offset calibration DAC12AMPx=2 2.2V/3V 100 tOffset_Cal DAC12AMPx=3,5 2.2V/3V 32 ms (see Note 3) DAC12AMPx=4,6,7 2.2V/3V 6 NOTES: 1. Parameters calculated from the best-fit curve from 0x0A to 0xFFF. The best-fit curve method is used to deliver coefficients “a” and “b” of the first order equation: y = a + b*x. VDAC12_xOUT = EO + (1 + EG) * (VeREF+/4095) * DAC12_xDAT, DAC12IR = 1. 2. The offset calibration works on the output operational amplifier. Offset Calibration is triggered setting bit DAC12CALON 3. The offset calibration can be done if DAC12AMPx = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}. The output operational amplifier is switched off with DAC12AMPx ={0, 1}. It is recommended that the DAC12 module be configured prior to initiating calibration. Port activity during calibration may effect accuracy and is not recommended. Positive Negative VR+ Offset Error Gain Error DAC Code DAC VOUT Ideal transfer function RLoad = AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 DAC Output Figure 19. Linearity Test Load Conditions and Gain/Offset Definition MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 45 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit DAC, linearity specifications (continued) DAC12_xDAT − Digital Code −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 0 512 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 VCC = 2.2 V, VREF = 1.5V DAC12AMPx = 7 DAC12IR = 1 TYPICAL INL ERROR vs DIGITAL INPUT DATA 4095 INL − Integral Nonlinearity Error − LSB DAC12_xDAT − Digital Code −2.0 −1.5 −1.0 −0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0 512 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 VCC = 2.2 V, VREF = 1.5V DAC12AMPx = 7 DAC12IR = 1 TYPICAL DNL ERROR vs DIGITAL INPUT DATA 4095 DNL − Differential Nonlinearity Error − LSB MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 46 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) (continued) 12-bit DAC, output specifications PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT No Load, VeREF+ = AVCC, DAC12_xDAT = 0h, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12AMPx = 7 2.2V/3V 0 0.005 V V Output voltage range No Load, VeREF+ = AVCC, DAC12_xDAT = 0FFFh, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12AMPx = 7 2.2V/3V AVCC−0.05 AVCC VO (see Note 1, Figure 22) RLoad= 3 kΩ, VeREF+ = AVCC, DAC12_xDAT = 0h, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12AMPx = 7 2.2V/3V 0 0.1 V RLoad= 3 kΩ, VeREF+ = AVCC, DAC12_xDAT = 0FFFh, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12AMPx = 7 2.2V/3V AVCC−0.13 AVCC V CL(DAC12) Max DAC12 load capacitance 2.2V/3V 100 pF I Max DAC12 2.2V −0.5 +0.5 mA IL(DAC12) load current 3V −1.0 +1.0 mA RLoad= 3 kΩ VO/P(DAC12) = 0 V DAC12AMPx = 7 DAC12_xDAT = 0h 2.2V/3V 150 250 RO/P(DAC12) Output resistance (see Figure 22) RLoad= 3 kΩ VO/P(DAC12) = AVCC DAC12AMPx = 7 DAC12_xDAT = 0FFFh 2.2V/3V 150 250 Ω RLoad= 3 kΩ 0.3 V < VO/P(DAC12) < AVCC − 0.3 V DAC12AMPx = 7 2.2V/3V 1 4 NOTES: 1. Data is valid after the offset calibration of the output amplifier. RO/P(DAC12_x) Max 0.3 AVCC AVCC −0.3V VOUT Min RLoad AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 ILoad DAC12 O/P(DAC12_x) Figure 22. DAC12_x Output Resistance Tests MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 47 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) 12-bit DAC, reference input specifications PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT Ve Reference input DAC12IR=0 (see Notes 1 and 2) 2.2V/3V AVCC/3 AVCC+0.2 VeREF+ V voltage range DAC12IR=1 (see Notes 3 and 4) 2.2V/3V AVcc AVcc+0.2 DAC12_0 IR = DAC12_1 IR = 0 2.2V/3V 20 MΩ DAC12_0 IR = 1, DAC12_1 IR = 0 2.2V/3V 40 48 56 kΩ Ri(VREF+), Ri Reference input i t DAC12_0 IR = 0, DAC12_1 IR = 1 2.2V/3V (VREF+) Ri(VeREF+) p resistance DAC12_0 IR = DAC12_1 IR =1, DAC12_0 SREFx = DAC12_1 SREFx (see Note 5) 2.2V/3V 20 24 28 kΩ NOTES: 1. For a full-scale output, the reference input voltage can be as high as 1/3 of the maximum output voltage swing (AVCC). 2. The maximum voltage applied at reference input voltage terminal VeREF+ = [AVCC − VE(O)] / [3*(1 + EG)]. 3. For a full-scale output, the reference input voltage can be as high as the maximum output voltage swing (AVCC). 4. The maximum voltage applied at reference input voltage terminal VeREF+ = [AVCC − VE(O)] / (1 + EG). 5. When DAC12IR = 1 and DAC12SREFx = 0 or 1 for both channels, the reference input resistive dividers for each DAC are in parallel reducing the reference input resistance. 12-bit DAC, dynamic specifications; Vref = VCC, DAC12IR = 1 (see Figure 23 and Figure 24) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT DAC12_xDAT = 800h, DAC12AMPx = 0 → {2, 3, 4} 2.2V/3V 60 120 tON DAC12 _ , ErrorV(O) < ±0.5 LSB (see Note ON DAC12AMPx = 0 → {5, 6} 2.2V/3V 15 30 μs on-time 1,Figure 23) DAC12AMPx = 0 → 7 2.2V/3V 6 12 μ S ttli ti DAC12 DAT DAC12AMPx = 2 2.2V/3V 100 200 tS(FS) Settling time, DAC12_xDAT = DAC12AMPx = 3,5 2.2V/3V 40 80 μs full-scale 80h→ F7Fh→ 80h DAC12AMPx = 4,6,7 2.2V/3V 15 30 S ttli ti DAC12 xDAT = DAC12AMPx = 2 2.2V/3V 5 tS(C-C) Settling time, code to code DAC12_3F8h→ 408h→ 3F8h DAC12AMPx = 3,5 2.2V/3V 2 μs BF8h→ C08h→ BF8h DAC12AMPx = 4,6,7 2.2V/3V 1 DAC12 DAT DAC12AMPx = 2 2.2V/3V 0.05 0.12 SR Slew rate DAC12_xDAT = DAC12AMPx = 3,5 2.2V/3V 0.35 0.7 V/μs 80h→ F7Fh→ 80h DAC12AMPx = 4,6,7 2.2V/3V 1.5 2.7 DAC12 DAT DAC12AMPx = 2 2.2V/3V 10 Glitch energy: full-scale DAC12_xDAT = full DAC12AMPx = 3,5 2.2V/3V 10 nV-s 80h→ F7Fh→ 80h DAC12AMPx = 4,6,7 2.2V/3V 10 nV NOTES: 1. RLoad and CLoad connected to AVSS (not AVCC/2) in Figure 23. 2. Slew rate applies to output voltage steps ≥ 200mV. RLoad AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 DAC Output RO/P(DAC12.x) ILoad Conversion 1 Conversion 2 VOUT Conversion 3 Glitch Energy +/− 1/2 LSB +/− 1/2 LSB tsettleLH tsettleHL = 3 kΩ Figure 23. Settling Time and Glitch Energy Testing MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 48 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) Conversion 1 Conversion 2 VOUT Conversion 3 10% tSRLH tSRHL 90% 10% 90% Figure 24. Slew Rate Testing 12-bit DAC, dynamic specifications continued (TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT DAC12AMPx = {2, 3, 4}, DAC12SREFx = 2, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12_xDAT = 800h 2.2V/3V 40 BW−3dB 3-dB bandwidth, VDC=1.5V, VAC=0.1VPP DAC12AMPx = {5, 6}, DAC12SREFx = 2, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12_xDAT = 800h 2.2V/3V 180 kHz (see Figure 25) DAC12AMPx = 7, DAC12SREFx = 2, DAC12IR = 1, DAC12_xDAT = 800h 2.2V/3V 550 Channel to channel crosstalk DAC12_0DAT = 800h, No Load, DAC12_1DAT = 80h<−>F7Fh, RLoad = 3kΩ fDAC12_1OUT = 10kHz @ 50/50 duty cycle 2.2V/3V −80 dB (see Note 1 and Figure 26) DAC12_0DAT = 80h<−>F7Fh, RLoad = 3kΩ, DAC12_1DAT = 800h, No Load fDAC12_0OUT = 10kHz @ 50/50 duty cycle 2.2V/3V −80 NOTES: 1. RLOAD = 3 kΩ, CLOAD = 100 pF VeREF+ AC DC RLoad AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 ILoad DAC12_x DACx = 3 kΩ Figure 25. Test Conditions for 3-dB Bandwidth Specification DAC12_xDAT 080h VOUT fToggle 7F7h VDAC12_yOUT 080h 7F7h 080h VDAC12_xOUT e REF+ RLoad AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 ILoad DAC12_1 RLoad AVCC CLoad = 100pF 2 ILoad DAC12_0 DAC0 DAC1 V Figure 26. Crosstalk Test Conditions MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 49 electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted) flash memory PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN TYP MAX UNIT VCC(PGM/ ERASE) Program and erase supply voltage 2.7 3.6 V fFTG Flash timing generator frequency 257 476 kHz IPGM Supply current from DVCC during program 2.7 V/ 3.6 V 3 5 mA IERASE Supply current from DVCC during erase 2.7 V/ 3.6 V 3 7 mA tCPT Cumulative program time see Note 1 2.7 V/ 3.6 V 4 ms tCMErase Cumulative mass erase time see Note 2 2.7 V/ 3.6 V 200 ms Program/Erase endurance 104 105 cycles tRetention Data retention duration TJ = 25°C 100 years tWord Word or byte program time 35 tBlock, 0 Block program time for 1st byte or word 30 tBlock, 1-63 Block program time for each additional byte or word see Note 3 21 t tBlock, End Block program end-sequence wait time 6 tFTG tMass Erase Mass erase time 5297 tSeg Erase Segment erase time 4819 NOTES: 1. The cumulative program time must not be exceeded when writing to a 64-byte flash block. This parameter applies to all programming methods: individual word/byte write and block write modes. 2. The mass erase duration generated by the flash timing generator is at least 11.1ms ( = 5297x1/fFTG,max = 5297x1/476kHz). To achieve the required cumulative mass erase time the Flash Controller’s mass erase operation can be repeated until this time is met. (A worst case minimum of 19 cycles are required). 3. These values are hardwired into the Flash Controller’s state machine (tFTG = 1/fFTG). JTAG interface PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN NOM MAX UNIT f TCK input frequency see Note 1 2.2 V 0 5 MHz fTCK 3 V 0 10 MHz RInternal Internal pull-up resistance on TMS, TCK, TDI/TCLK see Note 2 2.2 V/ 3 V 25 60 90 kΩ NOTES: 1. fTCK may be restricted to meet the timing requirements of the module selected. 2. TMS, TDI/TCLK, and TCK pull-up resistors are implemented in all versions. JTAG fuse (see Note 1) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS VCC MIN NOM MAX UNIT VCC(FB) Supply voltage during fuse-blow condition TA = 25°C 2.5 V VFB Voltage level on TDI/TCLK for fuse-blow: F versions 6 7 V IFB Supply current into TDI/TCLK during fuse blow 100 mA tFB Time to blow fuse 1 ms NOTES: 1. Once the fuse is blown, no further access to the MSP430 JTAG/Test and emulation features is possible. The JTAG block is switched to bypass mode. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 50 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics port P1, P1.0 to P1.7, input/output with Schmitt trigger P1.0/TACLK ... P1IN.x Module X IN Pad Logic Interrupt Flag Edge Select Interrupt P1SEL.x P1IES.x P1IFG.x P1IRQ.x P1IE.x EN D Set EN Q P1OUT.x P1DIR.x P1SEL.x Module X OUT Direction Control From Module 0 1 0 1 P1.7/TA2 PnSel.x PnDIR.x Dir. CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN PnIE.x PnIFG.x PnIES.x P1Sel.0 P1DIR.0 P1DIR.0 P1OUT.0 DVSS P1IN.0 TACLK† P1IE.0 P1IFG.0 P1IES.0 P1Sel.1 P1DIR.1 P1DIR.1 P1OUT.1 Out0 signal† P1IN.1 CCI0A† P1IE.1 P1IFG.1 P1IES.1 P1Sel.2 P1DIR.2 P1DIR.2 P1OUT.2 Out1 signal† P1IN.2 CCI1A† P1IE.2 P1IFG.2 P1IES.2 P1Sel.3 P1DIR.3 P1DIR.3 P1OUT.3 Out2 signal† P1IN.3 CCI2A† P1IE.3 P1IFG.3 P1IES.3 P1Sel.4 P1DIR.4 P1DIR.4 P1OUT.4 SMCLK P1IN.4 unused P1IE.4 P1IFG.4 P1IES.4 P1Sel.5 P1DIR.5 P1DIR.5 P1OUT.5 Out0 signal† P1IN.5 unused P1IE.5 P1IFG.5 P1IES.5 P1Sel.6 P1DIR.6 P1DIR.6 P1OUT.6 Out1 signal† P1IN.6 unused P1IE.6 P1IFG.6 P1IES.6 P1Sel.7 P1DIR.7 P1DIR.7 P1OUT.7 Out2 signal† P1IN.7 unused P1IE.7 P1IFG.7 P1IES.7 † Signal from or to Timer_A MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 51 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P2, P2.0 to P2.2, P2.6, and P2.7 input/output with Schmitt trigger P2IN.x P2OUT.x Pad Logic P2DIR.x P2SEL.x Module X OUT Edge Select Interrupt P2SEL.x P2IES.x P2IFG.x P2IRQ.x P2IE.x Direction Control P2.0/ACLK 0 1 0 1 Interrupt Flag Set EN Q Module X IN EN D Bus Keeper CAPD.X P2.1/TAINCLK P2.2/CAOUT/TA0 P2.6/ADC12CLK/DMAE0 P2.7/TA0 0: Input 1: Output x: Bit Identifier 0 to 2, 6, and 7 for Port P2 From Module PnSel.x PnDIR.x Dir. CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN PnIE.x PnIFG.x PnIES.x P2Sel.0 P2DIR.0 P2DIR.0 P2OUT.0 ACLK P2IN.0 unused P2IE.0 P2IFG.0 P2IES.0 P2Sel.1 P2DIR.1 P2DIR.1 P2OUT.1 DVSS P2IN.1 INCLK‡ P2IE.1 P2IFG.1 P2IES.1 P2Sel.2 P2DIR.2 P2DIR.2 P2OUT.2 CAOUT† P2IN.2 CCI0B‡ P2IE.2 P2IFG.2 P2IES.2 P2Sel.6 P2DIR.6 P2DIR.6 P2OUT.6 ADC12CLK¶ P2IN.6 DMAE0# P2IE.6 P2IFG.6 P2IES.6 P2Sel.7 P2DIR.7 P2DIR.7 P2OUT.7 Out0 signal§ P2IN.7 unused P2IE.7 P2IFG.7 P2IES.7 † Signal from Comparator_A ‡ Signal to Timer_A § Signal from Timer_A ¶ ADC12CLK signal is output of the 12-bit ADC module # Signal to DMA, channel 0, 1 and 2 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 52 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P2, P2.3 to P2.4, input/output with Schmitt trigger Bus Keeper P2IN.3 P2OUT.3 Pad Logic P2DIR.3 P2SEL.3 Module X OUT Edge Select Interrupt P2SEL.3 P2IES.3 P2IFG.3 P2IRQ.3 P2IE.3 Direction Control From Module P2.3/CA0/TA1 0 1 0 1 Interrupt Flag Set EN Q Module X IN EN D P2IN.4 P2OUT.4 Pad Logic P2DIR.4 P2SEL.4 Module X OUT Edge Select Interrupt P2SEL.4 P2IES.4 P2IFG.4 P2IRQ.4 P2IE.4 Direction Control From Module P2.4/CA1/TA2 0 1 0 1 Interrupt Flag Set EN Q Module X IN EN D Comparator_A − + Reference Block CCI1B CAF CAREF P2CA CAEX CAREF Bus Keeper CAPD.3 CAPD.4 To Timer_A3 0: Input 1: Output 0: Input 1: Output PnSel.x PnDIR.x DIRECTION CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN PnIE.x PnIFG.x PnIES.x P2Sel.3 P2DIR.3 P2DIR.3 P2OUT.3 Out1 signal† P2IN.3 unused P2IE.3 P2IFG.3 P2IES.3 P2Sel.4 P2DIR.4 P2DIR.4 P2OUT.4 Out2 signal† P2IN.4 unused P2IE.4 P2IFG.4 P2IES.4 † Signal from Timer_A MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 53 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P2, P2.5, input/output with Schmitt trigger and Rosc function for the basic clock module P2IN.5 P2OUT.5 Pad Logic P2DIR.5 P2SEL.5 Module X OUT Edge Select Interrupt P2SEL.5 P2IES.5 P2IFG.5 P2IRQ.5 P2IE.5 Direction Control P2.5/Rosc 0 1 0 1 Interrupt Flag Set EN Q DCOR Module X IN EN D to 0 1 DC Generator Bus Keeper CAPD.5 DCOR: Control Bit From Basic Clock Module If it Is Set, P2.5 Is Disconnected From P2.5 Pad Internal to Basic Clock Module VCC 0: Input 1: Output From Module PnSel.x PnDIR.x DIRECTION CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN PnIE.x PnIFG.x PnIES.x P2Sel.5 P2DIR.5 P2DIR.5 P2OUT.5 DVSS P2IN.5 unused P2IE.5 P2IFG.5 P2IES.5 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 54 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P3, P3.0 and P3.4 to P3.7, input/output with Schmitt trigger P3.0/STE0 P3IN.x Module X IN Pad Logic EN D P3OUT.x P3DIR.x P3SEL.x Module X OUT Direction Control From Module 0 1 0 1 P3.4/UTXD0 P3.5/URXD0 0: Input 1: Output x: Bit Identifier, 0 and 4 to 7 for Port P3 P3.6/UTXD1‡ P3.7/URXD1¶ PnSel.x PnDIR.x DIRECTION CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN P3Sel.0 P3DIR.0 DVSS P3OUT.0 DVSS P3IN.0 STE0 P3Sel.4 P3DIR.4 DVCC P3OUT.4 UTXD0† P3IN.4 Unused P3Sel.5 P3DIR.5 DVSS P3OUT.5 DVSS P3IN.5 URXD0§ P3Sel.6 P3DIR.6 DVCC P3OUT.6 UTXD1‡ P3IN.6 Unused P3Sel.7 P3DIR.7 DVSS P3OUT.7 DVSS P3IN.7 URXD1¶ † Output from USART0 module ‡ Output from USART1 module ‡ Input to USART0 module ¶ Input to USART1 module MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 55 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P3, P3.1, input/output with Schmitt trigger P3.1/SIMO0/SDA P3IN.1 Pad Logic EN D P3OUT1 P3DIR.1 P3SEL.1 (SI)MO0 or SDAo/p 0 1 0 1 DCM_SIMO SYNC MM STE STC From USART0 SI(MO)0 or SDAi/p To USAET0 0: Input 1: Output MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 56 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P3, P3.2, input/output with Schmitt trigger P3.2/SOMI0 P3IN.2 Pad Logic EN D P3OUT.2 P3DIR.2 P3SEL.2 0 1 0 1 DCM_SOMI SYNC MM STE STC SO(MI)0 From USART0 (SO)MI0 To USART0 0: Input 1: Output port P3, P3.3, input/output with Schmitt-trigger P3.3/UCLK0/SCL P3IN.3 Pad Logic EN D P3OUT.3 P3DIR.3 P3SEL.3 UCLK.0 0 1 0 1 DCM_UCLK SYNC MM STE STC From USART0 UCLK0 To USART0 0: Input 1: Output NOTE: UART mode: The UART clock can only be an input. If UART mode and UART function are selected, the P3.3/UCLK0 is always an input. SPI, slave mode: The clock applied to UCLK0 is used to shift data in and out. SPI, master mode: The clock to shift data in and out is supplied to connected devices on pin P3.3/UCLK0 (in slave mode). I2C, slave mode: The clock applied to SCL is used to shift data in and out. The frequency of the clock source of the module must be  10 times the frequency of the SCL clock. I2C, master mode: To shift data in and out, the clock is supplied via the SCL terminal to all I2C slaves. The frequency of the clock source of the module must be  10 times the frequency of the SCL clock. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 57 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P4, P4.0 to P4.6, input/output with Schmitt trigger P4OUT.x Module X OUT P4DIR.x Direction Control From Module P4SEL.x D EN 0 1 1 0 Module X IN P4IN.x 0: Input 1: Output Bus Keeper Module IN of pin P5.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT x: Bit Identifier, 0 to 6 for Port P4 P4.0/TB0 ... P4.6/TB6 P4SEL.7 P4DIR.7 PnSel.x PnDIR.x DIRECTION CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN P4Sel.0 P4DIR.0 P4DIR.0 P4OUT.0 Out0 signal† P4IN.0 CCI0A / CCI0B‡ P4Sel.1 P4DIR.1 P4DIR.1 P4OUT.1 Out1 signal† P4IN.1 CCI1A / CCI1B‡ P4Sel.2 P4DIR.2 P4DIR.2 P4OUT.2 Out2 signal† P4IN.2 CCI2A / CCI2B‡ P4Sel.3 P4DIR.3 P4DIR.3 P4OUT.3 Out3 signal† P4IN.3 CCI3A / CCI3B‡ P4Sel.4 P4DIR.4 P4DIR.4 P4OUT.4 Out4 signal† P4IN.4 CCI4A / CCI4B‡ P4Sel.5 P4DIR.5 P4DIR.5 P4OUT.5 Out5 signal† P4IN.5 CCI5A / CCI5B‡ P4Sel.6 P4DIR.6 P4DIR.6 P4OUT.6 Out6 signal† P4IN.6 CCI6A † Signal from Timer_B ‡ Signal to Timer_B MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 58 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P4, P4.7, input/output with Schmitt trigger P4.7/TBCLK P4IN.7 Timer_B, Pad Logic EN D P4OUT.7 P4DIR.7 P4SEL.7 0 1 0 1 TBCLK 0: Input 1: Output DVSS port P5, P5.0 and P5.4 to P5.7, input/output with Schmitt trigger P5.0/STE1 P5IN.x Module X IN Pad Logic EN D P5OUT.x P5DIR.x P5SEL.x Module X OUT Direction Control From Module 0 1 0 1 P5.4/MCLK P5.5/SMCLK P5.6/ACLK P5.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT x: Bit Identifier, 0 and 4 to 7 for Port P5 0: Input 1: Output PnSel.x PnDIR.x Dir. CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN P5Sel.0 P5DIR.0 DVSS P5OUT.0 DVSS P5IN.0 STE.1 P5Sel.4 P5DIR.4 DVCC P5OUT.4 MCLK P5IN.4 unused P5Sel.5 P5DIR.5 DVCC P5OUT.5 SMCLK P5IN.5 unused P5Sel.6 P5DIR.6 DVCC P5OUT.6 ACLK P5IN.6 unused P5Sel.7 P5DIR.7 DVSS P5OUT.7 SVSOUT P5IN.7 TBOUTHiZ NOTE: TBOUTHiZ signal is used by port module P4, pins P4.0 to P4.6. The function of TBOUTHiZ is mainly useful when used with Timer_B7. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 59 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P5, P5.1, input/output with Schmitt trigger P5.1/SIMO1 P5IN.1 Pad Logic EN D P5OUT.1 P5DIR.1 P5SEL.1 0 1 0 1 DCM_SIMO SYNC MM STE STC (SI)MO1 From USART1 SI(MO)1 To USART1 0: Input 1: Output port P5, P5.2, input/output with Schmitt trigger P5.2/SOMI1 P5IN.2 Pad Logic EN D P5OUT.2 P5DIR.2 P5SEL.2 0 1 0 1 DCM_SOMI SYNC MM STE STC SO(MI)1 From USART1 (SO)MI1 To USART1 0: Input 1: Output MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 60 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P5, P5.3, input/output with Schmitt trigger P5.3/UCLK1 P5IN.3 Pad Logic EN D P5OUT.3 P5DIR.3 P5SEL.3 0 1 0 1 DCM_SIMO SYNC MM STE STC UCLK1 From USART1 UCLK1 To USART1 0: Input 1: Output NOTE: UART mode: The UART clock can only be an input. If UART mode and UART function are selected, the P5.3/UCLK1 direction is always input. SPI, slave mode: The clock applied to UCLK1 is used to shift data in and out. SPI, master mode: The clock to shift data in and out is supplied to connected devices on pin P5.3/UCLK1 (in slave mode). MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 61 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P6, P6.0 to P6.5, input/output with Schmitt trigger P6IN.x Module X IN Pad Logic EN D P6OUT.x P6DIR.x P6SEL.x Module X OUT Direction Control From Module 0 1 0 1 Bus Keeper To ADC From ADC 0: Input 1: Output x: Bit Identifier, 0 to 5 for Port P6 P6.0/A0 P6.1/A1 P6.2/A2 P6.3/A3 P6.4/A4 P6.5/A5 NOTE: Analog signals applied to digital gates can cause current flow from the positive to the negative terminal. The throughput current flows if the analog signal is in the range of transitions 0→1 or 1←0. The value of the throughput current depends on the driving capability of the gate. For MSP430, it is approximately 100 μA. Use P6SEL.x=1 to prevent throughput current. P6SEL.x should be set, even if the signal at the pin is not being used by the ADC12. PnSel.x PnDIR.x DIR. CONTROL FROM MODULE PnOUT.x MODULE X OUT PnIN.x MODULE X IN P6Sel.0 P6DIR.0 P6DIR.0 P6OUT.0 DVSS P6IN.0 unused P6Sel.1 P6DIR.1 P6DIR.1 P6OUT.1 DVSS P6IN.1 unused P6Sel.2 P6DIR.2 P6DIR.2 P6OUT.2 DVSS P6IN.2 unused P6Sel.3 P6DIR.3 P6DIR.3 P6OUT.3 DVSS P6IN.3 unused P6Sel.4 P6DIR.4 P6DIR.4 P6OUT.4 DVSS P6IN.4 unused P6Sel.5 P6DIR.5 P6DIR.5 P6OUT.5 DVSS P6IN.5 unused NOTE: The signal at pins P6.x/Ax is used by the 12-bit ADC module. MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 62 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P6, P6.6, input/output with Schmitt trigger 0, if DAC12.0CALON = 0 and DAC12.0AMP > 1 P6OUT.6 DVSS P6DIR.6 P6DIR.6 P6SEL.6 D EN 0 1 1 0 0: Port Active, T-Switch Off 1: T-Switch On, Port Disabled P6.6/A6/DAC0 P6IN.6 Pad Logic 0: Input 1: Output Bus Keeper 1 0 1, if DAC12.0AMP = 1 ’1’, if DAC12.0AMP > 0 1, if DAC12.0AMP >1 + − INCH = 6† a6† †Signal from or to ADC12 MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 63 APPLICATION INFORMATION input/output schematics (continued) port P6, P6.7, input/output with Schmitt trigger 0, if DAC12.0CALON = 0 and DAC12.0AMP > 1 P6OUT.7 DVSS P6DIR.7 P6DIR.7 P6SEL.6 D EN 0 1 1 0 0: Port Active, T-Switch Off 1: T-Switch On, Port Disabled P6.7/A7/ P6IN.7 Pad Logic 0: Input 1: Output Bus Keeper 1 0 1, if DAC12.0AMP = 1 ’1’, if DAC12.0AMP > 0 1, if DAC12.0AMP > 1 + − INCH = 7‡ a7‡ †Signal to SVS Block, Selected if VLD = 15 ‡Signal From or To ADC12 §VLD Control Bits are Located in SVS DAC1/SVSIN To SVS Mux (15)† ’1’, if VLD = 15§ MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 64 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 APPLICATION INFORMATION JTAG pins TMS, TCK, TDI/TCLK, TDO/TDI, input/output with Schmitt trigger TDI TDO TMS TCK Test JTAG and Emulation Module Burn & Test Fuse Controlled by JTAG Controlled by JTAG Controlled by JTAG DVCC DVCC DVCC During Programming Activity and During Blowing of the Fuse, Pin TDO/TDI Is Used to Apply the Test Input Data for JTAG Circuitry TDO/TDI TDI/TCLK TMS TCK Fuse DVCC MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 65 APPLICATION INFORMATION JTAG fuse check mode MSP430 devices that have the fuse on the TDI/TCLK terminal have a fuse check mode that tests the continuity of the fuse the first time the JTAG port is accessed after a power-on reset (POR). When activated, a fuse check current, ITF, of 1 mA at 3 V, 2.5 mA at 5 V can flow from the TDI/TCLK pin to ground if the fuse is not burned. Care must be taken to avoid accidentally activating the fuse check mode and increasing overall system power consumption. Activation of the fuse check mode occurs with the first negative edge on the TMS pin after power up or if the TMS is being held low during power up. The second positive edge on the TMS pin deactivates the fuse check mode. After deactivation, the fuse check mode remains inactive until another POR occurs. After each POR the fuse check mode has the potential to be activated. The fuse check current will only flow when the fuse check mode is active and the TMS pin is in a low state (see Figure 27). Therefore, the additional current flow can be prevented by holding the TMS pin high (default condition). Time TMS Goes Low After POR TMS ITF ITDI/TCLK Figure 27. Fuse Check Mode Current, MSP430F15x/16x/161x MSP430F15x, MSP430F16x, MSP430F161x MIXED SIGNAL MICROCONTROLLER SLAS368G − OCTOBER 2002 − REVISED MARCH 2011 66 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 Data Sheet Revision History LITERATURE NUMBER SUMMARY SLAS368F In absolute maximum ratings table, changed Tstg min from −40°C to −55°C (page 25) Added Development Tools Support section (page 2) SLAS368G Changed limits on td(SVSon) parameter (page 35) PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 11-Apr-2013 Addendum-Page 1 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Top-Side Markings (4) Samples MSP430F155IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F155 MSP430F155IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F155 MSP430F155IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F155 MSP430F155IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F155 MSP430F156IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F156 MSP430F156IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F156 MSP430F156IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F156 MSP430F156IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F156 MSP430F157IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F157 MSP430F157IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F157 MSP430F157IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F157 MSP430F157IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F157 MSP430F1610IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1610 MSP430F1610IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1610 MSP430F1610IRTD ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 TBD Call TI Call TI MSP430F1610IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1610 MSP430F1610IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1610 PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 11-Apr-2013 Addendum-Page 2 Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Top-Side Markings (4) Samples MSP430F1611IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F1611 MSP430F1611IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F1611 MSP430F1611IRTD ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 TBD Call TI Call TI MSP430F1611IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1611 MSP430F1611IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1611 MSP430F1612IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1612 MSP430F1612IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1612 MSP430F1612IRTD ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 TBD Call TI Call TI MSP430F1612IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1612 MSP430F1612IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F1612 MSP430F167IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F167 MSP430F167IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F167 MSP430F167IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F167 MSP430F167IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F167 MSP430F168IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F168 MSP430F168IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F168 MSP430F168IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F168 MSP430F168IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F168 PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 11-Apr-2013 Addendum-Page 3 Orderable Device Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing Pins Package Qty Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) Top-Side Markings (4) Samples MSP430F169IPM ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 160 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F169 MSP430F169IPMR ACTIVE LQFP PM 64 1000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR -40 to 85 M430F169 MSP430F169IRTDR ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 2500 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F169 MSP430F169IRTDT ACTIVE VQFN RTD 64 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU SN Level-3-260C-168 HR M430F169 (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. (2) Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material) (3) MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature. (4) Multiple Top-Side Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Top-Side Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Top-Side Marking for that device. Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release. 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TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Type Package Drawing Pins SPQ Reel Diameter (mm) Reel Width W1 (mm) A0 (mm) B0 (mm) K0 (mm) P1 (mm) W (mm) Pin1 Quadrant MSP430F155IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F156IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F157IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F1610IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F1611IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F1612IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F167IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F168IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 MSP430F169IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 330.0 24.4 13.0 13.0 2.1 16.0 24.0 Q2 PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.com 13-Sep-2013 Pack Materials-Page 1 *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Type Package Drawing Pins SPQ Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) MSP430F155IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F156IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F157IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F1610IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F1611IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F1612IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F167IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F168IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 MSP430F169IPMR LQFP PM 64 1000 367.0 367.0 45.0 PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.com 13-Sep-2013 Pack Materials-Page 2 MECHANICAL DATA MTQF008A – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED DECEMBER 1996 POST OFFICE BOX 655303 • DALLAS, TEXAS 75265 1 PM (S-PQFP-G64) PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK 4040152/C 11/96 32 17 0,13 NOM 0,25 0,45 0,75 Seating Plane 0,05 MIN Gage Plane 0,27 33 16 48 1 0,17 49 64 SQ SQ 10,20 11,80 12,20 9,80 7,50 TYP 1,60 MAX 1,45 1,35 0,08 0,50 0,08 M 0°–7° NOTES: A. All linear dimensions are in millimeters. B. This drawing is subject to change without notice. C. Falls within JEDEC MS-026 D. May also be thermally enhanced plastic with leads connected to the die pads. IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment. TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. 