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Branding Farnell element14 (France)

 

Farnell Element 14 :

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Everything You Need To Know About Arduino

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Tutorial 01 for Arduino: Getting Acquainted with Arduino

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The Cube® 3D Printer

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What's easier- DIY Dentistry or our new our website features?

 

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Ben Heck's Getting Started with the BeagleBone Black Trailer

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Ben Heck's Home-Brew Solder Reflow Oven 2.0 Trailer

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Get Started with Pi Episode 3 - Online with Raspberry Pi

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Discover Simulink Promo -- Exclusive element14 Webinar

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Ben Heck's TV Proximity Sensor Trailer

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Ben Heck's PlayStation 4 Teardown Trailer

See the trailer for the next exciting episode of The Ben Heck show. Check back on Friday to be among the first to see the exclusive full show on element…

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Get Started with Pi Episode 4 - Your First Raspberry Pi Project

Connect your Raspberry Pi to a breadboard, download some code and create a push-button audio play project.

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Ben Heck Anti-Pickpocket Wallet Trailer

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Molex Earphones - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tripp Lite Surge Protector - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Microchip ChipKIT Pi - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Beagle Bone Black - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M E26, LED Lamps - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M Colored Duct Tape - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Tenma Soldering Station - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Duratool Screwdriver Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Cubify 3D Cube - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Bud Boardganizer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Raspberry Pi Starter Kit - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Fluke 323 True-rms Clamp Meter - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Dymo RHINO 6000 Label Printer - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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3M LED Advanced Lights A-19 - The 14 Holiday Products of Newark element14 Promotion

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Innovative LPS Resistor Features Very High Power Dissipation

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Charge Injection Evaluation Board for DG508B Multiplexer Demo

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 2

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Introducing element14 TV

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Ben Heck Time to Meet Your Maker Trailer

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Détecteur de composants

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Recherche intégrée

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar Trailer Part 1

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Ben Builds an Accessibility Guitar - Part 2 Trailer

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PiFace Control and Display Introduction

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Flashmob Farnell

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Express Yourself in 3D with Cube 3D Printers from Newark element14

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Farnell YouTube Channel Move

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Farnell: Design with the best

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French Farnell Quest

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Altera - 3 Ways to Quickly Adapt to Changing Ethernet Protocols

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Cy-Net3 Network Module

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MC AT - Professional and Precision Series Thin Film Chip Resistors

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Solderless LED Connector

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PSA-T Series Spectrum Analyser: PSA1301T/ PSA2701T

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3-axis Universal Motion Controller For Stepper Motor Drivers: TMC429

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Voltage Level Translation

Puce électronique / Microchip :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 2 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 3 of 3

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Microchip - Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Part 1 of 3

Sans fil - Wireless :

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Microchip - 8-bit Wireless Development Kit

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Wireless Power Solutions - Wurth Electronics, Texas Instruments, CadSoft and element14

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Analog Devices - Remote Water Quality Monitoring via a Low Power, Wireless Network

Texas instrument :

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Texas Instruments - Automotive LED Headlights

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Texas Instruments - Digital Power Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Sensor Solutions

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Texas Instruments - Wireless Pen Input Demo (Mobile World Congress)

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Automation System Components

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x - Industry's first 10-GHz fixed/floating point DSP

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Texas Instruments - TMS320C66x KeyStone Multicore Architecture

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Texas Instruments - Industrial Interfaces

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Texas Instruments - Concerto™ MCUs - Connectivity without compromise

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Texas Instruments - Stellaris Robot Chronos

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Texas Instruments - DRV8412-C2-KIT, Brushed DC and Stepper Motor Control Kit

Ordinateurs :

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Ask Ben Heck - Connect Raspberry Pi to Car Computer

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Ben's Portable Raspberry Pi Computer Trailer

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Ben's Raspberry Pi Portable Computer Trailer 2

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Ben Heck's Pocket Computer Trailer

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Ask Ben Heck - Atari Computer

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Ask Ben Heck - Using Computer Monitors for External Displays

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Raspberry Pi Partnership with BBC Computer Literacy Project - Answers from co-founder Eben Upton

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Installing RaspBMC on your Raspberry Pi with the Farnell element14 Accessory kit

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Raspberry Pi Served - Joey Hudy

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Happy Birthday Raspberry Pi

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Raspberry Pi board B product overview

Logiciels :

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Opensource or Free CAD Software

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Tektronix FPGAView™ software makes debugging of FPGAs faster than ever!

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Ask Ben Heck - Best Open-Source Schematic Capture and PCB Layout Software

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Introduction to Cadsoft EAGLE PCB Design Software in Chinese

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Altera - Developing Software for Embedded Systems on FPGAs

Tutoriels :

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Ben Heck The Great Glue Gun Trailer Part 1

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the knode tutorial - element14

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Ben's Autodesk 123D Tutorial Trailer

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Ben's CadSoft EAGLE Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Soldering Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's AVR Dev Board tutorial

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Ben Heck's Pinball Tutorial Trailer

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Ben Heck's Interface Tutorial Trailer

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First Stage with Python and PiFace Digital

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Cypress - Getting Started with PSoC® 3 - Part 2

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Energy Harvesting Challenge

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New Features of CadSoft EAGLE v6

Autres documentations :

