Farnell PDF Analog Devices Digital Signal Processors Chapitre 28 - Analog Devices

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Farnell Element 14 :

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Everything You Need To Know About Arduino

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Tutorial 01 for Arduino: Getting Acquainted with Arduino

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The Cube® 3D Printer

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What's easier- DIY Dentistry or our new our website features?

 

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Ben Heck's Getting Started with the BeagleBone Black Trailer

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Ben Heck's Home-Brew Solder Reflow Oven 2.0 Trailer

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Get Started with Pi Episode 3 - Online with Raspberry Pi

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Discover Simulink Promo -- Exclusive element14 Webinar

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Ben Heck's TV Proximity Sensor Trailer

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Ben Heck's PlayStation 4 Teardown Trailer

See the trailer for the next exciting episode of The Ben Heck show. Check back on Friday to be among the first to see the exclusive full show on element…

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Get Started with Pi Episode 4 - Your First Raspberry Pi Project

Connect your Raspberry Pi to a breadboard, download some code and create a push-button audio play project.

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Ben Heck Anti-Pickpocket Wallet Trailer

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Molex Earphones - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tripp Lite Surge Protector - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Microchip ChipKIT Pi - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Beagle Bone Black - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M E26, LED Lamps - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M Colored Duct Tape - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tenma Soldering Station - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Duratool Screwdriver Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Cubify 3D Cube - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Bud Boardganizer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Raspberry Pi Starter Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Fluke 323 True-rms Clamp Meter - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Dymo RHINO 6000 Label Printer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M LED Advanced Lights A-19 - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Innovative LPS Resistor Features Very High Power Dissipation

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Charge Injection Evaluation Board for DG508B Multiplexer Demo

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 2

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Introducing element14 TV

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Ben Heck Time to Meet Your Maker Trailer

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Détecteur de composants

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Recherche intégrée

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar Trailer Part 1

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar - Part 2 Trailer

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PiFace Control and Display Introduction

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Flashmob Farnell

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Express Yourself in 3D with Cube 3D Printers from Newark element14

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Farnell YouTube Channel Move

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Farnell: Design with the best

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French Farnell Quest

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Altera - 3 Ways to Quickly Adapt to Changing Ethernet Protocols

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Cy-Net3 Network Module

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MC AT - Professional and Precision Series Thin Film Chip Resistors

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Solderless LED Connector

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PSA-T Series Spectrum Analyser: PSA1301T/ PSA2701T

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3-axis Universal Motion Controller For Stepper Motor Drivers: TMC429

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Voltage Level Translation

Puce électronique / Microchip :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 2 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 3 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 1 of 3

Sans fil - Wireless :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Wireless Power Solutions - Wurth Electronics, Texas Instruments, CadSoft and element14

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Analog Devices - Remote Water Quality Monitoring via a Low Power, Wireless Network

Texas instrument :

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Texas Instruments - Automotive LED Headlights

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Texas Instruments - Digital Power Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Sensor Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Wireless Pen Input Demo (Mobile World Congress)

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Automation System Components

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x - Industry's first 10-GHz fixed/floating point DSP

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x KeyStone Multicore Architecture

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Interfaces

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Texas Instruments - Concerto™ MCUs - Connectivity without compromise

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Texas Instruments - Stellaris Robot Chronos

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Texas Instruments - DRV8412-C2-KIT, Brushed DC and Stepper Motor Control Kit

Ordinateurs :

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Ask Ben Heck - Connect Raspberry Pi to Car Computer

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Ben's Portable Raspberry Pi Computer Trailer

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Ben's Raspberry Pi Portable Computer Trailer 2

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Ben Heck's Pocket Computer Trailer

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Ask Ben Heck - Atari Computer

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Ask Ben Heck - Using Computer Monitors for External Displays

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Raspberry Pi Partnership with BBC Computer Literacy Project - Answers from co-founder Eben Upton

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Installing RaspBMC on your Raspberry Pi with the Farnell element14 Accessory kit

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Raspberry Pi Served - Joey Hudy

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Happy Birthday Raspberry Pi

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Raspberry Pi board B product overview

Logiciels :

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Opensource or Free CAD Software

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Tektronix FPGAView™ software makes debugging of FPGAs faster than ever!

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Open-Source Schematic Capture and PCB Layout Software

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Introduction to Cadsoft EAGLE PCB Design Software in Chinese

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Altera - Developing Software for Embedded Systems on FPGAs

Tutoriels :

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 1

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the knode tutorial - element14

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Ben's Autodesk 123D Tutorial Trailer

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Ben's CadSoft EAGLE Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Soldering Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's AVR Dev Board tutorial

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Ben Heck's Pinball Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Interface Tutorial Trailer

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First Stage with Python and PiFace Digital

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Cypress - Getting Started with PSoC® 3 - Part 2

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Energy Harvesting Challenge

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New Features of CadSoft EAGLE v6

Autres documentations :