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Products Applications Audio www.ti.com/audio Automotive and Transportation www.ti.com/automotive Amplifiers amplifier.ti.com Communications and Telecom www.ti.com/communications Data Converters dataconverter.ti.com Computers and Peripherals www.ti.com/computers DLP® Products www.dlp.com Consumer Electronics www.ti.com/consumer-apps DSP dsp.ti.com Energy and Lighting www.ti.com/energy Clocks and Timers www.ti.com/clocks Industrial www.ti.com/industrial Interface interface.ti.com Medical www.ti.com/medical Logic logic.ti.com Security www.ti.com/security Power Mgmt power.ti.com Space, Avionics and Defense www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense Microcontrollers microcontroller.ti.com Video and Imaging www.ti.com/video RFID www.ti-rfid.com OMAP Applications Processors www.ti.com/omap TI E2E Community e2e.ti.com Wireless Connectivity www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265 Copyright © 2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated 20 mW Power, 2.3 V to 5.5 V, 75 MHz Complete DDS Data Sheet AD9834 FEATURES Narrow-band SFDR >72 dB 2.3 V to 5.5 V power supply Output frequency up to 37.5 MHz Sine output/triangular output On-board comparator 3-wire SPI® interface Extended temperature range: −40°C to +105°C Power-down option 20 mW power consumption at 3 V 20-lead TSSOP APPLICATIONS Frequency stimulus/waveform generation Frequency phase tuning and modulation Low power RF/communications systems Liquid and gas flow measurement Sensory applications: proximity, motion, and defect detection Test and medical equipment GENERAL DESCRIPTION The AD9834 is a 75 MHz low power DDS device capable of producing high performance sine and triangular outputs. It also has an on-board comparator that allows a square wave to be produced for clock generation. Consuming only 20 mW of power at 3 V makes the AD9834 an ideal candidate for power-sensitive applications.Capability for phase modulation and frequency modulation is provided. The frequency registers are 28 bits; with a 75 MHz clock rate, resolution of 0.28 Hz can be achieved. Similarly, with a 1 MHz clock rate, the AD9834 can be tuned to 0.004 Hz resolution. Frequency and phase modulation are affected by loading registers through the serial interface and toggling the registers using software or the FSELECT pin and PSELECT pin, respectively. The AD9834 is written to using a 3-wire serial interface. This serial interface operates at clock rates up to 40 MHz and is compatible with DSP and microcontroller standards. The device operates with a power supply from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. The analog and digital sections are independent and can be run from different power supplies, for example, AVDD can equal 5 V with DVDD equal to 3 V. The AD9834 has a power-down pin (SLEEP) that allows external control of the power-down mode. Sections of the device that are not being used can be powered down to minimize the current consumption. For example, the DAC can be powered down when a clock output is being generated. The part is available in a 20-lead TSSOP. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 12ΣMUXMUXCOMPARATORMSBCAP/2.5VDVDDAGNDAVDDMCLKAD9834FSYNCSCLKSDATACOMPIOUTIOUTBDGNDREGULATORREFOUTFS ADJUSTVINFSELECT12-BIT PHASE0 REG12-BIT PHASE1 REGSLEEPRESETPSELECTMUXMUXMUXSIGN BIT OUTVCC2.5VON-BOARDREFERENCE16-BIT CONTROLREGISTERFULL-SCALECONTROL10-BITDACDIVIDEDBY 2SINROMPHASEACCUMULATOR(28-BIT)28-BIT FREQ0REG28-BIT FREQ1REGSERIAL INTERFACEANDCONTROL LOGIC02705-001 Figure 1. Rev. D Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 ©2003–2014 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Technical Support www.analog.com AD9834 Data Sheet TABLE OF CONTENTS Features .............................................................................................. 1 Applications ....................................................................................... 1 General Description ......................................................................... 1 Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1 Revision History ............................................................................... 3 Specifications ..................................................................................... 4 Timing Characteristics ................................................................ 6 Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................................ 7 ESD Caution .................................................................................. 7 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions ............................. 8 Typical Performance Characteristics ........................................... 10 Terminology .................................................................................... 14 Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 15 Circuit Description ......................................................................... 16 Numerically Controlled Oscillator Plus Phase Modulator ... 16 SIN ROM ..................................................................................... 16 Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) ....................................... 16 Comparator ................................................................................. 16 Regulator ...................................................................................... 17 Output Voltage Compliance ...................................................... 17 Functional Description .................................................................. 18 Serial Interface ............................................................................ 18 Powering Up the AD9834 ......................................................... 18 Latency ......................................................................................... 18 Control Register ......................................................................... 18 Frequency and Phase Registers ................................................ 20 Writing to a Frequency Register ............................................... 21 Writing to a Phase Register ....................................................... 21 RESET Function ......................................................................... 21 SLEEP Function .......................................................................... 21 SIGN BIT OUT Pin .................................................................... 22 The IOUT and IOUTB Pins ...................................................... 22 Applications Information .............................................................. 23 Grounding and Layout .................................................................. 26 Interfacing to Microprocessors ..................................................... 27 AD9834 to ADSP-21xx Interface ............................................. 27 AD9834 to 68HC11/68L11 Interface ....................................... 27 AD9834 to 80C51/80L51 Interface .......................................... 28 AD9834 to DSP56002 Interface ............................................... 28 Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 29 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 29 Rev. D | Page 2 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 REVISION HISTORY 3/14—Rev. C to Rev. D Changes to Table 3 ............................................................................ 7 Deleted Evaluation Board Section ................................................ 29 Changes to Ordering Guide ........................................................... 35 2/11—Rev. B to Rev. C Changes to IDD Parameter, Table 1 .................................................. 5 Changes to FS ADJUST Description, Table 4 ................................ 8 Added Output Voltage Compliance Section................................ 17 Changes to Figure 31 ...................................................................... 23 Changes to Figure 32 ...................................................................... 24 Deleted Using the AD9834 Evaluation Board Section and the Prototyping Area Section ............................................................... 28 Added System Development Platform Section, AD9834 to SPORT Interface Section, Figure 39, and Figure 40; Renumbered Sequentially .............................................................. 29 Changes to XO vs. External Clock Section and Power Supply Section .............................................................................................. 29 Deleted Bill of Materials, Table 19; Renumbered Sequentially .............................................................. 30 Added Evaluation Board Schematics Section and Figure 41 .... 30 Added Figure 42 .............................................................................. 31 Added Evaluation Board Layout Section and Figure 43 ............ 32 Added Figure 44 .............................................................................. 33 Added Figure 45 .............................................................................. 34 Changes to Ordering Guide ........................................................... 35 4/10—Rev. A to Rev. B Changes to Comparator Section ................................................... 15 Added Figure 28 .............................................................................. 16 Changes to Serial Interface Section .............................................. 17 8/06—Rev. 0 to Rev. A Updated Format ................................................................. Universal Changed to 75 MHz Complete DDS ............................... Universal Changes to Features Section ............................................................ 1 Changes to Table 1 ............................................................................ 4 Changes to Table 2 ............................................................................ 6 Changes to Table 3 ............................................................................ 8 Added Figure 10, Figures Renumbered Sequentially ................... 9 Added Figure 16 and Figure 17, Figures Renumbered Sequentially ...................................................................................... 10 Changes to Table 6 .......................................................................... 19 Changes to Writing a Frequency Register Section ..................... 20 Changes to Figure 29 ...................................................................... 21 Changes to Table 19 ........................................................................ 30 Changes to Figure 38 ...................................................................... 28 2/03—Revision 0: Initial Version Rev. D | Page 3 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet SPECIFICATIONS VDD = 2.3 V to 5.5 V, AGND = DGND = 0 V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, RSET = 6.8 kΩ, RLOAD = 200 Ω for IOUT and IOUTB, unless otherwise noted. Table 1. Grade B, Grade C1 Parameter2 Min Typ Max Unit Test Conditions/Comments SIGNAL DAC SPECIFICATIONS Resolution 10 Bits Update Rate 75 MSPS IOUT Full Scale3 3.0 mA VOUT Max 0.6 V VOUT Min 30 mV Output Compliance4 0.8 V DC Accuracy Integral Nonlinearity ±1 LSB Differential Nonlinearity ±0.5 LSB DDS SPECIFICATIONS Dynamic Specifications Signal-to-Noise Ratio 55 60 dB fMCLK = 75 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/4096 Total Harmonic Distortion −66 −56 dBc fMCLK = 75 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/4096 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) Wideband (0 to Nyquist) −60 −56 dBc fMCLK = 75 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/75 Narrow Band (±200 kHz) B Grade −78 −67 dBc fMCLK = 50 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/50 C Grade −74 −65 dBc fMCLK = 75 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/75 Clock Feedthrough −50 dBc Wake-Up Time 1 ms COMPARATOR Input Voltage Range 1 V p-p AC-coupled internally Input Capacitance 10 pF Input High-Pass Cutoff Frequency 4 MHz Input DC Resistance 5 MΩ Input Leakage Current 10 μA OUTPUT BUFFER Output Rise/Fall Time 12 ns Using a 15 pF load Output Jitter 120 ps rms 3 MHz sine wave, 0.6 V p-p VOLTAGE REFERENCE Internal Reference 1.12 1.18 1.24 V REFOUT Output Impedance5 1 kΩ Reference Temperature Coefficient 100 ppm/°C LOGIC INPUTS Input High Voltage, VINH 1.7 V 2.3 V to 2.7 V power supply 2.0 V 2.7 V to 3.6 V power supply 2.8 V 4.5 V to 5.5 V power supply Input Low Voltage, VINL 0.6 V 2.3 V to 2.7 V power supply 0.7 V 2.7 V to 3.6 V power supply 0.8 V 4.5 V to 5.5 V power supply Input Current, IINH/IINL 10 μA Input Capacitance, CIN 3 pF Rev. D | Page 4 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 Grade B, Grade C1 Parameter2 Min Typ Max Unit Test Conditions/Comments POWER SUPPLIES AVDD 2.3 5.5 V fMCLK = 75 MHz, fOUT = fMCLK/4096 DVDD 2.3 5.5 V IAA6 3.8 5 mA IDD6 B Grade 2.0 3 mA IDD code dependent (see Figure 8) C Grade 2.7 3.7 mA IDD code dependent (see Figure 8) IAA + IDD6 B Grade 5.8 8 mA C Grade 6.5 8.7 mA Low Power Sleep Mode B Grade 0.5 mA DAC powered down, MCLK running C Grade 0.6 mA DAC powered down, MCLK running 1 B grade: MCLK = 50 MHz; C grade: MCLK = 75 MHz. For specifications that do not specify a grade, the value applies to both grades. 2 Operating temperature range is as follows: B, C versions: −40°C to +105°C, typical specifications are at 25°C. 3 For compliance, with specified load of 200 Ω, IOUT full scale should not exceed 4 mA. 4 Guaranteed by design. 5 Applies when REFOUT is sourcing current. The impedance is higher when REFOUT is sinking current. 6 Measured with the digital inputs static and equal to 0 V or DVDD. RSET6.8kΩIOUT1210-BIT DAC20pFFS ADJUSTAD9834REGULATOR100nFCAP/2.5V10nFREFOUTCOMP10nFAVDDSINROMRLOAD200ΩON-BOARDREFERENCEFULL-SCALECONTROL02705-002 Figure 2. Test Circuit Used to Test the Specifications Rev. D | Page 5 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet TIMING CHARACTERISTICS DVDD = 2.3 V to 5.5 V, AGND = DGND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Table 2. Parameter1 Limit at TMIN to TMAX Unit Test Conditions/Comments t1 20/13.33 ns min MCLK period: 50 MHz/75 MHz t2 8/6 ns min MCLK high duration: 50 MHz/75 MHz t3 8/6 ns min MCLK low duration: 50 MHz/75 MHz t4 25 ns min SCLK period t5 10 ns min SCLK high duration t6 10 ns min SCLK low duration t7 5 ns min FSYNC-to-SCLK falling edge setup time t8 MIN 10 ns min FSYNC-to-SCLK hold time t8 MAX t4 − 5 ns max t9 5 ns min Data setup time t10 3 ns min Data hold time t11 8 ns min FSELECT, PSELECT setup time before MCLK rising edge t11A 8 ns min FSELECT, PSELECT setup time after MCLK rising edge t12 5 ns min SCLK high to FSYNC falling edge setup time 1 Guaranteed by design, not production tested. Timing Diagrams MCLKt1t3t202705-003 Figure 3. Master Clock FSELECT,PSELECTVALID DATAVALID DATAVALID DATAMCLKt11At1102705-004 Figure 4. Control Timing D0SCLKFSYNCSDATAD15D14D2D1D15D14t12t7t6t8t5t4t9t1002705-005 Figure 5. Serial Timing Rev. D | Page 6 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted. Table 3. Parameter Ratings AVDD to AGND −0.3 V to +6 V DVDD to DGND −0.3 V to +6 V AGND to DGND −0.3 V to +0.3 V CAP/2.5V 2.75 V Digital I/O Voltage to DGND −0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V Analog I/O Voltage to AGND −0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V Operating Temperature Range Industrial (B Version) −40°C to +105°C Storage Temperature Range −65°C to +150°C Maximum Junction Temperature 150°C TSSOP Package θJA Thermal Impedance 143°C/W θJC Thermal Impedance 45°C/W Lead Temperature, Soldering (10 sec) 300°C IR Reflow, Peak Temperature 220°C Reflow Soldering (Pb-Free) Peak Temperature 260°C (+0/–5) Time at Peak Temperature 10 sec to 40 sec Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ESD CAUTION Rev. D | Page 7 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet Rev. D | Page 8 of 32 PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 REFOUT COMP AVDD DGND CAP/2.5V DVDD FS ADJUST IOUT AGND VIN SCLK FSYNC SIGN BIT OUT PSELECT FSELECT MCLK RESET SLEEP SDATA IOUTB AD9834 TOP VIEW (Not to Scale) 02705-006 Figure 6. Pin Configuration Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions Pin No. Mnemonic Description ANALOG SIGNAL AND REFERENCE 1 FS ADJUST Full-Scale Adjust Control. A resistor (RSET) is connected between this pin and AGND. This determines the magnitude of the full-scale DAC current. The relationship between RSET and the full-scale current is as follows: IOUT FULL SCALE = 18 × FSADJUST/RSET FSADJUST = 1.15 V nominal, RSET = 6.8 kΩ typical. 2 REFOUT Voltage Reference Output. The AD9834 has an internal 1.20 V reference that is made available at this pin. 3 COMP DAC Bias Pin. This pin is used for decoupling the DAC bias voltage. 17 VIN Input to Comparator. The comparator can be used to generate a square wave from the sinusoidal DAC output. The DAC output should be filtered appropriately before being applied to the comparator to improve jitter. When Bit OPBITEN and Bit SIGN/PIB in the control register are set to 1, the comparator input is connected to VIN. 19, 20 IOUT, IOUTB Current Output. This is a high impedance current source. A load resistor of nominally 200 Ω should be connected between IOUT and AGND. IOUTB should preferably be tied through an external load resistor of 200 Ω to AGND, but it can be tied directly to AGND. A 20 pF capacitor to AGND is also recommended to prevent clock feedthrough. POWER SUPPLY 4 AVDD Positive Power Supply for the Analog Section. AVDD can have a value from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. A 0.1 μF decoupling capacitor should be connected between AVDD and AGND. 5 DVDD Positive Power Supply for the Digital Section. DVDD can have a value from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. A 0.1 μF decoupling capacitor should be connected between DVDD and DGND. 6 CAP/2.5V The digital circuitry operates from a 2.5 V power supply. This 2.5 V is generated from DVDD using an on-board regulator (when DVDD exceeds 2.7 V). The regulator requires a decoupling capacitor of typically 100 nF that is connected from CAP/2.5 V to DGND. If DVDD is equal to or less than 2.7 V, CAP/2.5 V should be shorted to DVDD. 7 DGND Digital Ground. 18 AGND Analog Ground. DIGITAL INTERFACE AND CONTROL 8 MCLK Digital Clock Input. DDS output frequencies are expressed as a binary fraction of the frequency of MCLK. The output frequency accuracy and phase noise are determined by this clock. 9 FSELECT Frequency Select Input. FSELECT controls which frequency register, FREQ0 or FREQ1, is used in the phase accumulator. The frequency register to be used can be selected using Pin FSELECT or Bit FSEL. When Bit FSEL is used to select the frequency register, the FSELECT pin should be tied to CMOS high or low. 10 PSELECT Phase Select Input. PSELECT controls which phase register, PHASE0 or PHASE1, is added to the phase accumulator output. The phase register to be used can be selected using Pin PSELECT or Bit PSEL. When the phase registers are being controlled by Bit PSEL, the PSELECT pin should be tied to CMOS high or low. 11 RESET Active High Digital Input. RESET resets appropriate internal registers to zero; this corresponds to an analog output of midscale. RESET does not affect any of the addressable registers. 12 SLEEP Active High Digital Input. When this pin is high, the DAC is powered down. This pin has the same function as Control Bit SLEEP12. Data Sheet AD9834 Pin No. Mnemonic Description 13 SDATA Serial Data Input. The 16-bit serial data-word is applied to this input. 14 SCLK Serial Clock Input. Data is clocked into the AD9834 on each falling SCLK edge. 15 FSYNC Active Low Control Input. This is the frame synchronization signal for the input data. When FSYNC is taken low, the internal logic is informed that a new word is being loaded into the device. 16 SIGN BIT OUT Logic Output. The comparator output is available on this pin or, alternatively, the MSB from the NCO can be output on this pin. Setting Bit OPBITEN in the control register to 1 enables this output pin. Bit SIGN/PIB determines whether the comparator output or the MSB from the NCO is output on the pin. Rev. D | Page 9 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS MCLK FREQUENCY (MHz)4.000755V3VTA = 25°CIDD ( mA)3.53.02.52.01.51.00.51530456002705-007 Figure 7. Typical Current Consumption (IDD) vs. MCLK Frequency 4.000.51.01.52.02.53.03.5fOUT (Hz)IDD (mA)TA = 25°C5V3V1001k10k100k1M10M100M02705-008 Figure 8. Typical IDD vs. fOUT for fMCLK = 50 MHz MCLK FREQUENCY (MHz)SFDR (dBc)–65–60–90–70–75–80–85AVDD = DVDD = 3VTA = 25°CSFDR dB MCLK/50SFDR dB MCLK/70153045607502705-009 Figure 9. Narrow-Band SFDR vs. MCLK Frequency 0–10–20–30–40–50–60–70–80MCLK FREQUENCY (MHz)SFDR (dBc)010203040506070fOUT = 1MHzSFDR dB MCLK/7AVDD = DVDD = 3VTA = 25°C02705-010 Figure 10. Wideband SFDR vs. MCLK Frequency SFDR (dBc)0–40–80–50–60–70–10–20–3050MHz CLOCK30MHz CLOCKAVDD = DVDD = 3VTA = 25°CfOUT/fMCLK0.0010.010.11.01010002705-011 Figure 11. Wideband SFDR vs. fOUT/fMCLK for Various MCLK Frequencies MCLK FREQUENCY (MHz)SNR (dB)–60–65–70–50–55–40–451.05.010.012.525.050.0TA = 25°CAVDD = DVDD = 3VfOUT = MCLK/409602705-012 Figure 12. SNR vs. MCLK Frequency Rev. D | Page 10 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 50010007006506005508507508009009505.5V2.3VTEMPERATURE (°C)–4025105WAKE-UP TIME ( μs)02705-013 Figure 13. Wake-Up Time vs. Temperature 1.1501.1251.1001.1751.2001.2501.225TEMPERATURE (°C)V(REFOUT) (V)LOWER RANGEUPPER RANGE–402510502705-014 Figure 14. VREFOUT vs. Temperature FREQUENCY (Hz)(dBc/Hz)–150–110–100–120–130–140–160AVDD = DVDD = 5VTA = 25°C1001k10k100k200k02705-015 Figure 15. Output Phase Noise, fOUT = 2 MHz, MCLK = 50 MHz 0.200–40–2002040608010002705-037TEMPERATURE(°C)DVDD (V)0.180.160.140.120.100.080.060.040.02DVDD=3.3VDVDD=5.5VDVDD=2.3V Figure 16. SIGN BIT OUT Low Level, ISINK = 1 mA 5.51.5–40–2002040608010002705-038TEMPERATURE(°C)DVDD ( V)5.04.54.03.53.02.52.0DVDD=2.3VDVDD=2.7VDVDD=3.3VDVDD=4.5VDVDD=5.5V Figure 17. SIGN BIT OUT High Level, ISINK = 1 mA FREQUENCY (Hz)(dB)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–10RWB 100ST 100 SECVWB 300100k02705-016 Figure 18. fMCLK = 10 MHz; fOUT = 2.4 kHz, Frequency Word = 000FBA9 Rev. D | Page 11 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet FREQUENCY (Hz)(dB)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–1005MRWB 1kST 50 SECVWB 30002705-017 Figure 19. fMCLK = 10 MHz; fOUT = 1.43 MHz = fMCLK/7, Frequency Word = 2492492 FREQUENCY (Hz)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–1005MRWB 1kST 50 SECVWB 300(dB)02705-018 Figure 20. fMCLK = 10 MHz; fOUT = 3.33 MHz = fMCLK/3, Frequency Word = 5555555 FREQUENCY (Hz)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–100160kRWB 100ST 200 SECVWB 30(dB)02705-019 Figure 21. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 12 kHz, Frequency Word = 000FBA9 FREQUENCY (Hz)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–1001.6MRWB 100ST 200 SECVWB 300(dB)02705-020 Figure 22. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 120 kHz, Frequency Word = 009D496 FREQUENCY (Hz)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–10025MRWB 1kST 200 SECVWB 300(dB)02705-021 Figure 23. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 1.2 MHz, Frequency Word = 0624DD3 FREQUENCY (Hz)(dB)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–10025MRWB 1kST 200 SECVWB 30002705-022 Figure 24. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 4.8 MHz, Frequency Word = 189374C Rev. D | Page 12 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 FREQUENCY (Hz)(dB)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–10025MRWB 1kST 200 SECVWB 30002705-023 Figure 25. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 7.143 MHz = fMCLK/7, Frequency Word = 2492492 FREQUENCY (Hz)(dB)0–20–50–90–100–80–70–60–40–30–10025MRWB 1kST 200 SECVWB 30002705-024 Figure 26. fMCLK = 50 MHz; fOUT = 16.667 MHz = fMCLK/3, Frequency Word = 5555555 Rev. D | Page 13 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet Rev. D | Page 14 of 32 TERMINOLOGY Integral Nonlinearity (INL) INL is the maximum deviation of any code from a straight line passing through the endpoints of the transfer function. The endpoints of the transfer function are zero scale, a point 0.5 LSB below the first code transition (000 . . . 00 to 000 . . . 01), and full scale, a point 0.5 LSB above the last code transition (111 . . . 10 to 111 . . . 11). The error is expressed in LSBs. Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) DNL is the difference between the measured and ideal 1 LSB change between two adjacent codes in the DAC. A specified DNL of ±1 LSB maximum ensures monotonicity. Output Compliance The output compliance refers to the maximum voltage that can be generated at the output of the DAC to meet the specifications. When voltages greater than that specified for the output com- pliance are generated, the AD9834 may not meet the specifications listed in the data sheet. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) Along with the frequency of interest, harmonics of the fundamental frequency and images of these frequencies are present at the output of a DDS device. The SFDR refers to the largest spur or harmonic present in the band of interest. The wideband SFDR gives the magnitude of the largest harmonic or spur relative to the magnitude of the fundamental frequency in the 0 to Nyquist bandwidth. The narrow-band SFDR gives the attenuation of the largest spur or harmonic in a bandwidth of ±200 kHz about the fundamental frequency. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) THD is the ratio of the rms sum of harmonics to the rms value of the fundamental. For the AD9834, THD is defined as 1 2 3456 V V VVVV THD 2 2222 log 20    where V1 is the rms amplitude of the fundamental and V2, V3, V4, V5, and V6 are the rms amplitudes of the second harmonic through the sixth harmonic. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) SNR is the ratio of the rms value of the measured output signal to the rms sum of all other spectral components below the Nyquist frequency. The value for SNR is expressed in decibels. Clock Feedthrough There is feedthrough from the MCLK input to the analog output. Clock feedthrough refers to the magnitude of the MCLK signal relative to the fundamental frequency in the output spectrum of the AD9834. Data Sheet AD9834 THEORY OF OPERATION Sine waves are typically thought of in terms of their magnitude form a(t) = sin (ωt). However, these are nonlinear and not easy to generate except through piecewise construction. On the other hand, the angular information is linear in nature, that is, the phase angle rotates through a fixed angle for each unit of time. The angular rate depends on the frequency of the signal by the traditional rate of ω = 2πf. MAGNITUDEPHASE+10–12p02π4π6π2π4π6π02705-025 Figure 27. Sine Wave Knowing that the phase of a sine wave is linear and given a reference interval (clock period), the phase rotation for that period can be determined. ΔPhase = ωΔt Solving for ω, ω = ΔPhase/Δt = 2πf Solving for f and substituting the reference clock frequency for the reference period (1/fMCLK = Δt), f = ΔPhase × fMCLK/2π The AD9834 builds the output based on this simple equation. A simple DDS chip can implement this equation with three major subcircuits: numerically controlled oscillator + phase modulator, SIN ROM, and digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Each of these subcircuits is discussed in the Circuit Description section. Rev. D | Page 15 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The AD9834 is a fully integrated direct digital synthesis (DDS) chip. The chip requires one reference clock, one low precision resistor, and eight decoupling capacitors to provide digitally created sine waves up to 37.5 MHz. In addition to the generation of this RF signal, the chip is fully capable of a broad range of simple and complex modulation schemes. These modulation schemes are fully implemented in the digital domain, allowing accurate and simple realization of complex modulation algorithms using DSP techniques. The internal circuitry of the AD9834 consists of the following main sections: a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO), frequency and phase modulators, SIN ROM, a DAC, a comparator, and a regulator. NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR PLUS PHASE MODULATOR This consists of two frequency select registers, a phase accumulator, two phase offset registers, and a phase offset adder. The main component of the NCO is a 28-bit phase accumulator. Continuous time signals have a phase range of 0 π to 2π. Outside this range of numbers, the sinusoid functions repeat themselves in a periodic manner. The digital implementation is no different. The accumulator simply scales the range of phase numbers into a multibit digital word. The phase accumulator in the AD9834 is implemented with 28 bits. Therefore, in the AD9834, 2π = 228. Likewise, the ΔPhase term is scaled into this range of numbers: 0 < ΔPhase < 228 − 1. Making these substitutions into the previous equation f = ΔPhase × fMCLK/228 where 0 < ΔPhase < 228 − 1. The input to the phase accumulator can be selected either from the FREQ0 register or FREQ1 register and is controlled by the FSELECT pin or the FSEL bit. NCOs inherently generate con-tinuous phase signals, thus avoiding any output discontinuity when switching between frequencies. Following the NCO, a phase offset can be added to perform phase modulation using the 12-bit phase registers. The contents of one of these phase registers is added to the MSBs of the NCO. The AD9834 has two phase registers, the resolution of these registers being 2π/4096. SIN ROM To make the output from the NCO useful, it must be converted from phase information into a sinusoidal value. Phase informa-tion maps directly into amplitude; therefore, the SIN ROM uses the digital phase information as an address to a look-up table and converts the phase information into amplitude. Although the NCO contains a 28-bit phase accumulator, the output of the NCO is truncated to 12 bits. Using the full resolu-tion of the phase accumulator is impractical and unnecessary because it requires a look-up table of 228 entries. It is necessary only to have sufficient phase resolution such that the errors due to truncation are smaller than the resolution of the 10-bit DAC. This requires the SIN ROM to have two bits of phase resolution more than the 10-bit DAC. The SIN ROM is enabled using the OPBITEN and MODE