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2586QS–AVR–08/2013 Features • High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture – 120 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation • Non-volatile Program and Data Memories – 2/4/8K Bytes of In-System Programmable Program Memory Flash • Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles – 128/256/512 Bytes In-System Programmable EEPROM • Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles – 128/256/512 Bytes Internal SRAM – Programming Lock for Self-Programming Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security • Peripheral Features – 8-bit Timer/Counter with Prescaler and Two PWM Channels – 8-bit High Speed Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler • 2 High Frequency PWM Outputs with Separate Output Compare Registers • Programmable Dead Time Generator – USI – Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector – 10-bit ADC • 4 Single Ended Channels • 2 Differential ADC Channel Pairs with Programmable Gain (1x, 20x) • Temperature Measurement – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – debugWIRE On-chip Debug System – In-System Programmable via SPI Port – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Low Power Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, and Power-down Modes – Enhanced Power-on Reset Circuit – Programmable Brown-out Detection Circuit – Internal Calibrated Oscillator • I/O and Packages – Six Programmable I/O Lines – 8-pin PDIP, 8-pin SOIC, 20-pad QFN/MLF, and 8-pin TSSOP (only ATtiny45/V) • Operating Voltage – 1.8 - 5.5V for ATtiny25V/45V/85V – 2.7 - 5.5V for ATtiny25/45/85 • Speed Grade – ATtiny25V/45V/85V: 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 - 5.5V, 0 - 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V – ATtiny25/45/85: 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V, 0 - 20 MHz @ 4.5 - 5.5V • Industrial Temperature Range • Low Power Consumption – Active Mode: • 1 MHz, 1.8V: 300 µA – Power-down Mode: • 0.1 µA at 1.8V Atmel 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 2/4/8K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash ATtiny25/V / ATtiny45/V / ATtiny85/V Summary Rev. 2586QS–AVR–08/2013ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 2 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 1. Pin Configurations Figure 1-1. Pinout ATtiny25/45/85 1.1 Pin Descriptions 1.1.1 VCC Supply voltage. 1.1.2 GND Ground. 1.1.3 Port B (PB5:PB0) Port B is a 6-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 (PCINT5/RESET/ADC0/dW) PB5 (PCINT3/XTAL1/CLKI/OC1B/ADC3) PB3 (PCINT4/XTAL2/CLKO/OC1B/ADC2) PB4 GND VCC PB2 (SCK/USCK/SCL/ADC1/T0/INT0/PCINT2) PB1 (MISO/DO/AIN1/OC0B/OC1A/PCINT1) PB0 (MOSI/DI/SDA/AIN0/OC0A/OC1A/AREF/PCINT0) PDIP/SOIC/TSSOP 1 2 3 4 5 QFN/MLF 15 14 13 12 11 20 19 18 17 16 6 7 8 9 10 DNC DNC GND DNC DNC DNC DNC DNC DNC DNC NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground. DNC: Do Not Connect NOTE: TSSOP only for ATtiny45/V (PCINT5/RESET/ADC0/dW) PB5 (PCINT3/XTAL1/CLKI/OC1B/ADC3) PB3 DNC DNC (PCINT4/XTAL2/CLKO/OC1B/ADC2) PB4 VCC PB2 (SCK/USCK/SCL/ADC1/T0/INT0/PCINT2) DNC PB1 (MISO/DO/AIN1/OC0B/OC1A/PCINT1) PB0 (MOSI/DI/SDA/AIN0/OC0A/OC1A/AREF/PCINT0)ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 3 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATtiny25/45/85 as listed in “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 60. On ATtiny25, the programmable I/O ports PB3 and PB4 (pins 2 and 3) are exchanged in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode for supporting the backward compatibility with ATtiny15. 1.1.4 RESET Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running and provided the reset pin has not been disabled. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 21-4 on page 165. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. The reset pin can also be used as a (weak) I/O pin.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 4 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 2. Overview The ATtiny25/45/85 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny25/45/85 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. 2.1 Block Diagram Figure 2-1. Block Diagram The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. PROGRAM COUNTER CALIBRATED INTERNAL OSCILLATOR WATCHDOG TIMER STACK POINTER PROGRAM FLASH SRAM MCU CONTROL REGISTER GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTERS INSTRUCTION REGISTER TIMER/ COUNTER0 SERIAL UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TIMER/ COUNTER1 INSTRUCTION DECODER DATA DIR. REG.PORT B DATA REGISTER PORT B PROGRAMMING LOGIC TIMING AND CONTROL MCU STATUS REGISTER STATUS REGISTER ALU PORT B DRIVERS PB[0:5] VCC GND CONTROL LINES 8-BIT DATABUS Z ADC / ANALOG COMPARATOR INTERRUPT UNIT DATA EEPROM OSCILLATORS Y X RESETATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 5 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 The ATtiny25/45/85 provides the following features: 2/4/8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512 bytes EEPROM, 128/256/256 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes. Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core. The ATtiny25/45/85 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators and Evaluation kits.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 6 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 3. About 3.1 Resources A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for download on http://www.atmel.com/avr. 3.2 Code Examples This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details. For I/O Registers located in the extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically, this means “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”. Note that not all AVR devices include an extended I/O map. 3.3 Capacitive Touch Sensing Atmel QTouch Library provides a simple to use solution for touch sensitive interfaces on Atmel AVR microcontrollers. The QTouch Library includes support for QTouch® and QMatrix® acquisition methods. Touch sensing is easily added to any application by linking the QTouch Library and using the Application Programming Interface (API) of the library to define the touch channels and sensors. The application then calls the API to retrieve channel information and determine the state of the touch sensor. The QTouch Library is free and can be downloaded from the Atmel website. For more information and details of implementation, refer to the QTouch Library User Guide – also available from the Atmel website. 3.4 Data Retention Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 7 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 4. Register Summary Note: 1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Page 0x3F SREG I T H S V N Z C page 8 0x3E SPH – – – – – – SP9 SP8 page 11 0x3D SPL SP7 SP6 SP5 SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 page 11 0x3C Reserved – 0x3B GIMSK – INT0 PCIE – – – – – page 51 0x3A GIFR – INTF0 PCIF – – – – – page 52 0x39 TIMSK – OCIE1A OCIE1B OCIE0A OCIE0B TOIE1 TOIE0 – pages 81, 102 0x38 TIFR – OCF1A OCF1B OCF0A OCF0B TOV1 TOV0 – page 81 0x37 SPMCSR – – RSIG CTPB RFLB PGWRT PGERS SPMEN page 145 0x36 Reserved – 0x35 MCUCR BODS PUD SE SM1 SM0 BODSE ISC01 ISC00 pages 37, 51, 64 0x34 MCUSR – – – – WDRF BORF EXTRF PORF page 44, 0x33 TCCR0B FOC0A FOC0B – – WGM02 CS02 CS01 CS00 page 79 0x32 TCNT0 Timer/Counter0 page 80 0x31 OSCCAL Oscillator Calibration Register page 31 0x30 TCCR1 CTC1 PWM1A COM1A1 COM1A0 CS13 CS12 CS11 CS10 pages 89, 100 0x2F TCNT1 Timer/Counter1 pages 91, 102 0x2E OCR1A Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register A pages 91, 102 0x2D OCR1C Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register C pages 91, 102 0x2C GTCCR TSM PWM1B COM1B1 COM1B0 FOC1B FOC1A PSR1 PSR0 pages 77, 90, 101 0x2B OCR1B Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register B page 92 0x2A TCCR0A COM0A1 COM0A0 COM0B1 COM0B0 – WGM01 WGM00 page 77 0x29 OCR0A Timer/Counter0 – Output Compare Register A page 80 0x28 OCR0B Timer/Counter0 – Output Compare Register B page 81 0x27 PLLCSR LSM – – – – PCKE PLLE PLOCK pages 94, 103 0x26 CLKPR CLKPCE – – – CLKPS3 CLKPS2 CLKPS1 CLKPS0 page 32 0x25 DT1A DT1AH3 DT1AH2 DT1AH1 DT1AH0 DT1AL3 DT1AL2 DT1AL1 DT1AL0 page 107 0x24 DT1B DT1BH3 DT1BH2 DT1BH1 DT1BH0 DT1BL3 DT1BL2 DT1BL1 DT1BL0 page 107 0x23 DTPS1 - - - - - - DTPS11 DTPS10 page 106 0x22 DWDR DWDR[7:0] page 140 0x21 WDTCR WDIF WDIE WDP3 WDCE WDE WDP2 WDP1 WDP0 page 45 0x20 PRR – PRTIM1 PRTIM0 PRUSI PRADC page 36 0x1F EEARH EEAR8 page 20 0x1E EEARL EEAR7 EEAR6 EEAR5 EEAR4 EEAR3 EEAR2 EEAR1 EEAR0 page 21 0x1D EEDR EEPROM Data Register page 21 0x1C EECR – – EEPM1 EEPM0 EERIE EEMPE EEPE EERE page 21 0x1B Reserved – 0x1A Reserved – 0x19 Reserved – 0x18 PORTB – – PORTB5 PORTB4 PORTB3 PORTB2 PORTB1 PORTB0 page 64 0x17 DDRB – – DDB5 DDB4 DDB3 DDB2 DDB1 DDB0 page 64 0x16 PINB – – PINB5 PINB4 PINB3 PINB2 PINB1 PINB0 page 64 0x15 PCMSK – – PCINT5 PCINT4 PCINT3 PCINT2 PCINT1 PCINT0 page 52 0x14 DIDR0 – – ADC0D ADC2D ADC3D ADC1D AIN1D AIN0D pages 121, 138 0x13 GPIOR2 General Purpose I/O Register 2 page 10 0x12 GPIOR1 General Purpose I/O Register 1 page 10 0x11 GPIOR0 General Purpose I/O Register 0 page 10 0x10 USIBR USI Buffer Register page 115 0x0F USIDR USI Data Register page 115 0x0E USISR USISIF USIOIF USIPF USIDC USICNT3 USICNT2 USICNT1 USICNT0 page 115 0x0D USICR USISIE USIOIE USIWM1 USIWM0 USICS1 USICS0 USICLK USITC page 116 0x0C Reserved – 0x0B Reserved – 0x0A Reserved – 0x09 Reserved – 0x08 ACSR ACD ACBG ACO ACI ACIE – ACIS1 ACIS0 page 120 0x07 ADMUX REFS1 REFS0 ADLAR REFS2 MUX3 MUX2 MUX1 MUX0 page 134 0x06 ADCSRA ADEN ADSC ADATE ADIF ADIE ADPS2 ADPS1 ADPS0 page 136 0x05 ADCH ADC Data Register High Byte page 137 0x04 ADCL ADC Data Register Low Byte page 137 0x03 ADCSRB BIN ACME IPR – – ADTS2 ADTS1 ADTS0 pages 120, 137 0x02 Reserved – 0x01 Reserved – 0x00 Reserved –ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 8 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 should never be written. 2. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. 3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operation the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 9 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 5. Instruction Set Summary Mnemonics Operands Description Operation Flags #Clocks ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS ADD Rd, Rr Add two Registers Rd  Rd + Rr Z,C,N,V,H 1 ADC Rd, Rr Add with Carry two Registers Rd  Rd + Rr + C Z,C,N,V,H 1 ADIW Rdl,K Add Immediate to Word Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl + K Z,C,N,V,S 2 SUB Rd, Rr Subtract two Registers Rd  Rd - Rr Z,C,N,V,H 1 SUBI Rd, K Subtract Constant from Register Rd  Rd - K Z,C,N,V,H 1 SBC Rd, Rr Subtract with Carry two Registers Rd  Rd - Rr - C Z,C,N,V,H 1 SBCI Rd, K Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg. Rd  Rd - K - C Z,C,N,V,H 1 SBIW Rdl,K Subtract Immediate from Word Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl - K Z,C,N,V,S 2 AND Rd, Rr Logical AND Registers Rd Rd  Rr Z,N,V 1 ANDI Rd, K Logical AND Register and Constant Rd  Rd K Z,N,V 1 OR Rd, Rr Logical OR Registers Rd  Rd v Rr Z,N,V 1 ORI Rd, K Logical OR Register and Constant Rd Rd v K Z,N,V 1 EOR Rd, Rr Exclusive OR Registers Rd  Rd  Rr Z,N,V 1 COM Rd One’s Complement Rd  0xFF  Rd Z,C,N,V 1 NEG Rd Two’s Complement Rd  0x00  Rd Z,C,N,V,H 1 SBR Rd,K Set Bit(s) in Register Rd  Rd v K Z,N,V 1 CBR Rd,K Clear Bit(s) in Register Rd  Rd  (0xFF - K) Z,N,V 1 INC Rd Increment Rd  Rd + 1 Z,N,V 1 DEC Rd Decrement Rd  Rd  1 Z,N,V 1 TST Rd Test for Zero or Minus Rd  Rd  Rd Z,N,V 1 CLR Rd Clear Register Rd  Rd  Rd Z,N,V 1 SER Rd Set Register Rd  0xFF None 1 BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS RJMP k Relative Jump PC PC + k + 1 None 2 IJMP Indirect Jump to (Z) PC  Z None 2 RCALL k Relative Subroutine Call PC  PC + k + 1 None 3 ICALL Indirect Call to (Z) PC  Z None 3 RET Subroutine Return PC  STACK None 4 RETI Interrupt Return PC  STACK I 4 CPSE Rd,Rr Compare, Skip if Equal if (Rd = Rr) PC PC + 2 or 3 None 1/2/3 CP Rd,Rr Compare Rd  Rr Z, N,V,C,H 1 CPC Rd,Rr Compare with Carry Rd  Rr  C Z, N,V,C,H 1 CPI Rd,K Compare Register with Immediate Rd  K Z, N,V,C,H 1 SBRC Rr, b Skip if Bit in Register Cleared if (Rr(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3 None 1/2/3 SBRS Rr, b Skip if Bit in Register is Set if (Rr(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3 None 1/2/3 SBIC P, b Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared if (P(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3 None 1/2/3 SBIS P, b Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set if (P(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3 None 1/2/3 BRBS s, k Branch if Status Flag Set if (SREG(s) = 1) then PCPC+k + 1 None 1/2 BRBC s, k Branch if Status Flag Cleared if (SREG(s) = 0) then PCPC+k + 1 None 1/2 BREQ k Branch if Equal if (Z = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRNE k Branch if Not Equal if (Z = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRCS k Branch if Carry Set if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRCC k Branch if Carry Cleared if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRSH k Branch if Same or Higher if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRLO k Branch if Lower if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRMI k Branch if Minus if (N = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRPL k Branch if Plus if (N = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRGE k Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed if (N  V= 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRLT k Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed if (N  V= 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRHS k Branch if Half Carry Flag Set if (H = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRHC k Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared if (H = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRTS k Branch if T Flag Set if (T = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRTC k Branch if T Flag Cleared if (T = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRVS k Branch if Overflow Flag is Set if (V = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRVC k Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared if (V = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRIE k Branch if Interrupt Enabled if ( I = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BRID k Branch if Interrupt Disabled if ( I = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1 None 1/2 BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS SBI P,b Set Bit in I/O Register I/O(P,b)  1 None 2 CBI P,b Clear Bit in I/O Register I/O(P,b)  0 None 2 LSL Rd Logical Shift Left Rd(n+1)  Rd(n), Rd(0)  0 Z,C,N,V 1 LSR Rd Logical Shift Right Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), Rd(7)  0 Z,C,N,V 1 ROL Rd Rotate Left Through Carry Rd(0)C,Rd(n+1) Rd(n),CRd(7) Z,C,N,V 1 ROR Rd Rotate Right Through Carry Rd(7)C,Rd(n) Rd(n+1),CRd(0) Z,C,N,V 1 ASR Rd Arithmetic Shift Right Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), n=0..6 Z,C,N,V 1ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 10 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 SWAP Rd Swap Nibbles Rd(3..0)Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)Rd(3..0) None 1 BSET s Flag Set SREG(s)  1 SREG(s) 1 BCLR s Flag Clear SREG(s)  0 SREG(s) 1 BST Rr, b Bit Store from Register to T T  Rr(b) T 1 BLD Rd, b Bit load from T to Register Rd(b)  T None 1 SEC Set Carry C  1 C1 CLC Clear Carry C  0 C 1 SEN Set Negative Flag N  1 N1 CLN Clear Negative Flag N  0 N 1 SEZ Set Zero Flag Z  1 Z1 CLZ Clear Zero Flag Z  0 Z 1 SEI Global Interrupt Enable I  1 I1 CLI Global Interrupt Disable I 0 I 1 SES Set Signed Test Flag S  1 S1 CLS Clear Signed Test Flag S  0 S 1 SEV Set Twos Complement Overflow. V  1 V1 CLV Clear Twos Complement Overflow V  0 V 1 SET Set T in SREG T  1 T1 CLT Clear T in SREG T  0 T 1 SEH Set Half Carry Flag in SREG H  1 H1 CLH Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG H  0 H 1 DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS MOV Rd, Rr Move Between Registers Rd  Rr None 1 MOVW Rd, Rr Copy Register Word Rd+1:Rd  Rr+1:Rr None 1 LDI Rd, K Load Immediate Rd  K None 1 LD Rd, X Load Indirect Rd  (X) None 2 LD Rd, X+ Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Rd  (X), X  X + 1 None 2 LD Rd, - X Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. X  X - 1, Rd  (X) None 2 LD Rd, Y Load Indirect Rd  (Y) None 2 LD Rd, Y+ Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Rd  (Y), Y  Y + 1 None 2 LD Rd, - Y Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. Y  Y - 1, Rd  (Y) None 2 LDD Rd,Y+q Load Indirect with Displacement Rd  (Y + q) None 2 LD Rd, Z Load Indirect Rd  (Z) None 2 LD Rd, Z+ Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1 None 2 LD Rd, -Z Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. Z  Z - 1, Rd  (Z) None 2 LDD Rd, Z+q Load Indirect with Displacement Rd  (Z + q) None 2 LDS Rd, k Load Direct from SRAM Rd  (k) None 2 ST X, Rr Store Indirect (X) Rr None 2 ST X+, Rr Store Indirect and Post-Inc. (X) Rr, X  X + 1 None 2 ST - X, Rr Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. X  X - 1, (X)  Rr None 2 ST Y, Rr Store Indirect (Y)  Rr None 2 ST Y+, Rr Store Indirect and Post-Inc. (Y)  Rr, Y  Y + 1 None 2 ST - Y, Rr Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. Y  Y - 1, (Y)  Rr None 2 STD Y+q,Rr Store Indirect with Displacement (Y + q)  Rr None 2 ST Z, Rr Store Indirect (Z)  Rr None 2 ST Z+, Rr Store Indirect and Post-Inc. (Z)  Rr, Z  Z + 1 None 2 ST -Z, Rr Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. Z  Z - 1, (Z)  Rr None 2 STD Z+q,Rr Store Indirect with Displacement (Z + q)  Rr None 2 STS k, Rr Store Direct to SRAM (k)  Rr None 2 LPM Load Program Memory R0  (Z) None 3 LPM Rd, Z Load Program Memory Rd  (Z) None 3 LPM Rd, Z+ Load Program Memory and Post-Inc Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1 None 3 SPM Store Program Memory (z)  R1:R0 None IN Rd, P In Port Rd  P None 1 OUT P, Rr Out Port P  Rr None 1 PUSH Rr Push Register on Stack STACK  Rr None 2 POP Rd Pop Register from Stack Rd  STACK None 2 MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS NOP No Operation None 1 SLEEP Sleep (see specific descr. for Sleep function) None 1 WDR Watchdog Reset (see specific descr. for WDR/Timer) None 1 BREAK Break For On-chip Debug Only None N/A Mnemonics Operands Description Operation Flags #ClocksATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 11 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 6. Ordering Information Notes: 1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163. 2. All Pb-free, halide-free, fully green, and comply with European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). 3. Code indicators: H = NiPdAu lead finish, U/N = matte tin, R = tape & reel. 4. Can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for ordering information and minimum quantities. 5. For characteristics, see “Appendix A – Specification at 105C”. 6. For characteristics, see “Appendix B – Specification at 125C”. 6.1 ATtiny25 Speed (MHz) (1) Supply Voltage (V) Temperature Range Package (2) Ordering Code (3) 10 1.8 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny25V-10PU 8S2 ATtiny25V-10SU ATtiny25V-10SUR ATtiny25V-10SH ATtiny25V-10SHR S8S1 ATtiny25V-10SSU ATtiny25V-10SSUR ATtiny25V-10SSH ATtiny25V-10SSHR 20M1 ATtiny25V-10MU ATtiny25V-10MUR Industrial (-40C to +105C) (5) 8S2 ATtiny25V-10SN ATtiny25V-10SNR S8S1 ATtiny25V-10SSN ATtiny25V-10SSNR Industrial (-40C to +125C) (6) 20M1 ATtiny25V-10MF ATtiny25V-10MFR 20 2.7 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny25-20PU 8S2 ATtiny25-20SU ATtiny25-20SUR ATtiny25-20SH ATtiny25-20SHR S8S1 ATtiny25-20SSU ATtiny25-20SSUR ATtiny25-20SSH ATtiny25-20SSHR 20M1 ATtiny25-20MU ATtiny25-20MUR Industrial (-40C to +105C) (5) 8S2 ATtiny25-20SN ATtiny25-20SNR S8S1 ATtiny25-20SSN ATtiny25-20SSNR Industrial (-40C to +125C) (6) 20M1 ATtiny25-20MF ATtiny25-20MFR Package Types 8P3 8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP) 8S2 8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC) S8S1 8-lead, 0.150" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (JEDEC SOIC) 20M1 20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 12 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 Notes: 1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163. 2. All packages are Pb-free, halide-free and fully green and they comply with the European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). 3. Code indicators: – H: NiPdAu lead finish – U: matte tin – R: tape & reel 4. These devices can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities. 6.2 ATtiny45 Speed (MHz) (1) Supply Voltage (V) Temperature Range Package (2) Ordering Code (3) 10 1.8 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny45V-10PU 8S2 ATtiny45V-10SU ATtiny45V-10SUR ATtiny45V-10SH ATtiny45V-10SHR 8X ATtiny45V-10XU ATtiny45V-10XUR 20M1 ATtiny45V-10MU ATtiny45V-10MUR 20 2.7 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny45-20PU 8S2 ATtiny45-20SU ATtiny45-20SUR ATtiny45-20SH ATtiny45-20SHR 8X ATtiny45-20XU ATtiny45-20XUR 20M1 ATtiny45-20MU ATtiny45-20MUR Package Types 8P3 8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP) 8S2 8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC) 8X 8-lead, 4.4 mm Wide, Plastic Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP) 20M1 20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 13 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 Notes: 1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163. 2. All packages are Pb-free, halide-free and fully green and they comply with the European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). 3. Code indicators: – H: NiPdAu lead finish – U: matte tin – R: tape & reel 4. These devices can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities. 6.3 ATtiny85 Speed (MHz) (1) Supply Voltage (V) Temperature Range Package (2) Ordering Code (3) 10 1.8 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny85V-10PU 8S2 ATtiny85V-10SU ATtiny85V-10SUR ATtiny85V-10SH ATtiny85V-10SHR 20M1 ATtiny85V-10MU ATtiny85V-10MUR 20 2.7 – 5.5 Industrial (-40C to +85C) (4) 8P3 ATtiny85-20PU 8S2 ATtiny85-20SU ATtiny85-20SUR ATtiny85-20SH ATtiny85-20SHR 20M1 ATtiny85-20MU ATtiny85-20MUR Package Types 8P3 8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP) 8S2 8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC) 20M1 20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 14 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 7. Packaging Information 7.1 8P3 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE DRAWING NO. R REV. 8P3, 8-lead, 0.300" Wide Body, Plastic Dual In-line Package (PDIP) 01/09/02 8P3 B D D1 E E1 e b2 L b A2 A 1 N eA c b3 4 PLCS Top View Side View End View COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = inches) SYMBOL MIN NOM MAX NOTE Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only; refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-001, Variation BA for additional information. 2. Dimensions A and L are measured with the package seated in JEDEC seating plane Gauge GS-3. 3. D, D1 and E1 dimensions do not include mold Flash or protrusions. Mold Flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch. 4. E and eA measured with the leads constrained to be perpendicular to datum. 5. Pointed or rounded lead tips are preferred to ease insertion. 6. b2 and b3 maximum dimensions do not include Dambar protrusions. Dambar protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 (0.25 mm). A 0.210 2 A2 0.115 0.130 0.195 b 0.014 0.018 0.022 5 b2 0.045 0.060 0.070 6 b3 0.030 0.039 0.045 6 c 0.008 0.010 0.014 D 0.355 0.365 0.400 3 D1 0.005 3 E 0.300 0.310 0.325 4 E1 0.240 0.250 0.280 3 e 0.100 BSC eA 0.300 BSC 4 L 0.115 0.130 0.150 2ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 15 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 7.2 8S2 TITLE GPC DRAWING NO. REV. Package Drawing Contact: packagedrawings@atmel.com STN F 8S2 8S2, 8-lead, 0.208” Body, Plastic Small Outline Package (EIAJ) 4/15/08 COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) SYMBOL MIN NOM MAX NOTE Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only; refer to EIAJ Drawing EDR-7320 for additional information. 2. Mismatch of the upper and lower dies and resin burrs aren't included. 3. Determines the true geometric position. 4. Values b,C apply to plated terminal. The standard thickness of the plating layer shall measure between 0.007 to .021 mm. A 1.70 2.16 A1 0.05 0.25 b 0.35 0.48 4 C 0.15 0.35 4 D 5.13 5.35 E1 5.18 5.40 2 E 7.70 8.26 L 0.51 0.85 θ 0° 8° e 1.27 BSC 3 θ 1 N E TOP VIEW TOP VIEW C E1 END VIEW END VIEW A b L A1 e D SIDE VIEW SIDE VIEWATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 16 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 7.3 S8S1 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE DRAWING NO. R REV. S8S1, 8-lead, 0.150" Wide Body, Plastic Gull Wing Small Outline (JEDEC SOIC) 7/28/03 S8S1 A COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) SYMBOL MIN NOM MAX NOTE Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only; refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-012 for proper dimensions, tolerances, datums,etc. E 5.79 6.20 E1 3.81 3.99 A 1.35 1.75 A1 0.1 0.25 D 4.80 4.98 C 0.17 0.25 b 0.31 0.51 L 0.4 1.27 e 1.27 BSC 0o 8o Top View Side View End View 1 N C A A1 b L e D E1 EATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 17 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 7.4 8X TITLE DRAWING NO. R REV. Note: These drawings are for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing MO-153AC. 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 4/14/05 8X, 8-lead, 4.4 mm Body Width, Plastic Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP) 8X A COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) SYMBOL MIN NOM MAX NOTE A 1.05 1.10 1.20 A1 0.05 0.10 0.15 b 0.25 – 0.30 C – 0.127 – D 2.90 3.05 3.10 E1 4.30 4.40 4.50 E 6.20 6.40 6.60 e 0.65 TYP L 0.50 0.60 0.70 Ø 0o – 8o C A b L A1 D Side View Top View End View E 1 E1 e ØATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 18 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 7.5 20M1 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE DRAWING NO. R REV. 20M1, 20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm, 20M1 B 10/27/04 2.6 mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF) A 0.70 0.75 0.80 A1 – 0.01 0.05 A2 0.20 REF b 0.18 0.23 0.30 D 4.00 BSC D2 2.45 2.60 2.75 E 4.00 BSC E2 2.45 2.60 2.75 e 0.50 BSC L 0.35 0.40 0.55 SIDE VIEW Pin 1 ID Pin #1 Notch (0.20 R) BOTTOM VIEW TOP VIEW Note: Reference JEDEC Standard MO-220, Fig. 1 (SAW Singulation) WGGD-5. COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) SYMBOL MIN NOM MAX NOTE D E e A2 A1 A D2 E2 0.08 C L 1 2 3 b 1 2 3ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 19 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 8. Errata 8.1 Errata ATtiny25 The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny25 device. 8.1.1 Rev D – F No known errata. 8.1.2 Rev B – C • EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency 1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data. Problem Fix/Workaround Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz. This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for room temperature, only. 8.1.3 Rev A Not sampled. 8.2 Errata ATtiny45 The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny45 device. 8.2.1 Rev F – G No known errata 8.2.2 Rev D – E • EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency 1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data. Problem Fix/Workaround Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz. This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for room temperature, only.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 20 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 8.2.3 Rev B – C • PLL not locking • EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 • EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency • Timer Counter 1 PWM output generation on OC1B- XOC1B does not work correctly 1. PLL not locking When at frequencies below 6.0 MHz, the PLL will not lock Problem fix / Workaround When using the PLL, run at 6.0 MHz or higher. 2. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the application code. Problem Fix/Work around Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM. 3. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data. Problem Fix/Workaround Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz. This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for room temperature, only. 4. Timer Counter 1 PWM output generation on OC1B – XOC1B does not work correctly Timer Counter1 PWM output OC1B-XOC1B does not work correctly. Only in the case when the control bits, COM1B1 and COM1B0 are in the same mode as COM1A1 and COM1A0, respectively, the OC1B-XOC1B output works correctly. Problem Fix/Work around The only workaround is to use same control setting on COM1A[1:0] and COM1B[1:0] control bits, see table 14- 4 in the data sheet. The problem has been fixed for Tiny45 rev D. 8.2.4 Rev A • Too high power down power consumption • DebugWIRE looses communication when single stepping into interrupts • PLL not locking • EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 • EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency 1. Too high power down power consumption Three situations will lead to a too high power down power consumption. These are: – An external clock is selected by fuses, but the I/O PORT is still enabled as an output. – The EEPROM is read before entering power down. – VCC is 4.5 volts or higher. Problem fix / WorkaroundATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 21 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 – When using external clock, avoid setting the clock pin as Output. – Do not read the EEPROM if power down power consumption is important. – Use VCC lower than 4.5 Volts. 2. DebugWIRE looses communication when single stepping into interrupts When receiving an interrupt during single stepping, debugwire will loose communication. Problem fix / Workaround – When singlestepping, disable interrupts. – When debugging interrupts, use breakpoints within the interrupt routine, and run into the interrupt. 3. PLL not locking When at frequencies below 6.0 MHz, the PLL will not lock Problem fix / Workaround When using the PLL, run at 6.0 MHz or higher. 4. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the application code. Problem Fix/Work around Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM. 5. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data. Problem Fix/Workaround Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz. This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterized. Guidelines are given for room temperature, only.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 22 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 8.3 Errata ATtiny85 The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny85 device. 8.3.1 Rev B – C No known errata. 8.3.2 Rev A • EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency 1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data. Problem Fix/Workaround Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz. This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for room temperature, only.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 23 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 9. Datasheet Revision History 9.1 Rev. 2586Q-08/13 9.2 Rev. 2586P-06/13 9.3 Rev. 2586O-02/13 Updated ordering codes on page 11, page 12, and page 13. 9.4 Rev. 2586N-04/11 1. Added: – Section “Capacitive Touch Sensing” on page 6. 2. Updated: – Document template. – Removed “Preliminary” on front page. All devices now final and in production. – Section “Limitations” on page 36. – Program example on page 49. – Section “Overview” on page 122. – Table 17-4 on page 135. – Section “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 140. – Section “Serial Programming Algorithm” on page 151. – Table 21-7 on page 166. – EEPROM errata on pages 19, 19, 20, 21, and 22 – Ordering information on pages 11, 12, and 13. 9.5 Rev. 2586M-07/10 1. Clarified Section 6.4 “Clock Output Buffer” on page 31. 2. Added Ordering Codes -SN and -SNR for ATtiny25 extended temperature. 9.6 Rev. 2586L-06/10 1. Added: – TSSOP for ATtiny45 in “Features” on page 1, Pinout Figure 1-1 on page 2, Ordering Information in Section 6.2 “ATtiny45” on page 12, and Packaging Information in Section 7.4 “8X” on page 17 – Table 6-11, “Capacitance of Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator,” on page 29 – Figure 22-36 on page 191 and Figure 22-37 on page 191, Typical Characteristics plots for Bandgap Voltage vs. VCC and Temperature – Extended temperature in Section 6.1 “ATtiny25” on page 11, Ordering Information 1. “Bit 3 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare Match 1B” description in “GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1 Control Register” on page 90 updated: PB3 in “compare match output pin PB3 (OC1B)” corrected to PB4. 1. Updated description of “EEARH – EEPROM Address Register” and “EEARL – EEPROM Address Register” on page 20.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 24 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 – Tape & reel part numbers in Ordering Information, in Section 6.1 “ATtiny25” on page 11 and Section 6.2 “ATtiny45” on page 12 2. Updated: – “Features” on page 1, removed Preliminary from ATtiny25 – Section 8.4.2 “Code Example” on page 44 – “PCMSK – Pin Change Mask Register” on page 52, Bit Descriptions – “TCCR1 – Timer/Counter1 Control Register” on page 89 and “GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1 Control Register” on page 90, COM bit descriptions clarified – Section 20.3.2 “Calibration Bytes” on page 150, frequencies (8 MHz, 6.4 MHz) – Table 20-11, “Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location,” on page 153, value for tWD_ERASE – Table 20-16, “High-voltage Serial Programming Instruction Set for ATtiny25/45/85,” on page 158 – Table 21-1, “DC Characteristics. TA = -40C to +85C,” on page 161, notes adjusted – Table 21-11, “Serial Programming Characteristics, TA = -40C to +85C, VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V (Unless Otherwise Noted),” on page 170, added tSLIV – Bit syntax throughout the datasheet, e.g. from CS02:0 to CS0[2:0]. 9.7 Rev. 2586K-01/08 1. Updated Document Template. 2. Added Sections: – “Data Retention” on page 6 – “Low Level Interrupt” on page 49 – “Device Signature Imprint Table” on page 149 3. Updated Sections: – “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24 – “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 23 – “Internal PLL in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode” on page 24 – “Sleep Modes” on page 34 – “Software BOD Disable” on page 35 – “External Interrupts” on page 49 – “Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode” on page 97 – “USI – Universal Serial Interface” on page 108 – “Temperature Measurement” on page 133 – “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software” on page 143 – “Program And Data Memory Lock Bits” on page 147 – “Fuse Bytes” on page 148 – “Signature Bytes” on page 150 – “Calibration Bytes” on page 150 – “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165 4. Added Figures: – “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 3V)” on page 184 – “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 5V)” on page 185 – “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 3V)” on page 185ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 25 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 – “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 5V)” on page 186 5. Updated Figure: – “Reset Logic” on page 39 6. Updated Tables: – “Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock” on page 28 – “Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock (in ATtiny15 Mode)” on page 28 – “Start-up Times for the 128 kHz Internal Oscillator” on page 28 – “Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode” on page 86 – “Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode” on page 98 – “DC Characteristics. TA = -40C to +85C” on page 161 – “Calibration Accuracy of Internal RC Oscillator” on page 164 – “ADC Characteristics” on page 167 7. Updated Code Example in Section: – “Write” on page 17 8. Updated Bit Descriptions in: – “MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 37 – “Bits 7:6 – COM0A[1:0]: Compare Match Output A Mode” on page 77 – “Bits 5:4 – COM0B[1:0]: Compare Match Output B Mode” on page 77 – “Bits 2:0 – ADTS[2:0]: ADC Auto Trigger Source” on page 138 – “SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register” on page 145. 9. Updated description of feature “EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency” in Sections: – “Errata ATtiny25” on page 19 – “Errata ATtiny45” on page 19 – “Errata ATtiny85” on page 22 10. Updated Package Description in Sections: – “ATtiny25” on page 11 – “ATtiny45” on page 12 – “ATtiny85” on page 13 11. Updated Package Drawing: – “S8S1” on page 16 12. Updated Order Codes for: – “ATtiny25” on page 11 9.8 Rev. 2586J-12/06 1. Updated “Low Power Consumption” on page 1. 2. Updated description of instruction length in “Architectural Overview” . 3. Updated Flash size in “In-System Re-programmable Flash Program Memory” on page 15. 4. Updated cross-references in sections “Atomic Byte Programming” , “Erase” and “Write” , starting on page 17. 5. Updated “Atomic Byte Programming” on page 17.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 26 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 6. Updated “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24. 7. Replaced single clocking system figure with two: Figure 6-2 and Figure 6-3. 8. Updated Table 6-1 on page 25, Table 6-13 on page 30 and Table 6-6 on page 27. 9. Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27. 10. Updated Table 6-5 on page 26. 11. Updated “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 31. 12. Updated “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 32. 13. Updated “Power-down Mode” on page 35. 14. Updated “Bit 0” in “PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 38. 15. Added footnote to Table 8-3 on page 46. 16. Updated Table 10-5 on page 63. 17. Deleted “Bits 7, 2” in “MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 64. 18. Updated and moved section “Timer/Counter0 Prescaler and Clock Sources”, now located on page 66. 19. Updated “Timer/Counter1 Initialization for Asynchronous Mode” on page 86. 20. Updated bit description in “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 94 and “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 103. 21. Added recommended maximum frequency in“Prescaling and Conversion Timing” on page 125. 22. Updated Figure 17-8 on page 129 . 23. Updated “Temperature Measurement” on page 133. 24. Updated Table 17-3 on page 134. 25. Updated bit R/W descriptions in: “TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 81, “TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 81, “TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 92, “TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 93, “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 94, “TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 102, “TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 103, “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 103 and “DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0” on page 138. 26. Added limitation to “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 140. 27. Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 161. 28. Updated Table 21-7 on page 166. 29. Updated Figure 21-6 on page 171. 30. Updated Table 21-12 on page 171. 31. Updated Table 22-1 on page 177. 32. Updated Table 22-2 on page 177. 33. Updated Table 22-30, Table 22-31 and Table 22-32, starting on page 188. 34. Updated Table 22-33, Table 22-34 and Table 22-35, starting on page 189. 35. Updated Table 22-39 on page 192. 36. Updated Table 22-46, Table 22-47, Table 22-48 and Table 22-49.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 27 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 9.9 Rev. 2586I-09/06 9.10 Rev. 2586H-06/06 9.11 Rev. 2586G-05/06 9.12 Rev. 2586F-04/06 1. All Characterization data moved to “Electrical Characteristics” on page 161. 2. All Register Descriptions are gathered up in seperate sections in the end of each chapter. 3. Updated Table 11-3 on page 78, Table 11-5 on page 79, Table 11-6 on page 80 and Table 20-4 on page 148. 4. Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27. 5. Updated Note in Table 7-1 on page 34. 6. Updated “System Control and Reset” on page 39. 7. Updated Register Description in “I/O Ports” on page 53. 8. Updated Features in “USI – Universal Serial Interface” on page 108. 9. Updated Code Example in “SPI Master Operation Example” on page 110 and “SPI Slave Operation Example” on page 111. 10. Updated “Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input” on page 119. 11. Updated Figure 17-1 on page 123. 12. Updated “Signature Bytes” on page 150. 13. Updated “Electrical Characteristics” on page 161. 1. Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27. 2. Updated Table 6.5.1 on page 31. 3. Added Table 21-2 on page 164. 1. Updated “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24. 2. Updated “Default Clock Source” on page 30. 3. Updated “Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 29. 4. Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27. 5. Updated “Clock Output Buffer” on page 31. 6. Updated “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 34. 7. Added “Software BOD Disable” on page 35. 8. Updated Figure 16-1 on page 119. 9. Updated “Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select” on page 120. 10. Added note for Table 17-2 on page 125. 11. Updated “Register Summary” on page 7. 1. Updated “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 57. 2. Updated Table 20-16 on page 158. 3. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 11.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 28 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 9.13 Rev. 2586E-03/06 9.14 Rev. 2586D-02/06 9.15 Rev. 2586C-06/05 9.16 Rev. 2586B-05/05 9.17 Rev. 2586A-02/05 Initial revision. 1. Updated Features in “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 122. 2. Updated Operation in “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 122. 3. Updated Table 17-2 on page 133. 4. Updated Table 17-3 on page 134. 5. Updated “Errata” on page 19. 1. Updated Table 6-13 on page 30, Table 6-10 on page 29, Table 6-3 on page 26, Table 6-9 on page 28, Table 6-5 on page 26, Table 9-1 on page 48,Table 17-4 on page 135, Table 20-16 on page 158, Table 21-8 on page 167. 2. Updated “Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode” on page 86. 3. Updated text “Bit 2 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Flag” on page 93. 4. Updated values in “DC Characteristics” on page 161. 5. Updated “Register Summary” on page 7. 6. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 11. 7. Updated Rev B and C in “Errata ATtiny45” on page 19. 8. All references to power-save mode are removed. 9. Updated Register Adresses. 1. Updated “Features” on page 1. 2. Updated Figure 1-1 on page 2. 3. Updated Code Examples on page 18 and page 19. 4. Moved “Temperature Measurement” to Section 17.12 page 133. 5. Updated “Register Summary” on page 7. 6. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 11. 1. CLKI added, instances of EEMWE/EEWE renamed EEMPE/EEPE, removed some TBD. Removed “Preliminary Description” from “Temperature Measurement” on page 133. 2. Updated “Features” on page 1. 3. Updated Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Figure 8-1 on page 39. 4. Updated Table 7-2 on page 38, Table 10-4 on page 63, Table 10-5 on page 63 5. Updated “Serial Programming Instruction set” on page 153. 6. Updated SPH register in “Instruction Set Summary” on page 9. 7. Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 161. 8. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 11. 9. Updated “Errata” on page 19.ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET] 29 2586QS–AVR–08/2013Atmel Corporation 1600 Technology Drive San Jose, CA 95110 USA Tel: (+1) (408) 441-0311 Fax: (+1) (408) 487-2600 www.atmel.com Atmel Asia Limited Unit 01-5 & 16, 19F BEA Tower, Millennium City 5 418 Kwun Tong Roa Kwun Tong, Kowloon HONG KONG Tel: (+852) 2245-6100 Fax: (+852) 2722-1369 Atmel Munich GmbH Business Campus Parkring 4 D-85748 Garching b. Munich GERMANY Tel: (+49) 89-31970-0 Fax: (+49) 89-3194621 Atmel Japan G.K. 16F Shin-Osaki Kangyo Bldg 1-6-4 Osaki, Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 141-0032 JAPAN Tel: (+81) (3) 6417-0300 Fax: (+81) (3) 6417-0370 © 2013 Atmel Corporation. All rights reserved. / Rev.: 2586QS–AVR–08/2013 Disclaimer: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. 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The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 1 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Power Management Features: • Run: CPU on, Peripherals on • Idle: CPU off, Peripherals on • Sleep: CPU off, Peripherals off • Ultra Low 50nA Input Leakage • Run mode Currents Down to 11 μA Typical • Idle mode Currents Down to 2.5 μA Typical • Sleep mode Current Down to 100 nA Typical • Timer1 Oscillator: 900 nA, 32 kHz, 2V • Watchdog Timer: 1.4 μA, 2V Typical • Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up Flexible Oscillator Structure: • Four Crystal modes, up to 40 MHz • 4x Phase Lock Loop (PLL) – Available for Crystal and Internal Oscillators • Two External RC modes, up to 4 MHz • Two External Clock modes, up to 40 MHz • Internal Oscillator Block: - Fast wake from Sleep and Idle, 1 μs typical - 8 use-selectable frequencies, from 31 kHz to 8 MHz - Provides a complete range of clock speeds from 31 kHz to 32 MHz when used with PLL - User-tunable to compensate for frequency drift • Secondary Oscillator using Timer1 @ 32 kHz • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: - Allows for safe shutdown if peripheral clock stops Peripheral Highlights: • High-Current Sink/Source 25 mA/25 mA • Three Programmable External Interrupts • Four Input Change Interrupts • Up to 2 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules, one with Auto-Shutdown (28-pin devices) • Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) module (40/44-pin devices only): - One, two or four PWM outputs - Selectable polarity - Programmable dead time - Auto-shutdown and auto-restart Peripheral Highlights (Continued): • Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module Supporting 3-Wire SPI (all 4 modes) and I2C™ Master and Slave modes • Enhanced Addressable USART module: - Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN/J2602 - RS-232 operation using internal oscillator block (no external crystal required) - Auto-wake-up on Start bit - Auto-Baud Detect • 10-Bit, up to 13-Channel Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module: - Auto-acquisition capability - Conversion available during Sleep • Dual Analog Comparators with Input Multiplexing • Programmable 16-Level High/Low-Voltage Detection (HLVD) module: - Supports interrupt on High/Low-Voltage Detection Special Microcontroller Features: • C Compiler Optimized Architecture: - Optional extended instruction set designed to optimize re-entrant code • 100,000 Erase/Write Cycle Enhanced Flash Program Memory Typical • 1,000,000 Erase/Write Cycle Data EEPROM Memory Typical • Flash/Data EEPROM Retention: 100 Years Typical • Self-Programmable under Software Control • Priority Levels for Interrupts • 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier • Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT): - Programmable period from 4 ms to 131s • Single-Supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) via Two Pins • In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via Two Pins • Wide Operating Voltage Range: 2.0V to 5.5V • Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR) with Software Enable Option - Device Program Memory Data Memory I/O 10-Bit A/D (ch) CCP/ ECCP (PWM) MSSP EUSART Comp. Timers 8/16-Bit Flash (bytes) # Single-Word Instructions SRAM (bytes) EEPROM (bytes) SPI Master I 2C™ PIC18F2420 16K 8192 768 256 25 10 2/0 Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F2520 32K 16384 1536 256 25 10 2/0 Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F4420 16K 8192 768 256 36 13 1/1 Y Y 1 2 1/3 PIC18F4520 32K 16384 1536 256 36 13 1/1 Y Y 1 2 1/3 28/40/44-Pin Enhanced Flash Microcontrollers with 10-Bit A/D and nanoWatt TechnologyPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 2 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Pin Diagrams PIC18F2520 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 1 8 7 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 22 21 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT VSS OSC1/CLKI/RA7 OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6//KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) RB2/INT2/AN8 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 VDD VSS RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA 28-Pin SPDIP, SOIC PIC18F2420 Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. 10 11 2 3 6 1 18 19 20 21 22 12 13 14 15 8 7 16 17 2827 2625 2423 9 PIC18F2420 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI 5 4 RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4KBI0/AN11 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) RB2/INT2/AN8 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 VDD VSS RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA MCLR/VPP/RE3 RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT VSS OSC1/CLKI/RA7 OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL PIC18F2520 28-Pin QFN RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) RB2/INT2/AN8 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 VDD VSS RD7/PSP7/P1D RD6/PSP6/P1C RD5/PSP5/P1B RD4/PSP4 RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RE0/RD/AN5 RE1/WR/AN6 RE2/CS/AN7 VDD VSS OSC1/CLKI/RA7 OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC2/CCP1/P1A RC3/SCK/SCL RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 PIC18F4520 40-Pin PDIP PIC18F4420© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 3 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Pin Diagrams (Cont.’d) Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 1 12 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 38 8 7 44 43 42 41 40 39 16 17 29 30 31 32 33 23 24 25 26 27 28 36 35 34 9 PIC18F442037 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 MCLR/VPP/RE3 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD NC RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0 RC3/SCK/SCL RC2/CCP1/P1A RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC1/CLKI/RA7 VSS VSS VDD VDD RE2/CS/AN7 RE1/WR/AN6 RE0/RD/AN5 RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RC7/RX/DT RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5/P1B RD6/PSP6/P1C RD7/PSP7/P1D VSS VDD VDD RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB2/INT2/AN8 44-pin QFN PIC18F4520 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 1 12 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 38 8 7 44 43 42 41 40 39 16 17 29 30 31 32 33 23 24 25 26 27 28 36 35 34 9 PIC18F442037 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 MCLR/VPP/RE3 NC RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD NC RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0 RC3/SCK/SCL RC2/CCP1/P1A RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) NC NC RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC1/CLKI/RA7 VSS VDD RE2/CS/AN7 RE1/WR/AN6 RE0/RD/AN5 RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RC7/RX/DT RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5/P1B RD6/PSP6/P1C RD7/PSP7/P1D VSS VDD RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB2/INT2/AN8 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) 44-pin TQFP PIC18F4520PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 4 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Table of Contents 1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.0 Oscillator Configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 23 3.0 Power-Managed Modes ............................................................................................................................................................. 33 4.0 Reset .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 5.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 53 6.0 Flash Program Memory.............................................................................................................................................................. 73 7.0 Data EEPROM Memory ............................................................................................................................................................. 83 8.0 8 x 8 Hardware Multiplier............................................................................................................................................................ 89 9.0 Interrupts .................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 10.0 I/O Ports ................................................................................................................................................................................... 105 11.0 Timer0 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 123 12.0 Timer1 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 127 13.0 Timer2 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 133 14.0 Timer3 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 135 15.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Modules ................................................................................................................................. 139 16.0 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module................................................................................................................ 147 17.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module .................................................................................................................... 161 18.0 Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) ............................................................... 201 19.0 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ..................................................................................................................... 223 20.0 Comparator Module.................................................................................................................................................................. 233 21.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module................................................................................................................................... 239 22.0 High/Low-Voltage Detect (HLVD)............................................................................................................................................. 243 23.0 Special Features of the CPU.................................................................................................................................................... 249 24.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 267 25.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 317 26.0 Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 321 27.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables....................................................................................................................... 361 28.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 383 Appendix A: Revision History............................................................................................................................................................. 395 Appendix B: Device Differences......................................................................................................................................................... 395 Appendix C: Migration from Mid-Range to Enhanced Devices .......................................................................................................... 396 Appendix D: Migration from High-End to Enhanced Devices............................................................................................................. 396 Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 397 The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 407 Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 407 Customer Support.............................................................................................................................................................................. 407 Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 408 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Product Identification System ............................................................................................................ 409© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 5 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced. If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via E-mail at docerrors@microchip.com or fax the Reader Response Form in the back of this data sheet to (480) 792-4150. We welcome your feedback. Most Current Data Sheet To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at: http://www.microchip.com You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page. The last character of the literature number is the version number, (e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000). Errata An errata sheet, describing minor operational differences from the data sheet and recommended workarounds, may exist for current devices. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision of silicon and revision of document to which it applies. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following: • Microchip’s Worldwide Web site; http://www.microchip.com • Your local Microchip sales office (see last page) When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are using. Customer Notification System Register on our web site at www.microchip.com to receive the most current information on all of our products.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 6 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 7 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW This document contains device-specific information for the following devices: This family offers the advantages of all PIC18 microcontrollers – namely, high computational performance at an economical price – with the addition of high-endurance, Enhanced Flash program memory. On top of these features, the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/ 4520 family introduces design enhancements that make these microcontrollers a logical choice for many high-performance, power sensitive applications. 1.1 New Core Features 1.1.1 nanoWatt TECHNOLOGY All of the devices in the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 family incorporate a range of features that can significantly reduce power consumption during operation. Key items include: • Alternate Run Modes: By clocking the controller from the Timer1 source or the internal oscillator block, power consumption during code execution can be reduced by as much as 90%. • Multiple Idle Modes: The controller can also run with its CPU core disabled but the peripherals still active. In these states, power consumption can be reduced even further, to as little as 4% of normal operation requirements. • On-the-Fly Mode Switching: The powermanaged modes are invoked by user code during operation, allowing the user to incorporate power-saving ideas into their application’s software design. • Low Consumption in Key Modules: The power requirements for both Timer1 and the Watchdog Timer are minimized. See Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for values. 1.1.2 MULTIPLE OSCILLATOR OPTIONS AND FEATURES All of the devices in the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 family offer ten different oscillator options, allowing users a wide range of choices in developing application hardware. These include: • Four Crystal modes, using crystals or ceramic resonators • Two External Clock modes, offering the option of using two pins (oscillator input and a divide-by-4 clock output) or one pin (oscillator input, with the second pin reassigned as general I/O) • Two External RC Oscillator modes with the same pin options as the External Clock modes • An internal oscillator block which provides an 8 MHz clock and an INTRC source (approximately 31 kHz), as well as a range of 6 user-selectable clock frequencies, between 125 kHz to 4 MHz, for a total of 8 clock frequencies. This option frees the two oscillator pins for use as additional general purpose I/O. • A Phase Lock Loop (PLL) frequency multiplier, available to both the High-Speed Crystal and Internal Oscillator modes, which allows clock speeds of up to 40 MHz. Used with the internal oscillator, the PLL gives users a complete selection of clock speeds, from 31 kHz to 32 MHz – all without using an external crystal or clock circuit. Besides its availability as a clock source, the internal oscillator block provides a stable reference source that gives the family additional features for robust operation: • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: This option constantly monitors the main clock source against a reference signal provided by the internal oscillator. If a clock failure occurs, the controller is switched to the internal oscillator block, allowing for continued low-speed operation or a safe application shutdown. • Two-Speed Start-up: This option allows the internal oscillator to serve as the clock source from Power-on Reset, or wake-up from Sleep mode, until the primary clock source is available. • PIC18F2420 • PIC18LF2420 • PIC18F2520 • PIC18LF2520 • PIC18F4420 • PIC18LF4420 • PIC18F4520 • PIC18LF4520PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 8 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 1.2 Other Special Features • Memory Endurance: The Enhanced Flash cells for both program memory and data EEPROM are rated to last for many thousands of erase/write cycles – up to 100,000 for program memory and 1,000,000 for EEPROM. Data retention without refresh is conservatively estimated to be greater than 40 years. • Self-Programmability: These devices can write to their own program memory spaces under internal software control. By using a bootloader routine located in the protected Boot Block at the top of program memory, it becomes possible to create an application that can update itself in the field. • Extended Instruction Set: The PIC18F2420/ 2520/4420/4520 family introduces an optional extension to the PIC18 instruction set, which adds 8 new instructions and an Indexed Addressing mode. This extension, enabled as a device configuration option, has been specifically designed to optimize re-entrant application code originally developed in high-level languages, such as C. • Enhanced CCP Module: In PWM mode, this module provides 1, 2 or 4 modulated outputs for controlling half-bridge and full-bridge drivers. Other features include auto-shutdown, for disabling PWM outputs on interrupt, or other select conditions, and auto-restart to reactivate outputs once the condition has cleared. • Enhanced Addressable USART: This serial communication module is capable of standard RS-232 operation and provides support for the LIN bus protocol. Other enhancements include automatic baud rate detection and a 16-bit Baud Rate Generator for improved resolution. When the microcontroller is using the internal oscillator block, the EUSART provides stable operation for applications that talk to the outside world without using an external crystal (or its accompanying power requirement). • 10-Bit A/D Converter: This module incorporates programmable acquisition time, allowing for a channel to be selected and a conversion to be initiated without waiting for a sampling period and thus, reducing code overhead. • Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT): This enhanced version incorporates a 16-bit prescaler, allowing an extended time-out range that is stable across operating voltage and temperature. See Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for time-out periods. 1.3 Details on Individual Family Members Devices in the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 family are available in 28-pin and 40/44-pin packages. Block diagrams for the two groups are shown in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. The devices are differentiated from each other in five ways: 1. Flash program memory (16 Kbytes for PIC18F2420/4420 devices and 32 Kbytes for PIC18F2520/4520 devices). 2. A/D channels (10 for 28-pin devices, 13 for 40/44-pin devices). 3. I/O ports (3 bidirectional ports on 28-pin devices, 5 bidirectional ports on 40/44-pin devices). 4. CCP and Enhanced CCP implementation (28-pin devices have 2 standard CCP modules, 40/44-pin devices have one standard CCP module and one ECCP module). 5. Parallel Slave Port (present only on 40/44-pin devices). All other features for devices in this family are identical. These are summarized in Table 1-1. The pinouts for all devices are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3. Like all Microchip PIC18 devices, members of the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 family are available as both standard and low-voltage devices. Standard devices with Enhanced Flash memory, designated with an “F” in the part number (such as PIC18F2420), accommodate an operating VDD range of 4.2V to 5.5V. Low-voltage parts, designated by “LF” (such as PIC18LF2420), function over an extended VDD range of 2.0V to 5.5V. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 9 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 1-1: DEVICE FEATURES Features PIC18F2420 PIC18F2520 PIC18F4420 PIC18F4520 Operating Frequency DC – 40 MHz DC – 40 MHz DC – 40 MHz DC – 40 MHz Program Memory (Bytes) 16384 32768 16384 32768 Program Memory (Instructions) 8192 16384 8192 16384 Data Memory (Bytes) 768 1536 768 1536 Data EEPROM Memory (Bytes) 256 256 256 256 Interrupt Sources 19 19 20 20 I/O Ports Ports A, B, C, (E) Ports A, B, C, (E) Ports A, B, C, D, E Ports A, B, C, D, E Timers 4 4 4 4 Capture/Compare/PWM Modules 2 2 1 1 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM Modules 0011 Serial Communications MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART MSSP, Enhanced USART Parallel Communications (PSP) No No Yes Yes 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Module 10 Input Channels 10 Input Channels 13 Input Channels 13 Input Channels Resets (and Delays) POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT POR, BOR, RESET Instruction, Stack Full, Stack Underflow (PWRT, OST), MCLR (optional), WDT Programmable High/Low-Voltage Detect Yes Yes Yes Yes Programmable Brown-out Reset Yes Yes Yes Yes Instruction Set 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled 75 Instructions; 83 with Extended Instruction Set Enabled Packages 28-Pin SPDIP 28-Pin SOIC 28-Pin QFN 28-Pin SPDIP 28-Pin SOIC 28-Pin QFN 40-Pin PDIP 44-Pin QFN 44-Pin TQFP 40-Pin PDIP 44-Pin QFN 44-Pin TQFPPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 10 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 1-1: PIC18F2420/2520 (28-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM Instruction Decode and Control PORTA PORTB PORTC RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 RB1/INT1/AN10 Data Latch Data Memory ( 3.9 Kbytes ) Address Latch Data Address<12> 12 BSR Access FSR0 FSR1 FSR2 inc/dec logic Address 4 12 4 PCH PCL PCLATH 8 31-Level Stack Program Counter PRODH PRODL 8 x 8 Multiply 8 BITOP 8 8 ALU<8> Address Latch Program Memory (16/32 Kbytes) Data Latch 20 8 8 Table Pointer<21> inc/dec logic 21 8 Data Bus<8> Table Latch 8 IR 12 3 ROM Latch RB2/INT2/AN8 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) PCLATU PCU OSC2/CLKO(3)/RA6 Note 1: CCP2 is multiplexed with RC1 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set, or RB3 when CCP2MX is not set. 2: RE3 is only available when MCLR functionality is disabled. 3: OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO are only available in select oscillator modes and when these pins are not being used as digital I/O. Refer to Section 2.0 “Oscillator Configurations” for additional information. RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD Comparator MSSP EUSART 10-Bit ADC Timer0 Timer1 Timer2 Timer3 CCP2 HLVD CCP1 BOR Data EEPROM W Instruction Bus <16> STKPTR Bank 8 State Machine Control Signals Decode 8 8 Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer OSC1(3) OSC2(3) VDD, Brown-out Reset Internal Oscillator Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Precision Reference Band Gap VSS MCLR(2) Block INTRC Oscillator 8 MHz Oscillator Single-Supply Programming In-Circuit Debugger T1OSO OSC1/CLKI(3)/RA7 T1OSI PORTE MCLR/VPP/RE3(2)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 11 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 1-2: PIC18F4420/4520 (40/44-PIN) BLOCK DIAGRAM Instruction Decode and Control Data Latch Data Memory ( 3.9 Kbytes ) Address Latch Data Address<12> 12 BSR Access FSR0 FSR1 FSR2 inc/dec logic Address 4 12 4 PCH PCL PCLATH 8 31-Level Stack Program Counter PRODH PRODL 8 x 8 Multiply 8 BITOP 8 8 ALU<8> Address Latch Program Memory (16/32 Kbytes) Data Latch 20 8 8 Table Pointer<21> inc/dec logic 21 8 Data Bus<8> Table Latch 8 IR 12 3 ROM Latch PORTD RD0/PSP0 PCLATU PCU PORTE MCLR/VPP/RE3(2) RE2/CS/AN7 RE0/RD/AN5 RE1/WR/AN6 Note 1: CCP2 is multiplexed with RC1 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set, or RB3 when CCP2MX is not set. 2: RE3 is only available when MCLR functionality is disabled. 3: OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO are only available in select oscillator modes and when these pins are not being used as digital I/O. Refer to Section 2.0 “Oscillator Configurations” for additional information. :RD4/PSP4 Comparator MSSP EUSART 10-Bit ADC Timer0 Timer1 Timer2 Timer3 CCP2 HLVD ECCP1 BOR Data EEPROM W Instruction Bus <16> STKPTR Bank 8 State Machine Control Signals Decode 8 8 Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer OSC1(3) OSC2(3) VDD, Brown-out Reset Internal Oscillator Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Precision Reference Band Gap VSS MCLR(2) Block INTRC Oscillator 8 MHz Oscillator Single-Supply Programming In-Circuit Debugger T1OSI T1OSO RD5/PSP5/P1B RD6/PSP6/P1C RD7/PSP7/P1D PORTA PORTB PORTC RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) RC2/CCP1/P1A RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 RB1/INT1/AN10 RB2/INT2/AN8 RB3/AN9/CCP2(1) OSC2/CLKO(3)/RA6 RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB5/KBI1/PGM RB6/KBI2/PGC RB7/KBI3/PGD OSC1/CLKI(3)/RA7PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 12 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2420/2520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type SPDIP, Description SOIC QFN MCLR/VPP/RE3 MCLR VPP RE3 1 26 I P I ST ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (input). Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to the device. Programming voltage input. Digital input. OSC1/CLKI/RA7 OSC1 CLKI RA7 9 6 I I I/O ST CMOS TTL Oscillator crystal or external clock input. Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. ST buffer when configured in RC mode; CMOS otherwise. External clock source input. Always associated with pin function, OSC1. (See related OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO pins.) General purpose I/O pin. OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC2 CLKO RA6 10 7 O O I/O — — TTL Oscillator crystal or clock output. Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate. General purpose I/O pin. Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 13 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port. RA0/AN0 RA0 AN0 2 27 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 0. RA1/AN1 RA1 AN1 3 28 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 1. RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA2 AN2 VREFCVREF 4 1 I/O I I O TTL Analog Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 2. A/D reference voltage (low) input. Comparator reference voltage output. RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA3 AN3 VREF+ 5 2 I/O I I TTL Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 3. A/D reference voltage (high) input. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA4 T0CKI C1OUT 6 3 I/O I O ST ST — Digital I/O. Timer0 external clock input. Comparator 1 output. RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/ C2OUT RA5 AN4 SS HLVDIN C2OUT 7 4 I/O I I I O TTL Analog TTL Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 4. SPI slave select input. High/Low-Voltage Detect input. Comparator 2 output. RA6 See the OSC2/CLKO/RA6 pin. RA7 See the OSC1/CLKI/RA7 pin. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2420/2520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type SPDIP, Description SOIC QFN Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 14 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs. RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RB0 INT0 FLT0 AN12 21 18 I/O I I I TTL ST ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 0. PWM Fault input for CCP1. Analog input 12. RB1/INT1/AN10 RB1 INT1 AN10 22 19 I/O I I TTL ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 1. Analog input 10. RB2/INT2/AN8 RB2 INT2 AN8 23 20 I/O I I TTL ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 2. Analog input 8. RB3/AN9/CCP2 RB3 AN9 CCP2(1) 24 21 I/O I I/O TTL Analog ST Digital I/O. Analog input 9. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB4 KBI0 AN11 25 22 I/O I I TTL TTL Analog Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Analog input 11. RB5/KBI1/PGM RB5 KBI1 PGM 26 23 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Low-Voltage ICSP™ Programming enable pin. RB6/KBI2/PGC RB6 KBI2 PGC 27 24 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming clock pin. RB7/KBI3/PGD RB7 KBI3 PGD 28 25 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2420/2520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type SPDIP, Description SOIC QFN Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 15 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC0 T1OSO T13CKI 11 8 I/O O I ST — ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator output. Timer1/Timer3 external clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC1 T1OSI CCP2(2) 12 9 I/O I I/O ST Analog ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator input. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. RC2/CCP1 RC2 CCP1 13 10 I/O I/O ST ST Digital I/O. Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output. RC3/SCK/SCL RC3 SCK SCL 14 11 I/O I/O I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode. Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode. RC4/SDI/SDA RC4 SDI SDA 15 12 I/O I I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. SPI data in. I 2C data I/O. RC5/SDO RC5 SDO 16 13 I/O O ST — Digital I/O. SPI data out. RC6/TX/CK RC6 TX CK 17 14 I/O O I/O ST — ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous transmit. EUSART synchronous clock (see related RX/DT). RC7/RX/DT RC7 RX DT 18 15 I/O I I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous receive. EUSART synchronous data (see related TX/CK). RE3 — — — — See MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin. VSS 8, 19 5, 16 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 20 17 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2420/2520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type SPDIP, Description SOIC QFN Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 16 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP MCLR/VPP/RE3 MCLR VPP RE3 1 18 18 I P I ST ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (input). Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low Reset to the device. Programming voltage input. Digital input. OSC1/CLKI/RA7 OSC1 CLKI RA7 13 32 30 I I I/O ST CMOS TTL Oscillator crystal or external clock input. Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. ST buffer when configured in RC mode; analog otherwise. External clock source input. Always associated with pin function, OSC1. (See related OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO pins.) General purpose I/O pin. OSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC2 CLKO RA6 14 33 31 O O I/O — — TTL Oscillator crystal or clock output. Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate. General purpose I/O pin. Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 17 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port. RA0/AN0 RA0 AN0 2 19 19 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 0. RA1/AN1 RA1 AN1 3 20 20 I/O I TTL Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 1. RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA2 AN2 VREFCVREF 4 21 21 I/O I I O TTL Analog Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 2. A/D reference voltage (low) input. Comparator reference voltage output. RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA3 AN3 VREF+ 5 22 22 I/O I I TTL Analog Analog Digital I/O. Analog input 3. A/D reference voltage (high) input. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA4 T0CKI C1OUT 6 23 23 I/O I O ST ST — Digital I/O. Timer0 external clock input. Comparator 1 output. RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/ C2OUT RA5 AN4 SS HLVDIN C2OUT 7 24 24 I/O I I I O TTL Analog TTL Analog — Digital I/O. Analog input 4. SPI slave select input. High/Low-Voltage Detect input. Comparator 2 output. RA6 See the OSC2/CLKO/RA6 pin. RA7 See the OSC1/CLKI/RA7 pin. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 18 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs. RB0/INT0/FLT0/AN12 RB0 INT0 FLT0 AN12 33 9 8 I/O I I I TTL ST ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 0. PWM Fault input for Enhanced CCP1. Analog input 12. RB1/INT1/AN10 RB1 INT1 AN10 34 10 9 I/O I I TTL ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 1. Analog input 10. RB2/INT2/AN8 RB2 INT2 AN8 35 11 10 I/O I I TTL ST Analog Digital I/O. External interrupt 2. Analog input 8. RB3/AN9/CCP2 RB3 AN9 CCP2(1) 36 12 11 I/O I I/O TTL Analog ST Digital I/O. Analog input 9. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB4 KBI0 AN11 37 14 14 I/O I I TTL TTL Analog Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Analog input 11. RB5/KBI1/PGM RB5 KBI1 PGM 38 15 15 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. Low-Voltage ICSP™ Programming enable pin. RB6/KBI2/PGC RB6 KBI2 PGC 39 16 16 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming clock pin. RB7/KBI3/PGD RB7 KBI3 PGD 40 17 17 I/O I I/O TTL TTL ST Digital I/O. Interrupt-on-change pin. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data pin. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 19 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI RC0 T1OSO T13CKI 15 34 32 I/O O I ST — ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator output. Timer1/Timer3 external clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC1 T1OSI CCP2(2) 16 35 35 I/O I I/O ST CMOS ST Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator input. Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM2 output. RC2/CCP1/P1A RC2 CCP1 P1A 17 36 36 I/O I/O O ST ST — Digital I/O. Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM1 output. Enhanced CCP1 output. RC3/SCK/SCL RC3 SCK SCL 18 37 37 I/O I/O I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode. Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode. RC4/SDI/SDA RC4 SDI SDA 23 42 42 I/O I I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. SPI data in. I 2C data I/O. RC5/SDO RC5 SDO 24 43 43 I/O O ST — Digital I/O. SPI data out. RC6/TX/CK RC6 TX CK 25 44 44 I/O O I/O ST — ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous transmit. EUSART synchronous clock (see related RX/DT). RC7/RX/DT RC7 RX DT 26 1 1 I/O I I/O ST ST ST Digital I/O. EUSART asynchronous receive. EUSART synchronous data (see related TX/CK). TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 20 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port or a Parallel Slave Port (PSP) for interfacing to a microprocessor port. These pins have TTL input buffers when PSP module is enabled. RD0/PSP0 RD0 PSP0 19 38 38 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. RD1/PSP1 RD1 PSP1 20 39 39 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. RD2/PSP2 RD2 PSP2 21 40 40 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. RD3/PSP3 RD3 PSP3 22 41 41 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. RD4/PSP4 RD4 PSP4 27 2 2 I/O I/O ST TTL Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. RD5/PSP5/P1B RD5 PSP5 P1B 28 3 3 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. Enhanced CCP1 output. RD6/PSP6/P1C RD6 PSP6 P1C 29 4 4 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. Enhanced CCP1 output. RD7/PSP7/P1D RD7 PSP7 P1D 30 5 5 I/O I/O O ST TTL — Digital I/O. Parallel Slave Port data. Enhanced CCP1 output. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 21 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port. RE0/RD/AN5 RE0 RD AN5 8 25 25 I/O I I ST TTL Analog Digital I/O. Read control for Parallel Slave Port (see also WR and CS pins). Analog input 5. RE1/WR/AN6 RE1 WR AN6 9 26 26 I/O I I ST TTL Analog Digital I/O. Write control for Parallel Slave Port (see CS and RD pins). Analog input 6. RE2/CS/AN7 RE2 CS AN7 10 27 27 I/O I I ST TTL Analog Digital I/O. Chip Select control for Parallel Slave Port (see related RD and WR). Analog input 7. RE3 — — — — — See MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin. VSS 12, 31 6, 30, 31 6, 29 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 11, 32 7, 8, 28, 29 7, 28 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. NC — 13 12, 13, 33, 34 — — No Connect. TABLE 1-3: PIC18F4420/4520 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP QFN TQFP Legend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = Input O = Output P = Power Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is set. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when Configuration bit, CCP2MX, is cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 22 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 23 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 2.0 OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS 2.1 Oscillator Types PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices can be operated in ten different oscillator modes. The user can program the Configuration bits, FOSC<3:0>, in Configuration Register 1H to select one of these ten modes: 1. LP Low-Power Crystal 2. XT Crystal/Resonator 3. HS High-Speed Crystal/Resonator 4. HSPLL High-Speed Crystal/Resonator with PLL Enabled 5. RC External Resistor/Capacitor with FOSC/4 Output on RA6 6. RCIO External Resistor/Capacitor with I/O on RA6 7. INTIO1 Internal Oscillator with FOSC/4 Output on RA6 and I/O on RA7 8. INTIO2 Internal Oscillator with I/O on RA6 and RA7 9. EC External Clock with FOSC/4 Output 10. ECIO External Clock with I/O on RA6 2.2 Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic Resonators In XT, LP, HS or HSPLL Oscillator modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1 and OSC2 pins to establish oscillation. Figure 2-1 shows the pin connections. The oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. FIGURE 2-1: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC RESONATOR OPERATION (XT, LP, HS OR HSPLL CONFIGURATION) TABLE 2-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR CERAMIC RESONATORS Note: Use of a series cut crystal may give a frequency out of the crystal manufacturer’s specifications. Typical Capacitor Values Used: Mode Freq OSC1 OSC2 XT 3.58 MHz 4.19 MHz 4 MHz 4 MHz 15 pF 15 pF 30 pF 50 pF 15 pF 15 pF 30 pF 50 pF Capacitor values are for design guidance only. Different capacitor values may be required to produce acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test the performance of the oscillator over the expected VDD and temperature range for the application. See the notes following Table 2-2 for additional information. Note: When using resonators with frequencies above 3.5 MHz, the use of HS mode, rather than XT mode, is recommended. HS mode may be used at any VDD for which the controller is rated. If HS is selected, it is possible that the gain of the oscillator will overdrive the resonator. Therefore, a series resistor should be placed between the OSC2 pin and the resonator. As a good starting point, the recommended value of RS is 330Ω. Note 1: See Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 for initial values of C1 and C2. 2: A series resistor (RS) may be required for AT strip cut crystals. 3: RF varies with the oscillator mode chosen. C1(1) C2(1) XTAL OSC2 OSC1 RF(3) Sleep To Logic PIC18FXXXX RS(2) InternalPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 24 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 2-2: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR An external clock source may also be connected to the OSC1 pin in the HS mode, as shown in Figure 2-2. FIGURE 2-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (HS OSC CONFIGURATION) 2.3 External Clock Input The EC and ECIO Oscillator modes require an external clock source to be connected to the OSC1 pin. There is no oscillator start-up time required after a Power-on Reset or after an exit from Sleep mode. In the EC Oscillator mode, the oscillator frequency divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin. This signal may be used for test purposes or to synchronize other logic. Figure 2-3 shows the pin connections for the EC Oscillator mode. FIGURE 2-3: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (EC CONFIGURATION) The ECIO Oscillator mode functions like the EC mode, except that the OSC2 pin becomes an additional general purpose I/O pin. The I/O pin becomes bit 6 of PORTA (RA6). Figure 2-4 shows the pin connections for the ECIO Oscillator mode. FIGURE 2-4: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (ECIO CONFIGURATION) Osc Type Crystal Freq Typical Capacitor Values Tested: C1 C2 LP 32 kHz 30 pF 30 pF XT 1 MHz 4 MHz 15 pF 15 pF 15 pF 15 pF HS 4 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz 25 MHz 25 MHz 15 pF 15 pF 15 pF 0 pF 15 pF 15 pF 15 pF 15 pF 5 pF 15 pF Capacitor values are for design guidance only. These capacitors were tested with the crystals listed below for basic start-up and operation. These values are not optimized. Different capacitor values may be required to produce acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test the performance of the oscillator over the expected VDD and temperature range for the application. See the notes following this table for additional information. Crystals Used: 32 kHz 4 MHz 25 MHz 10 MHz 1 MHz 20 MHz Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability of the oscillator but also increases the start-up time. 2: When operating below 3V VDD, or when using certain ceramic resonators at any voltage, it may be necessary to use the HS mode or switch to a crystal oscillator. 3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components. 4: Rs may be required to avoid overdriving crystals with low drive level specification. 5: Always verify oscillator performance over the VDD and temperature range that is expected for the application. OSC1 Open OSC2 Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX (HS Mode) OSC1/CLKI FOSC/4 OSC2/CLKO Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX OSC1/CLKI RA6 I/O (OSC2) Clock from Ext. System PIC18FXXXX© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 25 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 2.4 RC Oscillator For timing insensitive applications, the “RC” and “RCIO” device options offer additional cost savings. The actual oscillator frequency is a function of several factors: • supply voltage • values of the external resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) • operating temperature Given the same device, operating voltage and temperature and component values, there will also be unit-to-unit frequency variations. These are due to factors such as: • normal manufacturing variation • difference in lead frame capacitance between package types (especially for low CEXT values) • variations within the tolerance of limits of REXT and CEXT In the RC Oscillator mode, the oscillator frequency divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin. This signal may be used for test purposes or to synchronize other logic. Figure 2-5 shows how the R/C combination is connected. FIGURE 2-5: RC OSCILLATOR MODE The RCIO Oscillator mode (Figure 2-6) functions like the RC mode, except that the OSC2 pin becomes an additional general purpose I/O pin. The I/O pin becomes bit 6 of PORTA (RA6). FIGURE 2-6: RCIO OSCILLATOR MODE 2.5 PLL Frequency Multiplier A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) circuit is provided as an option for users who wish to use a lower frequency oscillator circuit or to clock the device up to its highest rated frequency from a crystal oscillator. This may be useful for customers who are concerned with EMI due to high-frequency crystals or users who require higher clock speeds from an internal oscillator. 2.5.1 HSPLL OSCILLATOR MODE The HSPLL mode makes use of the HS Oscillator mode for frequencies up to 10 MHz. A PLL then multiplies the oscillator output frequency by 4 to produce an internal clock frequency up to 40 MHz. The PLLEN bit is not available in this oscillator mode. The PLL is only available to the crystal oscillator when the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits are programmed for HSPLL mode (= 0110). FIGURE 2-7: PLL BLOCK DIAGRAM (HS MODE) 2.5.2 PLL AND INTOSC The PLL is also available to the internal oscillator block in selected oscillator modes. In this configuration, the PLL is enabled in software and generates a clock output of up to 32 MHz. The operation of INTOSC with the PLL is described in Section 2.6.4 “PLL in INTOSC Modes”. OSC2/CLKO CEXT REXT PIC18FXXXX OSC1 FOSC/4 Internal Clock VDD VSS Recommended values: 3 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ CEXT > 20 pF CEXT REXT PIC18FXXXX OSC1 Internal Clock VDD VSS Recommended values: 3 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ CEXT > 20 pF RA6 I/O (OSC2) MUX VCO Loop Filter Crystal Osc OSC2 OSC1 PLL Enable FIN FOUT SYSCLK Phase Comparator HS Oscillator Enable ÷4 (from Configuration Register 1H) HS ModePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 26 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.6 Internal Oscillator Block The PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices include an internal oscillator block which generates two different clock signals; either can be used as the microcontroller’s clock source. This may eliminate the need for external oscillator circuits on the OSC1 and/or OSC2 pins. The main output (INTOSC) is an 8 MHz clock source which can be used to directly drive the device clock. It also drives a postscaler which can provide a range of clock frequencies from 31 kHz to 4 MHz. The INTOSC output is enabled when a clock frequency from 125 kHz to 8 MHz is selected. The other clock source is the internal RC oscillator (INTRC), which provides a nominal 31 kHz output. INTRC is enabled if it is selected as the device clock source; it is also enabled automatically when any of the following are enabled: • Power-up Timer • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor • Watchdog Timer • Two-Speed Start-up These features are discussed in greater detail in Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU”. The clock source frequency (INTOSC direct, INTRC direct or INTOSC postscaler) is selected by configuring the IRCF bits of the OSCCON register (page 30). 