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Digital Signal Processors Digital Signal Processing is carried out by mathematical operations. In comparison, word processing and similar programs merely rearrange stored data. This means that computers designed for business and other general applications are not optimized for algorithms such as digital filtering and Fourier analysis. Digital Signal Processors are microprocessors specifically designed to handle Digital Signal Processing tasks. These devices have seen tremendous growth in the last decade, finding use in everything from cellular telephones to advanced scientific instruments. In fact, hardware engineers use "DSP" to mean Digital Signal Processor, just as algorithm developers use "DSP" to mean Digital Signal Processing. This chapter looks at how DSPs are different from other types of microprocessors, how to decide if a DSP is right for your application, and how to get started in this exciting new field. In the next chapter we will take a more detailed look at one of these sophisticated products: the Analog Devices SHARC® family. How DSPs are Different from Other Microprocessors In the 1960s it was predicted that artificial intelligence would revolutionize the way humans interact with computers and other machines. It was believed that by the end of the century we would have robots cleaning our houses, computers driving our cars, and voice interfaces controlling the storage and retrieval of information. This hasn't happened; these abstract tasks are far more complicated than expected, and very difficult to carry out with the step-by-step logic provided by digital computers. However, the last forty years have shown that computers are extremely capable in two broad areas, (1) data manipulation, such as word processing and database management, and (2) mathematical calculation, used in science, engineering, and Digital Signal Processing. All microprocessors can perform both tasks; however, it is difficult (expensive) to make a device that is optimized for both. There are technical tradeoffs in the hardware design, such as the size of the instruction set and how interrupts are handled. Even 504 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing Data Manipulation Math Calculation Word processing, database management, spread sheets, operating sytems, etc. Digital Signal Processing, motion control, scientific and engineering simulations, etc. data movement (A º B) value testing (If A=B then ...) addition (A+B=C ) multiplication (A×B=C ) Typical Applications Main Operations FIGURE 28-1 Data manipulation versus mathematical calculation. Digital computers are useful for two general tasks: data manipulation and mathematical calculation. Data manipulation is based on moving data and testing inequalities, while mathematical calculation uses multiplication and addition. more important, there are marketing issues involved: development and manufacturing cost, competitive position, product lifetime, and so on. As a broad generalization, these factors have made traditional microprocessors, such as the Pentium®, primarily directed at data manipulation. Similarly, DSPs are designed to perform the mathematical calculations needed in Digital Signal Processing. Figure 28-1 lists the most important differences between these two categories. Data manipulation involves storing and sorting information. For instance, consider a word processing program. The basic task is to store the information (typed in by the operator), organize the information (cut and paste, spell checking, page layout, etc.), and then retrieve the information (such as saving the document on a floppy disk or printing it with a laser printer). These tasks are accomplished by moving data from one location to another, and testing for inequalities (A=B, AB THEN ...). Second, if the two entries are not in alphabetical order, switch them so that they are (AWB). When this two step process is repeated many times on all adjacent pairs, the list will eventually become alphabetized. As another example, consider how a document is printed from a word processor. The computer continually tests the input device (mouse or keyboard) for the binary code that indicates "print the document." When this code is detected, the program moves the data from the computer's memory to the printer. Here we have the same two basic operations: moving data and inequality testing. While mathematics is occasionally used in this type of Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 505 y[n] ’ a0 x[n] % a1 x[n&1] % a2 x[n&2] % a3 x[n&3] % a4 x[n&4] % þ ×a0 ×a1 ×a2 ×a3 ×a4 ×a5 ×a6 ×a7 Input Signal, x[ ] Output signal, y[ ] x[n] x[n-1] x[n-2] x[n-3] y[n] FIGURE 28-2 FIR digital filter. In FIR filtering, each sample in the output signal, y[n], is found by multiplying samples from the input signal, x[n], x[n-1], x[n-2], ..., by the filter kernel coefficients, a0, a1, a2, a3 ..., and summing the products. application, it is infrequent and does not significantly affect the overall execution speed. In comparison, the execution speed of most DSP algorithms is limited almost completely by the number of multiplications and additions required. For example, Fig. 28-2 shows the implementation of an FIR digital filter, the most common DSP technique. Using the standard notation, the input signal is referred to by x[ ], while the output signal is denoted by y[ ]. Our task is to calculate the sample at location n in the output signal, i.e., y[n] . An FIR filter performs this calculation by multiplying appropriate samples from the input signal by a group of coefficients, denoted by: a , and then adding 0, a1, a2, a3,þ the products. In equation form, y[n] is found by: This is simply saying that the input signal has been convolved with a filter kernel (i.e., an impulse response) consisting of: a . Depending on 0, a1, a2, a3,þ the application, there may only be a few coefficients in the filter kernel, or many thousands. While there is some data transfer and inequality evaluation in this algorithm, such as to keep track of the intermediate results and control the loops, the math operations dominate the execution time. 506 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing In addition to preforming mathematical calculations very rapidly, DSPs must also have a predictable execution time. Suppose you launch your desktop computer on some task, say, converting a word-processing document from one form to another. It doesn't matter if the processing takes ten milliseconds or ten seconds; you simply wait for the action to be completed before you give the computer its next assignment. In comparison, most DSPs are used in applications where the processing is continuous, not having a defined start or end. For instance, consider an engineer designing a DSP system for an audio signal, such as a hearing aid. If the digital signal is being