bits in the control register. This is explained further in Table 18. DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC) The AD9834 includes a high impedance current source 10-bit DAC capable of driving a wide range of loads. The full-scale output current can be adjusted for optimum power and external load requirements using a single external resistor (RSET). The DAC can be configured for either single-ended or differential operation. IOUT and IOUTB can be connected through equal external resistors to AGND to develop complementary output voltages. The load resistors can be any value required, as long as the full-scale voltage developed across it does not exceed the voltage compliance range. Because full-scale current is controlled by RSET, adjustments to RSET can balance changes made to the load resistors. COMPARATOR The AD9834 can be used to generate synthesized digital clock signals. This is accomplished by using the on-board self-biasing comparator that converts the sinusoidal signal of the DAC to a square wave. The output from the DAC can be filtered externally before being applied to the comparator input. The comparator reference voltage is the time average of the signal applied to VIN. The comparator can accept signals in the range of approximately 100 mV p-p to 1 V p-p. As the comparator input is ac-coupled, to operate correctly as a zero crossing detector, it requires a minimum input frequency of typically 3 MHz. The comparator output is a square wave with an amplitude from 0 V to DVDD. Rev. D | Page 16 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 The AD9834 is a sampled signal with its output following Nyquist sampling theorem. Specifically, its output spectrum contains the fundamental plus aliased signals (images) that occur at multiples of the reference clock frequency and the selected output frequency. A graphical representation of the sampled spectrum, with aliased images, is shown in Figure 28. The prominence of the aliased images is dependent on the ratio of fOUT to MCLK. If ratio is small, the aliased images are very prominent and of a relatively high energy level as determined by the sin(x)/x roll-off of the quantized DAC output. In fact, depending on the fOUT/reference clock relationship, the first aliased image can be on the order of −3 dB below the fundamental. A low-pass filter is generally placed between the output of the DAC and the input of the comparator to further suppress the effects of aliased images. Obviously, consideration must be given to the relationship of the selected output frequency and the reference clock frequency to avoid unwanted (and unexpected) output anomalies. To apply the AD9834 as a clock generator, limit the selected output frequency to <33% of reference clock frequency, and thereby avoid generating aliased signals that fall within, or close to, the output band of interest (generally dc-selected output frequency). This practice eases the complexity (and cost) of the external filter requirement for the clock generator application. Refer to the AN-837 Application Note for more information. To enable the comparator, Bit SIGN/PIB and Bit OPBITEN in the control resister are set to 1. This is explained further in Table 17. REGULATOR The AD9834 has separate power supplies for the analog and digital sections. AVDD provides the power supply required for the analog section, and DVDD provides the power supply for the digital section. Both of these supplies can have a value of 2.3 V to 5.5 V and are independent of each other. For example, the analog section can be operated at 5 V, and the digital section can be operated at 3 V, or vice versa. The internal digital section of the AD9834 is operated at 2.5 V. An on-board regulator steps down the voltage applied at DVDD to 2.5 V. The digital interface (serial port) of the AD9834 also operates from DVDD. These digital signals are level shifted within the AD9834 to make them 2.5 V compatible. When the applied voltage at the DVDD pin of the AD9834 is equal to or less than 2.7 V, Pin CAP/2.5V and Pin DVDD should be tied together, thus bypassing the on-board regulator. OUTPUT VOLTAGE COMPLIANCE The AD9834 has a maximum current density, set by the RSET, of 4 mA. The maximum output voltage from the AD9834 is VDD − 1.5 V. This is to ensure that the output impedance of the internal switch does not change, affecting the spectral performance of the part. For a minimum supply of 2.3 V, the maximum output voltage is 0.8 V. Specifications in Table 1 are guaranteed with an RSET of 6.8 kΩ and an RLOAD of 200 Ω. 02705-040SYSTEM CLOCKfOUTfC–fOUTfC+fOUT2fC–fOUT2fC+fOUT3fC–fOUT3fC+fOUTfC0HzFIRSTIMAGESECONDIMAGETHIRDIMAGEFOURTHIMAGEFIFTHIMAGESIXTHIMAGE2fC3fCFREQUENCY ( Hz)SIGNAL AMPLITUDEsin x/x ENVELOPEx = π ( f/fC) Figure 28. The DAC Output Spectrum Rev. D | Page 17 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION SERIAL INTERFACE The AD9834 has a standard 3-wire serial interface that is com-patible with SPI, QSPI™, MICROWIRE™, and DSP interface standards. Data is loaded into the device as a 16-bit word under the control of a serial clock input (SCLK). The timing diagram for this operation is given in Figure 5. For a detailed example of programming the AD9833 and AD9834 devices, refer to the AN-1070 Application Note. The FSYNC input is a level triggered input that acts as a frame synchronization and chip enable. Data can only be transferred into the device when FSYNC is low. To start the serial data transfer, FSYNC should be taken low, observing the minimum FSYNC-to-SCLK falling edge setup time (t7). After FSYNC goes low, serial data is shifted into the input shift register of the device on the falling edges of SCLK for 16 clock pulses. FSYNC can be taken high after the 16th falling edge of SCLK, observing the minimum SCLK falling edge to FSYNC rising edge time (t8). Alternatively, FSYNC can be kept low for a multiple of 16 SCLK pulses and then brought high at the end of the data transfer. In this way, a continuous stream of 16-bit words can be loaded while FSYNC is held low, with FSYNC only going high after the 16th SCLK falling edge of the last word is loaded. The SCLK can be continuous, or alternatively, the SCLK can idle high or low between write operations but must be high when FSYNC goes low (t12). POWERING UP THE AD9834 The flow chart in Figure 31 shows the operating routine for the AD9834. When the AD9834 is powered up, the part should be reset. This resets appropriate internal registers to 0 to provide an analog output of midscale. To avoid spurious DAC outputs during AD9834 initialization, the RESET bit/pin should be set to 1 until the part is ready to begin generating an output. RESET does not reset the phase, frequency, or control registers. These registers contain invalid data, and, therefore, should be set to a known value by the user. The RESET bit/pin should then be set to 0 to begin generating an output. The data appears on the DAC output eight MCLK cycles after RESET is set to 0. LATENCY Latency is associated with each operation. When Pin FSELECT and Pin PSELECT change value, there is a pipeline delay before control is transferred to the selected register. When the t11 and t11A timing specifications are met (see Figure 4), FSELECT and PSELECT have latencies of eight MCLK cycles. When the t11 and t11A timing specifications are not met, the latency is increased by one MCLK cycle. Similarly, there is a latency associated with each asynchronous write operation. If a selected frequency/phase register is loaded with a new word, there is a delay of eight to nine MCLK cycles before the analog output changes. There is an uncertainty of one MCLK cycle because it depends on the position of the MCLK rising edge when the data is loaded into the destination register. The negative transition of the RESET and SLEEP functions are sampled on the internal falling edge of MCLK. Therefore, they also have a latency associated with them. CONTROL REGISTER The AD9834 contains a 16-bit control register that sets up the AD9834 as the user wants to operate it. All control bits, except MODE, are sampled on the internal negative edge of MCLK. Table 6 describes the individual bits of the control register. The different functions and the various output options from the AD9834 are described in more detail in the Frequency and Phase Registers section. To inform the AD9834 that the contents of the control register are to be altered, DB15 and DB14 must be set to 0 as shown in Table 5. Table 5. Control Register DB15 DB14 DB13 . . . DB0 0 0 CONTROL bits Rev. D | Page 18 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 MUXSLEEP12SLEEP1OPBITENIOUTBIOUTCOMPARATORVINSIGN/PIBMUXMSBSIGNBIT OUT01MUX1001DIGITALOUTPUT(ENABLE)(LOWPOWER)10-BITDACDIVIDEBY2SINROMMODE+ OPBITENPHASEACCUMULATOR(28-BIT)02705-026 Figure 29. Function of Control Bits DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3 DB2 DB1 DB0 0 0 B28 HLB FSEL PSEL PIN/SW RESET SLEEP1 SLEEP12 OPBITEN SIGN/PIB DIV2 0 MODE 0 Table 6. Description of Bits in the Control Register Bit Name Description DB13 B28 Two write operations are required to load a complete word into either of the frequency registers. B28 = 1 allows a complete word to be loaded into a frequency register in two consecutive writes. The first write contains the 14 LSBs of the frequency word and the next write contains the 14 MSBs. The first two bits of each 16-bit word define the frequency register the word is loaded to and should, therefore, be the same for both of the consecutive writes. Refer to Table 10 for the appropriate addresses. The write to the frequency register occurs after both words have been loaded. An example of a complete 28-bit write is shown in Table 11. Note however, that consecutive 28-bit writes to the same frequency register are not allowed, switch between frequency registers to do this type of function. B28 = 0, the 28-bit frequency register operates as two 14-bit registers, one containing the 14 MSBs and the other containing the 14 LSBs. This means that the 14 MSBs of the frequency word can be altered independent of the 14 LSBs, and vice versa. To alter the 14 MSBs or the 14 LSBs, a single write is made to the appropriate frequency address. The Control Bit DB12 (HLB) informs the AD9834 whether the bits to be altered are the 14 MSBs or 14 LSBs. DB12 HLB This control bit allows the user to continuously load the MSBs or LSBs of a frequency register ignoring the remaining 14 bits. This is useful if the complete 28-bit resolution is not required. HLB is used in conjunction with DB13 (B28). This control bit indicates whether the 14 bits being loaded are being transferred to the 14 MSBs or 14 LSBs of the addressed frequency register. DB13 (B28) must be set to 0 to be able to change the MSBs and LSBs of a frequency word separately. When DB13 (B28) = 1, this control bit is ignored. HLB = 1 allows a write to the 14 MSBs of the addressed frequency register. HLB = 0 allows a write to the 14 LSBs of the addressed frequency register. DB11 FSEL The FSEL bit defines whether the FREQ0 register or the FREQ1 register is used in the phase accumulator. See Table 8 to select a frequency register. DB10 PSEL The PSEL bit defines whether the PHASE0 register data or the PHASE1 register data is added to the output of the phase accumulator. See Table 9 to select a phase register. DB9 PIN/SW Functions that select frequency and phase registers, reset internal registers, and power down the DAC can be implemented using either software or hardware. PIN/SW selects the source of control for these functions. PIN/SW = 1 implies that the functions are being controlled using the appropriate control pins. PIN/SW = 0 implies that the functions are being controlled using the appropriate control bits. DB8 RESET RESET = 1 resets internal registers to 0, this corresponds to an analog output of midscale. RESET = 0 disables RESET. This function is explained in the RESET Function section. DB7 SLEEP1 SLEEP1 = 1, the internal MCLK is disabled. The DAC output remains at its present value as the NCO is no longer accumulating. SLEEP1 = 0, MCLK is enabled. This function is explained in the SLEEP Function section. DB6 SLEEP12 SLEEP12 = 1 powers down the on-chip DAC. This is useful when the AD9834 is used to output the MSB of the DAC data. SLEEP12 = 0 implies that the DAC is active. This function is explained in the SLEEP Function section. Rev. D | Page 19 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet Bit Name Description DB5 OPBITEN The function of this bit is to control whether there is an output at the SIGN BIT OUT pin. This bit should remain at 0 if the user is not using the SIGN BIT OUT pin. OPBITEN = 1 enables the SIGN BIT OUT pin. OPBITEN = 0, the SIGN BIT OUT output buffer is put into a high impedance state, therefore no output is available at the SIGN BIT OUT pin. DB4 SIGN/PIB The function of this bit is to control what is output at the SIGN BIT OUT pin. SIGN/PIB = 1, the on-board comparator is connected to SIGN BIT OUT. After filtering the sinusoidal output from the DAC, the waveform can be applied to the comparator to generate a square waveform. Refer to Table 17. SIGN/PIB = 0, the MSB (or MSB/2) of the DAC data is connected to the SIGN BIT OUT pin. Bit DIV2 controls whether it is the MSB or MSB/2 that is output. DB3 DIV2 DIV2 is used in association with SIGN/PIB and OPBITEN. Refer to Table 17. DIV2 = 1, the digital output is passed directly to the SIGN BIT OUT pin. DIV2 = 0, the digital output/2 is passed directly to the SIGN BIT OUT pin. DB2 Reserved This bit must always be set to 0. DB1 MODE The function of this bit is to control what is output at the IOUT pin/IOUTB pin. This bit should be set to 0 if the Control Bit OPBITEN = 1. MODE = 1, the SIN ROM is bypassed, resulting in a triangle output from the DAC. MODE = 0, the SIN ROM is used to convert the phase information into amplitude information, resulting in a sinusoidal signal at the output. See Table 18. DB0 Reserved This bit must always be set to 0. FREQUENCY AND PHASE REGISTERS The AD9834 contains two frequency registers and two phase registers. These are described in Table 7. Table 7. Frequency/Phase Registers Register Size Description FREQ0 28 bits Frequency Register 0. When either the FSEL bit or FSELECT pin = 0, this register defines the output frequency as a fraction of the MCLK frequency. FREQ1 28 bits Frequency Register 1. When either the FSEL bit or FSELECT pin = 1, this register defines the output frequency as a fraction of the MCLK frequency. PHASE0 12 bits Phase Offset Register 0. When either the PSEL bit or PSELECT pin = 0, the contents of this register are added to the output of the phase accumulator. PHASE1 12 bits Phase Offset Register 1. When either the PSEL bit or PSELECT pin = 1, the contents of this register are added to the output of the phase accumulator. The analog output from the AD9834 is fMCLK/228 × FREQREG where FREQREG is the value loaded into the selected frequency register. This signal is phase shifted by 2π/4096 × PHASEREG where PHASEREG is the value contained in the selected phase register. Consideration must be given to the relationship of the selected output frequency and the reference clock frequency to avoid unwanted output anomalies. Access to the frequency and phase registers is controlled by both the FSELECT and PSELECT pins, and the FSEL and PSEL control bits. If the Control Bit PIN/SW = 1, the pins control the function; whereas, if PIN/SW = 0, the bits control the function. This is outlined in Table 8 and Table 9. If the FSEL and PSEL bits are used, the pins should be held at CMOS logic high or low. Control of the frequency/phase registers is interchangeable from the pins to the bits. Table 8. Selecting a Frequency Register FSELECT FSEL PIN/SW Selected Register 0 X 1 FREQ0 REG 1 X 1 FREQ1 REG X 0 0 FREQ0 REG X 1 0 FREQ1 REG Table 9. Selecting a Phase Register PSELECT PSEL PIN/SW Selected Register 0 X 1 PHASE0 REG 1 X 1 PHASE1 REG X 0 0 PHASE0 REG X 1 0 PHASE1 REG The FSELECT pin and PSELECT pin are sampled on the internal falling edge of MCLK. It is recommended that the data on these pins does not change within a time window of the falling edge of MCLK (see Figure 4 for timing). If FSELECT or PSELECT changes value when a falling edge occurs, there is an uncertainty of one MCLK cycle because it pertains to when control is transferred to the other frequency/phase register. The flow charts in Figure 32 and Figure 33 show the routine for selecting and writing to the frequency and phase registers of the AD9834. Rev. D | Page 20 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 WRITING TO A FREQUENCY REGISTER When writing to a frequency register, Bit DB15 and Bit DB14 give the address of the frequency register. Table 10. Frequency Register Bits DB15 DB14 DB13 . . . DB0 0 1 14 FREQ0 REG BITS 1 0 14 FREQ1 REG BITS If the user wants to alter the entire contents of a frequency register, two consecutive writes to the same address must be performed because the frequency registers are 28 bits wide. The first write contains the 14 LSBs, and the second write contains the 14 MSBs. For this mode of operation, Control Bit B28 (DB13) should be set to 1. An example of a 28-bit write is shown in Table 11. Note however that continuous writes to the same frequency register are not recommended. This results in intermediate updates during the writes. If a frequency sweep, or something similar, is required, it is recommended that users alternate between the two frequency registers. Table 11. Writing FFFC000 to FREQ0 REG SDATA Input Result of Input Word 0010 0000 0000 0000 Control word write (DB15, DB14 = 00), B28 (DB13) = 1, HLB (DB12) = X 0100 0000 0000 0000 FREQ0 REG write (DB15, DB14 = 01), 14 LSBs = 0000 0111 1111 1111 1111 FREQ0 REG write (DB15, DB14 = 01), 14 MSBs = 3FFF In some applications, the user does not need to alter all 28 bits of the frequency register. With coarse tuning, only the 14 MSBs are altered; though with fine tuning only the 14 LSBs are altered. By setting Control Bit B28 (DB13) to 0, the 28-bit frequency register operates as two 14-bit registers, one containing the 14 MSBs and the other containing the 14 LSBs. This means that the 14 MSBs of the frequency word can be altered independent of the 14 LSBs, and vice versa. Bit HLB (DB12) in the control register identifies the 14 bits that are being altered. Examples of this are shown in Table 12 and Table 13. Table 12. Writing 3FFF to the 14 LSBs of FREQ1 REG SDATA Input Result of Input Word 0000 0000 0000 0000 Control word write (DB15, DB14 = 00), B28 (DB13) = 0, HLB (DB12) = 0, that is, LSBs 1011 1111 1111 1111 FREQ1 REG write (DB15, DB14 = 10), 14 LSBs = 3FFF Table 13. Writing 00FF to the 14 MSBs of FREQ0 REG SDATA Input Result of Input Word 0001 0000 0000 0000 Control word write (DB15, DB14 = 00), B28 (DB13) = 0, HLB (DB12) = 1, that is, MSBs 0100 0000 1111 1111 FREQ0 REG write (DB15, DB14 = 01), 14 MSBs = 00FF WRITING TO A PHASE REGISTER When writing to a phase register, Bit DB15 and Bit DB14 are set to 11. Bit DB13 identifies which phase register is being loaded. Table 14. Phase Register Bits DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB0 1 1 0 X MSB 12 PHASE0 bits LSB 1 1 1 X MSB 12 PHASE1 bits LSB RESET FUNCTION The RESET function resets appropriate internal registers to 0 to provide an analog output of midscale. RESET does not reset the phase, frequency, or control registers. When the AD9834 is powered up, the part should be reset. To reset the AD9834, set the RESET pin/bit to 1. To take the part out of reset, set the pin/bit to 0. A signal appears at the DAC output seven MCLK cycles after RESET is set to 0. The RESET function is controlled by both the RESET pin and the RESET control bit. If the Control Bit PIN/SW = 0, the RESET bit controls the function, whereas if PIN/SW = 1, the RESET pin controls the function. Table 15. Applying RESET RESET Pin RESET Bit PIN/SW Bit Result 0 X 1 No reset applied 1 X 1 Internal registers reset X 0 0 No reset applied X 1 0 Internal registers reset The effect of asserting the RESET pin is evident immediately at the output, that is, the zero-to-one transition of this pin is not sampled. However, the negative transition of RESET is sampled on the internal falling edge of MCLK. SLEEP FUNCTION Sections of the AD9834 that are not in use can be powered down to minimize power consumption by using the SLEEP function. The parts of the chip that can be powered down are the internal clock and the DAC. The DAC can be powered down through hardware or software. The pin/bits required for the SLEEP function are outlined in Table 16. Rev. D | Page 21 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet Table 16. Applying the SLEEP Function SLEEP Pin SLEEP1 Bit SLEEP12 Bit PIN/SW Bit Result 0 X X 1 No power-down 1 X X 1 DAC powered down X 0 0 0 No power-down X 0 1 0 DAC powered down X 1 0 0 Internal clock disabled X 1 1 0 Both the DAC powered down and the internal clock disabled DAC Powered Down This is useful when the AD9834 is used to output the MSB of the DAC data only. In this case, the DAC is not required and can be powered down to reduce power consumption. Internal Clock Disabled When the internal clock of the AD9834 is disabled, the DAC output remains at its present value because the NCO is no longer accumulating. New frequency, phase, and control words can be written to the part when the SLEEP1 control bit is active. The synchronizing clock remains active, meaning that the selected frequency and phase registers can also be changed either at the pins or by using the control bits. Setting the SLEEP1 bit to 0 enables the MCLK. Any changes made to the registers when SLEEP1 is active are observed at the output after a certain latency. The effect of asserting the SLEEP pin is evident immediately at the output, that is, the zero-to-one transition of this pin is not sampled. However, the negative transition of SLEEP is sampled on the internal falling edge of MCLK. SIGN BIT OUT PIN The AD9834 offers a variety of outputs from the chip. The digital outputs are available from the SIGN BIT OUT pin. The available outputs are the comparator output or the MSB of the DAC data. The bits controlling the SIGN BIT OUT pin are outlined in Table 17. This pin must be enabled before use. The enabling/disabling of this pin is controlled by the Bit OPBITEN (DB5) in the control register. When OPBITEN = 1, this pin is enabled. Note that the MODE bit (DB1) in the control register should be set to 0 if OPBITEN = 1. Comparator Output The AD9834 has an on-board comparator. To connect this comparator to the SIGN BIT OUT pin, the SIGN/PIB (DB4) control bit must be set to 1. After filtering the sinusoidal output from the DAC, the waveform can be applied to the comparator to generate a square waveform. MSB from the NCO The MSB from the NCO can be output from the AD9834. By setting the SIGN/PIB (DB4) control bit to 0, the MSB of the DAC data is available at the SIGN BIT OUT pin. This is useful as a coarse clock source. This square wave can also be divided by two before being output. Bit DIV2 (DB3) in the control register controls the frequency of this output from the SIGN BIT OUT pin. Table 17. Various Outputs from SIGN BIT OUT OPBITEN Bit MODE Bit SIGN/PIB Bit DIV2 Bit SIGN BIT OUT Pin 0 X X X High impedance 1 0 0 0 DAC data MSB/2 1 0 0 1 DAC data MSB 1 0 1 0 Reserved 1 0 1 1 Comparator output 1 1 X X Reserved THE IOUT AND IOUTB PINS The analog outputs from the AD9834 are available from the IOUT and IOUTB pins. The available outputs are a sinusoidal output or a triangle output. Sinusoidal Output The SIN ROM converts the phase information from the frequency and phase registers into amplitude information, resulting in a sinusoidal signal at the output. To have a sinusoidal output from the IOUT and IOUTB pins, set Bit MODE (DB1) to 0. Triangle Output The SIN ROM can be bypassed so that the truncated digital output from the NCO is sent to the DAC. In this case, the output is no longer sinusoidal. The DAC produces 10-bit linear triangular function. To have a triangle output from the IOUT and IOUTB pins, set Bit MODE (DB1) to 1. Note that the SLEEP pin and SLEEP12 bit must be 0 (that is, the DAC is enabled) when using the IOUT and IOUTB pins. Table 18. Various Outputs from IOUT and IOUTB OPBITEN Bit MODE Bit IOUT and IOUTB Pins 0 0 Sinusoid 0 1 Triangle 1 0 Sinusoid 1 1 Reserved 3π/27π/211π/2VOUT MAXVOUT MIN02705-027 Figure 30. Triangle Output Rev. D | Page 22 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 Rev. D | Page 23 of 32 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Because of the various output options available from the part, the AD9834 can be configured to suit a wide variety of applications. One of the areas where the AD9834 is suitable is in modulation applications. The part can be used to perform simple modulation such as FSK. More complex modulation schemes such as GMSK and QPSK can also be implemented using the AD9834. In an FSK application, the two frequency registers of the AD9834 are loaded with different values. One frequency represents the space frequency, and the other represents the mark frequency. The digital data stream is fed to the FSELECT pin, causing the AD9834 to modulate the carrier frequency between the two values. The AD9834 has two phase registers, enabling the part to perform PSK. With phase shift keying, the carrier frequency is phase shifted, the phase being altered by an amount that is related to the bit stream that is input to the modulator. The AD9834 is also suitable for signal generator applications. With the on-board comparator, the device can be used to generate a square wave. With its low current consumption, the part is suitable for applications where it is used as a local oscillator. CHANGE PHASE? CHANGE FREQUENCY? NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES DAC OUTPUT VOUT = VREFOUT × 18 × RLOAD/RSET × (1 + (SIN(2π(FREQREG × fMCLK × t/228 + PHASEREG/212)))) INITIALIZATION SEE FIGURE 32 SELECT DATA SOURCES SEE FIGURE 34 WAIT 8/9 MCLK CYCLES SEE TIMING DIAGRAM FIGURE 3 CHANGE PSEL/ PSELECT? CHANGE PHASE REGISTER? CHANGE DAC OUTPUT FROM SIN TO RAMP? CHANGE OUTPUT AT SIGN BIT OUT PIN? CHANGE FSEL/ FSELECT? CHANGE FREQUENCY REGISTER? CONTROL REGISTER WRITE DATA WRITE SEE FIGURE 33 02705-028 Figure 31. Flow Chart for Initialization and Operation AD9834 Data Sheet INITIALIZATIONAPPLY RESETUSING PINSET RESET PIN = 1USING PINUSING CONTROLBIT(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)RESET = 1PIN/SW = 0(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)PIN/SW = 1USING CONTROLBITSET RESET = 0SELECT FREQUENCY REGISTERSSELECT PHASE REGISTERS(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)RESET BIT = 0FSEL = SELECTED FREQUENCY REGISTERPSEL = SELECTED PHASE REGISTERPIN/SW = 0(APPLY SIGNALS AT PINS)RESET PIN = 0FSELECT = SELECTED FREQUENCY REGISTERPSELECT = SELECTED PHASE REGISTERWRITE TO FREQUENCY AND PHASE REGISTERSFREQ0 REG = fOUT0/fMCLK × 228FREQ1 REG = fOUT1/fMCLK × 228PHASE0 AND PHASE1 REG = (PHASESHIFT × 212)/2π(SEE FIGURE 33)02705-029 Figure 32. Initialization NOYESDATA WRITENOYESYESNOYESNONOYESYESWRITE A FULL 28-BIT WORDTO A FREQUENCY REGISTER?(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)B28 (D13) = 1WRITE TWO CONSECUTIVE16-BIT WORDS(SEE TABLE 11 FOR EXAMPLE)WRITE ANOTHER FULL28-BIT TO AFREQUENCY REGISTER?WRITE 14 MSBs OR LSBsTO A FREQUENCY REGISTER?(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)B28 (D13) = 0HLB (D12) = 0/1WRITE A 16-BIT WORD(SEE TABLES 12 AND 13FOR EXAMPLES)WRITE 14 MSBs OR LSBsTO AFREQUENCY REGISTER?WRITE TO PHASEREGISTER?D15, D14 = 11D13 = 0/1 (CHOOSE THEPHASE REGISTER)D12 = XD11 ... D0 = PHASE DATA(16-BIT WRITE)WRITE TO ANOTHERPHASE REGISTER?02705-030 Figure 33. Data Write Rev. D | Page 24 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 SELECT DATA SOURCESYESNOFSELECT AND PSELECTPINS BEING USED?