2.6.1 INTIO MODES Using the internal oscillator as the clock source eliminates the need for up to two external oscillator pins, which can then be used for digital I/O. Two distinct configurations are available: • In INTIO1 mode, the OSC2 pin outputs FOSC/4, while OSC1 functions as RA7 for digital input and output. • In INTIO2 mode, OSC1 functions as RA7 and OSC2 functions as RA6, both for digital input and output. 2.6.2 INTOSC OUTPUT FREQUENCY The internal oscillator block is calibrated at the factory to produce an INTOSC output frequency of 8.0 MHz. The INTRC oscillator operates independently of the INTOSC source. Any changes in INTOSC across voltage and temperature are not necessarily reflected by changes in INTRC and vice versa. 2.6.3 OSCTUNE REGISTER The internal oscillator’s output has been calibrated at the factory but can be adjusted in the user’s application. This is done by writing to the OSCTUNE register (Register 2-1). When the OSCTUNE register is modified, the INTOSC frequency will begin shifting to the new frequency. The INTRC clock will reach the new frequency within 8 clock cycles (approximately 8 * 32 μs = 256 μs). The INTOSC clock will stabilize within 1 ms. Code execution continues during this shift. There is no indication that the shift has occurred. The OSCTUNE register also implements the INTSRC and PLLEN bits, which control certain features of the internal oscillator block. The INTSRC bit allows users to select which internal oscillator provides the clock source when the 31 kHz frequency option is selected. This is covered in greater detail in Section 2.7.1 “Oscillator Control Register”. The PLLEN bit controls the operation of the frequency multiplier, PLL, in internal oscillator modes. 2.6.4 PLL IN INTOSC MODES The 4x frequency multiplier can be used with the internal oscillator block to produce faster device clock speeds than are normally possible with an internal oscillator. When enabled, the PLL produces a clock speed of up to 32 MHz. Unlike HSPLL mode, the PLL is controlled through software. The control bit, PLLEN (OSCTUNE<6>), is used to enable or disable its operation. The PLL is available when the device is configured to use the internal oscillator block as its primary clock source (FOSC<3:0> = 1001 or 1000). Additionally, the PLL will only function when the selected output frequency is either 4 MHz or 8 MHz (OSCCON<6:4> = 111 or 110). If both of these conditions are not met, the PLL is disabled. The PLLEN control bit is only functional in those internal oscillator modes where the PLL is available. In all other modes, it is forced to ‘0’ and is effectively unavailable. 2.6.5 INTOSC FREQUENCY DRIFT The factory calibrates the internal oscillator block output (INTOSC) for 8 MHz. However, this frequency may drift as VDD or temperature changes, which can affect the controller operation in a variety of ways. It is possible to adjust the INTOSC frequency by modifying the value in the OSCTUNE register. This has no effect on the INTRC clock source frequency. Tuning the INTOSC source requires knowing when to make the adjustment, in which direction it should be made, and in some cases, how large a change is needed. Three compensation techniques are discussed in Section 2.6.5.1 “Compensating with the EUSART”, Section 2.6.5.2 “Compensating with the Timers” and Section 2.6.5.3 “Compensating with the CCP Module in Capture Mode”, but other techniques may be used.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 27 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 2.6.5.1 Compensating with the EUSART An adjustment may be required when the EUSART begins to generate framing errors or receives data with errors while in Asynchronous mode. Framing errors indicate that the device clock frequency is too high. To adjust for this, decrement the value in OSCTUNE to reduce the clock frequency. On the other hand, errors in data may suggest that the clock speed is too low. To compensate, increment OSCTUNE to increase the clock frequency. 2.6.5.2 Compensating with the Timers This technique compares device clock speed to some reference clock. Two timers may be used; one timer is clocked by the peripheral clock, while the other is clocked by a fixed reference source, such as the Timer1 oscillator. Both timers are cleared, but the timer clocked by the reference generates interrupts. When an interrupt occurs, the internally clocked timer is read and both timers are cleared. If the internally clocked timer value is greater than expected, then the internal oscillator block is running too fast. To adjust for this, decrement the OSCTUNE register. 2.6.5.3 Compensating with the CCP Module in Capture Mode A CCP module can use free-running Timer1 (or Timer3), clocked by the internal oscillator block and an external event with a known period (i.e., AC power frequency). The time of the first event is captured in the CCPRxH:CCPRxL registers and is recorded for use later. When the second event causes a capture, the time of the first event is subtracted from the time of the second event. Since the period of the external event is known, the time difference between events can be calculated. If the measured time is much greater than the calculated time, the internal oscillator block is running too fast; to compensate, decrement the OSCTUNE register. If the measured time is much less than the calculated time, the internal oscillator block is running too slow; to compensate, increment the OSCTUNE register. REGISTER 2-1: OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0(1) U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 INTSRC PLLEN(1) — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 INTSRC: Internal Oscillator Low-Frequency Source Select bit 1 = 31.25 kHz device clock derived from 8 MHz INTOSC source (divide-by-256 enabled) 0 = 31 kHz device clock derived directly from INTRC internal oscillator bit 6 PLLEN: Frequency Multiplier PLL for INTOSC Enable bit(1) 1 = PLL enabled for INTOSC (4 MHz and 8 MHz only) 0 = PLL disabled bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 TUN<4:0>: Frequency Tuning bits 011111 = Maximum frequency • • • • 000001 000000 = Center frequency. Oscillator module is running at the calibrated frequency. 111111 • • • • 100000 = Minimum frequency Note 1: Available only in certain oscillator configurations; otherwise, this bit is unavailable and reads as ‘0’. See Section 2.6.4 “PLL in INTOSC Modes” for details.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 28 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 2.7 Clock Sources and Oscillator Switching Like previous PIC18 devices, the PIC18F2420/2520/ 4420/4520 family includes a feature that allows the device clock source to be switched from the main oscillator to an alternate low-frequency clock source. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices offer two alternate clock sources. When an alternate clock source is enabled, the various power-managed operating modes are available. Essentially, there are three clock sources for these devices: • Primary oscillators • Secondary oscillators • Internal oscillator block The primary oscillators include the External Crystal and Resonator modes, the External RC modes, the External Clock modes and the internal oscillator block. The particular mode is defined by the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits. The details of these modes are covered earlier in this chapter. The secondary oscillators are those external sources not connected to the OSC1 or OSC2 pins. These sources may continue to operate even after the controller is placed in a power-managed mode. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices offer the Timer1 oscillator as a secondary oscillator. This oscillator, in all power-managed modes, is often the time base for functions such as a Real-Time Clock (RTC). Most often, a 32.768 kHz watch crystal is connected between the RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI and RC1/T1OSI pins. Like the LP Oscillator mode circuit, loading capacitors are also connected from each pin to ground. The Timer1 oscillator is discussed in greater detail in Section 12.3 “Timer1 Oscillator”. In addition to being a primary clock source, the internal oscillator block is available as a power-managed mode clock source. The INTRC source is also used as the clock source for several special features, such as the WDT and Fail-Safe Clock Monitor. The clock sources for the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices are shown in Figure 2-8. See Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for Configuration register details. FIGURE 2-8: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 CLOCK DIAGRAM 4 x PLL FOSC<3:0> Secondary Oscillator T1OSCEN Enable Oscillator T1OSO T1OSI Clock Source Option for Other Modules OSC1 OSC2 Sleep HSPLL, INTOSC/PLL LP, XT, HS, RC, EC T1OSC CPU Peripherals IDLEN Postscaler MUX MUX 8 MHz 4 MHz 2 MHz 1 MHz 500 kHz 125 kHz 250 kHz OSCCON<6:4> 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 31 kHz INTRC Source Internal Oscillator Block WDT, PWRT, FSCM 8 MHz Internal Oscillator (INTOSC) OSCCON<6:4> Clock Control OSCCON<1:0> Source 8 MHz 31 kHz (INTRC) OSCTUNE<6> 0 1 OSCTUNE<7> and Two-Speed Start-up Primary Oscillator PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 29 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 2.7.1 OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER The OSCCON register (Register 2-2) controls several aspects of the device clock’s operation, both in full-power operation and in power-managed modes. The System Clock Select bits, SCS<1:0>, select the clock source. The available clock sources are the primary clock (defined by the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits), the secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator) and the internal oscillator block. The clock source changes immediately after one or more of the bits is written to, following a brief clock transition interval. The SCS bits are cleared on all forms of Reset. The Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits (IRCF<2:0>) select the frequency output of the internal oscillator block to drive the device clock. The choices are the INTRC source, the INTOSC source (8 MHz) or one of the frequencies derived from the INTOSC postscaler (31.25 kHz to 4 MHz). If the internal oscillator block is supplying the device clock, changing the states of these bits will have an immediate change on the internal oscillator’s output. On device Resets, the default output frequency of the internal oscillator block is set at 1 MHz. When a nominal output frequency of 31 kHz is selected (IRCF<2:0> = 000), users may choose which internal oscillator acts as the source. This is done with the INTSRC bit in the OSCTUNE register (OSCTUNE<7>). Setting this bit selects INTOSC as a 31.25 kHz clock source by enabling the divide-by-256 output of the INTOSC postscaler. Clearing INTSRC selects INTRC (nominally 31 kHz) as the clock source. This option allows users to select the tunable and more precise INTOSC as a clock source, while maintaining power savings with a very low clock speed. Regardless of the setting of INTSRC, INTRC always remains the clock source for features such as the Watchdog Timer and the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor. The OSTS, IOFS and T1RUN bits indicate which clock source is currently providing the device clock. The OSTS bit indicates that the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) has timed out and the primary clock is providing the device clock in primary clock modes. The IOFS bit indicates when the internal oscillator block has stabilized and is providing the device clock in RC Clock modes. The T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) indicates when the Timer1 oscillator is providing the device clock in secondary clock modes. In power-managed modes, only one of these three bits will be set at any time. If none of these bits are set, the INTRC is providing the clock or the internal oscillator block has just started and is not yet stable. The IDLEN bit determines if the device goes into Sleep mode or one of the Idle modes when the SLEEP instruction is executed. The use of the flag and control bits in the OSCCON register is discussed in more detail in Section 3.0 “Power-Managed Modes”. 2.7.2 OSCILLATOR TRANSITIONS PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices contain circuitry to prevent clock “glitches” when switching between clock sources. A short pause in the device clock occurs during the clock switch. The length of this pause is the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to four cycles of the new clock source. This formula assumes that the new clock source is stable. Clock transitions are discussed in greater detail in Section 3.1.2 “Entering Power-Managed Modes”. Note 1: The Timer1 oscillator must be enabled to select the secondary clock source. The Timer1 oscillator is enabled by setting the T1OSCEN bit in the Timer1 Control register (T1CON<3>). If the Timer1 oscillator is not enabled, then any attempt to select a secondary clock source will be ignored. 2: It is recommended that the Timer1 oscillator be operating and stable before selecting the secondary clock source or a very long delay may occur while the Timer1 oscillator starts. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 30 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 2-2: OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R(1) R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 IDLEN IRCF2 IRCF1 IRCF0 OSTS IOFS SCS1 SCS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IDLEN: Idle Enable bit 1 = Device enters an Idle mode on SLEEP instruction 0 = Device enters Sleep mode on SLEEP instruction bit 6-4 IRCF<2:0>: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits 111 = 8 MHz (INTOSC drives clock directly) 110 = 4 MHz 101 = 2 MHz 100 = 1 MHz(3) 011 = 500 kHz 010 = 250 kHz 001 = 125 kHz 000 = 31 kHz (from either INTOSC/256 or INTRC directly)(2) bit 3 OSTS: Oscillator Start-up Timer Time-out Status bit(1) 1 = Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) time-out has expired; primary oscillator is running 0 = Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) time-out is running; primary oscillator is not ready bit 2 IOFS: INTOSC Frequency Stable bit 1 = INTOSC frequency is stable 0 = INTOSC frequency is not stable bit 1-0 SCS<1:0>: System Clock Select bits 1x = Internal oscillator block 01 = Secondary (Timer1) oscillator 00 = Primary oscillator Note 1: Reset state depends on state of the IESO Configuration bit. 2: Source selected by the INTSRC bit (OSCTUNE<7>), see text. 3: Default output frequency of INTOSC on Reset.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 31 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 2.8 Effects of Power-Managed Modes on the Various Clock Sources When PRI_IDLE mode is selected, the designated primary oscillator continues to run without interruption. For all other power-managed modes, the oscillator using the OSC1 pin is disabled. The OSC1 pin (and OSC2 pin, if used by the oscillator) will stop oscillating. In secondary clock modes (SEC_RUN and SEC_IDLE), the Timer1 oscillator is operating and providing the device clock. The Timer1 oscillator may also run in all power-managed modes if required to clock Timer1 or Timer3. In internal oscillator modes (RC_RUN and RC_IDLE), the internal oscillator block provides the device clock source. The 31 kHz INTRC output can be used directly to provide the clock and may be enabled to support various special features, regardless of the powermanaged mode (see Section 23.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”, Section 23.3 “Two-Speed Start-up” and Section 23.4 “Fail-Safe Clock Monitor” for more information on WDT, Fail-Safe Clock Monitor and TwoSpeed Start-up). The INTOSC output at 8 MHz may be used directly to clock the device or may be divided down by the postscaler. The INTOSC output is disabled if the clock is provided directly from the INTRC output. If Sleep mode is selected, all clock sources are stopped. Since all the transistor switching currents have been stopped, Sleep mode achieves the lowest current consumption of the device (only leakage currents). Enabling any on-chip feature that will operate during Sleep will increase the current consumed during Sleep. The INTRC is required to support WDT operation. The Timer1 oscillator may be operating to support a RealTime Clock. Other features may be operating that do not require a device clock source (i.e., MSSP slave, PSP, INTx pins and others). Peripherals that may add significant current consumption are listed in Section 26.2 “DC Characteristics”. 2.9 Power-up Delays Power-up delays are controlled by two timers so that no external Reset circuitry is required for most applications. The delays ensure that the device is kept in Reset until the device power supply is stable under normal circumstances and the primary clock is operating and stable. For additional information on power-up delays, see Section 4.5 “Device Reset Timers”. The first timer is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a fixed delay on power-up (parameter 33, Table 26-10). It is enabled by clearing (= 0) the PWRTEN Configuration bit. The second timer is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep the chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is stable (LP, XT and HS modes). The OST does this by counting 1024 oscillator cycles before allowing the oscillator to clock the device. When the HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected, the device is kept in Reset for an additional 2 ms, following the HS mode OST delay, so the PLL can lock to the incoming clock frequency. There is a delay of interval, TCSD (parameter 38, Table 26-10), following POR, while the controller becomes ready to execute instructions. This delay runs concurrently with any other delays. This may be the only delay that occurs when any of the EC, RC or INTIO modes are used as the primary clock source. TABLE 2-3: OSC1 AND OSC2 PIN STATES IN SLEEP MODE OSC Mode OSC1 Pin OSC2 Pin RC, INTIO1 Floating, external resistor should pull high At logic low (clock/4 output) RCIO Floating, external resistor should pull high Configured as PORTA, bit 6 INTIO2 Configured as PORTA, bit 7 Configured as PORTA, bit 6 ECIO Floating, pulled by external clock Configured as PORTA, bit 6 EC Floating, pulled by external clock At logic low (clock/4 output) LP, XT and HS Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent voltage level Feedback inverter disabled at quiescent voltage level Note: See Table 4-2 in Section 4.0 “Reset” for time-outs due to Sleep and MCLR Reset.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 32 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 33 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 3.0 POWER-MANAGED MODES PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices offer a total of seven operating modes for more efficient powermanagement. These modes provide a variety of options for selective power conservation in applications where resources may be limited (i.e., battery-powered devices). There are three categories of power-managed modes: • Run modes • Idle modes • Sleep mode These categories define which portions of the device are clocked and sometimes, what speed. The Run and Idle modes may use any of the three available clock sources (primary, secondary or internal oscillator block); the Sleep mode does not use a clock source. The power-managed modes include several powersaving features offered on previous PIC® devices. One is the clock switching feature, offered in other PIC18 devices, allowing the controller to use the Timer1 oscillator in place of the primary oscillator. Also included is the Sleep mode, offered by all PIC devices, where all device clocks are stopped. 3.1 Selecting Power-Managed Modes Selecting a power-managed mode requires two decisions: if the CPU is to be clocked or not and the selection of a clock source. The IDLEN bit (OSCCON<7>) controls CPU clocking, while the SCS<1:0> bits (OSCCON<1:0>) select the clock source. The individual modes, bit settings, clock sources and affected modules are summarized in Table 3-1. 3.1.1 CLOCK SOURCES The SCS<1:0> bits allow the selection of one of three clock sources for power-managed modes. They are: • the primary clock, as defined by the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits • the secondary clock (the Timer1 oscillator) • the internal oscillator block (for RC modes) 3.1.2 ENTERING POWER-MANAGED MODES Switching from one power-managed mode to another begins by loading the OSCCON register. The SCS<1:0> bits select the clock source and determine which Run or Idle mode is to be used. Changing these bits causes an immediate switch to the new clock source, assuming that it is running. The switch may also be subject to clock transition delays. These are discussed in Section 3.1.3 “Clock Transitions and Status Indicators” and subsequent sections. Entry to the power-managed Idle or Sleep modes is triggered by the execution of a SLEEP instruction. The actual mode that results depends on the status of the IDLEN bit. Depending on the current mode and the mode being switched to, a change to a power-managed mode does not always require setting all of these bits. Many transitions may be done by changing the oscillator select bits, or changing the IDLEN bit, prior to issuing a SLEEP instruction. If the IDLEN bit is already configured correctly, it may only be necessary to perform a SLEEP instruction to switch to the desired mode. TABLE 3-1: POWER-MANAGED MODES Mode OSCCON<7,1:0> Bits Module Clocking Available Clock and Oscillator Source IDLEN(1) SCS<1:0> CPU Peripherals Sleep 0 N/A Off Off None – All clocks are disabled PRI_RUN N/A 00 Clocked Clocked Primary – LP, XT, HS, HSPLL, RC, EC and Internal Oscillator Block(2). This is the normal full-power execution mode. SEC_RUN N/A 01 Clocked Clocked Secondary – Timer1 Oscillator RC_RUN N/A 1x Clocked Clocked Internal Oscillator Block(2) PRI_IDLE 1 00 Off Clocked Primary – LP, XT, HS, HSPLL, RC, EC SEC_IDLE 1 01 Off Clocked Secondary – Timer1 Oscillator RC_IDLE 1 1x Off Clocked Internal Oscillator Block(2) Note 1: IDLEN reflects its value when the SLEEP instruction is executed. 2: Includes INTOSC and INTOSC postscaler, as well as the INTRC source.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 34 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.1.3 CLOCK TRANSITIONS AND STATUS INDICATORS The length of the transition between clock sources is the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to four cycles of the new clock source. This formula assumes that the new clock source is stable. Three bits indicate the current clock source and its status. They are: • OSTS (OSCCON<3>) • IOFS (OSCCON<2>) • T1RUN (T1CON<6>) In general, only one of these bits will be set while in a given power-managed mode. When the OSTS bit is set, the primary clock is providing the device clock. When the IOFS bit is set, the INTOSC output is providing a stable 8 MHz clock source to a divider that actually drives the device clock. When the T1RUN bit is set, the Timer1 oscillator is providing the clock. If none of these bits are set, then either the INTRC clock source is clocking the device or the INTOSC source is not yet stable. If the internal oscillator block is configured as the primary clock source by the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits, then both the OSTS and IOFS bits may be set when in PRI_RUN or PRI_IDLE modes. This indicates that the primary clock (INTOSC output) is generating a stable 8 MHz output. Entering another power-managed RC mode at the same frequency would clear the OSTS bit. 3.1.4 MULTIPLE SLEEP COMMANDS The power-managed mode that is invoked with the SLEEP instruction is determined by the setting of the IDLEN bit at the time the instruction is executed. If another SLEEP instruction is executed, the device will enter the power-managed mode specified by IDLEN at that time. If IDLEN has changed, the device will enter the new power-managed mode specified by the new setting. 3.2 Run Modes In the Run modes, clocks to both the core and peripherals are active. The difference between these modes is the clock source. 3.2.1 PRI_RUN MODE The PRI_RUN mode is the normal, full-power execution mode of the microcontroller. This is also the default mode upon a device Reset unless Two-Speed Start-up is enabled (see Section 23.3 “Two-Speed Start-up” for details). In this mode, the OSTS bit is set. The IOFS bit may be set if the internal oscillator block is the primary clock source (see Section 2.7.1 “Oscillator Control Register”). 3.2.2 SEC_RUN MODE The SEC_RUN mode is the compatible mode to the “clock switching” feature offered in other PIC18 devices. In this mode, the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. This gives users the option of lower power consumption while still using a high-accuracy clock source. SEC_RUN mode is entered by setting the SCS<1:0> bits to ‘01’. The device clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator (see Figure 3-1), the primary oscillator is shut down, the T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) is set and the OSTS bit is cleared. On transitions from SEC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN mode, the peripherals and CPU continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator while the primary clock is started. When the primary clock becomes ready, a clock switch back to the primary clock occurs (see Figure 3-2). When the clock switch is complete, the T1RUN bit is cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is providing the clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up; the Timer1 oscillator continues to run. Note 1: Caution should be used when modifying a single IRCF bit. If VDD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speed than is supported by the low VDD. Improper device operation may result if the VDD/FOSC specifications are violated. 2: Executing a SLEEP instruction does not necessarily place the device into Sleep mode. It acts as the trigger to place the controller into either the Sleep mode or one of the Idle modes, depending on the setting of the IDLEN bit. Note: The Timer1 oscillator should already be running prior to entering SEC_RUN mode. If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the SCS<1:0> bits are set to ‘01’, entry to SEC_RUN mode will not occur. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, but not yet running, device clocks will be delayed until the oscillator has started. In such situations, initial oscillator operation is far from stable and unpredictable operation may result.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 35 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 3-1: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SEC_RUN MODE FIGURE 3-2: TRANSITION TIMING FROM SEC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE (HSPLL) 3.2.3 RC_RUN MODE In RC_RUN mode, the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the internal oscillator block using the INTOSC multiplexer. In this mode, the primary clock is shut down. When using the INTRC source, this mode provides the best power conservation of all the Run modes while still executing code. It works well for user applications which are not highly timing sensitive or do not require high-speed clocks at all times. If the primary clock source is the internal oscillator block (either INTRC or INTOSC), there are no distinguishable differences between PRI_RUN and RC_RUN modes during execution. However, a clock switch delay will occur during entry to and exit from RC_RUN mode. Therefore, if the primary clock source is the internal oscillator block, the use of RC_RUN mode is not recommended. This mode is entered by setting the SCS1 bit to ‘1’. Although it is ignored, it is recommended that the SCS0 bit also be cleared; this is to maintain software compatibility with future devices. When the clock source is switched to the INTOSC multiplexer (see Figure 3-3), the primary oscillator is shut down and the OSTS bit is cleared. The IRCF bits may be modified at any time to immediately change the clock speed. Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program Q1 T1OSI Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 1 2 3 n-1 n Clock Transition(1) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 PC + 4 Note 1: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. Q1 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC T1OSI PLL Clock Q1 PC + 4 Q2 Output Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock PC + 2 Clock Counter Q2 Q2 Q3 Note1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. 2: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. SCS<1:0> bits Changed TPLL(1) 1 2 n-1 n Clock OSTS bit Set Transition(2) TOST(1) Note: Caution should be used when modifying a single IRCF bit. If VDD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speed than is supported by the low VDD. Improper device operation may result if the VDD/FOSC specifications are violated.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 36 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. If the IRCF bits and the INTSRC bit are all clear, the INTOSC output is not enabled and the IOFS bit will remain clear; there will be no indication of the current clock source. The INTRC source is providing the device clocks. If the IRCF bits are changed from all clear (thus, enabling the INTOSC output), or if INTSRC is set, the IOFS bit becomes set after the INTOSC output becomes stable. Clocks to the device continue while the INTOSC source stabilizes after an interval of TIOBST. If the IRCF bits were previously at a non-zero value, or if INTSRC was set before setting SCS1 and the INTOSC source was already stable, the IOFS bit will remain set. On transitions from RC_RUN mode to PRI_RUN mode, the device continues to be clocked from the INTOSC multiplexer while the primary clock is started. When the primary clock becomes ready, a clock switch to the primary clock occurs (see Figure 3-4). When the clock switch is complete, the IOFS bit is cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock is providing the device clock. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the switch. The INTRC source will continue to run if either the WDT or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled. FIGURE 3-3: TRANSITION TIMING TO RC_RUN MODE FIGURE 3-4: TRANSITION TIMING FROM RC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program Q1 INTRC Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 1 2 3 n-1 n Clock Transition(1) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 PC + 4 Note 1: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. Q1 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC INTOSC PLL Clock Q1 PC + 4 Q2 Output Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock PC + 2 Clock Counter Q2 Q2 Q3 Note1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. 2: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. SCS<1:0> bits Changed TPLL(1) 1 2 n-1 n Clock OSTS bit Set Transition(2) Multiplexer TOST(1)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 37 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 3.3 Sleep Mode The power-managed Sleep mode in the PIC18F2420/ 2520/4420/4520 devices is identical to the legacy Sleep mode offered in all other PIC devices. It is entered by clearing the IDLEN bit (the default state on device Reset) and executing the SLEEP instruction. This shuts down the selected oscillator (Figure 3-5). All clock source status bits are cleared. Entering the Sleep mode from any other mode does not require a clock switch. This is because no clocks are needed once the controller has entered Sleep. If the WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue to operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also continue to run. When a wake event occurs in Sleep mode (by interrupt, Reset or WDT time-out), the device will not be clocked until the clock source selected by the SCS<1:0> bits becomes ready (see Figure 3-6), or it will be clocked from the internal oscillator block if either the Two-Speed Start-up or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor are enabled (see Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU”). In either case, the OSTS bit is set when the primary clock is providing the device clocks. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. 3.4 Idle Modes The Idle modes allow the controller’s CPU to be selectively shut down while the peripherals continue to operate. Selecting a particular Idle mode allows users to further manage power consumption. If the IDLEN bit is set to ‘1’ when a SLEEP instruction is executed, the peripherals will be clocked from the clock source selected using the SCS<1:0> bits; however, the CPU will not be clocked. The clock source status bits are not affected. Setting IDLEN and executing a SLEEP instruction provides a quick method of switching from a given Run mode to its corresponding Idle mode. If the WDT is selected, the INTRC source will continue to operate. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled, it will also continue to run. Since the CPU is not executing instructions, the only exits from any of the Idle modes are by interrupt, WDT time-out or a Reset. When a wake event occurs, CPU execution is delayed by an interval of TCSD (parameter 38, Table 26-10) while it becomes ready to execute code. When the CPU begins executing code, it resumes with the same clock source for the current Idle mode. For example, when waking from RC_IDLE mode, the internal oscillator block will clock the CPU and peripherals (in other words, RC_RUN mode). The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. While in any Idle mode or the Sleep mode, a WDT time-out will result in a WDT wake-up to the Run mode currently specified by the SCS1:SCS0 bits. FIGURE 3-5: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO SLEEP MODE FIGURE 3-6: TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM SLEEP (HSPLL) Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Sleep Program Q1 Q1 Counter Clock CPU Clock PC PC + 2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC PLL Clock Q3 Q4 Output CPU Clock Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Clock Counter PC + 4 PC + 6 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Wake Event Note1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. TOST(1) TPLL(1) OSTS bit Set PC + 2PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 38 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.4.1 PRI_IDLE MODE This mode is unique among the three low-power Idle modes in that it does not disable the primary device clock. For timing-sensitive applications, this allows for the fastest resumption of device operation with its more accurate primary clock source, since the clock source does not have to “warm-up” or transition from another oscillator. PRI_IDLE mode is entered from PRI_RUN mode by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, set IDLEN first, then clear the SCS bits and execute SLEEP. Although the CPU is disabled, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the primary clock source specified by the FOSC<3:0> Configuration bits. The OSTS bit remains set (see Figure 3-7). When a wake event occurs, the CPU is clocked from the primary clock source. A delay of interval TCSD is required between the wake event and when code execution starts. This is required to allow the CPU to become ready to execute instructions. After the wakeup, the OSTS bit remains set. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up (see Figure 3-8). 3.4.2 SEC_IDLE MODE In SEC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the peripherals continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. This mode is entered from SEC_RUN by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, set the IDLEN bit first, then set the SCS<1:0> bits to ‘01’ and execute SLEEP. When the clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator, the primary oscillator is shut down, the OSTS bit is cleared and the T1RUN bit is set. When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. After an interval of TCSD, following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the Timer1 oscillator. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up; the Timer1 oscillator continues to run (see Figure 3-8). FIGURE 3-7: TRANSITION TIMING FOR ENTRY TO IDLE MODE FIGURE 3-8: TRANSITION TIMING FOR WAKE FROM IDLE TO RUN MODE Note: The Timer1 oscillator should already be running prior to entering SEC_IDLE mode. If the T1OSCEN bit is not set when the SLEEP instruction is executed, the SLEEP instruction will be ignored and entry to SEC_IDLE mode will not occur. If the Timer1 oscillator is enabled but not yet running, peripheral clocks will be delayed until the oscillator has started. In such situations, initial oscillator operation is far from stable and unpredictable operation may result. Q1 Peripheral Program PC PC + 2 OSC1 Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock Clock Counter Q2 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC CPU Clock Q1 Q3 Q4 Clock Counter Q2 Wake Event TCSD© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 39 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 3.4.3 RC_IDLE MODE In RC_IDLE mode, the CPU is disabled but the peripherals continue to be clocked from the internal oscillator block using the INTOSC multiplexer. This mode allows for controllable power conservation during Idle periods. From RC_RUN, this mode is entered by setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruction. If the device is in another Run mode, first set IDLEN, then set the SCS1 bit and execute SLEEP. Although its value is ignored, it is recommended that SCS0 also be cleared; this is to maintain software compatibility with future devices. The INTOSC multiplexer may be used to select a higher clock frequency by modifying the IRCF bits before executing the SLEEP instruction. When the clock source is switched to the INTOSC multiplexer, the primary oscillator is shut down and the OSTS bit is cleared. If the IRCF bits are set to any non-zero value, or the INTSRC bit is set, the INTOSC output is enabled. The IOFS bit becomes set, after the INTOSC output becomes stable, after an interval of TIOBST (parameter 39, Table 26-10). Clocks to the peripherals continue while the INTOSC source stabilizes. If the IRCF bits were previously at a non-zero value, or INTSRC was set before the SLEEP instruction was executed and the INTOSC source was already stable, the IOFS bit will remain set. If the IRCF bits and INTSRC are all clear, the INTOSC output will not be enabled, the IOFS bit will remain clear and there will be no indication of the current clock source. When a wake event occurs, the peripherals continue to be clocked from the INTOSC multiplexer. After a delay of TCSD following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer. The IDLEN and SCS bits are not affected by the wake-up. The INTRC source will continue to run if either the WDT or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled. 3.5 Exiting Idle and Sleep Modes An exit from Sleep mode or any of the Idle modes is triggered by an interrupt, a Reset or a WDT time-out. This section discusses the triggers that cause exits from power-managed modes. The clocking subsystem actions are discussed in each of the power-managed modes (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes”, Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode” and Section 3.4 “Idle Modes”). 3.5.1 EXIT BY INTERRUPT Any of the available interrupt sources can cause the device to exit from an Idle mode or the Sleep mode to a Run mode. To enable this functionality, an interrupt source must be enabled by setting its enable bit in one of the INTCON or PIE registers. The exit sequence is initiated when the corresponding interrupt flag bit is set. On all exits from Idle or Sleep modes by interrupt, code execution branches to the interrupt vector if the GIE/ GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) is set. Otherwise, code execution continues or resumes without branching (see Section 9.0 “Interrupts”). A fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event is required when leaving Sleep and Idle modes. This delay is required for the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction execution resumes on the first clock cycle following this delay. 3.5.2 EXIT BY WDT TIME-OUT A WDT time-out will cause different actions depending on which power-managed mode the device is in when the time-out occurs. If the device is not executing code (all Idle modes and Sleep mode), the time-out will result in an exit from the power-managed mode (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes” and Section 3.3 “Sleep Mode”). If the device is executing code (all Run modes), the time-out will result in a WDT Reset (see Section 23.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”). The WDT timer and postscaler are cleared by executing a SLEEP or CLRWDT instruction, the loss of a currently selected clock source (if the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled) and modifying the IRCF bits in the OSCCON register if the internal oscillator block is the device clock source. 3.5.3 EXIT BY RESET Normally, the device is held in Reset by the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) until the primary clock becomes ready. At that time, the OSTS bit is set and the device begins executing code. If the internal oscillator block is the new clock source, the IOFS bit is set instead. The exit delay time from Reset to the start of code execution depends on both the clock sources before and after the wake-up and the type of oscillator if the new clock source is the primary clock. Exit delays are summarized in Table 3-2. Code execution can begin before the primary clock becomes ready. If either the Two-Speed Start-up (see Section 23.3 “Two-Speed Start-up”) or Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (see Section 23.4 “Fail-Safe Clock Monitor”) is enabled, the device may begin execution as soon as the Reset source has cleared. Execution is clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer driven by the internal oscillator block. Execution is clocked by the internal oscillator block until either the primary clock becomes ready or a power-managed mode is entered before the primary clock becomes ready; the primary clock is then shut down.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 40 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.5.4 EXIT WITHOUT AN OSCILLATOR START-UP DELAY Certain exits from power-managed modes do not invoke the OST at all. There are two cases: • PRI_IDLE mode, where the primary clock source is not stopped and • the primary clock source is not any of the LP, XT, HS or HSPLL modes. In these instances, the primary clock source either does not require an oscillator start-up delay, since it is already running (PRI_IDLE), or normally does not require an oscillator start-up delay (RC, EC and INTIO Oscillator modes). However, a fixed delay of interval TCSD following the wake event is still required when leaving Sleep and Idle modes to allow the CPU to prepare for execution. Instruction execution resumes on the first clock cycle following this delay. TABLE 3-2: EXIT DELAY ON WAKE-UP BY RESET FROM SLEEP MODE OR ANY IDLE MODE (BY CLOCK SOURCES) Clock Source Before Wake-up Clock Source After Wake-up Exit Delay Clock Ready Status Bit (OSCCON) Primary Device Clock (PRI_IDLE mode) LP, XT, HS TCSD HSPLL (1) OSTS EC, RC INTOSC(2) IOFS T1OSC or INTRC(1) LP, XT, HS TOST(3) HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (3) EC, RC TCSD(1) INTOSC(2) TCSD(1) IOFS INTOSC(2) LP, XT, HS TOST(3) HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (3) EC, RC TCSD(1) INTOSC(2) TCSD(1) IOFS None (Sleep mode) LP, XT, HS TOST(3) HSPLL TOST + trc OSTS (3) EC, RC TCSD(1) INTOSC(2) TCSD(1) IOFS Note 1: TCSD (parameter 38) is a required delay when waking from Sleep and all Idle modes and runs concurrently with any other required delays (see Section 3.4 “Idle Modes”). On Reset, INTOSC defaults to 1 MHz. 2: Includes both the INTOSC 8 MHz source and postscaler derived frequencies. 3: TOST is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (parameter 32). trc is the PLL lock-out timer (parameter F12); it is also designated as TPLL.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 41 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 4.0 RESET The PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices differentiate between various kinds of Reset: a) Power-on Reset (POR) b) MCLR Reset during normal operation c) MCLR Reset during power-managed modes d) Watchdog Timer (WDT) Reset (during execution) e) Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR) f) RESET Instruction g) Stack Full Reset h) Stack Underflow Reset This section discusses Resets generated by MCLR, POR and BOR and covers the operation of the various start-up timers. Stack Reset events are covered in Section 5.1.2.4 “Stack Full and Underflow Resets”. WDT Resets are covered in Section 23.2 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”. A simplified block diagram of the On-Chip Reset Circuit is shown in Figure 4-1. 4.1 RCON Register Device Reset events are tracked through the RCON register (Register 4-1). The lower five bits of the register indicate that a specific Reset event has occurred. In most cases, these bits can only be cleared by the event and must be set by the application after the event. The state of these flag bits, taken together, can be read to indicate the type of Reset that just occurred. This is described in more detail in Section 4.6 “Reset State of Registers”. The RCON register also has control bits for setting interrupt priority (IPEN) and software control of the BOR (SBOREN). Interrupt priority is discussed in Section 9.0 “Interrupts”. BOR is covered in Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. FIGURE 4-1: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT External Reset MCLR VDD OSC1 WDT Time-out VDD Rise Detect OST/PWRT INTRC(1) POR Pulse OST 10-Bit Ripple Counter PWRT 11-Bit Ripple Counter Enable OST(2) Enable PWRT Note 1: This is the INTRC source from the internal oscillator block and is separate from the RC oscillator of the CLKI pin. 2: See Table 4-2 for time-out situations. Brown-out Reset BOREN RESET Instruction Stack Pointer Stack Full/Underflow Reset Sleep ( )_IDLE 1024 Cycles 65.5 ms 32 μs MCLRE S R Q Chip_ResetPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 42 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 4-1: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1(1) U-0 R/W-1 R-1 R-1 R/W-0(2) R/W-0 IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit 1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts 0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode) bit 6 SBOREN: BOR Software Enable bit(1) If BOREN1:BOREN0 = 01: 1 = BOR is enabled 0 = BOR is disabled If BOREN1:BOREN0 = 00, 10 or 11: Bit is disabled and read as ‘0’. bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit 1 = The RESET instruction was not executed (set by firmware only) 0 = The RESET instruction was executed causing a device Reset (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) bit 3 TO: Watchdog Time-out Flag bit 1 = Set by power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction 0 = A WDT time-out occurred bit 2 PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit 1 = Set by power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction 0 = Set by execution of the SLEEP instruction bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit 1 = A Power-on Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only) 0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs) bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit 1 = A Brown-out Reset has not occurred (set by firmware only) 0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) Note 1: If SBOREN is enabled, its Reset state is ‘1’; otherwise, it is ‘0’. 2: The actual Reset value of POR is determined by the type of device Reset. See the notes following this register and Section 4.6 “Reset State of Registers” for additional information. Note 1: It is recommended that the POR bit be set after a Power-on Reset has been detected so that subsequent Power-on Resets may be detected. 2: Brown-out Reset is said to have occurred when BOR is ‘0’ and POR is ‘1’ (assuming that POR was set to ‘1’ by software immediately after a Power-on Reset).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 43 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 4.2 Master Clear (MCLR) The MCLR pin provides a method for triggering an external Reset of the device. A Reset is generated by holding the pin low. These devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path which detects and ignores small pulses. The MCLR pin is not driven low by any internal Resets, including the WDT. In PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices, the MCLR input can be disabled with the MCLRE Configuration bit. When MCLR is disabled, the pin becomes a digital input. See Section 10.5 “PORTE, TRISE and LATE Registers” for more information. 4.3 Power-on Reset (POR) A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip whenever VDD rises above a certain threshold. This allows the device to start in the initialized state when VDD is adequate for operation. To take advantage of the POR circuitry, tie the MCLR pin through a resistor (1 kΩ to 10 kΩ) to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create a Power-on Reset delay. A minimum rise rate for VDD is specified (parameter D004). For a slow rise time, see Figure 4-2. When the device starts normal operation (i.e., exits the Reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must be held in Reset until the operating conditions are met. POR events are captured by the POR bit (RCON<1>). The state of the bit is set to ‘0’ whenever a POR occurs; it does not change for any other Reset event. POR is not reset to ‘1’ by any hardware event. To capture multiple events, the user manually resets the bit to ‘1’ in software following any POR. FIGURE 4-2: EXTERNAL POWER-ON RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW VDD POWER-UP) Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is required only if the VDD power-up slope is too slow. The diode D helps discharge the capacitor quickly when VDD powers down. 2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure that the voltage drop across R does not violate the device’s electrical specification. 3: R1 ≥ 1 kΩ will limit any current flowing into MCLR from external capacitor C, in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown, due to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) or Electrical Overstress (EOS). C R1 D R VDD MCLR PIC18FXXXX VDDPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 44 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.4 Brown-out Reset (BOR) PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices implement a BOR circuit that provides the user with a number of configuration and power-saving options. The BOR is controlled by the BORV<1:0> and BOREN<1:0> Configuration bits. There are a total of four BOR configurations which are summarized in Table 4-1. The BOR threshold is set by the BORV<1:0> bits. If BOR is enabled (any values of BOREN<1:0>, except ‘00’), any drop of VDD below VBOR (parameter D005) for greater than TBOR (parameter 35) will reset the device. A Reset may or may not occur if VDD falls below VBOR for less than TBOR. The chip will remain in Brown-out Reset until VDD rises above VBOR. If the Power-up Timer is enabled, it will be invoked after VDD rises above VBOR; it then will keep the chip in Reset for an additional time delay, TPWRT (parameter 33). If VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up Timer will be initialized. Once VDD rises above VBOR, the Power-up Timer will execute the additional time delay. BOR and the Power-up Timer (PWRT) are independently configured. Enabling the Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable the PWRT. 4.4.1 SOFTWARE ENABLED BOR When BOREN<1:0> = 01, the BOR can be enabled or disabled by the user in software. This is done with the control bit, SBOREN (RCON<6>). Setting SBOREN enables the BOR to function as previously described. Clearing SBOREN disables the BOR entirely. The SBOREN bit operates only in this mode; otherwise it is read as ‘0’. Placing the BOR under software control gives the user the additional flexibility of tailoring the application to its environment without having to reprogram the device to change BOR configuration. It also allows the user to tailor device power consumption in software by eliminating the incremental current that the BOR consumes. While the BOR current is typically very small, it may have some impact in low-power applications. 4.4.2 DETECTING BOR When BOR is enabled, the BOR bit always resets to ‘0’ on any BOR or POR event. This makes it difficult to determine if a BOR event has occurred just by reading the state of BOR alone. A more reliable method is to simultaneously check the state of both POR and BOR. This assumes that the POR bit is reset to ‘1’ in software immediately after any POR event. If BOR is ‘0’ while POR is ‘1’, it can be reliably assumed that a BOR event has occurred. 4.4.3 DISABLING BOR IN SLEEP MODE When BOREN<1:0> = 10, the BOR remains under hardware control and operates as previously described. Whenever the device enters Sleep mode, however, the BOR is automatically disabled. When the device returns to any other operating mode, BOR is automatically re-enabled. This mode allows for applications to recover from brown-out situations, while actively executing code, when the device requires BOR protection the most. At the same time, it saves additional power in Sleep mode by eliminating the small incremental BOR current. TABLE 4-1: BOR CONFIGURATIONS Note: Even when BOR is under software control, the Brown-out Reset voltage level is still set by the BORV<1:0> Configuration bits; it cannot be changed in software. BOR Configuration Status of SBOREN (RCON<6>) BOR Operation BOREN1 BOREN0 0 0 Unavailable BOR disabled; must be enabled by reprogramming the Configuration bits. 0 1 Available BOR enabled in software; operation controlled by SBOREN. 1 0 Unavailable BOR enabled in hardware in Run and Idle modes, disabled during Sleep mode. 1 1 Unavailable BOR enabled in hardware; must be disabled by reprogramming the Configuration bits.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 45 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 4.5 Device Reset Timers PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices incorporate three separate on-chip timers that help regulate the Power-on Reset process. Their main function is to ensure that the device clock is stable before code is executed. These timers are: • Power-up Timer (PWRT) • Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • PLL Lock Time-out 4.5.1 POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT) The Power-up Timer (PWRT) of PIC18F2420/2520/ 4420/4520 devices is an 11-bit counter which uses the INTRC source as the clock input. This yields an approximate time interval of 2048 x 32 μs = 65.6 ms. While the PWRT is counting, the device is held in Reset. The power-up time delay depends on the INTRC clock and will vary from chip to chip due to temperature and process variation. See DC parameter 33 for details. The PWRT is enabled by clearing the PWRTEN Configuration bit. 4.5.2 OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER (OST) The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides a 1024 oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the PWRT delay is over (parameter 33). This ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and stabilized. The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP, HS and HSPLL modes and only on Power-on Reset, or on exit from most power-managed modes. 4.5.3 PLL LOCK TIME-OUT With the PLL enabled in its PLL mode, the time-out sequence following a Power-on Reset is slightly different from other oscillator modes. A separate timer is used to provide a fixed time-out that is sufficient for the PLL to lock to the main oscillator frequency. This PLL lock time-out (TPLL) is typically 2 ms and follows the oscillator start-up time-out. 4.5.4 TIME-OUT SEQUENCE On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows: 1. After the POR pulse has cleared, PWRT time-out is invoked (if enabled). 2. Then, the OST is activated. The total time-out will vary based on oscillator configuration and the status of the PWRT. Figure 4-3, Figure 4-4, Figure 4-5, Figure 4-6 and Figure 4-7 all depict time-out sequences on power-up, with the Power-up Timer enabled and the device operating in HS Oscillator mode. Figure 4-3 through Figure 4-6 also apply to devices operating in XT or LP modes. For devices in RC mode and with the PWRT disabled, on the other hand, there will be no time-out at all. Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR is kept low long enough, all time-outs will expire. Bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately (Figure 4-5). This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC18FXXXX device operating in parallel. TABLE 4-2: TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS Oscillator Configuration Power-up(2) and Brown-out Exit from Power-Managed Mode PWRTEN = 0 PWRTEN = 1 HSPLL 66 ms(1) + 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) 1024 TOSC + 2 ms(2) HS, XT, LP 66 ms(1) + 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC 1024 TOSC EC, ECIO 66 ms(1) — — RC, RCIO 66 ms(1) — — INTIO1, INTIO2 66 ms(1) — — Note 1: 66 ms (65.5 ms) is the nominal Power-up Timer (PWRT) delay. 2: 2 ms is the nominal time required for the PLL to lock.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 46 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 4-3: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE < TPWRT) FIGURE 4-4: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1 FIGURE 4-5: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2 TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET TPWRT TOST© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 47 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 4-6: SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD, VDD RISE > TPWRT) FIGURE 4-7: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POR W/PLL ENABLED (MCLR TIED TO VDD) VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET 0V 5V TPWRT TOST TPWRT TOST VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET PLL TIME-OUT TPLL Note: TOST = 1024 clock cycles. TPLL ≈ 2 ms max. First three stages of the PWRT timer.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 48 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 4.6 Reset State of Registers Most registers are unaffected by a Reset. Their status is unknown on POR and unchanged by all other Resets. The other registers are forced to a “Reset state” depending on the type of Reset that occurred. Most registers are not affected by a WDT wake-up, since this is viewed as the resumption of normal operation. Status bits from the RCON register, RI, TO, PD, POR and BOR, are set or cleared differently in different Reset situations, as indicated in Table 4-3. These bits are used in software to determine the nature of the Reset. Table 4-4 describes the Reset states for all of the Special Function Registers. These are categorized by Power-on and Brown-out Resets, Master Clear and WDT Resets and WDT wake-ups. TABLE 4-3: STATUS BITS, THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND THE INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR RCON REGISTER Condition Program Counter RCON Register STKPTR Register RI TO PD POR BOR STKFUL STKUNF Power-on Reset 0000h 11100 0 0 RESET Instruction 0000h 0uuuu u u Brown-out Reset 0000h 111u0 u u MCLR Reset during Power-Managed Run Modes 0000h u1uuu u u MCLR Reset during Power-Managed Idle Modes and Sleep Mode 0000h u10uu u u WDT Time-out during Full Power or Power-Managed Run Mode 0000h u0uuu u u MCLR Reset during Full-Power Execution 0000h uuuuu u u Stack Full Reset (STVREN = 1) 0000h uuuuu 1 u Stack Underflow Reset (STVREN = 1) 0000h uuuuu u 1 Stack Underflow Error (not an actual Reset, STVREN = 0) 0000h uuuuu u 1 WDT Time-out during Power-Managed Idle or Sleep Modes PC + 2 u00uu u u Interrupt Exit from Power-Managed Modes PC + 2(1) uu0uu u u Legend: u = unchanged Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEH or GIEL bits are set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (008h or 0018h).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 49 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt TOSU 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---0 uuuu(3) TOSH 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(3) TOSL 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(3) STKPTR 2420 2520 4420 4520 00-0 0000 uu-0 0000 uu-u uuuu(3) PCLATU 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---0 0000 ---0 0000 ---u uuuu PCLATH 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PCL 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 PC + 2(2) TBLPTRU 2420 2520 4420 4520 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu TBLPTRH 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TBLPTRL 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TABLAT 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PRODH 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PRODL 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INTCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 000x 0000 000u uuuu uuuu(1) INTCON2 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 -1-1 1111 -1-1 uuuu -u-u(1) INTCON3 2420 2520 4420 4520 11-0 0-00 11-0 0-00 uu-u u-uu(1) INDF0 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC0 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC0 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PREINC0 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW0 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A FSR0H 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR0L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu WREG 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INDF1 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC1 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC1 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PREINC1 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW1 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: Bits 6 and 7 of PORTA, LATA and TRISA are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. 6: The Reset value of the PCFG bits depends on the value of the PBADEN Configuration bit (CONFIG3H<1>). When PBADEN = 1, PCFG<2:0> = 000; when PBADEN = 0, PCFG<2:0> = 111.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 50 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FSR1H 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR1L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu BSR 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu INDF2 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTINC2 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A POSTDEC2 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PREINC2 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A PLUSW2 2420 2520 4420 4520 N/A N/A N/A FSR2H 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- 0000 ---- 0000 ---- uuuu FSR2L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu STATUS 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---x xxxx ---u uuuu ---u uuuu TMR0H 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TMR0L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T0CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu OSCCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0100 q000 0100 q000 uuuu quuu HLVDCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0-00 0101 0-00 0101 u-uu uuuu WDTCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- ---0 ---- ---0 ---- ---u RCON(4) 2420 2520 4420 4520 0q-1 11q0 0q-q qquu uq-u qquu TMR1H 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR1L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T1CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 u0uu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR2 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PR2 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 T2CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu SSPBUF 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu SSPADD 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPSTAT 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPCON1 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPCON2 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: Bits 6 and 7 of PORTA, LATA and TRISA are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. 6: The Reset value of the PCFG bits depends on the value of the PBADEN Configuration bit (CONFIG3H<1>). When PBADEN = 1, PCFG<2:0> = 000; when PBADEN = 0, PCFG<2:0> = 111.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 51 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 ADRESH 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADRESL 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADCON0 2420 2520 4420 4520 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu ADCON1 2420 2520 4420 4520 --00 0qqq(6) --00 0qqq(6) --uu uuuu ADCON2 2420 2520 4420 4520 0-00 0000 0-00 0000 u-uu uuuu CCPR1H 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR1L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP1CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu 2420 2520 4420 4520 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu CCPR2H 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR2L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP2CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu BAUDCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0100 0-00 0100 0-00 uuuu u-uu PWM1CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ECCP1AS 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 00-- 0000 00-- uuuu uu-- CVRCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CMCON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0111 0000 0111 uuuu uuuu TMR3H 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR3L 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T3CON 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu SPBRGH 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SPBRG 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu RCREG 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TXREG 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu TXSTA 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0010 0000 0010 uuuu uuuu RCSTA 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 000x 0000 000x uuuu uuuu EEADR 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu EEDATA 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu EECON2 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 EECON1 2420 2520 4420 4520 xx-0 x000 uu-0 u000 uu-0 u000 TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: Bits 6 and 7 of PORTA, LATA and TRISA are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. 6: The Reset value of the PCFG bits depends on the value of the PBADEN Configuration bit (CONFIG3H<1>). When PBADEN = 1, PCFG<2:0> = 000; when PBADEN = 0, PCFG<2:0> = 111.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 52 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. IPR2 2420 2520 4420 4520 11-1 1111 11-1 1111 uu-u uuuu PIR2 2420 2520 4420 4520 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu(1) PIE2 2420 2520 4420 4520 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu IPR1 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu 2420 2520 4420 4520 -111 1111 -111 1111 -uuu uuuu PIR1 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu(1) 2420 2520 4420 4520 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu(1) PIE1 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu 2420 2520 4420 4520 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu OSCTUNE 2420 2520 4420 4520 00-0 0000 00-0 0000 uu-u uuuu TRISE 2420 2520 4420 4520 0000 -111 0000 -111 uuuu -uuu TRISD 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISC 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISB 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISA(5) 2420 2520 4420 4520 1111 1111(5) 1111 1111(5) uuuu uuuu(5) LATE 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu ---- -uuu LATD 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu LATC 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu LATB 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu LATA(5) 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx(5) uuuu uuuu(5) uuuu uuuu(5) PORTE 2420 2520 4420 4520 ---- xxxx ---- uuuu ---- uuuu PORTD 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTC 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTB 2420 2520 4420 4520 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTA(5) 2420 2520 4420 4520 xx0x 0000(5) uu0u 0000(5) uuuu uuuu(5) TABLE 4-4: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Applicable Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets, WDT Reset, RESET Instruction, Stack Resets Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells indicate conditions do not apply for the designated device. Note 1: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the TOSU, TOSH and TOSL are updated with the current value of the PC. The STKPTR is modified to point to the next location in the hardware stack. 4: See Table 4-3 for Reset value for specific condition. 5: Bits 6 and 7 of PORTA, LATA and TRISA are enabled depending on the oscillator mode selected. When not enabled as PORTA pins, they are disabled and read ‘0’. 6: The Reset value of the PCFG bits depends on the value of the PBADEN Configuration bit (CONFIG3H<1>). When PBADEN = 1, PCFG<2:0> = 000; when PBADEN = 0, PCFG<2:0> = 111.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 53 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION There are three types of memory in PIC18 enhanced microcontroller devices: • Program Memory • Data RAM • Data EEPROM As Harvard architecture devices, the data and program memories use separate busses; this allows for concurrent access of the two memory spaces. The data EEPROM, for practical purposes, can be regarded as a peripheral device, since it is addressed and accessed through a set of control registers. Additional detailed information on the operation of the Flash program memory is provided in Section 6.0 “Flash Program Memory”. Data EEPROM is discussed separately in Section 7.0 “Data EEPROM Memory”. 5.1 Program Memory Organization PIC18 microcontrollers implement a 21-bit program counter, which is capable of addressing a 2-Mbyte program memory space. Accessing a location between the upper boundary of the physically implemented memory and the 2-Mbyte address will return all ‘0’s (a NOP instruction). The PIC18F2420 and PIC18F4420 each have 16 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 8,192 single-word instructions. The PIC18F2520 and PIC18F4520 each have 32 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 16,384 single-word instructions. PIC18 devices have two interrupt vectors. The Reset vector address is at 0000h and the interrupt vector addresses are at 0008h and 0018h. The program memory map for PIC18F2420/2520/ 4420/4520 devices is shown in Figure 5-1. FIGURE 5-1: PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK FOR PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DEVICES PC<20:0> Stack Level 1 • Stack Level 31 Reset Vector Low-Priority Interrupt Vector • • CALL,RCALL,RETURN RETFIE,RETLW 21 0000h 0018h On-Chip Program Memory High-Priority Interrupt Vector 0008h User Memory Space 1FFFFFh 4000h 3FFFh Read ‘0’ 200000h 8000h 7FFFh On-Chip Program Memory Read ‘0’ PIC18F2420/4420 PIC18F2520/4520PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 54 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.1.1 PROGRAM COUNTER The Program Counter (PC) specifies the address of the instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 21 bits wide and is contained in three separate 8-bit registers. The low byte, known as the PCL register, is both readable and writable. The high byte, or PCH register, contains the PC<15:8> bits; it is not directly readable or writable. Updates to the PCH register are performed through the PCLATH register. The upper byte is called PCU. This register contains the PC<20:16> bits; it is also not directly readable or writable. Updates to the PCU register are performed through the PCLATU register. The contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are transferred to the program counter by any operation that writes PCL. Similarly, the upper two bytes of the program counter are transferred to PCLATH and PCLATU by an operation that reads PCL. This is useful for computed offsets to the PC (see Section 5.1.4.1 “Computed GOTO”). The PC addresses bytes in the program memory. To prevent the PC from becoming misaligned with word instructions, the Least Significant bit of PCL is fixed to a value of ‘0’. The PC increments by 2 to address sequential instructions in the program memory. The CALL, RCALL, GOTO and program branch instructions write to the program counter directly. For these instructions, the contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are not transferred to the program counter. 5.1.2 RETURN ADDRESS STACK The return address stack allows any combination of up to 31 program calls and interrupts to occur. The PC is pushed onto the stack when a CALL or RCALL instruction is executed or an interrupt is Acknowledged. The PC value is pulled off the stack on a RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction. PCLATU and PCLATH are not affected by any of the RETURN or CALL instructions. The stack operates as a 31-word by 21-bit RAM and a 5-bit Stack Pointer, STKPTR. The stack space is not part of either program or data space. The Stack Pointer is readable and writable and the address on the top of the stack is readable and writable through the Top-ofStack (TOS) Special Function Registers. Data can also be pushed to, or popped from the stack, using these registers. A CALL type instruction causes a push onto the stack; the Stack Pointer is first incremented and the location pointed to by the Stack Pointer is written with the contents of the PC (already pointing to the instruction following the CALL). A RETURN type instruction causes a pop from the stack; the contents of the location pointed to by the STKPTR are transferred to the PC and then the Stack Pointer is decremented. The Stack Pointer is initialized to ‘00000’ after all Resets. There is no RAM associated with the location corresponding to a Stack Pointer value of ‘00000’; this is only a Reset value. Status bits indicate if the stack is full, or has overflowed or underflowed. 5.1.2.1 Top-of-Stack Access Only the top of the return address stack (TOS) is readable and writable. A set of three registers, TOSU:TOSH:TOSL, hold the contents of the stack location pointed to by the STKPTR register (Figure 5-2). This allows users to implement a software stack if necessary. After a CALL, RCALL or interrupt, the software can read the pushed value by reading the TOSU:TOSH:TOSL registers. These values can be placed on a user-defined software stack. At return time, the software can return these values to TOSU:TOSH:TOSL and do a return. The user must disable the global interrupt enable bits while accessing the stack to prevent inadvertent stack corruption. FIGURE 5-2: RETURN ADDRESS STACK AND ASSOCIATED REGISTERS 00011 001A34h 11111 11110 11101 00010 00001 00000 00010 Return Address Stack <20:0> Top-of-Stack 000D58h TOSU TOSH TOSL 00h 1Ah 34h STKPTR<4:0> Top-of-Stack Registers Stack Pointer© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 55 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.1.2.2 Return Stack Pointer (STKPTR) The STKPTR register (Register 5-1) contains the Stack Pointer value, the STKFUL (Stack Full) status bit and the STKUNF (Stack Underflow) status bits. The value of the Stack Pointer can be 0 through 31. The Stack Pointer increments before values are pushed onto the stack and decrements after values are popped off the stack. On Reset, the Stack Pointer value will be zero. The user may read and write the Stack Pointer value. This feature can be used by a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) for return stack maintenance. After the PC is pushed onto the stack 31 times (without popping any values off the stack), the STKFUL bit is set. The STKFUL bit is cleared by software or by a POR. The action that takes place when the stack becomes full depends on the state of the STVREN (Stack Overflow Reset Enable) Configuration bit. (Refer to Section 23.1 “Configuration Bits” for a description of the device Configuration bits.) If STVREN is set (default), the 31st push will push the (PC + 2) value onto the stack, set the STKFUL bit and reset the device. The STKFUL bit will remain set and the Stack Pointer will be set to zero. If STVREN is cleared, the STKFUL bit will be set on the 31st push and the Stack Pointer will increment to 31. Any additional pushes will not overwrite the 31st push and STKPTR will remain at 31. When the stack has been popped enough times to unload the stack, the next pop will return a value of zero to the PC and sets the STKUNF bit, while the Stack Pointer remains at zero. The STKUNF bit will remain set until cleared by software or until a POR occurs. 5.1.2.3 PUSH and POP Instructions Since the Top-of-Stack is readable and writable, the ability to push values onto the stack and pull values off the stack without disturbing normal program execution is a desirable feature. The PIC18 instruction set includes two instructions, PUSH and POP, that permit the TOS to be manipulated under software control. TOSU, TOSH and TOSL can be modified to place data or a return address on the stack. The PUSH instruction places the current PC value onto the stack. This increments the Stack Pointer and loads the current PC value onto the stack. The POP instruction discards the current TOS by decrementing the Stack Pointer. The previous value pushed onto the stack then becomes the TOS value. Note: Returning a value of zero to the PC on an underflow has the effect of vectoring the program to the Reset vector, where the stack conditions can be verified and appropriate actions can be taken. This is not the same as a Reset, as the contents of the SFRs are not affected. REGISTER 5-1: STKPTR: STACK POINTER REGISTER R/C-0 R/C-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 STKFUL(1) STKUNF(1) — SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: C = Clearable bit R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 STKFUL: Stack Full Flag bit(1) 1 = Stack became full or overflowed 0 = Stack has not become full or overflowed bit 6 STKUNF: Stack Underflow Flag bit(1) 1 = Stack underflow occurred 0 = Stack underflow did not occur bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 SP<4:0>: Stack Pointer Location bits Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 56 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.1.2.4 Stack Full and Underflow Resets Device Resets on stack overflow and stack underflow conditions are enabled by setting the STVREN bit in Configuration Register 4L. When STVREN is set, a full or underflow will set the appropriate STKFUL or STKUNF bit and then cause a device Reset. When STVREN is cleared, a full or underflow condition will set the appropriate STKFUL or STKUNF bit but not cause a device Reset. The STKFUL or STKUNF bits are cleared by the user software or a Power-on Reset. 5.1.3 FAST REGISTER STACK A Fast Register Stack is provided for the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers, to provide a “fast return” option for interrupts. The stack for each register is only one level deep and is neither readable nor writable. It is loaded with the current value of the corresponding register when the processor vectors for an interrupt. All interrupt sources will push values into the stack registers. The values in the registers are then loaded back into their associated registers if the RETFIE, FAST instruction is used to return from the interrupt. If both low and high-priority interrupts are enabled, the stack registers cannot be used reliably to return from low-priority interrupts. If a high-priority interrupt occurs while servicing a low-priority interrupt, the stack register values stored by the low-priority interrupt will be overwritten. In these cases, users must save the key registers in software during a low-priority interrupt. If interrupt priority is not used, all interrupts may use the Fast Register Stack for returns from interrupt. If no interrupts are used, the Fast Register Stack can be used to restore the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers at the end of a subroutine call. To use the Fast Register Stack for a subroutine call, a CALL label, FAST instruction must be executed to save the STATUS, WREG and BSR registers to the Fast Register Stack. A RETURN, FAST instruction is then executed to restore these registers from the Fast Register Stack. Example 5-1 shows a source code example that uses the Fast Register Stack during a subroutine call and return. EXAMPLE 5-1: FAST REGISTER STACK CODE EXAMPLE 5.1.4 LOOK-UP TABLES IN PROGRAM MEMORY There may be programming situations that require the creation of data structures, or look-up tables, in program memory. For PIC18 devices, look-up tables can be implemented in two ways: • Computed GOTO • Table Reads 5.1.4.1 Computed GOTO A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to the program counter. An example is shown in Example 5-2. A look-up table can be formed with an ADDWF PCL instruction and a group of RETLW nn instructions. The W register is loaded with an offset into the table before executing a call to that table. The first instruction of the called routine is the ADDWF PCL instruction. The next instruction executed will be one of the RETLW nn instructions that returns the value ‘nn’ to the calling function. The offset value (in WREG) specifies the number of bytes that the program counter should advance and should be multiples of 2 (LSb = 0). In this method, only one data byte may be stored in each instruction location and room on the return address stack is required. EXAMPLE 5-2: COMPUTED GOTO USING AN OFFSET VALUE 5.1.4.2 Table Reads and Table Writes A better method of storing data in program memory allows two bytes of data to be stored in each instruction location. Look-up table data may be stored two bytes per program word by using table reads and writes. The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register specifies the byte address and the Table Latch (TABLAT) register contains the data that is read from or written to program memory. Data is transferred to or from program memory one byte at a time. Table read and table write operations are discussed further in Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes”. CALL SUB1, FAST ;STATUS, WREG, BSR ;SAVED IN FAST REGISTER ;STACK • • SUB1 • • RETURN, FAST ;RESTORE VALUES SAVED ;IN FAST REGISTER STACK MOVF OFFSET, W CALL TABLE ORG nn00h TABLE ADDWF PCL RETLW nnh RETLW nnh RETLW nnh . . .© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 57 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.2 PIC18 Instruction Cycle 5.2.1 CLOCKING SCHEME The microcontroller clock input, whether from an internal or external source, is internally divided by four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature clocks (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4). Internally, the program counter is incremented on every Q1; the instruction is fetched from the program memory and latched into the instruction register during Q4. The instruction is decoded and executed during the following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction execution flow are shown in Figure 5-3. 5.2.2 INSTRUCTION FLOW/PIPELINING An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles: Q1 through Q4. The instruction fetch and execute are pipelined in such a manner that a fetch takes one instruction cycle, while the decode and execute take another instruction cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction causes the program counter to change (e.g., GOTO), then two cycles are required to complete the instruction (Example 5-3). A fetch cycle begins with the Program Counter (PC) incrementing in Q1. In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched into the Instruction Register (IR) in cycle Q1. This instruction is then decoded and executed during the Q2, Q3 and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2 (operand read) and written during Q4 (destination write). FIGURE 5-3: CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE EXAMPLE 5-3: INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 PC OSC2/CLKO (RC mode) PC PC + 2 PC + 4 Fetch INST (PC) Execute INST (PC – 2) Fetch INST (PC + 2) Execute INST (PC) Fetch INST (PC + 4) Execute INST (PC + 2) Internal Phase Clock All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed. TCY0 TCY1 TCY2 TCY3 TCY4 TCY5 1. MOVLW 55h Fetch 1 Execute 1 2. MOVWF PORTB Fetch 2 Execute 2 3. BRA SUB_1 Fetch 3 Execute 3 4. BSF PORTA, BIT3 (Forced NOP) Fetch 4 Flush (NOP) 5. Instruction @ address SUB_1 Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 58 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.3 INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY The program memory is addressed in bytes. Instructions are stored as two bytes or four bytes in program memory. The Least Significant Byte of an instruction word is always stored in a program memory location with an even address (LSb = 0). To maintain alignment with instruction boundaries, the PC increments in steps of 2 and the LSb will always read ‘0’ (see Section 5.1.1 “Program Counter”). Figure 5-4 shows an example of how instruction words are stored in the program memory. The CALL and GOTO instructions have the absolute program memory address embedded into the instruction. Since instructions are always stored on word boundaries, the data contained in the instruction is a word address. The word address is written to PC<20:1>, which accesses the desired byte address in program memory. Instruction #2 in Figure 5-4 shows how the instruction GOTO 0006h is encoded in the program memory. Program branch instructions, which encode a relative address offset, operate in the same manner. The offset value stored in a branch instruction represents the number of single-word instructions that the PC will be offset by. Section 24.0 “Instruction Set Summary” provides further details of the instruction set. FIGURE 5-4: INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY 5.2.4 TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS The standard PIC18 instruction set has four two-word instructions: CALL, MOVFF, GOTO and LSFR. In all cases, the second word of the instructions always has ‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits; the other 12 bits are literal data, usually a data memory address. The use of ‘1111’ in the 4 MSbs of an instruction specifies a special form of NOP. If the instruction is executed in proper sequence – immediately after the first word – the data in the second word is accessed and used by the instruction sequence. If the first word is skipped for some reason and the second word is executed by itself, a NOP is executed instead. This is necessary for cases when the two-word instruction is preceded by a conditional instruction that changes the PC. Example 5-4 shows how this works. EXAMPLE 5-4: TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS Word Address LSB = 1 LSB = 0 ↓ Program Memory Byte Locations → 000000h 000002h 000004h 000006h Instruction 1: MOVLW 055h 0Fh 55h 000008h Instruction 2: GOTO 0006h EFh 03h 00000Ah F0h 00h 00000Ch Instruction 3: MOVFF 123h, 456h C1h 23h 00000Eh F4h 56h 000010h 000012h 000014h Note: See Section 5.6 “PIC18 Instruction Execution and the Extended Instruction Set” for information on two-word instructions in the extended instruction set. CASE 1: Object Code Source Code 0110 0110 0000 0000 TSTFSZ REG1 ; is RAM location 0? 1100 0001 0010 0011 MOVFF REG1, REG2 ; No, skip this word 1111 0100 0101 0110 ; Execute this word as a NOP 0010 0100 0000 0000 ADDWF REG3 ; continue code CASE 2: Object Code Source Code 0110 0110 0000 0000 TSTFSZ REG1 ; is RAM location 0? 