received at 20,000 samples per second, the DSP must be able to maintain a sustained throughput of 20,000 samples per second. However, there are important reasons not to make it any faster than necessary. As the speed increases, so does the cost, the power consumption, the design difficulty, and so on. This makes an accurate knowledge of the execution time critical for selecting the proper device, as well as the algorithms that can be applied. Circular Buffering Digital Signal Processors are designed to quickly carry out FIR filters and similar techniques. To understand the hardware, we must first understand the algorithms. In this section we will make a detailed list of the steps needed to implement an FIR filter. In the next section we will see how DSPs are designed to perform these steps as efficiently as possible. To start, we need to distinguish between off-line processing and real-time processing. In off-line processing, the entire input signal resides in the computer at the same time. For example, a geophysicist might use a seismometer to record the ground movement during an earthquake. After the shaking is over, the information may be read into a computer and analyzed in some way. Another example of off-line processing is medical imaging, such as computed tomography and MRI. The data set is acquired while the patient is inside the machine, but the image reconstruction may be delayed until a later time. The key point is that all of the information is simultaneously available to the processing program. This is common in scientific research and engineering, but not in consumer products. Off-line processing is the realm of personal computers and mainframes. In real-time processing, the output signal is produced at the same time that the input signal is being acquired. For example, this is needed in telephone communication, hearing aids, and radar. These applications must have the information immediately available, although it can be delayed by a short amount. For instance, a 10 millisecond delay in a telephone call cannot be detected by the speaker or listener. Likewise, it makes no difference if a radar signal is delayed by a few seconds before being displayed to the operator. Real-time applications input a sample, perform the algorithm, and output a sample, over-and-over. Alternatively, they may input a group Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 507 x[n-3] x[n-2] x[n-1] x[n] x[n-6] x[n-5] x[n-4] x[n-7] 20040 20041 20042 20043 20044 20045 20046 20047 20048 20049 -0.225767 -0.269847 -0.228918 -0.113940 -0.048679 -0.222977 -0.371370 -0.462791 ADDRESS VALUE newest sample oldest sample MEMORY STORED x[n-4] x[n-3] x[n-2] x[n-1] x[n-7] x[n-6] x[n-5] x[n] 20040 20041 20042 20043 20044 20045 20046 20047 20048 20049 -0.225767 -0.269847 -0.228918 -0.113940 -0.062222 -0.222977 -0.371370 -0.462791 ADDRESS VALUE newest sample oldest sample MEMORY STORED a. Circular buffer at some instant b. Circular buffer after next sample FIGURE 28-3 Circular buffer operation. Circular buffers are used to store the most recent values of a continually updated signal. This illustration shows how an eight sample circular buffer might appear at some instant in time (a), and how it would appear one sample later (b). of samples, perform the algorithm, and output a group of samples. This is the world of Digital Signal Processors. Now look back at Fig. 28-2 and imagine that this is an FIR filter being implemented in real-time. To calculate the output sample, we must have access to a certain number of the most recent samples from the input. For example, suppose we use eight coefficients in this filter, a . This means we 0, a1, þ a7 must know the value of the eight most recent samples from the input signal, x[n], x[n&1], þ x[n&7] . These eight samples must be stored in memory and continually updated as new samples are acquired. What is the best way to manage these stored samples? The answer is circular buffering. Figure 28-3 illustrates an eight sample circular buffer. We have placed this circular buffer in eight consecutive memory locations, 20041 to 20048. Figure (a) shows how the eight samples from the input might be stored at one particular instant in time, while (b) shows the changes after the next sample is acquired. The idea of circular buffering is that the end of this linear array is connected to its beginning; memory location 20041 is viewed as being next to 20048, just as 20044 is next to 20045. You keep track of the array by a pointer (a variable whose value is an address) that indicates where the most recent sample resides. For instance, in (a) the pointer contains the address 20044, while in (b) it contains 20045. When a new sample is acquired, it replaces the oldest sample in the array, and the pointer is moved one address ahead. Circular buffers are efficient because only one value needs to be changed when a new sample is acquired. Four parameters are needed to manage a circular buffer. First, there must be a pointer that indicates the start of the circular buffer in memory (in this example, 20041). Second, there must be a pointer indicating the end of the 508 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing 1. Obtain a sample with the ADC; generate an interrupt 2. Detect and manage the interrupt 3. Move the sample into the input signal's circular buffer 4. Update the pointer for the input signal's circular buffer 5. Zero the accumulator 6. Control the loop through each of the coefficients 7. Fetch the coefficient from the coefficient's circular buffer 8. Update the pointer for the coefficient's circular buffer 9. Fetch the sample from the input signal's circular buffer 10. Update the pointer for the input signal's circular buffer 11. Multiply the coefficient by the sample 12. Add the product to the accumulator 13. Move the output sample (accumulator) to a holding buffer 14. Move the output sample from the holding buffer to the DAC TABLE 28-1 FIR filter steps. array (e.g., 20048), or a variable that holds its length (e.g., 8). Third, the step size of the memory addressing must be specified. In Fig. 28-3 the step size is one, for example: address 20043 contains one sample, address 20044 contains the next sample, and so on. This is frequently not the case. For instance, the addressing may refer to bytes, and each sample may require two or four bytes to hold its value. In these cases, the step size would need to be two or four, respectively. These three values define the size and configuration of the circular buffer, and will not change during the program operation. The fourth value, the pointer to the most recent sample, must be modified as each new sample is acquired. In other words, there must be program logic that controls how this fourth value is updated based on the value of the first three values. While this logic is quite simple, it must be very fast. This is the whole point