(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)PIN/SW = 0SET FSEL BITSET PSEL BITSET FSELECTAND PSELECT(CONTROL REGISTER WRITE)PIN/SW = 102705-031 Figure 34. Selecting Data Sources Rev. D | Page 25 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet GROUNDING AND LAYOUT The printed circuit board (PCB) that houses the AD9834 should be designed so that the analog and digital sections are separated and confined to certain areas of the board. This facilitates the use of ground planes that can easily be separated. A minimum etch technique is generally best for ground planes because it gives the best shielding. Digital and analog ground planes should only be joined in one place. If the AD9834 is the only device requiring an AGND-to-DGND connection, the ground planes should be connected at the AGND and DGND pins of the AD9834. If the AD9834 is in a system where multiple devices require AGND-to-DGND connections, the connection should be made at one point only, establishing a star ground point as close as possible to the AD9834. Avoid running digital lines under the device because these couple noise onto the die. The analog ground plane should be allowed to run under the AD9834 to avoid noise coupling. The power supply lines to the AD9834 should use as large a track as possible to provide low impedance paths and reduce the effects of glitches on the power supply line. Fast switching signals, such as clocks, should be shielded with digital ground to avoid radiating noise to other sections of the board. Avoid crossover of digital and analog signals. Traces on opposite sides of the board should run at right angles to each other to reduce the effects of feed-through through the board. A microstrip technique is by far the best, but it is not always possible with a double-sided board. In this technique, the component side of the board is dedicated to ground planes and signals are placed on the other side. Good decoupling is important. The analog and digital supplies to the AD9834 are independent and separately pinned out to minimize coupling between analog and digital sections of the device. All analog and digital supplies should be decoupled to AGND and DGND, respectively, with 0.1 μF ceramic capacitors in parallel with 10 μF tantalum capacitors. To achieve the best performance from the decoupling capacitors, they should be placed as close as possible to the device, ideally right up against the device. In systems where a common supply is used to drive both the AVDD and DVDD of the AD9834, it is recommended that the system’s AVDD supply be used. This supply should have the recommended analog supply decoupling between the AVDD pins of the AD9834 and AGND, and the recommended digital supply decoupling capacitors between the DVDD pins and DGND. Proper operation of the comparator requires good layout strategy. The strategy must minimize the parasitic capacitance between VIN and the SIGN BIT OUT pin by adding isolation using a ground plane. For example, in a multilayered board, the VIN signal could be connected to the top layer, and the SIGN BIT OUT could be connected to the bottom layer so that isolation is provided by the power and ground planes between them. Rev. D | Page 26 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 Rev. D | Page 27 of 32 INTERFACING TO MICROPROCESSORS The AD9834 has a standard serial interface that allows the part to interface directly with several microprocessors. The device uses an external serial clock to write the data/control information into the device. The serial clock can have a frequency of 40 MHz maximum. The serial clock can be continuous, or it can idle high or low between write operations. When data/control information is being written to the AD9834, FSYNC is taken low and is held low until the 16 bits of data are written into the AD9834. The FSYNC signal frames the 16 bits of information being loaded into the AD9834. AD9834 TO ADSP-21xx INTERFACE Figure 35 shows the serial interface between the AD9834 and the ADSP-21xx. The ADSP-21xx should be set up to operate in the SPORT transmit alternate framing mode (TFSW = 1). The ADSP-21xx is programmed through the SPORT control register and should be configured as follows:  Internal clock operation (ISCLK = 1)  Active low framing (INVTFS = 1)  16-bit word length (SLEN = 15)  Internal frame sync signal (ITFS = 1)  Generate a frame sync for each write (TFSR = 1) Transmission is initiated by writing a word to the Tx register after the SPORT has been enabled. The data is clocked out on each rising edge of the serial clock and clocked into the AD9834 on the SCLK falling edge. 1ADDITIONALPINS OMITTEDFORCLARITY. AD98341 FSYNC SDATA SCLK TFS DT SCLK ADSP-21xx1 02705-032 Figure 35. ADSP-21xx to AD9834 Interface AD9834 TO 68HC11/68L11 INTERFACE Figure 36 shows the serial interface between the AD9834 and the 68HC11/68L11 microcontroller. The microcontroller is configured as the master by setting Bit MSTR in the SPCR to 1, providing a serial clock on SCK while the MOSI output drives the serial data line SDATA. Because the microcontroller does not have a dedicated frame sync pin, the FSYNC signal is derived from a port line (PC7). The setup conditions for correct operation of the interface are as follows:  SCK idles high between write operations (CPOL = 0)  Data is valid on the SCK falling edge (CPHA = 1) When data is being transmitted to the AD9834, the FSYNC line is taken low (PC7). Serial data from the 68HC11/68L11 is transmitted in 8-bit bytes with only eight falling clock edges occurring in the transmit cycle. Data is transmitted MSB first. To load data into the AD9834, PC7 is held low after the first eight bits are transferred and a second serial write operation is performed to the AD9834. Only after the second eight bits have been transferred should FSYNC be taken high again. 1ADDITIONAL PINS OMITTED FOR CLARITY. AD98341 FSYNC SDATA SCLK 68HC11/68L111 PC7 MOSI SCK 02705-033 Figure 36. 68HC11/68L11 to AD9834 Interface AD9834 Data Sheet AD9834 TO 80C51/80L51 INTERFACE Figure 37 shows the serial interface between the AD9834 and the 80C51/80L51 microcontroller. The microcontroller is operated in Mode 0 so that TXD of the 80C51/80L51 drives SCLK of the AD9834, and RXD drives the serial data line (SDATA). The FSYNC signal is derived from a bit programmable pin on the port (P3.3 is shown in the diagram). When data is to be transmitted to the AD9834, P3.3 is taken low. The 80C51/80L51 transmits data in 8-bit bytes, thus only eight falling SCLK edges occur in each cycle. To load the remaining eight bits to the AD9834, P3.3 is held low after the first eight bits have been transmitted, and a second write operation is initiated to transmit the second byte of data. P3.3 is taken high following the completion of the second write operation. SCLK should idle high between the two write operations. The 80C51/80L51 outputs the serial data in an LSB-first format. The AD9834 accepts the MSB first (the four MSBs being the control information, the next four bits being the address, and the eight LSBs containing the data when writing to a destination register). Therefore, the transmit routine of the 80C51/80L51 must take this into account and rearrange the bits so that the MSB is output first. 1ADDITIONAL PINS OMITTED FOR CLARITY.AD98341FSYNCSDATASCLK80C51/80L511P3.3RXDTXD02705-034 Figure 37. 80C51/80L51 to AD9834 Interface AD9834 TO DSP56002 INTERFACE Figure 38 shows the interface between the AD9834 and the DSP56002. The DSP56002 is configured for normal mode asynchronous operation with a gated internal clock (SYN = 0, GCK = 1, SCKD = 1). The frame sync pin is generated internally (SC2 = 1), the transfers are 16 bits wide (WL1 = 1, WL0 = 0), and the frame sync signal frames the 16 bits (FSL = 0). The frame sync signal is available on Pin SC2, but needs to be inverted before being applied to the AD9834. The interface to the DSP56000/ DSP56001 is similar to that of the DSP56002. 1ADDITIONAL PINS OMITTED FOR CLARITY.AD98341FSYNCSDATASCLKDSP560021SC2STDSCK02705-035 Figure 38. DSP56002 to AD9834 Interface Rev. D | Page 28 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-153-AC20111106.40 BSC4.504.404.30PIN 16.606.506.40SEATINGPLANE0.150.050.300.190.65BSC1.20 MAX0.200.090.750.600.458°0°COPLANARITY0.10 Figure 39. 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] (RU-20) Dimensions shown in millimeters ORDERING GUIDE Model1 Maximum MCLK (MHz) Temperature Range Package Description Package Option AD9834BRU 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834BRU-REEL 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834BRU-REEL7 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834BRUZ 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834BRUZ-REEL 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834BRUZ-REEL7 50 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834CRUZ 75 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 AD9834CRUZ-REEL7 75 −40°C to +105°C 20-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP] RU-20 1 Z = RoHS Compliant Part. Rev. D | Page 29 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet NOTES Rev. D | Page 30 of 32 Data Sheet AD9834 NOTES Rev. D | Page 31 of 32 AD9834 Data Sheet NOTES ©2003–2014 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. D02705-0-3/14(A) Rev. D | Page 32 of 32 STM32F405xx STM32F407xx ARM Cortex-M4 32b MCU+FPU, 210DMIPS, up to 1MB Flash/192+4KB RAM, USB OTG HS/FS, Ethernet, 17 TIMs, 3 ADCs, 15 comm. interfaces & camera Datasheet - production data Features • Core: ARM 32-bit Cortex™-M4 CPU with FPU, Adaptive real-time accelerator (ART Accelerator™) allowing 0-wait state execution from Flash memory, frequency up to 168 MHz, memory protection unit, 210 DMIPS/ 1.25 DMIPS/MHz (Dhrystone 2.1), and DSP instructions • Memories – Up to 1 Mbyte of Flash memory – Up to 192+4 Kbytes of SRAM including 64- Kbyte of CCM (core coupled memory) data RAM – Flexible static memory controller supporting Compact Flash, SRAM, PSRAM, NOR and NAND memories • LCD parallel interface, 8080/6800 modes • Clock, reset and supply management – 1.8 V to 3.6 V application supply and I/Os – POR, PDR, PVD and BOR – 4-to-26 MHz crystal oscillator – Internal 16 MHz factory-trimmed RC (1% accuracy) – 32 kHz oscillator for RTC with calibration – Internal 32 kHz RC with calibration • Low power – Sleep, Stop and Standby modes – VBAT supply for RTC, 20×32 bit backup registers + optional 4 KB backup SRAM • 3×12-bit, 2.4 MSPS A/D converters: up to 24 channels and 7.2 MSPS in triple interleaved mode • 2×12-bit D/A converters • General-purpose DMA: 16-stream DMA controller with FIFOs and burst support • Up to 17 timers: up to twelve 16-bit and two 32- bit timers up to 168 MHz, each with up to 4 IC/OC/PWM or pulse counter and quadrature (incremental) encoder input • Debug mode – Serial wire debug (SWD) & JTAG interfaces – Cortex-M4 Embedded Trace Macrocell™ • Up to 140 I/O ports with interrupt capability – Up to 136 fast I/Os up to 84 MHz – Up to 138 5 V-tolerant I/Os • Up to 15 communication interfaces – Up to 3 × I2C interfaces (SMBus/PMBus) – Up to 4 USARTs/2 UARTs (10.5 Mbit/s, ISO 7816 interface, LIN, IrDA, modem control) – Up to 3 SPIs (42 Mbits/s), 2 with muxed full-duplex I2S to achieve audio class accuracy via internal audio PLL or external clock – 2 × CAN interfaces (2.0B Active) – SDIO interface • Advanced connectivity – USB 2.0 full-speed device/host/OTG controller with on-chip PHY – USB 2.0 high-speed/full-speed device/host/OTG controller with dedicated DMA, on-chip full-speed PHY and ULPI – 10/100 Ethernet MAC with dedicated DMA: supports IEEE 1588v2 hardware, MII/RMII • 8- to 14-bit parallel camera interface up to 54 Mbytes/s • True random number generator • CRC calculation unit • 96-bit unique ID • RTC: subsecond accuracy, hardware calendar LQFP64 (10 × 10 mm) LQFP100 (14 × 14 mm) LQFP144 (20 × 20 mm) FBGA UFBGA176 (10 × 10 mm) LQFP176 (24 × 24 mm) WLCSP90 Table 1. Device summary Reference Part number STM32F405xx STM32F405RG, STM32F405VG, STM32F405ZG, STM32F405OG, STM32F405OE STM32F407xx STM32F407VG, STM32F407IG, STM32F407ZG, STM32F407VE, STM32F407ZE, STM32F407IE www.st.com Contents STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 2/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.1 Full compatibility throughout the family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2 Device overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.1 ARM® Cortex™-M4F core with embedded Flash and SRAM . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Adaptive real-time memory accelerator (ART Accelerator™) . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.3 Memory protection unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.4 Embedded Flash memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.5 CRC (cyclic redundancy check) calculation unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.6 Embedded SRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.7 Multi-AHB bus matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.8 DMA controller (DMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.9 Flexible static memory controller (FSMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.10 Nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.11 External interrupt/event controller (EXTI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.12 Clocks and startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.13 Boot modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.14 Power supply schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.15 Power supply supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.16 Voltage regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.17 Regulator ON/OFF and internal reset ON/OFF availability . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.18 Real-time clock (RTC), backup SRAM and backup registers . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.19 Low-power modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2.20 VBAT operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.21 Timers and watchdogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.22 Inter-integrated circuit interface (I²C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2.23 Universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver transmitters (USART) . 33 2.2.24 Serial peripheral interface (SPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.25 Inter-integrated sound (I2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.26 Audio PLL (PLLI2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.27 Secure digital input/output interface (SDIO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.2.28 Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support . 35 2.2.29 Controller area network (bxCAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 DocID022152 Rev 4 3/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Contents 2.2.30 Universal serial bus on-the-go full-speed (OTG_FS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.31 Universal serial bus on-the-go high-speed (OTG_HS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.32 Digital camera interface (DCMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.33 Random number generator (RNG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.34 General-purpose input/outputs (GPIOs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.35 Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.36 Temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.37 Digital-to-analog converter (DAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.2.38 Serial wire JTAG debug port (SWJ-DP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.2.39 Embedded Trace Macrocell™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3 Pinouts and pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4 Memory mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 5 Electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1 Parameter conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.1 Minimum and maximum values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.2 Typical values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.3 Typical curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.4 Loading capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.5 Pin input voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1.6 Power supply scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5.1.7 Current consumption measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5.2 Absolute maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5.3 Operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.3.1 General operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.3.2 VCAP_1/VCAP_2 external capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.3.3 Operating conditions at power-up / power-down (regulator ON) . . . . . . 80 5.3.4 Operating conditions at power-up / power-down (regulator OFF) . . . . . 80 5.3.5 Embedded reset and power control block characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5.3.6 Supply current characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.3.7 Wakeup time from low-power mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 5.3.8 External clock source characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.3.9 Internal clock source characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.3.10 PLL characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.3.11 PLL spread spectrum clock generation (SSCG) characteristics . . . . . 102 Contents STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 4/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 5.3.12 Memory characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5.3.13 EMC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5.3.14 Absolute maximum ratings (electrical sensitivity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 5.3.15 I/O current injection characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5.3.16 I/O port characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5.3.17 NRST pin characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5.3.18 TIM timer characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5.3.19 Communications interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5.3.20 12-bit ADC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5.3.21 Temperature sensor characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5.3.22 VBAT monitoring characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5.3.23 Embedded reference voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5.3.24 DAC electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5.3.25 FSMC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 5.3.26 Camera interface (DCMI) timing specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.3.27 SD/SDIO MMC card host interface (SDIO) characteristics . . . . . . . . . 156 5.3.28 RTC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 6 Package characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6.1 Package mechanical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6.2 Thermal characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 7 Part numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Appendix A Application block diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 A.1 USB OTG full speed (FS) interface solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 A.2 USB OTG high speed (HS) interface solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 A.3 Ethernet interface solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 8 Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 DocID022152 Rev 4 5/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx List of tables List of tables Table 1. Device summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Table 2. STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx: features and peripheral counts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 3. Regulator ON/OFF and internal reset ON/OFF availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 4. Timer feature comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 5. USART feature comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 6. Legend/abbreviations used in the pinout table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 8. FSMC pin definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 9. Alternate function mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 10. STM32F40x register boundary addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Table 11. Voltage characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Table 12. Current characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table 13. Thermal characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table 14. General operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table 15. Limitations depending on the operating power supply range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Table 16. VCAP_1/VCAP_2 operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Table 17. Operating conditions at power-up / power-down (regulator ON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Table 18. Operating conditions at power-up / power-down (regulator OFF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Table 19. Embedded reset and power control block characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Table 20. Typical and maximum current consumption in Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash memory (ART accelerator enabled) or RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Table 21. Typical and maximum current consumption in Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash memory (ART accelerator disabled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Table 22. Typical and maximum current consumption in Sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Table 23. Typical and maximum current consumptions in Stop mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Table 24. Typical and maximum current consumptions in Standby mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Table 25. Typical and maximum current consumptions in VBAT mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Table 26. Switching output I/O current consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Table 27. Peripheral current consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Table 28. Low-power mode wakeup timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Table 29. High-speed external user clock characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Table 30. Low-speed external user clock characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Table 31. HSE 4-26 MHz oscillator characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Table 32. LSE oscillator characteristics (fLSE = 32.768 kHz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Table 33. HSI oscillator characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Table 34. LSI oscillator characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Table 35. Main PLL characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Table 36. PLLI2S (audio PLL) characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Table 37. SSCG parameters constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Table 38. Flash memory characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Table 39. Flash memory programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Table 40. Flash memory programming with VPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Table 41. Flash memory endurance and data retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Table 42. EMS characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Table 43. EMI characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Table 44. ESD absolute maximum ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Table 45. Electrical sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Table 46. I/O current injection susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 List of tables STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 6/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 47. I/O static characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Table 48. Output voltage characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Table 49. I/O AC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Table 50. NRST pin characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Table 51. Characteristics of TIMx connected to the APB1 domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Table 52. Characteristics of TIMx connected to the APB2 domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Table 53. I2C characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Table 54. SCL frequency (fPCLK1= 42 MHz.,VDD = 3.3 V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Table 55. SPI dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Table 56. I2S dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Table 57. USB OTG FS startup time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Table 58. USB OTG FS DC electrical characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Table 59. USB OTG FS electrical characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Table 60. USB HS DC electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Table 61. USB HS clock timing parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Table 62. ULPI timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Table 63. Ethernet DC electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Table 64. Dynamic characteristics: Ehternet MAC signals for SMI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Table 65. Dynamic characteristics: Ethernet MAC signals for RMII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Table 66. Dynamic characteristics: Ethernet MAC signals for MII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Table 67. ADC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Table 68. ADC accuracy at fADC = 30 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Table 69. Temperature sensor characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Table 70. Temperature sensor calibration values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Table 71. VBAT monitoring characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Table 72. Embedded internal reference voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Table 73. Internal reference voltage calibration values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Table 74. DAC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Table 75. Asynchronous non-multiplexed SRAM/PSRAM/NOR read timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Table 76. Asynchronous non-multiplexed SRAM/PSRAM/NOR write timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Table 77. Asynchronous multiplexed PSRAM/NOR read timings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Table 78. Asynchronous multiplexed PSRAM/NOR write timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Table 79. Synchronous multiplexed NOR/PSRAM read timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Table 80. Synchronous multiplexed PSRAM write timings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Table 81. Synchronous non-multiplexed NOR/PSRAM read timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Table 82. Synchronous non-multiplexed PSRAM write timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Table 83. Switching characteristics for PC Card/CF read and write cycles in attribute/common space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Table 84. Switching characteristics for PC Card/CF read and write cycles in I/O space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Table 85. Switching characteristics for NAND Flash read cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Table 86. Switching characteristics for NAND Flash write cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Table 87. DCMI characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Table 88. Dynamic characteristics: SD / MMC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Table 89. RTC characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Table 90. WLCSP90 - 0.400 mm pitch wafer level chip size package mechanical data . . . . . . . . . 159 Table 91. LQFP64 – 10 x 10 mm 64 pin low-profile quad flat package mechanical data . . . . . . . . . 160 Table 92. LQPF100 – 14 x 14 mm 100-pin low-profile quad flat package mechanical data. . . . . . . 162 Table 93. LQFP144, 20 x 20 mm, 144-pin low-profile quad flat package mechanical data . . . . . . . 164 Table 94. UFBGA176+25 - ultra thin fine pitch ball grid array 10 × 10 × 0.6 mm mechanical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Table 95. LQFP176, 24 x 24 mm, 176-pin low-profile quad flat package mechanical data . . . . . . . 167 DocID022152 Rev 4 7/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx List of tables Table 96. Package thermal characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Table 97. Ordering information scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Table 98. Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 List of figures STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 8/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 List of figures Figure 1. Compatible board design between STM32F10xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP64. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 2. Compatible board design STM32F10xx/STM32F2xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP100 package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 3. Compatible board design between STM32F10xx/STM32F2xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP144 package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 4. Compatible board design between STM32F2xx and STM32F4xx for LQFP176 and BGA176 packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 5. STM32F40x block diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Figure 6. Multi-AHB matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 7. Power supply supervisor interconnection with internal reset OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figure 8. PDR_ON and NRST control with internal reset OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 9. Regulator OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Figure 10. Startup in regulator OFF mode: slow VDD slope - power-down reset risen after VCAP_1/VCAP_2 stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Figure 11. Startup in regulator OFF mode: fast VDD slope - power-down reset risen before VCAP_1/VCAP_2 stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Figure 12. STM32F40x LQFP64 pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Figure 13. STM32F40x LQFP100 pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 14. STM32F40x LQFP144 pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 15. STM32F40x LQFP176 pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Figure 16. STM32F40x UFBGA176 ballout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 17. STM32F40x WLCSP90 ballout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Figure 18. STM32F40x memory map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Figure 19. Pin loading conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Figure 20. Pin input voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Figure 21. Power supply scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Figure 22. Current consumption measurement scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Figure 23. External capacitor CEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Figure 24. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator ON) or RAM, and peripherals OFF . . . . 85 Figure 25. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator ON) or RAM, and peripherals ON . . . . . 85 Figure 26. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator OFF) or RAM, and peripherals OFF . . . 86 Figure 27. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator OFF) or RAM, and peripherals ON . . . . 