1100 0001 0010 0011 MOVFF REG1, REG2 ; Yes, execute this word 1111 0100 0101 0110 ; 2nd word of instruction 0010 0100 0000 0000 ADDWF REG3 ; continue code© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 59 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.3 Data Memory Organization The data memory in PIC18 devices is implemented as static RAM. Each register in the data memory has a 12-bit address, allowing up to 4096 bytes of data memory. The memory space is divided into as many as 16 banks that contain 256 bytes each; PIC18F2420/ 2520/4420/4520 devices implement all 16 banks. Figure 5-5 shows the data memory organization for the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices. The data memory contains Special Function Registers (SFRs) and General Purpose Registers (GPRs). The SFRs are used for control and status of the controller and peripheral functions, while GPRs are used for data storage and scratchpad operations in the user’s application. Any read of an unimplemented location will read as ‘0’s. The instruction set and architecture allow operations across all banks. The entire data memory may be accessed by Direct, Indirect or Indexed Addressing modes. Addressing modes are discussed later in this subsection. To ensure that commonly used registers (SFRs and select GPRs) can be accessed in a single cycle, PIC18 devices implement an Access Bank. This is a 256-byte memory space that provides fast access to SFRs and the lower portion of GPR Bank 0 without using the BSR. Section 5.3.2 “Access Bank” provides a detailed description of the Access RAM. 5.3.1 BANK SELECT REGISTER (BSR) Large areas of data memory require an efficient addressing scheme to make rapid access to any address possible. Ideally, this means that an entire address does not need to be provided for each read or write operation. For PIC18 devices, this is accomplished with a RAM banking scheme. This divides the memory space into 16 contiguous banks of 256 bytes. Depending on the instruction, each location can be addressed directly by its full 12-bit address, or an 8-bit low-order address and a 4-bit Bank Pointer. Most instructions in the PIC18 instruction set make use of the Bank Pointer, known as the Bank Select Register (BSR). This SFR holds the 4 Most Significant bits of a location’s address; the instruction itself includes the 8 Least Significant bits. Only the four lower bits of the BSR are implemented (BSR<3:0>). The upper four bits are unused; they will always read ‘0’ and cannot be written to. The BSR can be loaded directly by using the MOVLB instruction. The value of the BSR indicates the bank in data memory; the 8 bits in the instruction show the location in the bank and can be thought of as an offset from the bank’s lower boundary. The relationship between the BSR’s value and the bank division in data memory is shown in Figure 5-7. Since up to 16 registers may share the same low-order address, the user must always be careful to ensure that the proper bank is selected before performing a data read or write. For example, writing what should be program data to an 8-bit address of F9h while the BSR is 0Fh will end up resetting the program counter. While any bank can be selected, only those banks that are actually implemented can be read or written to. Writes to unimplemented banks are ignored, while reads from unimplemented banks will return ‘0’s. Even so, the STATUS register will still be affected as if the operation was successful. The data memory map in Figure 5-5 indicates which banks are implemented. In the core PIC18 instruction set, only the MOVFF instruction fully specifies the 12-bit address of the source and target registers. This instruction ignores the BSR completely when it executes. All other instructions include only the low-order address as an operand and must use either the BSR or the Access Bank to locate their target registers. Note: The operation of some aspects of data memory are changed when the PIC18 extended instruction set is enabled. See Section 5.5 “Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set” for more information.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 60 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 5-5: DATA MEMORY MAP FOR PIC18F2420/4420 DEVICES Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 14 Bank 15 BSR<3:0> Data Memory Map = 0000 = 0001 = 1111 080h 07Fh F80h FFFh 00h 7Fh 80h FFh Access Bank When ‘a’ = 0: The BSR is ignored and the Access Bank is used. The first 128 bytes are general purpose RAM (from Bank 0). The second 128 bytes are Special Function Registers (from Bank 15). When ‘a’ = 1: The BSR specifies the Bank used by the instruction. F7Fh F00h EFFh 1FFh 100h 0FFh 000h Access RAM FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h GPR GPR SFR Access RAM High Access RAM Low Bank 2 = 0110 = 0010 (SFRs) 2FFh 200h 3FFh 300h 4FFh 400h 5FFh 500h 6FFh 600h 7FFh 700h 8FFh 800h 9FFh 900h AFFh A00h BFFh B00h CFFh C00h DFFh D00h E00h Bank 3 Bank 4 Bank 5 Bank 6 Bank 7 Bank 8 Bank 9 Bank 10 Bank 11 Bank 12 Bank 13 FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h GPR FFh 00h = 0011 = 0100 = 0101 = 0111 = 1000 = 1001 = 1010 = 1011 = 1100 = 1101 = 1110 Unused Read 00h Unused© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 61 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 5-6: DATA MEMORY MAP FOR PIC18F2520/4520 DEVICES Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 14 Bank 15 BSR<3:0> Data Memory Map = 0000 = 0001 = 1111 080h 07Fh F80h FFFh 00h 7Fh 80h FFh Access Bank When ‘a’ = 0: The BSR is ignored and the Access Bank is used. The first 128 bytes are general purpose RAM (from Bank 0). The second 128 bytes are Special Function Registers (from Bank 15). When ‘a’ = 1: The BSR specifies the Bank used by the instruction. F7Fh F00h EFFh 1FFh 100h 0FFh 000h Access RAM FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h GPR GPR SFR Access RAM High Access RAM Low Bank 2 = 0110 = 0010 (SFRs) 2FFh 200h 3FFh 300h 4FFh 400h 5FFh 500h 6FFh 600h 7FFh 700h 8FFh 800h 9FFh 900h AFFh A00h BFFh B00h CFFh C00h DFFh D00h E00h Bank 3 Bank 4 Bank 5 Bank 6 Bank 7 Bank 8 Bank 9 Bank 10 Bank 11 Bank 12 Bank 13 FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h GPR FFh 00h = 0011 = 0100 = 0101 = 0111 = 1000 = 1001 = 1010 = 1011 = 1100 = 1101 = 1110 Unused Read 00h Unused GPR GPR GPRPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 62 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 5-7: USE OF THE BANK SELECT REGISTER (DIRECT ADDRESSING) 5.3.2 ACCESS BANK While the use of the BSR with an embedded 8-bit address allows users to address the entire range of data memory, it also means that the user must always ensure that the correct bank is selected. Otherwise, data may be read from or written to the wrong location. This can be disastrous if a GPR is the intended target of an operation, but an SFR is written to instead. Verifying and/or changing the BSR for each read or write to data memory can become very inefficient. To streamline access for the most commonly used data memory locations, the data memory is configured with an Access Bank, which allows users to access a mapped block of memory without specifying a BSR. The Access Bank consists of the first 128 bytes of memory (00h-7Fh) in Bank 0 and the last 128 bytes of memory (80h-FFh) in Block 15. The lower half is known as the “Access RAM” and is composed of GPRs. This upper half is also where the device’s SFRs are mapped. These two areas are mapped contiguously in the Access Bank and can be addressed in a linear fashion by an 8-bit address (Figure 5-5). The Access Bank is used by core PIC18 instructions that include the Access RAM bit (the ‘a’ parameter in the instruction). When ‘a’ is equal to ‘1’, the instruction uses the BSR and the 8-bit address included in the opcode for the data memory address. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, however, the instruction is forced to use the Access Bank address map; the current value of the BSR is ignored entirely. Using this “forced” addressing allows the instruction to operate on a data address in a single cycle, without updating the BSR first. For 8-bit addresses of 80h and above, this means that users can evaluate and operate on SFRs more efficiently. The Access RAM below 80h is a good place for data values that the user might need to access rapidly, such as immediate computational results or common program variables. Access RAM also allows for faster and more code efficient context saving and switching of variables. The mapping of the Access Bank is slightly different when the extended instruction set is enabled (XINST Configuration bit = 1). This is discussed in more detail in Section 5.5.3 “Mapping the Access Bank in Indexed Literal Offset Mode”. 5.3.3 GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE PIC18 devices may have banked memory in the GPR area. This is data RAM, which is available for use by all instructions. GPRs start at the bottom of Bank 0 (address 000h) and grow upwards towards the bottom of the SFR area. GPRs are not initialized by a Power-on Reset and are unchanged on all other Resets. Note 1: The Access RAM bit of the instruction can be used to force an override of the selected bank (BSR<3:0>) to the registers of the Access Bank. 2: The MOVFF instruction embeds the entire 12-bit address in the instruction. Data Memory Bank Select(2) 7 0 From Opcode(2) 0000 000h 100h 200h 300h F00h E00h FFFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 14 Bank 15 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh 00h FFh Bank 3 through Bank 13 0011 11111111 7 0 BSR(1)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 63 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.3.4 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers (SFRs) are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM. SFRs start at the top of data memory (FFFh) and extend downward to occupy the top half of Bank 15 (F80h to FFFh). A list of these registers is given in Table 5-1 and Table 5-2. The SFRs can be classified into two sets: those associated with the “core” device functionality (ALU, Resets and interrupts) and those related to the peripheral functions. The Reset and Interrupt registers are described in their respective chapters, while the ALU’s STATUS register is described later in this section. Registers related to the operation of a peripheral feature are described in the chapter for that peripheral. The SFRs are typically distributed among the peripherals whose functions they control. Unused SFR locations are unimplemented and read as ‘0’s. TABLE 5-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER MAP FOR PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DEVICES Address Name Address Name Address Name Address Name FFFh TOSU FDFh INDF2(1) FBFh CCPR1H F9Fh IPR1 FFEh TOSH FDEh POSTINC2(1) FBEh CCPR1L F9Eh PIR1 FFDh TOSL FDDh POSTDEC2(1) FBDh CCP1CON F9Dh PIE1 FFCh STKPTR FDCh PREINC2(1) FBCh CCPR2H F9Ch —(2) FFBh PCLATU FDBh PLUSW2(1) FBBh CCPR2L F9Bh OSCTUNE FFAh PCLATH FDAh FSR2H FBAh CCP2CON F9Ah —(2) FF9h PCL FD9h FSR2L FB9h —(2) F99h —(2) FF8h TBLPTRU FD8h STATUS FB8h BAUDCON F98h —(2) FF7h TBLPTRH FD7h TMR0H FB7h PWM1CON(3) F97h —(2) FF6h TBLPTRL FD6h TMR0L FB6h ECCP1AS(3) F96h TRISE(3) FF5h TABLAT FD5h T0CON FB5h CVRCON F95h TRISD(3) FF4h PRODH FD4h —(2) FB4h CMCON F94h TRISC FF3h PRODL FD3h OSCCON FB3h TMR3H F93h TRISB FF2h INTCON FD2h HLVDCON FB2h TMR3L F92h TRISA FF1h INTCON2 FD1h WDTCON FB1h T3CON F91h —(2) FF0h INTCON3 FD0h RCON FB0h SPBRGH F90h —(2) FEFh INDF0(1) FCFh TMR1H FAFh SPBRG F8Fh —(2) FEEh POSTINC0(1) FCEh TMR1L FAEh RCREG F8Eh —(2) FEDh POSTDEC0(1) FCDh T1CON FADh TXREG F8Dh LATE(3) FECh PREINC0(1) FCCh TMR2 FACh TXSTA F8Ch LATD(3) FEBh PLUSW0(1) FCBh PR2 FABh RCSTA F8Bh LATC FEAh FSR0H FCAh T2CON FAAh —(2) F8Ah LATB FE9h FSR0L FC9h SSPBUF FA9h EEADR F89h LATA FE8h WREG FC8h SSPADD FA8h EEDATA F88h —(2) FE7h INDF1(1) FC7h SSPSTAT FA7h EECON2(1) F87h —(2) FE6h POSTINC1(1) FC6h SSPCON1 FA6h EECON1 F86h —(2) FE5h POSTDEC1(1) FC5h SSPCON2 FA5h —(2) F85h —(2) FE4h PREINC1(1) FC4h ADRESH FA4h —(2) F84h PORTE(3) FE3h PLUSW1(1) FC3h ADRESL FA3h —(2) F83h PORTD(3) FE2h FSR1H FC2h ADCON0 FA2h IPR2 F82h PORTC FE1h FSR1L FC1h ADCON1 FA1h PIR2 F81h PORTB FE0h BSR FC0h ADCON2 FA0h PIE2 F80h PORTA Note 1: This is not a physical register. 2: Unimplemented registers are read as ‘0’. 3: This register is not available on 28-pin devices.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 64 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 5-2: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER FILE SUMMARY File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page: TOSU — — — Top-of-Stack Upper Byte (TOS<20:16>) ---0 0000 49, 54 TOSH Top-of-Stack High Byte (TOS<15:8>) 0000 0000 49, 54 TOSL Top-of-Stack Low Byte (TOS<7:0>) 0000 0000 49, 54 STKPTR STKFUL STKUNF — SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 00-0 0000 49, 55 PCLATU — — — Holding Register for PC<20:16> ---0 0000 49, 54 PCLATH Holding Register for PC<15:8> 0000 0000 49, 54 PCL PC Low Byte (PC<7:0>) 0000 0000 49, 54 TBLPTRU — — bit 21 Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>) --00 0000 49, 76 TBLPTRH Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>) 0000 0000 49, 76 TBLPTRL Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>) 0000 0000 49, 76 TABLAT Program Memory Table Latch 0000 0000 49, 76 PRODH Product Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 49, 89 PRODL Product Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 49, 89 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 0000 000x 49, 93 INTCON2 RBPU INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 — TMR0IP — RBIP 1111 -1-1 49, 94 INTCON3 INT2IP INT1IP — INT2IE INT1IE — INT2IF INT1IF 11-0 0-00 49, 95 INDF0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 POSTINC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 POSTDEC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 PREINC0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 PLUSW0 Uses contents of FSR0 to address data memory – value of FSR0 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR0 offset by W N/A 49, 69 FSR0H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 High Byte ---- 0000 49, 69 FSR0L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 0 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 49, 69 WREG Working Register xxxx xxxx 49 INDF1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 POSTINC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 POSTDEC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 PREINC1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 49, 69 PLUSW1 Uses contents of FSR1 to address data memory – value of FSR1 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR1 offset by W N/A 49, 69 FSR1H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 High Byte ---- 0000 50, 69 FSR1L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 50, 69 BSR — — — — Bank Select Register ---- 0000 50, 59 INDF2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 not changed (not a physical register) N/A 50, 69 POSTINC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 50, 69 POSTDEC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 post-decremented (not a physical register) N/A 50, 69 PREINC2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register) N/A 50, 69 PLUSW2 Uses contents of FSR2 to address data memory – value of FSR2 pre-incremented (not a physical register) – value of FSR2 offset by W N/A 50, 69 FSR2H — — — — Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 High Byte ---- 0000 50, 69 FSR2L Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer 2 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 50, 69 STATUS — — — N OV Z DC C ---x xxxx 50, 67 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The SBOREN bit is only available when the BOREN<1:0> Configuration bits = 01; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. 2: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 3: The PLLEN bit is only available in specific oscillator configurations; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 2.6.4 “PLL in INTOSC Modes”. 4: The RE3 bit is only available when Master Clear Reset is disabled (MCLRE Configuration bit = 0); otherwise, RE3 reads as ‘0’. This bit is read-only. 5: RA6/RA7 and their associated latch and direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 65 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TMR0H Timer0 Register High Byte 0000 0000 50, 125 TMR0L Timer0 Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 50, 125 T0CON TMR0ON T08BIT T0CS T0SE PSA T0PS2 T0PS1 T0PS0 1111 1111 50, 123 OSCCON IDLEN IRCF2 IRCF1 IRCF0 OSTS IOFS SCS1 SCS0 0100 q000 30, 50 HLVDCON VDIRMAG — IRVST HLVDEN HLVDL3 HLVDL2 HLVDL1 HLVDL0 0-00 0101 50, 245 WDTCON — — — — — — — SWDTEN --- ---0 50, 259 RCON IPEN SBOREN(1) — RI TO PD POR BOR 0q-1 11q0 42, 48, 102 TMR1H Timer1 Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 50, 132 TMR1L Timer1 Register Low Bytes xxxx xxxx 50, 132 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 0000 0000 50, 127 TMR2 Timer2 Register 0000 0000 50, 134 PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 50, 134 T2CON — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 50, 133 SSPBUF MSSP Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx 50, 169, 170 SSPADD MSSP Address Register in I2C™ Slave Mode. MSSP Baud Rate Reload Register in I2C Master Mode. 0000 0000 50, 170 SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 0000 0000 50, 162, 171 SSPCON1 WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 50, 163, 172 SSPCON2 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT ACKEN RCEN PEN RSEN SEN 0000 0000 50, 173 ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 232 ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 232 ADCON0 — — CHS3 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON --00 0000 51, 223 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --00 0qqq 51, 224 ADCON2 ADFM — ACQT2 ACQT1 ACQT0 ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 0-00 0000 51, 225 CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 140 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 140 CCP1CON P1M1(2) P1M0(2) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 0000 0000 51, 139, 147 CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 High Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 140 CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 Low Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 140 CCP2CON — — DC2B1 DC2B0 CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 51, 139 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 0100 0-00 51, 204 PWM1CON PRSEN PDC6(2) PDC5(2) PDC4(2) PDC3(2) PDC2(2) PDC1(2) PDC0(2) 0000 0000 51, 156 ECCP1AS ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1(2) PSSBD0(2) 0000 0000 51, 157 CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 0000 0000 51, 239 CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 0000 0111 51, 233 TMR3H Timer3 Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 137 TMR3L Timer3 Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 51, 137 T3CON RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON 0000 0000 51, 135 TABLE 5-2: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page: Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The SBOREN bit is only available when the BOREN<1:0> Configuration bits = 01; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. 2: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 3: The PLLEN bit is only available in specific oscillator configurations; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 2.6.4 “PLL in INTOSC Modes”. 4: The RE3 bit is only available when Master Clear Reset is disabled (MCLRE Configuration bit = 0); otherwise, RE3 reads as ‘0’. This bit is read-only. 5: RA6/RA7 and their associated latch and direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 66 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 0000 0000 51, 206 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 0000 0000 51, 206 RCREG EUSART Receive Register 0000 0000 51, 213 TXREG EUSART Transmit Register 0000 0000 51, 211 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 0010 51, 202 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 51, 203 EEADR EEPROM Address Register 0000 0000 51, 74, 83 EEDATA EEPROM Data Register 0000 0000 51, 74, 83 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 0000 0000 51, 74, 83 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD xx-0 x000 51, 75, 84 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 11-1 1111 52, 101 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 00-0 0000 52, 97 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 00-0 0000 52, 99 IPR1 PSPIP(2) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 1111 1111 52, 100 PIR1 PSPIF(2) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 52, 96 PIE1 PSPIE(2) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 52, 98 OSCTUNE INTSRC PLLEN(3) — TUN4 TUN3 TUN2 TUN1 TUN0 0q-0 0000 27, 52 TRISE(2) IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 0000 -111 52, 118 TRISD(2) PORTD Data Direction Register 1111 1111 52, 114 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 52, 111 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 52, 108 TRISA TRISA7(5) TRISA6(5) PORTA Data Direction Register 1111 1111 52, 105 LATE(2) — — — — — PORTE Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) ---- -xxx 52, 117 LATD(2) PORTD Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) xxxx xxxx 52, 114 LATC PORTC Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) xxxx xxxx 52, 111 LATB PORTB Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) xxxx xxxx 52, 108 LATA LATA7(5) LATA6(5) PORTA Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) xxxx xxxx 52, 105 PORTE — — — — RE3(4) RE2(2) RE1(2) RE0(2) ---- xxxx 52, 117 PORTD(2) RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 xxxx xxxx 52, 114 PORTC RC7 RC6 RC5 RC4 RC3 RC2 RC1 RC0 xxxx xxxx 52, 111 PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 xxxx xxxx 52, 108 PORTA RA7(5) RA6(5) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 xx0x 0000 52, 105 TABLE 5-2: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER FILE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on POR, BOR Details on page: Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The SBOREN bit is only available when the BOREN<1:0> Configuration bits = 01; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. 2: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. Reset values are shown for 40/44-pin devices; individual unimplemented bits should be interpreted as ‘-’. 3: The PLLEN bit is only available in specific oscillator configurations; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 2.6.4 “PLL in INTOSC Modes”. 4: The RE3 bit is only available when Master Clear Reset is disabled (MCLRE Configuration bit = 0); otherwise, RE3 reads as ‘0’. This bit is read-only. 5: RA6/RA7 and their associated latch and direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 67 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.3.5 STATUS REGISTER The STATUS register, shown in Register 5-2, contains the arithmetic status of the ALU. As with any other SFR, it can be the operand for any instruction. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z, DC, C, OV or N bits, the results of the instruction are not written; instead, the STATUS register is updated according to the instruction performed. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as its destination may be different than intended. As an example, CLRF STATUS will set the Z bit and leave the remaining Status bits unchanged (‘000u u1uu’). It is recommended that only BCF, BSF, SWAPF, MOVFF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register, because these instructions do not affect the Z, C, DC, OV or N bits in the STATUS register. For other instructions that do not affect Status bits, see the instruction set summaries in Table 24-2 and Table 24-3. Note: The C and DC bits operate as the borrow and digit borrow bits, respectively, in subtraction. REGISTER 5-2: STATUS REGISTER U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x — — — N OV Z DC(1) C(2) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 N: Negative bit This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates whether the result was negative (ALU MSB = 1). 1 = Result was negative 0 = Result was positive bit 3 OV: Overflow bit This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). It indicates an overflow of the 7-bit magnitude which causes the sign bit (bit 7) to change state. 1 = Overflow occurred for signed arithmetic (in this arithmetic operation) 0 = No overflow occurred bit 2 Z: Zero bit 1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero 0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero bit 1 DC: Digit Carry/borrow bit(1) For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions: 1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result bit 0 C: Carry/borrow bit(2) For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions: 1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred Note 1: For borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either bit 4 or bit 3 of the source register. 2: For borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low-order bit of the source register.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 68 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.4 Data Addressing Modes While the program memory can be addressed in only one way – through the program counter – information in the data memory space can be addressed in several ways. For most instructions, the addressing mode is fixed. Other instructions may use up to three modes, depending on which operands are used and whether or not the extended instruction set is enabled. The addressing modes are: • Inherent • Literal • Direct • Indirect An additional addressing mode, Indexed Literal Offset, is available when the extended instruction set is enabled (XINST Configuration bit = 1). Its operation is discussed in greater detail in Section 5.5.1 “Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset”. 5.4.1 INHERENT AND LITERAL ADDRESSING Many PIC18 control instructions do not need any argument at all; they either perform an operation that globally affects the device or they operate implicitly on one register. This addressing mode is known as Inherent Addressing. Examples include SLEEP, RESET and DAW. Other instructions work in a similar way but require an additional explicit argument in the opcode. This is known as Literal Addressing mode because they require some literal value as an argument. Examples include ADDLW and MOVLW, which respectively, add or move a literal value to the W register. Other examples include CALL and GOTO, which include a 20-bit program memory address. 5.4.2 DIRECT ADDRESSING Direct Addressing specifies all or part of the source and/or destination address of the operation within the opcode itself. The options are specified by the arguments accompanying the instruction. In the core PIC18 instruction set, bit-oriented and byteoriented instructions use some version of Direct Addressing by default. All of these instructions include some 8-bit literal address as their Least Significant Byte. This address specifies either a register address in one of the banks of data RAM (Section 5.3.3 “General Purpose Register File”) or a location in the Access Bank (Section 5.3.2 “Access Bank”) as the data source for the instruction. The Access RAM bit ‘a’ determines how the address is interpreted. When ‘a’ is ‘1’, the contents of the BSR (Section 5.3.1 “Bank Select Register (BSR)”) are used with the address to determine the complete 12-bit address of the register. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, the address is interpreted as being a register in the Access Bank. Addressing that uses the Access RAM is sometimes also known as Direct Forced Addressing mode. A few instructions, such as MOVFF, include the entire 12-bit address (either source or destination) in their opcodes. In these cases, the BSR is ignored entirely. The destination of the operation’s results is determined by the destination bit ‘d’. When ‘d’ is ‘1’, the results are stored back in the source register, overwriting its original contents. When ‘d’ is ‘0’, the results are stored in the W register. Instructions without the ‘d’ argument have a destination that is implicit in the instruction; their destination is either the target register being operated on or the W register. 5.4.3 INDIRECT ADDRESSING Indirect Addressing allows the user to access a location in data memory without giving a fixed address in the instruction. This is done by using File Select Registers (FSRs) as pointers to the locations to be read or written to. Since the FSRs are themselves located in RAM as Special Function Registers, they can also be directly manipulated under program control. This makes FSRs very useful in implementing data structures, such as tables and arrays in data memory. The registers for Indirect Addressing are also implemented with Indirect File Operands (INDFs) that permit automatic manipulation of the pointer value with auto-incrementing, auto-decrementing or offsetting with another value. This allows for efficient code, using loops, such as the example of clearing an entire RAM bank in Example 5-5. EXAMPLE 5-5: HOW TO CLEAR RAM (BANK 1) USING INDIRECT ADDRESSING Note: The execution of some instructions in the core PIC18 instruction set are changed when the PIC18 extended instruction set is enabled. See Section 5.5 “Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set” for more information. LFSR FSR0, 100h; NEXT CLRF POSTINC0 ; Clear INDF ; register then ; inc pointer BTFSS FSR0H, 1; All done with ; Bank1? BRA NEXT ; NO, clear next CONTINUE ; YES, continue © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 69 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 5.4.3.1 FSR Registers and the INDF Operand At the core of Indirect Addressing are three sets of registers: FSR0, FSR1 and FSR2. Each represents a pair of 8-bit registers, FSRnH and FSRnL. The four upper bits of the FSRnH register are not used so each FSR pair holds a 12-bit value. This represents a value that can address the entire range of the data memory in a linear fashion. The FSR register pairs, then, serve as pointers to data memory locations. Indirect Addressing is accomplished with a set of Indirect File Operands, INDF0 through INDF2. These can be thought of as “virtual” registers: they are mapped in the SFR space but are not physically implemented. Reading or writing to a particular INDF register actually accesses its corresponding FSR register pair. A read from INDF1, for example, reads the data at the address indicated by FSR1H:FSR1L. Instructions that use the INDF registers as operands actually use the contents of their corresponding FSR as a pointer to the instruction’s target. The INDF operand is just a convenient way of using the pointer. Because Indirect Addressing uses a full 12-bit address, data RAM banking is not necessary. Thus, the current contents of the BSR and the Access RAM bit have no effect on determining the target address. 5.4.3.2 FSR Registers and POSTINC, POSTDEC, PREINC and PLUSW In addition to the INDF operand, each FSR register pair also has four additional indirect operands. Like INDF, these are “virtual” registers that cannot be indirectly read or written to. Accessing these registers actually accesses the associated FSR register pair, but also performs a specific action on it stored value. They are: • POSTDEC: accesses the FSR value, then automatically decrements it by 1 afterwards • POSTINC: accesses the FSR value, then automatically increments it by 1 afterwards • PREINC: increments the FSR value by 1, then uses it in the operation • PLUSW: adds the signed value of the W register (range of -127 to 128) to that of the FSR and uses the new value in the operation. In this context, accessing an INDF register uses the value in the FSR registers without changing them. Similarly, accessing a PLUSW register gives the FSR value offset by that in the W register; neither value is actually changed in the operation. Accessing the other virtual registers changes the value of the FSR registers. Operations on the FSRs with POSTDEC, POSTINC and PREINC affect the entire register pair; that is, rollovers of the FSRnL register from FFh to 00h carry over to the FSRnH register. On the other hand, results of these operations do not change the value of any flags in the STATUS register (e.g., Z, N, OV, etc.). FIGURE 5-8: INDIRECT ADDRESSING FSR1H:FSR1L 7 0 Data Memory 000h 100h 200h 300h F00h E00h FFFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 14 Bank 15 Bank 3 through Bank 13 ADDWF, INDF1, 1 7 0 Using an instruction with one of the Indirect Addressing registers as the operand.... ...uses the 12-bit address stored in the FSR pair associated with that register.... ...to determine the data memory location to be used in that operation. In this case, the FSR1 pair contains ECCh. This means the contents of location ECCh will be added to that of the W register and stored back in ECCh. xxxx 1110 11001100PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 70 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. The PLUSW register can be used to implement a form of Indexed Addressing in the data memory space. By manipulating the value in the W register, users can reach addresses that are fixed offsets from pointer addresses. In some applications, this can be used to implement some powerful program control structure, such as software stacks, inside of data memory. 5.4.3.3 Operations by FSRs on FSRs Indirect Addressing operations that target other FSRs or virtual registers represent special cases. For example, using an FSR to point to one of the virtual registers will not result in successful operations. As a specific case, assume that FSR0H:FSR0L contains FE7h, the address of INDF1. Attempts to read the value of the INDF1 using INDF0 as an operand will return 00h. Attempts to write to INDF1 using INDF0 as the operand will result in a NOP. On the other hand, using the virtual registers to write to an FSR pair may not occur as planned. In these cases, the value will be written to the FSR pair but without any incrementing or decrementing. Thus, writing to INDF2 or POSTDEC2 will write the same value to the FSR2H:FSR2L. Since the FSRs are physical registers mapped in the SFR space, they can be manipulated through all direct operations. Users should proceed cautiously when working on these registers, particularly if their code uses indirect addressing. Similarly, operations by Indirect Addressing are generally permitted on all other SFRs. Users should exercise the appropriate caution that they do not inadvertently change settings that might affect the operation of the device. 5.5 Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set (XINST Configuration bit = 1) significantly changes certain aspects of data memory and its addressing. Specifically, the use of the Access Bank for many of the core PIC18 instructions is different; this is due to the introduction of a new addressing mode for the data memory space. What does not change is just as important. The size of the data memory space is unchanged, as well as its linear addressing. The SFR map remains the same. Core PIC18 instructions can still operate in both Direct and Indirect Addressing mode; inherent and literal instructions do not change at all. Indirect Addressing with FSR0 and FSR1 also remains unchanged. 5.5.1 INDEXED ADDRESSING WITH LITERAL OFFSET Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set changes the behavior of Indirect Addressing using the FSR2 register pair within Access RAM. Under the proper conditions, instructions that use the Access Bank – that is, most bit-oriented and byte-oriented instructions – can invoke a form of Indexed Addressing using an offset specified in the instruction. This special addressing mode is known as Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset, or Indexed Literal Offset mode. When using the extended instruction set, this addressing mode requires the following: • The use of the Access Bank is forced (‘a’ = 0) and • The file address argument is less than or equal to 5Fh. Under these conditions, the file address of the instruction is not interpreted as the lower byte of an address (used with the BSR in direct addressing), or as an 8-bit address in the Access Bank. Instead, the value is interpreted as an offset value to an Address Pointer, specified by FSR2. The offset and the contents of FSR2 are added to obtain the target address of the operation. 5.5.2 INSTRUCTIONS AFFECTED BY INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE Any of the core PIC18 instructions that can use Direct Addressing are potentially affected by the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode. This includes all byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions, or almost one-half of the standard PIC18 instruction set. Instructions that only use Inherent or Literal Addressing modes are unaffected. Additionally, byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions are not affected if they do not use the Access Bank (Access RAM bit is ‘1’), or include a file address of 60h or above. Instructions meeting these criteria will continue to execute as before. A comparison of the different possible addressing modes when the extended instruction set is enabled in shown in Figure 5-9. Those who desire to use byte-oriented or bit-oriented instructions in the Indexed Literal Offset mode should note the changes to assembler syntax for this mode. This is described in more detail in Section 24.2.1 “Extended Instruction Syntax”.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 71 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 5-9: COMPARING ADDRESSING OPTIONS FOR BIT-ORIENTED AND BYTE-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS (EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET ENABLED) EXAMPLE INSTRUCTION: ADDWF, f, d, a (Opcode: 0010 01da ffff ffff) When ‘a’ = 0 and f ≥ 60h: The instruction executes in Direct Forced mode. ‘f’ is interpreted as a location in the Access RAM between 060h and 0FFh. This is the same as locations 060h to 07Fh (Bank 0) and F80h to FFFh (Bank 15) of data memory. Locations below 60h are not available in this addressing mode. When ‘a’ = 0 and f ≤ 5Fh: The instruction executes in Indexed Literal Offset mode. ‘f’ is interpreted as an offset to the address value in FSR2. The two are added together to obtain the address of the target register for the instruction. The address can be anywhere in the data memory space. Note that in this mode, the correct syntax is now: ADDWF [k], d where ‘k’ is the same as ‘f’. When ‘a’ = 1 (all values of f): The instruction executes in Direct mode (also known as Direct Long mode). ‘f’ is interpreted as a location in one of the 16 banks of the data memory space. The bank is designated by the Bank Select Register (BSR). The address can be in any implemented bank in the data memory space. 000h 060h 100h F00h F80h FFFh Valid range 00h 60h 80h FFh Data Memory Access RAM Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs 000h 080h 100h F00h F80h FFFh Data Memory Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs FSR2H FSR2L 001001da ffffffff 001001da ffffffff 000h 080h 100h F00h F80h FFFh Data Memory Bank 0 Bank 1 through Bank 14 Bank 15 SFRs for ‘f’ BSR 00000000 080hPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 72 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.5.3 MAPPING THE ACCESS BANK IN INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE The use of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode effectively changes how the first 96 locations of Access RAM (00h to 5Fh) are mapped. Rather than containing just the contents of the bottom half of Bank 0, this mode maps the contents from Bank 0 and a user-defined “window” that can be located anywhere in the data memory space. The value of FSR2 establishes the lower boundary of the addresses mapped into the window, while the upper boundary is defined by FSR2 plus 95 (5Fh). Addresses in the Access RAM above 5Fh are mapped as previously described (see Section 5.3.2 “Access Bank”). An example of Access Bank remapping in this addressing mode is shown in Figure 5-10. Remapping of the Access Bank applies only to operations using the Indexed Literal Offset mode. Operations that use the BSR (Access RAM bit is ‘1’) will continue to use Direct Addressing as before. 5.6 PIC18 Instruction Execution and the Extended Instruction Set Enabling the extended instruction set adds eight additional commands to the existing PIC18 instruction set. These instructions are executed as described in Section 24.2 “Extended Instruction Set”. FIGURE 5-10: REMAPPING THE ACCESS BANK WITH INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET ADDRESSING Data Memory 000h 100h 200h F80h F00h FFFh Bank 1 Bank 15 Bank 2 through Bank 14 SFRs 05Fh ADDWF f, d, a FSR2H:FSR2L = 120h Locations in the region from the FSR2 Pointer (120h) to the pointer plus 05Fh (17Fh) are mapped to the bottom of the Access RAM (000h-05Fh). Locations in Bank 0 from 060h to 07Fh are mapped, as usual, to the middle half of the Access Bank. Special Function Registers at F80h through FFFh are mapped to 80h through FFh, as usual. Bank 0 addresses below 5Fh can still be addressed by using the BSR. Access Bank 00h 80h FFh 7Fh Bank 0 SFRs Bank 1 “Window” Bank 0 Bank 0 Window Example Situation: 07Fh 120h 17Fh 5Fh Bank 1© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 73 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 6.0 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY The Flash program memory is readable, writable and erasable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. A read from program memory is executed on one byte at a time. A write to program memory is executed on blocks of 32 bytes at a time. Program memory is erased in blocks of 64 bytes at a time. A bulk erase operation may not be issued from user code. Writing or erasing program memory will cease instruction fetches until the operation is complete. The program memory cannot be accessed during the write or erase, therefore, code cannot execute. An internal programming timer terminates program memory writes and erases. A value written to program memory does not need to be a valid instruction. Executing a program memory location that forms an invalid instruction results in a NOP. 6.1 Table Reads and Table Writes In order to read and write program memory, there are two operations that allow the processor to move bytes between the program memory space and the data RAM: • Table Read (TBLRD) • Table Write (TBLWT) The program memory space is 16 bits wide, while the data RAM space is 8 bits wide. Table reads and table writes move data between these two memory spaces through an 8-bit register (TABLAT). Table read operations retrieve data from program memory and places it into the data RAM space. Figure 6-1 shows the operation of a table read with program memory and data RAM. Table write operations store data from the data memory space into holding registers in program memory. The procedure to write the contents of the holding registers into program memory is detailed in Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. Figure 6-2 shows the operation of a table write with program memory and data RAM. Table operations work with byte entities. A table block containing data, rather than program instructions, is not required to be word aligned. Therefore, a table block can start and end at any byte address. If a table write is being used to write executable code into program memory, program instructions will need to be word aligned. FIGURE 6-1: TABLE READ OPERATION Table Pointer(1) Table Latch (8-bit) Program Memory TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TABLAT TBLPTRU Instruction: TBLRD* Note 1: The Table Pointer register points to a byte in program memory. Program Memory (TBLPTR)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 74 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 6-2: TABLE WRITE OPERATION 6.2 Control Registers Several control registers are used in conjunction with the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These include the: • EECON1 register • EECON2 register • TABLAT register • TBLPTR registers 6.2.1 EECON1 AND EECON2 REGISTERS The EECON1 register (Register 6-1) is the control register for memory accesses. The EECON2 register is not a physical register; it is used exclusively in the memory write and erase sequences. Reading EECON2 will read all ‘0’s. The EEPGD control bit determines if the access will be a program or data EEPROM memory access. When clear, any subsequent operations will operate on the data EEPROM memory. When set, any subsequent operations will operate on the program memory. The CFGS control bit determines if the access will be to the Configuration/Calibration registers or to program memory/data EEPROM memory. When set, subsequent operations will operate on Configuration registers regardless of EEPGD (see Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU”). When clear, memory selection access is determined by EEPGD. The FREE bit, when set, will allow a program memory erase operation. When FREE is set, the erase operation is initiated on the next WR command. When FREE is clear, only writes are enabled. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is set in hardware when the WR bit is set and cleared when the internal programming timer expires and the write operation is complete. The WR control bit initiates write operations. The bit cannot be cleared, only set, in software; it is cleared in hardware at the completion of the write operation. Table Pointer(1) Table Latch (8-bit) TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TABLAT Program Memory (TBLPTR) TBLPTRU Instruction: TBLWT* Note1: The Table Pointer actually points to one of 32 holding registers, the address of which is determined by TBLPTRL<4:0>. The process for physically writing data to the program memory array is discussed in Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. Holding Registers Program Memory Note: During normal operation, the WRERR is read as ‘1’. This can indicate that a write operation was prematurely terminated by a Reset, or a write operation was attempted improperly. Note: The EEIF interrupt flag bit (PIR2<4>) is set when the write is complete. It must be cleared in software.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 75 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 6-1: EECON1: EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1 R/W-x R/W-x U-0 R/W-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR(1) WREN WR RD bit 7 bit 0 Legend: S = Settable bit (cannot be cleared in software) R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 EEPGD: Flash Program or Data EEPROM Memory Select bit 1 = Access Flash program memory 0 = Access data EEPROM memory bit 6 CFGS: Flash Program/Data EEPROM or Configuration Select bit 1 = Access Configuration registers 0 = Access Flash program or data EEPROM memory bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 FREE: Flash Row Erase Enable bit 1 = Erase the program memory row addressed by TBLPTR on the next WR command (cleared by completion of erase operation) 0 = Perform write only bit 3 WRERR: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Error Flag bit(1) 1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any Reset during self-timed programming in normal operation, or an improper write attempt) 0 = The write operation completed bit 2 WREN: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM 0 = Inhibits write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM bit 1 WR: Write Control bit 1 = Initiates a data EEPROM erase/write cycle or a program memory erase cycle or write cycle (The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.) 0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete bit 0 RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (Read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. RD bit cannot be set when EEPGD = 1 or CFGS = 1.) 0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read Note 1: When a WRERR occurs, the EEPGD and CFGS bits are not cleared. This allows tracing of the error condition.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 76 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.2.2 TABLAT – TABLE LATCH REGISTER The Table Latch (TABLAT) is an 8-bit register mapped into the SFR space. The Table Latch register is used to hold 8-bit data during data transfers between program memory and data RAM. 6.2.3 TBLPTR – TABLE POINTER REGISTER The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register addresses a byte within the program memory. The TBLPTR is comprised of three SFR registers: Table Pointer Upper Byte, Table Pointer High Byte and Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTRU:TBLPTRH:TBLPTRL). These three registers join to form a 22-bit wide pointer. The low-order 21 bits allow the device to address up to 2 Mbytes of program memory space. The 22nd bit allows access to the device ID, the user ID and the Configuration bits. The Table Pointer register, TBLPTR, is used by the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions. These instructions can update the TBLPTR in one of four ways based on the table operation. These operations are shown in Table 6-1. These operations on the TBLPTR only affect the low-order 21 bits. 6.2.4 TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES TBLPTR is used in reads, writes and erases of the Flash program memory. When a TBLRD is executed, all 22 bits of the TBLPTR determine which byte is read from program memory into TABLAT. When a TBLWT is executed, the five LSbs of the Table Pointer register (TBLPTR<4:0>) determine which of the 32 program memory holding registers is written to. When the timed write to program memory begins (via the WR bit), the 16 MSbs of the TBLPTR (TBLPTR<21:6>) determine which program memory block of 32 bytes is written to. For more detail, see Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. When an erase of program memory is executed, the 16 MSbs of the Table Pointer register (TBLPTR<21:6>) point to the 64-byte block that will be erased. The Least Significant bits (TBLPTR<5:0>) are ignored. Figure 6-3 describes the relevant boundaries of TBLPTR based on Flash program memory operations. TABLE 6-1: TABLE POINTER OPERATIONS WITH TBLRD AND TBLWT INSTRUCTIONS FIGURE 6-3: TABLE POINTER BOUNDARIES BASED ON OPERATION Example Operation on Table Pointer TBLRD* TBLWT* TBLPTR is not modified TBLRD*+ TBLWT*+ TBLPTR is incremented after the read/write TBLRD*- TBLWT*- TBLPTR is decremented after the read/write TBLRD+* TBLWT+* TBLPTR is incremented before the read/write 21 16 15 8 7 0 TABLE ERASE TABLE READ – TBLPTR<21:0> TBLPTRU TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TBLPTR<21:6> TABLE WRITE – TBLPTR<21:5>© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 77 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 6.3 Reading the Flash Program Memory The TBLRD instruction is used to retrieve data from program memory and places it into data RAM. Table reads from program memory are performed one byte at a time. TBLPTR points to a byte address in program space. Executing TBLRD places the byte pointed to into TABLAT. In addition, TBLPTR can be modified automatically for the next table read operation. The internal program memory is typically organized by words. The Least Significant bit of the address selects between the high and low bytes of the word. Figure 6-4 shows the interface between the internal program memory and the TABLAT. FIGURE 6-4: READS FROM FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY EXAMPLE 6-1: READING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WORD (Even Byte Address) Program Memory (Odd Byte Address) TBLRD TABLAT TBLPTR = xxxxx1 FETCH Instruction Register (IR) Read Register TBLPTR = xxxxx0 MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; Load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the word MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL READ_WORD TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT and increment MOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVWF WORD_EVEN TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT and increment MOVFW TABLAT, W ; get data MOVF WORD_ODDPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 78 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.4 Erasing Flash Program Memory The minimum erase block is 32 words or 64 bytes. Only through the use of an external programmer, or through ICSP control, can larger blocks of program memory be bulk erased. Word erase in the Flash array is not supported. When initiating an erase sequence from the microcontroller itself, a block of 64 bytes of program memory is erased. The Most Significant 16 bits of the TBLPTR<21:6> point to the block being erased. TBLPTR<5:0> are ignored. The EECON1 register commands the erase operation. The EEPGD bit must be set to point to the Flash program memory. The WREN bit must be set to enable write operations. The FREE bit is set to select an erase operation. For protection, the write initiate sequence for EECON2 must be used. A long write is necessary for erasing the internal Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a long write cycle. The long write will be terminated by the internal programming timer. 6.4.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ERASE SEQUENCE The sequence of events for erasing a block of internal program memory location is: 1. Load Table Pointer register with address of row being erased. 2. Set the EECON1 register for the erase operation: • set EEPGD bit to point to program memory; • clear the CFGS bit to access program memory; • set WREN bit to enable writes; • set FREE bit to enable the erase. 3. Disable interrupts. 4. Write 55h to EECON2. 5. Write 0AAh to EECON2. 6. Set the WR bit. This will begin the row erase cycle. 7. The CPU will stall for duration of the erase (about 2 ms using internal timer). 8. Re-enable interrupts. EXAMPLE 6-2: ERASING A FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY ROW MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL ERASE_ROW BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BSF EECON1, FREE ; enable Row Erase operation BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts Required MOVLW 55h Sequence MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start erase (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 79 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 6.5 Writing to Flash Program Memory The minimum programming block is 16 words or 32 bytes. Word or byte programming is not supported. Table writes are used internally to load the holding registers needed to program the Flash memory. There are 32 holding registers used by the table writes for programming. Since the Table Latch (TABLAT) is only a single byte, the TBLWT instruction may need to be executed 32 times for each programming operation. All of the table write operations will essentially be short writes because only the holding registers are written. At the end of updating the 32 holding registers, the EECON1 register must be written to in order to start the programming operation with a long write. The long write is necessary for programming the internal Flash. Instruction execution is halted while in a long write cycle. The long write will be terminated by the internal programming timer. The EEPROM on-chip timer controls the write time. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump, rated to operate over the voltage range of the device. FIGURE 6-5: TABLE WRITES TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY 6.5.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE SEQUENCE The sequence of events for programming an internal program memory location should be: 1. Read 64 bytes into RAM. 2. Update data values in RAM as necessary. 3. Load Table Pointer register with address being erased. 4. Execute the row erase procedure. 5. Load Table Pointer register with address of first byte being written. 6. Write the 32 bytes into the holding registers with auto-increment. 7. Set the EECON1 register for the write operation: • set EEPGD bit to point to program memory; • clear the CFGS bit to access program memory; • set WREN to enable byte writes. 8. Disable interrupts. 9. Write 55h to EECON2. 10. Write 0AAh to EECON2. 11. Set the WR bit. This will begin the write cycle. 12. The CPU will stall for duration of the write (about 2 ms using internal timer). 13. Re-enable interrupts. 14. Verify the memory (table read). This procedure will require about 6 ms to update one row of 64 bytes of memory. An example of the required code is given in Example 6-3. Note: The default value of the holding registers on device Resets and after write operations is FFh. A write of FFh to a holding register does not modify that byte. This means individual bytes of program memory may be modified, provided that the change does not attempt to change any bit from a ‘0’ to a ‘1’. When modifying individual bytes, it is not necessary to load all 32 holding registers before executing a write operation. TABLAT TBLPTR = xxxxx0 TBLPTR = xxxxx1 TBLPTR = xxxx3F Write Register TBLPTR = xxxxx2 Program Memory Holding Register Holding Register Holding Register Holding Register 8 8 8 8 Note: Before setting the WR bit, the Table Pointer address needs to be within the intended address range of the 32 bytes in the holding register.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 80 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY MOVLW D'64 ; number of bytes in erase block MOVWF COUNTER MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; Load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL READ_BLOCK TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT, and inc MOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVWF POSTINC0 ; store data DECFSZ COUNTER ; done? BRA READ_BLOCK ; repeat MODIFY_WORD MOVLW DATA_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW DATA_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L MOVLW NEW_DATA_LOW ; update buffer word MOVWF POSTINC0 MOVLW NEW_DATA_HIGH MOVWF INDF0 ERASE_BLOCK MOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory block MOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRH MOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BSF EECON1, FREE ; enable Row Erase operation BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts MOVLW 55h Required MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start erase (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts TBLRD*- ; dummy read decrement MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0H MOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0L WRITE_BUFFER_BACK MOVLW D’32 ; number of bytes in holding register MOVWF COUNTER WRITE_BYTE_TO_HREGS MOVFF POSTINC0, WREG ; get low byte of buffer data MOVWF TABLAT ; present data to table latch TBLWT+* ; write data, perform a short write ; to internal TBLWT holding register. DECFSZ COUNTER ; loop until buffers are full BRA WRITE_WORD_TO_HREGS© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 81 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY (CONTINUED) 6.5.2 WRITE VERIFY Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the memory should be verified against the original value. This should be used in applications where excessive writes can stress bits near the specification limit. 6.5.3 UNEXPECTED TERMINATION OF WRITE OPERATION If a write is terminated by an unplanned event, such as loss of power or an unexpected Reset, the memory location just programmed should be verified and reprogrammed if needed. If the write operation is interrupted by a MCLR Reset or a WDT Time-out Reset during normal operation, the user can check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location(s) as needed. 6.5.4 PROTECTION AGAINST SPURIOUS WRITES To protect against spurious writes to Flash program memory, the write initiate sequence must also be followed. See Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for more detail. 6.6 Flash Program Operation During Code Protection See Section 23.5 “Program Verification and Code Protection” for details on code protection of Flash program memory. TABLE 6-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY PROGRAM_MEMORY BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts MOVLW 55h Required MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; start program (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts BCF EECON1, WREN ; disable write to memory Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page TBLPTRU — — bit 21 Program Memory Table Pointer Upper Byte (TBLPTR<20:16>) 49 TBLPTRH Program Memory Table Pointer High Byte (TBLPTR<15:8>) 49 TBLPTRL Program Memory Table Pointer Low Byte (TBLPTR<7:0>) 49 TABLAT Program Memory Table Latch 49 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 51 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD 51 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash/EEPROM access.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 82 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 83 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 7.0 DATA EEPROM MEMORY The data EEPROM is a nonvolatile memory array, separate from the data RAM and program memory, that is used for long-term storage of program data. It is not directly mapped in either the register file or program memory space but is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers (SFRs). The EEPROM is readable and writable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. Five SFRs are used to read and write to the data EEPROM as well as the program memory. They are: • EECON1 • EECON2 • EEDATA • EEADR The data EEPROM allows byte read and write. When interfacing to the data memory block, EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write and the EEADR register holds the address of the EEPROM location being accessed. The EEPROM data memory is rated for high erase/write cycle endurance. A byte write automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer; it will vary with voltage and temperature as well as from chip to chip. Please refer to parameter D122 (Table 26-1 in Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics”) for exact limits. 7.1 EEADR Register The EEADR register is used to address the data EEPROM for read and write operations. The 8-bit range of the register can address a memory range of 256 bytes (00h to FFh). 7.2 EECON1 and EECON2 Registers Access to the data EEPROM is controlled by two registers: EECON1 and EECON2. These are the same registers which control access to the program memory and are used in a similar manner for the data EEPROM. The EECON1 register (Register 7-1) is the control register for data and program memory access. Control bit EEPGD determines if the access will be to program or data EEPROM memory. When clear, operations will access the data EEPROM memory. When set, program memory is accessed. Control bit, CFGS, determines if the access will be to the Configuration registers or to program memory/data EEPROM memory. When set, subsequent operations access Configuration registers. When CFGS is clear, the EEPGD bit selects either program Flash or data EEPROM memory. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is set in hardware when the WR bit is set and cleared when the internal programming timer expires and the write operation is complete. The WR control bit initiates write operations. The bit can be set but not cleared in software. It is only cleared in hardware at the completion of the write operation. Control bits, RD and WR, start read and erase/write operations, respectively. These bits are set by firmware and cleared by hardware at the completion of the operation. The RD bit cannot be set when accessing program memory (EEPGD = 1). Program memory is read using table read instructions. See Section 6.1 “Table Reads and Table Writes” regarding table reads. The EECON2 register is not a physical register. It is used exclusively in the memory write and erase sequences. Reading EECON2 will read all ‘0’s. Note: During normal operation, the WRERR may read as ‘1’. This can indicate that a write operation was prematurely terminated by a Reset, or a write operation was attempted improperly. Note: The EEIF interrupt flag bit (PIR2<4>) is set when the write is complete. It must be cleared in software.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 84 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 7-1: EECON1: EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1 R/W-x R/W-x U-0 R/W-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR(1) WREN WR RD bit 7 bit 0 Legend: S = Settable bit (cannot be cleared in software) R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 EEPGD: Flash Program or Data EEPROM Memory Select bit 1 = Access Flash program memory 0 = Access data EEPROM memory bit 6 CFGS: Flash Program/Data EEPROM or Configuration Select bit 1 = Access Configuration registers 0 = Access Flash program or data EEPROM memory bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 FREE: Flash Row Erase Enable bit 1 = Erase the program memory row addressed by TBLPTR on the next WR command (cleared by completion of erase operation) 0 = Perform write only bit 3 WRERR: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Error Flag bit(1) 1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any Reset during self-timed programming in normal operation, or an improper write attempt) 0 = The write operation completed bit 2 WREN: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM 0 = Inhibits write cycles to Flash program/data EEPROM bit 1 WR: Write Control bit 1 = Initiates a data EEPROM erase/write cycle or a program memory erase cycle or write cycle (The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.) 0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete bit 0 RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (Read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. RD bit cannot be set when EEPGD = 1 or CFGS = 1.) 0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read Note 1: When a WRERR occurs, the EEPGD and CFGS bits are not cleared. This allows tracing of the error condition.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 85 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 7.3 Reading the Data EEPROM Memory To read a data memory location, the user must write the address to the EEADR register, clear the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>) and then set control bit, RD (EECON1<0>). The data is available on the very next instruction cycle; therefore, the EEDATA register can be read by the next instruction. EEDATA will hold this value until another read operation, or until it is written to by the user (during a write operation). The basic process is shown in Example 7-1. 7.4 Writing to the Data EEPROM Memory To write an EEPROM data location, the address must first be written to the EEADR register and the data written to the EEDATA register. The sequence in Example 7-2 must be followed to initiate the write cycle. The write will not begin if this sequence is not exactly followed (write 55h to EECON2, write 0AAh to EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. It is strongly recommended that interrupts be disabled during this code segment. Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to enable writes. This mechanism prevents accidental writes to data EEPROM due to unexpected code execution (i.e., runaway programs). The WREN bit should be kept clear at all times, except when updating the EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared by hardware. After a write sequence has been initiated, EECON1, EEADR and EEDATA cannot be modified. The WR bit will be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set. Both WR and WREN cannot be set with the same instruction. At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is cleared in hardware and the EEPROM Interrupt Flag bit, EEIF, is set. The user may either enable this interrupt or poll this bit. EEIF must be cleared by software. 7.5 Write Verify Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the memory should be verified against the original value. This should be used in applications where excessive writes can stress bits near the specification limit. EXAMPLE 7-1: DATA EEPROM READ EXAMPLE 7-2: DATA EEPROM WRITE MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ; Data Memory Address to read BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to DATA memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Access EEPROM BSF EECON1, RD ; EEPROM Read MOVF EEDATA, W ; W = EEDATA MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ; Data Memory Address to write MOVLW DATA_EE_DATA ; MOVWF EEDATA ; Data Memory Value to write BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to DATA memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Access EEPROM BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes BCF INTCON, GIE ; Disable Interrupts MOVLW 55h ; Required MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; Set WR bit to begin write BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable Interrupts ; User code execution BCF EECON1, WREN ; Disable writes on write complete (EEIF set)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 86 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 7.6 Operation During Code-Protect Data EEPROM memory has its own code-protect bits in Configuration Words. External read and write operations are disabled if code protection is enabled. The microcontroller itself can both read and write to the internal data EEPROM, regardless of the state of the code-protect Configuration bit. Refer to Section 23.0 “Special Features of the CPU” for additional information. 7.7 Protection Against Spurious Write There are conditions when the user may not want to write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have been implemented. On power-up, the WREN bit is cleared. In addition, writes to the EEPROM are blocked during the Power-up Timer period (TPWRT, parameter 33). The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together help prevent an accidental write during brown-out, power glitch or software malfunction. 7.8 Using the Data EEPROM The data EEPROM is a high-endurance, byte addressable array that has been optimized for the storage of frequently changing information (e.g., program variables or other data that are updated often). Frequently changing values will typically be updated more often than specification D124. If this is not the case, an array refresh must be performed. For this reason, variables that change infrequently (such as constants, IDs, calibration, etc.) should be stored in Flash program memory. A simple data EEPROM refresh routine is shown in Example 7-3. EXAMPLE 7-3: DATA EEPROM REFRESH ROUTINE Note: If data EEPROM is only used to store constants and/or data that changes rarely, an array refresh is likely not required. See specification D124. CLRF EEADR ; Start at address 0 BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Set for memory BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Set for Data EEPROM BCF INTCON, GIE ; Disable interrupts BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes Loop ; Loop to refresh array BSF EECON1, RD ; Read current address MOVLW 55h ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55h MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 0AAh BSF EECON1, WR ; Set WR bit to begin write BTFSC EECON1, WR ; Wait for write to complete BRA $-2 INCFSZ EEADR, F ; Increment address BRA LOOP ; Not zero, do it again BCF EECON1, WREN ; Disable writes BSF INTCON, GIE ; Enable interrupts© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 87 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 7-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM MEMORY Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 EEADR EEPROM Address Register 51 EEDATA EEPROM Data Register 51 EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) 51 EECON1 EEPGD CFGS — FREE WRERR WREN WR RD 51 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash/EEPROM access.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 88 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 89 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 8.0 8 x 8 HARDWARE MULTIPLIER 8.1 Introduction All PIC18 devices include an 8 x 8 hardware multiplier as part of the ALU. The multiplier performs an unsigned operation and yields a 16-bit result that is stored in the product register pair, PRODH:PRODL. The multiplier’s operation does not affect any flags in the STATUS register. Making multiplication a hardware operation allows it to be completed in a single instruction cycle. This has the advantages of higher computational throughput and reduced code size for multiplication algorithms and allows the PIC18 devices to be used in many applications previously reserved for digital signal processors. A comparison of various hardware and software multiply operations, along with the savings in memory and execution time, is shown in Table 8-1. 8.2 Operation Example 8-1 shows the instruction sequence for an 8 x 8 unsigned multiplication. Only one instruction is required when one of the arguments is already loaded in the WREG register. Example 8-2 shows the sequence to do an 8 x 8 signed multiplication. To account for the sign bits of the arguments, each argument’s Most Significant bit (MSb) is tested and the appropriate subtractions are done. EXAMPLE 8-1: 8 x 8 UNSIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE EXAMPLE 8-2: 8 x 8 SIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE TABLE 8-1: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR VARIOUS MULTIPLY OPERATIONS MOVF ARG1, W ; MULWF ARG2 ; ARG1 * ARG2 -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF ARG1, W MULWF ARG2 ; ARG1 * ARG2 -> ; PRODH:PRODL BTFSC ARG2, SB ; Test Sign Bit SUBWF PRODH, F ; PRODH = PRODH ; - ARG1 MOVF ARG2, W BTFSC ARG1, SB ; Test Sign Bit SUBWF PRODH, F ; PRODH = PRODH ; - ARG2 Routine Multiply Method Program Memory (Words) Cycles (Max) Time @ 40 MHz @ 10 MHz @ 4 MHz 8 x 8 unsigned Without hardware multiply 13 69 6.9 μs 27.6 μs 69 μs Hardware multiply 1 1 100 ns 400 ns 1 μs 8 x 8 signed Without hardware multiply 33 91 9.1 μs 36.4 μs 91 μs Hardware multiply 6 6 600 ns 2.4 μs 6 μs 16 x 16 unsigned Without hardware multiply 21 242 24.2 μs 96.8 μs 242 μs Hardware multiply 28 28 2.8 μs 11.2 μs 28 μs 16 x 16 signed Without hardware multiply 52 254 25.4 μs 102.6 μs 254 μs Hardware multiply 35 40 4.0 μs 16.0 μs 40 μsPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 90 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Example 8-3 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16 unsigned multiplication. Equation 8-1 shows the algorithm that is used. The 32-bit result is stored in four registers (RES<3:0>). EQUATION 8-1: 16 x 16 UNSIGNED MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM EXAMPLE 8-3: 16 x 16 UNSIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE Example 8-4 shows the sequence to do a 16 x 16 signed multiply. Equation 8-2 shows the algorithm used. The 32-bit result is stored in four registers (RES<3:0>). To account for the sign bits of the arguments, the MSb for each argument pair is tested and the appropriate subtractions are done. EQUATION 8-2: 16 x 16 SIGNED MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM EXAMPLE 8-4: 16 x 16 SIGNED MULTIPLY ROUTINE RES<3:0> = ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L = (ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) + (ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2L) MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1L * ARG2L-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES1 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES0 ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1H * ARG2H-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES3 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES2 ; ; MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1L * ARG2H-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1H * ARG2L-> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; RES<3:0> = ARG1H:ARG1L • ARG2H:ARG2L = (ARG1H • ARG2H • 216) + (ARG1H • ARG2L • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2H • 28) + (ARG1L • ARG2L) + (-1 • ARG2H<7> • ARG1H:ARG1L • 216) + (-1 • ARG1H<7> • ARG2H:ARG2L • 216) MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1L * ARG2L -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES1 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES0 ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1H * ARG2H -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVFF PRODH, RES3 ; MOVFF PRODL, RES2 ; ; MOVF ARG1L, W MULWF ARG2H ; ARG1L * ARG2H -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; MULWF ARG2L ; ARG1H * ARG2L -> ; PRODH:PRODL MOVF PRODL, W ; ADDWF RES1, F ; Add cross MOVF PRODH, W ; products ADDWFC RES2, F ; CLRF WREG ; ADDWFC RES3, F ; ; BTFSS ARG2H, 7 ; ARG2H:ARG2L neg? BRA SIGN_ARG1 ; no, check ARG1 MOVF ARG1L, W ; SUBWF RES2 ; MOVF ARG1H, W ; SUBWFB RES3 ; SIGN_ARG1 BTFSS ARG1H, 7 ; ARG1H:ARG1L neg? BRA CONT_CODE ; no, done MOVF ARG2L, W ; SUBWF RES2 ; MOVF ARG2H, W ; SUBWFB RES3 ; CONT_CODE :© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 91 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 9.0 INTERRUPTS The PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices have multiple interrupt sources and an interrupt priority feature that allows most interrupt sources to be assigned a high-priority level or a low-priority level. The high-priority interrupt vector is at 0008h and the lowpriority interrupt vector is at 0018h. High-priority interrupt events will interrupt any low-priority interrupts that may be in progress. There are ten registers which are used to control interrupt operation. These registers are: • RCON • INTCON • INTCON2 • INTCON3 • PIR1, PIR2 • PIE1, PIE2 • IPR1, IPR2 It is recommended that the Microchip header files supplied with MPLAB® IDE be used for the symbolic bit names in these registers. This allows the assembler/ compiler to automatically take care of the placement of these bits within the specified register. In general, interrupt sources have three bits to control their operation. They are: • Flag bit to indicate that an interrupt event occurred • Enable bit that allows program execution to branch to the interrupt vector address when the flag bit is set • Priority bit to select high priority or low priority The interrupt priority feature is enabled by setting the IPEN bit (RCON<7>). When interrupt priority is enabled, there are two bits which enable interrupts globally. Setting the GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit set (high priority). Setting the GIEL bit (INTCON<6>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit cleared (low priority). When the interrupt flag, enable bit and appropriate global interrupt enable bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately to address 0008h or 0018h, depending on the priority bit setting. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits. When the IPEN bit is cleared (default state), the interrupt priority feature is disabled and interrupts are compatible with PIC® mid-range devices. In Compatibility mode, the interrupt priority bits for each source have no effect. INTCON<6> is the PEIE bit, which enables/disables all peripheral interrupt sources. INTCON<7> is the GIE bit, which enables/disables all interrupt sources. All interrupts branch to address 0008h in Compatibility mode. When an interrupt is responded to, the global interrupt enable bit is cleared to disable further interrupts. If the IPEN bit is cleared, this is the GIE bit. If interrupt priority levels are used, this will be either the GIEH or GIEL bit. High-priority interrupt sources can interrupt a lowpriority interrupt. Low-priority interrupts are not processed while high-priority interrupts are in progress. The return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector address (0008h or 0018h). Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bits must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine and sets the GIE bit (GIEH or GIEL if priority levels are used), which re-enables interrupts. For external interrupt events, such as the INTx pins or the PORTB input change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be three to four instruction cycles. The exact latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are set, regardless of the status of their corresponding enable bit or the GIE bit. Note: Do not use the MOVFF instruction to modify any of the interrupt control registers while any interrupt is enabled. Doing so may cause erratic microcontroller behavior.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 92 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 9-1: PIC18 INTERRUPT LOGIC TMR0IE GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL Wake-up if in Interrupt to CPU Vector to Location 0008h INT2IF INT2IE INT2IP INT1IF INT1IE INT1IP TMR0IF TMR0IE TMR0IP RBIF RBIE RBIP IPEN TMR0IF TMR0IP INT1IF INT1IE INT1IP INT2IF INT2IE INT2IP RBIF RBIE RBIP INT0IF INT0IE PEIE/GIE Interrupt to CPU Vector to Location IPEN IPEN 0018h SSPIF SSPIE SSPIP SSPIF SSPIE SSPIP ADIF ADIE ADIP RCIF RCIE RCIP Additional Peripheral Interrupts ADIF ADIE ADIP High-Priority Interrupt Generation Low-Priority Interrupt Generation RCIF RCIE RCIP Additional Peripheral Interrupts Idle or Sleep modes GIE/GIEH© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 93 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 9.1 INTCON Registers The INTCON registers are readable and writable registers, which contain various enable, priority and flag bits. Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling. REGISTER 9-1: INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-x GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GIE/GIEH: Global Interrupt Enable bit When IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts When IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all high-priority interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts bit 6 PEIE/GIEL: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit When IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts When IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all low-priority peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all low-priority peripheral interrupts bit 5 TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR0 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR0 overflow interrupt bit 4 INT0IE: INT0 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT0 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT0 external interrupt bit 3 RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt 0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt bit 2 TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR0 register did not overflow bit 1 INT0IF: INT0 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT0 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT0 external interrupt did not occur bit 0 RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = At least one of the RB<7:4> pins changed state (must be cleared in software) 0 = None of the RB<7:4> pins have changed state Note 1: A mismatch condition will continue to set this bit. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow the bit to be cleared. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 94 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 9-2: INTCON2: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 2 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 RBPU INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 — TMR0IP — RBIP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit 1 = All PORTB pull-ups are disabled 0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values bit 6 INTEDG0: External Interrupt 0 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 5 INTEDG1: External Interrupt 1 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 4 INTEDG2: External Interrupt 2 Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge 0 = Interrupt on falling edge bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 TMR0IP: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 0 RBIP: RB Port Change Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 95 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 9-3: INTCON3: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER 3 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 INT2IP INT1IP — INT2IE INT1IE — INT2IF INT1IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 INT2IP: INT2 External Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 INT1IP: INT1 External Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 INT2IE: INT2 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT2 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT2 external interrupt bit 3 INT1IE: INT1 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT1 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT1 external interrupt bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 INT2IF: INT2 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT2 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT2 external interrupt did not occur bit 0 INT1IF: INT1 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT1 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT1 external interrupt did not occur Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit. User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 96 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.2 PIR Registers The PIR registers contain the individual flag bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Request Flag registers (PIR1 and PIR2). Note 1: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). 2: User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are cleared prior to enabling an interrupt and after servicing that interrupt. REGISTER 9-4: PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 PSPIF: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit(1) 1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software) 0 = No read or write has occurred bit 6 ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit 1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software) 0 = The A/D conversion is not complete bit 5 RCIF: EUSART Receive Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The EUSART receive buffer, RCREG, is full (cleared when RCREG is read) 0 = The EUSART receive buffer is empty bit 4 TXIF: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The EUSART transmit buffer, TXREG, is empty (cleared when TXREG is written) 0 = The EUSART transmit buffer is full bit 3 SSPIF: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software) 0 = Waiting to transmit/receive bit 2 CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode. bit 1 TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred bit 0 TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR1 register did not overflow Note 1: This bit is unimplemented on 28-pin devices and will read as ‘0’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 97 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 9-5: PIR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 2 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIF: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Flag bit 1 = Device oscillator failed, clock input has changed to INTOSC (must be cleared in software) 0 = Device clock operating bit 6 CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit 1 = Comparator input has changed (must be cleared in software) 0 = Comparator input has not changed bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 EEIF: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The write operation is complete (must be cleared in software) 0 = The write operation is not complete or has not been started bit 3 BCLIF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A bus collision occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No bus collision occurred bit 2 HLVDIF: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A high/low-voltage condition occurred (direction determined by VDIRMAG bit, HLVDCON<7>) 0 = A high/low-voltage condition has not occurred bit 1 TMR3IF: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR3 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR3 register did not overflow bit 0 CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 98 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.3 PIE Registers The PIE registers contain the individual enable bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Enable registers (PIE1 and PIE2). When IPEN = 0, the PEIE bit must be set to enable any of these peripheral interrupts. REGISTER 9-6: PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 PSPIE: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt 0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt bit 6 ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the A/D interrupt 0 = Disables the A/D interrupt bit 5 RCIE: EUSART Receive Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the EUSART receive interrupt 0 = Disables the EUSART receive interrupt bit 4 TXIE: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the EUSART transmit interrupt 0 = Disables the EUSART transmit interrupt bit 3 SSPIE: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the MSSP interrupt 0 = Disables the MSSP interrupt bit 2 CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt bit 1 TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt bit 0 TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt Note 1: This bit is unimplemented on 28-pin devices and will read as ‘0’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 99 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 9-7: PIE2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 2 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIE: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 6 CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 EEIE: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 3 BCLIE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 2 HLVDIE: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 1 TMR3IE: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = Disabled bit 0 CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enabled 0 = DisabledPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 100 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.4 IPR Registers The IPR registers contain the individual priority bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral Interrupt Priority registers (IPR1 and IPR2). Using the priority bits requires that the Interrupt Priority Enable (IPEN) bit be set. REGISTER 9-8: IPR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 PSPIP: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Priority bit(1) 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 ADIP: A/D Converter Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 RCIP: EUSART Receive Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 4 TXIP: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 3 SSPIP: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 2 CCP1IP: CCP1 Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 TMR2IP: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 0 TMR1IP: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority Note 1: This bit is unimplemented on 28-pin devices and will read as ‘0’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 101 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 9-9: IPR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 2 R/W-1 R/W-1 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 OSCFIP: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 6 CMIP: Comparator Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 EEIP: Data EEPROM/Flash Write Operation Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 3 BCLIP: Bus Collision Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 2 HLVDIP: High/Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 1 TMR3IP: TMR3 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 0 CCP2IP: CCP2 Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priorityPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 102 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 9.5 RCON Register The RCON register contains flag bits which are used to determine the cause of the last Reset or wake-up from Idle or Sleep modes. RCON also contains the IPEN bit which enables interrupt priorities. The operation of the SBOREN bit and the Reset flag bits is discussed in more detail in Section 4.1 “RCON Register”. REGISTER 9-10: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-1(1) U-0 R/W-1 R-1 R-1 R/W-0(1) R/W-0 IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IPEN: Interrupt Priority Enable bit 1 = Enable priority levels on interrupts 0 = Disable priority levels on interrupts (PIC16CXXX Compatibility mode) bit 6 SBOREN: Software BOR Enable bit(1) For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 3 TO: Watchdog Timer Time-out Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 2 PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit(1) For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1. Note 1: Actual Reset values are determined by device configuration and the nature of the device Reset. See Register 4-1 for additional information.