of this discussion; DSPs should be optimized at managing circular buffers to achieve the highest possible execution speed. As an aside, circular buffering is also useful in off-line processing. Consider a program where both the input and the output signals are completely contained in memory. Circular buffering isn't needed for a convolution calculation, because every sample can be immediately accessed. However, many algorithms are implemented in stages, with an intermediate signal being created between each stage. For instance, a recursive filter carried out as a series of biquads operates in this way. The brute force method is to store the entire length of each intermediate signal in memory. Circular buffering provides another option: store only those intermediate samples needed for the calculation at hand. This reduces the required amount of memory, at the expense of a more complicated algorithm. The important idea is that circular buffers are useful for off-line processing, but critical for real-time applications. Now we can look at the steps needed to implement an FIR filter using circular buffers for both the input signal and the coefficients. This list may seem trivial and overexamined- it's not! The efficient handling of these individual tasks is what separates a DSP from a traditional microprocessor. For each new sample, all the following steps need to be taken: Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 509 The goal is to make these steps execute quickly. Since steps 6-12 will be repeated many times (once for each coefficient in the filter), special attention must be given to these operations. Traditional microprocessors must generally carry out these 14 steps in serial (one after another), while DSPs are designed to perform them in parallel. In some cases, all of the operations within the loop (steps 6-12) can be completed in a single clock cycle. Let's look at the internal architecture that allows this magnificent performance. Architecture of the Digital Signal Processor One of the biggest bottlenecks in executing DSP algorithms is transferring information to and from memory. This includes data, such as samples from the input signal and the filter coefficients, as well as program instructions, the binary codes that go into the program sequencer. For example, suppose we need to multiply two numbers that reside somewhere in memory. To do this, we must fetch three binary values from memory, the numbers to be multiplied, plus the program instruction describing what to do. Figure 28-4a shows how this seemingly simple task is done in a traditional microprocessor. This is often called a Von Neumann architecture, after the brilliant American mathematician John Von Neumann (1903-1957). Von Neumann guided the mathematics of many important discoveries of the early twentieth century. His many achievements include: developing the concept of a stored program computer, formalizing the mathematics of quantum mechanics, and work on the atomic bomb. If it was new and exciting, Von Neumann was there! As shown in (a), a Von Neumann architecture contains a single memory and a single bus for transferring data into and out of the central processing unit (CPU). Multiplying two numbers requires at least three clock cycles, one to transfer each of the three numbers over the bus from the memory to the CPU. We don't count the time to transfer the result back to memory, because we assume that it remains in the CPU for additional manipulation (such as the sum of products in an FIR filter). The Von Neumann design is quite satisfactory when you are content to execute all of the required tasks in serial. In fact, most computers today are of the Von Neumann design. We only need other architectures when very fast processing is required, and we are willing to pay the price of increased complexity. This leads us to the Harvard architecture, shown in (b). This is named for the work done at Harvard University in the 1940s under the leadership of Howard Aiken (1900-1973). As shown in this illustration, Aiken insisted on separate memories for data and program instructions, with separate buses for each. Since the buses operate independently, program instructions and data can be fetched at the same time, improving the speed over the single bus design. Most present day DSPs use this dual bus architecture. Figure (c) illustrates the next level of sophistication, the Super Harvard Architecture. This term was coined by Analog Devices to describe the 510 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing internal operation of their ADSP-2106x and new ADSP-211xx families of Digital Signal Processors. These are called SHARC® DSPs, a contraction of the longer term, Super Harvard ARChitecture. The idea is to build upon the Harvard architecture by adding features to improve the throughput. While the SHARC DSPs are optimized in dozens of ways, two areas are important enough to be included in Fig. 28-4c: an instruction cache, and an I/O controller. First, let's look at how the instruction cache improves the performance of the Harvard architecture. A handicap of the basic Harvard design is that the data memory bus is busier than the program memory bus. When two numbers are multiplied, two binary values (the numbers) must be passed over the data memory bus, while only one binary value (the program instruction) is passed over the program memory bus. To improve upon this situation, we start by relocating part of the "data" to program memory. For instance, we might place the filter coefficients in program memory, while keeping the input signal in data memory. (This relocated data is called "secondary data" in the illustration). At first glance, this doesn't seem to help the situation; now we must transfer one value over the data memory bus (the input signal sample), but two values over the program memory bus (the program instruction and the coefficient). In fact, if we were executing random instructions, this situation would be no better at all. However, DSP algorithms generally spend most of their execution time in loops, such as instructions 6-12 of Table 28-1. This means that the same set of program instructions will continually pass from program memory to the CPU. The Super Harvard architecture takes advantage of this situation by including an instruction cache in the CPU. This is a small memory that contains about 32 of the most recent program instructions. The first time through a loop, the program instructions must be passed over the program memory bus. This results in slower operation because of the conflict with the coefficients that must also be fetched along this path. However, on additional executions of the loop, the program instructions can be pulled from the instruction cache. This means that all of the memory to CPU information transfers can be accomplished in a single cycle: the sample from the input signal comes over the data memory bus, the coefficient comes over the program memory bus, and the program instruction comes from the instruction cache. In the jargon of the field, this efficient transfer of data is called a high memoryaccess bandwidth. Figure 28-5 presents a more detailed view of the SHARC architecture, showing the I/O controller connected to data memory. This is how the signals enter and exit the system. For instance, the SHARC DSPs provides both serial and parallel communications ports. These are extremely high speed connections. For example, at a 40 MHz clock speed, there are two serial ports that operate at 40 Mbits/second each, while six parallel ports each provide a 40 Mbytes/second data transfer. When all six parallel ports are used together, the data transfer rate is an incredible 240 Mbytes/second. Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 511 Memory data and instructions Program Memory Data Memory instructions and secondary data data only Program Memory Data Memory instructions only data only a. Von Neumann Architecture ( ) b. Harvard Architecture ( ) c. Super Harvard Architecture ( ) address bus CPU data bus PM address bus PM data bus PM address bus PM data bus DM address bus DM data bus CPU DM address bus DM data bus single memory dual memory dual memory, instruction cache, I/O controller Instruction Cache CPU I/O Controller data FIGURE 28-4 Microprocessor architecture. The Von Neumann architecture uses a single memory to hold both data and instructions. In comparison, the Harvard architecture uses separate memories for data and instructions, providing higher speed. The Super Harvard Architecture improves upon the Harvard design by adding an instruction cache and a dedicated I/O controller. This is fast enough to transfer the entire text of this book in only 2 milliseconds! Just as important, dedicated hardware allows these data streams to be transferred directly into memory (Direct Memory Access, or DMA), without having to pass through the CPU's registers. In other words, tasks 1 & 14 on our list happen independently and simultaneously with the other tasks; no cycles are stolen from the CPU. The main buses (program memory bus and data memory bus) are also accessible from outside the chip, providing an additional interface to off-chip memory and peripherals. This allows the SHARC DSPs to use a four Gigaword (16 Gbyte) memory, accessible at 40 Mwords/second (160 Mbytes/second), for 32 bit data. Wow! This type of high speed I/O is a key characteristic of DSPs. The overriding goal is to move the data in, perform the math, and move the data out before the next sample is available. Everything else is secondary. Some DSPs have onboard analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, a feature called mixed signal. However, all DSPs can interface with external converters through serial or parallel ports. 512 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing Now let's look inside the CPU. At the top of the diagram are two blocks labeled Data Address Generator (DAG), one for each of the two memories. These control the addresses sent to the program and data memories, specifying where the information is to be read from or written to. In simpler microprocessors this task is handled as an inherent part of the program sequencer, and is quite transparent to the programmer. However, DSPs are designed to operate with circular buffers, and benefit from the extra hardware to manage them efficiently. This avoids needing to use precious CPU clock cycles to keep track of how the data are stored. For instance, in the SHARC DSPs, each of the two DAGs can control eight circular buffers. This means that each DAG holds 32 variables (4 per buffer), plus the required logic. Why so many circular buffers? Some DSP algorithms are best carried out in stages. For instance, IIR filters are more stable if implemented as a cascade of biquads (a stage containing two poles and up to two zeros). Multiple stages require multiple circular buffers for the fastest operation. The DAGs in the SHARC DSPs are also designed to efficiently carry out the Fast Fourier transform. In this mode, the DAGs are configured to generate bit-reversed addresses into the circular buffers, a necessary part of the FFT algorithm. In addition, an abundance of circular buffers greatly simplifies DSP code generation- both for the human programmer as well as high-level language compilers, such as C. The data register section of the CPU is used in the same way as in traditional microprocessors. In the ADSP-2106x SHARC DSPs, there are 16 general purpose registers of 40 bits each. These can hold intermediate calculations, prepare data for the math processor, serve as a buffer for data transfer, hold flags for program control, and so on. If needed, these registers can also be used to control loops and counters; however, the SHARC DSPs have extra hardware registers to carry out many of these functions. The math processing is broken into three sections, a multiplier, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and a barrel shifter. The multiplier takes the values from two registers, multiplies them, and places the result into another register. The ALU performs addition, subtraction, absolute value, logical operations (AND, OR, XOR, NOT), conversion between fixed and floating point formats, and similar functions. Elementary binary operations are carried out by the barrel shifter, such as shifting, rotating, extracting and depositing segments, and so on. A powerful feature of the SHARC family is that the multiplier and the ALU can be accessed in parallel. In a single clock cycle, data from registers 0-7 can be passed to the multiplier, data from registers 8-15 can be passed to the ALU, and the two results returned to any of the 16 registers. There are also many important features of the SHARC family architecture that aren't shown in this simplified illustration. For instance, an 80 bit accumulator is built into the multiplier to reduce the round-off error associated with multiple fixed-point math operations. Another interesting Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 513 Program Memory Data Memory instructions and secondary data data only Address PM Data Generator Address DM Data Generator Data Registers Muliplier ALU Shifter PM address bus DM address bus PM data bus DM data bus Program Sequencer Instruction Cache I/O Controller (DMA) High speed I/O (serial, parallel, ADC, DAC, etc.) FIGURE 28-5 Typical DSP architecture. Digital Signal Processors are designed to implement tasks in parallel. This simplified diagram is of the Analog Devices SHARC DSP. Compare this architecture with the tasks needed to implement an FIR filter, as listed in Table 28-1. All of the steps within the loop can be executed in a single clock cycle. feature is the use of shadow registers for all the CPU's key