86 Figure 28. Typical VBAT current consumption (LSE and RTC ON/backup RAM OFF) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Figure 29. Typical VBAT current consumption (LSE and RTC ON/backup RAM ON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 30. High-speed external clock source AC timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Figure 31. Low-speed external clock source AC timing diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Figure 32. Typical application with an 8 MHz crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Figure 33. Typical application with a 32.768 kHz crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Figure 34. ACCLSI versus temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Figure 35. PLL output clock waveforms in center spread mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Figure 36. PLL output clock waveforms in down spread mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Figure 37. I/O AC characteristics definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Figure 38. Recommended NRST pin protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Figure 39. I2C bus AC waveforms and measurement circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 DocID022152 Rev 4 9/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx List of figures Figure 40. SPI timing diagram - slave mode and CPHA = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 41. SPI timing diagram - slave mode and CPHA = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 42. SPI timing diagram - master mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Figure 43. I2S slave timing diagram (Philips protocol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Figure 44. I2S master timing diagram (Philips protocol)(1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Figure 45. USB OTG FS timings: definition of data signal rise and fall time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Figure 46. ULPI timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Figure 47. Ethernet SMI timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Figure 48. Ethernet RMII timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Figure 49. Ethernet MII timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Figure 50. ADC accuracy characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Figure 51. Typical connection diagram using the ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Figure 52. Power supply and reference decoupling (VREF+ not connected to VDDA). . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Figure 53. Power supply and reference decoupling (VREF+ connected to VDDA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Figure 54. 12-bit buffered /non-buffered DAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Figure 55. Asynchronous non-multiplexed SRAM/PSRAM/NOR read waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Figure 56. Asynchronous non-multiplexed SRAM/PSRAM/NOR write waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Figure 57. Asynchronous multiplexed PSRAM/NOR read waveforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Figure 58. Asynchronous multiplexed PSRAM/NOR write waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Figure 59. Synchronous multiplexed NOR/PSRAM read timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 60. Synchronous multiplexed PSRAM write timings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Figure 61. Synchronous non-multiplexed NOR/PSRAM read timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Figure 62. Synchronous non-multiplexed PSRAM write timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Figure 63. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for common memory read access . . . . . . 148 Figure 64. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for common memory write access . . . . . . 148 Figure 65. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for attribute memory read access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Figure 66. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for attribute memory write access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Figure 67. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for I/O space read access . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Figure 68. PC Card/CompactFlash controller waveforms for I/O space write access . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Figure 69. NAND controller waveforms for read access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Figure 70. NAND controller waveforms for write access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Figure 71. NAND controller waveforms for common memory read access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Figure 72. NAND controller waveforms for common memory write access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Figure 73. DCMI timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Figure 74. SDIO high-speed mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Figure 75. SD default mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Figure 76. WLCSP90 - 0.400 mm pitch wafer level chip size package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 77. LQFP64 – 10 x 10 mm 64 pin low-profile quad flat package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Figure 78. LQFP64 recommended footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Figure 79. LQFP100, 14 x 14 mm 100-pin low-profile quad flat package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Figure 80. LQFP100 recommended footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 81. LQFP144, 20 x 20 mm, 144-pin low-profile quad flat package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Figure 82. LQFP144 recommended footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Figure 83. UFBGA176+25 - ultra thin fine pitch ball grid array 10 × 10 × 0.6 mm, package outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Figure 84. LQFP176 24 x 24 mm, 176-pin low-profile quad flat package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Figure 85. LQFP176 recommended footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Figure 86. USB controller configured as peripheral-only and used in Full speed mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Figure 87. USB controller configured as host-only and used in full speed mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 List of figures STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 10/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 88. USB controller configured in dual mode and used in full speed mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Figure 89. USB controller configured as peripheral, host, or dual-mode and used in high speed mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Figure 90. MII mode using a 25 MHz crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Figure 91. RMII with a 50 MHz oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Figure 92. RMII with a 25 MHz crystal and PHY with PLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 DocID022152 Rev 4 11/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Introduction 1 Introduction This datasheet provides the description of the STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx lines of microcontrollers. For more details on the whole STMicroelectronics STM32™ family, please refer to Section 2.1: Full compatibility throughout the family. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx datasheet should be read in conjunction with the STM32F4xx reference manual. The reference and Flash programming manuals are both available from the STMicroelectronics website www.st.com. For information on the Cortex™-M4 core, please refer to the Cortex™-M4 programming manual (PM0214) available from www.st.com. Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 12/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2 Description The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family is based on the high-performance ARM® Cortex™-M4 32-bit RISC core operating at a frequency of up to 168 MHz. The Cortex-M4 core features a Floating point unit (FPU) single precision which supports all ARM singleprecision data-processing instructions and data types. It also implements a full set of DSP instructions and a memory protection unit (MPU) which enhances application security. The Cortex-M4 core with FPU will be referred to as Cortex-M4F throughout this document. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family incorporates high-speed embedded memories (Flash memory up to 1 Mbyte, up to 192 Kbytes of SRAM), up to 4 Kbytes of backup SRAM, and an extensive range of enhanced I/Os and peripherals connected to two APB buses, three AHB buses and a 32-bit multi-AHB bus matrix. All devices offer three 12-bit ADCs, two DACs, a low-power RTC, twelve general-purpose 16-bit timers including two PWM timers for motor control, two general-purpose 32-bit timers. a true random number generator (RNG). They also feature standard and advanced communication interfaces. • Up to three I2Cs • Three SPIs, two I2Ss full duplex. To achieve audio class accuracy, the I2S peripherals can be clocked via a dedicated internal audio PLL or via an external clock to allow synchronization. • Four USARTs plus two UARTs • An USB OTG full-speed and a USB OTG high-speed with full-speed capability (with the ULPI), • Two CANs • An SDIO/MMC interface • Ethernet and the camera interface available on STM32F407xx devices only. New advanced peripherals include an SDIO, an enhanced flexible static memory control (FSMC) interface (for devices offered in packages of 100 pins and more), a camera interface for CMOS sensors. Refer to Table 2: STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx: features and peripheral counts for the list of peripherals available on each part number. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family operates in the –40 to +105 °C temperature range from a 1.8 to 3.6 V power supply. The supply voltage can drop to 1.7 V when the device operates in the 0 to 70 °C temperature range using an external power supply supervisor: refer to Section : Internal reset OFF. A comprehensive set of power-saving mode allows the design of low-power applications. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family offers devices in various packages ranging from 64 pins to 176 pins. The set of included peripherals changes with the device chosen. These features make the STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx microcontroller family suitable for a wide range of applications: • Motor drive and application control • Medical equipment • Industrial applications: PLC, inverters, circuit breakers • Printers, and scanners • Alarm systems, video intercom, and HVAC • Home audio appliances STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description DocID022152 Rev 4 13/185 Figure 5 shows the general block diagram of the device family. Table 2. STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx: features and peripheral counts Peripherals STM32F405RG STM32F405OG STM32F405VG STM32F405ZG STM32F405OE STM32F407Vx STM32F407Zx STM32F407Ix Flash memory in Kbytes 1024 512 512 1024 512 1024 512 1024 SRAM in Kbytes System 192(112+16+64) Backup 4 FSMC memory controller No Yes(1) Ethernet No Yes Timers Generalpurpose 10 Advanced -control 2 Basic 2 IWDG Yes WWDG Yes RTC Yes Random number generator Yes Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 14/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Communi cation interfaces SPI / I2S 3/2 (full duplex)(2) I2C 3 USART/ UART 4/2 USB OTG FS Yes USB OTG HS Yes CAN 2 SDIO Yes Camera interface No Yes GPIOs 51 72 82 114 72 82 114 140 12-bit ADC Number of channels 3 16 13 16 24 13 16 24 24 12-bit DAC Number of channels Yes 2 Maximum CPU frequency 168 MHz Operating voltage 1.8 to 3.6 V(3) Operating temperatures Ambient temperatures: –40 to +85 °C /–40 to +105 °C Junction temperature: –40 to + 125 °C Package LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 1. For the LQFP100 and WLCSP90 packages, only FSMC Bank1 or Bank2 are available. Bank1 can only support a multiplexed NOR/PSRAM memory using the NE1 Chip Select. Bank2 can only support a 16- or 8-bit NAND Flash memory using the NCE2 Chip Select. The interrupt line cannot be used since Port G is not available in this package. 2. The SPI2 and SPI3 interfaces give the flexibility to work in an exclusive way in either the SPI mode or the I2S audio mode. 3. VDD/VDDA minimum value of 1.7 V is obtained when the device operates in reduced temperature range, and with the use of an external power supply supervisor (refer to Section : Internal reset OFF). Table 2. STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx: features and peripheral counts Peripherals STM32F405RG STM32F405OG STM32F405VG STM32F405ZG STM32F405OE STM32F407Vx STM32F407Zx STM32F407Ix DocID022152 Rev 4 15/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description 2.1 Full compatibility throughout the family The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx are part of the STM32F4 family. They are fully pinto- pin, software and feature compatible with the STM32F2xx devices, allowing the user to try different memory densities, peripherals, and performances (FPU, higher frequency) for a greater degree of freedom during the development cycle. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx devices maintain a close compatibility with the whole STM32F10xxx family. All functional pins are pin-to-pin compatible. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx, however, are not drop-in replacements for the STM32F10xxx devices: the two families do not have the same power scheme, and so their power pins are different. Nonetheless, transition from the STM32F10xxx to the STM32F40x family remains simple as only a few pins are impacted. Figure 4, Figure 3, Figure 2, and Figure 1 give compatible board designs between the STM32F40x, STM32F2xxx, and STM32F10xxx families. Figure 1. Compatible board design between STM32F10xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP64 31 1 16 17 32 48 33 64 49 47 VSS VSS VSS VSS 0 Ω resistor or soldering bridge present for the STM32F10xx configuration, not present in the STM32F4xx configuration ai18489 Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 16/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 2. Compatible board design STM32F10xx/STM32F2xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP100 package Figure 3. Compatible board design between STM32F10xx/STM32F2xx/STM32F4xx for LQFP144 package 20 49 1 25 26 50 75 51 100 76 73 19 VSS VSS VDD VSS VSS VSS 0 ΩΩ resistor or soldering bridge present for the STM32F10xxx configuration, not present in the STM32F4xx configuration ai18488c 99 (VSS) VDD VSS Two 0 Ω resistors connected to: - VSS for the STM32F10xx - VSS for the STM32F4xx VSS for STM32F10xx VDD for STM32F4xx - VSS, VDD or NC for the STM32F2xx ai18487d 31 71 1 36 37 72 108 73 144 109 VSS 0 Ω resistor or soldering bridge present for the STM32F10xx configuration, not present in the STM32F4xx configuration 106 VSS 30 Two 0 Ω resistors connected to: - VSS for the STM32F10xx - VDD or signal from external power supply supervisor for the STM32F4xx VDD VSS VSS VSS 143 (PDR_ON) VDD VSS VSS for STM32F10xx VDD for STM32F4xx - VSS, VDD or NC for the STM32F2xx Signal from external power supply supervisor DocID022152 Rev 4 17/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description Figure 4. Compatible board design between STM32F2xx and STM32F4xx for LQFP176 and BGA176 packages MS19919V3 1 44 45 88 132 89 176 133 Two 0 Ω resistors connected to: - VSS, VDD or NC for the STM32F2xx - VDD or signal from external power supply supervisor for the STM32F4xx 171 (PDR_ON) VDDVSS Signal from external power supply supervisor Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 18/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2.2 Device overview Figure 5. STM32F40x block diagram 1. The timers connected to APB2 are clocked from TIMxCLK up to 168 MHz, while the timers connected to APB1 are clocked from TIMxCLK either up to 84 MHz or 168 MHz, depending on TIMPRE bit configuration in the RCC_DCKCFGR register. 2. The camera interface and ethernet are available only on STM32F407xx devices. MS19920V3 GPIO PORT A AHB/APB2 140 AF PA[15:0] TIM1 / PWM 4 compl. channels (TIM1_CH1[1:4]N, 4 channels (TIM1_CH1[1:4]ETR, BKIN as AF RX, TX, CK, CTS, RTS as AF MOSI, MISO, SCK, NSS as AF APB 1 30M Hz 8 analog inputs common to the 3 ADCs VDDREF_ADC MOSI/SD, MISO/SD_ext, SCK/CK NSS/WS, MCK as AF TX, RX DAC1_OUT as AF ITF WWDG 4 KB BKPSRAM RTC_AF1 OSC32_IN OSC32_OUT VDDA, VSSA NRST 16b SDIO / MMC D[7:0] CMD, CK as AF VBAT = 1.65 to 3.6 V DMA2 SCL, SDA, SMBA as AF JTAG & SW ARM Cortex-M4 168 MHz ETM NVIC MPU TRACECLK TRACED[3:0] Ethernet MAC 10/100 DMA/ FIFO MII or RMII as AF MDIO as AF USB OTG HS DP, DM ULPI:CK, D[7:0], DIR, STP, NXT ID, VBUS, SOF DMA2 8 Streams FIFO ART ACCEL/ CACHE SRAM 112 KB CLK, NE [3:0], A[23:0], D[31:0], OEN, WEN, NBL[3:0], NL, NREG, NWAIT/IORDY, CD INTN, NIIS16 as AF RNG Camera interface HSYNC, VSYNC PUIXCLK, D[13:0] PHY USB OTG FS DP DM ID, VBUS, SOF FIFO AHB1 168 MHz PHY FIFO @VDDA @VDDA POR/PDR BOR Supply supervision @VDDA PVD Int POR reset XTAL 32 kHz MAN AGT RTC RC HS FCLK RC LS PWR interface IWDG @VBAT AWU Reset & clock control P L L1&2 PCLKx VDD = 1.8 to 3.6 V VSS VCAP1, VCPA2 Voltage regulator 3.3 to 1.2 V VDD Power managmt Backup register RTC_AF1 AHB bus-matrix 8S7M LS 2 channels as AF DAC1 DAC2 Flash up to 1 MB SRAM, PSRAM, NOR Flash, PC Card (ATA), NAND Flash External memory controller (FSMC) TIM6 TIM7 TIM2 TIM3 TIM4 TIM5 TIM12 TIM13 TIM14 USART2 USART3 UART4 UART5 SP3/I2S3 I2C1/SMBUS I2C2/SMBUS I2C3/SMBUS bxCAN1 bxCAN2 SPI1 EXT IT. WKUP D-BUS FIFO FPU APB142 MHz (max) SRAM 16 KB CCM data RAM 64 KB AHB3 AHB2 168 MHz NJTRST, JTDI, JTCK/SWCLK JTDO/SWD, JTDO I-BUS S-BUS DMA/ FIFO DMA1 8 Streams FIFO PB[15:0] PC[15:0] PD[15:0] PE[15:0] PF[15:0] PG[15:0] PH[15:0] PI[11:0] GPIO PORT B GPIO PORT C GPIO PORT D GPIO PORT E GPIO PORT F GPIO PORT G GPIO PORT H GPIO PORT I TIM8 / PWM 16b 4 compl. channels (TIM1_CH1[1:4]N, 4 channels (TIM1_CH1[1:4]ETR, BKIN as AF 1 channel as AF 1 channel as AF RX, TX, CK, CTS, RTS as AF 8 analog inputs common to the ADC1 & 2 8 analog inputs for ADC3 DAC2_OUT as AF 16b 16b SCL, SDA, SMBA as AF SCL, SDA, SMBA as AF MOSI/SD, MISO/SD_ext, SCK/CK NSS/WS, MCK as AF TX, RX RX, TX as AF RX, TX as AF RX, TX as AF CTS, RTS as AF RX, TX as AF CTS, RTS as AF 1 channel as AF smcard irDA smcard irDA 16b 16b 16b 1 channel as AF 2 channels as AF 32b 16b 16b 32b 4 channels 4 channels, ETR as AF 4 channels, ETR as AF 4 channels, ETR as AF DMA1 AHB/APB1 LS OSC_IN OSC_OUT HCLKx XTAL OSC 4- 16MHz FIFO SP2/I2S2 NIORD, IOWR, INT[2:3] ADC3 ADC2 ADC1 Temperature sensor IF TIM9 16b TIM10 16b TIM11 16b smcard irDA USART1 irDA smcard USART6 APB2 84 MHz @VDD @VDD @VDDA DocID022152 Rev 4 19/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description 2.2.1 ARM® Cortex™-M4F core with embedded Flash and SRAM The ARM Cortex-M4F processor is the latest generation of ARM processors for embedded systems. It was developed to provide a low-cost platform that meets the needs of MCU implementation, with a reduced pin count and low-power consumption, while delivering outstanding computational performance and an advanced response to interrupts. The ARM Cortex-M4F 32-bit RISC processor features exceptional code-efficiency, delivering the high-performance expected from an ARM core in the memory size usually associated with 8- and 16-bit devices. The processor supports a set of DSP instructions which allow efficient signal processing and complex algorithm execution. Its single precision FPU (floating point unit) speeds up software development by using metalanguage development tools, while avoiding saturation. The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family is compatible with all ARM tools and software. Figure 5 shows the general block diagram of the STM32F40x family. Note: Cortex-M4F is binary compatible with Cortex-M3. 2.2.2 Adaptive real-time memory accelerator (ART Accelerator™) The ART Accelerator™ is a memory accelerator which is optimized for STM32 industrystandard ARM® Cortex™-M4F processors. It balances the inherent performance advantage of the ARM Cortex-M4F over Flash memory technologies, which normally requires the processor to wait for the Flash memory at higher frequencies. To release the processor full 210 DMIPS performance at this frequency, the accelerator implements an instruction prefetch queue and branch cache, which increases program execution speed from the 128-bit Flash memory. Based on CoreMark benchmark, the performance achieved thanks to the ART accelerator is equivalent to 0 wait state program execution from Flash memory at a CPU frequency up to 168 MHz. 2.2.3 Memory protection unit The memory protection unit (MPU) is used to manage the CPU accesses to memory to prevent one task to accidentally corrupt the memory or resources used by any other active task. This memory area is organized into up to 8 protected areas that can in turn be divided up into 8 subareas. The protection area sizes are between 32 bytes and the whole 4 gigabytes of addressable memory. The MPU is especially helpful for applications where some critical or certified code has to be protected against the misbehavior of other tasks. It is usually managed by an RTOS (realtime operating system). If a program accesses a memory location that is prohibited by the MPU, the RTOS can detect it and take action. In an RTOS environment, the kernel can dynamically update the MPU area setting, based on the process to be executed. The MPU is optional and can be bypassed for applications that do not need it. 2.2.4 Embedded Flash memory The STM32F40x devices embed a Flash memory of 512 Kbytes or 1 Mbytes available for storing programs and data. Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 20/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2.2.5 CRC (cyclic redundancy check) calculation unit The CRC (cyclic redundancy check) calculation unit is used to get a CRC code from a 32-bit data word and a fixed generator polynomial. Among other applications, CRC-based techniques are used to verify data transmission or storage integrity. In the scope of the EN/IEC 60335-1 standard, they offer a means of verifying the Flash memory integrity. The CRC calculation unit helps compute a software signature during runtime, to be compared with a reference signature generated at link-time and stored at a given memory location. 2.2.6 Embedded SRAM All STM32F40x products embed: • Up to 192 Kbytes of system SRAM including 64 Kbytes of CCM (core coupled memory) data RAM RAM memory is accessed (read/write) at CPU clock speed with 0 wait states. • 4 Kbytes of backup SRAM This area is accessible only from the CPU. Its content is protected against possible unwanted write accesses, and is retained in Standby or VBAT mode. 2.2.7 Multi-AHB bus matrix The 32-bit multi-AHB bus matrix interconnects all the masters (CPU, DMAs, Ethernet, USB HS) and the slaves (Flash memory, RAM, FSMC, AHB and APB peripherals) and ensures a seamless and efficient operation even when several high-speed peripherals work simultaneously. DocID022152 Rev 4 21/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description Figure 6. Multi-AHB matrix 2.2.8 DMA controller (DMA) The devices feature two general-purpose dual-port DMAs (DMA1 and DMA2) with 8 streams each. They are able to manage memory-to-memory, peripheral-to-memory and memory-to-peripheral transfers. They feature dedicated FIFOs for APB/AHB peripherals, support burst transfer and are designed to provide the maximum peripheral bandwidth (AHB/APB). The two DMA controllers support circular buffer management, so that no specific code is needed when the controller reaches the end of the buffer. The two DMA controllers also have a double buffering feature, which automates the use and switching of two memory buffers without requiring any special code. Each stream is connected to dedicated hardware DMA requests, with support for software trigger on each stream. Configuration is made by software and transfer sizes between source and destination are independent. The DMA can be used with the main peripherals: • SPI and I2S • I2C • USART • General-purpose, basic and advanced-control timers TIMx • DAC • SDIO • Camera interface (DCMI) • ADC. ARM Cortex-M4 GP DMA1 GP DMA2 MAC Ethernet USB OTG HS Bus matrix-S S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 ICODE DCODE ACCEL Flash memory SRAM1 112 Kbyte SRAM2 16 Kbyte AHB1 peripherals AHB2 FSMC Static MemCtl M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 I-bus D-bus S-bus DMA_PI DMA_MEM1 DMA_MEM2 DMA_P2 ETHERNET_M USB_HS_M ai18490c CCM data RAM 64-Kbyte APB1 APB2 peripherals Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 22/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2.2.9 Flexible static memory controller (FSMC) The FSMC is embedded in the STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx family. It has four Chip Select outputs supporting the following modes: PCCard/Compact Flash, SRAM, PSRAM, NOR Flash and NAND Flash. Functionality overview: • Write FIFO • Maximum FSMC_CLK frequency for synchronous accesses is 60 MHz. LCD parallel interface The FSMC can be configured to interface seamlessly with most graphic LCD controllers. It supports the Intel 8080 and Motorola 6800 modes, and is flexible enough to adapt to specific LCD interfaces. This LCD parallel interface capability makes it easy to build costeffective graphic applications using LCD modules with embedded controllers or high performance solutions using external controllers with dedicated acceleration. 2.2.10 Nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC) The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx embed a nested vectored interrupt controller able to manage 16 priority levels, and handle up to 82 maskable interrupt channels plus the 16 interrupt lines of the Cortex™-M4F. • Closely coupled NVIC gives low-latency interrupt processing • Interrupt entry vector table address passed directly to the core • Allows early processing of interrupts • Processing of late arriving, higher-priority interrupts • Support tail chaining • Processor state automatically saved • Interrupt entry restored on interrupt exit with no instruction overhead This hardware block provides flexible interrupt management features with minimum interrupt latency. 2.2.11 External interrupt/event controller (EXTI) The external interrupt/event controller consists of 23 edge-detector lines used to generate interrupt/event requests. Each line can be independently configured to select the trigger event (rising edge, falling edge, both) and can be masked independently. A pending register maintains the status of the interrupt requests. The EXTI can detect an external line with a pulse width shorter than the Internal APB2 clock period. Up to 140 GPIOs can be connected to the 16 external interrupt lines. 2.2.12 Clocks and startup On reset the 16 MHz internal RC oscillator is selected as the default CPU clock. The 16 MHz internal RC oscillator is factory-trimmed to offer 1% accuracy over the full temperature range. The application can then select as system clock either the RC oscillator or an external 4-26 MHz clock source. This clock can be monitored for failure. If a failure is detected, the system automatically switches back to the internal RC oscillator and a software interrupt is generated (if enabled). This clock source is input to a PLL thus allowing to increase the frequency up to 168 MHz. Similarly, full interrupt management of the PLL DocID022152 Rev 4 23/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description clock entry is available when necessary (for example if an indirectly used external oscillator fails). Several prescalers allow the configuration of the three AHB buses, the high-speed APB (APB2) and the low-speed APB (APB1) domains. The maximum frequency of the three AHB buses is 168 MHz while the maximum frequency of the high-speed APB domains is 84 MHz. The maximum allowed frequency of the low-speed APB domain is 42 MHz. The devices embed a dedicated PLL (PLLI2S) which allows to achieve audio class performance. In this case, the I2S master clock can generate all standard sampling frequencies from 8 kHz to 192 kHz. 2.2.13 Boot modes At startup, boot pins are used to select one out of three boot options: • Boot from user Flash • Boot from system memory • Boot from embedded SRAM The boot loader is located in system memory. It is used to reprogram the Flash memory by using USART1 (PA9/PA10), USART3 (PC10/PC11 or PB10/PB11), CAN2 (PB5/PB13), USB OTG FS in Device mode (PA11/PA12) through DFU (device firmware upgrade). 2.2.14 Power supply schemes • VDD = 1.8 to 3.6 V: external power supply for I/Os and the internal regulator (when enabled), provided externally through VDD pins. • VSSA, VDDA = 1.8 to 3.6 V: external analog power supplies for ADC, DAC, Reset blocks, RCs and PLL. VDDA and VSSA must be connected to VDD and VSS, respectively. • VBAT = 1.65 to 3.6 V: power supply for RTC, external clock 32 kHz oscillator and backup registers (through power switch) when VDD is not present. Refer to Figure 21: Power supply scheme for more details. Note: VDD/VDDA minimum value of 1.7 V is obtained when the device operates in reduced temperature range, and with the use of an external power supply supervisor (refer to Section : Internal reset OFF). Refer to Table 2 in order to identify the packages supporting this option. 2.2.15 Power supply supervisor Internal reset ON On packages embedding the PDR_ON pin, the power supply supervisor is enabled by holding PDR_ON high. On all other packages, the power supply supervisor is always enabled. The device has an integrated power-on reset (POR) / power-down reset (PDR) circuitry coupled with a Brownout reset (BOR) circuitry. At power-on, POR/PDR is always active and ensures proper operation starting from 1.8 V. After the 1.8 V POR threshold level is reached, the option byte loading process starts, either to confirm or modify default BOR threshold levels, or to disable BOR permanently. Three BOR thresholds are available through option bytes. The device remains in reset mode when VDD is below a specified threshold, VPOR/PDR or VBOR, without the need for an external reset circuit. Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 24/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 The device also features an embedded programmable voltage detector (PVD) that monitors the VDD/VDDA power supply and compares it to the VPVD threshold. An interrupt can be generated when VDD/VDDA drops below the VPVD threshold and/or when VDD/VDDA is higher than the VPVD threshold. The interrupt service routine can then generate a warning message and/or put the MCU into a safe state. The PVD is enabled by software. Internal reset OFF This feature is available only on packages featuring the PDR_ON pin. The internal power-on reset (POR) / power-down reset (PDR) circuitry is disabled with the PDR_ON pin. An external power supply supervisor should monitor VDD and should maintain the device in reset mode as long as VDD is below a specified threshold. PDR_ON should be connected to this external power supply supervisor. Refer to Figure 7: Power supply supervisor interconnection with internal reset OFF. Figure 7. Power supply supervisor interconnection with internal reset OFF 1. PDR = 1.7 V for reduce temperature range; PDR = 1.8 V for all temperature range. The VDD specified threshold, below which the device must be maintained under reset, is 1.8 V (see Figure 7). This supply voltage can drop to 1.7 V when the device operates in the 0 to 70 °C temperature range. A comprehensive set of power-saving mode allows to design low-power applications. When the internal reset is OFF, the following integrated features are no more supported: • The integrated power-on reset (POR) / power-down reset (PDR) circuitry is disabled • The brownout reset (BOR) circuitry is disabled • The embedded programmable voltage detector (PVD) is disabled • VBAT functionality is no more available and VBAT pin should be connected to VDD All packages, except for the LQFP64 and LQFP100, allow to disable the internal reset through the PDR_ON signal. MS31383V3 NRST VDD PDR_ON External VDD power supply supervisor Ext. reset controller active when VDD < 1.7 V or 1.8 V (1) VDD Application reset signal (optional) DocID022152 Rev 4 25/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description Figure 8. PDR_ON and NRST control with internal reset OFF 1. PDR = 1.7 V for reduce temperature range; PDR = 1.8 V for all temperature range. 2.2.16 Voltage regulator The regulator has four operating modes: • Regulator ON – Main regulator mode (MR) – Low power regulator (LPR) – Power-down • Regulator OFF Regulator ON On packages embedding the BYPASS_REG pin, the regulator is enabled by holding BYPASS_REG low. On all other packages, the regulator is always enabled. There are three power modes configured by software when regulator is ON: • MR is used in the nominal regulation mode (With different voltage scaling in Run) In Main regulator mode (MR mode), different voltage scaling are provided to reach the best compromise between maximum frequency and dynamic power consumption. Refer to Table 14: General operating conditions. • LPR is used in the Stop modes The LP regulator mode is configured by software when entering Stop mode. • Power-down is used in Standby mode. The Power-down mode is activated only when entering in Standby mode. The regulator output is in high impedance and the kernel circuitry is powered down, inducing zero consumption. The contents of the registers and SRAM are lost) MS19009V6 VDD time PDR = 1.7 V or 1.8 V (1) time NRST PDR_ON PDR_ON Reset by other source than power supply supervisor Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 26/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Two external ceramic capacitors should be connected on VCAP_1 & VCAP_2 pin. Refer to Figure 21: Power supply scheme and Figure 16: VCAP_1/VCAP_2 operating conditions. All packages have regulator ON feature. Regulator OFF This feature is available only on packages featuring the BYPASS_REG pin. The regulator is disabled by holding BYPASS_REG high. The regulator OFF mode allows to supply externally a V12 voltage source through VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 pins. Since the internal voltage scaling is not manage internally, the external voltage value must be aligned with the targetted maximum frequency. Refer to Table 14: General operating conditions. The two 2.2 μF ceramic capacitors should be replaced by two 100 nF decoupling capacitors. Refer to Figure 21: Power supply scheme When the regulator is OFF, there is no more internal monitoring on V12. An external power supply supervisor should be used to monitor the V12 of the logic power domain. PA0 pin should be used for this purpose, and act as power-on reset on V12 power domain. In regulator OFF mode the following features are no more supported: • PA0 cannot be used as a GPIO pin since it allows to reset a part of the V12 logic power domain which is not reset by the NRST pin. • As long as PA0 is kept low, the debug mode cannot be used under power-on reset. As a consequence, PA0 and NRST pins must be managed separately if the debug connection under reset or pre-reset is required. Figure 9. Regulator OFF ai18498V4 External VCAP_1/2 power supply supervisor Ext. reset controller active when VCAP_1/2 < Min V12 V12 VCAP_1 VCAP_2 BYPASS_REG VDD PA0 NRST Application reset signal (optional) VDD V12 DocID022152 Rev 4 27/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description The following conditions must be respected: • VDD should always be higher than VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 to avoid current injection between power domains. • If the time for VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 to reach V12 minimum value is faster than the time for VDD to reach 1.8 V, then PA0 should be kept low to cover both conditions: until VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 reach V12 minimum value and until VDD reaches 1.8 V (see Figure 10). • Otherwise, if the time for VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 to reach V12 minimum value is slower than the time for VDD to reach 1.8 V, then PA0 could be asserted low externally (see Figure 11). • If VCAP_1 and VCAP_2 go below V12 minimum value and VDD is higher than 1.8 V, then a reset must be asserted on PA0 pin. Note: The minimum value of V12 depends on the maximum frequency targeted in the application (see Table 14: General operating conditions). Figure 10. Startup in regulator OFF mode: slow VDD slope - power-down reset risen after VCAP_1/VCAP_2 stabilization 1. This figure is valid both whatever the internal reset mode (onON or OFFoff). 2. PDR = 1.7 V for reduced temperature range; PDR = 1.8 V for all temperature ranges. ai18491e VDD time Min V12 PDR = 1.7 V or 1.8 V (2) VCAP_1/VCAP_2 V12 NRST time Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 28/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 11. Startup in regulator OFF mode: fast VDD slope - power-down reset risen before VCAP_1/VCAP_2 stabilization 1. This figure is valid both whatever the internal reset mode (onON or offOFF). 2. PDR = 1.7 V for a reduced temperature range; PDR = 1.8 V for all temperature ranges. 2.2.17 Regulator ON/OFF and internal reset ON/OFF availability 2.2.18 Real-time clock (RTC), backup SRAM and backup registers The backup domain of the STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx includes: • The real-time clock (RTC) • 4 Kbytes of backup SRAM • 20 backup registers The real-time clock (RTC) is an independent BCD timer/counter. Dedicated registers contain the second, minute, hour (in 12/24 hour), week day, date, month, year, in BCD (binarycoded decimal) format. Correction for 28, 29 (leap year), 30, and 31 day of the month are performed automatically. The RTC provides a programmable alarm and programmable periodic interrupts with wakeup from Stop and Standby modes. The sub-seconds value is also available in binary format. It is clocked by a 32.768 kHz external crystal, resonator or oscillator, the internal low-power RC oscillator or the high-speed external clock divided by 128. The internal low-speed RC VDD time Min V12 VCAP_1/VCAP_2 V12 PA0 asserted externally NRST time ai18492d PDR = 1.7 V or 1.8 V (2) Table 3. Regulator ON/OFF and internal reset ON/OFF availability Regulator ON Regulator OFF Internal reset ON Internal reset OFF LQFP64 LQFP100 Yes No Yes No LQFP144 LQFP176 Yes PDR_ON set to VDD Yes PDR_ON connected to an external power supply supervisor WLCSP90 UFBGA176 Yes BYPASS_REG set to VSS Yes BYPASS_REG set to VDD DocID022152 Rev 4 29/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description has a typical frequency of 32 kHz. The RTC can be calibrated using an external 512 Hz output to compensate for any natural quartz deviation. Two alarm registers are used to generate an alarm at a specific time and calendar fields can be independently masked for alarm comparison. To generate a periodic interrupt, a 16-bit programmable binary auto-reload downcounter with programmable resolution is available and allows automatic wakeup and periodic alarms from every 120 μs to every 36 hours. A 20-bit prescaler is used for the time base clock. It is by default configured to generate a time base of 1 second from a clock at 32.768 kHz. The 4-Kbyte backup SRAM is an EEPROM-like memory area. It can be used to store data which need to be retained in VBAT and standby mode. This memory area is disabled by default to minimize power consumption (see Section 2.2.19: Low-power modes). It can be enabled by software. The backup registers are 32-bit registers used to store 80 bytes of user application data when VDD power is not present. Backup registers are not reset by a system, a power reset, or when the device wakes up from the Standby mode (see Section 2.2.19: Low-power modes). Additional 32-bit registers contain the programmable alarm subseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, day, and date. Like backup SRAM, the RTC and backup registers are supplied through a switch that is powered either from the VDD supply when present or from the VBAT pin. 2.2.19 Low-power modes The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx support three low-power modes to achieve the best compromise between low power consumption, short startup time and available wakeup sources: • Sleep mode In Sleep mode, only the CPU is stopped. All peripherals continue to operate and can wake up the CPU when an interrupt/event occurs. • Stop mode The Stop mode achieves the lowest power consumption while retaining the contents of SRAM and registers. All clocks in the V12 domain are stopped, the PLL, the HSI RC and the HSE crystal oscillators are disabled. The voltage regulator can also be put either in normal or in low-power mode. The device can be woken up from the Stop mode by any of the EXTI line (the EXTI line source can be one of the 16 external lines, the PVD output, the RTC alarm / wakeup / tamper / time stamp events, the USB OTG FS/HS wakeup or the Ethernet wakeup). • Standby mode The Standby mode is used to achieve the lowest power consumption. The internal voltage regulator is switched off so that the entire V12 domain is powered off. The PLL, the HSI RC and the HSE crystal oscillators are also switched off. After entering Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 30/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Standby mode, the SRAM and register contents are lost except for registers in the backup domain and the backup SRAM when selected. The device exits the Standby mode when an external reset (NRST pin), an IWDG reset, a rising edge on the WKUP pin, or an RTC alarm / wakeup / tamper /time stamp event occurs. The standby mode is not supported when the embedded voltage regulator is bypassed and the V12 domain is controlled by an external power. 2.2.20 VBAT operation The VBAT pin allows to power the device VBAT domain from an external battery, an external supercapacitor, or from VDD when no external battery and an external supercapacitor are present. VBAT operation is activated when VDD is not present. The VBAT pin supplies the RTC, the backup registers and the backup SRAM. Note: When the microcontroller is supplied from VBAT, external interrupts and RTC alarm/events do not exit it from VBAT operation. When PDR_ON pin is not connected to VDD (internal reset OFF), the VBAT functionality is no more available and VBAT pin should be connected to VDD. 2.2.21 Timers and watchdogs The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx devices include two advanced-control timers, eight general-purpose timers, two basic timers and two watchdog timers. All timer counters can be frozen in debug mode. Table 4 compares the features of the advanced-control, general-purpose and basic timers. Table 4. Timer feature comparison Timer type Timer Counter resolutio n Counter type Prescaler factor DMA request generatio n Capture/ compare channels Complementar y output Max interface clock (MHz) Max timer clock (MHz) Advanced -control TIM1, TIM8 16-bit Up, Down, Up/dow n Any integer between 1 and 65536 Yes 4 Yes 84 168 DocID022152 Rev 4 31/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description Advanced-control timers (TIM1, TIM8) The advanced-control timers (TIM1, TIM8) can be seen as three-phase PWM generators multiplexed on 6 channels. They have complementary PWM outputs with programmable inserted dead times. They can also be considered as complete general-purpose timers. Their 4 independent channels can be used for: • Input capture • Output compare • PWM generation (edge- or center-aligned modes) • One-pulse mode output If configured as standard 16-bit timers, they have the same features as the general-purpose TIMx timers. If configured as 16-bit PWM generators, they have full modulation capability (0- 100%). The advanced-control timer can work together with the TIMx timers via the Timer Link feature for synchronization or event chaining. TIM1 and TIM8 support independent DMA request generation. General purpose TIM2, TIM5 32-bit Up, Down, Up/dow n Any integer between 1 and 65536 Yes 4 No 42 84 TIM3, TIM4 16-bit Up, Down, Up/dow n Any integer between 1 and 65536 Yes 4 No 42 84 TIM9 16-bit Up Any integer between 1 and 65536 No 2 No 84 168 TIM10 , TIM11 16-bit Up Any integer between 1 and 65536 No 1 No 84 168 TIM12 16-bit Up Any integer between 1 and 65536 No 2 No 42 84 TIM13 , TIM14 16-bit Up Any integer between 1 and 65536 No 1 No 42 84 Basic TIM6, TIM7 16-bit Up Any integer between 1 and 65536 Yes 0 No 42 84 Table 4. Timer feature comparison (continued) Timer type Timer Counter resolutio n Counter type Prescaler factor DMA request generatio n Capture/ compare channels Complementar y output Max interface clock (MHz) Max timer clock (MHz) Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 32/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 General-purpose timers (TIMx) There are ten synchronizable general-purpose timers embedded in the STM32F40x devices (see Table 4 for differences). • TIM2, TIM3, TIM4, TIM5 The STM32F40x include 4 full-featured general-purpose timers: TIM2, TIM5, TIM3, and TIM4.The TIM2 and TIM5 timers are based on a 32-bit auto-reload up/downcounter and a 16-bit prescaler. The TIM3 and TIM4 timers are based on a 16- bit auto-reload up/downcounter and a 16-bit prescaler. They all feature 4 independent channels for input capture/output compare, PWM or one-pulse mode output. This gives up to 16 input capture/output compare/PWMs on the largest packages. The TIM2, TIM3, TIM4, TIM5 general-purpose timers can work together, or with the other general-purpose timers and the advanced-control timers TIM1 and TIM8 via the Timer Link feature for synchronization or event chaining. Any of these general-purpose timers can be used to generate PWM outputs. TIM2, TIM3, TIM4, TIM5 all have independent DMA request generation. They are capable of handling quadrature (incremental) encoder signals and the digital outputs from 1 to 4 hall-effect sensors. • TIM9, TIM10, TIM11, TIM12, TIM13, and TIM14 These timers are based on a 16-bit auto-reload upcounter and a 16-bit prescaler. TIM10, TIM11, TIM13, and TIM14 feature one independent channel, whereas TIM9 and TIM12 have two independent channels for input capture/output compare, PWM or one-pulse mode output. They can be synchronized with the TIM2, TIM3, TIM4, TIM5 full-featured general-purpose timers. They can also be used as simple time bases. Basic timers TIM6 and TIM7 These timers are mainly used for DAC trigger and waveform generation. They can also be used as a generic 16-bit time base. TIM6 and TIM7 support independent DMA request generation. Independent watchdog The independent watchdog is based on a 12-bit downcounter and 8-bit prescaler. It is clocked from an independent 32 kHz internal RC and as it operates independently from the main clock, it can operate in Stop and Standby modes. It can be used either as a watchdog to reset the device when a problem occurs, or as a free-running timer for application timeout management. It is hardware- or software-configurable through the option bytes. Window watchdog The window watchdog is based on a 7-bit downcounter that can be set as free-running. It can be used as a watchdog to reset the device when a problem occurs. It is clocked from the main clock. It has an early warning interrupt capability and the counter can be frozen in debug mode. DocID022152 Rev 4 33/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description SysTick timer This timer is dedicated to real-time operating systems, but could also be used as a standard downcounter. It features: • A 24-bit downcounter • Autoreload capability • Maskable system interrupt generation when the counter reaches 0 • Programmable clock source. 2.2.22 Inter-integrated circuit interface (I²C) Up to three I²C bus interfaces can operate in multimaster and slave modes. They can support the Standard-mode (up to 100 kHz) and Fast-mode (up to 400 kHz) . They support the 7/10-bit addressing mode and the 7-bit dual addressing mode (as slave). A hardware CRC generation/verification is embedded. They can be served by DMA and they support SMBus 2.0/PMBus. 2.2.23 Universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver transmitters (USART) The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx embed four universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver transmitters (USART1, USART2, USART3 and USART6) and two universal asynchronous receiver transmitters (UART4 and UART5). These six interfaces provide asynchronous communication, IrDA SIR ENDEC support, multiprocessor communication mode, single-wire half-duplex communication mode and have LIN Master/Slave capability. The USART1 and USART6 interfaces are able to communicate at speeds of up to 10.5 Mbit/s. The other available interfaces communicate at up to 5.25 Mbit/s. USART1, USART2, USART3 and USART6 also provide hardware management of the CTS and RTS signals, Smart Card mode (ISO 7816 compliant) and SPI-like communication capability. All interfaces can be served by the DMA controller. Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 34/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2.2.24 Serial peripheral interface (SPI) The STM32F40x feature up to three SPIs in slave and master modes in full-duplex and simplex communication modes. SPI1 can communicate at up to 42 Mbits/s, SPI2 and SPI3 can communicate at up to 21 Mbit/s. The 3-bit prescaler gives 8 master mode frequencies and the frame is configurable to 8 bits or 16 bits. The hardware CRC generation/verification supports basic SD Card/MMC modes. All SPIs can be served by the DMA controller. The SPI interface can be configured to operate in TI mode for communications in master mode and slave mode. 2.2.25 Inter-integrated sound (I2S) Two standard I2S interfaces (multiplexed with SPI2 and SPI3) are available. They can be operated in master or slave mode, in full duplex and half-duplex communication modes, and can be configured to operate with a 16-/32-bit resolution as an input or output channel. Audio sampling frequencies from 8 kHz up to 192 kHz are supported. When either or both of the I2S interfaces is/are configured in master mode, the master clock can be output to the external DAC/CODEC at 256 times the sampling frequency. All I2Sx can be served by the DMA controller. 2.2.26 Audio PLL (PLLI2S) The devices feature an additional dedicated PLL for audio I2S application. It allows to achieve error-free I2S sampling clock accuracy without compromising on the CPU performance, while using USB peripherals. Table 5. USART feature comparison USART name Standard features Modem (RTS/ CTS) LIN SPI master irDA Smartcard (ISO 7816) Max. baud rate in Mbit/s (oversampling by 16) Max. baud rate in Mbit/s (oversampling by 8) APB mapping USART1 X X X X X X 5.25 10.5 APB2 (max. 84 MHz) USART2 X X X X X X 2.62 5.25 APB1 (max. 42 MHz) USART3 X X X X X X 2.62 5.25 APB1 (max. 42 MHz) UART4 X - X - X - 2.62 5.25 APB1 (max. 42 MHz) UART5 X - X - X - 2.62 5.25 APB1 (max. 42 MHz) USART6 X X X X X X 5.25 10.5 APB2 (max. 84 MHz) DocID022152 Rev 4 35/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description The PLLI2S configuration can be modified to manage an I2S sample rate change without disabling the main PLL (PLL) used for CPU, USB and Ethernet interfaces. The audio PLL can be programmed with very low error to obtain sampling rates ranging from 8 KHz to 192 KHz. In addition to the audio PLL, a master clock input pin can be used to synchronize the I2S flow with an external PLL (or Codec output). 2.2.27 Secure digital input/output interface (SDIO) An SD/SDIO/MMC host interface is available, that supports MultiMediaCard System Specification Version 4.2 in three different databus modes: 1-bit (default), 4-bit and 8-bit. The interface allows data transfer at up to 48 MHz, and is compliant with the SD Memory Card Specification Version 2.0. The SDIO Card Specification Version 2.0 is also supported with two different databus modes: 1-bit (default) and 4-bit. The current version supports only one SD/SDIO/MMC4.2 card at any one time and a stack of MMC4.1 or previous. In addition to SD/SDIO/MMC, this interface is fully compliant with the CE-ATA digital protocol Rev1.1. 2.2.28 Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support Peripheral available only on the STM32F407xx devices. The STM32F407xx devices provide an IEEE-802.3-2002-compliant media access controller (MAC) for ethernet LAN communications through an industry-standard mediumindependent interface (MII) or a reduced medium-independent interface (RMII). The STM32F407xx requires an external physical interface device (PHY) to connect to the physical LAN bus (twisted-pair, fiber, etc.). the PHY is connected to the STM32F407xx MII port using 17 signals for MII or 9 signals for RMII, and can be clocked using the 25 MHz (MII) from the STM32F407xx. The STM32F407xx includes the following features: • Supports 10 and 100 Mbit/s rates • Dedicated DMA controller allowing high-speed transfers between the dedicated SRAM and the descriptors (see the STM32F40x reference manual for details) • Tagged MAC frame support (VLAN support) • Half-duplex (CSMA/CD) and full-duplex operation • MAC control sublayer (control frames) support • 32-bit CRC generation and removal • Several address filtering modes for physical and multicast address (multicast and group addresses) • 32-bit status code for each transmitted or received frame • Internal FIFOs to buffer transmit and receive frames. The transmit FIFO and the receive FIFO are both 2 Kbytes. • Supports hardware PTP (precision time protocol) in accordance with IEEE 1588 2008 (PTP V2) with the time stamp comparator connected to the TIM2 input • Triggers interrupt when system time becomes greater than target time Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 36/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 2.2.29 Controller area network (bxCAN) The two CANs are compliant with the 2.0A and B (active) specifications with a bitrate up to 1 Mbit/s. They can receive and transmit standard frames with 11-bit identifiers as well as extended frames with 29-bit identifiers. Each CAN has three transmit mailboxes, two receive FIFOS with 3 stages and 28 shared scalable filter banks (all of them can be used even if one CAN is used). 256 bytes of SRAM are allocated for each CAN. 2.2.30 Universal serial bus on-the-go full-speed (OTG_FS) The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx embed an USB OTG full-speed device/host/OTG peripheral with integrated transceivers. The USB OTG FS peripheral is compliant with the USB 2.0 specification and with the OTG 1.0 specification. It has software-configurable endpoint setting and supports suspend/resume. The USB OTG full-speed controller requires a dedicated 48 MHz clock that is generated by a PLL connected to the HSE oscillator. The major features are: • Combined Rx and Tx FIFO size of 320 × 35 bits with dynamic FIFO sizing • Supports the session request protocol (SRP) and host negotiation protocol (HNP) • 4 bidirectional endpoints • 8 host channels with periodic OUT support • HNP/SNP/IP inside (no need for any external resistor) • For OTG/Host modes, a power switch is needed in case bus-powered devices are connected 2.2.31 Universal serial bus on-the-go high-speed (OTG_HS) The STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx devices embed a USB OTG high-speed (up to 480 Mb/s) device/host/OTG peripheral. The USB OTG HS supports both full-speed and high-speed operations. It integrates the transceivers for full-speed operation (12 MB/s) and features a UTMI low-pin interface (ULPI) for high-speed operation (480 MB/s). When using the USB OTG HS in HS mode, an external PHY device connected to the ULPI is required. The USB OTG HS peripheral is compliant with the USB 2.0 specification and with the OTG 1.0 specification. It has software-configurable endpoint setting and supports suspend/resume. The USB OTG full-speed controller requires a dedicated 48 MHz clock that is generated by a PLL connected to the HSE oscillator. The major features are: • Combined Rx and Tx FIFO size of 1 Kbit × 35 with dynamic FIFO sizing • Supports the session request protocol (SRP) and host negotiation protocol (HNP) • 6 bidirectional endpoints • 12 host channels with periodic OUT support • Internal FS OTG PHY support • External HS or HS OTG operation supporting ULPI in SDR mode. The OTG PHY is connected to the microcontroller ULPI port through 12 signals. It can be clocked using the 60 MHz output. • Internal USB DMA • HNP/SNP/IP inside (no need for any external resistor) • for OTG/Host modes, a power switch is needed in case bus-powered devices are connected DocID022152 Rev 4 37/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Description 2.2.32 Digital camera interface (DCMI) The camera interface is not available in STM32F405xx devices. STM32F407xx products embed a camera interface that can connect with camera modules and CMOS sensors through an 8-bit to 14-bit parallel interface, to receive video data. The camera interface can sustain a data transfer rate up to 54 Mbyte/s at 54 MHz. It features: • Programmable polarity for the input pixel clock and synchronization signals • Parallel data communication can be 8-, 10-, 12- or 14-bit • Supports 8-bit progressive video monochrome or raw bayer format, YCbCr 4:2:2 progressive video, RGB 565 progressive video or compressed data (like JPEG) • Supports continuous mode or snapshot (a single frame) mode • Capability to automatically crop the image 2.2.33 Random number generator (RNG) All STM32F405xx and STM32F407xx products embed an RNG that delivers 32-bit random numbers generated by an integrated analog circuit. 2.2.34 General-purpose input/outputs (GPIOs) Each of the GPIO pins can be configured by software as output (push-pull or open-drain, with or without pull-up or pull-down), as input (floating, with or without pull-up or pull-down) or as peripheral alternate function. Most of the GPIO pins are shared with digital or analog alternate functions. All GPIOs are high-current-capable and have speed selection to better manage internal noise, power consumption and electromagnetic emission. The I/O configuration can be locked if needed by following a specific sequence in order to avoid spurious writing to the I/Os registers. Fast I/O handling allowing maximum I/O toggling up to 84 MHz. 2.2.35 Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) Three 12-bit analog-to-digital converters are embedded and each ADC shares up to 16 external channels, performing conversions in the single-shot or scan mode. In scan mode, automatic conversion is performed on a selected group of analog inputs. Additional logic functions embedded in the ADC interface allow: • Simultaneous sample and hold • Interleaved sample and hold The ADC can be served by the DMA controller. An analog watchdog feature allows very precise monitoring of the converted voltage of one, some or all selected channels. An interrupt is generated when the converted voltage is outside the programmed thresholds. To synchronize A/D conversion and timers, the ADCs could be triggered by any of TIM1, TIM2, TIM3, TIM4, TIM5, or TIM8 timer. 2.2.36 Temperature sensor The temperature sensor has to generate a voltage that varies linearly with temperature. The conversion range is between 1.8 V and 3.6 V. The temperature sensor is internally Description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 38/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 connected to the ADC1_IN16 input channel which is used to convert the sensor output voltage into a digital value. As the offset of the temperature sensor varies from chip to chip due to process variation, the internal temperature sensor is mainly suitable for applications that detect temperature changes instead of absolute temperatures. If an accurate temperature reading is needed, then an external temperature sensor part should be used. 2.2.37 Digital-to-analog converter (DAC) The two 12-bit buffered DAC channels can be used to convert two digital signals into two analog voltage signal outputs. This dual digital Interface supports the following features: • two DAC converters: one for each output channel • 8-bit or 12-bit monotonic output • left or right data alignment in 12-bit mode • synchronized update capability • noise-wave generation • triangular-wave generation • dual DAC channel independent or simultaneous conversions • DMA capability for each channel • external triggers for conversion • input voltage reference VREF+ Eight DAC trigger inputs are used in the device. The DAC channels are triggered through the timer update outputs that are also connected to different DMA streams. 