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 103 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 9.6 INTx Pin Interrupts External interrupts on the RB0/INT0, RB1/INT1 and RB2/INT2 pins are edge-triggered. If the corresponding INTEDGx bit in the INTCON2 register is set (= 1), the interrupt is triggered by a rising edge; if the bit is clear, the trigger is on the falling edge. When a valid edge appears on the RBx/INTx pin, the corresponding flag bit, INTxIF, is set. This interrupt can be disabled by clearing the corresponding enable bit, INTxIE. Flag bit, INTxIF, must be cleared in software in the Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling the interrupt. All external interrupts (INT0, INT1 and INT2) can wakeup the processor from Idle or Sleep modes if bit INTxIE was set prior to going into those modes. If the Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE, is set, the processor will branch to the interrupt vector following wake-up. Interrupt priority for INT1 and INT2 is determined by the value contained in the Interrupt Priority bits, INT1IP (INTCON3<6>) and INT2IP (INTCON3<7>). There is no priority bit associated with INT0. It is always a high-priority interrupt source. 9.7 TMR0 Interrupt In 8-bit mode (which is the default), an overflow in the TMR0 register (FFh → 00h) will set flag bit, TMR0IF. In 16-bit mode, an overflow in the TMR0H:TMR0L register pair (FFFFh → 0000h) will set TMR0IF. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Interrupt priority for Timer0 is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bit, TMR0IP (INTCON2<2>). See Section 11.0 “Timer0 Module” for further details on the Timer0 module. 9.8 PORTB Interrupt-on-Change An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit, RBIF (INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, RBIE (INTCON<3>). Interrupt priority for PORTB interrupt-on-change is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bit, RBIP (INTCON2<0>). 9.9 Context Saving During Interrupts During interrupts, the return PC address is saved on the stack. Additionally, the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers are saved on the Fast Return Stack. If a fast return from interrupt is not used (see Section 5.3 “Data Memory Organization”), the user may need to save the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers on entry to the Interrupt Service Routine. Depending on the user’s application, other registers may also need to be saved. Example 9-1 saves and restores the WREG, STATUS and BSR registers during an Interrupt Service Routine. EXAMPLE 9-1: SAVING STATUS, WREG AND BSR REGISTERS IN RAM MOVWF W_TEMP ; W_TEMP is in virtual bank MOVFF STATUS, STATUS_TEMP ; STATUS_TEMP located anywhere MOVFF BSR, BSR_TEMP ; BSR_TMEP located anywhere ; ; USER ISR CODE ; MOVFF BSR_TEMP, BSR ; Restore BSR MOVF W_TEMP, W ; Restore WREG MOVFF STATUS_TEMP, STATUS ; Restore STATUSPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 104 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES: © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 105 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 10.0 I/O PORTS Depending on the device selected and features enabled, there are up to five ports available. Some pins of the I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function from the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. Each port has three registers for its operation. These registers are: • TRIS register (Data Direction register) • PORT register (reads the levels on the pins of the device) • LAT register (Data Latch register) The Data Latch (LAT register) is useful for read-modifywrite operations on the value that the I/O pins are driving. A simplified model of a generic I/O port, without the interfaces to other peripherals, is shown in Figure 10-1. FIGURE 10-1: GENERIC I/O PORT OPERATION 10.1 PORTA, TRISA and LATA Registers PORTA is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it, will write to the port latch. The Data Latch (LATA) register is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATA register read and write the latched output value for PORTA. The RA4 pin is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input and one of the comparator outputs to become the RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT pin. Pins RA6 and RA7 are multiplexed with the main oscillator pins; they are enabled as oscillator or I/O pins by the selection of the main oscillator in the Configuration register (see Section 23.1 “Configuration Bits” for details). When they are not used as port pins, RA6 and RA7 and their associated TRIS and LAT bits are read as ‘0’. The other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs, the analog VREF+ and VREF- inputs and the comparator voltage reference output. The operation of pins RA<3:0> and RA5 as A/D Converter inputs is selected by clearing or setting the control bits in the ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register 1). Pins RA0 through RA5 may also be used as comparator inputs or outputs by setting the appropriate bits in the CMCON register. To use RA<3:0> as digital inputs, it is also necessary to turn off the comparators. The RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The TRISA register controls the direction of the PORTA pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. EXAMPLE 10-1: INITIALIZING PORTA Data Bus WR LAT WR TRIS RD Port Data Latch TRIS Latch RD TRIS Input Buffer I/O pin(1) D Q CK D Q CK EN Q D EN RD LAT or Port Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. Note: On a Power-on Reset, RA5 and RA<3:0> are configured as analog inputs and read as ‘0’. RA4 is configured as a digital input. CLRF PORTA ; Initialize PORTA by ; clearing output ; data latches CLRF LATA ; Alternate method ; to clear output ; data latches MOVLW 07h ; Configure A/D MOVWF ADCON1 ; for digital inputs MOVWF 07h ; Configure comparators MOVWF CMCON ; for digital input MOVLW 0CFh ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISA ; Set RA<3:0> as inputs ; RA<5:4> as outputsPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 106 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 10-1: PORTA I/O SUMMARY Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RA0/AN0 RA0 0 O DIG LATA<0> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTA<0> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. AN0 1 I ANA A/D input channel 0 and comparator C1- input. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect digital output. RA1/AN1 RA1 0 O DIG LATA<1> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTA<1> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. AN1 1 I ANA A/D input channel 1 and comparator C2- input. Default input configuration on POR; does not affect digital output. RA2/AN2/ VREF-/CVREF RA2 0 O DIG LATA<2> data output; not affected by analog input. Disabled when CVREF output enabled. 1 I TTL PORTA<2> data input. Disabled when analog functions enabled; disabled when CVREF output enabled. AN2 1 I ANA A/D input channel 2 and comparator C2+ input. Default input configuration on POR; not affected by analog output. VREF- 1 I ANA A/D and comparator voltage reference low input. CVREF x O ANA Comparator voltage reference output. Enabling this feature disables digital I/O. RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA3 0 O DIG LATA<3> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTA<3> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. AN3 1 I ANA A/D input channel 3 and comparator C1+ input. Default input configuration on POR. VREF+ 1 I ANA A/D and comparator voltage reference high input. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA4 0 O DIG LATA<4> data output. 1 I ST PORTA<4> data input; default configuration on POR. T0CKI 1 I ST Timer0 clock input. C1OUT 0 O DIG Comparator 1 output; takes priority over port data. RA5/AN4/SS/ HLVDIN/C2OUT RA5 0 O DIG LATA<5> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTA<5> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. AN4 1 I ANA A/D input channel 4. Default configuration on POR. SS 1 I TTL Slave select input for MSSP module. HLVDIN 1 I ANA High/Low-Voltage Detect external trip point input. C2OUT 0 O DIG Comparator 2 output; takes priority over port data. OSC2/CLKO/RA6 RA6 0 O DIG LATA<6> data output. Enabled in RCIO, INTIO2 and ECIO modes only. 1 I TTL PORTA<6> data input. Enabled in RCIO, INTIO2 and ECIO modes only. OSC2 x O ANA Main oscillator feedback output connection (XT, HS and LP modes). CLKO x O DIG System cycle clock output (FOSC/4) in RC, INTIO1 and EC Oscillator modes. OSC1/CLKI/RA7 RA7 0 O DIG LATA<7> data output. Disabled in external oscillator modes. 1 I TTL PORTA<7> data input. Disabled in external oscillator modes. OSC1 x I ANA Main oscillator input connection. CLKI x I ANA Main clock input connection. Legend: DIG = Digital level output; TTL = TTL input buffer; ST = Schmitt Trigger input buffer; ANA = Analog level input/output; x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 107 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 10-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTA RA7(1) RA6(1) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 52 LATA LATA7(1) LATA6(1) PORTA Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISA TRISA7(1) TRISA6(1) PORTA Data Direction Register 52 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 51 CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 51 CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA. Note 1: RA<7:6> and their associated latch and data direction bits are enabled as I/O pins based on oscillator configuration; otherwise, they are read as ‘0’.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 108 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.2 PORTB, TRISB and LATB Registers PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The Data Latch register (LATB) is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATB register read and write the latched output value for PORTB. EXAMPLE 10-2: INITIALIZING PORTB Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is performed by clearing bit, RBPU (INTCON2<7>). The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. Four of the PORTB pins (RB<7:4>) have an interrupton-change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any RB<7:4> pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton-change comparison). The input pins (of RB<7:4>) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB<7:4> are ORed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with Flag bit, RBIF (INTCON<0>). This interrupt can wake the device from the Sleep mode, or any of the Idle modes. The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner: a) Any read or write of PORTB (except with the MOVFF (ANY), PORTB instruction). b) Clear flag bit, RBIF. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit, RBIF. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit, RBIF, to be cleared. The interrupt-on-change feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. RB3 can be configured by the Configuration bit, CCP2MX, as the alternate peripheral pin for the CCP2 module (CCP2MX = 0). Note: On a Power-on Reset, RB<4:0> are configured as analog inputs by default and read as ‘0’; RB<7:5> are configured as digital inputs. By programming the Configuration bit, PBADEN, RB<4:0> will alternatively be configured as digital inputs on POR. CLRF PORTB ; Initialize PORTB by ; clearing output ; data latches CLRF LATB ; Alternate method ; to clear output ; data latches MOVLW 0Fh ; Set RB<4:0> as MOVWF ADCON1 ; digital I/O pins ; (required if config bit ; PBADEN is set) MOVLW 0CFh ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISB ; Set RB<3:0> as inputs ; RB<5:4> as outputs ; RB<7:6> as inputs© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 109 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 10-3: PORTB I/O SUMMARY Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RB0/INT0/FLT0/ AN12 RB0 0 O DIG LATB<0> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTB<0> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. Disabled when analog input enabled.(1) INT0 1 I ST External interrupt 0 input. FLT0 1 I ST Enhanced PWM Fault input (ECCP1 module); enabled in software. AN12 1 I ANA A/D input channel 12.(1) RB1/INT1/AN10 RB1 0 O DIG LATB<1> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTB<1> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. Disabled when analog input enabled.(1) INT1 1 I ST External Interrupt 1 input. AN10 1 I ANA A/D input channel 10.(1) RB2/INT2/AN8 RB2 0 O DIG LATB<2> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTB<2> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. Disabled when analog input enabled.(1) INT2 1 I ST External interrupt 2 input. AN8 1 I ANA A/D input channel 8.(1) RB3/AN9/CCP2 RB3 0 O DIG LATB<3> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTB<3> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. Disabled when analog input enabled.(1) AN9 1 I ANA A/D input channel 9.(1) CCP2(2) 0 O DIG CCP2 compare and PWM output. 1 I ST CCP2 capture input RB4/KBI0/AN11 RB4 0 O DIG LATB<4> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I TTL PORTB<4> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. Disabled when analog input enabled.(1) KBI0 1 I TTL Interrupt-on-pin change. AN11 1 I ANA A/D input channel 11.(1) RB5/KBI1/PGM RB5 0 O DIG LATB<5> data output. 1 I TTL PORTB<5> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. KBI1 1 I TTL Interrupt-on-pin change. PGM x I ST Single-Supply In-Circuit Serial Programming™ mode entry (ICSP™). Enabled by LVP Configuration bit; all other pin functions disabled. RB6/KBI2/PGC RB6 0 O DIG LATB<6> data output. 1 I TTL PORTB<6> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. KBI2 1 I TTL Interrupt-on-pin change. PGC x I ST Serial execution (ICSP) clock input for ICSP and ICD operation.(3) RB7/KBI3/PGD RB7 0 O DIG LATB<7> data output. 1 I TTL PORTB<7> data input; weak pull-up when RBPU bit is cleared. KBI3 1 I TTL Interrupt-on-pin change. PGD x O DIG Serial execution data output for ICSP and ICD operation.(3) x I ST Serial execution data input for ICSP and ICD operation.(3) Legend: DIG = Digital level output; TTL = TTL input buffer; ST = Schmitt Trigger input buffer; ANA = Analog level input/output; x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option). Note 1: Configuration on POR is determined by the PBADEN Configuration bit. Pins are configured as analog inputs by default when PBADEN is set and digital inputs when PBADEN is cleared. 2: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when the CCP2MX Configuration bit is ‘0’. Default assignment is RC1. 3: All other pin functions are disabled when ICSP or ICD are enabled.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 110 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 10-4: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 52 LATB PORTB Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 52 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 INTCON2 RBPU INTEDG0 INTEDG1 INTEDG2 — TMR0IP — RBIP 49 INTCON3 INT2IP INT1IP — INT2IE INT1IE — INT2IF INT1IF 49 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 111 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 10.3 PORTC, TRISC and LATC Registers PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISC. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The Data Latch register (LATC) is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATC register read and write the latched output value for PORTC. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions (Table 10-5). The pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. RC1 is normally configured by Configuration bit, CCP2MX, as the default peripheral pin of the CCP2 module (default/erased state, CCP2MX = 1). When enabling peripheral functions, care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for additional information. The contents of the TRISC register are affected by peripheral overrides. Reading TRISC always returns the current contents, even though a peripheral device may be overriding one or more of the pins. EXAMPLE 10-3: INITIALIZING PORTC Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as digital inputs. CLRF PORTC ; Initialize PORTC by ; clearing output ; data latches CLRF LATC ; Alternate method ; to clear output ; data latches MOVLW 0CFh ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISC ; Set RC<3:0> as inputs ; RC<5:4> as outputs ; RC<7:6> as inputsPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 112 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 10-5: PORTC I/O SUMMARY Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RC0/T1OSO/ T13CKI RC0 0 O DIG LATC<0> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<0> data input. T1OSO x O ANA Timer1 oscillator output; enabled when Timer1 oscillator enabled. Disables digital I/O. T13CKI 1 I ST Timer1/Timer3 counter input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC1 0 O DIG LATC<1> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<1> data input. T1OSI x I ANA Timer1 oscillator input; enabled when Timer1 oscillator enabled. Disables digital I/O. CCP2(1) 0 O DIG CCP2 compare and PWM output; takes priority over port data. 1 I ST CCP2 capture input. RC2/CCP1/P1A RC2 0 O DIG LATC<2> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<2> data input. CCP1 0 O DIG ECCP1 compare or PWM output; takes priority over port data. 1 I ST ECCP1 capture input. P1A(2) 0 O DIG ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel A. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. Takes priority over port data. RC3/SCK/SCL RC3 0 O DIG LATC<3> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<3> data input. SCK 0 O DIG SPI clock output (MSSP module); takes priority over port data. 1 I ST SPI clock input (MSSP module). SCL 0 O DIG I2C™ clock output (MSSP module); takes priority over port data. 1 I I2C/SMB I2C clock input (MSSP module); input type depends on module setting. RC4/SDI/SDA RC4 0 O DIG LATC<4> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<4> data input. SDI 1 I ST SPI data input (MSSP module). SDA 1 O DIG I2C data output (MSSP module); takes priority over port data. 1 I I2C/SMB I2C data input (MSSP module); input type depends on module setting. RC5/SDO RC5 0 O DIG LATC<5> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<5> data input. SDO 0 O DIG SPI data output (MSSP module); takes priority over port data. RC6/TX/CK RC6 0 O DIG LATC<6> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<6> data input. TX 1 O DIG Asynchronous serial transmit data output (EUSART module); takes priority over port data. User must configure as output. CK 1 O DIG Synchronous serial clock output (EUSART module); takes priority over port data. 1 I ST Synchronous serial clock input (EUSART module). RC7/RX/DT RC7 0 O DIG LATC<7> data output. 1 I ST PORTC<7> data input. RX 1 I ST Asynchronous serial receive data input (EUSART module). DT 1 O DIG Synchronous serial data output (EUSART module); takes priority over port data. 1 I ST Synchronous serial data input (EUSART module). User must configure as an input. Legend: DIG = Digital level output; TTL = TTL input buffer; ST = Schmitt Trigger input buffer; ANA = Analog level input/output; I 2C/SMB = I2C/SMBus input buffer; x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option). Note 1: Default assignment for CCP2 when the CCP2MX Configuration bit is set. Alternate assignment is RB3. 2: Enhanced PWM output is available only on PIC18F4520 devices.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 113 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 10-6: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTC RC7 RC6 RC5 RC4 RC3 RC2 RC1 RC0 52 LATC PORTC Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 52PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 114 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.4 PORTD, TRISD and LATD Registers PORTD is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISD. Setting a TRISD bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTD pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISD bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTD pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The Data Latch register (LATD) is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATD register read and write the latched output value for PORTD. All pins on PORTD are implemented with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. Three of the PORTD pins are multiplexed with outputs P1B, P1C and P1D of the Enhanced CCP module. The operation of these additional PWM output pins is covered in greater detail in Section 16.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module”. PORTD can also be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit, PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the input buffers are TTL. See Section 10.6 “Parallel Slave Port” for additional information on the Parallel Slave Port (PSP). EXAMPLE 10-4: INITIALIZING PORTD Note: PORTD is only available on 40/44-pin devices. Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as digital inputs. Note: When the enhanced PWM mode is used with either dual or quad outputs, the PSP functions of PORTD are automatically disabled. CLRF PORTD ; Initialize PORTD by ; clearing output ; data latches CLRF LATD ; Alternate method ; to clear output ; data latches MOVLW 0CFh ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISD ; Set RD<3:0> as inputs ; RD<5:4> as outputs ; RD<7:6> as inputs© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 115 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 10-7: PORTD I/O SUMMARY Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RD0/PSP0 RD0 0 O DIG LATD<0> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<0> data input. PSP0 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<0>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. RD1/PSP1 RD1 0 O DIG LATD<1> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<1> data input. PSP1 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<1>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. RD2/PSP2 RD2 0 O DIG LATD<2> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<2> data input. PSP2 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<2>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. RD3/PSP3 RD3 0 O DIG LATD<3> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<3> data input. PSP3 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<3>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. RD4/PSP4 RD4 0 O DIG LATD<4> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<4> data input. PSP4 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<4>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. RD5/PSP5/P1B RD5 0 O DIG LATD<5> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<5> data input. PSP5 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<5>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. P1B 0 O DIG ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel B; takes priority over port and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. RD6/PSP6/P1C RD6 0 O DIG LATD<6> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<6> data input. PSP6 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<6>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. P1C 0 O DIG ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel C; takes priority over port and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. RD7/PSP7/P1D RD7 0 O DIG LATD<7> data output. 1 I ST PORTD<7> data input. PSP7 x O DIG PSP read data output (LATD<7>); takes priority over port data. x I TTL PSP write data input. P1D 0 O DIG ECCP1 Enhanced PWM output, channel D; takes priority over port and PSP data. May be configured for tri-state during Enhanced PWM shutdown events. Legend: DIG = Digital level output; TTL = TTL input buffer; ST = Schmitt Trigger input buffer; x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option).PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 116 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 10-8: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTD RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 52 LATD PORTD Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 52 TRISE(1) IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 52 CCP1CON P1M1(1) P1M0(1) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD. Note 1: These registers and/or bits are unimplemented on 28-oin devices.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 117 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 10.5 PORTE, TRISE and LATE Registers Depending on the particular PIC18F2420/2520/4420/ 4520 device selected, PORTE is implemented in two different ways. For 40/44-pin devices, PORTE is a 4-bit wide port. Three pins (RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/ AN7) are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When selected as an analog input, these pins will read as ‘0’s. The corresponding Data Direction register is TRISE. Setting a TRISE bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTE pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISE bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTE pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. The upper four bits of the TRISE register also control the operation of the Parallel Slave Port. Their operation is explained in Register 10-1. The Data Latch register (LATE) is also memory mapped. Read-modify-write operations on the LATE register, read and write the latched output value for PORTE. The fourth pin of PORTE (MCLR/VPP/RE3) is an input only pin. Its operation is controlled by the MCLRE Configuration bit. When selected as a port pin (MCLRE = 0), it functions as a digital input only pin; as such, it does not have TRIS or LAT bits associated with its operation. Otherwise, it functions as the device’s Master Clear input. In either configuration, RE3 also functions as the programming voltage input during programming. EXAMPLE 10-5: INITIALIZING PORTE 10.5.1 PORTE IN 28-PIN DEVICES For 28-pin devices, PORTE is only available when Master Clear functionality is disabled (MCLRE = 0). In these cases, PORTE is a single bit, input only port comprised of RE3 only. The pin operates as previously described. Note: On a Power-on Reset, RE<2:0> are configured as analog inputs. Note: On a Power-on Reset, RE3 is enabled as a digital input only if Master Clear functionality is disabled. CLRF PORTE ; Initialize PORTE by ; clearing output ; data latches CLRF LATE ; Alternate method ; to clear output ; data latches MOVLW 0Ah ; Configure A/D MOVWF ADCON1 ; for digital inputs MOVLW 03h ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISE ; Set RE<0> as inputs ; RE<1> as outputs ; RE<2> as inputsPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 118 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 10-1: TRISE REGISTER (40/44-PIN DEVICES ONLY) R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit 1 = A word has been received and waiting to be read by the CPU 0 = No word has been received bit 6 OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit 1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word 0 = The output buffer has been read bit 5 IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit (in Microprocessor mode) 1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in software) 0 = No overflow occurred bit 4 PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit 1 = Parallel Slave Port mode 0 = General purpose I/O mode bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 TRISE2: RE2 Direction Control bit 1 = Input 0 = Output bit 1 TRISE1: RE1 Direction Control bit 1 = Input 0 = Output bit 0 TRISE0: RE0 Direction Control bit 1 = Input 0 = Output© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 119 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 10-9: PORTE I/O SUMMARY TABLE 10-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RE0/RD/AN5 RE0 0 O DIG LATE<0> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I ST PORTE<0> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. RD 1 I TTL PSP read enable input (PSP enabled). AN5 1 I ANA A/D input channel 5; default input configuration on POR. RE1/WR/AN6 RE1 0 O DIG LATE<1> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I ST PORTE<1> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. WR 1 I TTL PSP write enable input (PSP enabled). AN6 1 I ANA A/D input channel 6; default input configuration on POR. RE2/CS/AN7 RE2 0 O DIG LATE<2> data output; not affected by analog input. 1 I ST PORTE<2> data input; disabled when analog input enabled. CS 1 I TTL PSP write enable input (PSP enabled). AN7 1 I ANA A/D input channel 7; default input configuration on POR. MCLR/VPP/RE3(1) MCLR — I ST External Master Clear input; enabled when MCLRE Configuration bit is set. VPP — I ANA High-voltage detection; used for ICSP™ mode entry detection. Always available regardless of pin mode. RE3 —(2) I ST PORTE<3> data input; enabled when MCLRE Configuration bit is clear. Legend: DIG = Digital level output; TTL = TTL input buffer; ST = Schmitt Trigger input buffer; ANA = Analog level input/output; x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option). Note 1: RE3 is available on both 28-pin and 40/44-pin devices. All other PORTE pins are only implemented on 40/44-pin devices. 2: RE3 does not have a corresponding TRIS bit to control data direction. Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTE — — — — RE3(1,2) RE2 RE1 RE0 52 LATE(2) — — — — — LATE Data Latch Register 52 TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 52 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE. Note 1: Implemented only when Master Clear functionality is disabled (MCLRE Configuration bit = 0). 2: RE3 is the only PORTE bit implemented on both 28-pin and 40/44-pin devices. All other bits are implemented only when PORTE is implemented (i.e., 40/44-pin devices).PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 120 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 10.6 Parallel Slave Port In addition to its function as a general I/O port, PORTD can also operate as an 8-bit wide Parallel Slave Port (PSP) or microprocessor port. PSP operation is controlled by the 4 upper bits of the TRISE register (Register 10-1). Setting control bit, PSPMODE (TRISE<4>), enables PSP operation as long as the Enhanced CCP module is not operating in dual output or quad output PWM mode. In Slave mode, the port is asynchronously readable and writable by the external world. The PSP can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor can read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch. Setting the control bit, PSPMODE, enables the PORTE I/O pins to become control inputs for the microprocessor port. When set, port pin RE0 is the RD input, RE1 is the WR input and RE2 is the CS (Chip Select) input. For this functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>) must be configured as inputs (set). The A/D port configuration bits, PFCG<3:0> (ADCON1<3:0>), must also be set to a value in the range of ‘1010’ through ‘1111’. A write to the PSP occurs when both the CS and WR lines are first detected low and ends when either are detected high. The PSPIF and IBF flag bits are both set when the write ends. A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD lines are first detected low. The data in PORTD is read out and the OBF bit is clear. If the user writes new data to PORTD to set OBF, the data is immediately read out; however, the OBF bit is not set. When either the CS or RD lines are detected high, the PORTD pins return to the input state and the PSPIF bit is set. User applications should wait for PSPIF to be set before servicing the PSP; when this happens, the IBF and OBF bits can be polled and the appropriate action taken. The timing for the control signals in Write and Read modes is shown in Figure 10-3 and Figure 10-4, respectively. FIGURE 10-2: PORTD AND PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM (PARALLEL SLAVE PORT) Note: The Parallel Slave Port is only available on 40/44-pin devices. Data Bus WR LATD RDx pin D Q CK EN Q D RD PORTD EN One bit of PORTD Set Interrupt Flag PSPIF (PIR1<7>) Read Chip Select Write RD CS WR TTL TTL TTL TTL or WR PORTD RD LATD Data Latch Note: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. PORTE Pins© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 121 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 10-3: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS FIGURE 10-4: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS TABLE 10-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page PORTD RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 52 LATD PORTD Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 52 PORTE — — — — RE3 RE2 RE1 RE0 52 LATE — — — — — LATE Data Latch Register 52 TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 52 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IF INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 CS Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 WR RD IBF OBF PSPIF PORTD<7:0> Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 CS Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 WR IBF PSPIF RD OBF PORTD<7:0>PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 122 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 123 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 11.0 TIMER0 MODULE The Timer0 module incorporates the following features: • Software selectable operation as a timer or counter in both 8-bit or 16-bit modes • Readable and writable registers • Dedicated 8-bit, software programmable prescaler • Selectable clock source (internal or external) • Edge select for external clock • Interrupt-on-overflow The T0CON register (Register 11-1) controls all aspects of the module’s operation, including the prescale selection. It is both readable and writable. A simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 8-bit mode is shown in Figure 11-1. Figure 11-2 shows a simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 16-bit mode. REGISTER 11-1: T0CON: TIMER0 CONTROL REGISTER R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 TMR0ON T08BIT T0CS T0SE PSA T0PS2 T0PS1 T0PS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 TMR0ON: Timer0 On/Off Control bit 1 = Enables Timer0 0 = Stops Timer0 bit 6 T08BIT: Timer0 8-Bit/16-Bit Control bit 1 = Timer0 is configured as an 8-bit timer/counter 0 = Timer0 is configured as a 16-bit timer/counter bit 5 T0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit 1 = Transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO) bit 4 T0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit 1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin bit 3 PSA: Timer0 Prescaler Assignment bit 1 = TImer0 prescaler is not assigned. Timer0 clock input bypasses prescaler. 0 = Timer0 prescaler is assigned. Timer0 clock input comes from prescaler output. bit 2-0 T0PS<2:0>: Timer0 Prescaler Select bits 111 = 1:256 Prescale value 110 = 1:128 Prescale value 101 = 1:64 Prescale value 100 = 1:32 Prescale value 011 = 1:16 Prescale value 010 = 1:8 Prescale value 001 = 1:4 Prescale value 000 = 1:2 Prescale valuePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 124 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 11.1 Timer0 Operation Timer0 can operate as either a timer or a counter; the mode is selected with the T0CS bit (T0CON<5>). In Timer mode (T0CS = 0), the module increments on every clock by default unless a different prescaler value is selected (see Section 11.3 “Prescaler”). If the TMR0 register is written to, the increment is inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The user can work around this by writing an adjusted value to the TMR0 register. The Counter mode is selected by setting the T0CS bit (= 1). In this mode, Timer0 increments either on every rising or falling edge of pin RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit, T0SE (T0CON<4>); clearing this bit selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are discussed below. An external clock source can be used to drive Timer0; however, it must meet certain requirements to ensure that the external clock can be synchronized with the internal phase clock (TOSC). There is a delay between synchronization and the onset of incrementing the timer/counter. 11.2 Timer0 Reads and Writes in 16-Bit Mode TMR0H is not the actual high byte of Timer0 in 16-bit mode; it is actually a buffered version of the real high byte of Timer0 which is not directly readable nor writable (refer to Figure 11-2). TMR0H is updated with the contents of the high byte of Timer0 during a read of TMR0L. This provides the ability to read all 16 bits of Timer0 without having to verify that the read of the high and low byte were valid, due to a rollover between successive reads of the high and low byte. Similarly, a write to the high byte of Timer0 must also take place through the TMR0H Buffer register. The high byte is updated with the contents of TMR0H when a write occurs to TMR0L. This allows all 16 bits of Timer0 to be updated at once. FIGURE 11-1: TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM (8-BIT MODE) FIGURE 11-2: TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT MODE) Note: Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI max. prescale. T0CKI pin T0SE 0 1 0 1 T0CS FOSC/4 Programmable Prescaler Sync with Internal Clocks TMR0L (2 TCY Delay) PSA Internal Data Bus T0PS<2:0> Set TMR0IF on Overflow 3 8 8 Note: Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI max. prescale. T0CKI pin T0SE 0 1 0 1 T0CS FOSC/4 Programmable Prescaler Sync with Internal Clocks TMR0L (2 TCY Delay) Internal Data Bus 8 PSA T0PS<2:0> Set TMR0IF on Overflow 3 TMR0 TMR0H High Byte 8 8 8 Read TMR0L Write TMR0L 8© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 125 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 11.3 Prescaler An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the Timer0 module. The prescaler is not directly readable or writable; its value is set by the PSA and T0PS<2:0> bits (T0CON<3:0>) which determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio. Clearing the PSA bit assigns the prescaler to the Timer0 module. When it is assigned, prescale values from 1:2 through 1:256 in power-of-2 increments are selectable. When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF TMR0, MOVWF TMR0, BSF TMR0, etc.) clear the prescaler count. 11.3.1 SWITCHING PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT The prescaler assignment is fully under software control and can be changed “on-the-fly” during program execution. 11.4 Timer0 Interrupt The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h in 8-bit mode, or from FFFFh to 0000h in 16-bit mode. This overflow sets the TMR0IF flag bit. The interrupt can be masked by clearing the TMR0IE bit (INTCON<5>). Before reenabling the interrupt, the TMR0IF bit must be cleared in software by the Interrupt Service Routine. Since Timer0 is shut down in Sleep mode, the TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from Sleep. TABLE 11-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0 Note: Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler count but will not change the prescaler assignment. Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page TMR0L Timer0 Register Low Byte 50 TMR0H Timer0 Register High Byte 50 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 T0CON TMR0ON T08BIT T0CS T0SE PSA T0PS2 T0PS1 T0PS0 50 TRISA RA7(1) RA6(1) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 52 Legend: Shaded cells are not used by Timer0. Note 1: PORTA<7:6> and their direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 126 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 127 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 12.0 TIMER1 MODULE The Timer1 timer/counter module incorporates these features: • Software selectable operation as a 16-bit timer or counter • Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) • Selectable clock source (internal or external) with device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal options • Interrupt-on-overflow • Reset on CCP Special Event Trigger • Device clock status flag (T1RUN) A simplified block diagram of the Timer1 module is shown in Figure 12-1. A block diagram of the module’s operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 12-2. The module incorporates its own low-power oscillator to provide an additional clocking option. The Timer1 oscillator can also be used as a low-power clock source for the microcontroller in power-managed operation. Timer1 can also be used to provide Real-Time Clock (RTC) functionality to applications with only a minimal addition of external components and code overhead. Timer1 is controlled through the T1CON Control register (Register 12-1). It also contains the Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit (T1OSCEN). Timer1 can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing control bit, TMR1ON (T1CON<0>). REGISTER 12-1: T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 RD16: 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Enable bit 1 = Enables register read/write of TImer1 in one 16-bit operation 0 = Enables register read/write of Timer1 in two 8-bit operations bit 6 T1RUN: Timer1 System Clock Status bit 1 = Device clock is derived from Timer1 oscillator 0 = Device clock is derived from another source bit 5-4 T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits 11 = 1:8 Prescale value 10 = 1:4 Prescale value 01 = 1:2 Prescale value 00 = 1:1 Prescale value bit 3 T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit 1 = Timer1 oscillator is enabled 0 = Timer1 oscillator is shut off The oscillator inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain. bit 2 T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Select bit When TMR1CS = 1: 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input 0 = Synchronize external clock input When TMR1CS = 0: This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0. bit 1 TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI (on the rising edge) 0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4) bit 0 TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit 1 = Enables Timer1 0 = Stops Timer1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 128 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.1 Timer1 Operation Timer1 can operate in one of these modes: • Timer • Synchronous Counter • Asynchronous Counter The operating mode is determined by the clock select bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>). When TMR1CS is cleared (= 0), Timer1 increments on every internal instruction cycle (FOSC/4). When the bit is set, Timer1 increments on every rising edge of the Timer1 external clock input or the Timer1 oscillator, if enabled. When Timer1 is enabled, the RC1/T1OSI and RC0/ T1OSO/T13CKI pins become inputs. This means the values of TRISC<1:0> are ignored and the pins are read as ‘0’. FIGURE 12-1: TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM FIGURE 12-2: TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT READ/WRITE MODE) T1SYNC TMR1CS T1CKPS<1:0> Sleep Input T1OSCEN(1) FOSC/4 Internal Clock On/Off Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 Synchronize Detect 1 0 2 T1OSO/T13CKI T1OSI 1 0 TMR1ON TMR1L Set TMR1IF on Overflow TMR1 High Byte Clear TMR1 (CCP Special Event Trigger) Timer1 Oscillator Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain. On/Off Timer1 Timer1 Clock Input T1SYNC TMR1CS T1CKPS<1:0> Sleep Input T1OSCEN(1) FOSC/4 Internal Clock Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 Synchronize Detect 1 0 2 T1OSO/T13CKI T1OSI Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain. 1 0 TMR1L Internal Data Bus 8 Set TMR1IF on Overflow TMR1 TMR1H High Byte 8 8 8 Read TMR1L Write TMR1L 8 TMR1ON Clear TMR1 (CCP Special Event Trigger) Timer1 Oscillator On/Off Timer1 Timer1 Clock Input© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 129 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 12.2 Timer1 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Timer1 can be configured for 16-bit reads and writes (see Figure 12-2). When the RD16 control bit (T1CON<7>) is set, the address for TMR1H is mapped to a buffer register for the high byte of Timer1. A read from TMR1L will load the contents of the high byte of Timer1 into the Timer1 high byte buffer. This provides the user with the ability to accurately read all 16 bits of Timer1 without having to determine whether a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low byte, has become invalid due to a rollover between reads. A write to the high byte of Timer1 must also take place through the TMR1H Buffer register. The Timer1 high byte is updated with the contents of TMR1H when a write occurs to TMR1L. This allows a user to write all 16 bits to both the high and low bytes of Timer1 at once. The high byte of Timer1 is not directly readable or writable in this mode. All reads and writes must take place through the Timer1 High Byte Buffer register. Writes to TMR1H do not clear the Timer1 prescaler. The prescaler is only cleared on writes to TMR1L. 12.3 Timer1 Oscillator An on-chip crystal oscillator circuit is incorporated between pins T1OSI (input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by setting the Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit, T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a lowpower circuit rated for 32 kHz crystals. It will continue to run during all power-managed modes. The circuit for a typical LP oscillator is shown in Figure 12-3. Table 12-1 shows the capacitor selection for the Timer1 oscillator. The user must provide a software time delay to ensure proper start-up of the Timer1 oscillator. FIGURE 12-3: EXTERNAL COMPONENTS FOR THE TIMER1 LP OSCILLATOR TABLE 12-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR THE TIMER OSCILLATOR 12.3.1 USING TIMER1 AS A CLOCK SOURCE The Timer1 oscillator is also available as a clock source in power-managed modes. By setting the clock select bits, SCS<1:0> (OSCCON<1:0>), to ‘01’, the device switches to SEC_RUN mode; both the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the Timer1 oscillator. If the IDLEN bit (OSCCON<7>) is cleared and a SLEEP instruction is executed, the device enters SEC_IDLE mode. Additional details are available in Section 3.0 “Power-Managed Modes”. Whenever the Timer1 oscillator is providing the clock source, the Timer1 system clock status flag, T1RUN (T1CON<6>), is set. This can be used to determine the controller’s current clocking mode. It can also indicate the clock source being currently used by the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor. If the Clock Monitor is enabled and the Timer1 oscillator fails while providing the clock, polling the T1RUN bit will indicate whether the clock is being provided by the Timer1 oscillator or another source. 12.3.2 LOW-POWER TIMER1 OPTION The Timer1 oscillator can operate at two distinct levels of power consumption based on device configuration. When the LPT1OSC Configuration bit is set, the Timer1 oscillator operates in a low-power mode. When LPT1OSC is not set, Timer1 operates at a higher power level. Power consumption for a particular mode is relatively constant, regardless of the device’s operating mode. The default Timer1 configuration is the higher power mode. As the low-power Timer1 mode tends to be more sensitive to interference, high noise environments may cause some oscillator instability. The low-power option is, therefore, best suited for low noise applications where power conservation is an important design consideration. Note: See the Notes with Table 12-1 for additional information about capacitor selection. C1 C2 XTAL PIC18FXXXX T1OSI T1OSO 32.768 kHz 27 pF 27 pF Osc Type Freq C1 C2 LP 32 kHz 27 pF(1) 27 pF(1) Note 1: Microchip suggests these values as a starting point in validating the oscillator circuit. 2: Higher capacitance increases the stability of the oscillator but also increases the start-up time. 3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components. 4: Capacitor values are for design guidance only.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 130 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 12.3.3 TIMER1 OSCILLATOR LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS The Timer1 oscillator circuit draws very little power during operation. Due to the low-power nature of the oscillator, it may also be sensitive to rapidly changing signals in close proximity. The oscillator circuit, shown in Figure 12-3, should be located as close as possible to the microcontroller. There should be no circuits passing within the oscillator circuit boundaries other than VSS or VDD. If a high-speed circuit must be located near the oscillator (such as the CCP1 pin in Output Compare or PWM mode, or the primary oscillator using the OSC2 pin), a grounded guard ring around the oscillator circuit, as shown in Figure 12-4, may be helpful when used on a single-sided PCB or in addition to a ground plane. FIGURE 12-4: OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT WITH GROUNDED GUARD RING 12.4 Timer1 Interrupt The TMR1 register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The Timer1 interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow, which is latched in interrupt flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the Timer1 Interrupt Enable bit, TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). 12.5 Resetting Timer1 Using the CCP Special Event Trigger If either of the CCP modules is configured to use Timer1 and generate a Special Event Trigger in Compare mode (CCP1M<3:0> or CCP2M<3:0> = 1011), this signal will reset Timer1. The trigger from CCP2 will also start an A/D conversion if the A/D module is enabled (see Section 15.3.4 “Special Event Trigger” for more information). The module must be configured as either a timer or a synchronous counter to take advantage of this feature. When used this way, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair effectively becomes a Period register for Timer1. If Timer1 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode, this Reset operation may not work. In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a Special Event Trigger, the write operation will take precedence. 12.6 Using Timer1 as a Real-Time Clock Adding an external LP oscillator to Timer1 (such as the one described in Section 12.3 “Timer1 Oscillator”) gives users the option to include RTC functionality to their applications. This is accomplished with an inexpensive watch crystal to provide an accurate time base and several lines of application code to calculate the time. When operating in Sleep mode and using a battery or supercapacitor as a power source, it can completely eliminate the need for a separate RTC device and battery backup. The application code routine, RTCisr, shown in Example 12-1, demonstrates a simple method to increment a counter at one-second intervals using an Interrupt Service Routine. Incrementing the TMR1 register pair to overflow triggers the interrupt and calls the routine, which increments the seconds counter by one; additional counters for minutes and hours are incremented as the previous counter overflow. Since the register pair is 16 bits wide, counting up to overflow the register directly from a 32.768 kHz clock would take 2 seconds. To force the overflow at the required one-second intervals, it is necessary to preload it. The simplest method is to set the MSb of TMR1H with a BSF instruction. Note that the TMR1L register is never preloaded or altered; doing so may introduce cumulative error over many cycles. For this method to be accurate, Timer1 must operate in Asynchronous mode and the Timer1 overflow interrupt must be enabled (PIE1<0> = 1), as shown in the routine, RTCinit. The Timer1 oscillator must also be enabled and running at all times. VDD OSC1 VSS OSC2 RC0 RC1 RC2 Note: Not drawn to scale. Note: The Special Event Triggers from the CCP2 module will not set the TMR1IF interrupt flag bit (PIR1<0>). © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 131 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 12.7 Considerations in Asynchronous Counter Mode Following a Timer1 interrupt and an update to the TMR1 registers, the Timer1 module uses a falling edge on its clock source to trigger the next register update on the rising edge. If the update is completed after the clock input has fallen, the next rising edge will not be counted. If the application can reliably update TMR1 before the timer input goes low, no additional action is needed. Otherwise, an adjusted update can be performed following a later Timer1 increment. This can be done by monitoring TMR1L within the interrupt routine until it increments, and then updating the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair while the clock is low, or one-half of the period of the clock source. Assuming that Timer1 is being used as a Real-Time Clock, the clock source is a 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator; in this case, one half period of the clock is 15.25 μs. The Real-Time Clock application code in Example 12-1 shows a typical ISR for Timer1, as well as the optional code required if the update cannot be done reliably within the required interval. EXAMPLE 12-1: IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME CLOCK USING A TIMER1 INTERRUPT SERVICE RTCinit MOVLW 80h ; Preload TMR1 register pair MOVWF TMR1H ; for 1 second overflow CLRF TMR1L MOVLW b’00001111’ ; Configure for external clock, MOVWF T1CON ; Asynchronous operation, external oscillator CLRF secs ; Initialize timekeeping registers CLRF mins ; MOVLW .12 MOVWF hours BSF PIE1, TMR1IE ; Enable Timer1 interrupt RETURN RTCisr ; Start ISR here ; Insert the next 4 lines of code when TMR1 ; can not be reliably updated before clock pulse goes low BTFSC TMR1L,0 ; wait for TMR1L<0> to become clear BRA $-2 ; (may already be clear) BTFSS TMR1L,0 ; wait for TMR1L<0> to become set BRA $-2 ; TMR1 has just incremented ; If TMR1 update can be completed before clock pulse goes low BSF TMR1H, 7 ; Preload for 1 sec overflow BCF PIR1, TMR1IF ; Clear interrupt flag INCF secs, F ; Increment seconds MOVLW .59 ; 60 seconds elapsed? CPFSGT secs RETURN ; No, done CLRF secs ; Clear seconds INCF mins, F ; Increment minutes MOVLW .59 ; 60 minutes elapsed? CPFSGT mins RETURN ; No, done CLRF mins ; clear minutes INCF hours, F ; Increment hours MOVLW .23 ; 24 hours elapsed? CPFSGT hours RETURN ; No, done CLRF hours ; Reset hours RETURN ; DonePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 132 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 12-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 TMR1L Timer1 Register Low Byte 50 TMR1H Timer1 Register High Byte 50 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 50 Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 133 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 13.0 TIMER2 MODULE The Timer2 module timer incorporates the following features: • 8-Bit Timer and Period registers (TMR2 and PR2, respectively) • Readable and writable (both registers) • Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4 and 1:16) • Software programmable postscaler (1:1 through 1:16) • Interrupt on TMR2 to PR2 match • Optional use as the shift clock for the MSSP module The module is controlled through the T2CON register (Register 13-1), which enables or disables the timer and configures the prescaler and postscaler. Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit, TMR2ON (T2CON<2>), to minimize power consumption. A simplified block diagram of the module is shown in Figure 13-1. 13.1 Timer2 Operation In normal operation, TMR2 is incremented from 00h on each clock (FOSC/4). A 4-bit counter/prescaler on the clock input gives direct input, divide-by-4 and divide-by- 16 prescale options; these are selected by the prescaler control bits, T2CKPS<1:0> (T2CON<1:0>). The value of TMR2 is compared to that of the Period register, PR2, on each clock cycle. When the two values match, the comparator generates a match signal as the timer output. This signal also resets the value of TMR2 to 00h on the next cycle and drives the output counter/postscaler (see Section 13.2 “Timer2 Interrupt”). The TMR2 and PR2 registers are both directly readable and writable. The TMR2 register is cleared on any device Reset, while the PR2 register initializes at FFh. Both the prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared on the following events: • a write to the TMR2 register • a write to the T2CON register • any device Reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR Reset, Watchdog Timer Reset or Brown-out Reset) TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written. REGISTER 13-1: T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6-3 T2OUTPS<3:0>: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits 0000 = 1:1 Postscale 0001 = 1:2 Postscale • • • 1111 = 1:16 Postscale bit 2 TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit 1 = Timer2 is on 0 = Timer2 is off bit 1-0 T2CKPS<1:0>: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits 00 = Prescaler is 1 01 = Prescaler is 4 1x = Prescaler is 16PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 134 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 13.2 Timer2 Interrupt Timer2 also can generate an optional device interrupt. The Timer2 output signal (TMR2 to PR2 match) provides the input for the 4-bit output counter/postscaler. This counter generates the TMR2 match interrupt flag which is latched in TMR2IF (PIR1<1>). The interrupt is enabled by setting the TMR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit, TMR2IE (PIE1<1>). A range of 16 postscale options (from 1:1 through 1:16 inclusive) can be selected with the postscaler control bits, T2OUTPS<3:0> (T2CON<6:3>). 13.3 Timer2 Output The unscaled output of TMR2 is available primarily to the CCP modules, where it is used as a time base for operations in PWM mode. Timer2 can optionally be used as the shift clock source for the MSSP module operating in SPI mode. Additional information is provided in Section 17.0 “Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module”. FIGURE 13-1: TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM TABLE 13-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 TMR2 Timer2 Register 50 T2CON — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 50 PR2 Timer2 Period Register 50 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. Comparator TMR2 Output TMR2 Postscaler Prescaler PR2 2 FOSC/4 1:1 to 1:16 1:1, 1:4, 1:16 4 T2OUTPS<3:0> T2CKPS<1:0> Set TMR2IF Internal Data Bus 8 Reset TMR2/PR2 8 8 (to PWM or MSSP) Match© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 135 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 14.0 TIMER3 MODULE The Timer3 module timer/counter incorporates these features: • Software selectable operation as a 16-bit timer or counter • Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR3H and TMR3L) • Selectable clock source (internal or external) with device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal options • Interrupt-on-overflow • Module Reset on CCP Special Event Trigger A simplified block diagram of the Timer3 module is shown in Figure 14-1. A block diagram of the module’s operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 14-2. The Timer3 module is controlled through the T3CON register (Register 14-1). It also selects the clock source options for the CCP modules (see Section 15.1.1 “CCP Modules and Timer Resources” for more information). REGISTER 14-1: T3CON: TIMER3 CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 RD16: 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Enable bit 1 = Enables register read/write of Timer3 in one 16-bit operation 0 = Enables register read/write of Timer3 in two 8-bit operations bit 6,3 T3CCP<2:1>: Timer3 and Timer1 to CCPx Enable bits 1x = Timer3 is the capture/compare clock source for the CCP modules 01 = Timer3 is the capture/compare clock source for CCP2; Timer1 is the capture/compare clock source for CCP1 00 = Timer1 is the capture/compare clock source for the CCP modules bit 5-4 T3CKPS<1:0>: Timer3 Input Clock Prescale Select bits 11 = 1:8 Prescale value 10 = 1:4 Prescale value 01 = 1:2 Prescale value 00 = 1:1 Prescale value bit 2 T3SYNC: Timer3 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit (Not usable if the device clock comes from Timer1/Timer3.) When TMR3CS = 1: 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input 0 = Synchronize external clock input When TMR3CS = 0: This bit is ignored. Timer3 uses the internal clock when TMR3CS = 0. bit 1 TMR3CS: Timer3 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock input from Timer1 oscillator or T13CKI (on the rising edge after the first falling edge) 0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4) bit 0 TMR3ON: Timer3 On bit 1 = Enables Timer3 0 = Stops Timer3PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 136 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 14.1 Timer3 Operation Timer3 can operate in one of three modes: • Timer • Synchronous Counter • Asynchronous Counter The operating mode is determined by the clock select bit, TMR3CS (T3CON<1>). When TMR3CS is cleared (= 0), Timer3 increments on every internal instruction cycle (FOSC/4). When the bit is set, Timer3 increments on every rising edge of the Timer1 external clock input or the Timer1 oscillator, if enabled. As with Timer1, the RC1/T1OSI and RC0/T1OSO/ T13CKI pins become inputs when the Timer1 oscillator is enabled. This means the values of TRISC<1:0> are ignored and the pins are read as ‘0’. FIGURE 14-1: TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM FIGURE 14-2: TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT READ/WRITE MODE) T3SYNC TMR3CS T3CKPS<1:0> Sleep Input T1OSCEN(1) FOSC/4 Internal Clock Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 Synchronize Detect 1 0 2 T1OSO/T13CKI T1OSI 1 0 TMR3ON TMR3L Set TMR3IF on Overflow TMR3 High Byte Timer1 Oscillator Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain. On/Off Timer3 CCP1/CCP2 Special Event Trigger CCP1/CCP2 Select from T3CON<6,3> Clear TMR3 Timer1 Clock Input T3SYNC TMR3CS T3CKPS<1:0> Sleep Input T1OSCEN(1) FOSC/4 Internal Clock Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 Synchronize Detect 1 0 2 T13CKI/T1OSO T1OSI Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain. 1 0 TMR3L Internal Data Bus 8 Set TMR3IF on Overflow TMR3 TMR3H High Byte 8 8 8 Read TMR1L Write TMR1L 8 TMR3ON CCP1/CCP2 Special Event Trigger Timer1 Oscillator On/Off Timer3 Timer1 Clock Input CCP1/CCP2 Select from T3CON<6,3> Clear TMR3© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 137 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 14.2 Timer3 16-Bit Read/Write Mode Timer3 can be configured for 16-bit reads and writes (see Figure 14-2). When the RD16 control bit (T3CON<7>) is set, the address for TMR3H is mapped to a buffer register for the high byte of Timer3. A read from TMR3L will load the contents of the high byte of Timer3 into the Timer3 High Byte Buffer register. This provides the user with the ability to accurately read all 16 bits of Timer1 without having to determine whether a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low byte, has become invalid due to a rollover between reads. A write to the high byte of Timer3 must also take place through the TMR3H Buffer register. The Timer3 high byte is updated with the contents of TMR3H when a write occurs to TMR3L. This allows a user to write all 16 bits to both the high and low bytes of Timer3 at once. The high byte of Timer3 is not directly readable or writable in this mode. All reads and writes must take place through the Timer3 High Byte Buffer register. Writes to TMR3H do not clear the Timer3 prescaler. The prescaler is only cleared on writes to TMR3L. 14.3 Using the Timer1 Oscillator as the Timer3 Clock Source The Timer1 internal oscillator may be used as the clock source for Timer3. The Timer1 oscillator is enabled by setting the T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>) bit. To use it as the Timer3 clock source, the TMR3CS bit must also be set. As previously noted, this also configures Timer3 to increment on every rising edge of the oscillator source. The Timer1 oscillator is described in Section 12.0 “Timer1 Module”. 14.4 Timer3 Interrupt The TMR3 register pair (TMR3H:TMR3L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh and overflows to 0000h. The Timer3 interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow and is latched in interrupt flag bit, TMR3IF (PIR2<1>). This interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the Timer3 Interrupt Enable bit, TMR3IE (PIE2<1>). 14.5 Resetting Timer3 Using the CCP Special Event Trigger If either of the CCP modules is configured to use Timer3 and to generate a Special Event Trigger in Compare mode (CCP1M<3:0> or CCP2M<3:0> = 1011), this signal will reset Timer3. It will also start an A/D conversion if the A/D module is enabled (see Section 15.3.4 “Special Event Trigger” for more information). The module must be configured as either a timer or synchronous counter to take advantage of this feature. When used this way, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair effectively becomes a Period register for Timer3. If Timer3 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode, the Reset operation may not work. In the event that a write to Timer3 coincides with a Special Event Trigger from a CCP module, the write will take precedence. TABLE 14-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER3 AS A TIMER/COUNTER Note: The Special Event Triggers from the CCP2 module will not set the TMR3IF interrupt flag bit (PIR1<0>). Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 TMR3L Timer3 Register Low Byte 51 TMR3H Timer3 Register High Byte 51 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 50 T3CON RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer3 module.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 138 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 139 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 15.0 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM (CCP) MODULES PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices all have two CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) modules. Each module contains a 16-bit register which can operate as a 16-bit Capture register, a 16-bit Compare register or a PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle register. In 28-pin devices, the two standard CCP modules (CCP1 and CCP2) operate as described in this chapter. In 40/ 44-pin devices, CCP1 is implemented as an Enhanced CCP module with standard Capture and Compare modes and Enhanced PWM modes. The ECCP implementation is discussed in Section 16.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module”. The capture and compare operations described in this chapter apply to all standard and Enhanced CCP modules. Note: Throughout this section and Section 16.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module”, references to the register and bit names for CCP modules are referred to generically by the use of ‘x’ or ‘y’ in place of the specific module number. Thus, “CCPxCON” might refer to the control register for CCP1, CCP2 or ECCP1. “CCPxCON” is used throughout these sections to refer to the module control register, regardless of whether the CCP module is a standard or enhanced implementation. REGISTER 15-1: CCPxCON: CCPx CONTROL REGISTER (28-PIN DEVICES) U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — DCxB1 DCxB0 CCPxM3 CCPxM2 CCPxM1 CCPxM0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-4 DCxB<1:0>: PWM Duty Cycle bit 1 and bit 0 for CCPx Module Capture mode: Unused. Compare mode: Unused. PWM mode: These bits are the two LSbs (bit 1 and bit 0) of the 10-bit PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs (DCxB<9:2>) of the duty cycle are found in CCPRxL. bit 3-0 CCPxM<3:0>: CCPx Module Mode Select bits 0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM disabled (resets CCPx module) 0001 = Reserved 0010 = Compare mode, toggle output on match (CCPxIF bit is set) 0011 = Reserved 0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge 0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge 0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge 0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge 1000 = Compare mode, initialize CCPx pin low; on compare match, force CCPx pin high (CCPxIF bit is set) 1001 = Compare mode, initialize CCPx pin high; on compare match, force CCPx pin low (CCPxIF bit is set) 1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on compare match (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin reflects I/O state) 1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event; reset timer; CCP2 match starts A/D conversion (CCPxIF bit is set) 11xx = PWM modePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 140 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 15.1 CCP Module Configuration Each Capture/Compare/PWM module is associated with a control register (generically, CCPxCON) and a data register (CCPRx). The data register, in turn, is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPRxL (low byte) and CCPRxH (high byte). All registers are both readable and writable. 15.1.1 CCP MODULES AND TIMER RESOURCES The CCP modules utilize Timers 1, 2 or 3, depending on the mode selected. Timer1 and Timer3 are available to modules in Capture or Compare modes, while Timer2 is available for modules in PWM mode. TABLE 15-1: CCP MODE – TIMER RESOURCE The assignment of a particular timer to a module is determined by the Timer to CCP enable bits in the T3CON register (Register 14-1). Both modules may be active at any given time and may share the same timer resource if they are configured to operate in the same mode (Capture/Compare or PWM) at the same time. The interactions between the two modules are summarized in Figure 15-1 and Figure 15-2. In Timer1 in Asynchronous Counter mode, the capture operation will not work. 15.1.2 CCP2 PIN ASSIGNMENT The pin assignment for CCP2 (Capture input, Compare and PWM output) can change, based on device configuration. The CCP2MX Configuration bit determines which pin CCP2 is multiplexed to. By default, it is assigned to RC1 (CCP2MX = 1). If the Configuration bit is cleared, CCP2 is multiplexed with RB3. Changing the pin assignment of CCP2 does not automatically change any requirements for configuring the port pin. Users must always verify that the appropriate TRIS register is configured correctly for CCP2 operation, regardless of where it is located. TABLE 15-2: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CCP1 AND CCP2 FOR TIMER RESOURCES CCP/ECCP Mode Timer Resource Capture Compare PWM Timer1 or Timer3 Timer1 or Timer3 Timer2 CCP1 Mode CCP2 Mode Interaction Capture Capture Each module can use TMR1 or TMR3 as the time base. The time base can be different for each CCP. Capture Compare CCP2 can be configured for the Special Event Trigger to reset TMR1 or TMR3 (depending upon which time base is used). Automatic A/D conversions on trigger event can also be done. Operation of CCP1 could be affected if it is using the same timer as a time base. Compare Capture CCP1 can be configured for the Special Event Trigger to reset TMR1 or TMR3 (depending upon which time base is used). Operation of CCP2 could be affected if it is using the same timer as a time base. Compare Compare Either module can be configured for the Special Event Trigger to reset the time base. Automatic A/D conversions on CCP2 trigger event can be done. Conflicts may occur if both modules are using the same time base. Capture PWM(1) None Compare PWM(1) None PWM(1) Capture None PWM(1) Compare None PWM(1) PWM(1) Both PWMs will have the same frequency and update rate (TMR2 interrupt). Note 1: Includes standard and Enhanced PWM operation.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 141 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 15.2 Capture Mode In Capture mode, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 or TMR3 register when an event occurs on the corresponding CCPx pin. An event is defined as one of the following: • every falling edge • every rising edge • every 4th rising edge • every 16th rising edge The event is selected by the mode select bits, CCPxM<3:0> (CCPxCON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit, CCPxIF, is set; it must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before the value in register CCPRx is read, the old captured value is overwritten by the new captured value. 15.2.1 CCP PIN CONFIGURATION In Capture mode, the appropriate CCPx pin should be configured as an input by setting the corresponding TRIS direction bit. 15.2.2 TIMER1/TIMER3 MODE SELECTION The timers that are to be used with the capture feature (Timer1 and/or Timer3) must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the capture operation will not work. The timer to be used with each CCP module is selected in the T3CON register (see Section 15.1.1 “CCP Modules and Timer Resources”). 15.2.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture interrupt may be generated. The user should keep the CCPxIE interrupt enable bit clear to avoid false interrupts. The interrupt flag bit, CCPxIF, should also be cleared following any such change in operating mode. 15.2.4 CCP PRESCALER There are four prescaler settings in Capture mode; they are specified as part of the operating mode selected by the mode select bits (CCPxM<3:0>). Whenever the CCP module is turned off, or Capture mode is disabled, the prescaler counter is cleared. This means that any Reset will clear the prescaler counter. Switching from one capture prescaler to another may generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will not be cleared; therefore, the first capture may be from a non-zero prescaler. Example 15-1 shows the recommended method for switching between capture prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler counter and will not generate the “false” interrupt. EXAMPLE 15-1: CHANGING BETWEEN CAPTURE PRESCALERS (CCP2 SHOWN) FIGURE 15-1: CAPTURE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM Note: If RB3/CCP2 or RC1/CCP2 is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture condition. CLRF CCP2CON ; Turn CCP module off MOVLW NEW_CAPT_PS ; Load WREG with the ; new prescaler mode ; value and CCP ON MOVWF CCP2CON ; Load CCP2CON with ; this value CCPR1H CCPR1L TMR1H TMR1L Set CCP1IF TMR3 Enable Q1:Q4 CCP1CON<3:0> CCP1 pin Prescaler ÷ 1, 4, 16 and Edge Detect TMR1 Enable T3CCP2 T3CCP2 CCPR2H CCPR2L TMR1H TMR1L Set CCP2IF TMR3 Enable CCP2CON<3:0> CCP2 pin Prescaler ÷ 1, 4, 16 TMR3H TMR3L TMR1 Enable T3CCP2 T3CCP1 T3CCP2 T3CCP1 TMR3H TMR3L and Edge Detect 4 4 4PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 142 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 15.3 Compare Mode In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPRx register value is constantly compared against either the TMR1 or TMR3 register pair value. When a match occurs, the CCPx pin can be: • driven high • driven low • toggled (high-to-low or low-to-high) • remain unchanged (that is, reflects the state of the I/O latch) The action on the pin is based on the value of the mode select bits (CCPxM<3:0>). At the same time, the interrupt flag bit, CCPxIF, is set. 15.3.1 CCP PIN CONFIGURATION The user must configure the CCPx pin as an output by clearing the appropriate TRIS bit. 15.3.2 TIMER1/TIMER3 MODE SELECTION Timer1 and/or Timer3 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the compare operation may not work. 15.3.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE When the Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen (CCPxM<3:0> = 1010), the corresponding CCPx pin is not affected. A CCP interrupt is generated when the CCPxIF interrupt flag is set while the CCPxIE bit is set. 15.3.4 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER Both CCP modules are equipped with a Special Event Trigger. This is an internal hardware signal generated in Compare mode to trigger actions by other modules. The Special Event Trigger is enabled by selecting the Compare Special Event Trigger mode (CCPxM<3:0> = 1011). For either CCP module, the Special Event Trigger resets the Timer register pair for whichever timer resource is currently assigned as the module’s time base. This allows the CCPRx registers to serve as a programmable Period register for either timer. The Special Event Trigger for CCP2 can also start an A/D conversion. In order to do this, the A/D Converter must already be enabled. FIGURE 15-2: COMPARE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM Note: Clearing the CCP2CON register will force the RB3 or RC1 compare output latch (depending on device configuration) to the default low level. This is not the PORTB or PORTC I/O data latch. CCPR1H CCPR1L TMR1H TMR1L Comparator S Q R Output Logic Special Event Trigger Set CCP1IF CCP1 pin TRIS CCP1CON<3:0> Output Enable TMR3H TMR3L CCPR2H CCPR2L Comparator 1 0 T3CCP2 T3CCP1 Set CCP2IF 1 0 Compare 4 (Timer1/Timer3 Reset) S Q R Output Logic Special Event Trigger CCP2 pin TRIS CCP2CON<3:0> 4 Output Enable (Timer1/Timer3 Reset, A/D Trigger) Match Compare Match© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 143 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 15-3: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, TIMER1 AND TIMER3 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 RCON IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR 48 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 52 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 52 TMR1L Timer1 Register Low Byte 50 TMR1H Timer1 Register High Byte 50 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 50 TMR3H Timer3 Register High Byte 51 TMR3L Timer3 Register Low Byte 51 T3CON RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON 51 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte 51 CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte 51 CCP1CON P1M1(1) P1M0(1) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 51 CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 Low Byte 51 CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 High Byte 51 CCP2CON — — DC2B1 DC2B0 CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture/Compare, Timer1 or Timer3. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 144 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 15.4 PWM Mode In Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCPx pin produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since the CCP2 pin is multiplexed with a PORTB or PORTC data latch, the appropriate TRIS bit must be cleared to make the CCP2 pin an output. Figure 15-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP module for PWM operation, see Section 15.4.4 “Setup for PWM Operation”. FIGURE 15-3: SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK DIAGRAM A PWM output (Figure 15-4) has a time base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period). FIGURE 15-4: PWM OUTPUT 15.4.1 PWM PERIOD The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: EQUATION 15-1: PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period]. When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur on the next increment cycle: • TMR2 is cleared • The CCPx pin is set (exception: if PWM duty cycle = 0%, the CCPx pin will not be set) • The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPRxL into CCPRxH 15.4.2 PWM DUTY CYCLE The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPRxL register and to the CCPxCON<5:4> bits. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPRxL contains the eight MSbs and the CCPxCON<5:4> bits contain the two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPRxL:CCPxCON<5:4>. The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: EQUATION 15-2: CCPRxL and CCPxCON<5:4> can be written to at any time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPRxH until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode, CCPRxH is a read-only register. Note: Clearing the CCP2CON register will force the RB3 or RC1 output latch (depending on device configuration) to the default low level. This is not the PORTB or PORTC I/O data latch. CCPRxL CCPRxH (Slave) Comparator TMR2 Comparator PR2 (Note 1) R Q S Duty Cycle Registers CCPxCON<5:4> Clear Timer, CCPx pin and latch D.C. Note 1: The 8-bit TMR2 value is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. CCPx Output Corresponding TRIS bit Period Duty Cycle TMR2 = PR2 TMR2 = Duty Cycle TMR2 = PR2 Note: The Timer2 postscalers (see Section 13.0 “Timer2 Module”) are not used in the determination of the PWM frequency. The postscaler could be used to have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output. PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value) PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPRXL:CCPXCON<5:4>) • TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 145 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 The CCPRxH register and a 2-bit internal latch are used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double-buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation. When the CCPRxH and 2-bit latch match TMR2, concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of the TMR2 prescaler, the CCPx pin is cleared. The maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM frequency is given by the equation: EQUATION 15-3: TABLE 15-4: EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 40 MHz 15.4.3 PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN (CCP1 ONLY) The PWM auto-shutdown features of the Enhanced CCP module are also available to CCP1 in 28-pin devices. The operation of this feature is discussed in detail in Section 16.4.7 “Enhanced PWM Auto-Shutdown”. Auto-shutdown features are not available for CCP2. 15.4.4 SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION The following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: 1. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register. 2. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPRxL register and CCPxCON<5:4> bits. 3. Make the CCPx pin an output by clearing the appropriate TRIS bit. 4. Set the TMR2 prescale value, then enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. 5. Configure the CCPx module for PWM operation. Note: If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than the PWM period, the CCPx pin will not be cleared. FOSC FPWM --------------- ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ log log( ) 2 PWM Resolution (max) = -----------------------------bits PWM Frequency 2.44 kHz 9.77 kHz 39.06 kHz 156.25 kHz 312.50 kHz 416.67 kHz Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16) 16 4 1 1 1 1 PR2 Value FFh FFh FFh 3Fh 1Fh 17h Maximum Resolution (bits) 10 10 10 8 7 6.58PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 146 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 15-5: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 RCON IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR 48 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 52 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 52 TMR2 Timer2 Register 50 PR2 Timer2 Period Register 50 T2CON — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 50 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte 51 CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte 51 CCP1CON P1M1(1) P1M0(1) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 51 CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 Low Byte 51 CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 High Byte 51 CCP2CON — — DC2B1 DC2B0 CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 51 ECCP1AS ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1(1) PSSBD0(1) 51 PWM1CON PRSEN PDC6(1) PDC5(1) PDC4(1) PDC3(1) PDC2(1) PDC1(1) PDC0(1) 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PWM or Timer2. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 147 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 16.0 ENHANCED CAPTURE/ COMPARE/PWM (ECCP) MODULE In PIC18F4420/4520 devices, CCP1 is implemented as a standard CCP module with Enhanced PWM capabilities. These include the provision for 2 or 4 output channels, user-selectable polarity, dead-band control and automatic shutdown and restart. The enhanced features are discussed in detail in Section 16.4 “Enhanced PWM Mode”. Capture, Compare and single output PWM functions of the ECCP module are the same as described for the standard CCP module. The control register for the Enhanced CCP module is shown in Register 16-2. It differs from the CCPxCON registers in PIC18F2420/2520 devices in that the two Most Significant bits are implemented to control PWM functionality. Note: The ECCP module is implemented only in 40/44-pin devices. REGISTER 16-1: CCP1CON: ECCP CONTROL REGISTER (40/44-PIN DEVICES) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 P1M1 P1M0 DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 P1M<1:0>: Enhanced PWM Output Configuration bits If CCP1M3:CCP1M2 = 00, 01, 10: xx = P1A assigned as capture/compare input/output; P1B, P1C, P1D assigned as port pins If CCP1M3:CCP1M2 = 11: 00 = Single output, P1A modulated; P1B, P1C, P1D assigned as port pins 01 = Full-bridge output forward, P1D modulated; P1A active; P1B, P1C inactive 10 = Half-bridge output, P1A, P1B modulated with dead-band control; P1C, P1D assigned as port pins 11 = Full-bridge output reverse, P1B modulated; P1C active; P1A, P1D inactive bit 5-4 DC1B<1:0>: PWM Duty Cycle bit 1 and bit 0 Capture mode: Unused. Compare mode: Unused. PWM mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the 10-bit PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs of the duty cycle are found in CCPR1L. bit 3-0 CCP1M<3:0>: Enhanced CCP Mode Select bits 0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets ECCP module) 0001 = Reserved 0010 = Compare mode, toggle output on match 0011 = Capture mode 0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge 0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge 0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge 0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge 1000 = Compare mode, initialize CCP1 pin low; set output on compare match (set CCP1IF) 1001 = Compare mode, initialize CCP1 pin high; clear output on compare match (set CCP1IF) 1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt only; CCP1 pin reverts to I/O state 1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (ECCP resets TMR1 or TMR3, sets CCP1IF bit) 1100 = PWM mode, P1A, P1C active-high; P1B, P1D active-high 1101 = PWM mode, P1A, P1C active-high; P1B, P1D active-low 1110 = PWM mode, P1A, P1C active-low; P1B, P1D active-high 1111 = PWM mode, P1A, P1C active-low; P1B, P1D active-lowPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 148 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. In addition to the expanded range of modes available through the CCP1CON register and ECCP1AS register, the ECCP module has an additional register associated with Enhanced PWM operation and auto-shutdown features. It is: • PWM1CON (PWM Dead-Band Delay) 16.1 ECCP Outputs and Configuration The Enhanced CCP module may have up to four PWM outputs, depending on the selected operating mode. These outputs, designated P1A through P1D, are multiplexed with I/O pins on PORTC and PORTD. The outputs that are active depend on the CCP operating mode selected. The pin assignments are summarized in Table 16-1. To configure the I/O pins as PWM outputs, the proper PWM mode must be selected by setting the P1M<1:0> and CCP1M<3:0> bits. The appropriate TRISC and TRISD direction bits for the port pins must also be set as outputs. 16.1.1 ECCP MODULES AND TIMER RESOURCES Like the standard CCP modules, the ECCP module can utilize Timers 1, 2 or 3, depending on the mode selected. Timer1 and Timer3 are available for modules in Capture or Compare modes, while Timer2 is available for modules in PWM mode. Interactions between the standard and Enhanced CCP modules are identical to those described for standard CCP modules. Additional details on timer resources are provided in Section 15.1.1 “CCP Modules and Timer Resources”. 16.2 Capture and Compare Modes Except for the operation of the Special Event Trigger discussed below, the Capture and Compare modes of the ECCP module are identical in operation to that of CCP2. These are discussed in detail in Section 15.2 “Capture Mode” and Section 15.3 “Compare Mode”. No changes are required when moving between 28-pin and 40/44-pin devices. 16.2.1 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER The Special Event Trigger output of ECCP resets the TMR1 or TMR3 register pair, depending on which timer resource is currently selected. This allows the CCPR1 register to effectively be a 16-Bit Programmable Period register for Timer1 or Timer3. 16.3 Standard PWM Mode When configured in Single Output mode, the ECCP module functions identically to the standard CCP module in PWM mode, as described in Section 15.4 “PWM Mode”. This is also sometimes referred to as “Compatible CCP” mode, as in Table 16-1. TABLE 16-1: PIN ASSIGNMENTS FOR VARIOUS ECCP MODES Note: When setting up single output PWM operations, users are free to use either of the processes described in Section 15.4.4 “Setup for PWM Operation” or Section 16.4.9 “Setup for PWM Operation”. The latter is more generic and will work for either single or multi-output PWM. ECCP Mode CCP1CON Configuration RC2 RD5 RD6 RD7 All 40/44-Pin Devices: Compatible CCP 00xx 11xx CCP1 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 Dual PWM 10xx 11xx P1A P1B RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 Quad PWM x1xx 11xx P1A P1B P1C P1D Legend: x = Don’t care. Shaded cells indicate pin assignments not used by ECCP in a given mode.