registers. These are duplicate registers that can be switched with their counterparts in a single clock cycle. They are used for fast context switching, the ability to handle interrupts quickly. When an interrupt occurs in traditional microprocessors, all the internal data must be saved before the interrupt can be handled. This usually involves pushing all of the occupied registers onto the stack, one at a time. In comparison, an interrupt in the SHARC family is handled by moving the internal data into the shadow registers in a single clock cycle. When the interrupt routine is completed, the registers are just as quickly restored. This feature allows step 4 on our list (managing the sample-ready interrupt) to be handled very quickly and efficiently. Now we come to the critical performance of the architecture, how many of the operations within the loop (steps 6-12 of Table 28-1) can be carried out at the same time. Because of its highly parallel nature, the SHARC DSP can simultaneously carry out all of these tasks. Specifically, within a single clock cycle, it can perform a multiply (step 11), an addition (step 12), two data moves (steps 7 and 9), update two circular buffer pointers (steps 8 and 10), and 514 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing control the loop (step 6). There will be extra clock cycles associated with beginning and ending the loop (steps 3, 4, 5 and 13, plus moving initial values into place); however, these tasks are also handled very efficiently. If the loop is executed more than a few times, this overhead will be negligible. As an example, suppose you write an efficient FIR filter program using 100 coefficients. You can expect it to require about 105 to 110 clock cycles per sample to execute (i.e., 100 coefficient loops plus overhead). This is very impressive; a traditional microprocessor requires many thousands of clock cycles for this algorithm. Fixed versus Floating Point Digital Signal Processing can be divided into two categories, fixed point and floating point. These refer to the format used to store and manipulate numbers within the devices. Fixed point DSPs usually represent each number with a minimum of 16 bits, although a different length can be used. For instance, Motorola manufactures a family of fixed point DSPs that use 24 bits. There are four common ways that these 216 ’ 65,536 possible bit patterns can represent a number. In unsigned integer, the stored number can take on any integer value from 0 to 65,535. Similarly, signed integer uses two's complement to make the range include negative numbers, from -32,768 to 32,767. With unsigned fraction notation, the 65,536 levels are spread uniformly between 0 and 1. Lastly, the signed fraction format allows negative numbers, equally spaced between -1 and 1. In comparison, floating point DSPs typically use a minimum of 32 bits to store each value. This results in many more bit patterns than for fixed point, 232 ’ 4,294,967,296 to be exact. A key feature of floating point notation is that the represented numbers are not uniformly spaced. In the most common format (ANSI/IEEE Std. 754-1985), the largest and smallest numbers are ±3.4×1038 and ±1.2×10 , respectively. The represented values are unequally &38 spaced between these two extremes, such that the gap between any two numbers is about ten-million times smaller than the value of the numbers. This is important because it places large gaps between large numbers, but small gaps between small numbers. Floating point notation is discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. All floating point DSPs can also handle fixed point numbers, a necessity to implement counters, loops, and signals coming from the ADC and going to the DAC. However, this doesn't mean that fixed point math will be carried out as quickly as the floating point operations; it depends on the internal architecture. For instance, the SHARC DSPs are optimized for both floating point and fixed point operations, and executes them with equal efficiency. For this reason, the SHARC devices are often referred to as "32-bit DSPs," rather than just "Floating Point." Figure 28-6 illustrates the primary trade-offs between fixed and floating point DSPs. In Chapter 3 we stressed that fixed point arithmetic is much Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 515 Precision Product Cost Development Time Floating Point Fixed Point FIGURE 28-6 Dynamic Range Fixed versus floating point. Fixed point DSPs are generally cheaper, while floating point devices have better precision, higher dynamic range, and a shorter development cycle. faster than floating point in general purpose computers. However, with DSPs the speed is about the same, a result of the hardware being highly optimized for math operations. The internal architecture of a floating point DSP is more complicated than for a fixed point device. All the registers and data buses must be 32 bits wide instead of only 16; the multiplier and ALU must be able to quickly perform floating point arithmetic, the instruction set must be larger (so that they can handle both floating and fixed point numbers), and so on. Floating point (32 bit) has better precision and a higher dynamic range than fixed point (16 bit) . In addition, floating point programs often have a shorter development cycle, since the programmer doesn't generally need to worry about issues such as overflow, underflow, and round-off error. On the other hand, fixed point DSPs have traditionally been cheaper than floating point devices. Nothing changes more rapidly than the price of electronics; anything you find in a book will be out-of-date before it is printed. Nevertheless, cost is a key factor in understanding how DSPs are evolving, and we need to give you a general idea. When this book was completed in 1999, fixed point DSPs sold for between $5 and $100, while floating point devices were in the range of $10 to $300. This difference in cost can be viewed as a measure of the relative complexity between the devices. If you want to find out what the prices are today, you need to look today. Now let's turn our attention to performance; what can a 32-bit floating point system do that a 16-bit fixed point can't? The answer to this question is signal-to-noise ratio. Suppose we store a number in a 32 bit floating point format. As previously mentioned, the gap between this number and its adjacent neighbor is about one ten-millionth of the value of the number. To store the number, it must be round up or down by a maximum of one-half the gap size. In other words, each time we store a number in floating point notation, we add noise to the signal. The same thing happens when a number is stored as a 16-bit fixed point value, except that the added noise is much worse. This is because the gaps between adjacent numbers are much larger. For instance, suppose we store the number 10,000 as a