2.2.38 Serial wire JTAG debug port (SWJ-DP) The ARM SWJ-DP interface is embedded, and is a combined JTAG and serial wire debug port that enables either a serial wire debug or a JTAG probe to be connected to the target. Debug is performed using 2 pins only instead of 5 required by the JTAG (JTAG pins could be re-use as GPIO with alternate function): the JTAG TMS and TCK pins are shared with SWDIO and SWCLK, respectively, and a specific sequence on the TMS pin is used to switch between JTAG-DP and SW-DP. 2.2.39 Embedded Trace Macrocell™ The ARM Embedded Trace Macrocell provides a greater visibility of the instruction and data flow inside the CPU core by streaming compressed data at a very high rate from the STM32F40x through a small number of ETM pins to an external hardware trace port analyser (TPA) device. The TPA is connected to a host computer using USB, Ethernet, or any other high-speed channel. Real-time instruction and data flow activity can be recorded and then formatted for display on the host computer that runs the debugger software. TPA hardware is commercially available from common development tool vendors. The Embedded Trace Macrocell operates with third party debugger software tools. DocID022152 Rev 4 39/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description 3 Pinouts and pin description Figure 12. STM32F40x LQFP64 pinout 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 VBAT PC14 PC15 NRST PC0 PC1 PC2 PC3 VSSA VDDA PA0_WKUP PA1 PA2 VDD PB9 PB8 BOOT0 PB7 PB6 PB5 PB4 PB3 PD2 PC12 PC11 PC10 PA15 PA14 VDD VCAP_2 PA13 PA12 PA11 PA10 PA9 PA8 PC9 PC8 PC7 PC6 PB15 PB14 PB13 PB12 PA3 VSS VDD PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 PC4 PC5 PB0 PB1 PB2 PB10 PB11 VCAP_1 VDD LQFP64 ai18493b PC13 PH0 PH1 VSS Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 40/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 13. STM32F40x LQFP100 pinout 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 123456789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 PE2 PE3 PE4 PE5 PE6 VBAT PC14 PC15 VSS VDD PH0 NRST PC0 PC1 PC2 PC3 VDD VSSA VREF+ VDDA PA0 PA1 PA2 VDD VSS VCAP_2 PA13 PA12 PA 11 PA10 PA9 PA8 PC9 PC8 PC7 PC6 PD15 PD14 PD13 PD12 PD11 PD10 PD9 PD8 PB15 PB14 PB13 PB12 PA3 VSS VDD PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 PC4 PC5 PB0 PB1 PB2 PE7 PE8 PE9 PE10 PE11 PE12 PE13 PE14 PE15 PB10 PB11 VCAP_1 VDD VDD VSS PE1 PE0 PB9 PB8 BOOT0 PB7 PB6 PB5 PB4 PB3 PD7 PD6 PD5 PD4 PD3 PD2 PD1 PD0 PC12 PC11 PC10 PA15 PA14 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ai18495c LQFP100 PC13 PH1 DocID022152 Rev 4 41/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description Figure 14. STM32F40x LQFP144 pinout VDD PDR_ON PE1 PE0 PB9 PB8 BOOT0 PB7 PB6 PB5 PB4 PB3 PG15 VDD VSS PG14 PG13 PG12 PG11 PG10 PG9 PD7 PD6 VDD VSS PD5 PD4 PD3 PD2 PD1 PD0 PC12 PC11 PC10 PA15 PA14 PE2 VDD PE3 VSS PE4 PE5 PA13 PE6 PA12 VBAT PA11 PC13 PA10 PC14 PA9 PC15 PA8 PF0 PC9 PF1 PC8 PF2 PC7 PF3 PC6 PF4 VDD PF5 VSS VSS PG8 VDD PG7 PF6 PG6 PF7 PG5 PF8 PG4 PF9 PG3 PF10 PG2 PH0 PD15 PH1 PD14 NRST VDD PC0 VSS PC1 PD13 PC2 PD12 PC3 PD11 VSSA VDD PD10 PD9 VREF+ PD8 VDDA PB15 PA0 PB14 PA1 PB13 PA2 PB12 PA3 VSS VDD PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 PC4 PC5 PB0 PB1 PB2 PF11 PF12 VDD PF13 PF14 PF15 PG0 PG1 PE7 PE8 PE9 VSS VDD PE10 PE11 PE12 PE13 PE14 PE15 PB10 PB11 VCAP_1 VDD 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 109 123456789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 72 LQFP144 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 ai18496b VCAP_2 VSS Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 42/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 15. STM32F40x LQFP176 pinout MS19916V3 PDR_ON PE1 PE0 PB9 PB8 BOOT0 PB7 PB6 PB5 PB4 PB3 PG15 PG14 PG13 PG12 PG11 PG10 PG9 PD7 PD6 PD5 PD4 PD3 PD2 PD1 PD0 PC12 PC11 PC10 PI7 PI6 PE2 PE3 PE4 PE5 PA13 PE6 PA12 VBAT PA11 PI8 PA10 PC14 PA9 PC15 PA8 PF0 PC9 PF1 PC8 PF2 PC7 PF3 PC6 PF4 PF5 PG8 PG7 PF6 PG6 PF7 PG5 PF8 PG4 PF9 PG3 PF10 PG2 PH0 PD15 PH1 PD14 NRST V PC0 V PC1 PD13 PC2 PD12 PC3 PD11 PD10 PD9 VREF+ PD8 PB15 PA0 PB14 PA1 PB13 PA2 PB12 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 PC4 PC5 PB0 PB1 PB2 PF11 PF12 VSS PF13 PF14 PF15 PG0 PG1 PE7 PE8 PE9 PE10 PE11 PE12 PE13 PE14 PE15 PB10 PB11 176 175 174 173 172 171 170 169 168 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160 159 158 157 156 155 154 153 141 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 80 LQFP176 152 151 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 89 PI4 PA15 PA14 PI3 PI2 PI5 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 PH4 PH5 PH6 PH7 PH8 PH9 PH10 PH11 88 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 PI1 PI0 PH15 PH14 PH13 PH12 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 97 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 PC13 PI9 PI10 PI11 VSS PH2 PH3 VDD VSS VDD VDDA VSSA VDDA BYPASS_REG VDD VDD VSS VDD VCAP_1 VDD VSS VDD VCAP_2 VSS VDD VSS VDD VSS VDD VSS VDD VDD VSS VDD VSS VDD DocID022152 Rev 4 43/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description Figure 16. STM32F40x UFBGA176 ballout 1. This figure shows the package top view. ai18497b 1 2 3 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A PE3 PE2 PE1 PE0 PB8 PB5 PG14 PG13 PB4 PB3 PD7 PC12 PA15 PA14 PA13 B PE4 PE5 PE6 PB9 PB7 PB6 PG15 PG12 PG11 PG10 PD6 PD0 PC11 PC10 PA12 C VBAT PI7 PI6 PI5 VDD PDR_ON VDD VDD VDD PG9 PD5 PD1 PI3 PI2 PA11 D PC13 PI8 PI9 PI4 BOOT0 VSS VSS VSS PD4 PD3 PD2 PH15 PI1 PA10 E PC14 PF0 PI10 PI11 PH13 PH14 PI0 PA9 F PC15 VSS VDD PH2 VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VCAP_2 PC9 PA8 G PH0 VSS VDD PH3 VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VDD PC8 PC7 H PH1 PF2 PF1 PH4 VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VDD PG8 PC6 J NRST PF3 PF4 PH5 VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS VDD VDD PG7 PG6 K PF7 PF6 PF5 VDD VSS VSS VSS VSS VSS PH12 PG5 PG4 PG3 L PF10 PF9 PF8 BYPASS_ REG PH11 PH10 PD15 PG2 M VSSA PC0 PC1 PC2 PC3 PB2 PG1 VSS VSS VCAP_1 PH6 PH8 PH9 PD14 PD13 N VREF- PA1 PA0 PA4 PC4 PF13 PG0 VDD VDD VDD PE13 PH7 PD12 PD11 PD10 P VREF+ PA2 PA6 PA5 PC5 PF12 PF15 PE8 PE9 PE11 PE14 PB12 PB13 PD9 PD8 R VDDA PA3 PA7 PB1 PB0 PF11 PF14 PE7 PE10 PE12 PE15 PB10 PB11 PB14 PB15 VSS 4 5 6 7 8 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 44/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 17. STM32F40x WLCSP90 ballout 1. This figure shows the package bump view. A VBAT PC13 PDR_ON PB4 PD7 PD4 PC12 B PC15 VDD PB7 PB3 PD6 PD2 PA15 C PA0 VSS PB6 PD5 PD1 PC11 PI0 D PC2 PB8 PA13 E PC3 VSS F PH1 PA1 G NRST H VSSA J PA2 PA 4 PA7 PB2 PE11 PB11 PB12 MS30402V1 1 PA14 PI1 PA12 PA10 PA9 PC0 PC9 PC8 PH0 PB13 PC6 PD14 PD12 PE8 PE12 BYPASS_ REG PD9 PD8 PE9 PB14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 VDD PC14 VCAP_2 PA11 PB5 PD0 PC10 PA8 VSS VDD VSS VDD PC7 VDD PE10 PE14 VCAP_1 PD15 PE13 PE15 PD10 PD11 PA3 PA6 PB1 PB10 PB15 PB9 BOOT0 VDDA PA5 PB0 PE7 Table 6. Legend/abbreviations used in the pinout table Name Abbreviation Definition Pin name Unless otherwise specified in brackets below the pin name, the pin function during and after reset is the same as the actual pin name Pin type S Supply pin I Input only pin I/O Input / output pin I/O structure FT 5 V tolerant I/O TTa 3.3 V tolerant I/O directly connected to ADC B Dedicated BOOT0 pin RST Bidirectional reset pin with embedded weak pull-up resistor Notes Unless otherwise specified by a note, all I/Os are set as floating inputs during and after reset Alternate functions Functions selected through GPIOx_AFR registers Additional functions Functions directly selected/enabled through peripheral registers DocID022152 Rev 4 45/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 - - 1 1 A2 1 PE2 I/O FT TRACECLK/ FSMC_A23 / ETH_MII_TXD3 / EVENTOUT - - 2 2 A1 2 PE3 I/O FT TRACED0/FSMC_A19 / EVENTOUT - - 3 3 B1 3 PE4 I/O FT TRACED1/FSMC_A20 / DCMI_D4/ EVENTOUT - - 4 4 B2 4 PE5 I/O FT TRACED2 / FSMC_A21 / TIM9_CH1 / DCMI_D6 / EVENTOUT - - 5 5 B3 5 PE6 I/O FT TRACED3 / FSMC_A22 / TIM9_CH2 / DCMI_D7 / EVENTOUT 1 A10 6 6 C1 6 VBAT S - - - - D2 7 PI8 I/O FT (2)( 3) EVENTOUT RTC_TAMP1, RTC_TAMP2, RTC_TS 2 A9 7 7 D1 8 PC13 I/O FT (2) (3) EVENTOUT RTC_OUT, RTC_TAMP1, RTC_TS 3 B10 8 8 E1 9 PC14/OSC32_IN (PC14) I/O FT (2)( 3) EVENTOUT OSC32_IN(4) 4 B9 9 9 F1 10 PC15/ OSC32_OUT (PC15) I/O FT (2)( 3) EVENTOUT OSC32_OUT(4) - - - - D3 11 PI9 I/O FT CAN1_RX / EVENTOUT - - - - E3 12 PI10 I/O FT ETH_MII_RX_ER / EVENTOUT - - - - E4 13 PI11 I/O FT OTG_HS_ULPI_DIR / EVENTOUT - - - - F2 14 VSS S - - - - F3 15 VDD S - - - 10 E2 16 PF0 I/O FT FSMC_A0 / I2C2_SDA / EVENTOUT Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 46/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 - - - 11 H3 17 PF1 I/O FT FSMC_A1 / I2C2_SCL / EVENTOUT - - - 12 H2 18 PF2 I/O FT FSMC_A2 / I2C2_SMBA / EVENTOUT - - - 13 J2 19 PF3 I/O FT (4) FSMC_A3/EVENTOUT ADC3_IN9 - - - 14 J3 20 PF4 I/O FT (4) FSMC_A4/EVENTOUT ADC3_IN14 - - - 15 K3 21 PF5 I/O FT (4) FSMC_A5/EVENTOUT ADC3_IN15 - C9 10 16 G2 22 VSS S - B8 11 17 G3 23 VDD S - - - 18 K2 24 PF6 I/O FT (4) TIM10_CH1 / FSMC_NIORD/ EVENTOUT ADC3_IN4 - - - 19 K1 25 PF7 I/O FT (4) TIM11_CH1/FSMC_NREG / EVENTOUT ADC3_IN5 - - - 20 L3 26 PF8 I/O FT (4) TIM13_CH1 / FSMC_NIOWR/ EVENTOUT ADC3_IN6 - - - 21 L2 27 PF9 I/O FT (4) TIM14_CH1 / FSMC_CD/ EVENTOUT ADC3_IN7 - - - 22 L1 28 PF10 I/O FT (4) FSMC_INTR/ EVENTOUT ADC3_IN8 5 F10 12 23 G1 29 PH0/OSC_IN (PH0) I/O FT EVENTOUT OSC_IN(4) 6 F9 13 24 H1 30 PH1/OSC_OUT (PH1) I/O FT EVENTOUT OSC_OUT(4) 7 G10 14 25 J1 31 NRST I/O RS T 8 E10 15 26 M2 32 PC0 I/O FT (4) OTG_HS_ULPI_STP/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN10 9 - 16 27 M3 33 PC1 I/O FT (4) ETH_MDC/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN11 10 D10 17 28 M4 34 PC2 I/O FT (4) SPI2_MISO / OTG_HS_ULPI_DIR / ETH_MII_TXD2 /I2S2ext_SD/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN12 Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 47/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description 11 E9 18 29 M5 35 PC3 I/O FT (4) SPI2_MOSI / I2S2_SD / OTG_HS_ULPI_NXT / ETH_MII_TX_CLK/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN13 - - 19 30 G3 36 VDD S 12 H10 20 31 M1 37 VSSA S - - - - N1 - VREF– S - - 21 32 P1 38 VREF+ S 13 G9 22 33 R1 39 VDDA S 14 C10 23 34 N3 40 PA0/WKUP (PA0) I/O FT (5) USART2_CTS/ UART4_TX/ ETH_MII_CRS / TIM2_CH1_ETR/ TIM5_CH1 / TIM8_ETR/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN0/WKUP(4 ) 15 F8 24 35 N2 41 PA1 I/O FT (4) USART2_RTS / UART4_RX/ ETH_RMII_REF_CLK / ETH_MII_RX_CLK / TIM5_CH2 / TIM2_CH2/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN1 16 J10 25 36 P2 42 PA2 I/O FT (4) USART2_TX/TIM5_CH3 / TIM9_CH1 / TIM2_CH3 / ETH_MDIO/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN2 - - - - F4 43 PH2 I/O FT ETH_MII_CRS/EVENTOU T - - - - G4 44 PH3 I/O FT ETH_MII_COL/EVENTOU T - - - - H4 45 PH4 I/O FT I2C2_SCL / OTG_HS_ULPI_NXT/ EVENTOUT - - - - J4 46 PH5 I/O FT I2C2_SDA/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 48/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 17 H9 26 37 R2 47 PA3 I/O FT (4) USART2_RX/TIM5_CH4 / TIM9_CH2 / TIM2_CH4 / OTG_HS_ULPI_D0 / ETH_MII_COL/ EVENTOUT ADC123_IN3 18 E5 27 38 - - VSS S D9 L4 48 BYPASS_REG I FT 19 E4 28 39 K4 49 VDD S 20 J9 29 40 N4 50 PA4 I/O TTa (4) SPI1_NSS / SPI3_NSS / USART2_CK / DCMI_HSYNC / OTG_HS_SOF/ I2S3_WS/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN4 /DAC_OUT1 21 G8 30 41 P4 51 PA5 I/O TTa (4) SPI1_SCK/ OTG_HS_ULPI_CK / TIM2_CH1_ETR/ TIM8_CH1N/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN5/DAC_OU T2 22 H8 31 42 P3 52 PA6 I/O FT (4) SPI1_MISO / TIM8_BKIN/TIM13_CH1 / DCMI_PIXCLK / TIM3_CH1 / TIM1_BKIN/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN6 23 J8 32 43 R3 53 PA7 I/O FT (4) SPI1_MOSI/ TIM8_CH1N / TIM14_CH1/TIM3_CH2/ ETH_MII_RX_DV / TIM1_CH1N / ETH_RMII_CRS_DV/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN7 24 - 33 44 N5 54 PC4 I/O FT (4) ETH_RMII_RX_D0 / ETH_MII_RX_D0/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN14 25 - 34 45 P5 55 PC5 I/O FT (4) ETH_RMII_RX_D1 / ETH_MII_RX_D1/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN15 26 G7 35 46 R5 56 PB0 I/O FT (4) TIM3_CH3 / TIM8_CH2N/ OTG_HS_ULPI_D1/ ETH_MII_RXD2 / TIM1_CH2N/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN8 Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 49/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description 27 H7 36 47 R4 57 PB1 I/O FT (4) TIM3_CH4 / TIM8_CH3N/ OTG_HS_ULPI_D2/ ETH_MII_RXD3 / TIM1_CH3N/ EVENTOUT ADC12_IN9 28 J7 37 48 M6 58 PB2/BOOT1 (PB2) I/O FT EVENTOUT - - - 49 R6 59 PF11 I/O FT DCMI_D12/ EVENTOUT - - - 50 P6 60 PF12 I/O FT FSMC_A6/ EVENTOUT - - - 51 M8 61 VSS S - - - 52 N8 62 VDD S - - - 53 N6 63 PF13 I/O FT FSMC_A7/ EVENTOUT - - - 54 R7 64 PF14 I/O FT FSMC_A8/ EVENTOUT - - - 55 P7 65 PF15 I/O FT FSMC_A9/ EVENTOUT - - - 56 N7 66 PG0 I/O FT FSMC_A10/ EVENTOUT - - - 57 M7 67 PG1 I/O FT FSMC_A11/ EVENTOUT - G6 38 58 R8 68 PE7 I/O FT FSMC_D4/TIM1_ETR/ EVENTOUT - H6 39 59 P8 69 PE8 I/O FT FSMC_D5/ TIM1_CH1N/ EVENTOUT - J6 40 60 P9 70 PE9 I/O FT FSMC_D6/TIM1_CH1/ EVENTOUT - - - 61 M9 71 VSS S - - - 62 N9 72 VDD S - F6 41 63 R9 73 PE10 I/O FT FSMC_D7/TIM1_CH2N/ EVENTOUT - J5 42 64 P10 74 PE11 I/O FT FSMC_D8/TIM1_CH2/ EVENTOUT - H5 43 65 R10 75 PE12 I/O FT FSMC_D9/TIM1_CH3N/ EVENTOUT - G5 44 66 N11 76 PE13 I/O FT FSMC_D10/TIM1_CH3/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 50/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 - F5 45 67 P11 77 PE14 I/O FT FSMC_D11/TIM1_CH4/ EVENTOUT - G4 46 68 R11 78 PE15 I/O FT FSMC_D12/TIM1_BKIN/ EVENTOUT 29 H4 47 69 R12 79 PB10 I/O FT SPI2_SCK / I2S2_CK / I2C2_SCL/ USART3_TX / OTG_HS_ULPI_D3 / ETH_MII_RX_ER / TIM2_CH3/ EVENTOUT 30 J4 48 70 R13 80 PB11 I/O FT I2C2_SDA/USART3_RX/ OTG_HS_ULPI_D4 / ETH_RMII_TX_EN/ ETH_MII_TX_EN / TIM2_CH4/ EVENTOUT 31 F4 49 71 M10 81 VCAP_1 S 32 - 50 72 N10 82 VDD S - - - - M11 83 PH6 I/O FT I2C2_SMBA / TIM12_CH1 / ETH_MII_RXD2/ EVENTOUT - - - - N12 84 PH7 I/O FT I2C3_SCL / ETH_MII_RXD3/ EVENTOUT - - - - M12 85 PH8 I/O FT I2C3_SDA / DCMI_HSYNC/ EVENTOUT - - - - M13 86 PH9 I/O FT I2C3_SMBA / TIM12_CH2/ DCMI_D0/ EVENTOUT - - - - L13 87 PH10 I/O FT TIM5_CH1 / DCMI_D1/ EVENTOUT - - - - L12 88 PH11 I/O FT TIM5_CH2 / DCMI_D2/ EVENTOUT - - - - K12 89 PH12 I/O FT TIM5_CH3 / DCMI_D3/ EVENTOUT - - - - H12 90 VSS S - - - - J12 91 VDD S Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 51/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description 33 J3 51 73 P12 92 PB12 I/O FT SPI2_NSS / I2S2_WS / I2C2_SMBA/ USART3_CK/ TIM1_BKIN / CAN2_RX / OTG_HS_ULPI_D5/ ETH_RMII_TXD0 / ETH_MII_TXD0/ OTG_HS_ID/ EVENTOUT 34 J1 52 74 P13 93 PB13 I/O FT SPI2_SCK / I2S2_CK / USART3_CTS/ TIM1_CH1N /CAN2_TX / OTG_HS_ULPI_D6 / ETH_RMII_TXD1 / ETH_MII_TXD1/ EVENTOUT OTG_HS_VBUS 35 J2 53 75 R14 94 PB14 I/O FT SPI2_MISO/ TIM1_CH2N / TIM12_CH1 / OTG_HS_DM/ USART3_RTS / TIM8_CH2N/I2S2ext_SD/ EVENTOUT 36 H1 54 76 R15 95 PB15 I/O FT SPI2_MOSI / I2S2_SD/ TIM1_CH3N / TIM8_CH3N / TIM12_CH2 / OTG_HS_DP/ EVENTOUT RTC_REFIN - H2 55 77 P15 96 PD8 I/O FT FSMC_D13 / USART3_TX/ EVENTOUT - H3 56 78 P14 97 PD9 I/O FT FSMC_D14 / USART3_RX/ EVENTOUT - G3 57 79 N15 98 PD10 I/O FT FSMC_D15 / USART3_CK/ EVENTOUT - G1 58 80 N14 99 PD11 I/O FT FSMC_CLE / FSMC_A16/USART3_CT S/ EVENTOUT - G2 59 81 N13 100 PD12 I/O FT FSMC_ALE/ FSMC_A17/TIM4_CH1 / USART3_RTS/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 52/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 - - 60 82 M15 101 PD13 I/O FT FSMC_A18/TIM4_CH2/ EVENTOUT - - - 83 - 102 VSS S - - - 84 J13 103 VDD S - F2 61 85 M14 104 PD14 I/O FT FSMC_D0/TIM4_CH3/ EVENTOUT/ EVENTOUT - F1 62 86 L14 105 PD15 I/O FT FSMC_D1/TIM4_CH4/ EVENTOUT - - - 87 L15 106 PG2 I/O FT FSMC_A12/ EVENTOUT - - - 88 K15 107 PG3 I/O FT FSMC_A13/ EVENTOUT - - - 89 K14 108 PG4 I/O FT FSMC_A14/ EVENTOUT - - - 90 K13 109 PG5 I/O FT FSMC_A15/ EVENTOUT - - - 91 J15 110 PG6 I/O FT FSMC_INT2/ EVENTOUT - - - 92 J14 111 PG7 I/O FT FSMC_INT3 /USART6_CK/ EVENTOUT - - - 93 H14 112 PG8 I/O FT USART6_RTS / ETH_PPS_OUT/ EVENTOUT - - - 94 G12 113 VSS S - - - 95 H13 114 VDD S 37 F3 63 96 H15 115 PC6 I/O FT I2S2_MCK / TIM8_CH1/SDIO_D6 / USART6_TX / DCMI_D0/TIM3_CH1/ EVENTOUT 38 E1 64 97 G15 116 PC7 I/O FT I2S3_MCK / TIM8_CH2/SDIO_D7 / USART6_RX / DCMI_D1/TIM3_CH2/ EVENTOUT 39 E2 65 98 G14 117 PC8 I/O FT TIM8_CH3/SDIO_D0 /TIM3_CH3/ USART6_CK / DCMI_D2/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 53/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description 40 E3 66 99 F14 118 PC9 I/O FT I2S_CKIN/ MCO2 / TIM8_CH4/SDIO_D1 / /I2C3_SDA / DCMI_D3 / TIM3_CH4/ EVENTOUT 41 D1 67 100 F15 119 PA8 I/O FT MCO1 / USART1_CK/ TIM1_CH1/ I2C3_SCL/ OTG_FS_SOF/ EVENTOUT 42 D2 68 101 E15 120 PA9 I/O FT USART1_TX/ TIM1_CH2 / I2C3_SMBA / DCMI_D0/ EVENTOUT OTG_FS_VBUS 43 D3 69 102 D15 121 PA10 I/O FT USART1_RX/ TIM1_CH3/ OTG_FS_ID/DCMI_D1/ EVENTOUT 44 C1 70 103 C15 122 PA11 I/O FT USART1_CTS / CAN1_RX / TIM1_CH4 / OTG_FS_DM/ EVENTOUT 45 C2 71 104 B15 123 PA12 I/O FT USART1_RTS / CAN1_TX/ TIM1_ETR/ OTG_FS_DP/ EVENTOUT 46 D4 72 105 A15 124 PA13 (JTMS-SWDIO) I/O FT JTMS-SWDIO/ EVENTOUT 47 B1 73 106 F13 125 VCAP_2 S - E7 74 107 F12 126 VSS S 48 E6 75 108 G13 127 VDD S - - - - E12 128 PH13 I/O FT TIM8_CH1N / CAN1_TX/ EVENTOUT - - - - E13 129 PH14 I/O FT TIM8_CH2N / DCMI_D4/ EVENTOUT - - - - D13 130 PH15 I/O FT TIM8_CH3N / DCMI_D11/ EVENTOUT - C3 - - E14 131 PI0 I/O FT TIM5_CH4 / SPI2_NSS / I2S2_WS / DCMI_D13/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 54/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 - B2 - - D14 132 PI1 I/O FT SPI2_SCK / I2S2_CK / DCMI_D8/ EVENTOUT - - - - C14 133 PI2 I/O FT TIM8_CH4 /SPI2_MISO / DCMI_D9 / I2S2ext_SD/ EVENTOUT - - - - C13 134 PI3 I/O FT TIM8_ETR / SPI2_MOSI / I2S2_SD / DCMI_D10/ EVENTOUT - - - - D9 135 VSS S - - - - C9 136 VDD S 49 A2 76 109 A14 137 PA14 (JTCK/SWCLK) I/O FT JTCK-SWCLK/ EVENTOUT 50 B3 77 110 A13 138 PA15 (JTDI) I/O FT JTDI/ SPI3_NSS/ I2S3_WS/TIM2_CH1_ET R / SPI1_NSS / EVENTOUT 51 D5 78 111 B14 139 PC10 I/O FT SPI3_SCK / I2S3_CK/ UART4_TX/SDIO_D2 / DCMI_D8 / USART3_TX/ EVENTOUT 52 C4 79 112 B13 140 PC11 I/O FT UART4_RX/ SPI3_MISO / SDIO_D3 / DCMI_D4/USART3_RX / I2S3ext_SD/ EVENTOUT 53 A3 80 113 A12 141 PC12 I/O FT UART5_TX/SDIO_CK / DCMI_D9 / SPI3_MOSI /I2S3_SD / USART3_CK/ EVENTOUT - D6 81 114 B12 142 PD0 I/O FT FSMC_D2/CAN1_RX/ EVENTOUT - C5 82 115 C12 143 PD1 I/O FT FSMC_D3 / CAN1_TX/ EVENTOUT 54 B4 83 116 D12 144 PD2 I/O FT TIM3_ETR/UART5_RX/ SDIO_CMD / DCMI_D11/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 55/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description - - 84 117 D11 145 PD3 I/O FT FSMC_CLK/ USART2_CTS/ EVENTOUT - A4 85 118 D10 146 PD4 I/O FT FSMC_NOE/ USART2_RTS/ EVENTOUT - C6 86 119 C11 147 PD5 I/O FT FSMC_NWE/USART2_TX / EVENTOUT - - - 120 D8 148 VSS S - - - 121 C8 149 VDD S - B5 87 122 B11 150 PD6 I/O FT FSMC_NWAIT/ USART2_RX/ EVENTOUT - A5 88 123 A11 151 PD7 I/O FT USART2_CK/FSMC_NE1/ FSMC_NCE2/ EVENTOUT - - - 124 C10 152 PG9 I/O FT USART6_RX / FSMC_NE2/FSMC_NCE3 / EVENTOUT - - - 125 B10 153 PG10 I/O FT FSMC_NCE4_1/ FSMC_NE3/ EVENTOUT - - - 126 B9 154 PG11 I/O FT FSMC_NCE4_2 / ETH_MII_TX_EN/ ETH _RMII_TX_EN/ EVENTOUT - - - 127 B8 155 PG12 I/O FT FSMC_NE4 / USART6_RTS/ EVENTOUT - - - 128 A8 156 PG13 I/O FT FSMC_A24 / USART6_CTS /ETH_MII_TXD0/ ETH_RMII_TXD0/ EVENTOUT - - - 129 A7 157 PG14 I/O FT FSMC_A25 / USART6_TX /ETH_MII_TXD1/ ETH_RMII_TXD1/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 56/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 - E8 - 130 D7 158 VSS S - F7 - 131 C7 159 VDD S - - - 132 B7 160 PG15 I/O FT USART6_CTS / DCMI_D13/ EVENTOUT 55 B6 89 133 A10 161 PB3 (JTDO/ TRACESWO) I/O FT JTDO/ TRACESWO/ SPI3_SCK / I2S3_CK / TIM2_CH2 / SPI1_SCK/ EVENTOUT 56 A6 90 134 A9 162 PB4 (NJTRST) I/O FT NJTRST/ SPI3_MISO / TIM3_CH1 / SPI1_MISO / I2S3ext_SD/ EVENTOUT 57 D7 91 135 A6 163 PB5 I/O FT I2C1_SMBA/ CAN2_RX / OTG_HS_ULPI_D7 / ETH_PPS_OUT/TIM3_CH 2 / SPI1_MOSI/ SPI3_MOSI / DCMI_D10 / I2S3_SD/ EVENTOUT 58 C7 92 136 B6 164 PB6 I/O FT I2C1_SCL/ TIM4_CH1 / CAN2_TX / DCMI_D5/USART1_TX/ EVENTOUT 59 B7 93 137 B5 165 PB7 I/O FT I2C1_SDA / FSMC_NL / DCMI_VSYNC / USART1_RX/ TIM4_CH2/ EVENTOUT 60 A7 94 138 D6 166 BOOT0 I B VPP 61 D8 95 139 A5 167 PB8 I/O FT TIM4_CH3/SDIO_D4/ TIM10_CH1 / DCMI_D6 / ETH_MII_TXD3 / I2C1_SCL/ CAN1_RX/ EVENTOUT 62 C8 96 140 B4 168 PB9 I/O FT SPI2_NSS/ I2S2_WS / TIM4_CH4/ TIM11_CH1/ SDIO_D5 / DCMI_D7 / I2C1_SDA / CAN1_TX/ EVENTOUT Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 DocID022152 Rev 4 57/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description - - 97 141 A4 169 PE0 I/O FT TIM4_ETR / FSMC_NBL0 / DCMI_D2/ EVENTOUT - - 98 142 A3 170 PE1 I/O FT FSMC_NBL1 / DCMI_D3/ EVENTOUT 63 - 99 - D5 - VSS S - A8 - 143 C6 171 PDR_ON I FT 64 A1 10 0 144 C5 172 VDD S - - - - D4 173 PI4 I/O FT TIM8_BKIN / DCMI_D5/ EVENTOUT - - - - C4 174 PI5 I/O FT TIM8_CH1 / DCMI_VSYNC/ EVENTOUT - - - - C3 175 PI6 I/O FT TIM8_CH2 / DCMI_D6/ EVENTOUT - - - - C2 176 PI7 I/O FT TIM8_CH3 / DCMI_D7/ EVENTOUT 1. Function availability depends on the chosen device. 2. PC13, PC14, PC15 and PI8 are supplied through the power switch. Since the switch only sinks a limited amount of current (3 mA), the use of GPIOs PC13 to PC15 and PI8 in output mode is limited: - The speed should not exceed 2 MHz with a maximum load of 30 pF. - These I/Os must not be used as a current source (e.g. to drive an LED). 3. Main function after the first backup domain power-up. Later on, it depends on the contents of the RTC registers even after reset (because these registers are not reset by the main reset). For details on how to manage these I/Os, refer to the RTC register description sections in the STM32F4xx reference manual, available from the STMicroelectronics website: www.st.com. 4. FT = 5 V tolerant except when in analog mode or oscillator mode (for PC14, PC15, PH0 and PH1). 5. If the device is delivered in an UFBGA176 or WLCSP90 and the BYPASS_REG pin is set to VDD (Regulator off/internal reset ON mode), then PA0 is used as an internal Reset (active low). Table 7. STM32F40x pin and ball definitions (continued) Pin number Pin name (function after reset)(1) Pin type I / O structure Notes Alternate functions Additional functions LQFP64 WLCSP90 LQFP100 LQFP144 UFBGA176 LQFP176 Table 8. FSMC pin definition Pins(1) FSMC LQFP100(2) WLCSP90 (2) CF NOR/PSRAM/ SRAM NOR/PSRAM Mux NAND 16 bit PE2 A23 A23 Yes PE3 A19 A19 Yes Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 58/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 PE4 A20 A20 Yes PE5 A21 A21 Yes PE6 A22 A22 Yes PF0 A0 A0 - - PF1 A1 A1 - - PF2 A2 A2 - - PF3 A3 A3 - - PF4 A4 A4 - - PF5 A5 A5 - - PF6 NIORD - - PF7 NREG - - PF8 NIOWR - - PF9 CD - - PF10 INTR - - PF12 A6 A6 - - PF13 A7 A7 - - PF14 A8 A8 - - PF15 A9 A9 - - PG0 A10 A10 - - PG1 A11 - - PE7 D4 D4 DA4 D4 Yes Yes PE8 D5 D5 DA5 D5 Yes Yes PE9 D6 D6 DA6 D6 Yes Yes PE10 D7 D7 DA7 D7 Yes Yes PE11 D8 D8 DA8 D8 Yes Yes PE12 D9 D9 DA9 D9 Yes Yes PE13 D10 D10 DA10 D10 Yes Yes PE14 D11 D11 DA11 D11 Yes Yes PE15 D12 D12 DA12 D12 Yes Yes PD8 D13 D13 DA13 D13 Yes Yes PD9 D14 D14 DA14 D14 Yes Yes PD10 D15 D15 DA15 D15 Yes Yes PD11 A16 A16 CLE Yes Yes Table 8. FSMC pin definition (continued) Pins(1) FSMC LQFP100(2) WLCSP90 (2) CF NOR/PSRAM/ SRAM NOR/PSRAM Mux NAND 16 bit DocID022152 Rev 4 59/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description PD12 A17 A17 ALE Yes Yes PD13 A18 A18 Yes PD14 D0 D0 DA0 D0 Yes Yes PD15 D1 D1 DA1 D1 Yes Yes PG2 A12 - - PG3 A13 - - PG4 A14 - - PG5 A15 - - PG6 INT2 - - PG7 INT3 - - PD0 D2 D2 DA2 D2 Yes Yes PD1 D3 D3 DA3 D3 Yes Yes PD3 CLK CLK Yes PD4 NOE NOE NOE NOE Yes Yes PD5 NWE NWE NWE NWE Yes Yes PD6 NWAIT NWAIT NWAIT NWAIT Yes Yes PD7 NE1 NE1 NCE2 Yes Yes PG9 NE2 NE2 NCE3 - - PG10 NCE4_1 NE3 NE3 - - PG11 NCE4_2 - - PG12 NE4 NE4 - - PG13 A24 A24 - - PG14 A25 A25 - - PB7 NADV NADV Yes Yes PE0 NBL0 NBL0 Yes PE1 NBL1 NBL1 Yes 1. Full FSMC features are available on LQFP144, LQFP176, and UFBGA176. The features available on smaller packages are given in the dedicated package column. 2. Ports F and G are not available in devices delivered in 100-pin packages. Table 8. FSMC pin definition (continued) Pins(1) FSMC LQFP100(2) WLCSP90 (2) CF NOR/PSRAM/ SRAM NOR/PSRAM Mux NAND 16 bit Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 60/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 9. Alternate function mapping Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI Port A PA0 TIM2_CH1_E TR TIM 5_CH1 TIM8_ETR USART2_CTS UART4_TX ETH_MII_CRS EVENTOUT PA1 TIM2_CH2 TIM5_CH2 USART2_RTS UART4_RX ETH_MII _RX_CLK ETH_RMII__REF _CLK EVENTOUT PA2 TIM2_CH3 TIM5_CH3 TIM9_CH1 USART2_TX ETH_MDIO EVENTOUT PA3 TIM2_CH4 TIM5_CH4 TIM9_CH2 USART2_RX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D0 ETH _MII_COL EVENTOUT PA4 SPI1_NSS SPI3_NSS I2S3_WS USART2_CK OTG_HS_SO F DCMI_HSYN C EVENTOUT PA5 TIM2_CH1_E TR TIM8_CH1N SPI1_SCK OTG_HS_ULPI_ CK EVENTOUT PA6 TIM1_BKIN TIM3_CH1 TIM8_BKIN SPI1_MISO TIM13_CH1 DCMI_PIXCK EVENTOUT PA7 TIM1_CH1N TIM3_CH2 TIM8_CH1N SPI1_MOSI TIM14_CH1 ETH_MII _RX_DV ETH_RMII _CRS_DV EVENTOUT PA8 MCO1 TIM1_CH1 I2C3_SCL USART1_CK OTG_FS_SOF EVENTOUT PA9 TIM1_CH2 I2C3_SMB A USART1_TX DCMI_D0 EVENTOUT PA10 TIM1_CH3 USART1_RX OTG_FS_ID DCMI_D1 EVENTOUT PA11 TIM1_CH4 USART1_CTS CAN1_RX OTG_FS_DM EVENTOUT PA12 TIM1_ETR USART1_RTS CAN1_TX OTG_FS_DP EVENTOUT PA13 JTMSSWDIO EVENTOUT PA14 JTCKSWCLK EVENTOUT PA15 JTDI TIM 2_CH1 TIM 2_ETR SPI1_NSS SPI3_NSS/ I2S3_WS EVENTOUT STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description DocID022152 Rev 4 61/185 Port B PB0 TIM1_CH2N TIM3_CH3 TIM8_CH2N OTG_HS_ULPI_ D1 ETH _MII_RXD2 EVENTOUT PB1 TIM1_CH3N TIM3_CH4 TIM8_CH3N OTG_HS_ULPI_ D2 ETH _MII_RXD3 EVENTOUT PB2 EVENTOUT PB3 JTDO/ TRACES WO TIM2_CH2 SPI1_SCK SPI3_SCK I2S3_CK EVENTOUT PB4 NJTRST TIM3_CH1 SPI1_MISO SPI3_MISO I2S3ext_SD EVENTOUT PB5 TIM3_CH2 I2C1_SMB A SPI1_MOSI SPI3_MOSI I2S3_SD CAN2_RX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D7 ETH _PPS_OUT DCMI_D10 EVENTOUT PB6 TIM4_CH1 I2C1_SCL USART1_TX CAN2_TX DCMI_D5 EVENTOUT PB7 TIM4_CH2 I2C1_SDA USART1_RX FSMC_NL DCMI_VSYN C EVENTOUT PB8 TIM4_CH3 TIM10_CH1 I2C1_SCL CAN1_RX ETH _MII_TXD3 SDIO_D4 DCMI_D6 EVENTOUT PB9 TIM4_CH4 TIM11_CH1 I2C1_SDA SPI2_NSS I2S2_WS CAN1_TX SDIO_D5 DCMI_D7 EVENTOUT PB10 TIM2_CH3 I2C2_SCL SPI2_SCK I2S2_CK USART3_TX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D3 ETH_ MII_RX_ER EVENTOUT PB11 TIM2_CH4 I2C2_SDA USART3_RX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D4 ETH _MII_TX_EN ETH _RMII_TX_EN EVENTOUT PB12 TIM1_BKIN I2C2_SMB A SPI2_NSS I2S2_WS USART3_CK CAN2_RX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D5 ETH _MII_TXD0 ETH _RMII_TXD0 OTG_HS_ID EVENTOUT PB13 TIM1_CH1N SPI2_SCK I2S2_CK USART3_CTS CAN2_TX OTG_HS_ULPI_ D6 ETH _MII_TXD1 ETH _RMII_TXD1 EVENTOUT PB14 TIM1_CH2N TIM8_CH2N SPI2_MISO I2S2ext_SD USART3_RTS TIM12_CH1 OTG_HS_DM EVENTOUT PB15 RTC_ REFIN TIM1_CH3N TIM8_CH3N SPI2_MOSI I2S2_SD TIM12_CH2 OTG_HS_DP EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 62/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Port C PC0 OTG_HS_ULPI_ STP EVENTOUT PC1 ETH_MDC EVENTOUT PC2 SPI2_MISO I2S2ext_SD OTG_HS_ULPI_ DIR ETH _MII_TXD2 EVENTOUT PC3 SPI2_MOSI I2S2_SD OTG_HS_ULPI_ NXT ETH _MII_TX_CLK EVENTOUT PC4 ETH_MII_RXD0 ETH_RMII_RXD0 EVENTOUT PC5 ETH _MII_RXD1 ETH _RMII_RXD1 EVENTOUT PC6 TIM3_CH1 TIM8_CH1 I2S2_MCK USART6_TX SDIO_D6 DCMI_D0 EVENTOUT PC7 TIM3_CH2 TIM8_CH2 I2S3_MCK USART6_RX SDIO_D7 DCMI_D1 EVENTOUT PC8 TIM3_CH3 TIM8_CH3 USART6_CK SDIO_D0 DCMI_D2 EVENTOUT PC9 MCO2 TIM3_CH4 TIM8_CH4 I2C3_SDA I2S_CKIN SDIO_D1 DCMI_D3 EVENTOUT PC10 SPI3_SCK/ I2S3_CK USART3_TX/ UART4_TX SDIO_D2 DCMI_D8 EVENTOUT PC11 I2S3ext_SD SPI3_MISO/ USART3_RX UART4_RX SDIO_D3 DCMI_D4 EVENTOUT PC12 SPI3_MOSI I2S3_SD USART3_CK UART5_TX SDIO_CK DCMI_D9 EVENTOUT PC13 EVENTOUT PC14 EVENTOUT PC15 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description DocID022152 Rev 4 63/185 Port D PD0 CAN1_RX FSMC_D2 EVENTOUT PD1 CAN1_TX FSMC_D3 EVENTOUT PD2 TIM3_ETR UART5_RX SDIO_CMD DCMI_D11 EVENTOUT PD3 USART2_CTS FSMC_CLK EVENTOUT PD4 USART2_RTS FSMC_NOE EVENTOUT PD5 USART2_TX FSMC_NWE EVENTOUT PD6 USART2_RX FSMC_NWAIT EVENTOUT PD7 USART2_CK FSMC_NE1/ FSMC_NCE2 EVENTOUT PD8 USART3_TX FSMC_D13 EVENTOUT PD9 USART3_RX FSMC_D14 EVENTOUT PD10 USART3_CK FSMC_D15 EVENTOUT PD11 USART3_CTS FSMC_A16 EVENTOUT PD12 TIM4_CH1 USART3_RTS FSMC_A17 EVENTOUT PD13 TIM4_CH2 FSMC_A18 EVENTOUT PD14 TIM4_CH3 FSMC_D0 EVENTOUT PD15 TIM4_CH4 FSMC_D1 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 64/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Port E PE0 TIM4_ETR FSMC_NBL0 DCMI_D2 EVENTOUT PE1 FSMC_NBL1 DCMI_D3 EVENTOUT PE2 TRACECL K ETH _MII_TXD3 FSMC_A23 EVENTOUT PE3 TRACED0 FSMC_A19 EVENTOUT PE4 TRACED1 FSMC_A20 DCMI_D4 EVENTOUT PE5 TRACED2 TIM9_CH1 FSMC_A21 DCMI_D6 EVENTOUT PE6 TRACED3 TIM9_CH2 FSMC_A22 DCMI_D7 EVENTOUT PE7 TIM1_ETR FSMC_D4 EVENTOUT PE8 TIM1_CH1N FSMC_D5 EVENTOUT PE9 TIM1_CH1 FSMC_D6 EVENTOUT PE10 TIM1_CH2N FSMC_D7 EVENTOUT PE11 TIM1_CH2 FSMC_D8 EVENTOUT PE12 TIM1_CH3N FSMC_D9 EVENTOUT PE13 TIM1_CH3 FSMC_D10 EVENTOUT PE14 TIM1_CH4 FSMC_D11 EVENTOUT PE15 TIM1_BKIN FSMC_D12 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description DocID022152 Rev 4 65/185 Port F PF0 I2C2_SDA FSMC_A0 EVENTOUT PF1 I2C2_SCL FSMC_A1 EVENTOUT PF2 I2C2_ SMBA FSMC_A2 EVENTOUT PF3 FSMC_A3 EVENTOUT PF4 FSMC_A4 EVENTOUT PF5 FSMC_A5 EVENTOUT PF6 TIM10_CH1 FSMC_NIORD EVENTOUT PF7 TIM11_CH1 FSMC_NREG EVENTOUT PF8 TIM13_CH1 FSMC_ NIOWR EVENTOUT PF9 TIM14_CH1 FSMC_CD EVENTOUT PF10 FSMC_INTR EVENTOUT PF11 DCMI_D12 EVENTOUT PF12 FSMC_A6 EVENTOUT PF13 FSMC_A7 EVENTOUT PF14 FSMC_A8 EVENTOUT PF15 FSMC_A9 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 66/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Port G PG0 FSMC_A10 EVENTOUT PG1 FSMC_A11 EVENTOUT PG2 FSMC_A12 EVENTOUT PG3 FSMC_A13 EVENTOUT PG4 FSMC_A14 EVENTOUT PG5 FSMC_A15 EVENTOUT PG6 FSMC_INT2 EVENTOUT PG7 USART6_CK FSMC_INT3 EVENTOUT PG8 USART6_ RTS ETH _PPS_OUT EVENTOUT PG9 USART6_RX FSMC_NE2/ FSMC_NCE3 EVENTOUT PG10 FSMC_ NCE4_1/ FSMC_NE3 EVENTOUT PG11 ETH _MII_TX_EN ETH _RMII_ TX_EN FSMC_NCE4_ 2 EVENTOUT PG12 USART6_ RTS FSMC_NE4 EVENTOUT PG13 UART6_CTS ETH _MII_TXD0 ETH _RMII_TXD0 FSMC_A24 EVENTOUT PG14 USART6_TX ETH _MII_TXD1 ETH _RMII_TXD1 FSMC_A25 EVENTOUT PG15 USART6_ CTS DCMI_D13 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Pinouts and pin description DocID022152 Rev 4 67/185 Port H PH0 EVENTOUT PH1 EVENTOUT PH2 ETH _MII_CRS EVENTOUT PH3 ETH _MII_COL EVENTOUT PH4 I2C2_SCL OTG_HS_ULPI_ NXT EVENTOUT PH5 I2C2_SDA EVENTOUT PH6 I2C2_SMB A TIM12_CH1 ETH _MII_RXD2 EVENTOUT PH7 I2C3_SCL ETH _MII_RXD3 EVENTOUT PH8 I2C3_SDA DCMI_HSYN C EVENTOUT PH9 I2C3_SMB A TIM12_CH2 DCMI_D0 EVENTOUT PH10 TIM5_CH1 DCMI_D1 EVENTOUT PH11 TIM5_CH2 DCMI_D2 EVENTOUT PH12 TIM5_CH3 DCMI_D3 EVENTOUT PH13 TIM8_CH1N CAN1_TX EVENTOUT PH14 TIM8_CH2N DCMI_D4 EVENTOUT PH15 TIM8_CH3N DCMI_D11 EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI Pinouts and pin description STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 68/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Port I PI0 TIM5_CH4 SPI2_NSS