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 149 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 16.4 Enhanced PWM Mode The Enhanced PWM mode provides additional PWM output options for a broader range of control applications. The module is a backward compatible version of the standard CCP module and offers up to four outputs, designated P1A through P1D. Users are also able to select the polarity of the signal (either active-high or active-low). The module’s output mode and polarity are configured by setting the P1M<1:0> and CCP1M<3:0> bits of the CCP1CON register. Figure 16-1 shows a simplified block diagram of PWM operation. All control registers are double-buffered and are loaded at the beginning of a new PWM cycle (the period boundary when Timer2 resets) in order to prevent glitches on any of the outputs. The exception is the PWM Dead-Band Delay register, PWM1CON, which is loaded at either the duty cycle boundary or the period boundary (whichever comes first). Because of the buffering, the module waits until the assigned timer resets instead of starting immediately. This means that Enhanced PWM waveforms do not exactly match the standard PWM waveforms, but are instead offset by one full instruction cycle (4 TOSC). As before, the user must manually configure the appropriate TRIS bits for output. 16.4.1 PWM PERIOD The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following equation. EQUATION 16-1: PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period]. When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur on the next increment cycle: • TMR2 is cleared • The CCP1 pin is set (if PWM duty cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set) • The PWM duty cycle is copied from CCPR1L into CCPR1H FIGURE 16-1: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ENHANCED PWM MODULE Note: The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 13.0 “Timer2 Module”) is not used in the determination of the PWM frequency. The postscaler could be used to have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output. PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value) CCPR1L CCPR1H (Slave) Comparator TMR2 Comparator PR2 (Note 1) R Q S Duty Cycle Registers CCP1CON<5:4> Clear Timer, set CCP1 pin and latch D.C. Note: The 8-bit TMR2 register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. TRISx CCP1/P1A TRISx P1B TRISx TRISx P1D Output Controller P1M1<1:0> 2 CCP1M<3:0> 4 PWM1CON CCP1/P1A P1B P1C P1D P1CPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 150 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.4.2 PWM DUTY CYCLE The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR1L contains the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> bits contain the two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The PWM duty cycle is calculated by the following equation. EQUATION 16-2: CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any time, but the duty cycle value is not copied into CCPR1H until a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode, CCPR1H is a read-only register. The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double-buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation. When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2, concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or two bits of the TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared. The maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM frequency is given by the following equation. EQUATION 16-3: 16.4.3 PWM OUTPUT CONFIGURATIONS The P1M<1:0> bits in the CCP1CON register allow one of four configurations: • Single Output • Half-Bridge Output • Full-Bridge Output, Forward mode • Full-Bridge Output, Reverse mode The Single Output mode is the standard PWM mode discussed in Section 16.4 “Enhanced PWM Mode”. The Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge Output modes are covered in detail in the sections that follow. The general relationship of the outputs in all configurations is summarized in Figure 16-2 and Figure 16-3. TABLE 16-2: EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 40 MHz PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) • TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value) Note: If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than the PWM period, the CCP1 pin will not be cleared. ( ) PWM Resolution (max) = FOSC FPWM log log(2) bits PWM Frequency 2.44 kHz 9.77 kHz 39.06 kHz 156.25 kHz 312.50 kHz 416.67 kHz Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16) 16 4 1 1 1 1 PR2 Value FFh FFh FFh 3Fh 1Fh 17h Maximum Resolution (bits) 10 10 10 8 7 6.58© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 151 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 16-2: PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-HIGH STATE) FIGURE 16-3: PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-LOW STATE) 0 Period 00 10 01 11 SIGNAL PR2 + 1 CCP1CON<7:6> P1A Modulated P1A Modulated P1B Modulated P1A Active P1B Inactive P1C Inactive P1D Modulated P1A Inactive P1B Modulated P1C Active P1D Inactive Duty Cycle (Single Output) (Half-Bridge) (Full-Bridge, Forward) (Full-Bridge, Reverse) Delay(1) Delay(1) 0 Period 00 10 01 11 SIGNAL PR2 + 1 CCP1CON<7:6> P1A Modulated P1A Modulated P1B Modulated P1A Active P1B Inactive P1C Inactive P1D Modulated P1A Inactive P1B Modulated P1C Active P1D Inactive Duty Cycle (Single Output) (Half-Bridge) (Full-Bridge, Forward) (Full-Bridge, Reverse) Delay(1) Delay(1) Relationships: • Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Duty Cycle = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value) • Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWM1CON<6:0>) Note 1: Dead-band delay is programmed using the PWM1CON register (see Section 16.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay”).PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 152 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.4.4 HALF-BRIDGE MODE In the Half-Bridge Output mode, two pins are used as outputs to drive push-pull loads. The PWM output signal is output on the P1A pin, while the complementary PWM output signal is output on the P1B pin (Figure 16-4). This mode can be used for half-bridge applications, as shown in Figure 16-5, or for full-bridge applications where four power switches are being modulated with two PWM signals. In Half-Bridge Output mode, the programmable deadband delay can be used to prevent shoot-through current in half-bridge power devices. The value of bits, PDC<6:0>, sets the number of instruction cycles before the output is driven active. If the value is greater than the duty cycle, the corresponding output remains inactive during the entire cycle. See Section 16.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay” for more details of the dead-band delay operations. Since the P1A and P1B outputs are multiplexed with the PORTC<2> and PORTD<5> data latches, the TRISC<2> and TRISD<5> bits must be cleared to configure P1A and P1B as outputs. FIGURE 16-4: HALF-BRIDGE PWM OUTPUT FIGURE 16-5: EXAMPLES OF HALF-BRIDGE OUTPUT MODE APPLICATIONS Period Duty Cycle td td (1) P1A(2) P1B(2) td = Dead-Band Delay Period (1) (1) Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register. 2: Output signals are shown as active-high. PIC18F4X2X P1A P1B FET Driver FET Driver V+ V- Load + V - + V - FET Driver FET Driver V+ V- Load FET Driver FET Driver PIC18F4X2X P1A P1B Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”) Half-Bridge Output Driving a Full-Bridge Circuit© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 153 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 16.4.5 FULL-BRIDGE MODE In Full-Bridge Output mode, four pins are used as outputs; however, only two outputs are active at a time. In the Forward mode, pin P1A is continuously active and pin P1D is modulated. In the Reverse mode, pin P1C is continuously active and pin P1B is modulated. These are illustrated in Figure 16-6. P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D outputs are multiplexed with the PORTC<2> and PORTD<7:5> data latches. The TRISC<2> and TRISD<7:5> bits must be cleared to make the P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D pins outputs. FIGURE 16-6: FULL-BRIDGE PWM OUTPUT Period Duty Cycle P1A(2) P1B(2) P1C(2) P1D(2) Forward Mode (1) Period Duty Cycle P1A(2) P1C(2) P1D(2) P1B(2) Reverse Mode (1) (1) (1) Note 1: At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register. Note 2: Output signal is shown as active-high.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 154 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 16-7: EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE OUTPUT MODE APPLICATION 16.4.5.1 Direction Change in Full-Bridge Mode In the Full-Bridge Output mode, the P1M1 bit in the CCP1CON register allows user to control the forward/ reverse direction. When the application firmware changes this direction control bit, the module will assume the new direction on the next PWM cycle. Just before the end of the current PWM period, the modulated outputs (P1B and P1D) are placed in their inactive state, while the unmodulated outputs (P1A and P1C) are switched to drive in the opposite direction. This occurs in a time interval of 4 TOSC * (Timer2 Prescale Value) before the next PWM period begins. The Timer2 prescaler will be either 1, 4 or 16, depending on the value of the T2CKPS<1:0> bits (T2CON<1:0>). During the interval from the switch of the unmodulated outputs to the beginning of the next period, the modulated outputs (P1B and P1D) remain inactive. This relationship is shown in Figure 16-8. Note that in the Full-Bridge Output mode, the CCP1 module does not provide any dead-band delay. In general, since only one output is modulated at all times, dead-band delay is not required. However, there is a situation where a dead-band delay might be required. This situation occurs when both of the following conditions are true: 1. The direction of the PWM output changes when the duty cycle of the output is at or near 100%. 2. The turn-off time of the power switch, including the power device and driver circuit, is greater than the turn-on time. Figure 16-9 shows an example where the PWM direction changes from forward to reverse at a near 100% duty cycle. At time t1, the outputs P1A and P1D become inactive, while output P1C becomes active. In this example, since the turn-off time of the power devices is longer than the turn-on time, a shoot-through current may flow through power devices, QC and QD (see Figure 16-7), for the duration of ‘t’. The same phenomenon will occur to power devices, QA and QB, for PWM direction change from reverse to forward. If changing PWM direction at high duty cycle is required for an application, one of the following requirements must be met: 1. Reduce PWM for a PWM period before changing directions. 2. Use switch drivers that can drive the switches off faster than they can drive them on. Other options to prevent shoot-through current may exist. P1A P1C FET Driver FET Driver V+ V- Load FET Driver FET Driver P1B P1D QA QB QD QC PIC18F4X2X© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 155 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 16-8: PWM DIRECTION CHANGE FIGURE 16-9: PWM DIRECTION CHANGE AT NEAR 100% DUTY CYCLE DC Period(1) SIGNAL Note 1: The direction bit in the CCP1 Control register (CCP1CON<7>) is written any time during the PWM cycle. 2: When changing directions, the P1A and P1C signals switch before the end of the current PWM cycle at intervals of 4 TOSC, 16 TOSC or 64 TOSC, depending on the Timer2 prescaler value. The modulated P1B and P1D signals are inactive at this time. Period (Note 2) P1A (Active-High) P1B (Active-High) P1C (Active-High) P1D (Active-High) DC Forward Period Reverse Period P1A(1) tON(2) tOFF(3) t = tOFF – tON(2,3) P1B(1) P1C(1) P1D(1) External Switch D(1) Potential Shoot-Through Current(1) Note 1: All signals are shown as active-high. 2: tON is the turn-on delay of power switch, QC, and its driver. 3: tOFF is the turn-off delay of power switch, QD, and its driver. External Switch C(1) t1 DC DCPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 156 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.4.6 PROGRAMMABLE DEAD-BAND DELAY In half-bridge applications where all power switches are modulated at the PWM frequency at all times, the power switches normally require more time to turn off than to turn on. If both the upper and lower power switches are switched at the same time (one turned on and the other turned off), both switches may be on for a short period of time until one switch completely turns off. During this brief interval, a very high current (shootthrough current) may flow through both power switches, shorting the bridge supply. To avoid this potentially destructive shoot-through current from flowing during switching, turning on either of the power switches is normally delayed to allow the other switch to completely turn off. In the Half-Bridge Output mode, a digitally programmable dead-band delay is available to avoid shoot-through current from destroying the bridge power switches. The delay occurs at the signal transition from the nonactive state to the active state (see Figure 16-4 for illustration). Bits, PDC<6:0>, of the PWM1CON register (Register 16-2) set the delay period in terms of microcontroller instruction cycles (TCY or 4 TOSC). These bits are not available on 28-pin devices as the standard CCP module does not support half-bridge operation. 16.4.7 ENHANCED PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN When the CCP1 is programmed for any of the Enhanced PWM modes, the active output pins may be configured for auto-shutdown. Auto-shutdown immediately places the Enhanced PWM output pins into a defined shutdown state when a shutdown event occurs. A shutdown event can be caused by either of the comparator modules, a low level on the Fault input pin (FLT0) or any combination of these three sources. The comparators may be used to monitor a voltage input proportional to a current being monitored in the bridge circuit. If the voltage exceeds a threshold, the comparator switches state and triggers a shutdown. Alternatively, a low digital signal on FLT0 can also trigger a shutdown. The auto-shutdown feature can be disabled by not selecting any auto-shutdown sources. The autoshutdown sources to be used are selected using the ECCPAS<2:0> bits (ECCP1AS<6:4>). When a shutdown occurs, the output pins are asynchronously placed in their shutdown states, specified by the PSSAC<1:0> and PSSBD<1:0> bits (ECCPAS<2:0>). Each pin pair (P1A/P1C and P1B/ P1D) may be set to drive high, drive low or be tri-stated (not driving). The ECCPASE bit (ECCP1AS<7>) is also set to hold the Enhanced PWM outputs in their shutdown states. The ECCPASE bit is set by hardware when a shutdown event occurs. If automatic restarts are not enabled, the ECCPASE bit is cleared by firmware when the cause of the shutdown clears. If automatic restarts are enabled, the ECCPASE bit is automatically cleared when the cause of the auto-shutdown has cleared. If the ECCPASE bit is set when a PWM period begins, the PWM outputs remain in their shutdown state for that entire PWM period. When the ECCPASE bit is cleared, the PWM outputs will return to normal operation at the beginning of the next PWM period. Note: Programmable dead-band delay is not implemented in 28-pin devices with standard CCP modules. Note: Writing to the ECCPASE bit is disabled while a shutdown condition is active. REGISTER 16-2: PWM1CON: PWM DEAD-BAND DELAY REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 PRSEN PDC6(1) PDC5(1) PDC4(1) PDC3(1) PDC2(1) PDC1(1) PDC0(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 PRSEN: PWM Restart Enable bit 1 = Upon auto-shutdown, the ECCPASE bit clears automatically once the shutdown event goes away; the PWM restarts automatically 0 = Upon auto-shutdown, ECCPASE must be cleared in software to restart the PWM bit 6-0 PDC6:PDC0: PWM Delay Count bits(1) Delay time, in number of FOSC/4 (4 * TOSC) cycles, between the scheduled and actual time for a PWM signal to transition to active. Note 1: Reserved on 28-pin devices; maintain these bits clear.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 157 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 16-3: ECCP1AS: ECCP AUTO-SHUTDOWN CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1(1) PSSBD0(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 ECCPASE: ECCP Auto-Shutdown Event Status bit 1 = A shutdown event has occurred; ECCP outputs are in shutdown state 0 = ECCP outputs are operating bit 6-4 ECCPAS<2:0>: ECCP Auto-Shutdown Source Select bits 111 = FLT0 or Comparator 1 or Comparator 2 110 = FLT0 or Comparator 2 101 = FLT0 or Comparator 1 100 = FLT0 011 = Either Comparator 1 or 2 010 = Comparator 2 output 001 = Comparator 1 output 000 = Auto-shutdown is disabled bit 3-2 PSSAC<1:0>: Pins A and C Shutdown State Control bits 1x = Pins A and C are tri-state (40/44-pin devices); PWM output is tri-state (28-pin devices) 01 = Drive Pins A and C to ‘1’ 00 = Drive Pins A and C to ‘0’ bit 1-0 PSSBD<1:0>: Pins B and D Shutdown State Control bits(1) 1x = Pins B and D tri-state 01 = Drive Pins B and D to ‘1’ 00 = Drive Pins B and D to ‘0’ Note 1: Reserved on 28-pin devices; maintain these bits clear.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 158 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 16.4.7.1 Auto-Shutdown and Automatic Restart The auto-shutdown feature can be configured to allow automatic restarts of the module following a shutdown event. This is enabled by setting the PRSEN bit of the PWM1CON register (PWM1CON<7>). In Shutdown mode with PRSEN = 1 (Figure 16-10), the ECCPASE bit will remain set for as long as the cause of the shutdown continues. When the shutdown condition clears, the ECCPASE bit is cleared. If PRSEN = 0 (Figure 16-11), once a shutdown condition occurs, the ECCPASE bit will remain set until it is cleared by firmware. Once ECCPASE is cleared, the Enhanced PWM will resume at the beginning of the next PWM period. Independent of the PRSEN bit setting, if the autoshutdown source is one of the comparators, the shutdown condition is a level. The ECCPASE bit cannot be cleared as long as the cause of the shutdown persists. The Auto-Shutdown mode can be forced by writing a ‘1’ to the ECCPASE bit. 16.4.8 START-UP CONSIDERATIONS When the ECCP module is used in the PWM mode, the application hardware must use the proper external pullup and/or pull-down resistors on the PWM output pins. When the microcontroller is released from Reset, all of the I/O pins are in the high-impedance state. The external circuits must keep the power switch devices in the OFF state until the microcontroller drives the I/O pins with the proper signal levels or activates the PWM output(s). The CCP1M<1:0> bits (CCP1CON<1:0>) allow the user to choose whether the PWM output signals are active-high or active-low for each pair of PWM output pins (P1A/P1C and P1B/P1D). The PWM output polarities must be selected before the PWM pins are configured as outputs. Changing the polarity configuration while the PWM pins are configured as outputs is not recommended, since it may result in damage to the application circuits. The P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D output latches may not be in the proper states when the PWM module is initialized. Enabling the PWM pins for output at the same time as the ECCP module may cause damage to the application circuit. The ECCP module must be enabled in the proper output mode and complete a full PWM cycle before configuring the PWM pins as outputs. The completion of a full PWM cycle is indicated by the TMR2IF bit being set as the second PWM period begins. FIGURE 16-10: PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN (PRSEN = 1, AUTO-RESTART ENABLED) FIGURE 16-11: PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN (PRSEN = 0, AUTO-RESTART DISABLED) Note: Writing to the ECCPASE bit is disabled while a shutdown condition is active. Shutdown PWM ECCPASE bit Activity Event Shutdown Event Occurs Shutdown Event Clears PWM Resumes Normal PWM Start of PWM Period PWM Period Shutdown PWM ECCPASE bit Activity Event Shutdown Event Occurs Shutdown Event Clears PWM Resumes Normal PWM Start of PWM Period ECCPASE Cleared by Firmware PWM Period© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 159 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 16.4.9 SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION The following steps should be taken when configuring the ECCP module for PWM operation: 1. Configure the PWM pins, P1A and P1B (and P1C and P1D, if used), as inputs by setting the corresponding TRIS bits. 2. Set the PWM period by loading the PR2 register. 3. If auto-shutdown is required: • Disable auto-shutdown (ECCPASE = 0) • Configure source (FLT0, Comparator 1 or Comparator 2) • Wait for non-shutdown condition 4. Configure the ECCP module for the desired PWM mode and configuration by loading the CCP1CON register with the appropriate values: • Select one of the available output configurations and direction with the P1M<1:0> bits. • Select the polarities of the PWM output signals with the CCP1M<3:0> bits. 5. Set the PWM duty cycle by loading the CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits. 6. For Half-Bridge Output mode, set the deadband delay by loading PWM1CON<6:0> with the appropriate value. 7. If auto-shutdown operation is required, load the ECCP1AS register: • Select the auto-shutdown sources using the ECCPAS<2:0> bits. • Select the shutdown states of the PWM output pins using the PSSAC<1:0> and PSSBD<1:0> bits. • Set the ECCPASE bit (ECCP1AS<7>). • Configure the comparators using the CMCON register. • Configure the comparator inputs as analog inputs. 8. If auto-restart operation is required, set the PRSEN bit (PWM1CON<7>). 9. Configure and start TMR2: • Clear the TMR2 interrupt flag bit by clearing the TMR2IF bit (PIR1<1>). • Set the TMR2 prescale value by loading the T2CKPS bits (T2CON<1:0>). • Enable Timer2 by setting the TMR2ON bit (T2CON<2>). 10. Enable PWM outputs after a new PWM cycle has started: • Wait until TMRx overflows (TMRxIF bit is set). • Enable the CCP1/P1A, P1B, P1C and/or P1D pin outputs by clearing the respective TRIS bits. • Clear the ECCPASE bit (ECCP1AS<7>). 16.4.10 OPERATION IN POWER-MANAGED MODES In Sleep mode, all clock sources are disabled. Timer2 will not increment and the state of the module will not change. If the ECCP pin is driving a value, it will continue to drive that value. When the device wakes up, it will continue from this state. If Two-Speed Start-ups are enabled, the initial start-up frequency from INTOSC and the postscaler may not be stable immediately. In PRI_IDLE mode, the primary clock will continue to clock the ECCP module without change. In all other power-managed modes, the selected power-managed mode clock will clock Timer2. Other power-managed mode clocks will most likely be different than the primary clock frequency. 16.4.10.1 Operation with Fail-Safe Clock Monitor If the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled, a clock failure will force the device into the power-managed RC_RUN mode and the OSCFIF bit (PIR2<7>) will be set. The ECCP will then be clocked from the internal oscillator clock source, which may have a different clock frequency than the primary clock. See the previous section for additional details. 16.4.11 EFFECTS OF A RESET Both Power-on Reset and subsequent Resets will force all ports to Input mode and the CCP registers to their Reset states. This forces the Enhanced CCP module to reset to a state compatible with the standard CCP module.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 160 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 16-3: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ECCP MODULE AND TIMER1 TO TIMER3 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 RCON IPEN SBOREN — RI TO PD POR BOR 48 PIR1 PSPIF ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 52 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 52 TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 52 TMR1L Timer1 Register Low Byte 50 TMR1H Timer1 Register High Byte 50 T1CON RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON 50 TMR2 Timer2 Register 50 T2CON — T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 50 PR2 Timer2 Period Register 50 TMR3L Timer3 Register Low Byte 51 TMR3H Timer3 Register High Byte 51 T3CON RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON 51 CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte 51 CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte 51 CCP1CON P1M1(1) P1M0(1) DC1B1 DC1B0 CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 51 ECCP1AS ECCPASE ECCPAS2 ECCPAS1 ECCPAS0 PSSAC1 PSSAC0 PSSBD1(1) PSSBD0(1) 51 PWM1CON PRSEN PDC6(1) PDC5(1) PDC4(1) PDC3(1) PDC2(1) PDC1(1) PDC0(1) 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during ECCP operation. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 161 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.0 MASTER SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT (MSSP) MODULE 17.1 Master SSP (MSSP) Module Overview The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is a serial interface, useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral devices may be serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D Converters, etc. The MSSP module can operate in one of two modes: • Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) • Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) - Full Master mode - Slave mode (with general address call) The I2C interface supports the following modes in hardware: • Master mode • Multi-Master mode • Slave mode 17.2 Control Registers The MSSP module has three associated registers. These include a status register (SSPSTAT) and two control registers (SSPCON1 and SSPCON2). The use of these registers and their individual configuration bits differ significantly depending on whether the MSSP module is operated in SPI or I2C mode. Additional details are provided under the individual sections. 17.3 SPI Mode The SPI mode allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. All four modes of SPI are supported. To accomplish communication, typically three pins are used: • Serial Data Out (SDO) – RC5/SDO • Serial Data In (SDI) – RC4/SDI/SDA • Serial Clock (SCK) – RC3/SCK/SCL Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a Slave mode of operation: • Slave Select (SS) – RA5/SS Figure 17-1 shows the block diagram of the MSSP module when operating in SPI mode. FIGURE 17-1: MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (SPI MODE) ( ) Read Write Internal Data Bus SSPSR reg SSPM<3:0> bit 0 Shift Clock SS Control Enable Edge Select Clock Select TMR2 Output Prescaler TOSC 4, 16, 64 2 Edge Select 2 4 Data to TX/RX in SSPSR TRIS bit 2 SMP:CKE RC5/SDO SSPBUF reg RC4/SDI/SDA RA5/AN4/SS/ RC3/SCK/ SCL HLVDIN/C2OUTPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 162 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.3.1 REGISTERS The MSSP module has four registers for SPI mode operation. These are: • MSSP Control Register 1 (SSPCON1) • MSSP Status Register (SSPSTAT) • Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer Register (SSPBUF) • MSSP Shift Register (SSPSR) – Not directly accessible SSPCON1 and SSPSTAT are the control and status registers in SPI mode operation. The SSPCON1 register is readable and writable. The lower 6 bits of the SSPSTAT are read-only. The upper two bits of the SSPSTAT are read/write. SSPSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or out. SSPBUF is the buffer register to which data bytes are written to or read from. In receive operations, SSPSR and SSPBUF together create a double-buffered receiver. When SSPSR receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPBUF and the SSPIF interrupt is set. During transmission, the SSPBUF is not doublebuffered. A write to SSPBUF will write to both SSPBUF and SSPSR. REGISTER 17-1: SSPSTAT: MSSP STATUS REGISTER (SPI MODE) R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 SMP CKE(1) D/A P S R/W UA BF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SMP: Sample bit SPI Master mode: 1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time 0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time SPI Slave mode: SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in Slave mode. bit 6 CKE: SPI Clock Select bit(1) 1 = Transmit occurs on transition from active to Idle clock state 0 = Transmit occurs on transition from Idle to active clock state bit 5 D/A: Data/Address bit Used in I2C™ mode only. bit 4 P: Stop bit Used in I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared. bit 3 S: Start bit Used in I2C mode only. bit 2 R/W: Read/Write Information bit Used in I2C mode only. bit 1 UA: Update Address bit Used in I2C mode only. bit 0 BF: Buffer Full Status bit (Receive mode only) 1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full 0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty Note 1: Polarity of clock state is set by the CKP bit (SSPCON1<4>).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 163 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 17-2: SSPCON1: MSSP CONTROL REGISTER 1 (SPI MODE) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 WCOL SSPOV(1) SSPEN(2) CKP SSPM3(3) SSPM2(3) SSPM1(3) SSPM0(3) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit 1 = The SSPxBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in software) 0 = No collision bit 6 SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit(1) SPI Slave mode: 1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow, the data in SSPSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in Slave mode. The user must read the SSPBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow (must be cleared in software). 0 = No overflow bit 5 SSPEN: Master Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit(2) 1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, SDI and SS as serial port pins 0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins bit 4 CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit 1 = Idle state for clock is a high level 0 = Idle state for clock is a low level bit 3-0 SSPM<3:0>: Master Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits(3) 0101 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCK pin; SS pin control disabled; SS can be used as I/O pin 0100 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCK pin; SS pin control enabled 0011 = SPI Master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2 0010 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/64 0001 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/16 0000 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/4 Note 1: In Master mode, the overflow bit is not set since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register. 2: When enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output. 3: Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in I2C™ mode only.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 164 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.3.2 OPERATION When initializing the SPI, several options need to be specified. This is done by programming the appropriate control bits (SSPCON1<5:0> and SSPSTAT<7:6>). These control bits allow the following to be specified: • Master mode (SCK is the clock output) • Slave mode (SCK is the clock input) • Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK) • Data Input Sample Phase (middle or end of data output time) • Clock Edge (output data on rising/falling edge of SCK) • Clock Rate (Master mode only) • Slave Select mode (Slave mode only) The MSSP consists of a transmit/receive shift register (SSPSR) and a buffer register (SSPBUF). The SSPSR shifts the data in and out of the device, MSb first. The SSPBUF holds the data that was written to the SSPSR until the received data is ready. Once the 8 bits of data have been received, that byte is moved to the SSPBUF register. Then, the Buffer Full detect bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>) and the interrupt flag bit, SSPIF, are set. This double-buffering of the received data (SSPBUF) allows the next byte to start reception before reading the data that was just received. Any write to the SSPBUF register during transmission/reception of data will be ignored and the write collision detect bit, WCOL (SSPCON1<7>), will be set. User software must clear the WCOL bit so that it can be determined if the following write(s) to the SSPBUF register completed successfully. When the application software is expecting to receive valid data, the SSPBUF should be read before the next byte of data to transfer is written to the SSPBUF. The Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>), indicates when SSPBUF has been loaded with the received data (transmission is complete). When the SSPBUF is read, the BF bit is cleared. This data may be irrelevant if the SPI is only a transmitter. Generally, the MSSP interrupt is used to determine when the transmission/reception has completed. The SSPBUF must be read and/or written. If the interrupt method is not going to be used, then software polling can be done to ensure that a write collision does not occur. Example 17-1 shows the loading of the SSPBUF (SSPSR) for data transmission. The SSPSR is not directly readable or writable and can only be accessed by addressing the SSPBUF register. Additionally, the MSSP Status register (SSPSTAT) indicates the various status conditions. EXAMPLE 17-1: LOADING THE SSPBUF (SSPSR) REGISTER Note: The SSPBUF register cannot be used with read-modify-write instructions such as BCF, BTFSC and COMF, etc. LOOP BTFSS SSPSTAT, BF ;Has data been received (transmit complete)? BRA LOOP ;No MOVF SSPBUF, W ;WREG reg = contents of SSPBUF MOVWF RXDATA ;Save in user RAM, if data is meaningful MOVF TXDATA, W ;W reg = contents of TXDATA MOVWF SSPBUF ;New data to xmit Note: To avoid lost data in Master mode, a read of the SSPBUF must be performed to clear the Buffer Full (BF) detect bit (SSPSTAT<0>) between each transmission.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 165 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.3.3 ENABLING SPI I/O To enable the serial port, MSSP Enable bit, SSPEN (SSPCON1<5>), must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI mode, clear the SSPEN bit, reinitialize the SSPCON registers and then set the SSPEN bit. This configures the SDI, SDO, SCK and SS pins as serial port pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port function, some must have their data direction bits (in the TRIS register) appropriately programmed as follows: • SDI is automatically controlled by the SPI module • SDO must have TRISC<5> bit cleared • SCK (Master mode) must have TRISC<3> bit cleared • SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> bit set • SS must have TRISA<5> bit set Any serial port function that is not desired may be overridden by programming the corresponding data direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value. 17.3.4 TYPICAL CONNECTION Figure 17-2 shows a typical connection between two microcontrollers. The master controller (Processor 1) initiates the data transfer by sending the SCK signal. Data is shifted out of both shift registers on their programmed clock edge and latched on the opposite edge of the clock. Both processors should be programmed to the same Clock Polarity (CKP), then both controllers would send and receive data at the same time. Whether the data is meaningful (or dummy data) depends on the application software. This leads to three scenarios for data transmission: • Master sends data – Slave sends dummy data • Master sends data – Slave sends data • Master sends dummy data – Slave sends data FIGURE 17-2: SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION Serial Input Buffer (SSPBUF) Shift Register (SSPSR) MSb LSb SDO SDI PROCESSOR 1 SCK SPI Master SSPM<3:0> = 00xxb Serial Input Buffer (SSPBUF) Shift Register (SSPSR) MSb LSb SDI SDO PROCESSOR 2 SCK SPI Slave SSPM<3:0> = 010xb Serial ClockPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 166 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.3.5 MASTER MODE The master can initiate the data transfer at any time because it controls the SCK. The master determines when the slave (Processor 2, Figure 17-2) is to broadcast data by the software protocol. In Master mode, the data is transmitted/received as soon as the SSPBUF register is written to. If the SPI is only going to receive, the SDO output could be disabled (programmed as an input). The SSPSR register will continue to shift in the signal present on the SDI pin at the programmed clock rate. As each byte is received, it will be loaded into the SSPBUF register as if a normal received byte (interrupts and status bits appropriately set). This could be useful in receiver applications as a “Line Activity Monitor” mode. The clock polarity is selected by appropriately programming the CKP bit (SSPCON1<4>). This, then, would give waveforms for SPI communication as shown in Figure 17-3, Figure 17-5 and Figure 17-6, where the MSB is transmitted first. In Master mode, the SPI clock rate (bit rate) is user-programmable to be one of the following: • FOSC/4 (or TCY) • FOSC/16 (or 4 • TCY) • FOSC/64 (or 16 • TCY) • Timer2 output/2 This allows a maximum data rate (at 40 MHz) of 10.00 Mbps. Figure 17-3 shows the waveforms for Master mode. When the CKE bit is set, the SDO data is valid before there is a clock edge on SCK. The change of the input sample is shown based on the state of the SMP bit. The time when the SSPBUF is loaded with the received data is shown. FIGURE 17-3: SPI MODE WAVEFORM (MASTER MODE) SCK (CKP = 0 SCK (CKP = 1 SCK (CKP = 0 SCK (CKP = 1 4 Clock Modes Input Sample Input Sample SDI bit 7 bit 0 SDO bit 7 bit 6 bit 5 bit 4 bit 3 bit 2 bit 1 bit 0 bit 7 SDI SSPIF (SMP = 1) (SMP = 0) (SMP = 1) CKE = 1) CKE = 0) CKE = 1) CKE = 0) (SMP = 0) Write to SSPBUF SSPSR to SSPBUF SDO bit 7 bit 6 bit 5 bit 4 bit 3 bit 2 bit 1 bit 0 (CKE = 0) (CKE = 1) Next Q4 Cycle after Q2↓ bit 0© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 167 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.3.6 SLAVE MODE In Slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as the external clock pulses appear on SCK. When the last bit is latched, the SSPIF interrupt flag bit is set. Before enabling the module in SPI Slave mode, the clock line must match the proper Idle state. The clock line can be observed by reading the SCK pin. The Idle state is determined by the CKP bit (SSPCON1<4>). While in Slave mode, the external clock is supplied by the external clock source on the SCK pin. This external clock must meet the minimum high and low times as specified in the electrical specifications. While in Sleep mode, the slave can transmit/receive data. When a byte is received, the device will wake-up from Sleep. 17.3.7 SLAVE SELECT SYNCHRONIZATION The SS pin allows a Synchronous Slave mode. The SPI must be in Slave mode with SS pin control enabled (SSPCON1<3:0> = 04h). The pin must not be driven low for the SS pin to function as an input. The data latch must be high. When the SS pin is low, transmission and reception are enabled and the SDO pin is driven. When the SS pin goes high, the SDO pin is no longer driven, even if in the middle of a transmitted byte and becomes a floating output. External pull-up/pull-down resistors may be desirable depending on the application. When the SPI module resets, the bit counter is forced to ‘0’. This can be done by either forcing the SS pin to a high level or clearing the SSPEN bit. To emulate two-wire communication, the SDO pin can be connected to the SDI pin. When the SPI needs to operate as a receiver, the SDO pin can be configured as an input. This disables transmissions from the SDO. The SDI can always be left as an input (SDI function) since it cannot create a bus conflict. FIGURE 17-4: SLAVE SYNCHRONIZATION WAVEFORM Note 1: When the SPI is in Slave mode with SS pin control enabled (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100), the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set to VDD. 2: If the SPI is used in Slave mode with CKE set, then the SS pin control must be enabled. SCK (CKP = 1 SCK (CKP = 0 Input Sample SDI bit 7 SDO bit 7 bit 6 bit 7 SSPIF Interrupt (SMP = 0) CKE = 0) CKE = 0) (SMP = 0) Write to SSPBUF SSPSR to SSPBUF SS Flag bit 0 bit 7 bit 0 Next Q4 Cycle after Q2↓PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 168 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-5: SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0) FIGURE 17-6: SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1) SCK (CKP = 1 SCK (CKP = 0 Input Sample SDI bit 7 SDO bit 7 bit 6 bit 5 bit 4 bit 3 bit 2 bit 1 bit 0 SSPIF Interrupt (SMP = 0) CKE = 0) CKE = 0) (SMP = 0) Write to SSPBUF SSPSR to SSPBUF SS Flag Optional Next Q4 Cycle after Q2↓ bit 0 SCK (CKP = 1 SCK (CKP = 0 Input Sample SDI bit 7 bit 0 SDO bit 7 bit 6 bit 5 bit 4 bit 3 bit 2 bit 1 bit 0 SSPIF Interrupt (SMP = 0) CKE = 1) CKE = 1) (SMP = 0) Write to SSPBUF SSPSR to SSPBUF SS Flag Not Optional Next Q4 Cycle after Q2↓© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 169 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.3.8 OPERATION IN POWER-MANAGED MODES In SPI Master mode, module clocks may be operating at a different speed than when in full-power mode; in the case of Sleep mode, all clocks are halted. In most Idle modes, a clock is provided to the peripherals. That clock should be from the primary clock source, the secondary clock (Timer1 oscillator at 32.768 kHz) or the INTOSC source. See Section 2.7 “Clock Sources and Oscillator Switching” for additional information. In most cases, the speed that the master clocks SPI data is not important; however, this should be evaluated for each system. If MSSP interrupts are enabled, they can wake the controller from Sleep mode, or one of the Idle modes, when the master completes sending data. If an exit from Sleep or Idle mode is not desired, MSSP interrupts should be disabled. If the Sleep mode is selected, all module clocks are halted and the transmission/reception will remain in that state until the devices wakes. After the device returns to Run mode, the module will resume transmitting and receiving data. In SPI Slave mode, the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift register operates asynchronously to the device. This allows the device to be placed in any power-managed mode and data to be shifted into the SPI Transmit/ Receive Shift register. When all 8 bits have been received, the MSSP interrupt flag bit will be set, and if enabled, will wake the device. 17.3.9 EFFECTS OF A RESET A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the current transfer. 17.3.10 BUS MODE COMPATIBILITY Table 17-1 shows the compatibility between the standard SPI modes and the states of the CKP and CKE control bits. TABLE 17-1: SPI BUS MODES There is also an SMP bit which controls when the data is sampled. TABLE 17-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION Standard SPI Mode Terminology Control Bits State CKP CKE 0, 0 0 1 0, 1 0 0 1, 0 1 1 1, 1 1 0 Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 TRISA TRISA7(2) TRISA6(2) PORTA Data Direction Register 52 TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 52 SSPBUF MSSP Receive Buffer/Transmit Register 50 SSPCON1 WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 50 SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 50 Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the MSSP in SPI mode. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 2: PORTA<7:6> and their direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 170 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4 I2C Mode The MSSP module in I2C mode fully implements all master and slave functions (including general call support) and provides interrupts on Start and Stop bits in hardware to determine a free bus (multi-master function). The MSSP module implements the standard mode specifications, as well as 7-Bit and 10-Bit Addressing modes. Two pins are used for data transfer: • Serial clock (SCL) – RC3/SCK/SCL • Serial data (SDA) – RC4/SDI/SDA The user must configure these pins as inputs or outputs through the TRISC<4:3> bits. FIGURE 17-7: MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C MODE) 17.4.1 REGISTERS The MSSP module has six registers for I2C operation. These are: • MSSP Control Register 1 (SSPCON1) • MSSP Control Register 2 (SSPCON2) • MSSP Status Register (SSPSTAT) • Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer Register (SSPBUF) • MSSP Shift Register (SSPSR) – Not directly accessible • MSSP Address Register (SSPADD) SSPCON1, SSPCON2 and SSPSTAT are the control and status registers in I2C mode operation. The SSPCON1 and SSPCON2 registers are readable and writable. The lower 6 bits of the SSPSTAT are read-only. The upper two bits of the SSPSTAT are read/write. SSPSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or out. SSPBUF is the buffer register to which data bytes are written to or read from. SSPADD register holds the slave device address when the MSSP is configured in I2C Slave mode. When the MSSP is configured in Master mode, the lower seven bits of SSPADD act as the Baud Rate Generator reload value. In receive operations, SSPSR and SSPBUF together create a double-buffered receiver. When SSPSR receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPBUF and the SSPIF interrupt is set. During transmission, the SSPBUF is not doublebuffered. A write to SSPBUF will write to both SSPBUF and SSPSR. Read Write SSPSR reg Match Detect SSPADD reg Start and Stop bit Detect SSPBUF reg Internal Data Bus Addr Match Set, Reset S, P bits (SSPSTAT reg) RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/ Shift Clock MSb SDA LSb© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 171 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 17-3: SSPSTAT: MSSP STATUS REGISTER (I2C™ MODE) R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 SMP CKE D/A P(1) S(1) R/W(2,3) UA BF bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SMP: Slew Rate Control bit In Master or Slave mode: 1 = Slew rate control disabled for Standard Speed mode (100 kHz and 1 MHz) 0 = Slew rate control enabled for High-Speed mode (400 kHz) bit 6 CKE: SMBus Select bit In Master or Slave mode: 1 = Enable SMBus specific inputs 0 = Disable SMBus specific inputs bit 5 D/A: Data/Address bit In Master mode: Reserved. In Slave mode: 1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data 0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address bit 4 P: Stop bit(1) 1 = Indicates that a Stop bit has been detected last 0 = Stop bit was not detected last bit 3 S: Start bit(1) 1 = Indicates that a Start bit has been detected last 0 = Start bit was not detected last bit 2 R/W: Read/Write Information bit (I2C mode only)(2,3) In Slave mode: 1 = Read 0 = Write In Master mode: 1 = Transmit is in progress 0 = Transmit is not in progress bit 1 UA: Update Address bit (10-Bit Slave mode only) 1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register 0 = Address does not need to be updated bit 0 BF: Buffer Full Status bit In Transmit mode: 1 = SSPBUF is full 0 = SSPBUF is empty In Receive mode: 1 = SSPBUF is full (does not include the ACK and Stop bits) 0 = SSPBUF is empty (does not include the ACK and Stop bits) Note 1: This bit is cleared on Reset and when SSPEN is cleared. 2: This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the address match to the next Start bit, Stop bit or not ACK bit. 3: ORing this bit with SEN, RSEN, PEN, RCEN or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSP is in Active mode.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 172 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 17-4: SSPCON1: MSSP CONTROL REGISTER 1 (I2C™ MODE) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 WCOL SSPOV SSPEN(1) CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit In Master Transmit mode: 1 = A write to the SSPBUF register was attempted while the I2C conditions were not valid for a transmission to be started (must be cleared in software) 0 = No collision In Slave Transmit mode: 1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in software) 0 = No collision In Receive mode (Master or Slave modes): This is a “don’t care” bit. bit 6 SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit In Receive mode: 1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte (must be cleared in software) 0 = No overflow In Transmit mode: This is a “don’t care” bit in Transmit mode. bit 5 SSPEN: Master Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit(1) 1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as the serial port pins 0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins bit 4 CKP: SCK Release Control bit In Slave mode: 1 = Releases clock 0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch), used to ensure data setup time In Master mode: Unused in this mode. bit 3-0 SSPM<3:0>: Master Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits(2) 1111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled 1110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled 1011 = I2C Firmware Controlled Master mode (Slave Idle) 1000 = I2C Master mode, clock = FOSC/(4 * (SSPADD + 1)) 0111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address 0110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in SPI mode only. Note 1: When enabled, the SDA and SCL pins must be properly configured as inputs or outputs.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 173 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 17-5: SSPCON2: MSSP CONTROL REGISTER 2 (I2C™ MODE) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT(2) ACKEN(1) RCEN(1) PEN(1) RSEN(1) SEN(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 GCEN: General Call Enable bit (Slave mode only) 1 = Enables interrupt when a general call address (0000h) is received in the SSPSR 0 = General call address disabled. bit 6 ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit (Master Transmit mode only) 1 = Acknowledge was not received from slave 0 = Acknowledge was received from slave bit 5 ACKDT: Acknowledge Data bit (Master Receive mode only)(2) 1 = Not Acknowledge 0 = Acknowledge bit 4 ACKEN: Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit (Master Receive mode only)(1) 1 = Initiates Acknowledge sequence on SDA and SCL pins and transmit ACKDT data bit. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Acknowledge sequence Idle bit 3 RCEN: Receive Enable bit (Master mode only)(1) 1 = Enables Receive mode for I2C 0 = Receive Idle bit 2 PEN: Stop Condition Enable bit (Master mode only)(1) 1 = Initiates Stop condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Stop condition Idle bit 1 RSEN: Repeated Start Condition Enable bit (Master mode only)(1) 1 = Initiates Repeated Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Repeated Start condition Idle bit 0 SEN: Start Condition Enable/Stretch Enable bit(1) In Master mode: 1 = Initiates Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Start condition Idle In Slave mode: 1 = Clock stretching is enabled for both slave transmit and slave receive (stretch enabled) 0 = Clock stretching is disabled Note 1: For bits ACKEN, RCEN, PEN, RSEN, SEN: If the I2C module is not in the Idle mode, these bits may not be set (no spooling) and the SSPBUF may not be written (or writes to the SSPBUF are disabled). 2: Value that will be transmitted when the user initiates an Acknowledge sequence at the end of a receive.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 174 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.2 OPERATION The MSSP module functions are enabled by setting the MSSP Enable bit, SSPEN (SSPCON1<5>). The SSPCON1 register allows control of the I2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON1<3:0>) allow one of the following I2C modes to be selected: • I2C Master mode, clock = (FOSC/4) x (SSPADD + 1) • I2C Slave mode (7-bit addressing) • I2C Slave mode (10-bit addressing) • I2C Slave mode (7-bit addressing) with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled • I2C Slave mode (10-bit addressing) with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled • I2C Firmware Controlled Master mode, slave is Idle Selection of any I2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set, forces the SCL and SDA pins to be open-drain, provided these pins are programmed to inputs by setting the appropriate TRISC bits. To ensure proper operation of the module, pull-up resistors must be provided externally to the SCL and SDA pins. 17.4.3 SLAVE MODE In Slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> set). The MSSP module will override the input state with the output data when required (slave-transmitter). The I2C Slave mode hardware will always generate an interrupt on an address match. Through the mode select bits, the user can also choose to interrupt on Start and Stop bits When an address is matched, or the data transfer after an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the Acknowledge (ACK) pulse and load the SSPBUF register with the received value currently in the SSPSR register. Any combination of the following conditions will cause the MSSP module not to give this ACK pulse: • The Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>), was set before the transfer was received. • The overflow bit, SSPOV (SSPCON2<6>), was set before the transfer was received. In this case, the SSPSR register value is not loaded into the SSPBUF, but bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), is set. The BF bit is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register, while bit SSPOV is cleared through software. The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and low for proper operation. The high and low times of the I 2C specification, as well as the requirement of the MSSP module, are shown in timing parameter 100 and parameter 101. 17.4.3.1 Addressing Once the MSSP module has been enabled, it waits for a Start condition to occur. Following the Start condition, the 8 bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the clock (SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match and the BF and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur: 1. The SSPSR register value is loaded into the SSPBUF register. 2. The Buffer Full bit, BF, is set. 3. An ACK pulse is generated. 4. MSSP Interrupt Flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), is set (interrupt is generated, if enabled) on the falling edge of the ninth SCL pulse. In 10-Bit Addressing mode, two address bytes need to be received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits (MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit address. Bit, R/W (SSPSTAT<2>), must specify a write so the slave device will receive the second address byte. For a 10-bit address, the first byte would equal ‘11110 A9 A8 0’, where ‘A9’ and ‘A8’ are the two MSbs of the address. The sequence of events for 10-Bit Addressing mode is as follows, with steps 7 through 9 for the slave-transmitter: 1. Receive first (high) byte of address (bits, SSPIF, BF and UA (SSPSTAT<1>), are set). 2. Update the SSPADD register with second (low) byte of address (clears UA bit and releases the SCL line). 3. Read the SSPBUF register (clears BF bit) and clear flag bit, SSPIF. 4. Receive second (low) byte of address (bits, SSPIF, BF and UA, are set). 5. Update the SSPADD register with the first (high) byte of address. If match releases SCL line, this will clear bit, UA. 6. Read the SSPBUF register (clears BF bit) and clear flag bit, SSPIF. 7. Receive Repeated Start condition. 8. Receive first (high) byte of address (bits, SSPIF and BF, are set). 9. Read the SSPBUF register (clears BF bit) and clear flag bit, SSPIF.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 175 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.3.2 Reception When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is cleared. The received address is loaded into the SSPBUF register and the SDA line is held low (ACK). When the address byte overflow condition exists, then the no Acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow condition is defined as either bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>), is set, or bit, SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>), is set. An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer byte. Flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), must be cleared in software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status of the byte. If SEN is enabled (SSPCON2<0> = 1), RC3/SCK/SCL will be held low (clock stretch) following each data transfer. The clock must be released by setting bit, CKP (SSPCON<4>). See Section 17.4.4 “Clock Stretching” for more details. 17.4.3.3 Transmission When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is loaded into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will be sent on the ninth bit and the RC3/SCK/SCL pin is held low regardless of SEN (see Section 17.4.4 “Clock Stretching” for more detail). By stretching the clock, the master will be unable to assert another clock pulse until the slave is done preparing the transmit data. The transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register which also loads the SSPSR register. Then the RC3/SCK/SCL pin should be enabled by setting bit, CKP (SSPCON1<4>). The eight data bits are shifted out on the falling edge of the SCL input. This ensures that the SDA signal is valid during the SCL high time (Figure 17-9). The ACK pulse from the master-receiver is latched on the rising edge of the ninth SCL input pulse. If the SDA line is high (not ACK), then the data transfer is complete. In this case, when the ACK is latched by the slave, the slave logic is reset (resets SSPSTAT register) and the slave monitors for another occurrence of the Start bit. If the SDA line was low (ACK), the next transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register. Again, the RC3/SCK/SCL pin must be enabled by setting bit, CKP. An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer byte. The SSPIF bit must be cleared in software and the SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status of the byte. The SSPIF bit is set on the falling edge of the ninth clock pulse.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 176 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-8: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>) S 1 2 34 56 7 89 1 2 34 5 67 89 1 23 45 7 89 P A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 ACK Receiving Data ACK Receiving Data R/W = 0 ACK Receiving Address Cleared in software SSPBUF is read Bus master terminates transfer SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full. ACK is not sent. D2 6 (PIR1<3>) CKP (SSPCON1<4>) (CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 177 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 17-9: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING (TRANSMISSION, 7-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF (PIR1<3>) BF (SSPSTAT<0>) A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SSPBUF is written in software Cleared in software Data in sampled S ACK Transmitting Data R/W = 1 ACK Receiving Address A7 D7 9 1 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SSPBUF is written in software Cleared in software From SSPIF ISR Transmitting Data D7 1 CKP P ACK CKP is set in software CKP is set in software SCL held low while CPU responds to SSPIF Clear by reading From SSPIF ISRPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 178 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-10: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 (RECEPTION, 10-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) S 1234 567 89 12 345 67 89 1 2345 7 89 P 1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 Receive Data Byte ACK R/W = 0 ACK Receive First Byte of Address Cleared in software D2 6 (PIR1<3>) Cleared in software Receive Second Byte of Address Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with low byte of address UA (SSPSTAT<1>) Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place UA is set indicating that the SSPADD needs to be updated UA is set indicating that SSPADD needs to be updated Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with high byte of address SSPBUF is written with contents of SSPSR Dummy read of SSPBUF to clear BF flag ACK CKP (SSPCON1<4>) D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 12345 789 Receive Data Byte Bus master terminates transfer D2 6 ACK Cleared in software Cleared in software SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>) SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full. ACK is not sent. (CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0) Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 179 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 17-11: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING (TRANSMISSION, 10-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) S 1234 5 6789 1 23 45 678 9 12345 7 89 P 1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 1 1 1 1 0 A8 R/W=1 ACK ACK R/W = 0 ACK Receive First Byte of Address Cleared in software Bus master terminates transfer A9 6 (PIR1<3>) Receive Second Byte of Address Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with low byte of address UA (SSPSTAT<1>) Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place UA is set indicating that the SSPADD needs to be updated UA is set indicating that SSPADD needs to be updated Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with high byte of address. SSPBUF is written with contents of SSPSR Dummy read of SSPBUF to clear BF flag Receive First Byte of Address D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 12345 789 ACK D2 6 Transmitting Data Byte D0 Dummy read of SSPBUF to clear BF flag Sr Cleared in software Write of SSPBUF initiates transmit Cleared in software Completion of clears BF flag CKP (SSPCON1<4>) CKP is set in software CKP is automatically cleared in hardware, holding SCL low Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place data transmission Clock is held low until CKP is set to ‘1’ BF flag is clear at the end of the third address sequencePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 180 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.4 CLOCK STRETCHING Both 7-Bit and 10-Bit Slave modes implement automatic clock stretching during a transmit sequence. The SEN bit (SSPCON2<0>) allows clock stretching to be enabled during receives. Setting SEN will cause the SCL pin to be held low at the end of each data receive sequence. 17.4.4.1 Clock Stretching for 7-Bit Slave Receive Mode (SEN = 1) In 7-Bit Slave Receive mode, on the falling edge of the ninth clock at the end of the ACK sequence if the BF bit is set, the CKP bit in the SSPCON1 register is automatically cleared, forcing the SCL output to be held low. The CKP being cleared to ‘0’ will assert the SCL line low. The CKP bit must be set in the user’s Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) before reception is allowed to continue. By holding the SCL line low, the user has time to service the ISR and read the contents of the SSPBUF before the master device can initiate another receive sequence. This will prevent buffer overruns from occurring (see Figure 17-13). 17.4.4.2 Clock Stretching for 10-Bit Slave Receive Mode (SEN = 1) In 10-Bit Slave Receive mode during the address sequence, clock stretching automatically takes place but CKP is not cleared. During this time, if the UA bit is set after the ninth clock, clock stretching is initiated. The UA bit is set after receiving the upper byte of the 10-bit address and following the receive of the second byte of the 10-bit address with the R/W bit cleared to ‘0’. The release of the clock line occurs upon updating SSPADD. Clock stretching will occur on each data receive sequence as described in 7-bit mode. 17.4.4.3 Clock Stretching for 7-Bit Slave Transmit Mode 7-Bit Slave Transmit mode implements clock stretching by clearing the CKP bit after the falling edge of the ninth clock if the BF bit is clear. This occurs regardless of the state of the SEN bit. The user’s ISR must set the CKP bit before transmission is allowed to continue. By holding the SCL line low, the user has time to service the ISR and load the contents of the SSPBUF before the master device can initiate another transmit sequence (see Figure 17-9). 17.4.4.4 Clock Stretching for 10-Bit Slave Transmit Mode In 10-Bit Slave Transmit mode, clock stretching is controlled during the first two address sequences by the state of the UA bit, just as it is in 10-Bit Slave Receive mode. The first two addresses are followed by a third address sequence which contains the high-order bits of the 10-bit address and the R/W bit set to ‘1’. After the third address sequence is performed, the UA bit is not set, the module is now configured in Transmit mode and clock stretching is controlled by the BF flag as in 7-Bit Slave Transmit mode (see Figure 17-11). Note 1: If the user reads the contents of the SSPBUF before the falling edge of the ninth clock, thus clearing the BF bit, the CKP bit will not be cleared and clock stretching will not occur. 2: The CKP bit can be set in software regardless of the state of the BF bit. The user should be careful to clear the BF bit in the ISR before the next receive sequence in order to prevent an overflow condition. Note: If the user polls the UA bit and clears it by updating the SSPADD register before the falling edge of the ninth clock occurs and if the user hasn’t cleared the BF bit by reading the SSPBUF register before that time, then the CKP bit will still NOT be asserted low. Clock stretching on the basis of the state of the BF bit only occurs during a data sequence, not an address sequence. Note 1: If the user loads the contents of SSPBUF, setting the BF bit before the falling edge of the ninth clock, the CKP bit will not be cleared and clock stretching will not occur. 2: The CKP bit can be set in software regardless of the state of the BF bit.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 181 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.4.5 Clock Synchronization and the CKP bit When the CKP bit is cleared, the SCL output is forced to ‘0’. However, clearing the CKP bit will not assert the SCL output low until the SCL output is already sampled low. Therefore, the CKP bit will not assert the SCL line until an external I2C master device has already asserted the SCL line. The SCL output will remain low until the CKP bit is set and all other devices on the I2C bus have deasserted SCL. This ensures that a write to the CKP bit will not violate the minimum high time requirement for SCL (see Figure 17-12). FIGURE 17-12: CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TIMING SDA SCL DX DX – 1 WR Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 SSPCONx CKP Master device deasserts clock Master device asserts clockPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 182 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-13: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 1 (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>) S 1 2 34 56 7 8 9 1 234 5 67 89 1 23 45 7 89 P A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 ACK Receiving Data ACK Receiving Data R/W = 0 ACK Receiving Address Cleared in software SSPBUF is read Bus master terminates transfer SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full. ACK is not sent. D2 6 (PIR1<3>) CKP (SSPCON1<4>) CKP written to ‘1’ in If BF is cleared prior to the falling edge of the 9th clock, CKP will not be reset to ‘0’ and no clock stretching will occur software Clock is held low until CKP is set to ‘1’ Clock is not held low because buffer full bit is clear prior to falling edge of 9th clock Clock is not held low because ACK = 1 BF is set after falling edge of the 9th clock, CKP is reset to ‘0’ and clock stretching occurs© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 183 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 17-14: I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 1 (RECEPTION, 10-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) S 1 234 56 7 89 12345 67 89 1 2345 78 9 P 1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 Receive Data Byte ACK R/W = 0 ACK Receive First Byte of Address Cleared in software D2 6 (PIR1<3>) Cleared in software Receive Second Byte of Address Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with low byte of address after falling edge UA (SSPSTAT<1>) Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place UA is set indicating that the SSPADD needs to be updated UA is set indicating that SSPADD needs to be updated Cleared by hardware when SSPADD is updated with high byte of address after falling edge SSPBUF is written with contents of SSPSR Dummy read of SSPBUF to clear BF flag ACK CKP (SSPCON1<4>) D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D0 12345 789 Receive Data Byte Bus master terminates transfer D2 6 ACK Cleared in software Cleared in software SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>) CKP written to ‘1’ Note: An update of the SSPADD register before the falling edge of the ninth clock will have no effect on UA and UA will remain set. Note: An update of the SSPADD register before the falling edge of the ninth clock will have no effect on UA and UA will remain set. in software Clock is held low until update of SSPADD has taken place of ninth clock of ninth clock SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full. ACK is not sent. Dummy read of SSPBUF to clear BF flag Clock is held low until CKP is set to ‘1’ Clock is not held low because ACK = 1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 184 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.5 GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SUPPORT The addressing procedure for the I2C bus is such that the first byte after the Start condition usually determines which device will be the slave addressed by the master. The exception is the general call address which can address all devices. When this address is used, all devices should, in theory, respond with an Acknowledge. The general call address is one of eight addresses reserved for specific purposes by the I2C protocol. It consists of all ‘0’s with R/W = 0. The general call address is recognized when the General Call Enable bit, GCEN, is enabled (SSPCON2<7> is set). Following a Start bit detect, 8 bits are shifted into the SSPSR and the address is compared against the SSPADD. It is also compared to the general call address and fixed in hardware. If the general call address matches, the SSPSR is transferred to the SSPBUF, the BF flag bit is set (eighth bit) and on the falling edge of the ninth bit (ACK bit), the SSPIF interrupt flag bit is set. When the interrupt is serviced, the source for the interrupt can be checked by reading the contents of the SSPBUF. The value can be used to determine if the address was device specific or a general call address. In 10-bit mode, the SSPADD is required to be updated for the second half of the address to match and the UA bit is set (SSPSTAT<1>). If the general call address is sampled when the GCEN bit is set, while the slave is configured in 10-Bit Addressing mode, then the second half of the address is not necessary, the UA bit will not be set and the slave will begin receiving data after the Acknowledge (Figure 17-15). FIGURE 17-15: SLAVE MODE GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SEQUENCE (7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESSING MODE) SDA SCL S SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SSPOV (SSPCON1<6>) Cleared in software SSPBUF is read R/W = 0 ACK General Call Address Address is compared to General Call Address GCEN (SSPCON2<7>) Receiving Data ACK 1 2 34 56 7891 2 34 56 789 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 after ACK, set interrupt ‘0’ ‘1’© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 185 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.6 MASTER MODE Master mode is enabled by setting and clearing the appropriate SSPM bits in SSPCON1 and by setting the SSPEN bit. In Master mode, the SCL and SDA lines are manipulated by the MSSP hardware. Master mode of operation is supported by interrupt generation on the detection of the Start and Stop conditions. The Stop (P) and Start (S) bits are cleared from a Reset or when the MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I2C bus may be taken when the P bit is set, or the bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear. In Firmware Controlled Master mode, user code conducts all I2C bus operations based on Start and Stop bit conditions. Once Master mode is enabled, the user has six options. 1. Assert a Start condition on SDA and SCL. 2. Assert a Repeated Start condition on SDA and SCL. 3. Write to the SSPBUF register initiating transmission of data/address. 4. Configure the I2C port to receive data. 5. Generate an Acknowledge condition at the end of a received byte of data. 6. Generate a Stop condition on SDA and SCL. The following events will cause the MSSP Interrupt Flag bit, SSPIF, to be set (MSSP interrupt, if enabled): • Start condition • Stop condition • Data transfer byte transmitted/received • Acknowledge transmit • Repeated Start FIGURE 17-16: MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C™ MASTER MODE) Note: The MSSP module, when configured in I 2C Master mode, does not allow queueing of events. For instance, the user is not allowed to initiate a Start condition and immediately write the SSPBUF register to initiate transmission before the Start condition is complete. In this case, the SSPBUF will not be written to and the WCOL bit will be set, indicating that a write to the SSPBUF did not occur. Read Write SSPSR Start bit, Stop bit, SSPBUF Internal Data Bus Set/Reset, S, P, WCOL (SSPSTAT); Shift Clock MSb LSb SDA Acknowledge Generate Stop bit Detect Write Collision Detect Clock Arbitration State Counter for end of XMIT/RCV SCL SCL In Bus Collision SDA In Receive Enable Clock Cntl Clock Arbitrate/WCOL Detect (hold off clock source) SSPADD<6:0> Baud Set SSPIF, BCLIF; Reset ACKSTAT, PEN (SSPCON2) Rate Generator SSPM<3:0> Start bit DetectPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 186 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.6.1 I2C Master Mode Operation The master device generates all of the serial clock pulses and the Start and Stop conditions. A transfer is ended with a Stop condition or with a Repeated Start condition. Since the Repeated Start condition is also the beginning of the next serial transfer, the I2C bus will not be released. In Master Transmitter mode, serial data is output through SDA, while SCL outputs the serial clock. The first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the receiving device (7 bits) and the Read/Write (R/W) bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be logic ‘0’. Serial data is transmitted 8 bits at a time. After each byte is transmitted, an Acknowledge bit is received. Start and Stop conditions are output to indicate the beginning and the end of a serial transfer. In Master Receive mode, the first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the transmitting device (7 bits) and the R/W bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be logic ‘1’. Thus, the first byte transmitted is a 7-bit slave address followed by a ‘1’ to indicate the receive bit. Serial data is received via SDA, while SCL outputs the serial clock. Serial data is received 8 bits at a time. After each byte is received, an Acknowledge bit is transmitted. Start and Stop conditions indicate the beginning and end of transmission. The Baud Rate Generator used for the SPI mode operation is used to set the SCL clock frequency for either 100 kHz, 400 kHz or 1 MHz I2C operation. See Section 17.4.7 “Baud Rate” for more detail. A typical transmit sequence would go as follows: 1. The user generates a Start condition by setting the Start Enable bit, SEN (SSPCON2<0>). 2. SSPIF is set. The MSSP module will wait the required start time before any other operation takes place. 3. The user loads the SSPBUF with the slave address to transmit. 4. Address is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits are transmitted. 5. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the slave device and writes its value into the SSPCON2 register (SSPCON2<6>). 6. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the SSPIF bit. 7. The user loads the SSPBUF with eight bits of data. 8. Data is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits are transmitted. 9. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the slave device and writes its value into the SSPCON2 register (SSPCON2<6>). 10. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the SSPIF bit. 11. The user generates a Stop condition by setting the Stop Enable bit, PEN (SSPCON2<2>). 12. Interrupt is generated once the Stop condition is complete.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 187 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.7 BAUD RATE In I2C Master mode, the Baud Rate Generator (BRG) reload value is placed in the lower 7 bits of the SSPADD register (Figure 17-17). When a write occurs to SSPBUF, the Baud Rate Generator will automatically begin counting. The BRG counts down to 0 and stops until another reload has taken place. The BRG count is decremented twice per instruction cycle (TCY) on the Q2 and Q4 clocks. In I2C Master mode, the BRG is reloaded automatically. Once the given operation is complete (i.e., transmission of the last data bit is followed by ACK), the internal clock will automatically stop counting and the SCL pin will remain in its last state. Table 17-3 demonstrates clock rates based on instruction cycles and the BRG value loaded into SSPADD. FIGURE 17-17: BAUD RATE GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM TABLE 17-3: I2C™ CLOCK RATE W/BRG SSPM<3:0> CLKO BRG Down Counter FOSC/4 SSPADD<6:0> SSPM<3:0> SCL Reload Control Reload FCY FCY * 2 BRG Value FSCL (2 Rollovers of BRG) 10 MHz 20 MHz 18h 400 kHz(1) 10 MHz 20 MHz 1Fh 312.5 kHz 10 MHz 20 MHz 63h 100 kHz 4 MHz 8 MHz 09h 400 kHz(1) 4 MHz 8 MHz 0Ch 308 kHz 4 MHz 8 MHz 27h 100 kHz 1 MHz 2 MHz 02h 333 kHz(1) 1 MHz 2 MHz 09h 100 kHz 1 MHz 2 MHz 00h 1 MHz(1) Note 1: The I2C interface does not conform to the 400 kHz I2C specification (which applies to rates greater than 100 kHz) in all details, but may be used with care where higher rates are required by the application.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 188 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.7.1 Clock Arbitration Clock arbitration occurs when the master, during any receive, transmit or Repeated Start/Stop condition, deasserts the SCL pin (SCL allowed to float high). When the SCL pin is allowed to float high, the Baud Rate Generator (BRG) is suspended from counting until the SCL pin is actually sampled high. When the SCL pin is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. This ensures that the SCL high time will always be at least one BRG rollover count in the event that the clock is held low by an external device (Figure 17-18). FIGURE 17-18: BAUD RATE GENERATOR TIMING WITH CLOCK ARBITRATION SDA SCL SCL deasserted but slave holds DX DX – 1 BRG SCL is sampled high, reload takes place and BRG starts its count 03h 02h 01h 00h (hold off) 03h 02h Reload BRG Value SCL low (clock arbitration) SCL allowed to transition high BRG decrements on Q2 and Q4 cycles© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 189 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.8 I2C MASTER MODE START CONDITION TIMING To initiate a Start condition, the user sets the Start Enable bit, SEN (SSPCON2<0>). If the SDA and SCL pins are sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and starts its count. If SCL and SDA are both sampled high when the Baud Rate Generator times out (TBRG), the SDA pin is driven low. The action of the SDA being driven low while SCL is high is the Start condition and causes the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) to be set. Following this, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and resumes its count. When the Baud Rate Generator times out (TBRG), the SEN bit (SSPCON2<0>) will be automatically cleared by hardware; the Baud Rate Generator is suspended, leaving the SDA line held low and the Start condition is complete. 17.4.8.1 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Start sequence is in progress, the WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). FIGURE 17-19: FIRST START BIT TIMING Note: If, at the beginning of the Start condition, the SDA and SCL pins are already sampled low, or if during the Start condition, the SCL line is sampled low before the SDA line is driven low, a bus collision occurs, the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLIF, is set, the Start condition is aborted and the I 2C module is reset into its Idle state. Note: Because queueing of events is not allowed, writing to the lower 5 bits of SSPCON2 is disabled until the Start condition is complete. SDA SCL S TBRG 1st bit 2nd bit TBRG SDA = 1, At completion of Start bit, SCL = 1 TBRG Write to SSPBUF occurs here hardware clears SEN bit TBRG Write to SEN bit occurs here Set S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) and sets SSPIF bitPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 190 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.9 I2C MASTER MODE REPEATED START CONDITION TIMING A Repeated Start condition occurs when the RSEN bit (SSPCON2<1>) is programmed high and the I2C logic module is in the Idle state. When the RSEN bit is set, the SCL pin is asserted low. When the SCL pin is sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with the contents of SSPADD<5:0> and begins counting. The SDA pin is released (brought high) for one Baud Rate Generator count (TBRG). When the Baud Rate Generator times out, if SDA is sampled high, the SCL pin will be deasserted (brought high). When SCL is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. SDA and SCL must be sampled high for one TBRG. This action is then followed by assertion of the SDA pin (SDA = 0) for one TBRG while SCL is high. Following this, the RSEN bit (SSPCON2<1>) will be automatically cleared and the Baud Rate Generator will not be reloaded, leaving the SDA pin held low. As soon as a Start condition is detected on the SDA and SCL pins, the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) will be set. The SSPIF bit will not be set until the Baud Rate Generator has timed out. Immediately following the SSPIF bit getting set, the user may write the SSPBUF with the 7-bit address in 7-bit mode or the default first address in 10-bit mode. After the first eight bits are transmitted and an ACK is received, the user may then transmit an additional eight bits of address (10-bit mode) or eight bits of data (7-bit mode). 17.4.9.1 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Repeated Start sequence is in progress, the WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). FIGURE 17-20: REPEATED START CONDITION WAVEFORM Note 1: If RSEN is programmed while any other event is in progress, it will not take effect. 2: A bus collision during the Repeated Start condition occurs if: • SDA is sampled low when SCL goes from low-to-high. • SCL goes low before SDA is asserted low. This may indicate that another master is attempting to transmit a data ‘1’. Note: Because queueing of events is not allowed, writing of the lower 5 bits of SSPCON2 is disabled until the Repeated Start condition is complete. SDA SCL Sr = Repeated Start Write to SSPCON2 Write to SSPBUF occurs here on falling edge of ninth clock, end of Xmit At completion of Start bit, hardware clears RSEN bit 1st bit S bit set by hardware TBRG TBRG SDA = 1, SDA = 1, SCL (no change). SCL = 1 occurs here. TBRG TBRG TBRG and sets SSPIF RSEN bit set by hardware© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 191 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.10 I2C MASTER MODE TRANSMISSION Transmission of a data byte, a 7-bit address or the other half of a 10-bit address is accomplished by simply writing a value to the SSPBUF register. This action will set the Buffer Full flag bit, BF, and allow the Baud Rate Generator to begin counting and start the next transmission. Each bit of address/data will be shifted out onto the SDA pin after the falling edge of SCL is asserted (see data hold time specification parameter 106). SCL is held low for one Baud Rate Generator rollover count (TBRG). Data should be valid before SCL is released high (see data setup time specification parameter 107). When the SCL pin is released high, it is held that way for TBRG. The data on the SDA pin must remain stable for that duration and some hold time after the next falling edge of SCL. After the eighth bit is shifted out (the falling edge of the eighth clock), the BF flag is cleared and the master releases SDA. This allows the slave device being addressed to respond with an ACK bit during the ninth bit time if an address match occurred, or if data was received properly. The status of ACK is written into the ACKDT bit on the falling edge of the ninth clock. If the master receives an Acknowledge, the Acknowledge Status bit, ACKSTAT, is cleared. If not, the bit is set. After the ninth clock, the SSPIF bit is set and the master clock (Baud Rate Generator) is suspended until the next data byte is loaded into the SSPBUF, leaving SCL low and SDA unchanged (Figure 17-21). After the write to the SSPBUF, each bit of the address will be shifted out on the falling edge of SCL until all seven address bits and the R/W bit are completed. On the falling edge of the eighth clock, the master will deassert the SDA pin, allowing the slave to respond with an Acknowledge. On the falling edge of the ninth clock, the master will sample the SDA pin to see if the address was recognized by a slave. The status of the ACK bit is loaded into the ACKSTAT status bit (SSPCON2<6>). Following the falling edge of the ninth clock transmission of the address, the SSPIF is set, the BF flag is cleared and the Baud Rate Generator is turned off until another write to the SSPBUF takes place, holding SCL low and allowing SDA to float. 17.4.10.1 BF Status Flag In Transmit mode, the BF bit (SSPSTAT<0>) is set when the CPU writes to SSPBUF and is cleared when all 8 bits are shifted out. 17.4.10.2 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when a transmit is already in progress (i.e., SSPSR is still shifting out a data byte), the WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). WCOL must be cleared in software. 17.4.10.3 ACKSTAT Status Flag In Transmit mode, the ACKSTAT bit (SSPCON2<6>) is cleared when the slave has sent an Acknowledge (ACK = 0) and is set when the slave does not Acknowledge (ACK = 1). A slave sends an Acknowledge when it has recognized its address (including a general call), or when the slave has properly received its data. 17.4.11 I2C MASTER MODE RECEPTION Master mode reception is enabled by programming the Receive Enable bit, RCEN (SSPCON2<3>). The Baud Rate Generator begins counting and on each rollover, the state of the SCL pin changes (high-to-low/ low-to-high) and data is shifted into the SSPSR. After the falling edge of the eighth clock, the receive enable flag is automatically cleared, the contents of the SSPSR are loaded into the SSPBUF, the BF flag bit is set, the SSPIF flag bit is set and the Baud Rate Generator is suspended from counting, holding SCL low. The MSSP is now in Idle state awaiting the next command. When the buffer is read by the CPU, the BF flag bit is automatically cleared. The user can then send an Acknowledge bit at the end of reception by setting the Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN (SSPCON2<4>). 17.4.11.1 BF Status Flag In receive operation, the BF bit is set when an address or data byte is loaded into SSPBUF from SSPSR. It is cleared when the SSPBUF register is read. 17.4.11.2 SSPOV Status Flag In receive operation, the SSPOV bit is set when 8 bits are received into the SSPSR and the BF flag bit is already set from a previous reception. 17.4.11.3 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when a receive is already in progress (i.e., SSPSR is still shifting in a data byte), the WCOL bit is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). Note: The MSSP module must be in an Idle state before the RCEN bit is set or the RCEN bit will be disregarded. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 192 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 17-21: I2C MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (TRANSMISSION, 7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESSING) SDA SCL SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SEN A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 ACK = ‘0’ D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK Transmitting Data or Second Half R/W = 0 Transmit Address to Slave 123456789 123456789 P Cleared in software service routine from MSSP interrupt SSPBUF is written in software After Start condition, SEN cleared by hardware S SSPBUF written with 7-bit address and R/W start transmit SCL held low while CPU responds to SSPIF SEN = 0 of 10-Bit Address Write SSPCON2<0> SEN = 1 Start condition begins From slave, clear ACKSTAT bit SSPCON2<6> ACKSTAT in SSPCON2 = 1 Cleared in software SSPBUF written PEN R/W Cleared in software© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 193 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 17-22: I2C MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESSING) P 9 8 7 6 5 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 SDA SCL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 678 9 1234 Bus master terminates transfer ACK Receiving Data from Slave Receiving Data from Slave D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 ACK R/W = 0 Transmit Address to Slave SSPIF BF ACK is not sent Write to SSPCON2<0> (SEN = 1), Write to SSPBUF occurs here, ACK from Slave Master configured as a receiver by programming SSPCON2<3> (RCEN = 1) PEN bit = 1 written here Data shifted in on falling edge of CLK Cleared in software start XMIT SEN = 0 SSPOV SDA = 0, SCL = 1 while CPU (SSPSTAT<0>) ACK Cleared in software Cleared in software Set SSPIF interrupt at end of receive Set P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) and SSPIF Cleared in software ACK from Master Set SSPIF at end Set SSPIF interrupt at end of Acknowledge sequence Set SSPIF interrupt at end of Acknowledge sequence of receive Set ACKEN, start Acknowledge sequence SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full SDA = ACKDT = 1 RCEN cleared automatically RCEN = 1, start next receive Write to SSPCON2<4> to start Acknowledge sequence SDA = ACKDT (SSPCON2<5>) = 0 RCEN cleared automatically responds to SSPIF ACKEN begin Start condition Cleared in software SDA = ACKDT = 0 Last bit is shifted into SSPSR and contents are unloaded into SSPBUFPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 194 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.12 ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE TIMING An Acknowledge sequence is enabled by setting the Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN (SSPCON2<4>). When this bit is set, the SCL pin is pulled low and the contents of the Acknowledge data bit are presented on the SDA pin. If the user wishes to generate an Acknowledge, then the ACKDT bit should be cleared. If not, the user should set the ACKDT bit before starting an Acknowledge sequence. The Baud Rate Generator then counts for one rollover period (TBRG) and the SCL pin is deasserted (pulled high). When the SCL pin is sampled high (clock arbitration), the Baud Rate Generator counts for TBRG. The SCL pin is then pulled low. Following this, the ACKEN bit is automatically cleared, the Baud Rate Generator is turned off and the MSSP module then goes into Idle mode (Figure 17-23). 