signed integer (running from -32,768 to 32,767). The gap between numbers is one ten-thousandth of the value of the number we are storing. If we 516 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing want to store the number 1000, the gap between numbers is only one onethousandth of the value. Noise in signals is usually represented by its standard deviation. This was discussed in detail in Chapter 2. For here, the important fact is that the standard deviation of this quantization noise is about one-third of the gap size. This means that the signal-to-noise ratio for storing a floating point number is about 30 million to one, while for a fixed point number it is only about ten-thousand to one. In other words, floating point has roughly 30,000 times less quantization noise than fixed point. This brings up an important way that DSPs are different from traditional microprocessors. Suppose we implement an FIR filter in fixed point. To do this, we loop through each coefficient, multiply it by the appropriate sample from the input signal, and add the product to an accumulator. Here's the problem. In traditional microprocessors, this accumulator is just another 16 bit fixed point variable. To avoid overflow, we need to scale the values being added, and will correspondingly add quantization noise on each step. In the worst case, this quantization noise will simply add, greatly lowering the signalto- noise ratio of the system. For instance, in a 500 coefficient FIR filter, the noise on each output sample may be 500 times the noise on each input sample. The signal-to-noise ratio of ten-thousand to one has dropped to a ghastly twenty to one. Although this is an extreme case, it illustrates the main point: when many operations are carried out on each sample, it's bad, really bad. See Chapter 3 for more details. DSPs handle this problem by using an extended precision accumulator. This is a special register that has 2-3 times as many bits as the other memory locations. For example, in a 16 bit DSP it may have 32 to 40 bits, while in the SHARC DSPs it contains 80 bits for fixed point use. This extended range virtually eliminates round-off noise while the accumulation is in progress. The only round-off error suffered is when the accumulator is scaled and stored in the 16 bit memory. This strategy works very well, although it does limit how some algorithms must be carried out. In comparison, floating point has such low quantization noise that these techniques are usually not necessary. In addition to having lower quantization noise, floating point systems are also easier to develop algorithms for. Most DSP techniques are based on repeated multiplications and additions. In fixed point, the possibility of an overflow or underflow needs to be considered after each operation. The programmer needs to continually understand the amplitude of the numbers, how the quantization errors are accumulating, and what scaling needs to take place. In comparison, these issues do not arise in floating point; the numbers take care of themselves (except in rare cases). To give you a better understanding of this issue, Fig. 28-7 shows a table from the SHARC user manual. This describes the ways that multiplication can be carried out for both fixed and floating point formats. First, look at how floating point numbers can be multiplied; there is only one way! That Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 517 Rn MRF MRB Rn Rn MRF MRB Rn Rn MRF MRB Rn Rn MRF MRB Rn Rn MRF MRB MRF MRB MRxF MRxB Rn = MRF = MRB = MRF = MRB = MRF = MRB = MRF = MRB = SAT MRF = SAT MRB = SAT MRF = SAT MRB = RND MRF = RND MRB = RND MRF = RND MRB = 0 = Rn = MRxF MRxB = Rx * Ry + Rx * Ry - Rx * Ry S S F U U I FR S S (SI) (UI) (SF) (UF) (SF) (UF) ) S F U U I FR ) S F U U I FR ) Fn = Fx * Fy Fixed Point Floating Point ( ( ( FIGURE 28-7 Fixed versus floating point instructions. These are the multiplication instructions used in the SHARC DSPs. While only a single command is needed for floating point, many options are needed for fixed point. See the text for an explanation of these options. is, Fn = Fx * Fy, where Fn, Fx, and Fy are any of the 16 data registers. It could not be any simpler. In comparison, look at all the possible commands for fixed point multiplication. These are the many options needed to efficiently handle the problems of round-off, scaling, and format. In Fig. 28-7, Rn, Rx, and Ry refer to any of the 16 data registers, and MRF and MRB are 80 bit accumulators. The vertical lines indicate options. For instance, the top-left entry in this table means that all the following are valid commands: Rn = Rx * Ry, MRF = Rx * Ry, and MRB = Rx * Ry. In other words, the value of any two registers can be multiplied and placed into another register, or into one of the extended precision accumulators. This table also shows that the numbers may be either signed or unsigned (S or U), and may be fractional or integer (F or I). The RND and SAT options are ways of controlling rounding and register overflow. 518 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing There are other details and options in the table, but they are not important for our present discussion. The important idea is that the fixed point programmer must understand dozens of ways to carry out the very basic task of multiplication. In contrast, the floating point programmer can spend his time concentrating on the algorithm. Given these tradeoffs between fixed and floating point, how do you choose which to use? Here are some things to consider. First, look at how many bits are used in the ADC and DAC. In many applications, 12-14 bits per sample is the crossover for using fixed versus floating point. For instance, television and other video signals typically use 8 bit ADC and DAC, and the precision of fixed point is acceptable. In comparison, professional audio applications can sample with as high as 20 or 24 bits, and almost certainly need floating point to capture the large dynamic range. The next thing to look at is the complexity of the algorithm that will be run. If it is relatively simple, think fixed point; if it is more complicated, think floating point. For example, FIR filtering and other operations in the time domain only require a few dozen lines of code, making them suitable for fixed point. In contrast, frequency domain algorithms, such as spectral analysis and FFT convolution, are very detailed and can be much more difficult to program. While they can be written in fixed point, the development time will be greatly reduced if floating point is used. Lastly, think about the money: how important is the cost of the product, and how important is the cost of the development? When fixed point is chosen, the cost of the product will be reduced, but the development cost will probably be higher due to the more difficult algorithms. In the reverse manner, floating point