I2S2_WS DCMI_D13 EVENTOUT PI1 SPI2_SCK I2S2_CK DCMI_D8 EVENTOUT PI2 TIM8_CH4 SPI2_MISO I2S2ext_SD DCMI_D9 EVENTOUT PI3 TIM8_ETR SPI2_MOSI I2S2_SD DCMI_D10 EVENTOUT PI4 TIM8_BKIN DCMI_D5 EVENTOUT PI5 TIM8_CH1 DCMI_ VSYNC EVENTOUT PI6 TIM8_CH2 DCMI_D6 EVENTOUT PI7 TIM8_CH3 DCMI_D7 EVENTOUT PI8 EVENTOUT PI9 CAN1_RX EVENTOUT PI10 ETH _MII_RX_ER EVENTOUT PI11 OTG_HS_ULPI_ DIR EVENTOUT Table 9. Alternate function mapping (continued) Port AF0 AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 SYS TIM1/2 TIM3/4/5 TIM8/9/10/1 1 I2C1/2/3 SPI1/SPI2/ I2S2/I2S2ext SPI3/I2Sext/ I2S3 USART1/2/3/ I2S3ext UART4/5/ USART6 CAN1/ CAN2/ TIM12/13/14 OTG_FS/ OTG_HS ETH FSMC/SDIO/ OTG_FS DCMI DocID022152 Rev 4 69/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Memory mapping 4 Memory mapping The memory map is shown in Figure 18. Figure 18. STM32F40x memory map 512-Mbyte block 7 Cortex-M4's internal peripherals 512-Mbyte block 6 Not used 512-Mbyte block 5 FSMC registers 512-Mbyte block 4 FSMC bank 3 & bank4 512-Mbyte block 3 FSMC bank1 & bank2 512-Mbyte block 2 Peripherals 512-Mbyte block 1 SRAM 0x0000 0000 0x1FFF FFFF 0x2000 0000 0x3FFF FFFF 0x4000 0000 0x5FFF FFFF 0x6000 0000 0x7FFF FFFF 0x8000 0000 0x9FFF FFFF 0xA000 0000 0xBFFF FFFF 0xC000 0000 0xDFFF FFFF 0xE000 0000 0xFFFF FFFF 512-Mbyte block 0 Code Flash 0x0810 0000 - 0x0FFF FFFF 0x1FFF 0000 - 0x1FFF 7A0F 0x1FFF C000 - 0x1FFF C007 0x0800 0000 - 0x080F FFFF 0x0010 0000 - 0x07FF FFFF 0x0000 0000 - 0x000F FFFF System memory + OTP Reserved Reserved Aliased to Flash, system memory or SRAM depending on the BOOT pins SRAM (16 KB aliased by bit-banding) Reserved 0x2000 0000 - 0x2001 BFFF 0x2001 C000 - 0x2001 FFFF 0x2002 0000 - 0x3FFF FFFF 0x4000 0000 Reserved 0x4000 7FFF 0x4000 7800 - 0x4000 FFFF 0x4001 0000 0x4001 57FF 0x4002 000 Reserved 0x5006 0C00 - 0x5FFF FFFF 0x6000 0000 AHB3 0xA000 0FFF 0xA000 1000 - 0xDFFF FFFF ai18513f Option Bytes Reserved 0x4001 5800 - 0x4001 FFFF 0x5006 0BFF AHB2 0x5000 0000 Reserved 0x4008 0000 - 0x4FFF FFFF AHB1 SRAM (112 KB aliased by bit-banding) Reserved 0x1FFF C008 - 0x1FFF FFFF Reserved 0x1FFF 7A10 - 0x1FFF 7FFF CCM data RAM (64 KB data SRAM) 0x1000 0000 - 0x1000 FFFF Reserved 0x1001 0000 - 0x1FFE FFFF Reserved APB2 0x4007 FFFF APB1 CORTEX-M4 internal peripherals 0xE000 0000 - 0xE00F FFFF Reserved 0xE010 0000 - 0xFFFF FFFF Memory mapping STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 70/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 10. STM32F40x register boundary addresses Bus Boundary address Peripheral 0xE00F FFFF - 0xFFFF FFFF Reserved Cortex-M4 0xE000 0000 - 0xE00F FFFF Cortex-M4 internal peripherals 0xA000 1000 - 0xDFFF FFFF Reserved AHB3 0xA000 0000 - 0xA000 0FFF FSMC control register 0x9000 0000 - 0x9FFF FFFF FSMC bank 4 0x8000 0000 - 0x8FFF FFFF FSMC bank 3 0x7000 0000 - 0x7FFF FFFF FSMC bank 2 0x6000 0000 - 0x6FFF FFFF FSMC bank 1 0x5006 0C00- 0x5FFF FFFF Reserved AHB2 0x5006 0800 - 0x5006 0BFF RNG 0x5005 0400 - 0x5006 07FF Reserved 0x5005 0000 - 0x5005 03FF DCMI 0x5004 0000- 0x5004 FFFF Reserved 0x5000 0000 - 0x5003 FFFF USB OTG FS 0x4008 0000- 0x4FFF FFFF Reserved DocID022152 Rev 4 71/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Memory mapping AHB1 0x4004 0000 - 0x4007 FFFF USB OTG HS 0x4002 9400 - 0x4003 FFFF Reserved 0x4002 9000 - 0x4002 93FF ETHERNET MAC 0x4002 8C00 - 0x4002 8FFF 0x4002 8800 - 0x4002 8BFF 0x4002 8400 - 0x4002 87FF 0x4002 8000 - 0x4002 83FF 0x4002 6800 - 0x4002 7FFF Reserved 0x4002 6400 - 0x4002 67FF DMA2 0x4002 6000 - 0x4002 63FF DMA1 0x4002 5000 - 0x4002 5FFF Reserved 0x4002 4000 - 0x4002 4FFF BKPSRAM 0x4002 3C00 - 0x4002 3FFF Flash interface register 0x4002 3800 - 0x4002 3BFF RCC 0x4002 3400 - 0x4002 37FF Reserved 0x4002 3000 - 0x4002 33FF CRC 0x4002 2400 - 0x4002 2FFF Reserved 0x4002 2000 - 0x4002 23FF GPIOI 0x4002 1C00 - 0x4002 1FFF GPIOH 0x4002 1800 - 0x4002 1BFF GPIOG 0x4002 1400 - 0x4002 17FF GPIOF 0x4002 1000 - 0x4002 13FF GPIOE 0x4002 0C00 - 0x4002 0FFF GPIOD 0x4002 0800 - 0x4002 0BFF GPIOC 0x4002 0400 - 0x4002 07FF GPIOB 0x4002 0000 - 0x4002 03FF GPIOA 0x4001 5800- 0x4001 FFFF Reserved Table 10. STM32F40x register boundary addresses (continued) Bus Boundary address Peripheral Memory mapping STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 72/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 APB2 0x4001 4C00 - 0x4001 57FF Reserved 0x4001 4800 - 0x4001 4BFF TIM11 0x4001 4400 - 0x4001 47FF TIM10 0x4001 4000 - 0x4001 43FF TIM9 0x4001 3C00 - 0x4001 3FFF EXTI 0x4001 3800 - 0x4001 3BFF SYSCFG 0x4001 3400 - 0x4001 37FF Reserved 0x4001 3000 - 0x4001 33FF SPI1 0x4001 2C00 - 0x4001 2FFF SDIO 0x4001 2400 - 0x4001 2BFF Reserved 0x4001 2000 - 0x4001 23FF ADC1 - ADC2 - ADC3 0x4001 1800 - 0x4001 1FFF Reserved 0x4001 1400 - 0x4001 17FF USART6 0x4001 1000 - 0x4001 13FF USART1 0x4001 0800 - 0x4001 0FFF Reserved 0x4001 0400 - 0x4001 07FF TIM8 0x4001 0000 - 0x4001 03FF TIM1 0x4000 7800- 0x4000 FFFF Reserved Table 10. STM32F40x register boundary addresses (continued) Bus Boundary address Peripheral DocID022152 Rev 4 73/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Memory mapping APB1 0x4000 7800 - 0x4000 7FFF Reserved 0x4000 7400 - 0x4000 77FF DAC 0x4000 7000 - 0x4000 73FF PWR 0x4000 6C00 - 0x4000 6FFF Reserved 0x4000 6800 - 0x4000 6BFF CAN2 0x4000 6400 - 0x4000 67FF CAN1 0x4000 6000 - 0x4000 63FF Reserved 0x4000 5C00 - 0x4000 5FFF I2C3 0x4000 5800 - 0x4000 5BFF I2C2 0x4000 5400 - 0x4000 57FF I2C1 0x4000 5000 - 0x4000 53FF UART5 0x4000 4C00 - 0x4000 4FFF UART4 0x4000 4800 - 0x4000 4BFF USART3 0x4000 4400 - 0x4000 47FF USART2 0x4000 4000 - 0x4000 43FF I2S3ext 0x4000 3C00 - 0x4000 3FFF SPI3 / I2S3 0x4000 3800 - 0x4000 3BFF SPI2 / I2S2 0x4000 3400 - 0x4000 37FF I2S2ext 0x4000 3000 - 0x4000 33FF IWDG 0x4000 2C00 - 0x4000 2FFF WWDG 0x4000 2800 - 0x4000 2BFF RTC & BKP Registers 0x4000 2400 - 0x4000 27FF Reserved 0x4000 2000 - 0x4000 23FF TIM14 0x4000 1C00 - 0x4000 1FFF TIM13 0x4000 1800 - 0x4000 1BFF TIM12 0x4000 1400 - 0x4000 17FF TIM7 0x4000 1000 - 0x4000 13FF TIM6 0x4000 0C00 - 0x4000 0FFF TIM5 0x4000 0800 - 0x4000 0BFF TIM4 0x4000 0400 - 0x4000 07FF TIM3 0x4000 0000 - 0x4000 03FF TIM2 Table 10. STM32F40x register boundary addresses (continued) Bus Boundary address Peripheral Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 74/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 5 Electrical characteristics 5.1 Parameter conditions Unless otherwise specified, all voltages are referenced to VSS. 5.1.1 Minimum and maximum values Unless otherwise specified the minimum and maximum values are guaranteed in the worst conditions of ambient temperature, supply voltage and frequencies by tests in production on 100% of the devices with an ambient temperature at TA = 25 °C and TA = TAmax (given by the selected temperature range). Data based on characterization results, design simulation and/or technology characteristics are indicated in the table footnotes and are not tested in production. Based on characterization, the minimum and maximum values refer to sample tests and represent the mean value plus or minus three times the standard deviation (mean±3Σ). 5.1.2 Typical values Unless otherwise specified, typical data are based on TA = 25 °C, VDD = 3.3 V (for the 1.8 V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.6 V voltage range). They are given only as design guidelines and are not tested. Typical ADC accuracy values are determined by characterization of a batch of samples from a standard diffusion lot over the full temperature range, where 95% of the devices have an error less than or equal to the value indicated (mean±2Σ). 5.1.3 Typical curves Unless otherwise specified, all typical curves are given only as design guidelines and are not tested. 5.1.4 Loading capacitor The loading conditions used for pin parameter measurement are shown in Figure 19. 5.1.5 Pin input voltage The input voltage measurement on a pin of the device is described in Figure 20. Figure 19. Pin loading conditions Figure 20. Pin input voltage MS19011V1 C = 50 pF STM32F pin OSC_OUT (Hi-Z when using HSE or LSE) MS19010V1 STM32F pin VIN OSC_OUT (Hi-Z when using HSE or LSE) DocID022152 Rev 4 75/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics 5.1.6 Power supply scheme Figure 21. Power supply scheme 1. Each power supply pair must be decoupled with filtering ceramic capacitors as shown above. These capacitors must be placed as close as possible to, or below, the appropriate pins on the underside of the PCB to ensure the good functionality of the device. 2. To connect BYPASS_REG and PDR_ON pins, refer to Section 2.2.16: Voltage regulator and Table 2.2.15: Power supply supervisor. 3. The two 2.2 μF ceramic capacitors should be replaced by two 100 nF decoupling capacitors when the voltage regulator is OFF. 4. The 4.7 μF ceramic capacitor must be connected to one of the VDD pin. 5. VDDA=VDD and VSSA=VSS. MS19911V2 Backup circuitry (OSC32K,RTC, Wakeup logic Backup registers, backup RAM) Kernel logic (CPU, digital & RAM) Analog: RCs, PLL,.. Power switch VBAT GPIOs OUT IN 15 × 100 nF + 1 × 4.7 μF VBAT = 1.65 to 3.6V Voltage regulator VDDA ADC Level shifter IO Logic VDD 100 nF + 1 μF Flash memory VCAP_1 2 × 2.2 μF VCAP_2 BYPASS_REG PDR_ON Reset controller VDD 1/2/...14/15 VSS 1/2/...14/15 VDD VREF+ VREFVSSA VREF 100 nF + 1 μF Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 76/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 5.1.7 Current consumption measurement Figure 22. Current consumption measurement scheme 5.2 Absolute maximum ratings Stresses above the absolute maximum ratings listed in Table 11: Voltage characteristics, Table 12: Current characteristics, and Table 13: Thermal characteristics may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these conditions is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ai14126 VBAT VDD VDDA IDD_VBAT IDD Table 11. Voltage characteristics Symbol Ratings Min Max Unit VDD–VSS External main supply voltage (including VDDA, VDD)(1) 1. All main power (VDD, VDDA) and ground (VSS, VSSA) pins must always be connected to the external power supply, in the permitted range. –0.3 4.0 V VIN Input voltage on five-volt tolerant pin(2) 2. VIN maximum value must always be respected. Refer to Table 12 for the values of the maximum allowed injected current. VSS–0.3 VDD+4 Input voltage on any other pin VSS–0.3 4.0 |ΔVDDx| Variations between different VDD power pins - 50 mV |VSSX − VSS| Variations between all the different ground pins - 50 VESD(HBM) Electrostatic discharge voltage (human body model) see Section 5.3.14: Absolute maximum ratings (electrical sensitivity) DocID022152 Rev 4 77/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics 5.3 Operating conditions 5.3.1 General operating conditions Table 12. Current characteristics Symbol Ratings Max. Unit IVDD Total current into VDD power lines (source)(1) 1. All main power (VDD, VDDA) and ground (VSS, VSSA) pins must always be connected to the external power supply, in the permitted range. 150 mA IVSS Total current out of VSS ground lines (sink)(1) 150 IIO Output current sunk by any I/O and control pin 25 Output current source by any I/Os and control pin 25 IINJ(PIN) (2) 2. Negative injection disturbs the analog performance of the device. See note in Section 5.3.20: 12-bit ADC characteristics. Injected current on five-volt tolerant I/O(3) 3. Positive injection is not possible on these I/Os. A negative injection is induced by VINVDD while a negative injection is induced by VIN 25 MHz. 4. When the ADC is ON (ADON bit set in the ADC_CR2 register), add an additional power consumption of 1.6 mA per ADC for the analog part. 5. When analog peripheral blocks such as ADCs, DACs, HSE, LSE, HSI, or LSI are ON, an additional power consumption should be considered. 6. In this case HCLK = system clock/2. Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 84/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 21. Typical and maximum current consumption in Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash memory (ART accelerator disabled) Symbol Parameter Conditions fHCLK Typ Max(1) Unit TA = 25 °C TA = 85 °C TA = 105 °C IDD Supply current in Run mode External clock(2), all peripherals enabled(3)(4) 168 MHz 93 109 117 mA 144 MHz 76 89 96 120 MHz 67 79 86 90 MHz 53 65 73 60 MHz 37 49 56 30 MHz 20 32 39 25 MHz 16 27 35 16 MHz 11 23 30 8 MHz 6 18 25 4 MHz 4 16 23 2 MHz 3 15 22 External clock(2), all peripherals disabled(3)(4) 168 MHz 46 61 69 144 MHz 40 52 60 120 MHz 37 48 56 90 MHz 30 42 50 60 MHz 22 33 41 30 MHz 12 24 31 25 MHz 10 21 29 16 MHz 7 19 26 8 MHz 4 16 23 4 MHz 3 15 22 2 MHz 2 14 21 1. Based on characterization, tested in production at VDD max and fHCLK max with peripherals enabled. 2. External clock is 4 MHz and PLL is on when fHCLK > 25 MHz. 3. When analog peripheral blocks such as (ADCs, DACs, HSE, LSE, HSI,LSI) are on, an additional power consumption should be considered. 4. When the ADC is ON (ADON bit set in the ADC_CR2 register), add an additional power consumption of 1.6 mA per ADC for the analog part. DocID022152 Rev 4 85/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics Figure 24. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator ON) or RAM, and peripherals OFF Figure 25. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator ON) or RAM, and peripherals ON MS19974V1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 IDD RUN( mA) CPU Frequency (MHz -45 °C 0 °C 25 °C 55 °C 85 °C 105 °C MS19975V1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 IDD RUN( mA) CPU Frequency (MHz -45°C 0°C 25°C 55°C 85°C 105°C Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 86/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 26. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator OFF) or RAM, and peripherals OFF Figure 27. Typical current consumption versus temperature, Run mode, code with data processing running from Flash (ART accelerator OFF) or RAM, and peripherals ON MS19976V1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 IDD RUN( mA) CPU Frequency (MHz -45°C 0°C 25°C 55°C 85°C 105°C MS19977V1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 IDD RUN( mA) CPU Frequency (MHz -45°C 0°C 25°C 55°C 85°C 105°C DocID022152 Rev 4 87/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics Table 22. Typical and maximum current consumption in Sleep mode Symbol Parameter Conditions fHCLK Typ Max(1) T Unit A = 25 °C TA = 85 °C TA = 105 °C IDD Supply current in Sleep mode External clock(2), all peripherals enabled(3) 168 MHz 59 77 84 mA 144 MHz 46 61 67 120 MHz 38 53 60 90 MHz 30 44 51 60 MHz 20 34 41 30 MHz 11 24 31 25 MHz 8 21 28 16 MHz 6 18 25 8 MHz 3 16 23 4 MHz 2 15 22 2 MHz 2 14 21 External clock(2), all peripherals disabled 168 MHz 12 27 35 144 MHz 9 22 29 120 MHz 8 20 28 90 MHz 7 19 26 60 MHz 5 17 24 30 MHz 3 16 23 25 MHz 2 15 22 16 MHz 2 14 21 8 MHz 1 14 21 4 MHz 1 13 21 2 MHz 1 13 21 1. Based on characterization, tested in production at VDD max and fHCLK max with peripherals enabled. 2. External clock is 4 MHz and PLL is on when fHCLK > 25 MHz. 3. Add an additional power consumption of 1.6 mA per ADC for the analog part. In applications, this consumption occurs only while the ADC is ON (ADON bit is set in the ADC_CR2 register). Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 88/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 23. Typical and maximum current consumptions in Stop mode Symbol Parameter Conditions Typ Max T Unit A = 25 °C TA = 25 °C TA = 85 °C TA = 105 °C IDD_STOP Supply current in Stop mode with main regulator in Run mode Flash in Stop mode, low-speed and highspeed internal RC oscillators and high-speed oscillator OFF (no independent watchdog) 0.45 1.5 11.00 20.00 mA Flash in Deep power down mode, low-speed and high-speed internal RC oscillators and high-speed oscillator OFF (no independent watchdog) 0.40 1.5 11.00 20.00 Supply current in Stop mode with main regulator in Low Power mode Flash in Stop mode, low-speed and highspeed internal RC oscillators and high-speed oscillator OFF (no independent watchdog) 0.31 1.1 8.00 15.00 Flash in Deep power down mode, low-speed and high-speed internal RC oscillators and high-speed oscillator OFF (no independent watchdog) 0.28 1.1 8.00 15.00 Table 24. Typical and maximum current consumptions in Standby mode Symbol Parameter Conditions Typ Max(1) TA = 25 °C Unit TA = 85 °C TA = 105 °C VDD = 1.8 V VDD= 2.4 V VDD = 3.3 V VDD = 3.6 V IDD_STBY Supply current in Standby mode Backup SRAM ON, lowspeed oscillator and RTC ON 3.0 3.4 4.0 20 36 μA Backup SRAM OFF, lowspeed oscillator and RTC ON 2.4 2.7 3.3 16 32 Backup SRAM ON, RTC OFF 2.4 2.6 3.0 12.5 24.8 Backup SRAM OFF, RTC OFF 1.7 1.9 2.2 9.8 19.2 1. Based on characterization, not tested in production. DocID022152 Rev 4 89/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics Figure 28. Typical VBAT current consumption (LSE and RTC ON/backup RAM OFF) Table 25. Typical and maximum current consumptions in VBAT mode Symbol Parameter Conditions Typ Max(1) Unit TA = 25 °C TA = 85 °C TA = 105 °C VBAT = 1.8 V VBAT= 2.4 V VBAT = 3.3 V VBAT = 3.6 V IDD_VBA T Backup domain supply current Backup SRAM ON, low-speed oscillator and RTC ON 1.29 1.42 1.68 6 11 μA Backup SRAM OFF, low-speed oscillator and RTC ON 0.62 0.73 0.96 3 5 Backup SRAM ON, RTC OFF 0.79 0.81 0.86 5 10 Backup SRAM OFF, RTC OFF 0.10 0.10 0.10 2 4 1. Based on characterization, not tested in production. MS19990V1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 IVBAT in (μA) Temperature in (°C) 1.65V 1.8V 2V 2.4V 2.7V 3V 3.3V 3.6V Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 90/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Figure 29. Typical VBAT current consumption (LSE and RTC ON/backup RAM ON) I/O system current consumption The current consumption of the I/O system has two components: static and dynamic. I/O static current consumption All the I/Os used as inputs with pull-up generate current consumption when the pin is externally held low. The value of this current consumption can be simply computed by using the pull-up/pull-down resistors values given in Table 47: I/O static characteristics. For the output pins, any external pull-down or external load must also be considered to estimate the current consumption. Additional I/O current consumption is due to I/Os configured as inputs if an intermediate voltage level is externally applied. This current consumption is caused by the input Schmitt trigger circuits used to discriminate the input value. Unless this specific configuration is required by the application, this supply current consumption can be avoided by configuring these I/Os in analog mode. This is notably the case of ADC input pins which should be configured as analog inputs. Caution: Any floating input pin can also settle to an intermediate voltage level or switch inadvertently, as a result of external electromagnetic noise. To avoid current consumption related to floating pins, they must either be configured in analog mode, or forced internally to a definite digital value. This can be done either by using pull-up/down resistors or by configuring the pins in output mode. I/O dynamic current consumption In addition to the internal peripheral current consumption measured previously (see Table 27: Peripheral current consumption), the I/Os used by an application also contribute to the current consumption. When an I/O pin switches, it uses the current from the MCU MS19991V1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 IVBAT in (μA) Temperature in (°C) 1.65V 1.8V 2V 2.4V 2.7V 3V 3.3V 3.6V DocID022152 Rev 4 91/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics supply voltage to supply the I/O pin circuitry and to charge/discharge the capacitive load (internal or external) connected to the pin: where ISW is the current sunk by a switching I/O to charge/discharge the capacitive load VDD is the MCU supply voltage fSW is the I/O switching frequency C is the total capacitance seen by the I/O pin: C = CINT+ CEXT The test pin is configured in push-pull output mode and is toggled by software at a fixed frequency. ISW = VDD × fSW × C Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 92/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 Table 26. Switching output I/O current consumption Symbol Parameter Conditions(1) I/O toggling frequency (fSW) Typ Unit IDDIO I/O switching current VDD = 3.3 V(2) C = CINT 2 MHz 0.02 mA 8 MHz 0.14 25 MHz 0.51 50 MHz 0.86 60 MHz 1.30 VDD = 3.3 V CEXT = 0 pF C = CINT + CEXT+ CS 2 MHz 0.10 8 MHz 0.38 25 MHz 1.18 50 MHz 2.47 60 MHz 2.86 VDD = 3.3 V CEXT = 10 pF C = CINT + CEXT+ CS 2 MHz 0.17 8 MHz 0.66 25 MHz 1.70 50 MHz 2.65 60 MHz 3.48 VDD = 3.3 V CEXT = 22 pF C = CINT + CEXT+ CS 2 MHz 0.23 8 MHz 0.95 25 MHz 3.20 50 MHz 4.69 60 MHz 8.06 VDD = 3.3 V CEXT = 33 pF C = CINT + CEXT+ CS 2 MHz 0.30 8 MHz 1.22 25 MHz 3.90 50 MHz 8.82 60 MHz -(3) 1. CS is the PCB board capacitance including the pad pin. CS = 7 pF (estimated value). 2. This test is performed by cutting the LQFP package pin (pad removal). 3. At 60 MHz, C maximum load is specified 30 pF. DocID022152 Rev 4 93/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics On-chip peripheral current consumption The current consumption of the on-chip peripherals is given in Table 27. The MCU is placed under the following conditions: • At startup, all I/O pins are configured as analog pins by firmware. • All peripherals are disabled unless otherwise mentioned • The code is running from Flash memory and the Flash memory access time is equal to 5 wait states at 168 MHz. • The code is running from Flash memory and the Flash memory access time is equal to 4 wait states at 144 MHz, and the power scale mode is set to 2. • ART accelerator and Cache off. • The given value is calculated by measuring the difference of current consumption – with all peripherals clocked off – with one peripheral clocked on (with only the clock applied) • When the peripherals are enabled: HCLK is the system clock, fPCLK1 = fHCLK/4, and fPCLK2 = fHCLK/2. • The typical values are obtained for VDD = 3.3 V and TA= 25 °C, unless otherwise specified. Table 27. Peripheral current consumption Peripheral(1) 168 MHz 144 MHz Unit AHB1 GPIO A 0.49 0.36 mA GPIO B 0.45 0.33 GPIO C 0.45 0.34 GPIO D 0.45 0.34 GPIO E 0.47 0.35 GPIO F 0.45 0.33 GPIO G 0.44 0.33 GPIO H 0.45 0.34 GPIO I 0.44 0.33 OTG_HS + ULPI 4.57 3.55 CRC 0.07 0.06 BKPSRAM 0.11 0.08 DMA1 6.15 4.75 DMA2 6.24 4.8 ETH_MAC + ETH_MAC_TX ETH_MAC_RX ETH_MAC_PTP 3.28 2.54 AHB2 OTG_FS 4.59 3.69 mA DCMI 1.04 0.80 Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 94/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 AHB3 FSMC 2.18 1.67 mA APB1 TIM2 0.80 0.61 TIM3 0.58 0.44 TIM4 0.62 0.48 TIM5 0.79 0.61 TIM6 0.15 0.11 TIM7 0.16 0.12 TIM12 0.33 0.26 TIM13 0.27 0.21 TIM14 0.27 0.21 PWR 0.04 0.03 USART2 0.17 0.13 USART3 0.17 0.13 UART4 0.17 0.13 UART5 0.17 0.13 I2C1 0.17 0.13 I2C2 0.18 0.13 I2C3 0.18 0.13 SPI2/I2S2(2) 0.17/0.16 0.13/0.12 SPI3/I2S3(2) 0.16/0.14 0.12/0.12 CAN1 0.27 0.21 CAN2 0.26 0.20 DAC 0.14 0.10 DAC channel 1(3) 0.91 0.89 DAC channel 2(4) 0.91 0.89 DAC channel 1 and 2(3)(4) 1.69 1.68 WWDG 0.04 0.04 Table 27. Peripheral current consumption (continued) Peripheral(1) 168 MHz 144 MHz Unit DocID022152 Rev 4 95/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics 5.3.7 Wakeup time from low-power mode The wakeup times given in Table 28 is measured on a wakeup phase with a 16 MHz HSI RC oscillator. The clock source used to wake up the device depends from the current operating mode: • Stop or Standby mode: the clock source is the RC oscillator • Sleep mode: the clock source is the clock that was set before entering Sleep mode. All timings are derived from tests performed under ambient temperature and VDD supply voltage conditions summarized in Table 14. APB2 SDIO 0.64 0.54 mA TIM1 1.47 1.14 TIM8 1.58 1.22 TIM9 0.68 0.54 TIM10 0.45 0.36 TIM11 0.47 0.38 ADC1(5) 2.20 2.10 ADC2(5) 2.04 1.93 ADC3(5) 2.10 2.00 SPI1 0.14 0.12 USART1 0.34 0.27 USART6 0.34 0.28 1. HSE oscillator with 4 MHz crystal and PLL are ON. 2. I2SMOD bit set in SPI_I2SCFGR register, and then the I2SE bit set to enable I2S peripheral. 3. EN1 bit is set in DAC_CR register. 4. EN2 bit is set in DAC_CR register. 5. ADON bit set in ADC_CR2 register. Table 27. Peripheral current consumption (continued) Peripheral(1) 168 MHz 144 MHz Unit Table 28. Low-power mode wakeup timings Symbol Parameter Min(1) Typ(1) Max(1) Unit tWUSLEEP (2) Wakeup from Sleep mode - 1 - μs tWUSTOP (2) Wakeup from Stop mode (regulator in Run mode) - 13 - Wakeup from Stop mode (regulator in low power mode) - 17 40 μs Wakeup from Stop mode (regulator in low power mode and Flash memory in Deep power down mode) - 110 - tWUSTDBY (2)(3) Wakeup from Standby mode 260 375 480 μs 1. Based on characterization, not tested in production. 2. The wakeup times are measured from the wakeup event to the point in which the application code reads the first instruction. 3. tWUSTDBY minimum and maximum values are given at 105 °C and –45 °C, respectively. Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 96/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 5.3.8 External clock source characteristics High-speed external user clock generated from an external source The characteristics given in Table 29 result from tests performed using an high-speed external clock source, and under ambient temperature and supply voltage conditions summarized in Table 14. Low-speed external user clock generated from an external source The characteristics given in Table 30 result from tests performed using an low-speed external clock source, and under ambient temperature and supply voltage conditions summarized in Table 14. Table 29. High-speed external user clock characteristics Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit fHSE_ext External user clock source frequency(1) 1 - 50 MHz VHSEH OSC_IN input pin high level voltage 0.7VDD - VDD V VHSEL OSC_IN input pin low level voltage VSS - 0.3VDD tw(HSE) tw(HSE) OSC_IN high or low time(1) 1. Guaranteed by design, not tested in production. 5 - - ns tr(HSE) tf(HSE) OSC_IN rise or fall time(1) - - 10 Cin(HSE) OSC_IN input capacitance(1) - 5 - pF DuCy(HSE) Duty cycle 45 - 55 % IL OSC_IN Input leakage current VSS ≤ VIN ≤ VDD - - ±1 μA Table 30. Low-speed external user clock characteristics Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit fLSE_ext User External clock source frequency(1) - 32.768 1000 kHz VLSEH OSC32_IN input pin high level voltage 0.7VDD - VDD V VLSEL OSC32_IN input pin low level voltage VSS - 0.3VDD tw(LSE) tf(LSE) OSC32_IN high or low time(1) 450 - - ns tr(LSE) tf(LSE) OSC32_IN rise or fall time(1) - - 50 Cin(LSE) OSC32_IN input capacitance(1) - 5 - pF DuCy(LSE) Duty cycle 30 - 70 % IL OSC32_IN Input leakage current VSS ≤ VIN ≤ VDD - - ±1 μA 1. Guaranteed by design, not tested in production. DocID022152 Rev 4 97/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics Figure 30. High-speed external clock source AC timing diagram Figure 31. Low-speed external clock source AC timing diagram High-speed external clock generated from a crystal/ceramic resonator The high-speed external (HSE) clock can be supplied with a 4 to 26 MHz crystal/ceramic resonator oscillator. All the information given in this paragraph are based on characterization results obtained with typical external components specified in Table 31. In the application, the resonator and the load capacitors have to be placed as close as possible to the oscillator pins in order to minimize output distortion and startup stabilization time. Refer to the crystal resonator manufacturer for more details on the resonator characteristics (frequency, package, accuracy). ai17528 OSC_IN External STM32F clock source VHSEH tf(HSE) tW(HSE) IL 90% 10% THSE tr(HSE) tW(HSE) t fHSE_ext VHSEL ai17529 External OSC32_IN STM32F clock source VLSEH tf(LSE) tW(LSE) IL 90% 10% TLSE tr(LSE) tW(LSE) t fLSE_ext VLSEL Electrical characteristics STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx 98/185 DocID022152 Rev 4 For CL1 and CL2, it is recommended to use high-quality external ceramic capacitors in the 5 pF to 25 pF range (typ.), designed for high-frequency applications, and selected to match the requirements of the crystal or resonator (see Figure 32). CL1 and CL2 are usually the same size. The crystal manufacturer typically specifies a load capacitance which is the series combination of CL1 and CL2. PCB and MCU pin capacitance must be included (10 pF can be used as a rough estimate of the combined pin and board capacitance) when sizing CL1 and CL2. Note: For information on electing the crystal, refer to the application note AN2867 “Oscillator design guide for ST microcontrollers” available from the ST website www.st.com. Figure 32. Typical application with an 8 MHz crystal 1. REXT value depends on the crystal characteristics. Low-speed external clock generated from a crystal/ceramic resonator The low-speed external (LSE) clock can be supplied with a 32.768 kHz crystal/ceramic resonator oscillator. All the information given in this paragraph are based on characterization results obtained with typical external components specified in Table 32. In the application, the resonator and the load capacitors have to be placed as close as possible to the oscillator pins in order to minimize output distortion and startup stabilization time. Refer to the crystal resonator manufacturer for more details on the resonator characteristics (frequency, package, accuracy). Table 31. HSE 4-26 MHz oscillator characteristics(1) (2) 1. Resonator characteristics given by the crystal/ceramic resonator manufacturer. 2. Based on characterization, not tested in production. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit fOSC_IN Oscillator frequency 4 - 26 MHz RF Feedback resistor - 200 - kΩ IDD HSE current consumption VDD=3.3 V, ESR= 30 Ω, CL=5 pF@25 MHz - 449 - μA VDD=3.3 V, ESR= 30 Ω, CL=10 pF@25 MHz - 532 - gm Oscillator transconductance Startup 5 - - mA/V tSU(HSE (3) 3. tSU(HSE) is the startup time measured from the moment it is enabled (by software) to a stabilized 8 MHz oscillation is reached. This value is measured for a standard crystal resonator and it can vary significantly with the crystal manufacturer Startup time VDD is stabilized - 2 - ms ai17530 OSC_OUT OSC_IN fHSE CL1 RF STM32F 8 MHz resonator Resonator with integrated capacitors Bias controlled gain CL2 REXT(1) DocID022152 Rev 4 99/185 STM32F405xx, STM32F407xx Electrical characteristics Note: For information on electing the crystal, refer to the application note AN2867 “