17.4.12.1 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when an Acknowledge sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). 17.4.13 STOP CONDITION TIMING A Stop bit is asserted on the SDA pin at the end of a receive/transmit by setting the Stop Sequence Enable bit, PEN (SSPCON2<2>). At the end of a receive/ transmit, the SCL line is held low after the falling edge of the ninth clock. When the PEN bit is set, the master will assert the SDA line low. When the SDA line is sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded and counts down to 0. When the Baud Rate Generator times out, the SCL pin will be brought high and one TBRG (Baud Rate Generator rollover count) later, the SDA pin will be deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high while SCL is high, the P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set. A TBRG later, the PEN bit is cleared and the SSPIF bit is set (Figure 17-24). 17.4.13.1 WCOL Status Flag If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Stop sequence is in progress, then the WCOL bit is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). FIGURE 17-23: ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE WAVEFORM FIGURE 17-24: STOP CONDITION RECEIVE OR TRANSMIT MODE Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period. SDA SCL SSPIF set at Acknowledge sequence starts here, write to SSPCON2 ACKEN automatically cleared Cleared in TBRG TBRG the end of receive 8 ACKEN = 1, ACKDT = 0 D0 9 SSPIF software SSPIF set at the end of Acknowledge sequence Cleared in software ACK SCL SDA SDA asserted low before rising edge of clock Write to SSPCON2, set PEN Falling edge of SCL = 1 for TBRG, followed by SDA = 1 for TBRG 9th clock SCL brought high after TBRG Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period. TBRG TBRG after SDA sampled high. P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set. TBRG to setup Stop condition ACK P TBRG PEN bit (SSPCON2<2>) is cleared by hardware and the SSPIF bit is set© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 195 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.14 SLEEP OPERATION While in Sleep mode, the I2C module can receive addresses or data and when an address match or complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor from Sleep (if the MSSP interrupt is enabled). 17.4.15 EFFECTS OF A RESET A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the current transfer. 17.4.16 MULTI-MASTER MODE In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the detection of the Start and Stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. The Stop (P) and Start (S) bits are cleared from a Reset or when the MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I2C bus may be taken when the P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set, or the bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear. When the bus is busy, enabling the MSSP interrupt will generate the interrupt when the Stop condition occurs. In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be monitored for arbitration to see if the signal level is the expected output level. This check is performed in hardware with the result placed in the BCLIF bit. The states where arbitration can be lost are: • Address Transfer • Data Transfer • A Start Condition • A Repeated Start Condition • An Acknowledge Condition 17.4.17 MULTI -MASTER COMMUNICATION, BUS COLLISION AND BUS ARBITRATION Multi-Master mode support is achieved by bus arbitration. When the master outputs address/data bits onto the SDA pin, arbitration takes place when the master outputs a ‘1’ on SDA by letting SDA float high and another master asserts a ‘0’. When the SCL pin floats high, data should be stable. If the expected data on SDA is a ‘1’ and the data sampled on the SDA pin = 0, then a bus collision has taken place. The master will set the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLIF and reset the I 2C port to its Idle state (Figure 17-25). If a transmit was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the transmission is halted, the BF flag is cleared, the SDA and SCL lines are deasserted and the SSPBUF can be written to. When the user services the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C bus is free, the user can resume communication by asserting a Start condition. If a Start, Repeated Start, Stop or Acknowledge condition was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the condition is aborted, the SDA and SCL lines are deasserted and the respective control bits in the SSPCON2 register are cleared. When the user services the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C bus is free, the user can resume communication by asserting a Start condition. The master will continue to monitor the SDA and SCL pins. If a Stop condition occurs, the SSPIF bit will be set. A write to the SSPBUF will start the transmission of data at the first data bit, regardless of where the transmitter left off when the bus collision occurred. In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the detection of Start and Stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. Control of the I2C bus can be taken when the P bit is set in the SSPSTAT register, or the bus is Idle and the S and P bits are cleared. FIGURE 17-25: BUS COLLISION TIMING FOR TRANSMIT AND ACKNOWLEDGE SDA SCL BCLIF SDA released SDA line pulled low by another source Sample SDA. While SCL is high, data doesn’t match what is driven Bus collision has occurred. Set bus collision interrupt (BCLIF) by the master. by master Data changes while SCL = 0PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 196 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.17.1 Bus Collision During a Start Condition During a Start condition, a bus collision occurs if: a) SDA or SCL is sampled low at the beginning of the Start condition (Figure 17-26). b) SCL is sampled low before SDA is asserted low (Figure 17-27). During a Start condition, both the SDA and the SCL pins are monitored. If the SDA pin is already low, or the SCL pin is already low, then all of the following occur: • the Start condition is aborted, • the BCLIF flag is set and • the MSSP module is reset to its Idle state (Figure 17-26). The Start condition begins with the SDA and SCL pins deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is loaded from SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. If the SCL pin is sampled low while SDA is high, a bus collision occurs because it is assumed that another master is attempting to drive a data ‘1’ during the Start condition. If the SDA pin is sampled low during this count, the BRG is reset and the SDA line is asserted early (Figure 17-28). If, however, a ‘1’ is sampled on the SDA pin, the SDA pin is asserted low at the end of the BRG count. The Baud Rate Generator is then reloaded and counts down to 0; if the SCL pin is sampled as ‘0’ during this time, a bus collision does not occur. At the end of the BRG count, the SCL pin is asserted low. FIGURE 17-26: BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SDA ONLY) Note: The reason that bus collision is not a factor during a Start condition is that no two bus masters can assert a Start condition at the exact same time. Therefore, one master will always assert SDA before the other. This condition does not cause a bus collision because the two masters must be allowed to arbitrate the first address following the Start condition. If the address is the same, arbitration must be allowed to continue into the data portion, Repeated Start or Stop conditions. SDA SCL SEN SDA sampled low before SDA goes low before the SEN bit is set. S bit and SSPIF set because MSSP module reset into Idle state. SEN cleared automatically because of bus collision. S bit and SSPIF set because Set SEN, enable Start condition if SDA = 1, SCL = 1 SDA = 0, SCL = 1. BCLIF S SSPIF SDA = 0, SCL = 1. SSPIF and BCLIF are cleared in software SSPIF and BCLIF are cleared in software Set BCLIF, Start condition. Set BCLIF.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 197 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 17-27: BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SCL = 0) FIGURE 17-28: BRG RESET DUE TO SDA ARBITRATION DURING START CONDITION SDA SCL SEN bus collision occurs. Set BCLIF. SCL = 0 before SDA = 0, Set SEN, enable Start sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1 TBRG TBRG SDA = 0, SCL = 1 BCLIF S SSPIF Interrupt cleared in software bus collision occurs. Set BCLIF. SCL = 0 before BRG time-out, ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘0’ SDA SCL SEN Set S Less than TBRG TBRG SDA = 0, SCL = 1 BCLIF S SSPIF S Interrupts cleared set SSPIF in software SDA = 0, SCL = 1, SCL pulled low after BRG time-out Set SSPIF ‘0’ SDA pulled low by other master. Reset BRG and assert SDA. Set SEN, enable Start sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 198 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 17.4.17.2 Bus Collision During a Repeated Start Condition During a Repeated Start condition, a bus collision occurs if: a) A low level is sampled on SDA when SCL goes from low level to high level. b) SCL goes low before SDA is asserted low, indicating that another master is attempting to transmit a data ‘1’. When the user deasserts SDA and the pin is allowed to float high, the BRG is loaded with SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. The SCL pin is then deasserted and when sampled high, the SDA pin is sampled. If SDA is low, a bus collision has occurred (i.e., another master is attempting to transmit a data ‘0’, Figure 17-29). If SDA is sampled high, the BRG is reloaded and begins counting. If SDA goes from high-to-low before the BRG times out, no bus collision occurs because no two masters can assert SDA at exactly the same time. If SCL goes from high-to-low before the BRG times out and SDA has not already been asserted, a bus collision occurs. In this case, another master is attempting to transmit a data ‘1’ during the Repeated Start condition, see Figure 17-30. If, at the end of the BRG time-out, both SCL and SDA are still high, the SDA pin is driven low and the BRG is reloaded and begins counting. At the end of the count, regardless of the status of the SCL pin, the SCL pin is driven low and the Repeated Start condition is complete. FIGURE 17-29: BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 1) FIGURE 17-30: BUS COLLISION DURING REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 2) SDA SCL RSEN BCLIF S SSPIF Sample SDA when SCL goes high. If SDA = 0, set BCLIF and release SDA and SCL. Cleared in software ‘0’ ‘0’ SDA SCL BCLIF RSEN S SSPIF Interrupt cleared in software SCL goes low before SDA, set BCLIF. Release SDA and SCL. TBRG TBRG ‘0’© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 199 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 17.4.17.3 Bus Collision During a Stop Condition Bus collision occurs during a Stop condition if: a) After the SDA pin has been deasserted and allowed to float high, SDA is sampled low after the BRG has timed out. b) After the SCL pin is deasserted, SCL is sampled low before SDA goes high. The Stop condition begins with SDA asserted low. When SDA is sampled low, the SCL pin is allowed to float. When the pin is sampled high (clock arbitration), the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. After the BRG times out, SDA is sampled. If SDA is sampled low, a bus collision has occurred. This is due to another master attempting to drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 17-31). If the SCL pin is sampled low before SDA is allowed to float high, a bus collision occurs. This is another case of another master attempting to drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 17-32). FIGURE 17-31: BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 1) FIGURE 17-32: BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 2) SDA SCL BCLIF PEN P SSPIF TBRG TBRG TBRG SDA asserted low SDA sampled low after TBRG, set BCLIF ‘0’ ‘0’ SDA SCL BCLIF PEN P SSPIF TBRG TBRG TBRG Assert SDA SCL goes low before SDA goes high, set BCLIF ‘0’ ‘0’PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 200 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 201 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.0 ENHANCED UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (EUSART) The Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. (Generically, the USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI.) The EUSART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as CRT terminals and personal computers. It can also be configured as a halfduplex, synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs, etc. The Enhanced USART module implements additional features, including automatic baud rate detection and calibration, automatic wake-up on Sync Break reception and 12-bit Break character transmit. These make it ideally suited for use in Local Interconnect Network bus (LIN bus) systems. The EUSART can be configured in the following modes: • Asynchronous (full duplex) with: - Auto-wake-up on character reception - Auto-baud calibration - 12-bit Break character transmission • Synchronous – Master (half duplex) with selectable clock polarity • Synchronous – Slave (half duplex) with selectable clock polarity The pins of the Enhanced USART are multiplexed with PORTC. In order to configure RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as an EUSART: • bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) must be set (= 1) • bit TRISC<7> must be set (= 1) • bit TRISC<6> must be set (= 1) The operation of the Enhanced USART module is controlled through three registers: • Transmit Status and Control (TXSTA) • Receive Status and Control (RCSTA) • Baud Rate Control (BAUDCON) These are detailed on the following pages in Register 18-1, Register 18-2 and Register 18-3, respectively. Note: The EUSART control will automatically reconfigure the pin from input to output as needed.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 202 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 18-1: TXSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-1 R/W-0 CSRC TX9 TXEN(1) SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode: Don’t care. Synchronous mode: 1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (clock from external source) bit 6 TX9: 9-Bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit(1) 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled bit 4 SYNC: EUSART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode bit 3 SENDB: Send Break Character bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Send Sync Break on next transmission (cleared by hardware upon completion) 0 = Sync Break transmission completed Synchronous mode: Don’t care. bit 2 BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = High speed 0 = Low speed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode. bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full bit 0 TX9D: 9th Bit of Transmit Data Can be address/data bit or a parity bit. Note 1: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in Sync mode.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 203 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 18-2: RCSTA: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R-x SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit 1 = Serial port enabled (configures RX/DT and TX/CK pins as serial port pins) 0 = Serial port disabled (held in Reset) bit 6 RX9: 9-Bit Receive Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit reception 0 = Selects 8-bit reception bit 5 SREN: Single Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode: Don’t care. Synchronous mode – Master: 1 = Enables single receive 0 = Disables single receive This bit is cleared after reception is complete. Synchronous mode – Slave: Don’t care. bit 4 CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Enables receiver 0 = Disables receiver Synchronous mode: 1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit, CREN, is cleared (CREN overrides SREN) 0 = Disables continuous receive bit 3 ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit Asynchronous mode 9-Bit (RX9 = 1): 1 = Enables address detection, enables interrupt and loads the receive buffer when RSR<8> is set 0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received and ninth bit can be used as parity bit Asynchronous mode 9-Bit (RX9 = 0): Don’t care. bit 2 FERR: Framing Error bit 1 = Framing error (can be cleared by reading RCREG register and receiving next valid byte) 0 = No framing error bit 1 OERR: Overrun Error bit 1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit, CREN) 0 = No overrun error bit 0 RX9D: 9th Bit of Received Data This can be address/data bit or a parity bit and must be calculated by user firmware.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 204 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 18-3: BAUDCON: BAUD RATE CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R-1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 ABDOVF: Auto-Baud Acquisition Rollover Status bit 1 = A BRG rollover has occurred during Auto-Baud Rate Detect mode (must be cleared in software) 0 = No BRG rollover has occurred bit 6 RCIDL: Receive Operation Idle Status bit 1 = Receive operation is Idle 0 = Receive operation is active bit 5 RXDTP: Data/Receive Polarity Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Receive data (RX) is inverted (active-low) 0 = Receive data (RX) is not inverted (active-high) Synchronous mode: 1 = Data (DT) is inverted (active-low) 0 = Data (DT) is not inverted (active-high) bit 4 TXCKP: Clock and Data Polarity Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Idle state for transmit (TX) is a low level 0 = Idle state for transmit (TX) is a high level Synchronous mode: 1 = Idle state for clock (CK) is a high level 0 = Idle state for clock (CK) is a low level bit 3 BRG16: 16-Bit Baud Rate Register Enable bit 1 = 16-bit Baud Rate Generator – SPBRGH and SPBRG 0 = 8-bit Baud Rate Generator – SPBRG only (Compatible mode), SPBRGH value ignored bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 1 WUE: Wake-up Enable bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = EUSART will continue to sample the RX pin – interrupt generated on falling edge; bit cleared in hardware on following rising edge 0 = RX pin not monitored or rising edge detected Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode. bit 0 ABDEN: Auto-Baud Detect Enable bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Enable baud rate measurement on the next character. Requires reception of a Sync field (55h); cleared in hardware upon completion. 0 = Baud rate measurement disabled or completed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 205 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.1 Baud Rate Generator (BRG) The BRG is a dedicated, 8-bit or 16-bit generator that supports both the Asynchronous and Synchronous modes of the EUSART. By default, the BRG operates in 8-bit mode; setting the BRG16 bit (BAUDCON<3>) selects 16-bit mode. The SPBRGH:SPBRG register pair controls the period of a free-running timer. In Asynchronous mode, bits, BRGH (TXSTA<2>) and BRG16 (BAUDCON<3>), also control the baud rate. In Synchronous mode, BRGH is ignored. Table 18-1 shows the formula for computation of the baud rate for different EUSART modes which only apply in Master mode (internally generated clock). Given the desired baud rate and FOSC, the nearest integer value for the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers can be calculated using the formulas in Table 18-1. From this, the error in baud rate can be determined. An example calculation is shown in Example 18-1. Typical baud rates and error values for the various Asynchronous modes are shown in Table 18-2. It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate (BRGH = 1) or the 16-bit BRG to reduce the baud rate error, or achieve a slow baud rate for a fast oscillator frequency. Writing a new value to the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers causes the BRG timer to be reset (or cleared). This ensures the BRG does not wait for a timer overflow before outputting the new baud rate. 18.1.1 OPERATION IN POWER-MANAGED MODES The device clock is used to generate the desired baud rate. When one of the power-managed modes is entered, the new clock source may be operating at a different frequency. This may require an adjustment to the value in the SPBRG register pair. 18.1.2 SAMPLING The data on the RX pin is sampled three times by a majority detect circuit to determine if a high or a low level is present at the RX pin. TABLE 18-1: BAUD RATE FORMULAS Configuration Bits BRG/EUSART Mode Baud Rate Formula SYNC BRG16 BRGH 000 8-Bit/Asynchronous FOSC/[64 (n + 1)] 001 8-Bit/Asynchronous FOSC/[16 (n + 1)] 010 16-Bit/Asynchronous 011 16-Bit/Asynchronous 10x 8-Bit/Synchronous FOSC/[4 (n + 1)] 11x 16-Bit/Synchronous Legend: x = Don’t care, n = value of SPBRGH:SPBRG register pairPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 206 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. EXAMPLE 18-1: CALCULATING BAUD RATE ERROR TABLE 18-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the BRG. For a device with FOSC of 16 MHz, desired baud rate of 9600, Asynchronous mode, 8-bit BRG: Desired Baud Rate = FOSC/(64 ([SPBRGH:SPBRG] + 1)) Solving for SPBRGH:SPBRG: X = ((FOSC/Desired Baud Rate)/64) – 1 = ((16000000/9600)/64) – 1 = [25.042] = 25 Calculated Baud Rate = 16000000/(64 (25 + 1)) = 9615 Error = (Calculated Baud Rate – Desired Baud Rate)/Desired Baud Rate = (9615 – 9600)/9600 = 0.16% © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 207 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 18-3: BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 0 FOSC = 40.000 MHz FOSC = 20.000 MHz FOSC = 10.000 MHz FOSC = 8.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.2 — — — 1.221 1.73 255 1.202 0.16 129 1.201 -0.16 103 2.4 2.441 1.73 255 2.404 0.16 129 2.404 0.16 64 2.403 -0.16 51 9.6 9.615 0.16 64 9.766 1.73 31 9.766 1.73 15 9.615 -0.16 12 19.2 19.531 1.73 31 19.531 1.73 15 19.531 1.73 7 — — — 57.6 56.818 -1.36 10 62.500 8.51 4 52.083 -9.58 2 — — — 115.2 125.000 8.51 4 104.167 -9.58 2 78.125 -32.18 1 — — — BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 0 FOSC = 4.000 MHz FOSC = 2.000 MHz FOSC = 1.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 0.16 207 0.300 -0.16 103 0.300 -0.16 51 1.2 1.202 0.16 51 1.201 -0.16 25 1.201 -0.16 12 2.4 2.404 0.16 25 2.403 -0.16 12 — — — 9.6 8.929 -6.99 6 — — — — — — 19.2 20.833 8.51 2 — — — — — — 57.6 62.500 8.51 0 — — — — — — 115.2 62.500 -45.75 0 — — — — — — BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 0 FOSC = 40.000 MHz FOSC = 20.000 MHz FOSC = 10.000 MHz FOSC = 8.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.2 — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.4 — — — — — — 2.441 1.73 255 2.403 -0.16 207 9.6 9.766 1.73 255 9.615 0.16 129 9.615 0.16 64 9.615 -0.16 51 19.2 19.231 0.16 129 19.231 0.16 64 19.531 1.73 31 19.230 -0.16 25 57.6 58.140 0.94 42 56.818 -1.36 21 56.818 -1.36 10 55.555 3.55 8 115.2 113.636 -1.36 21 113.636 -1.36 10 125.000 8.51 4 — — — BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 0 FOSC = 4.000 MHz FOSC = 2.000 MHz FOSC = 1.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 — — — — — — 0.300 -0.16 207 1.2 1.202 0.16 207 1.201 -0.16 103 1.201 -0.16 51 2.4 2.404 0.16 103 2.403 -0.16 51 2.403 -0.16 25 9.6 9.615 0.16 25 9.615 -0.16 12 — — — 19.2 19.231 0.16 12 — — — — — — 57.6 62.500 8.51 3 — — — — — — 115.2 125.000 8.51 1 — — — — — —PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 208 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 1 FOSC = 40.000 MHz FOSC = 20.000 MHz FOSC = 10.000 MHz FOSC = 8.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 0.00 8332 0.300 0.02 4165 0.300 0.02 2082 0.300 -0.04 1665 1.2 1.200 0.02 2082 1.200 -0.03 1041 1.200 -0.03 520 1.201 -0.16 415 2.4 2.402 0.06 1040 2.399 -0.03 520 2.404 0.16 259 2.403 -0.16 207 9.6 9.615 0.16 259 9.615 0.16 129 9.615 0.16 64 9.615 -0.16 51 19.2 19.231 0.16 129 19.231 0.16 64 19.531 1.73 31 19.230 -0.16 25 57.6 58.140 0.94 42 56.818 -1.36 21 56.818 -1.36 10 55.555 3.55 8 115.2 113.636 -1.36 21 113.636 -1.36 10 125.000 8.51 4 — — — BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 1 FOSC = 4.000 MHz FOSC = 2.000 MHz FOSC = 1.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 0.04 832 0.300 -0.16 415 0.300 -0.16 207 1.2 1.202 0.16 207 1.201 -0.16 103 1.201 -0.16 51 2.4 2.404 0.16 103 2.403 -0.16 51 2.403 -0.16 25 9.6 9.615 0.16 25 9.615 -0.16 12 — — — 19.2 19.231 0.16 12 — — — — — — 57.6 62.500 8.51 3 — — — — — — 115.2 125.000 8.51 1 — — — — — — BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1 FOSC = 40.000 MHz FOSC = 20.000 MHz FOSC = 10.000 MHz FOSC = 8.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 0.00 33332 0.300 0.00 16665 0.300 0.00 8332 0.300 -0.01 6665 1.2 1.200 0.00 8332 1.200 0.02 4165 1.200 0.02 2082 1.200 -0.04 1665 2.4 2.400 0.02 4165 2.400 0.02 2082 2.402 0.06 1040 2.400 -0.04 832 9.6 9.606 0.06 1040 9.596 -0.03 520 9.615 0.16 259 9.615 -0.16 207 19.2 19.193 -0.03 520 19.231 0.16 259 19.231 0.16 129 19.230 -0.16 103 57.6 57.803 0.35 172 57.471 -0.22 86 58.140 0.94 42 57.142 0.79 34 115.2 114.943 -0.22 86 116.279 0.94 42 113.636 -1.36 21 117.647 -2.12 16 BAUD RATE (K) SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1 FOSC = 4.000 MHz FOSC = 2.000 MHz FOSC = 1.000 MHz Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) Actual Rate (K) % Error SPBRG Value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 0.01 3332 0.300 -0.04 1665 0.300 -0.04 832 1.2 1.200 0.04 832 1.201 -0.16 415 1.201 -0.16 207 2.4 2.404 0.16 415 2.403 -0.16 207 2.403 -0.16 103 9.6 9.615 0.16 103 9.615 -0.16 51 9.615 -0.16 25 19.2 19.231 0.16 51 19.230 -0.16 25 19.230 -0.16 12 57.6 58.824 2.12 16 55.555 3.55 8 — — — 115.2 111.111 -3.55 8 — — — — — — TABLE 18-3: BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES (CONTINUED)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 209 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.1.3 AUTO-BAUD RATE DETECT The Enhanced USART module supports the automatic detection and calibration of baud rate. This feature is active only in Asynchronous mode and while the WUE bit is clear. The automatic baud rate measurement sequence (Figure 18-1) begins whenever a Start bit is received and the ABDEN bit is set. The calculation is self-averaging. In the Auto-Baud Rate Detect (ABD) mode, the clock to the BRG is reversed. Rather than the BRG clocking the incoming RX signal, the RX signal is timing the BRG. In ABD mode, the internal Baud Rate Generator is used as a counter to time the bit period of the incoming serial byte stream. Once the ABDEN bit is set, the state machine will clear the BRG and look for a Start bit. The Auto-Baud Rate Detect must receive a byte with the value 55h (ASCII “U”, which is also the LIN bus Sync character) in order to calculate the proper bit rate. The measurement is taken over both a low and a high bit time in order to minimize any effects caused by asymmetry of the incoming signal. After a Start bit, the SPBRG begins counting up, using the preselected clock source on the first rising edge of RX. After eight bits on the RX pin or the fifth rising edge, an accumulated value totalling the proper BRG period is left in the SPBRGH:SPBRG register pair. Once the 5th edge is seen (this should correspond to the Stop bit), the ABDEN bit is automatically cleared. If a rollover of the BRG occurs (an overflow from FFFFh to 0000h), the event is trapped by the ABDOVF status bit (BAUDCON<7>). It is set in hardware by BRG rollovers and can be set or cleared by the user in software. ABD mode remains active after rollover events and the ABDEN bit remains set (Figure 18-2). While calibrating the baud rate period, the BRG registers are clocked at 1/8th the preconfigured clock rate. Note that the BRG clock will be configured by the BRG16 and BRGH bits. Independent of the BRG16 bit setting, both the SPBRG and SPBRGH will be used as a 16-bit counter. This allows the user to verify that no carry occurred for 8-bit modes by checking for 00h in the SPBRGH register. Refer to Table 18-4 for counter clock rates to the BRG. While the ABD sequence takes place, the EUSART state machine is held in Idle. The RCIF interrupt is set once the fifth rising edge on RX is detected. The value in the RCREG needs to be read to clear the RCIF interrupt. The contents of RCREG should be discarded. TABLE 18-4: BRG COUNTER CLOCK RATES 18.1.3.1 ABD and EUSART Transmission Since the BRG clock is reversed during ABD acquisition, the EUSART transmitter cannot be used during ABD. This means that whenever the ABDEN bit is set, TXREG cannot be written to. Users should also ensure that ABDEN does not become set during a transmit sequence. Failing to do this may result in unpredictable EUSART operation. Note 1: If the WUE bit is set with the ABDEN bit, Auto-Baud Rate Detection will occur on the byte following the Break character. 2: It is up to the user to determine that the incoming character baud rate is within the range of the selected BRG clock source. Some combinations of oscillator frequency and EUSART baud rates are not possible due to bit error rates. Overall system timing and communication baud rates must be taken into consideration when using the Auto-Baud Rate Detection feature. BRG16 BRGH BRG Counter Clock 0 0 FOSC/512 0 1 FOSC/128 1 0 FOSC/128 1 1 FOSC/32 Note: During the ABD sequence, SPBRG and SPBRGH are both used as a 16-bit counter, independent of BRG16 setting.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 210 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 18-1: AUTOMATIC BAUD RATE CALCULATION FIGURE 18-2: BRG OVERFLOW SEQUENCE BRG Value RX pin ABDEN bit RCIF bit Bit 0 Bit 1 (Interrupt) Read RCREG BRG Clock Start Set by User Auto-Cleared XXXXh 0000h Edge #1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Edge #2 Bit 4 Bit 5 Edge #3 Bit 6 Bit 7 Edge #4 Stop Bit Edge #5 001Ch Note: The ABD sequence requires the EUSART module to be configured in Asynchronous mode and WUE = 0. SPBRG XXXXh 1Ch SPBRGH XXXXh 00h Start Bit 0 XXXXh 0000h 0000h FFFFh BRG Clock ABDEN bit RX pin ABDOVF bit BRG Value© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 211 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.2 EUSART Asynchronous Mode The Asynchronous mode of operation is selected by clearing the SYNC bit (TXSTA<4>). In this mode, the EUSART uses standard Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) format (one Start bit, eight or nine data bits and one Stop bit). The most common data format is 8 bits. An on-chip, dedicated 8-bit/16-bit Baud Rate Generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. The EUSART transmits and receives the LSb first. The EUSART’s transmitter and receiver are functionally independent but use the same data format and baud rate. The Baud Rate Generator produces a clock, either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate depending on the BRGH and BRG16 bits (TXSTA<2> and BAUDCON<3>). Parity is not supported by the hardware but can be implemented in software and stored as the 9th data bit. When operating in Asynchronous mode, the EUSART module consists of the following important elements: • Baud Rate Generator • Sampling Circuit • Asynchronous Transmitter • Asynchronous Receiver • Auto-Wake-up on Sync Break Character • 12-Bit Break Character Transmit • Auto-Baud Rate Detection 18.2.1 EUSART ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMITTER The EUSART transmitter block diagram is shown in Figure 18-3. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit (Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register, TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The TSR register is not loaded until the Stop bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the Stop bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG register (if available). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREG register is empty and the TXIF flag bit (PIR1<4>) is set. This interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the interrupt enable bit, TXIE (PIE1<4>). TXIF will be set regardless of the state of TXIE; it cannot be cleared in software. TXIF is also not cleared immediately upon loading TXREG, but becomes valid in the second instruction cycle following the load instruction. Polling TXIF immediately following a load of TXREG will return invalid results. While TXIF indicates the status of the TXREG register, another bit, TRMT (TXSTA<1>), shows the status of the TSR register. TRMT is a read-only bit which is set when the TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. To set up an Asynchronous Transmission: 1. Initialize the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate. 2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit, SYNC, and setting bit, SPEN. 3. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, set transmit bit, TX9. Can be used as address/data bit. 5. Enable the transmission by setting bit, TXEN, which will also set bit, TXIF. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit, TX9D. 7. Load data to the TXREG register (starts transmission). 8. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. FIGURE 18-3: EUSART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data memory so it is not available to the user. 2: Flag bit, TXIF, is set when enable bit, TXEN, is set. TXIF TXIE Interrupt TXEN Baud Rate CLK SPBRG Baud Rate Generator TX9D MSb LSb Data Bus TXREG Register TSR Register (8) 0 TX9 TRMT SPEN TX pin Pin Buffer and Control 8 • • • BRG16 SPBRGHPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 212 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 18-4: ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION FIGURE 18-5: ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (BACK TO BACK) TABLE 18-5: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 TXREG EUSART Transmit Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous transmission. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. Word 1 Word 1 Transmit Shift Reg Start bit bit 0 bit 1 bit 7/8 Write to TXREG BRG Output (Shift Clock) TX (pin) TXIF bit (Transmit Buffer Reg. Empty Flag) TRMT bit (Transmit Shift Reg. Empty Flag) 1 TCY Stop bit Word 1 Transmit Shift Reg. Write to TXREG BRG Output (Shift Clock) TX (pin) TXIF bit (Interrupt Reg. Flag) TRMT bit (Transmit Shift Reg. Empty Flag) Word 1 Word 2 Word 1 Word 2 Stop bit Start bit Transmit Shift Reg. Word 1 Word 2 bit 0 bit 1 bit 7/8 bit 0 Note: This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions. 1 TCY 1 TCY Start bit© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 213 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.2.2 EUSART ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 18-6. The data is received on the RX pin and drives the data recovery block. The data recovery block is actually a high-speed shifter operating at x16 times the baud rate, whereas the main receive serial shifter operates at the bit rate or at FOSC. This mode would typically be used in RS-232 systems. To set up an Asynchronous Reception: 1. Initialize the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate. 2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit, SYNC, and setting bit, SPEN. 3. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCIE. 4. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9. 5. Enable the reception by setting bit, CREN. 6. Flag bit, RCIF, will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated if enable bit, RCIE, was set. 7. Read the RCSTA register to get the 9th bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 8. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 9. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing enable bit, CREN. 10. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. 18.2.3 SETTING UP 9-BIT MODE WITH ADDRESS DETECT This mode would typically be used in RS-485 systems. To set up an Asynchronous Reception with Address Detect Enable: 1. Initialize the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate. 2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing the SYNC bit and setting the SPEN bit. 3. If interrupts are required, set the RCEN bit and select the desired priority level with the RCIP bit. 4. Set the RX9 bit to enable 9-bit reception. 5. Set the ADDEN bit to enable address detect. 6. Enable reception by setting the CREN bit. 7. The RCIF bit will be set when reception is complete. The interrupt will be Acknowledged if the RCIE and GIE bits are set. 8. Read the RCSTA register to determine if any error occurred during reception, as well as read bit 9 of data (if applicable). 9. Read RCREG to determine if the device is being addressed. 10. If any error occurred, clear the CREN bit. 11. If the device has been addressed, clear the ADDEN bit to allow all received data into the receive buffer and interrupt the CPU. FIGURE 18-6: EUSART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM x64 Baud Rate CLK Baud Rate Generator RX Pin Buffer and Control SPEN Data Recovery CREN OERR FERR MSb RSR Register LSb RX9D RCREG Register FIFO Interrupt RCIF RCIE Data Bus 8 ÷ 64 ÷ 16 or Stop (8) 7 1 0 Start RX9 • • • BRG16 SPBRGH SPBRG or ÷ 4PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 214 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 18-7: ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION TABLE 18-6: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION 18.2.4 AUTO-WAKE-UP ON SYNC BREAK CHARACTER During Sleep mode, all clocks to the EUSART are suspended. Because of this, the Baud Rate Generator is inactive and a proper byte reception cannot be performed. The auto-wake-up feature allows the controller to wake-up due to activity on the RX/DT line while the EUSART is operating in Asynchronous mode. The auto-wake-up feature is enabled by setting the WUE bit (BAUDCON<1>). Once set, the typical receive sequence on RX/DT is disabled and the EUSART remains in an Idle state, monitoring for a wake-up event independent of the CPU mode. A wake-up event consists of a high-to-low transition on the RX/DT line. (This coincides with the start of a Sync Break or a Wake-up Signal character for the LIN protocol.) Following a wake-up event, the module generates an RCIF interrupt. The interrupt is generated synchronously to the Q clocks in normal operating modes (Figure 18-8) and asynchronously, if the device is in Sleep mode (Figure 18-9). The interrupt condition is cleared by reading the RCREG register. The WUE bit is automatically cleared once a low-tohigh transition is observed on the RX line following the wake-up event. At this point, the EUSART module is in Idle mode and returns to normal operation. This signals to the user that the Sync Break event is over. Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 RCREG EUSART Receive Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. Start bit bit 0 bit 7/8 bit 1 Stop bit 0 bit 7/8 bit Start bit Start bit 7/8 Stop bit bit RX (pin) Rcv Buffer Reg Rcv Shift Reg Read Rcv Buffer Reg RCREG RCIF (Interrupt Flag) OERR bit CREN Word 1 RCREG Word 2 RCREG Stop bit Note: This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RX input. The RCREG (receive buffer) is read after the third word causing the OERR (overrun) bit to be set.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 215 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.2.4.1 Special Considerations Using Auto-Wake-up Since auto-wake-up functions by sensing rising edge transitions on RX/DT, information with any state changes before the Stop bit may signal a false End-ofCharacter (EOC) and cause data or framing errors. To work properly, therefore, the initial character in the transmission must be all ‘0’s. This can be 00h (8 bytes) for standard RS-232 devices or 000h (12 bits) for LIN bus. Oscillator start-up time must also be considered, especially in applications using oscillators with longer start-up intervals (i.e., XT or HS mode). The Sync Break (or Wake-up Signal) character must be of sufficient length and be followed by a sufficient interval to allow enough time for the selected oscillator to start and provide proper initialization of the EUSART. 18.2.4.2 Special Considerations Using the WUE Bit The timing of WUE and RCIF events may cause some confusion when it comes to determining the validity of received data. As noted, setting the WUE bit places the EUSART in an Idle mode. The wake-up event causes a receive interrupt by setting the RCIF bit. The WUE bit is cleared after this when a rising edge is seen on RX/DT. The interrupt condition is then cleared by reading the RCREG register. Ordinarily, the data in RCREG will be dummy data and should be discarded. The fact that the WUE bit has been cleared (or is still set) and the RCIF flag is set should not be used as an indicator of the integrity of the data in RCREG. Users should consider implementing a parallel method in firmware to verify received data integrity. To assure that no actual data is lost, check the RCIDL bit to verify that a receive operation is not in process. If a receive operation is not occurring, the WUE bit may then be set just prior to entering the Sleep mode. FIGURE 18-8: AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMINGS DURING NORMAL OPERATION FIGURE 18-9: AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMINGS DURING SLEEP Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 WUE bit(1) RX/DT Line RCIF Note 1: The EUSART remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set. Bit Set by User Cleared Due to User Read of RCREG Auto-Cleared Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 OSC1 WUE bit(2) RX/DT Line RCIF Bit Set by User Cleared Due to User Read of RCREG Sleep Command Executed Note 1: If the wake-up event requires long oscillator warm-up time, the auto-clear of the WUE bit can occur before the oscillator is ready. This sequence should not depend on the presence of Q clocks. 2: The EUSART remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set. Sleep Ends Note 1 Auto-ClearedPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 216 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 18.2.5 BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE The EUSART module has the capability of sending the special Break character sequences that are required by the LIN bus standard. The Break character transmit consists of a Start bit, followed by twelve ‘0’ bits and a Stop bit. The frame Break character is sent whenever the SENDB and TXEN bits (TXSTA<3> and TXSTA<5>) are set while the Transmit Shift register is loaded with data. Note that the value of data written to TXREG will be ignored and all ‘0’s will be transmitted. The SENDB bit is automatically reset by hardware after the corresponding Stop bit is sent. This allows the user to preload the transmit FIFO with the next transmit byte following the Break character (typically, the Sync character in the LIN specification). Note that the data value written to the TXREG for the Break character is ignored. The write simply serves the purpose of initiating the proper sequence. The TRMT bit indicates when the transmit operation is active or Idle, just as it does during normal transmission. See Figure 18-10 for the timing of the Break character sequence. 18.2.5.1 Break and Sync Transmit Sequence The following sequence will send a message frame header made up of a Break, followed by an Auto-Baud Sync byte. This sequence is typical of a LIN bus master. 1. Configure the EUSART for the desired mode. 2. Set the TXEN and SENDB bits to set up the Break character. 3. Load the TXREG with a dummy character to initiate transmission (the value is ignored). 4. Write ‘55h’ to TXREG to load the Sync character into the transmit FIFO buffer. 5. After the Break has been sent, the SENDB bit is reset by hardware. The Sync character now transmits in the preconfigured mode. When the TXREG becomes empty, as indicated by the TXIF, the next data byte can be written to TXREG. 18.2.6 RECEIVING A BREAK CHARACTER The Enhanced USART module can receive a Break character in two ways. The first method forces configuration of the baud rate at a frequency of 9/13 the typical speed. This allows for the Stop bit transition to be at the correct sampling location (13 bits for Break versus Start bit and 8 data bits for typical data). The second method uses the auto-wake-up feature described in Section 18.2.4 “Auto-Wake-up on Sync Break Character”. By enabling this feature, the EUSART will sample the next two transitions on RX/DT, cause an RCIF interrupt and receive the next data byte followed by another interrupt. Note that following a Break character, the user will typically want to enable the Auto-Baud Rate Detect feature. For both methods, the user can set the ABD bit once the TXIF interrupt is observed. FIGURE 18-10: SEND BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE Write to TXREG BRG Output (Shift Clock) Start Bit Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 11 Stop Bit Break TXIF bit (Transmit Buffer Reg. Empty Flag) TX (pin) TRMT bit (Transmit Shift Reg. Empty Flag) SENDB (Transmit Shift Reg. Empty Flag) SENDB Sampled Here Auto-Cleared Dummy Write © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 217 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.3 EUSART Synchronous Master Mode The Synchronous Master mode is entered by setting the CSRC bit (TXSTA<7>). In this mode, the data is transmitted in a half-duplex manner (i.e., transmission and reception do not occur at the same time). When transmitting data, the reception is inhibited and vice versa. Synchronous mode is entered by setting bit, SYNC (TXSTA<4>). In addition, enable bit, SPEN (RCSTA<7>), is set in order to configure the TX and RX pins to CK (clock) and DT (data) lines, respectively. The Master mode indicates that the processor transmits the master clock on the CK line. Clock polarity is selected with the TXCKP bit (BAUDCON<4>); setting TXCKP sets the Idle state on CK as high, while clearing the bit sets the Idle state as low. This option is provided to support Microwire devices with this module. 18.3.1 EUSART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION The EUSART transmitter block diagram is shown in Figure 18-3. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit (Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register, TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG (if available). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREG is empty and the TXIF flag bit (PIR1<4>) is set. The interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the interrupt enable bit, TXIE (PIE1<4>). TXIF is set regardless of the state of enable bit, TXIE; it cannot be cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the TXREG register. While flag bit, TXIF, indicates the status of the TXREG register, another bit, TRMT (TXSTA<1>), shows the status of the TSR register. TRMT is a read-only bit which is set when the TSR is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. The TSR is not mapped in data memory so it is not available to the user. To set up a Synchronous Master Transmission: 1. Initialize the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRG16 bit, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate. 2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits, SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. 3. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit, TX9. 5. Enable the transmission by setting bit, TXEN. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit, TX9D. 7. Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG register. 8. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. FIGURE 18-11: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION bit 0 bit 1 bit 7 Word 1 Q1 Q2 Q3Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1 Q2Q3Q4 Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 bit 2 bit 0 bit 1 bit 7 RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK pin Write to TXREG Reg TXIF bit (Interrupt Flag) TXEN bit ‘1’ ‘1’ Word 2 TRMT bit Write Word 1 Write Word 2 Note: Sync Master mode, SPBRG = 0, continuous transmission of two 8-bit words. RC6/TX/CK pin (TXCKP = 0) (TXCKP = 1)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 218 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 18-12: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN) TABLE 18-7: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 TXREG EUSART Transmit Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master transmission. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. RC7/RX/DT pin RC6/TX/CK pin Write to TXREG reg TXIF bit TRMT bit bit 0 bit 1 bit 2 bit 6 bit 7 TXEN bit© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 219 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.3.2 EUSART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION Once Synchronous mode is selected, reception is enabled by setting either the Single Receive Enable bit, SREN (RCSTA<5>), or the Continuous Receive Enable bit, CREN (RCSTA<4>). Data is sampled on the RX pin on the falling edge of the clock. If enable bit, SREN, is set, only a single word is received. If enable bit, CREN, is set, the reception is continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are set, then CREN takes precedence. To set up a Synchronous Master Reception: 1. Initialize the SPBRGH:SPBRG registers for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the BRG16 bit, as required, to achieve the desired baud rate. 2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits, SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. 3. Ensure bits, CREN and SREN, are clear. 4. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCIE. 5. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9. 6. If a single reception is required, set bit, SREN. For continuous reception, set bit, CREN. 7. Interrupt flag bit, RCIF, will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated if the enable bit, RCIE, was set. 8. Read the RCSTA register to get the 9th bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 10. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing bit, CREN. 11. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. FIGURE 18-13: SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN) TABLE 18-8: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 RCREG EUSART Receive Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master reception. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. CREN bit RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK pin Write to bit SREN SREN bit RCIF bit (Interrupt) Read RXREG Q2 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 ‘0’ bit 0 bit 1 bit 2 bit 3 bit 4 bit 5 bit 6 bit 7 ‘0’ Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Note: Timing diagram demonstrates Sync Master mode with bit, SREN = 1, and bit, BRGH = 0. RC6/TX/CK pin pin (TXCKP = 0) (TXCKP = 1)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 220 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 18.4 EUSART Synchronous Slave Mode Synchronous Slave mode is entered by clearing bit, CSRC (TXSTA<7>). This mode differs from the Synchronous Master mode in that the shift clock is supplied externally at the CK pin (instead of being supplied internally in Master mode). This allows the device to transfer or receive data while in any low-power mode. 18.4.1 EUSART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave modes is identical, except in the case of the Sleep mode. If two words are written to the TXREG and then the SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur: a) The first word will immediately transfer to the TSR register and transmit. b) The second word will remain in the TXREG register. c) Flag bit, TXIF, will not be set. d) When the first word has been shifted out of TSR, the TXREG register will transfer the second word to the TSR and flag bit, TXIF, will now be set. e) If enable bit, TXIE, is set, the interrupt will wake the chip from Sleep. If the global interrupt is enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector. To set up a Synchronous Slave Transmission: 1. Enable the synchronous slave serial port by setting bits, SYNC and SPEN, and clearing bit, CSRC. 2. Clear bits, CREN and SREN. 3. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit, TX9. 5. Enable the transmission by setting enable bit, TXEN. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit, TX9D. 7. Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG register. 8. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. TABLE 18-9: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 TXREG EUSART Transmit Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave transmission. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 221 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 18.4.2 EUSART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave modes is identical, except in the case of Sleep, or any Idle mode and bit, SREN, which is a “don’t care” in Slave mode. If receive is enabled by setting the CREN bit prior to entering Sleep or any Idle mode, then a word may be received while in this low-power mode. Once the word is received, the RSR register will transfer the data to the RCREG register; if the RCIE enable bit is set, the interrupt generated will wake the chip from the low-power mode. If the global interrupt is enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector. To set up a Synchronous Slave Reception: 1. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits, SYNC and SPEN, and clearing bit, CSRC. 2. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit, RCIE. 3. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit, RX9. 4. To enable reception, set enable bit, CREN. 5. Flag bit, RCIF, will be set when reception is complete. An interrupt will be generated if enable bit, RCIE, was set. 6. Read the RCSTA register to get the 9th bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 7. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 8. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing bit, CREN. 9. If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE bits in the INTCON register (INTCON<7:6>) are set. TABLE 18-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 51 RCREG EUSART Receive Register 51 TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC SENDB BRGH TRMT TX9D 51 BAUDCON ABDOVF RCIDL RXDTP TXCKP BRG16 — WUE ABDEN 51 SPBRGH EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register High Byte 51 SPBRG EUSART Baud Rate Generator Register Low Byte 51 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave reception. Note 1: Reserved in 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 222 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 223 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 19.0 10-BIT ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has 10 inputs for the 28-pin devices and 13 for the 40/44-pin devices. This module allows conversion of an analog input signal to a corresponding 10-bit digital number. The module has five registers: • A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) • A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) • A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0) • A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1) • A/D Control Register 2 (ADCON2) The ADCON0 register, shown in Register 19-1, controls the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Register 19-2, configures the functions of the port pins. The ADCON2 register, shown in Register 19-3, configures the A/D clock source, programmed acquisition time and justification. REGISTER 19-1: ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — — CHS3 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-2 CHS<3:0>: Analog Channel Select bits 0000 = Channel 0 (AN0) 0001 = Channel 1 (AN1) 0010 = Channel 2 (AN2) 0011 = Channel 3 (AN3) 0100 = Channel 4 (AN4) 0101 = Channel 5 (AN5)(1,2) 0110 = Channel 6 (AN6)(1,2) 0111 = Channel 7 (AN7)(1,2) 1000 = Channel 8 (AN8) 1001 = Channel 9 (AN9) 1010 = Channel 10 (AN10) 1011 = Channel 11 (AN11) 1100 = Channel 12 (AN12) 1101 = Unimplemented)(2) 1110 = Unimplemented)(2) 1111 = Unimplemented)(2) bit 1 GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit When ADON = 1: 1 = A/D conversion in progress 0 = A/D Idle bit 0 ADON: A/D On bit 1 = A/D Converter module is enabled 0 = A/D Converter module is disabled Note 1: These channels are not implemented on 28-pin devices. 2: Performing a conversion on unimplemented channels will return a floating input measurement.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 224 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 19-2: ADCON1: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 1 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-q(1) R/W-q(1) R/W-q(1) — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5 VCFG1: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF- source) 1 = VREF- (AN2) 0 = VSS bit 4 VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF+ source) 1 = VREF+ (AN3) 0 = VDD bit 3-0 PCFG<3:0>: A/D Port Configuration Control bits: Note 1: The POR value of the PCFG bits depends on the value of the PBADEN Configuration bit. When PBADEN = 1, PCFG<2:0> = 000; when PBADEN = 0, PCFG<2:0> = 111. 2: AN5 through AN7 are available only on 40/44-pin devices. A = Analog input D = Digital I/O PCFG3: PCFG0 AN12 AN11 AN10 AN9 AN8 AN7(2) AN6(2) AN5(2) AN4 AN3 AN2 AN1 AN0 0000(1) A A A A A A A A A AAAA 0001 A A A A A A A A A AAAA 0010 A A A A A A A A A AAAA 0011 D A A A A A A A A AAAA 0100 D D A A A A A A A AAAA 0101 D D D A A A A A A AAAA 0110 D D D D A A A A A AAAA 0111(1) D D D D D A A A A AAAA 1000 D D D D D D A A A AAAA 1001 D D D D D D D A A AAAA 1010 D D D D D D D D A AAAA 1011 D D D D D D D D D AAAA 1100 D D D D D D D D D DAAA 1101 D D D D D D D D D DDAA 1110 D D D D D D D D D DDDA 1111 D D D D D D D D D DDDD© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 225 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 19-3: ADCON2: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 2 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 ADFM — ACQT2 ACQT1 ACQT0 ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit 1 = Right justified 0 = Left justified bit 6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5-3 ACQT<2:0>: A/D Acquisition Time Select bits 111 = 20 TAD 110 = 16 TAD 101 = 12 TAD 100 = 8 TAD 011 = 6 TAD 010 = 4 TAD 001 = 2 TAD 000 = 0 TAD(1) bit 2-0 ADCS<2:0>: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 111 = FRC (clock derived from A/D RC oscillator)(1) 110 = FOSC/64 101 = FOSC/16 100 = FOSC/4 011 = FRC (clock derived from A/D RC oscillator)(1) 010 = FOSC/32 001 = FOSC/8 000 = FOSC/2 Note 1: If the A/D FRC clock source is selected, a delay of one TCY (instruction cycle) is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed before starting a conversion.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 226 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. The analog reference voltage is software selectable to either the device’s positive and negative supply voltage (VDD and VSS), or the voltage level on the RA3/AN3/ VREF+ and RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pins. The A/D Converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in Sleep mode. To operate in Sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be derived from the A/D’s internal RC oscillator. The output of the sample and hold is the input into the converter, which generates the result via successive approximation. A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state. This forces the A/D module to be turned off and any conversion in progress is aborted. Each port pin associated with the A/D Converter can be configured as an analog input, or as a digital I/O. The ADRESH and ADRESL registers contain the result of the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is loaded into the ADRESH:ADRESL register pair, the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0 register) is cleared and the A/D Interrupt Flag bit, ADIF, is set. The block diagram of the A/D module is shown in Figure 19-1. FIGURE 19-1: A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM (Input Voltage) VAIN VREF+ Reference Voltage VDD(2) VCFG<1:0> CHS<3:0> AN7(1) AN6(1) AN5(1) AN4 AN3 AN2 AN1 AN0 0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000 10-Bit A/D VREFVSS(2) Converter AN12 AN11 AN10 AN9 AN8 1100 1011 1010 1001 1000 Note 1: Channels, AN5 through AN7, are not available on 28-pin devices. 2: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. 0X 1X X1 X0© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 227 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 The value in the ADRESH:ADRESL registers is not modified for a Power-on Reset. The ADRESH:ADRESL registers will contain unknown data after a Power-on Reset. After the A/D module has been configured as desired, the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an input. To determine acquisition time, see Section 19.1 “A/D Acquisition Requirements”. After this acquisition time has elapsed, the A/D conversion can be started. An acquisition time can be programmed to occur between setting the GO/DONE bit and the actual start of the conversion. The following steps should be followed to perform an A/D conversion: 1. Configure the A/D module: • Configure analog pins, voltage reference and digital I/O (ADCON1) • Select A/D input channel (ADCON0) • Select A/D acquisition time (ADCON2) • Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON2) • Turn on A/D module (ADCON0) 2. Configure A/D interrupt (if desired): • Clear ADIF bit • Set ADIE bit • Set GIE bit 3. Wait the required acquisition time (if required). 4. Start conversion: • Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0 register) 5. Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either: • Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared OR • Waiting for the A/D interrupt 6. Read A/D Result registers (ADRESH:ADRESL); clear bit, ADIF, if required. 7. For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2, as required. The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2 TAD is required before the next acquisition starts. FIGURE 19-2: A/D TRANSFER FUNCTION FIGURE 19-3: ANALOG INPUT MODEL Digital Code Output 3FEh 003h 002h 001h 000h 0.5 LSB 1 LSB 1.5 LSB 2 LSB 2.5 LSB 1022 LSB 1022.5 LSB 3 LSB Analog Input Voltage 3FFh 1023 LSB 1023.5 LSB VAIN CPIN Rs ANx 5 pF VT = 0.6V VT = 0.6V ILEAKAGE RIC ≤ 1k Sampling Switch SS RSS CHOLD = 25 pF VSS VDD ±100 nA Legend: CPIN VT ILEAKAGE RIC SS CHOLD = Input Capacitance = Threshold Voltage = Leakage Current at the pin due to = Interconnect Resistance = Sampling Switch = Sample/Hold Capacitance (from DAC) various junctions RSS = Sampling Switch Resistance VDD 6V Sampling Switch 5V 4V 3V 2V 1 23 4 (kΩ)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 228 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 19.1 A/D Acquisition Requirements For the A/D Converter to meet its specified accuracy, the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The analog input model is shown in Figure 19-3. The source impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS) impedance directly affect the time required to charge the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD). The source impedance affects the offset voltage at the analog input (due to pin leakage current). The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 2.5 kΩ. After the analog input channel is selected (changed), the channel must be sampled for at least the minimum acquisition time before starting a conversion. To calculate the minimum acquisition time, Equation 19-1 may be used. This equation assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the A/D). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D to meet its specified resolution. Example 19-3 shows the calculation of the minimum required acquisition time TACQ. This calculation is based on the following application system assumptions: CHOLD = 25 pF Rs = 2.5 kΩ Conversion Error ≤ 1/2 LSb VDD = 5V → Rss = 2 kΩ Temperature = 85°C (system max.) EQUATION 19-1: ACQUISITION TIME EQUATION 19-2: A/D MINIMUM CHARGING TIME EQUATION 19-3: CALCULATING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED ACQUISITION TIME Note: When the conversion is started, the holding capacitor is disconnected from the input pin. TACQ = Amplifier Settling Time + Holding Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient = TAMP + TC + TCOFF VHOLD = (VREF – (VREF/2048)) • (1 – e(-TC/CHOLD(RIC + RSS + RS))) or TC = -(CHOLD)(RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/2048) TACQ =TAMP + TC + TCOFF TAMP = 0.2 μs TCOFF = (Temp – 25°C)(0.02 μs/°C) (85°C – 25°C)(0.02 μs/°C) 1.2 μs Temperature coefficient is only required for temperatures > 25°C. Below 25°C, TCOFF = 0 μs. TC = -(CHOLD)(RIC + RSS + RS) ln(1/2047) μs -(25 pF) (1 kΩ + 2 kΩ + 2.5 kΩ) ln(0.0004883) μs 1.05 μs TACQ = 0.2 μs + 1 μs + 1.2 μs 2.4 μs© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 229 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 19.2 Selecting and Configuring Acquisition Time The ADCON2 register allows the user to select an acquisition time that occurs each time the GO/DONE bit is set. It also gives users the option to use an automatically determined acquisition time. Acquisition time may be set with the ACQT<2:0> bits (ADCON2<5:3>), which provides a range of 2 to 20 TAD. When the GO/DONE bit is set, the A/D module continues to sample the input for the selected acquisition time, then automatically begins a conversion. Since the acquisition time is programmed, there may be no need to wait for an acquisition time between selecting a channel and setting the GO/DONE bit. Manual acquisition is selected when ACQT<2:0> = 000. When the GO/DONE bit is set, sampling is stopped and a conversion begins. The user is responsible for ensuring the required acquisition time has passed between selecting the desired input channel and setting the GO/DONE bit. This option is also the default Reset state of the ACQT<2:0> bits and is compatible with devices that do not offer programmable acquisition times. In either case, when the conversion is completed, the GO/DONE bit is cleared, the ADIF flag is set and the A/D begins sampling the currently selected channel again. If an acquisition time is programmed, there is nothing to indicate if the acquisition time has ended or if the conversion has begun. 19.3 Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The A/D conversion requires 11 TAD per 10-bit conversion. The source of the A/D conversion clock is software selectable. There are seven possible options for TAD: • 2 TOSC • 4 TOSC • 8 TOSC • 16 TOSC • 32 TOSC • 64 TOSC • Internal RC Oscillator For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock (TAD) must be as short as possible, but greater than the minimum TAD (see parameter 130 for more information). Table 19-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock source selected. TABLE 19-1: TAD vs. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES AD Clock Source (TAD) Maximum Device Frequency Operation ADCS<2:0> PIC18F2X20/4X20 PIC18LF2X2X/4X20(4) 2 TOSC 000 2.86 MHz 1.43 kHz 4 TOSC 100 5.71 MHz 2.86 MHz 8 TOSC 001 11.43 MHz 5.72 MHz 16 TOSC 101 22.86 MHz 11.43 MHz 32 TOSC 010 40.0 MHz 22.86 MHz 64 TOSC 110 40.0 MHz 22.86 MHz RC(3) x11 1.00 MHz(1) 1.00 MHz(2) Note 1: The RC source has a typical TAD time of 1.2 μs. 2: The RC source has a typical TAD time of 2.5 μs. 3: For device frequencies above 1 MHz, the device must be in Sleep for the entire conversion or the A/D accuracy may be out of specification. 4: Low-power (PIC18LFXXXX) devices only.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 230 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 19.4 Operation in Power-Managed Modes The selection of the automatic acquisition time and A/D conversion clock is determined in part by the clock source and frequency while in a power-managed mode. If the A/D is expected to operate while the device is in a power-managed mode, the ACQT<2:0> and ADCS<2:0> bits in ADCON2 should be updated in accordance with the clock source to be used in that mode. After entering the mode, an A/D acquisition or conversion may be started. Once started, the device should continue to be clocked by the same clock source until the conversion has been completed. If desired, the device may be placed into the corresponding Idle mode during the conversion. If the device clock frequency is less than 1 MHz, the A/D RC clock source should be selected. Operation in Sleep mode requires the A/D FRC clock to be selected. If the ACQT<2:0> bits are set to ‘000’ and a conversion is started, the conversion will be delayed one instruction cycle to allow execution of the SLEEP instruction and entry to Sleep mode. The IDLEN bit (OSCCON<7>) must have already been cleared prior to starting the conversion. 19.5 Configuring Analog Port Pins The ADCON1, TRISA, TRISB and TRISE registers all configure the A/D port pins. The port pins needed as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be converted. The A/D operation is independent of the state of the CHS<3:0> bits and the TRIS bits. Note 1: When reading the PORT register, all pins configured as analog input channels will read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs will convert as analog inputs. Analog levels on a digitally configured input will be accurately converted. 2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a digital input may cause the digital input buffer to consume current out of the device’s specification limits. 3: The PBADEN bit, in Configuration Register 3H, configures PORTB pins to reset as analog or digital pins by controlling how the PCFG bits in ADCON1 are reset.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 231 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 19.6 A/D Conversions Figure 19-4 shows the operation of the A/D Converter after the GO/DONE bit has been set and the ACQT<2:0> bits are cleared. A conversion is started after the following instruction to allow entry into Sleep mode before the conversion begins. Figure 19-5 shows the operation of the A/D Converter after the GO/DONE bit has been set and the ACQT<2:0> bits are set to ‘010’, and selecting a 4 TAD acquisition time before the conversion starts. Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will abort the current conversion. The A/D Result register pair will NOT be updated with the partially completed A/D conversion sample. This means the ADRESH:ADRESL registers will continue to contain the value of the last completed conversion (or the last value written to the ADRESH:ADRESL registers). After the A/D conversion is completed or aborted, a 2 TAD wait is required before the next acquisition can be started. After this wait, acquisition on the selected channel is automatically started. 19.7 Discharge The discharge phase is used to initialize the value of the capacitor array. The array is discharged before every sample. This feature helps to optimize the unitygain amplifier, as the circuit always needs to charge the capacitor array, rather than charge/discharge based on previous measure values. FIGURE 19-4: A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT<2:0> = 000, TACQ = 0) FIGURE 19-5: A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT<2:0> = 010, TACQ = 4 TAD) Note: The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in the same instruction that turns on the A/D. TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD11 Set GO/DONE bit Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input (typically 100 ns) TCY - TAD TAD9 TAD10 ADRESH:ADRESL are loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared, ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input. Conversion starts b9 b8 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 On the following cycle: TAD1 Discharge 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 Set GO/DONE bit (Holding capacitor is disconnected) 9 10 Conversion starts 1 2 3 4 (Holding capacitor continues acquiring input) TACQT Cycles TAD Cycles Automatic Acquisition Time b9 b8 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 ADRESH:ADRESL are loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared, ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input. On the following cycle: TAD1 Discharge PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 232 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 19.8 Use of the CCP2 Trigger An A/D conversion can be started by the Special Event Trigger of the CCP2 module. This requires that the CCP2M<3:0> bits (CCP2CON<3:0>) be programmed as ‘1011’ and that the A/D module is enabled (ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D acquisition and conversion, and the Timer1 (or Timer3) counter will be reset to zero. Timer1 (or Timer3) is reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period with minimal software overhead (moving ADRESH:ADRESL to the desired location). The appropriate analog input channel must be selected and the minimum acquisition period is either timed by the user, or an appropriate TACQ time is selected before the Special Event Trigger sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion). If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared), the Special Event Trigger will be ignored by the A/D module, but will still reset the Timer1 (or Timer3) counter. TABLE 19-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH A/D OPERATION Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 52 PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 52 IPR1 PSPIP(1) ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte 51 ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte 51 ADCON0 — — CHS3 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON 51 ADCON1 — — VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 51 ADCON2 ADFM — ACQT2 ACQT1 ACQT0 ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 51 PORTA RA7(2) RA6(2) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 52 TRISA TRISA7(2) TRISA6(2) PORTA Data Direction Register 52 PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 52 TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 52 LATB PORTB Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 PORTE(4) — — — — RE3(3) RE2 RE1 RE0 52 TRISE(4) IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 52 LATE(4) — — — — — PORTE Data Latch Register 52 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 2: PORTA<7:6> and their direction bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits read as ‘0’. 3: RE3 port bit is available only as an input pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is ‘0’. 4: These registers are not implemented on 28-pin devices.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 233 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 20.0 COMPARATOR MODULE The analog comparator module contains two comparators that can be configured in a variety of ways. The inputs can be selected from the analog inputs multiplexed with pins, RA0 through RA5, as well as the on-chip voltage reference (see Section 21.0 “Comparator Voltage Reference Module”). The digital outputs (normal or inverted) are available at the pin level and can also be read through the control register. The CMCON register (Register 20-1) selects the comparator input and output configuration. Block diagrams of the various comparator configurations are shown in Figure 20-1. REGISTER 20-1: CMCON: COMPARATOR CONTROL REGISTER R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 C2OUT: Comparator 2 Output bit When C2INV = 0: 1 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN- 0 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VINWhen C2INV = 1: 1 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VIN- 0 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VINbit 6 C1OUT: Comparator 1 Output bit When C1INV = 0: 1 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN- 0 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VINWhen C1INV = 1: 1 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VIN- 0 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VINbit 5 C2INV: Comparator 2 Output Inversion bit 1 = C2 output inverted 0 = C2 output not inverted bit 4 C1INV: Comparator 1 Output Inversion bit 1 = C1 output inverted 0 = C1 output not inverted bit 3 CIS: Comparator Input Switch bit When CM<2:0> = 110: 1 = C1 VIN- connects to RA3/AN3/VREF+ C2 VIN- connects to RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF 0 = C1 VIN- connects to RA0/AN0 C2 VIN- connects to RA1/AN1 bit 2-0 CM<2:0>: Comparator Mode bits Figure 20-1 shows the Comparator modes and the CM<2:0> bit settings.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 234 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 20.1 Comparator Configuration There are eight modes of operation for the comparators, shown in Figure 20-1. Bits CM<2:0> of the CMCON register are used to select these modes. The TRISA register controls the data direction of the comparator pins for each mode. If the Comparator mode is changed, the comparator output level may not be valid for the specified mode change delay shown in Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics”. FIGURE 20-1: COMPARATOR I/O OPERATING MODES Note: Comparator interrupts should be disabled during a Comparator mode change; otherwise, a false interrupt may occur. C1 RA0/AN0 VINVIN+ RA3/AN3/ Off (Read as ‘0’) Comparators Reset A A CM<2:0> = 000 C2 RA1/AN1 VINVIN+ RA2/AN2/ Off (Read as ‘0’) A A C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT Two Independent Comparators A A CM<2:0> = 010 C2 VINVIN+ C2OUT A A C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT Two Common Reference Comparators A A CM<2:0> = 100 C2 VINVIN+ C2OUT A D C2 VINVIN+ Off (Read as ‘0’) One Independent Comparator with Output D D CM<2:0> = 001 C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT A A C1 VINVIN+ Off (Read as ‘0’) Comparators Off (POR Default Value) D D CM<2:0> = 111 C2 VINVIN+ Off (Read as ‘0’) D D C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT Four Inputs Multiplexed to Two Comparators A A CM<2:0> = 110 C2 VINVIN+ C2OUT A A From VREF Module CIS = 0 CIS = 1 CIS = 0 CIS = 1 C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT Two Common Reference Comparators with Outputs A A CM<2:0> = 101 C2 VINVIN+ C2OUT A D A = Analog Input, port reads zeros always D = Digital Input CIS (CMCON<3>) is the Comparator Input Switch CVREF C1 VINVIN+ C1OUT Two Independent Comparators with Outputs A A CM<2:0> = 011 C2 VINVIN+ C2OUT A A RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT* RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT* VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF+ VREF-/CVREF RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ VREF+ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF-/CVREF RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT* RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT* RA0/AN0 RA3/AN3/ VREF+ RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/ VREF-/CVREF RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT* * Setting the TRISA<5:4> bits will disable the comparator outputs by configuring the pins as inputs.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 235 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 20.2 Comparator Operation A single comparator is shown in Figure 20-2, along with the relationship between the analog input levels and the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital low level. When the analog input at VIN+ is greater than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital high level. The shaded areas of the output of the comparator in Figure 20-2 represent the uncertainty, due to input offsets and response time. 20.3 Comparator Reference Depending on the comparator operating mode, either an external or internal voltage reference may be used. The analog signal present at VIN- is compared to the signal at VIN+ and the digital output of the comparator is adjusted accordingly (Figure 20-2). FIGURE 20-2: SINGLE COMPARATOR 20.3.1 EXTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL When external voltage references are used, the comparator module can be configured to have the comparators operate from the same or different reference sources. However, threshold detector applications may require the same reference. The reference signal must be between VSS and VDD and can be applied to either pin of the comparator(s). 20.3.2 INTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL The comparator module also allows the selection of an internally generated voltage reference from the comparator voltage reference module. This module is described in more detail in Section 21.0 “Comparator Voltage Reference Module”. The internal reference is only available in the mode where four inputs are multiplexed to two comparators (CM<2:0> = 110). In this mode, the internal voltage reference is applied to the VIN+ pin of both comparators. 20.4 Comparator Response Time Response time is the minimum time, after selecting a new reference voltage or input source, before the comparator output has a valid level. If the internal reference is changed, the maximum delay of the internal voltage reference must be considered when using the comparator outputs. Otherwise, the maximum delay of the comparators should be used (see Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics”). 20.5 Comparator Outputs The comparator outputs are read through the CMCON register. These bits are read-only. The comparator outputs may also be directly output to the RA4 and RA5 I/O pins. When enabled, multiplexers in the output path of the RA4 and RA5 pins will switch and the output of each pin will be the unsynchronized output of the comparator. The uncertainty of each of the comparators is related to the input offset voltage and the response time given in the specifications. Figure 20-3 shows the comparator output block diagram. The TRISA bits will still function as an output enable/ disable for the RA4 and RA5 pins while in this mode. The polarity of the comparator outputs can be changed using the C2INV and C1INV bits (CMCON<4:5>). – VIN+ + VINOutput Output VINVIN+ Note 1: When reading the PORT register, all pins configured as analog inputs will read as ‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will convert an analog input according to the Schmitt Trigger input specification. 2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a digital input may cause the input buffer to consume more current than is specified.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 236 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 20-3: COMPARATOR OUTPUT BLOCK DIAGRAM 20.6 Comparator Interrupts The comparator interrupt flag is set whenever there is a change in the output value of either comparator. Software will need to maintain information about the status of the output bits, as read from CMCON<7:6>, to determine the actual change that occurred. The CMIF bit (PIR2<6>) is the Comparator Interrupt Flag. The CMIF bit must be reset by clearing it. Since it is also possible to write a ‘1’ to this register, a simulated interrupt may be initiated. Both the CMIE bit (PIE2<6>) and the PEIE bit (INTCON<6>) must be set to enable the interrupt. In addition, the GIE bit (INTCON<7>) must also be set. If any of these bits are clear, the interrupt is not enabled, though the CMIF bit will still be set if an interrupt condition occurs. The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner: a) Any read or write of CMCON will end the mismatch condition. b) Clear flag bit, CMIF. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit, CMIF. Reading CMCON will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit, CMIF, to be cleared. 20.7 Comparator Operation During Sleep When a comparator is active and the device is placed in Sleep mode, the comparator remains active and the interrupt is functional if enabled. This interrupt will wake-up the device from Sleep mode when enabled. Each operational comparator will consume additional current, as shown in the comparator specifications. To minimize power consumption while in Sleep mode, turn off the comparators (CM<2:0> = 111) before entering Sleep. If the device wakes up from Sleep, the contents of the CMCON register are not affected. 20.8 Effects of a Reset A device Reset forces the CMCON register to its Reset state, causing the comparator modules to be turned off (CM<2:0> = 111). However, the input pins (RA0 through RA3) are configured as analog inputs by default on device Reset. The I/O configuration for these pins is determined by the setting of the PCFG<3:0> bits (ADCON1<3:0>). Therefore, device current is minimized when analog inputs are present at Reset time. D Q EN To RA4 or RA5 pin Bus Data Set MULTIPLEX CMIF bit - + Port pins Read CMCON Reset From Other Comparator CxINV D Q EN CL Note: If a change in the CMCON register (C1OUT or C2OUT) should occur when a read operation is being executed (start of the Q2 cycle), then the CMIF (PIR2<6>) interrupt flag may not get set.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 237 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 20.9 Analog Input Connection Considerations A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in Figure 20-4. Since the analog pins are connected to a digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the diodes is forward biased and a latch-up condition may occur. A maximum source impedance of 10 kΩ is recommended for the analog sources. Any external component connected to an analog input pin, such as a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little leakage current. FIGURE 20-4: COMPARATOR ANALOG INPUT MODEL TABLE 20-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 51 CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 51 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 52 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OSCFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 PORTA RA7(1) RA6(1) RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 52 LATA LATA7(1) LATA6(1) PORTA Data Latch Register (Read and Write to Data Latch) 52 TRISA TRISA7(1) TRISA6(1) PORTA Data Direction Register 52 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are unused by the comparator module. Note 1: PORTA<7:6> and their direction and latch bits are individually configured as port pins based on various primary oscillator modes. When disabled, these bits are read as ‘0’. VA RS < 10k AIN CPIN 5 pF VDD VT = 0.6V VT = 0.6V RIC ILEAKAGE ±100 nA VSS Legend: CPIN = Input Capacitance VT = Threshold Voltage ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions RIC = Interconnect Resistance RS = Source Impedance VA = Analog Voltage Comparator InputPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 238 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 239 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 21.0 COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE MODULE The comparator voltage reference is a 16-tap resistor ladder network that provides a selectable reference voltage. Although its primary purpose is to provide a reference for the analog comparators, it may also be used independently of them. A block diagram of the module is shown in Figure 21-1. The resistor ladder is segmented to provide two ranges of CVREF values and has a power-down function to conserve power when the reference is not being used. The module’s supply reference can be provided from either device VDD/VSS or an external voltage reference. 21.1 Configuring the Comparator Voltage Reference The voltage reference module is controlled through the CVRCON register (Register 21-1). The comparator voltage reference provides two ranges of output voltage, each with 16 distinct levels. The range to be used is selected by the CVRR bit (CVRCON<5>). The primary difference between the ranges is the size of the steps selected by the CVREF Selection bits (CVR<3:0>), with one range offering finer resolution. The equations used to calculate the output of the comparator voltage reference are as follows: If CVRR = 1: CVREF = ((CVR<3:0>)/24) x CVRSRC If CVRR = 0: CVREF = (CVRSRC x 1/4) + (((CVR<3:0>)/32) x CVRSRC) The comparator reference supply voltage can come from either VDD and VSS, or the external VREF+ and VREF- that are multiplexed with RA2 and RA3. The voltage source is selected by the CVRSS bit (CVRCON<4>). The settling time of the comparator voltage reference must be considered when changing the CVREF output (see Table 26-3 in Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics”). REGISTER 21-1: CVRCON: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 CVREN CVROE(1) CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 CVREN: Comparator Voltage Reference Enable bit 1 = CVREF circuit powered on 0 = CVREF circuit powered down bit 6 CVROE: Comparator VREF Output Enable bit(1) 1 = CVREF voltage level is also output on the RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pin 0 = CVREF voltage is disconnected from the RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pin bit 5 CVRR: Comparator VREF Range Selection bit 1 = 0 to 0.667 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/24 step size (low range) 0 = 0.25 CVRSRC to 0.75 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/32 step size (high range) bit 4 CVRSS: Comparator VREF Source Selection bit 1 = Comparator reference source, CVRSRC = (VREF+) – (VREF-) 0 = Comparator reference source, CVRSRC = VDD – VSS bit 3-0 CVR3:CVR0: Comparator VREF Value Selection bits (0 ≤ (CVR<3:0>) ≤ 15) When CVRR = 1: CVREF = ((CVR<3:0>)/24) • (CVRSRC) When CVRR = 0: CVREF = (CVRSRC/4) + ((CVR<3:0>)/32) • (CVRSRC) Note 1: CVROE overrides the TRISA<2> bit setting.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 240 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 21-1: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM 21.2 Voltage Reference Accuracy/Error The full range of voltage reference cannot be realized due to the construction of the module. The transistors on the top and bottom of the resistor ladder network (Figure 21-1) keep CVREF from approaching the reference source rails. The voltage reference is derived from the reference source; therefore, the CVREF output changes with fluctuations in that source. The tested absolute accuracy of the voltage reference can be found in Section 26.0 “Electrical Characteristics”. 21.3 Operation During Sleep When the device wakes up from Sleep through an interrupt or a Watchdog Timer time-out, the contents of the CVRCON register are not affected. To minimize current consumption in Sleep mode, the voltage reference should be disabled. 21.4 Effects of a Reset A device Reset disables the voltage reference by clearing bit, CVREN (CVRCON<7>). This Reset also disconnects the reference from the RA2 pin by clearing bit, CVROE (CVRCON<6>) and selects the high-voltage range by clearing bit, CVRR (CVRCON<5>). The CVR value select bits are also cleared. 