will generally result in a quicker and cheaper development cycle, but a more expensive final product. Figure 28-8 shows some of the major trends in DSPs. Figure (a) illustrates the impact that Digital Signal Processors have had on the embedded market. These are applications that use a microprocessor to directly operate and control some larger system, such as a cellular telephone, microwave oven, or automotive instrument display panel. The name "microcontroller" is often used in referring to these devices, to distinguish them from the microprocessors used in personal computers. As shown in (a), about 38% of embedded designers have already started using DSPs, and another 49% are considering the switch. The high throughput and computational power of DSPs often makes them an ideal choice for embedded designs. As illustrated in (b), about twice as many engineers currently use fixed point as use floating point DSPs. However, this depends greatly on the application. Fixed point is more popular in competitive consumer products where the cost of the electronics must be kept very low. A good example of this is cellular telephones. When you are in competition to sell millions of your product, a cost difference of only a few dollars can be the difference between success and failure. In comparison, floating point is more common when greater performance is needed and cost is not important. For Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 519 No Plans Floating Point Next Year in 2000 Next Fixed Point Migrate Migrate Migrate Design b. DSP currently used c. Migration to floating point Considering Changed Considering Have Already Not a. Changing from uProc to DSP FIGURE 28-8 Major trends in DSPs. As illustrated in (a), about 38% of embedded designers have already switched from conventional microprocessors to DSPs, and another 49% are considering the change. In (b), about twice as many engineers use fixed point as use floating point DSPs. This is mainly driven by consumer products that must have low cost electronics, such as cellular telephones. However, as shown in (c), floating point is the fastest growing segment; over one-half of engineers currently using 16 bit devices plan to migrate to floating point DSPs instance, suppose you are designing a medical imaging system, such a computed tomography scanner. Only a few hundred of the model will ever be sold, at a price of several hundred-thousand dollars each. For this application, the cost of the DSP is insignificant, but the performance is critical. In spite of the larger number of fixed point DSPs being used, the floating point market is the fastest growing segment. As shown in (c), over one-half of engineers using 16-bits devices plan to migrate to floating point at some time in the near future. Before leaving this topic, we should reemphasize that floating point and fixed point usually use 32 bits and 16 bits, respectively, but not always. For 520 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing instance, the SHARC family can represent numbers in 32-bit fixed point, a mode that is common in digital audio applications. This makes the 232 quantization levels spaced uniformly over a relatively small range, say, between -1 and 1. In comparison, floating point notation places the 232 quantization levels logarithmically over a huge range, typically ±3.4×1038. This gives 32-bit fixed point better precision, that is, the quantization error on any one sample will be lower. However, 32-bit floating point has a higher dynamic range, meaning there is a greater difference between the largest number and the smallest number that can be represented. C versus Assembly DSPs are programmed in the same languages as other scientific and engineering applications, usually assembly or C. Programs written in assembly can execute faster, while programs written in C are easier to develop and maintain. In traditional applications, such as programs run on personal computers and mainframes, C is almost always the first choice. If assembly is used at all, it is restricted to short subroutines that must run with the utmost speed. This is shown graphically in Fig. 28-9a; for every traditional programmer that works in assembly, there are approximately ten that use C. However, DSP programs are different from traditional software tasks in two important respects. First, the programs are usually much shorter, say, onehundred lines versus ten-thousand lines. Second, the execution speed is often a critical part of the application. After all, that's why someone uses a DSP in the first place, for its blinding speed. These two factors motivate many software engineers to switch from C to assembly for programming Digital Signal Processors. This is illustrated in (b); nearly as many DSP programmers use assembly as use C. Figure (c) takes this further by looking at the revenue produced by DSP products. For every dollar made with a DSP programmed in C, two dollars are made with a DSP programmed in assembly. The reason for this is simple; money is made by outperforming the competition. From a pure performance standpoint, such as execution speed and manufacturing cost, assembly almost always has the advantage over C. For instance, C code usually requires a larger memory than assembly, resulting in more expensive hardware. However, the DSP market is continually changing. As the market grows, manufacturers will respond by designing DSPs that are optimized for programming in C. For instance, C is much more efficient when there is a large, general purpose register set and a unified memory space. These future improvements will minimize the difference in execution time between C and assembly, and allow C to be used in more applications. To better understand this decision between C and assembly, let's look at a typical DSP task programmed in each language. The example we will use is the calculation of the dot product of the two arrays, x [ ] and y [ ]. This is a simple mathematical operation, we multiply each coefficient in one Chapter 28- Digital Signal Processors 521 Assembly C b. DSP Programmers Assembly C a. Traditional Programmers Assembly C FIGURE 28-9 c. DSP Revenue Programming in C versus assembly. As shown in (a), only about 10% of traditional programmers (such as those that work on personal computers and mainframes) use assembly. However, as illustrated in (b), assembly is much more common in Digital Signal Processors. This is because DSP programs must operate as fast as possible, and are usually quite short. Figure (c) shows that assembly is even more common in products that generate a high revenue. TABLE 28-2 Dot product in C. This progam calculates the dot product of two arrays, x[ ] and y[ ], and stores the result in the variable, result. 001 #define LEN 20 002 float dm x[LEN]; 003 float pm y[LEN]; 004 float result; 005 006 main() 007 008 { 009 int n; 010 float s; 011 for (n=0;n