21.5 Connection Considerations The voltage reference module operates independently of the comparator module. The output of the reference generator may be connected to the RA2 pin if the CVROE bit is set. Enabling the voltage reference output onto RA2 when it is configured as a digital input will increase current consumption. Connecting RA2 as a digital output with CVRSS enabled will also increase current consumption. The RA2 pin can be used as a simple D/A output with limited drive capability. Due to the limited current drive capability, a buffer must be used on the voltage reference output for external connections to VREF. Figure 21-2 shows an example buffering technique. 16-to-1 MUX CVR<3:0> 8R R CVREN CVRSS = 0 VDD VREF+ CVRSS = 1 8R CVRSS = 0 VREF- CVRSS = 1 R R R R R R 16 Steps CVRR CVREF© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 241 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 21-2: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE OUTPUT BUFFER EXAMPLE TABLE 21-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVRSS CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 51 CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 51 TRISA TRISA7(1) TRISA6(1) PORTA Data Direction Register 52 Legend: Shaded cells are not used with the comparator voltage reference. Note 1: PORTA pins are enabled based on oscillator configuration. CVREF Output + – CVREF Module Voltage Reference Output Impedance R(1) RA2 Note 1: R is dependent upon the comparator voltage reference configuration bits, CVRCON<3:0> and CVRCON<5>. PIC18FXXXXPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 242 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 243 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 22.0 HIGH/LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT (HLVD) PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices have a High/Low-Voltage Detect module (HLVD). This is a programmable circuit that allows the user to specify both a device voltage trip point and the direction of change from that point. If the device experiences an excursion past the trip point in that direction, an interrupt flag is set. If the interrupt is enabled, the program execution will branch to the interrupt vector address and the software can then respond to the interrupt. The High/Low-Voltage Detect Control register (Register 22-1) completely controls the operation of the HLVD module. This allows the circuitry to be “turned off” by the user under software control, which minimizes the current consumption for the device. The block diagram for the HLVD module is shown in Figure 22-1. REGISTER 22-1: HLVDCON: HIGH/LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CONTROL REGISTER R/W-0 U-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-1 R/W-0 R/W-1 VDIRMAG — IRVST HLVDEN HLVDL3(1) HLVDL2(1) HLVDL1(1) HLVDL0(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7 VDIRMAG: Voltage Direction Magnitude Select bit 1 = Event occurs when voltage equals or exceeds trip point (HLVDL<3:0>) 0 = Event occurs when voltage equals or falls below trip point (HLVDL<3:0>) bit 6 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 5 IRVST: Internal Reference Voltage Stable Flag bit 1 = Indicates that the voltage detect logic will generate the interrupt flag at the specified voltage range 0 = Indicates that the voltage detect logic will not generate the interrupt flag at the specified voltage range and the HLVD interrupt should not be enabled bit 4 HLVDEN: High/Low-Voltage Detect Power Enable bit 1 = HLVD enabled 0 = HLVD disabled bit 3-0 HLVDL<3:0>: Voltage Detection Limit bits(1) 1111 = External analog input is used (input comes from the HLVDIN pin) 1110 = Maximum setting . . . 0000 = Minimum setting Note 1: See Table 26-4 for specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 244 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. The module is enabled by setting the HLVDEN bit. Each time that the HLVD module is enabled, the circuitry requires some time to stabilize. The IRVST bit is a read-only bit and is used to indicate when the circuit is stable. The module can only generate an interrupt after the circuit is stable and IRVST is set. The VDIRMAG bit determines the overall operation of the module. When VDIRMAG is cleared, the module monitors for drops in VDD below a predetermined set point. When the bit is set, the module monitors for rises in VDD above the set point. 22.1 Operation When the HLVD module is enabled, a comparator uses an internally generated reference voltage as the set point. The set point is compared with the trip point, where each node in the resistor divider represents a trip point voltage. The “trip point” voltage is the voltage level at which the device detects a high or low-voltage event, depending on the configuration of the module. When the supply voltage is equal to the trip point, the voltage tapped off of the resistor array is equal to the internal reference voltage generated by the voltage reference module. The comparator then generates an interrupt signal by setting the HLVDIF bit. The trip point voltage is software programmable to any one of 16 values. The trip point is selected by programming the HLVDL<3:0> bits (HLVDCON<3:0>). The HLVD module has an additional feature that allows the user to supply the trip voltage to the module from an external source. This mode is enabled when bits, HLVDL<3:0>, are set to ‘1111’. In this state, the comparator input is multiplexed from the external input pin, HLVDIN. This gives users flexibility because it allows them to configure the High/Low-Voltage Detect interrupt to occur at any voltage in the valid operating range. FIGURE 22-1: HLVD MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM (WITH EXTERNAL INPUT) Set VDD 16-to-1 MUX HLVDEN HLVDCON HLVDIN HLVDL<3:0> Register HLVDIN VDD Externally Generated Trip Point HLVDIF HLVDEN BOREN Internal Voltage Reference VDIRMAG© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 245 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 22.2 HLVD Setup The following steps are needed to set up the HLVD module: 1. Write the value to the HLVDL<3:0> bits that selects the desired HLVD trip point. 2. Set the VDIRMAG bit to detect high voltage (VDIRMAG = 1) or low voltage (VDIRMAG = 0). 3. Enable the HLVD module by setting the HLVDEN bit. 4. Clear the HLVD interrupt flag (PIR2<2>), which may have been set from a previous interrupt. 5. Enable the HLVD interrupt, if interrupts are desired, by setting the HLVDIE and GIE bits (PIE2<2> and INTCON<7>). An interrupt will not be generated until the IRVST bit is set. 22.3 Current Consumption When the module is enabled, the HLVD comparator and voltage divider are enabled and will consume static current. The total current consumption, when enabled, is specified in electrical specification parameter D022B. Depending on the application, the HLVD module does not need to be operating constantly. To decrease the current requirements, the HLVD circuitry may only need to be enabled for short periods where the voltage is checked. After doing the check, the HLVD module may be disabled. 22.4 HLVD Start-up Time The internal reference voltage of the HLVD module, specified in electrical specification parameter D420, may be used by other internal circuitry, such as the programmable Brown-out Reset. If the HLVD or other circuits using the voltage reference are disabled to lower the device’s current consumption, the reference voltage circuit will require time to become stable before a low or high-voltage condition can be reliably detected. This start-up time, TIRVST, is an interval that is independent of device clock speed. It is specified in electrical specification parameter 36. The HLVD interrupt flag is not enabled until TIRVST has expired and a stable reference voltage is reached. For this reason, brief excursions beyond the set point may not be detected during this interval (refer to Figure 22-2 or Figure 22-3). FIGURE 22-2: LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT OPERATION (VDIRMAG = 0) VLVD VDD HLVDIF VLVD VDD Enable HLVD TIRVST HLVDIF may not be set Enable HLVD HLVDIF HLVDIF Cleared in Software HLVDIF Cleared in Software HLVDIF cleared in software, CASE 1: CASE 2: HLVDIF remains set since HLVD condition still exists TIRVST Internal Reference is Stable Internal Reference is Stable IRVST IRVSTPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 246 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 22-3: HIGH-VOLTAGE DETECT OPERATION (VDIRMAG = 1) 22.5 Applications In many applications, the ability to detect a drop below, or rise above, a particular threshold is desirable. For example, the HLVD module could be periodically enabled to detect Universal Serial Bus (USB) attach or detach. This assumes the device is powered by a lower voltage source than the USB when detached. An attach would indicate a high-voltage detect from, for example, 3.3V to 5V (the voltage on USB) and vice versa for a detach. This feature could save a design a few extra components and an attach signal (input pin). For general battery applications, Figure 22-4 shows a possible voltage curve. Over time, the device voltage decreases. When the device voltage reaches voltage, VA, the HLVD logic generates an interrupt at time, TA. The interrupt could cause the execution of an ISR, which would allow the application to perform “housekeeping tasks” and perform a controlled shutdown before the device voltage exits the valid operating range at TB. The HLVD, thus, would give the application a time window, represented by the difference between TA and TB, to safely exit. FIGURE 22-4: TYPICAL LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT APPLICATION VLVD VDD HLVDIF VLVD VDD Enable HLVD TIRVST HLVDIF may not be set Enable HLVD HLVDIF HLVDIF Cleared in Software HLVDIF Cleared in Software HLVDIF cleared in software, CASE 1: CASE 2: HLVDIF remains set since HLVD condition still exists TIRVST IRVST Internal Reference is Stable Internal Reference is Stable IRVST Time Voltage VA VB TA TB VA = HLVD trip point VB = Minimum valid device operating voltage Legend:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Advance Information DS39631E-page 247 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 22.6 Operation During Sleep When enabled, the HLVD circuitry continues to operate during Sleep. If the device voltage crosses the trip point, the HLVDIF bit will be set and the device will wake-up from Sleep. Device execution will continue from the interrupt vector address if interrupts have been globally enabled. 22.7 Effects of a Reset A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state. This forces the HLVD module to be turned off. TABLE 22-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH/LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT MODULE Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on Page HLVDCON VDIRMAG — IRVST HLVDEN HLVDL3 HLVDL2 HLVDL1 HLVDL0 50 INTCON GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 49 PIR2 OSCFIF CMIF — EEIF BCLIF HLVDIF TMR3IF CCP2IF 52 PIE2 OCSFIE CMIE — EEIE BCLIE HLVDIE TMR3IE CCP2IE 52 IPR2 OSCFIP CMIP — EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP 52 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are unused by the HLVD module.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 248 Advance Information © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. NOTES:© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 249 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 23.0 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE CPU PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices include several features intended to maximize reliability and minimize cost through elimination of external components. These are: • Oscillator Selection • Resets: - Power-on Reset (POR) - Power-up Timer (PWRT) - Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) - Brown-out Reset (BOR) • Interrupts • Watchdog Timer (WDT) • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor • Two-Speed Start-up • Code Protection • ID Locations • In-Circuit Serial Programming The oscillator can be configured for the application depending on frequency, power, accuracy and cost. All of the options are discussed in detail in Section 2.0 “Oscillator Configurations”. A complete discussion of device Resets and interrupts is available in previous sections of this data sheet. In addition to their Power-up and Oscillator Start-up Timers provided for Resets, PIC18F2420/2520/4420/ 4520 devices have a Watchdog Timer, which is either permanently enabled via the Configuration bits or software controlled (if configured as disabled). The inclusion of an internal RC oscillator also provides the additional benefits of a Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) and Two-Speed Start-up. FSCM provides for background monitoring of the peripheral clock and automatic switchover in the event of its failure. TwoSpeed Start-up enables code to be executed almost immediately on start-up, while the primary clock source completes its start-up delays. All of these features are enabled and configured by setting the appropriate Configuration register bits. 23.1 Configuration Bits The Configuration bits can be programmed (read as ‘0’) or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various device configurations. These bits are mapped starting at program memory location, 300000h. The user will note that address 300000h is beyond the user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the configuration memory space (300000h-3FFFFFh), which can only be accessed using table reads and table writes. Programming the Configuration registers is done in a manner similar to programming the Flash memory. The WR bit in the EECON1 register starts a self-timed write to the Configuration register. In normal operation mode, a TBLWT instruction with the TBLPTR pointing to the Configuration register sets up the address and the data for the Configuration register write. Setting the WR bit starts a long write to the Configuration register. The Configuration registers are written a byte at a time. To write or erase a configuration cell, a TBLWT instruction can write a ‘1’ or a ‘0’ into the cell. For additional details on Flash programming, refer to Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”. TABLE 23-1: CONFIGURATION BITS AND DEVICE IDs File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Default/ Unprogrammed Value 300001h CONFIG1H IESO FCMEN — — FOSC3 FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0 00-- 0111 300002h CONFIG2L — — — BORV1 BORV0 BOREN1 BOREN0 PWRTEN ---1 1111 300003h CONFIG2H — — — WDTPS3 WDTPS2 WDTPS1 WDTPS0 WDTEN ---1 1111 300005h CONFIG3H MCLRE — — — — LPT1OSC PBADEN CCP2MX 1--- -011 300006h CONFIG4L DEBUG XINST — — — LVP — STVREN 10-- -1-1 300008h CONFIG5L — — — — CP3(1) CP2(1) CP1 CP0 ---- 1111 300009h CONFIG5H CPD CPB — — — — — — 11-- ---- 30000Ah CONFIG6L — — — — WRT3(1) WRT2(1) WRT1 WRT0 ---- 1111 30000Bh CONFIG6H WRTD WRTB WRTC — — — — — 111- ---- 30000Ch CONFIG7L — — — — EBTR3(1) EBTR2(1) EBTR1 EBTR0 ---- 1111 30000Dh CONFIG7H — EBTRB — — — — — — -1-- ---- 3FFFFEh DEVID1 DEV2 DEV1 DEV0 REV4 REV3 REV2 REV1 REV0 xxxx xxxx(2) 3FFFFFh DEVID2 DEV10 DEV9 DEV8 DEV7 DEV6 DEV5 DEV4 DEV3 xxxx xxxx(2) Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: Unimplemented in PIC18F2420/4420 devices; maintain this bit set. 2: See Register 23-12 for DEVID1 values. DEVID registers are read-only and cannot be programmed by the user.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 250 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 23-1: CONFIG1H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 1 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300001h) R/P-0 R/P-0 U-0 U-0 R/P-0 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 IESO FCMEN — — FOSC3 FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 IESO: Internal/External Oscillator Switchover bit 1 = Oscillator Switchover mode enabled 0 = Oscillator Switchover mode disabled bit 6 FCMEN: Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Enable bit 1 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor enabled 0 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor disabled bit 5-4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3-0 FOSC<3:0>: Oscillator Selection bits 11xx = External RC oscillator, CLKO function on RA6 101x = External RC oscillator, CLKO function on RA6 1001 = Internal oscillator block, CLKO function on RA6; port function on RA7 1000 = Internal oscillator block, port function on RA6 and RA7 0111 = External RC oscillator, port function on RA6 0110 = HS oscillator, PLL enabled (Clock Frequency = 4 x FOSC1) 0101 = EC oscillator, port function on RA6 0100 = EC oscillator, CLKO function on RA6 0011 = External RC oscillator, CLKO function on RA6 0010 = HS oscillator 0001 = XT oscillator 0000 = LP oscillator© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 251 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 23-2: CONFIG2L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 2 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300002h) U-0 U-0 U-0 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 — — — BORV1(1) BORV0(1) BOREN1(2) BOREN0(2) PWRTEN(2) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-3 BORV<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Voltage bits(1) 11 = Minimum setting . . . 00 = Maximum setting bit 2-1 BOREN<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Enable bits(2) 11 = Brown-out Reset enabled in hardware only (SBOREN is disabled) 10 = Brown-out Reset enabled in hardware only and disabled in Sleep mode (SBOREN is disabled) 01 = Brown-out Reset enabled and controlled by software (SBOREN is enabled) 00 = Brown-out Reset disabled in hardware and software bit 0 PWRTEN: Power-up Timer Enable bit(2) 1 = PWRT disabled 0 = PWRT enabled Note 1: See Section 26.1 “DC Characteristics: Supply Voltage” for specifications. 2: The Power-up Timer is decoupled from Brown-out Reset, allowing these features to be independently controlled.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 252 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 23-3: CONFIG2H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 2 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300003h) U-0 U-0 U-0 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 R/P-1 — — — WDTPS3 WDTPS2 WDTPS1 WDTPS0 WDTEN bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-1 WDTPS<3:0>: Watchdog Timer Postscale Select bits 1111 = 1:32,768 1110 = 1:16,384 1101 = 1:8,192 1100 = 1:4,096 1011 = 1:2,048 1010 = 1:1,024 1001 = 1:512 1000 = 1:256 0111 = 1:128 0110 = 1:64 0101 = 1:32 0100 = 1:16 0011 = 1:8 0010 = 1:4 0001 = 1:2 0000 = 1:1 bit 0 WDTEN: Watchdog Timer Enable bit 1 = WDT enabled 0 = WDT disabled (control is placed on the SWDTEN bit)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 253 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 23-4: CONFIG3H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 3 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300005h) R/P-1 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/P-0 R/P-1 R/P-1 MCLRE — — — — LPT1OSC PBADEN CCP2MX bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 MCLRE: MCLR Pin Enable bit 1 = MCLR pin enabled; RE3 input pin disabled 0 = RE3 input pin enabled; MCLR disabled bit 6-3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 LPT1OSC: Low-Power Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit 1 = Timer1 configured for low-power operation 0 = Timer1 configured for higher power operation bit 1 PBADEN: PORTB A/D Enable bit (Affects ADCON1 Reset state. ADCON1 controls PORTB<4:0> pin configuration.) 1 = PORTB<4:0> pins are configured as analog input channels on Reset 0 = PORTB<4:0> pins are configured as digital I/O on Reset bit 0 CCP2MX: CCP2 MUX bit 1 = CCP2 input/output is multiplexed with RC1 0 = CCP2 input/output is multiplexed with RB3 REGISTER 23-5: CONFIG4L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 4 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300006h) R/P-1 R/P-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/P-1 U-0 R/P-1 DEBUG XINST — — — LVP — STVREN bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 DEBUG: Background Debugger Enable bit 1 = Background debugger disabled, RB6 and RB7 configured as general purpose I/O pins 0 = Background debugger enabled, RB6 and RB7 are dedicated to In-Circuit Debug bit 6 XINST: Extended Instruction Set Enable bit 1 = Instruction set extension and Indexed Addressing mode enabled 0 = Instruction set extension and Indexed Addressing mode disabled (Legacy mode) bit 5-3 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 2 LVP: Single-Supply ICSP™ Enable bit 1 = Single-Supply ICSP enabled 0 = Single-Supply ICSP disabled bit 1 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 0 STVREN: Stack Full/Underflow Reset Enable bit 1 = Stack full/underflow will cause Reset 0 = Stack full/underflow will not cause ResetPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 254 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 23-6: CONFIG5L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 5 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 300008h) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 — — — — CP3(1) CP2(1) CP1 CP0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 CP3: Code Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) not code-protected 0 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) code-protected bit 2 CP2: Code Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) not code-protected 0 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) code-protected bit 1 CP1: Code Protection bit 1 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) not code-protected 0 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) code-protected bit 0 CP0: Code Protection bit 1 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) not code-protected 0 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) code-protected Note 1: Unimplemented in PIC18F2420/4420 devices; maintain this bit set. REGISTER 23-7: CONFIG5H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 5 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 300009h) R/C-1 R/C-1 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 CPD CPB — — — — — — bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 CPD: Data EEPROM Code Protection bit 1 = Data EEPROM not code-protected 0 = Data EEPROM code-protected bit 6 CPB: Boot Block Code Protection bit 1 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) not code-protected 0 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) code-protected bit 5-0 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 255 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 23-8: CONFIG6L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 6 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 30000Ah) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 — — — — WRT3(1) WRT2(1) WRT1 WRT0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 WRT3: Write Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) not write-protected 0 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) write-protected bit 2 WRT2: Write Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) not write-protected 0 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) write-protected bit 1 WRT1: Write Protection bit 1 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) not write-protected 0 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) write-protected bit 0 WRT0: Write Protection bit 1 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) not write-protected 0 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) write-protected Note 1: Unimplemented in PIC18F2420/4420 devices; maintain this bit set. REGISTER 23-9: CONFIG6H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 6 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 30000Bh) R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 WRTD WRTB WRTC(1) — — — — — bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 WRTD: Data EEPROM Write Protection bit 1 = Data EEPROM not write-protected 0 = Data EEPROM write-protected bit 6 WRTB: Boot Block Write Protection bit 1 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) not write-protected 0 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) write-protected bit 5 WRTC: Configuration Register Write Protection bit(1) 1 = Configuration registers (300000-3000FFh) not write-protected 0 = Configuration registers (300000-3000FFh) write-protected bit 4-0 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ Note 1: This bit is read-only in normal execution mode; it can be written only in Program mode.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 256 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. REGISTER 23-10: CONFIG7L: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 7 LOW (BYTE ADDRESS 30000Ch) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 R/C-1 — — — — EBTR3(1) EBTR2(1) EBTR1 EBTR0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-4 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 3 EBTR3: Table Read Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) not protected from table reads executed in other blocks 0 = Block 3 (006000-007FFFh) protected from table reads executed in other blocks bit 2 EBTR2: Table Read Protection bit(1) 1 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) not protected from table reads executed in other blocks 0 = Block 2 (004000-005FFFh) protected from table reads executed in other blocks bit 1 EBTR1: Table Read Protection bit 1 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) not protected from table reads executed in other blocks 0 = Block 1 (002000-003FFFh) protected from table reads executed in other blocks bit 0 EBTR0: Table Read Protection bit 1 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) not protected from table reads executed in other blocks 0 = Block 0 (000800-001FFFh) protected from table reads executed in other blocks Note 1: Unimplemented in PIC18F2420/4420 devices; maintain this bit set. REGISTER 23-11: CONFIG7H: CONFIGURATION REGISTER 7 HIGH (BYTE ADDRESS 30000Dh) U-0 R/C-1 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 — EBTRB — — — — — — bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit C = Clearable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6 EBTRB: Boot Block Table Read Protection bit 1 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) not protected from table reads executed in other blocks 0 = Boot block (000000-0007FFh) protected from table reads executed in other blocks bit 5-0 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 257 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 REGISTER 23-12: DEVID1: DEVICE ID REGISTER 1 FOR PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 R R R RR R R R DEV2 DEV1 DEV0 REV4 REV3 REV2 REV1 REV0 bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-5 DEV<2:0>: Device ID bits 110 = PIC18F4420 100 = PIC18F4520 010 = PIC18F2420 000 = PIC18F2520 bit 4-0 REV<4:0>: Revision ID bits These bits are used to indicate the device revision. REGISTER 23-13: DEVID2: DEVICE ID REGISTER 2 FOR PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 R R R RR R R R DEV10(1) DEV9(1) DEV8(1) DEV7(1) DEV6(1) DEV5(1) DEV4(1) DEV3(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Read-only bit P = Programmable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value when device is unprogrammed u = Unchanged from programmed state bit 7-0 DEV<10:3>: Device ID bits(1) These bits are used with the DEV<2:0> bits in Device ID Register 1 to identify the part number. 0001 0001 = PIC18F2420/2520 devices 0001 0000 = PIC18F4420/4520 devices Note 1: These values for DEV<10:3> may be shared with other devices. The specific device is always identified by using the entire DEV<10:0> bit sequence.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 258 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 23.2 Watchdog Timer (WDT) For PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices, the WDT is driven by the INTRC source. When the WDT is enabled, the clock source is also enabled. The nominal WDT period is 4 ms and has the same stability as the INTRC oscillator. The 4 ms period of the WDT is multiplied by a 16-bit postscaler. Any output of the WDT postscaler is selected by a multiplexer, controlled by bits in Configuration Register 2H. Available periods range from 4 ms to 131.072 seconds (2.18 minutes). The WDT and postscaler are cleared when any of the following events occur: a SLEEP or CLRWDT instruction is executed, the IRCF bits (OSCCON<6:4>) are changed or a clock failure has occurred. 23.2.1 CONTROL REGISTER Register 23-14 shows the WDTCON register. This is a readable and writable register which contains a control bit that allows software to override the WDT enable Configuration bit, but only if the Configuration bit has disabled the WDT. FIGURE 23-1: WDT BLOCK DIAGRAM Note 1: The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT and postscaler counts when executed. 2: Changing the setting of the IRCF bits (OSCCON<6:4>) clears the WDT and postscaler counts. 3: When a CLRWDT instruction is executed, the postscaler count will be cleared. INTRC Source WDT Wake-up from Reset WDT Counter Programmable Postscaler 1:1 to 1:32,768 Enable WDT WDTPS<3:0> SWDTEN WDTEN CLRWDT 4 Power-Managed Reset All Device Resets Sleep ÷128 Change on IRCF bits Modes© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 259 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 23-2: SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS REGISTER 23-14: WDTCON: WATCHDOG TIMER CONTROL REGISTER U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 — — — — — — — SWDTEN(1) bit 7 bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown bit 7-1 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 0 SWDTEN: Software Controlled Watchdog Timer Enable bit(1) 1 = Watchdog Timer is on 0 = Watchdog Timer is off Note 1: This bit has no effect if the Configuration bit, WDTEN, is enabled. Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset Values on page RCON IPEN SBOREN(1) — RI TO PD POR BOR 48 WDTCON — — — — — — — SWDTEN(2) 50 Legend: — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer. Note 1: The SBOREN bit is only available when the BOREN<1:0> Configuration bits = 01; otherwise, it is disabled and reads as ‘0’. See Section 4.4 “Brown-out Reset (BOR)”. 2: This bit has no effect if the Configuration bit, WDTEN, is enabled.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 260 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 23.3 Two-Speed Start-up The Two-Speed Start-up feature helps to minimize the latency period from oscillator start-up to code execution by allowing the microcontroller to use the INTOSC oscillator as a clock source until the primary clock source is available. It is enabled by setting the IESO Configuration bit. Two-Speed Start-up should be enabled only if the primary oscillator mode is LP, XT, HS or HSPLL (Crystal-Based modes). Other sources do not require an OST start-up delay; for these, Two-Speed Start-up should be disabled. When enabled, Resets and wake-ups from Sleep mode cause the device to configure itself to run from the internal oscillator block as the clock source, following the time-out of the Power-up Timer after a Power-on Reset is enabled. This allows almost immediate code execution while the primary oscillator starts and the OST is running. Once the OST times out, the device automatically switches to PRI_RUN mode. To use a higher clock speed on wake-up, the INTOSC or postscaler clock sources can be selected to provide a higher clock speed by setting bits, IRCF<2:0>, immediately after Reset. For wake-ups from Sleep, the INTOSC or postscaler clock sources can be selected by setting the IRCF<2:0> bits prior to entering Sleep mode. In all other power-managed modes, Two-Speed Startup is not used. The device will be clocked by the currently selected clock source until the primary clock source becomes available. The setting of the IESO bit is ignored. 23.3.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR USING TWO-SPEED START-UP While using the INTOSC oscillator in Two-Speed Startup, the device still obeys the normal command sequences for entering power-managed modes, including multiple SLEEP instructions (refer to Section 3.1.4 “Multiple Sleep Commands”). In practice, this means that user code can change the SCS<1:0> bit settings or issue SLEEP instructions before the OST times out. This would allow an application to briefly wake-up, perform routine “housekeeping” tasks and return to Sleep before the device starts to operate from the primary oscillator. User code can also check if the primary clock source is currently providing the device clocking by checking the status of the OSTS bit (OSCCON<3>). If the bit is set, the primary oscillator is providing the clock. Otherwise, the internal oscillator block is providing the clock during wake-up from Reset or Sleep mode. FIGURE 23-2: TIMING TRANSITION FOR TWO-SPEED START-UP (INTOSC TO HSPLL) Q1 Q3 Q4 OSC1 Peripheral Program PC PC + 2 INTOSC PLL Clock Q1 PC + 6 Q2 Output Q3 Q4 Q1 CPU Clock PC + 4 Clock Counter Q2 Q2 Q3 Note 1: TOST = 1024 TOSC; TPLL = 2 ms (approx). These intervals are not shown to scale. 2: Clock transition typically occurs within 2-4 TOSC. Wake from Interrupt Event TPLL(1) 1 2 n-1 n Clock OSTS bit Set Transition(2) Multiplexer TOST(1)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 261 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 23.4 Fail-Safe Clock Monitor The Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) allows the microcontroller to continue operation in the event of an external oscillator failure by automatically switching the device clock to the internal oscillator block. The FSCM function is enabled by setting the FCMEN Configuration bit. When FSCM is enabled, the INTRC oscillator runs at all times to monitor clocks to peripherals and provide a backup clock in the event of a clock failure. Clock monitoring (shown in Figure 23-3) is accomplished by creating a sample clock signal, which is the INTRC output divided by 64. This allows ample time between FSCM sample clocks for a peripheral clock edge to occur. The peripheral device clock and the sample clock are presented as inputs to the Clock Monitor latch (CM). The CM is set on the falling edge of the device clock source, but cleared on the rising edge of the sample clock. FIGURE 23-3: FSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM Clock failure is tested for on the falling edge of the sample clock. If a sample clock falling edge occurs while CM is still set, a clock failure has been detected (Figure 23-4). This causes the following: • the FSCM generates an oscillator fail interrupt by setting bit, OSCFIF (PIR2<7>); • the device clock source is switched to the internal oscillator block (OSCCON is not updated to show the current clock source – this is the fail-safe condition) and • the WDT is reset. During switchover, the postscaler frequency from the internal oscillator block may not be sufficiently stable for timing sensitive applications. In these cases, it may be desirable to select another clock configuration and enter an alternate power-managed mode. This can be done to attempt a partial recovery or execute a controlled shutdown. See Section 3.1.4 “Multiple Sleep Commands” and Section 23.3.1 “Special Considerations for Using Two-Speed Start-up” for more details. To use a higher clock speed on wake-up, the INTOSC or postscaler clock sources can be selected to provide a higher clock speed by setting bits, IRCF<2:0>, immediately after Reset. For wake-ups from Sleep, the INTOSC or postscaler clock sources can be selected by setting the IRCF<2:0> bits prior to entering Sleep mode. The FSCM will detect failures of the primary or secondary clock sources only. If the internal oscillator block fails, no failure would be detected, nor would any action be possible. 23.4.1 FSCM AND THE WATCHDOG TIMER Both the FSCM and the WDT are clocked by the INTRC oscillator. Since the WDT operates with a separate divider and counter, disabling the WDT has no effect on the operation of the INTRC oscillator when the FSCM is enabled. As already noted, the clock source is switched to the INTOSC clock when a clock failure is detected. Depending on the frequency selected by the IRCF<2:0> bits, this may mean a substantial change in the speed of code execution. If the WDT is enabled with a small prescale value, a decrease in clock speed allows a WDT time-out to occur and a subsequent device Reset. For this reason, fail-safe clock events also reset the WDT and postscaler, allowing it to start timing from when execution speed was changed and decreasing the likelihood of an erroneous time-out. 23.4.2 EXITING FAIL-SAFE OPERATION The fail-safe condition is terminated by either a device Reset or by entering a power-managed mode. On Reset, the controller starts the primary clock source specified in Configuration Register 1H (with any required start-up delays that are required for the oscillator mode, such as the OST or PLL timer). The INTOSC multiplexer provides the device clock until the primary clock source becomes ready (similar to a TwoSpeed Start-up). The clock source is then switched to the primary clock (indicated by the OSTS bit in the OSCCON register becoming set). The Fail-Safe Clock Monitor then resumes monitoring the peripheral clock. The primary clock source may never become ready during start-up. In this case, operation is clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer. The OSCCON register will remain in its Reset state until a power-managed mode is entered. Peripheral INTRC ÷ 64 S C Q (32 μs) 488 Hz (2.048 ms) Clock Monitor Latch (CM) (edge-triggered) Clock Failure Detected Source Clock QPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 262 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 23-4: FSCM TIMING DIAGRAM 23.4.3 FSCM INTERRUPTS IN POWER-MANAGED MODES By entering a power-managed mode, the clock multiplexer selects the clock source selected by the OSCCON register. Fail-Safe Clock Monitoring of the powermanaged clock source resumes in the power-managed mode. If an oscillator failure occurs during power-managed operation, the subsequent events depend on whether or not the oscillator failure interrupt is enabled. If enabled (OSCFIF = 1), code execution will be clocked by the INTOSC multiplexer. An automatic transition back to the failed clock source will not occur. If the interrupt is disabled, subsequent interrupts while in Idle mode will cause the CPU to begin executing instructions while being clocked by the INTOSC source. 23.4.4 POR OR WAKE FROM SLEEP The FSCM is designed to detect oscillator failure at any point after the device has exited Power-on Reset (POR) or low-power Sleep mode. When the primary device clock is EC, RC or INTRC modes, monitoring can begin immediately following these events. For oscillator modes involving a crystal or resonator (HS, HSPLL, LP or XT), the situation is somewhat different. Since the oscillator may require a start-up time considerably longer than the FCSM sample clock time, a false clock failure may be detected. To prevent this, the internal oscillator block is automatically configured as the device clock and functions until the primary clock is stable (the OST and PLL timers have timed out). This is identical to Two-Speed Start-up mode. Once the primary clock is stable, the INTRC returns to its role as the FSCM source. As noted in Section 23.3.1 “Special Considerations for Using Two-Speed Start-up”, it is also possible to select another clock configuration and enter an alternate power-managed mode while waiting for the primary clock to become stable. When the new powermanaged mode is selected, the primary clock is disabled. OSCFIF CM Output Device Clock Output Sample Clock Failure Detected Oscillator Failure Note: The device clock is normally at a much higher frequency than the sample clock. The relative frequencies in this example have been chosen for clarity. (Q) CM Test CM Test CM Test Note: The same logic that prevents false oscillator failure interrupts on POR, or wake from Sleep, will also prevent the detection of the oscillator’s failure to start at all following these events. This can be avoided by monitoring the OSTS bit and using a timing routine to determine if the oscillator is taking too long to start. Even so, no oscillator failure interrupt will be flagged. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 263 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 23.5 Program Verification and Code Protection The overall structure of the code protection on the PIC18 Flash devices differs significantly from other PIC® devices. The user program memory is divided into five blocks. One of these is a boot block of 2 Kbytes. The remainder of the memory is divided into four blocks on binary boundaries. Each of the five blocks has three code protection bits associated with them. They are: • Code-Protect bit (CPn) • Write-Protect bit (WRTn) • External Block Table Read bit (EBTRn) Figure 23-5 shows the program memory organization for 16 and 32-Kbyte devices and the specific code protection bit associated with each block. The actual locations of the bits are summarized in Table 23-3. FIGURE 23-5: CODE-PROTECTED PROGRAM MEMORY FOR PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 23-3: SUMMARY OF CODE PROTECTION REGISTERS File Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 300008h CONFIG5L — — — — CP3(1) CP2(1) CP1 CP0 300009h CONFIG5H CPD CPB — — — — — — 30000Ah CONFIG6L — — — — WRT3(1) WRT2(1) WRT1 WRT0 30000Bh CONFIG6H WRTD WRTB WRTC — — — — — 30000Ch CONFIG7L — — — — EBTR3(1) EBTR2(1) EBTR1 EBTR0 30000Dh CONFIG7H — EBTRB — — — — — — Legend: Shaded cells are unimplemented. Note 1: Unimplemented in PIC18F2420/4420 devices; maintain this bit set. MEMORY SIZE/DEVICE Block Code Protection 16 Kbytes Controlled By: (PIC18F2420/4420) 32 Kbytes (PIC18F2520/4520) Address Range Boot Block Boot Block 000000h 0007FFh CPB, WRTB, EBTRB Block 0 Block 0 000800h 001FFFh CP0, WRT0, EBTR0 Block 1 Block 1 002000h 003FFFh CP1, WRT1, EBTR1 Unimplemented Read ‘0’s Block 2 004000h 005FFFh CP2, WRT2, EBTR2 Block 3 006000h 007FFFh CP3, WRT3, EBTR3 Unimplemented Read ‘0’s 1FFFFFh (Unimplemented Memory Space)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 264 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 23.5.1 PROGRAM MEMORY CODE PROTECTION The program memory may be read to, or written from, any location using the table read and table write instructions. The Device ID may be read with table reads. The Configuration registers may be read and written with the table read and table write instructions. In normal execution mode, the CPn bits have no direct effect. CPn bits inhibit external reads and writes. A block of user memory may be protected from table writes if the WRTn Configuration bit is ‘0’. The EBTRn bits control table reads. For a block of user memory with the EBTRn bit set to ‘0’, a table read instruction that executes from within that block is allowed to read. A table read instruction that executes from a location outside of that block is not allowed to read and will result in reading ‘0’s. Figures 23-6 through 23-8 illustrate table write and table read protection. FIGURE 23-6: TABLE WRITE (WRTn) DISALLOWED Note: Code protection bits may only be written to a ‘0’ from a ‘1’ state. It is not possible to write a ‘1’ to a bit in the ‘0’ state. Code protection bits are only set to ‘1’ by a full chip erase or block erase function. The full chip erase and block erase functions can only be initiated via ICSP or an external programmer. 000000h 0007FFh 000800h 001FFFh 002000h 003FFFh 004000h 005FFFh 006000h 007FFFh WRTB, EBTRB = 11 WRT0, EBTR0 = 01 WRT1, EBTR1 = 11 WRT2, EBTR2 = 11 WRT3, EBTR3 = 11 TBLWT* TBLPTR = 0008FFh PC = 001FFEh PC = 005FFEh TBLWT* Register Values Program Memory Configuration Bit Settings Results: All table writes disabled to Blockn whenever WRTn = 0.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 265 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 23-7: EXTERNAL BLOCK TABLE READ (EBTRn) DISALLOWED FIGURE 23-8: EXTERNAL BLOCK TABLE READ (EBTRn) ALLOWED WRTB, EBTRB = 11 WRT0, EBTR0 = 10 WRT1, EBTR1 = 11 WRT2, EBTR2 = 11 WRT3, EBTR3 = 11 TBLRD* TBLPTR = 0008FFh PC = 003FFEh Results: All table reads from external blocks to Blockn are disabled whenever EBTRn = 0. TABLAT register returns a value of ‘0’. Register Values Program Memory Configuration Bit Settings 000000h 0007FFh 000800h 001FFFh 002000h 003FFFh 004000h 005FFFh 006000h 007FFFh WRTB, EBTRB = 11 WRT0, EBTR0 = 10 WRT1, EBTR1 = 11 WRT2, EBTR2 = 11 WRT3, EBTR3 = 11 TBLRD* TBLPTR = 0008FFh PC = 001FFEh Register Values Program Memory Configuration Bit Settings Results: Table reads permitted within Blockn, even when EBTRBn = 0. TABLAT register returns the value of the data at the location TBLPTR. 000000h 0007FFh 000800h 001FFFh 002000h 003FFFh 004000h 005FFFh 006000h 007FFFhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 266 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 23.5.2 DATA EEPROM CODE PROTECTION The entire data EEPROM is protected from external reads and writes by two bits: CPD and WRTD. CPD inhibits external reads and writes of data EEPROM. WRTD inhibits internal and external writes to data EEPROM. The CPU can always read data EEPROM under normal operation, regardless of the protection bit settings. 23.5.3 CONFIGURATION REGISTER PROTECTION The Configuration registers can be write-protected. The WRTC bit controls protection of the Configuration registers. In normal execution mode, the WRTC bit is read-only. WRTC can only be written via ICSP or an external programmer. 23.6 ID Locations Eight memory locations (200000h-200007h) are designated as ID locations, where the user can store checksum or other code identification numbers. These locations are both readable and writable during normal execution through the TBLRD and TBLWT instructions, or during program/verify. The ID locations can be read when the device is code-protected. 23.7 In-Circuit Serial Programming PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices can be serially programmed while in the end application circuit. This is simply done with two lines for clock and data and three other lines for power, ground and the programming voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards with unprogrammed devices and then program the microcontroller just before shipping the product. This also allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware to be programmed. 23.8 In-Circuit Debugger When the DEBUG Configuration bit is programmed to a ‘0’, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality is enabled. This function allows simple debugging functions when used with MPLAB® IDE. When the microcontroller has this feature enabled, some resources are not available for general use. Table 23-4 shows which resources are required by the background debugger. TABLE 23-4: DEBUGGER RESOURCES To use the In-Circuit Debugger function of the microcontroller, the design must implement In-Circuit Serial Programming connections to MCLR/VPP/RE3, VDD, VSS, RB7 and RB6. This will interface to the In-Circuit Debugger module available from Microchip or one of the third party development tool companies. 23.9 Single-Supply ICSP Programming The LVP Configuration bit enables Single-Supply ICSP Programming (formerly known as Low-Voltage ICSP Programming or LVP). When Single-Supply Programming is enabled, the microcontroller can be programmed without requiring high voltage being applied to the MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin, but the RB5/KBI1/PGM pin is then dedicated to controlling Program mode entry and is not available as a general purpose I/O pin. While programming, using Single-Supply Programming mode, VDD is applied to the MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin as in normal execution mode. To enter Programming mode, VDD is applied to the PGM pin. If Single-Supply ICSP Programming mode will not be used, the LVP bit can be cleared. RB5/KBI1/PGM then becomes available as the digital I/O pin, RB5. The LVP bit may be set or cleared only when using standard high-voltage programming (VIHH applied to the MCLR/ VPP/RE3 pin). Once LVP has been disabled, only the standard high-voltage programming is available and must be used to program the device. Memory that is not code-protected can be erased using either a block erase, or erased row by row, then written at any specified VDD. If code-protected memory is to be erased, a block erase is required. If a block erase is to be performed when using Low-Voltage Programming, the device must be supplied with VDD of 4.5V to 5.5V. I/O pins: RB6, RB7 Stack: 2 levels Program Memory: 512 bytes Data Memory: 10 bytes Note 1: High-voltage programming is always available, regardless of the state of the LVP bit or the PGM pin, by applying VIHH to the MCLR pin. 2: By default, Single-Supply ICSP is enabled in unprogrammed devices (as supplied from Microchip) and erased devices. 3: When Single-Supply Programming is enabled, the RB5 pin can no longer be used as a general purpose I/O pin. 4: When LVP is enabled, externally pull the PGM pin to VSS to allow normal program execution.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 267 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 24.0 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices incorporate the standard set of 75 PIC18 core instructions, as well as an extended set of 8 new instructions, for the optimization of code that is recursive or that utilizes a software stack. The extended set is discussed later in this section. 24.1 Standard Instruction Set The standard PIC18 instruction set adds many enhancements to the previous PIC® MCU instruction sets, while maintaining an easy migration from these PIC MCU instruction sets. Most instructions are a single program memory word (16 bits), but there are four instructions that require two program memory locations. Each single-word instruction is a 16-bit word divided into an opcode, which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands, which further specify the operation of the instruction. The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped into four basic categories: • Byte-oriented operations • Bit-oriented operations • Literal operations • Control operations The PIC18 instruction set summary in Table 24-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, literal and control operations. Table 24-1 shows the opcode field descriptions. Most byte-oriented instructions have three operands: 1. The file register (specified by ‘f’) 2. The destination of the result (specified by ‘d’) 3. The accessed memory (specified by ‘a’) The file register designator ‘f’ specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination designator ‘d’ specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is placed in the WREG register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. All bit-oriented instructions have three operands: 1. The file register (specified by ‘f’) 2. The bit in the file register (specified by ‘b’) 3. The accessed memory (specified by ‘a’) The bit field designator ‘b’ selects the number of the bit affected by the operation, while the file register designator ‘f’ represents the number of the file in which the bit is located. The literal instructions may use some of the following operands: • A literal value to be loaded into a file register (specified by ‘k’) • The desired FSR register to load the literal value into (specified by ‘f’) • No operand required (specified by ‘—’) The control instructions may use some of the following operands: • A program memory address (specified by ‘n’) • The mode of the CALL or RETURN instructions (specified by ‘s’) • The mode of the table read and table write instructions (specified by ‘m’) • No operand required (specified by ‘—’) All instructions are a single word, except for four double-word instructions. These instructions were made double-word to contain the required information in 32 bits. In the second word, the 4 MSbs are ‘1’s. If this second word is executed as an instruction (by itself), it will execute as a NOP. All single-word instructions are executed in a single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of the instruction. In these cases, the execution takes two instruction cycles, with the additional instruction cycle(s) executed as a NOP. The double-word instructions execute in two instruction cycles. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction execution time is 1 μs. If a conditional test is true, or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 μs. Two-word branch instructions (if true) would take 3 μs. Figure 24-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have. All examples use the convention ‘nnh’ to represent a hexadecimal number. The Instruction Set Summary, shown in Table 24-2, lists the standard instructions recognized by the Microchip Assembler (MPASMTM). Section 24.1.1 “Standard Instruction Set” provides a description of each instruction.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 268 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 24-1: OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS Field Description a RAM access bit a = 0: RAM location in Access RAM (BSR register is ignored) a = 1: RAM bank is specified by BSR register bbb Bit address within an 8-bit file register (0 to 7). BSR Bank Select Register. Used to select the current RAM bank. C, DC, Z, OV, N ALU Status bits: Carry, Digit Carry, Zero, Overflow, Negative. d Destination select bit d = 0: store result in WREG d = 1: store result in file register f dest Destination: either the WREG register or the specified register file location. f 8-bit Register file address (00h to FFh) or 2-bit FSR designator (0h to 3h). fs 12-bit Register file address (000h to FFFh). This is the source address. fd 12-bit Register file address (000h to FFFh). This is the destination address. GIE Global Interrupt Enable bit. k Literal field, constant data or label (may be either an 8-bit, 12-bit or a 20-bit value). label Label name. mm The mode of the TBLPTR register for the table read and table write instructions. Only used with table read and table write instructions: * No change to register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes) *+ Post-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes) *- Post-Decrement register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes) +* Pre-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes) n The relative address (2’s complement number) for relative branch instructions or the direct address for Call/Branch and Return instructions. PC Program Counter. PCL Program Counter Low Byte. PCH Program Counter High Byte. PCLATH Program Counter High Byte Latch. PCLATU Program Counter Upper Byte Latch. PD Power-down bit. PRODH Product of Multiply High Byte. PRODL Product of Multiply Low Byte. s Fast Call/Return mode select bit s = 0: do not update into/from shadow registers s = 1: certain registers loaded into/from shadow registers (Fast mode) TBLPTR 21-bit Table Pointer (points to a Program Memory location). TABLAT 8-bit Table Latch. TO Time-out bit. TOS Top-of-Stack. u Unused or unchanged. WDT Watchdog Timer. WREG Working register (accumulator). x Don’t care (‘0’ or ‘1’). The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the recommended form of use for compatibility with all Microchip software tools. zs 7-bit offset value for indirect addressing of register files (source). zd 7-bit offset value for indirect addressing of register files (destination). { } Optional argument. [text] Indicates an indexed address. (text) The contents of text. [expr] Specifies bit n of the register indicated by the pointer expr. → Assigned to. < > Register bit field. ∈ In the set of. italics User-defined term (font is Courier New).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 269 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 24-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR INSTRUCTIONS Byte-oriented file register operations 15 10 9 8 7 0 d = 0 for result destination to be WREG register OPCODE d a f (FILE #) d = 1 for result destination to be file register (f) a = 0 to force Access Bank Bit-oriented file register operations 15 12 11 9 8 7 0 OPCODE b (BIT #) a f (FILE #) b = 3-bit position of bit in file register (f) Literal operations 15 8 7 0 OPCODE k (literal) k = 8-bit immediate value Byte to Byte move operations (2-word) 15 12 11 0 OPCODE f (Source FILE #) CALL, GOTO and Branch operations 15 8 7 0 OPCODE n<7:0> (literal) n = 20-bit immediate value a = 1 for BSR to select bank f = 8-bit file register address a = 0 to force Access Bank a = 1 for BSR to select bank f = 8-bit file register address 15 12 11 0 1111 n<19:8> (literal) 15 12 11 0 1111 f (Destination FILE #) f = 12-bit file register address Control operations Example Instruction ADDWF MYREG, W, B MOVFF MYREG1, MYREG2 BSF MYREG, bit, B MOVLW 7Fh GOTO Label 15 8 7 0 OPCODE n<7:0> (literal) 15 12 11 0 1111 n<19:8> (literal) CALL MYFUNC 15 11 10 0 OPCODE n<10:0> (literal) S = Fast bit BRA MYFUNC 15 8 7 0 OPCODE n<7:0> (literal) BC MYFUNC SPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 270 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 24-2: PIC18FXXXX INSTRUCTION SET Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 16-Bit Instruction Word Status Affected Notes MSb LSb BYTE-ORIENTED OPERATIONS ADDWF ADDWFC ANDWF CLRF COMF CPFSEQ CPFSGT CPFSLT DECF DECFSZ DCFSNZ INCF INCFSZ INFSNZ IORWF MOVF MOVFF MOVWF MULWF NEGF RLCF RLNCF RRCF RRNCF SETF SUBFWB SUBWF SUBWFB SWAPF TSTFSZ XORWF f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, a f, d, a f, a f, a f, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a fs, fd f, a f, a f, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, d, a f, a f, d, a Add WREG and f Add WREG and Carry bit to f AND WREG with f Clear f Complement f Compare f with WREG, Skip = Compare f with WREG, Skip > Compare f with WREG, Skip < Decrement f Decrement f, Skip if 0 Decrement f, Skip if Not 0 Increment f Increment f, Skip if 0 Increment f, Skip if Not 0 Inclusive OR WREG with f Move f Move fs (source) to 1st word fd (destination) 2nd word Move WREG to f Multiply WREG with f Negate f Rotate Left f through Carry Rotate Left f (No Carry) Rotate Right f through Carry Rotate Right f (No Carry) Set f Subtract f from WREG with Borrow Subtract WREG from f Subtract WREG from f with Borrow Swap Nibbles in f Test f, Skip if 0 Exclusive OR WREG with f 1 1 1 1 1 1 (2 or 3) 1 (2 or 3) 1 (2 or 3) 1 1 (2 or 3) 1 (2 or 3) 1 1 (2 or 3) 1 (2 or 3) 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (2 or 3) 1 0010 0010 0001 0110 0001 0110 0110 0110 0000 0010 0100 0010 0011 0100 0001 0101 1100 1111 0110 0000 0110 0011 0100 0011 0100 0110 0101 0101 0101 0011 0110 0001 01da 00da 01da 101a 11da 001a 010a 000a 01da 11da 11da 10da 11da 10da 00da 00da ffff ffff 111a 001a 110a 01da 01da 00da 00da 100a 01da 11da 10da 10da 011a 10da ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff C, DC, Z, OV, N C, DC, Z, OV, N Z, N Z Z, N None None None C, DC, Z, OV, N None None C, DC, Z, OV, N None None Z, N Z, N None None None C, DC, Z, OV, N C, Z, N Z, N C, Z, N Z, N None C, DC, Z, OV, N C, DC, Z, OV, N C, DC, Z, OV, N None None Z, N 1, 2 1, 2 1,2 2 1, 2 4 4 1, 2 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2 1, 2, 3, 4 4 1, 2 1, 2 1 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 4 1, 2 Note 1: When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’. 2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, ‘d’ = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned. 3: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed as a NOP. 4: Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all program memory locations have a valid instruction.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 271 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 BIT-ORIENTED OPERATIONS BCF BSF BTFSC BTFSS BTG f, b, a f, b, a f, b, a f, b, a f, d, a Bit Clear f Bit Set f Bit Test f, Skip if Clear Bit Test f, Skip if Set Bit Toggle f 1 1 1 (2 or 3) 1 (2 or 3) 1 1001 1000 1011 1010 0111 bbba bbba bbba bbba bbba ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff None None None None None 1, 2 1, 2 3, 4 3, 4 1, 2 CONTROL OPERATIONS BC BN BNC BNN BNOV BNZ BOV BRA BZ CALL CLRWDT DAW GOTO NOP NOP POP PUSH RCALL RESET RETFIE RETLW RETURN SLEEP n n n n n n n n n n, s — — n — — — — n s k s — Branch if Carry Branch if Negative Branch if Not Carry Branch if Not Negative Branch if Not Overflow Branch if Not Zero Branch if Overflow Branch Unconditionally Branch if Zero Call Subroutine 1st word 2nd word Clear Watchdog Timer Decimal Adjust WREG Go to Address 1st word 2nd word No Operation No Operation Pop Top of Return Stack (TOS) Push Top of Return Stack (TOS) Relative Call Software Device Reset Return from Interrupt Enable Return with Literal in WREG Return from Subroutine Go into Standby mode 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) 2 1 (2) 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1101 1110 1110 1111 0000 0000 1110 1111 0000 1111 0000 0000 1101 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0010 0110 0011 0111 0101 0001 0100 0nnn 0000 110s kkkk 0000 0000 1111 kkkk 0000 xxxx 0000 0000 1nnn 0000 0000 1100 0000 0000 nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn kkkk kkkk 0000 0000 kkkk kkkk 0000 xxxx 0000 0000 nnnn 1111 0001 kkkk 0001 0000 nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn nnnn kkkk kkkk 0100 0111 kkkk kkkk 0000 xxxx 0110 0101 nnnn 1111 000s kkkk 001s 0011 None None None None None None None None None None TO, PD C None None None None None None All GIE/GIEH, PEIE/GIEL None None TO, PD 4 TABLE 24-2: PIC18FXXXX INSTRUCTION SET (CONTINUED) Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 16-Bit Instruction Word Status Affected Notes MSb LSb Note 1: When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’. 2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, ‘d’ = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned. 3: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed as a NOP. 4: Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all program memory locations have a valid instruction.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 272 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. LITERAL OPERATIONS ADDLW ANDLW IORLW LFSR MOVLB MOVLW MULLW RETLW SUBLW XORLW k k k f, k k k k k k k Add Literal and WREG AND Literal with WREG Inclusive OR Literal with WREG Move Literal (12-bit)2nd word to FSR(f) 1st word Move Literal to BSR<3:0> Move Literal to WREG Multiply Literal with WREG Return with Literal in WREG Subtract WREG from Literal Exclusive OR Literal with WREG 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0000 0000 0000 1110 1111 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1111 1011 1001 1110 0000 0001 1110 1101 1100 1000 1010 kkkk kkkk kkkk 00ff kkkk 0000 kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk kkkk C, DC, Z, OV, N Z, N Z, N None None None None None C, DC, Z, OV, N Z, N DATA MEMORY ↔ PROGRAM MEMORY OPERATIONS TBLRD* TBLRD*+ TBLRD*- TBLRD+* TBLWT* TBLWT*+ TBLWT*- TBLWT+* Table Read Table Read with Post-Increment Table Read with Post-Decrement Table Read with Pre-Increment Table Write Table Write with Post-Increment Table Write with Post-Decrement Table Write with Pre-Increment 2 2 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 None None None None None None None None TABLE 24-2: PIC18FXXXX INSTRUCTION SET (CONTINUED) Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 16-Bit Instruction Word Status Affected Notes MSb LSb Note 1: When a PORT register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1, 0), the value used will be that value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’. 2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, ‘d’ = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned. 3: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed as a NOP. 4: Some instructions are two-word instructions. The second word of these instructions will be executed as a NOP unless the first word of the instruction retrieves the information embedded in these 16 bits. This ensures that all program memory locations have a valid instruction.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 273 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 24.1.1 STANDARD INSTRUCTION SET ADDLW ADD Literal to W Syntax: ADDLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: (W) + k → W Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0000 1111 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of W are added to the 8-bit literal ‘k’ and the result is placed in W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example: ADDLW 15h Before Instruction W = 10h After Instruction W = 25h ADDWF ADD W to f Syntax: ADDWF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) + (f) → dest Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0010 01da ffff ffff Description: Add W to register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: ADDWF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction W = 17h REG = 0C2h After Instruction W = 0D9h REG = 0C2h Note: All PIC18 instructions may take an optional label argument preceding the instruction mnemonic for use in symbolic addressing. If a label is used, the instruction format then becomes: {label} instruction argument(s).PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 274 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. ADDWFC ADD W and Carry bit to f Syntax: ADDWFC f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) + (f) + (C) → dest Status Affected: N,OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0010 00da ffff ffff Description: Add W, the Carry flag and data memory location ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed in data memory location ‘f’. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: ADDWFC REG, 0, 1 Before Instruction Carry bit = 1 REG = 02h W = 4Dh After Instruction Carry bit = 0 REG = 02h W = 50h ANDLW AND Literal with W Syntax: ANDLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: (W) .AND. k → W Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0000 1011 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of W are ANDed with the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example: ANDLW 05Fh Before Instruction W = A3h After Instruction W = 03h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 275 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 ANDWF AND W with f Syntax: ANDWF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) .AND. (f) → dest Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0001 01da ffff ffff Description: The contents of W are ANDed with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: ANDWF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction W = 17h REG = C2h After Instruction W = 02h REG = C2h BC Branch if Carry Syntax: BC n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Carry bit is ‘1’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0010 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Carry bit is ‘1’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BC 5 Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Carry = 1; PC = address (HERE + 12) If Carry = 0; PC = address (HERE + 2)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 276 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. BCF Bit Clear f Syntax: BCF f, b {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 0 ≤ b ≤ 7 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: 0 → f Status Affected: None Encoding: 1001 bbba ffff ffff Description: Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: BCF FLAG_REG, 7, 0 Before Instruction FLAG_REG = C7h After Instruction FLAG_REG = 47h BN Branch if Negative Syntax: BN n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Negative bit is ‘1’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0110 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Negative bit is ‘1’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BN Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Negative = 1; PC = address (Jump) If Negative = 0; PC = address (HERE + 2)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 277 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 BNC Branch if Not Carry Syntax: BNC n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Carry bit is ‘0’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0011 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Carry bit is ‘0’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BNC Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Carry = 0; PC = address (Jump) If Carry = 1; PC = address (HERE + 2) BNN Branch if Not Negative Syntax: BNN n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Negative bit is ‘0’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0111 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Negative bit is ‘0’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number ‘2n’ is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BNN Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Negative = 0; PC = address (Jump) If Negative = 1; PC = address (HERE + 2)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 278 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. BNOV Branch if Not Overflow Syntax: BNOV n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Overflow bit is ‘0’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0101 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Overflow bit is ‘0’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number, ‘2n’, is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BNOV Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Overflow = 0; PC = address (Jump) If Overflow = 1; PC = address (HERE + 2) BNZ Branch if Not Zero Syntax: BNZ n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Zero bit is ‘0’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0001 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Zero bit is ‘0’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number, ‘2n’, is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BNZ Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Zero = 0; PC = address (Jump) If Zero = 1; PC = address (HERE + 2)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 279 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 BRA Unconditional Branch Syntax: BRA n Operands: -1024 ≤ n ≤ 1023 Operation: (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1101 0nnn nnnn nnnn Description: Add the 2’s complement number, ‘2n’, to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE BRA Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction PC = address (Jump) BSF Bit Set f Syntax: BSF f, b {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 0 ≤ b ≤ 7 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: 1 → f Status Affected: None Encoding: 1000 bbba ffff ffff Description: Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: BSF FLAG_REG, 7, 1 Before Instruction FLAG_REG = 0Ah After Instruction FLAG_REG = 8AhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 280 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. BTFSC Bit Test File, Skip if Clear Syntax: BTFSC f, b {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 0 ≤ b ≤ 7 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: skip if (f) = 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 1011 bbba ffff ffff Description: If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, then the next instruction is skipped. If bit ‘b’ is ‘0’, then the next instruction fetched during the current instruction execution is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE FALSE TRUE BTFSC : : FLAG, 1, 0 Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If FLAG<1> = 0; PC = address (TRUE) If FLAG<1> = 1; PC = address (FALSE) BTFSS Bit Test File, Skip if Set Syntax: BTFSS f, b {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 0 ≤ b < 7 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: skip if (f) = 1 Status Affected: None Encoding: 1010 bbba ffff ffff Description: If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, then the next instruction is skipped. If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next instruction fetched during the current instruction execution is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE FALSE TRUE BTFSS : : FLAG, 1, 0 Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If FLAG<1> = 0; PC = address (FALSE) If FLAG<1> = 1; PC = address (TRUE)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 281 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 BTG Bit Toggle f Syntax: BTG f, b {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 0 ≤ b < 7 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → f Status Affected: None Encoding: 0111 bbba ffff ffff Description: Bit ‘b’ in data memory location ‘f’ is inverted. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: BTG PORTC, 4, 0 Before Instruction: PORTC = 0111 0101 [75h] After Instruction: PORTC = 0110 0101 [65h] BOV Branch if Overflow Syntax: BOV n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Overflow bit is ‘1’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0100 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Overflow bit is ‘1’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number, ‘2n’, is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BOV Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Overflow = 1; PC = address (Jump) If Overflow = 0; PC = address (HERE + 2)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 282 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. BZ Branch if Zero Syntax: BZ n Operands: -128 ≤ n ≤ 127 Operation: if Zero bit is ‘1’, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 0000 nnnn nnnn Description: If the Zero bit is ‘1’, then the program will branch. The 2’s complement number, ‘2n’, is added to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is then a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Q Cycle Activity: If Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation If No Jump: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ Process Data No operation Example: HERE BZ Jump Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction If Zero = 1; PC = address (Jump) If Zero = 0; PC = address (HERE + 2) CALL Subroutine Call Syntax: CALL k {,s} Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 1048575 s ∈ [0,1] Operation: (PC) + 4 → TOS, k → PC<20:1>; if s = 1, (W) → WS, (STATUS) → STATUSS, (BSR) → BSRS Status Affected: None Encoding: 1st word (k<7:0>) 2nd word(k<19:8>) 1110 1111 110s k19kkk k7kkk kkkk kkkk0 kkkk8 Description: Subroutine call of entire 2-Mbyte memory range. First, return address (PC + 4) is pushed onto the return stack. If ‘s’ = 1, the W, STATUS and BSR registers are also pushed into their respective shadow registers, WS, STATUSS and BSRS. If ‘s’ = 0, no update occurs (default). Then, the 20-bit value ‘k’ is loaded into PC<20:1>. CALL is a two-cycle instruction. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’<7:0>, PUSH PC to stack Read literal ‘k’<19:8>, Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE CALL THERE, 1 Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) After Instruction PC = address (THERE) TOS = address (HERE + 4) WS = W BSRS = BSR STATUSS = STATUS© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 283 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 CLRF Clear f Syntax: CLRF f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: 000h → f, 1 → Z Status Affected: Z Encoding: 0110 101a ffff ffff Description: Clears the contents of the specified register. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: CLRF FLAG_REG, 1 Before Instruction FLAG_REG = 5Ah After Instruction FLAG_REG = 00h CLRWDT Clear Watchdog Timer Syntax: CLRWDT Operands: None Operation: 000h → WDT, 000h → WDT postscaler, 1 → TO, 1 → PD Status Affected: TO, PD Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 0100 Description: CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the postscaler of the WDT. Status bits, TO and PD, are set. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation Process Data No operation Example: CLRWDT Before Instruction WDT Counter = ? After Instruction WDT Counter = 00h WDT Postscaler = 0 TO = 1 PD = 1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 284 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. COMF Complement f Syntax: COMF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → dest Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0001 11da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: COMF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 13h After Instruction REG = 13h W = ECh CPFSEQ Compare f with W, Skip if f = W Syntax: CPFSEQ f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – (W), skip if (f) = (W) (unsigned comparison) Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 001a ffff ffff Description: Compares the contents of data memory location ‘f’ to the contents of W by performing an unsigned subtraction. If ‘f’ = W, then the fetched instruction is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE CPFSEQ REG, 0 NEQUAL : EQUAL : Before Instruction PC Address = HERE W =? REG = ? After Instruction If REG = W; PC = Address (EQUAL) If REG ≠ W; PC = Address (NEQUAL)© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 285 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 CPFSGT Compare f with W, Skip if f > W Syntax: CPFSGT f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – (W), skip if (f) > (W) (unsigned comparison) Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 010a ffff ffff Description: Compares the contents of data memory location ‘f’ to the contents of the W by performing an unsigned subtraction. If the contents of ‘f’ are greater than the contents of WREG, then the fetched instruction is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE CPFSGT REG, 0 NGREATER : GREATER : Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) W = ? After Instruction If REG > W; PC = Address (GREATER) If REG ≤ W; PC = Address (NGREATER) CPFSLT Compare f with W, Skip if f < W Syntax: CPFSLT f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – (W), skip if (f) < (W) (unsigned comparison) Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 000a ffff ffff Description: Compares the contents of data memory location ‘f’ to the contents of W by performing an unsigned subtraction. If the contents of ‘f’ are less than the contents of W, then the fetched instruction is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE CPFSLT REG, 1 NLESS : LESS : Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) W = ? After Instruction If REG < W; PC = Address (LESS) If REG ≥ W; PC = Address (NLESS)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 286 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DAW Decimal Adjust W Register Syntax: DAW Operands: None Operation: If [W<3:0> > 9] or [DC = 1] then, (W<3:0>) + 6 → W<3:0>; else, (W<3:0>) → W<3:0>; If [W<7:4> + DC > 9] or [C = 1] then, (W<7:4>) + 6 + DC → W<7:4>; else, (W<7:4>) + DC → W<7:4> Status Affected: C Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 0111 Description: DAW adjusts the 8-bit value in W, resulting from the earlier addition of two variables (each in packed BCD format) and produces a correct packed BCD result. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register W Process Data Write W Example 1: DAW Before Instruction W = A5h C =0 DC = 0 After Instruction W = 05h C =1 DC = 0 Example 2: Before Instruction W = CEh C =0 DC = 0 After Instruction W = 34h C =1 DC = 0 DECF Decrement f Syntax: DECF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – 1 → dest Status Affected: C, DC, N, OV, Z Encoding: 0000 01da ffff ffff Description: Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: DECF CNT, 1, 0 Before Instruction CNT = 01h Z =0 After Instruction CNT = 00h Z =1© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 287 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DECFSZ Decrement f, Skip if 0 Syntax: DECFSZ f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – 1 → dest, skip if result = 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 0010 11da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If the result is ‘0’, the next instruction, which is already fetched, is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE DECFSZ CNT, 1, 1 GOTO LOOP CONTINUE Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) After Instruction CNT = CNT – 1 If CNT = 0; PC = Address (CONTINUE) If CNT ≠ 0; PC = Address (HERE + 2) DCFSNZ Decrement f, Skip if Not 0 Syntax: DCFSNZ f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – 1 → dest, skip if result ≠ 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 0100 11da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If the result is not ‘0’, the next instruction, which is already fetched, is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE DCFSNZ TEMP, 1, 0 ZERO : NZERO : Before Instruction TEMP = ? After Instruction TEMP = TEMP – 1, If TEMP = 0; PC = Address (ZERO) If TEMP ≠ 0; PC = Address (NZERO)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 288 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. GOTO Unconditional Branch Syntax: GOTO k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 1048575 Operation: k → PC<20:1> Status Affected: None Encoding: 1st word (k<7:0>) 2nd word(k<19:8>) 1110 1111 1111 k19kkk k7kkk kkkk kkkk0 kkkk8 Description: GOTO allows an unconditional branch anywhere within entire 2-Mbyte memory range. The 20-bit value ‘k’ is loaded into PC<20:1>. GOTO is always a two-cycle instruction. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’<7:0>, No operation Read literal ‘k’<19:8>, Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: GOTO THERE After Instruction PC = Address (THERE) INCF Increment f Syntax: INCF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) + 1 → dest Status Affected: C, DC, N, OV, Z Encoding: 0010 10da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: INCF CNT, 1, 0 Before Instruction CNT = FFh Z =0 C =? DC = ? After Instruction CNT = 00h Z =1 C =1 DC = 1© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 289 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 INCFSZ Increment f, Skip if 0 Syntax: INCFSZ f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) + 1 → dest, skip if result = 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 0011 11da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If the result is ‘0’, the next instruction, which is already fetched, is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE INCFSZ CNT, 1, 0 NZERO : ZERO : Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) After Instruction CNT = CNT + 1 If CNT = 0; PC = Address (ZERO) If CNT ≠ 0; PC = Address (NZERO) INFSNZ Increment f, Skip if Not 0 Syntax: INFSNZ f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) + 1 → dest, skip if result ≠ 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 0100 10da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If the result is not ‘0’, the next instruction, which is already fetched, is discarded and a NOP is executed instead, making it a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE INFSNZ REG, 1, 0 ZERO NZERO Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) After Instruction REG = REG + 1 If REG ≠ 0; PC = Address (NZERO) If REG = 0; PC = Address (ZERO)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 290 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. IORLW Inclusive OR Literal with W Syntax: IORLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: (W) .OR. k → W Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0000 1001 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of W are ORed with the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example: IORLW 35h Before Instruction W = 9Ah After Instruction W = BFh IORWF Inclusive OR W with f Syntax: IORWF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) .OR. (f) → dest Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0001 00da ffff ffff Description: Inclusive OR W with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: IORWF RESULT, 0, 1 Before Instruction RESULT = 13h W = 91h After Instruction RESULT = 13h W = 93h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 291 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 LFSR Load FSR Syntax: LFSR f, k Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 2 0 ≤ k ≤ 4095 Operation: k → FSRf Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 1111 1110 0000 00ff k7kkk k11kkk kkkk Description: The 12-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the File Select Register pointed to by ‘f’. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ MSB Process Data Write literal ‘k’ MSB to FSRfH Decode Read literal ‘k’ LSB Process Data Write literal ‘k’ to FSRfL Example: LFSR 2, 3ABh After Instruction FSR2H = 03h FSR2L = ABh MOVF Move f Syntax: MOVF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: f → dest Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0101 00da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are moved to a destination dependent upon the status of ‘d’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). Location ‘f’ can be anywhere in the 256-byte bank. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write W Example: MOVF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 22h W = FFh After Instruction REG = 22h W = 22hPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 292 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MOVFF Move f to f Syntax: MOVFF fs,fd Operands: 0 ≤ fs ≤ 4095 0 ≤ fd ≤ 4095 Operation: (fs) → fd Status Affected: None Encoding: 1st word (source) 2nd word (destin.) 1100 1111 ffff ffff ffff ffff ffffs ffffd Description: The contents of source register ‘fs’ are moved to destination register ‘fd’. Location of source ‘fs’ can be anywhere in the 4096-byte data space (000h to FFFh) and location of destination ‘fd’ can also be anywhere from 000h to FFFh. Either source or destination can be W (a useful special situation). MOVFF is particularly useful for transferring a data memory location to a peripheral register (such as the transmit buffer or an I/O port). The MOVFF instruction cannot use the PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the destination register. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 (3) Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ (src) Process Data No operation Decode No operation No dummy read No operation Write register ‘f’ (dest) Example: MOVFF REG1, REG2 Before Instruction REG1 = 33h REG2 = 11h After Instruction REG1 = 33h REG2 = 33h MOVLB Move Literal to Low Nibble in BSR Syntax: MOVLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k → BSR Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0001 kkkk kkkk Description: The 8-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the Bank Select Register (BSR). The value of BSR<7:4> always remains ‘0’, regardless of the value of k7:k4. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write literal ‘k’ to BSR Example: MOVLB 5 Before Instruction BSR Register = 02h After Instruction BSR Register = 05h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 293 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 MOVLW Move Literal to W Syntax: MOVLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k → W Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 1110 kkkk kkkk Description: The 8-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example: MOVLW 5Ah After Instruction W = 5Ah MOVWF Move W to f Syntax: MOVWF f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) → f Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 111a ffff ffff Description: Move data from W to register ‘f’. Location ‘f’ can be anywhere in the 256-byte bank. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: MOVWF REG, 0 Before Instruction W = 4Fh REG = FFh After Instruction W = 4Fh REG = 4FhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 294 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MULLW Multiply Literal with W Syntax: MULLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: (W) x k → PRODH:PRODL Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 1101 kkkk kkkk Description: An unsigned multiplication is carried out between the contents of W and the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The 16-bit result is placed in the PRODH:PRODL register pair. PRODH contains the high byte. W is unchanged. None of the Status flags are affected. Note that neither Overflow nor Carry is possible in this operation. A zero result is possible but not detected. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write registers PRODH: PRODL Example: MULLW 0C4h Before Instruction W = E2h PRODH = ? PRODL = ? After Instruction W = E2h PRODH = ADh PRODL = 08h MULWF Multiply W with f Syntax: MULWF f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) x (f) → PRODH:PRODL Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 001a ffff ffff Description: An unsigned multiplication is carried out between the contents of W and the register file location ‘f’. The 16-bit result is stored in the PRODH:PRODL register pair. PRODH contains the high byte. Both W and ‘f’ are unchanged. None of the Status flags are affected. Note that neither Overflow nor Carry is possible in this operation. A zero result is possible but not detected. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write registers PRODH: PRODL Example: MULWF REG, 1 Before Instruction W = C4h REG = B5h PRODH = ? PRODL = ? After Instruction W = C4h REG = B5h PRODH = 8Ah PRODL = 94h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 295 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 NEGF Negate f Syntax: NEGF f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: ( f ) + 1 → f Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0110 110a ffff ffff Description: Location ‘f’ is negated using two’s complement. The result is placed in the data memory location ‘f’. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: NEGF REG, 1 Before Instruction REG = 0011 1010 [3Ah] After Instruction REG = 1100 0110 [C6h] NOP No Operation Syntax: NOP Operands: None Operation: No operation Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 1111 0000 xxxx 0000 xxxx 0000 xxxx Description: No operation. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation No operation No operation Example: None.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 296 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. POP Pop Top of Return Stack Syntax: POP Operands: None Operation: (TOS) → bit bucket Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 0110 Description: The TOS value is pulled off the return stack and is discarded. The TOS value then becomes the previous value that was pushed onto the return stack. This instruction is provided to enable the user to properly manage the return stack to incorporate a software stack. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation POP TOS value No operation Example: POP GOTO NEW Before Instruction TOS = 0031A2h Stack (1 level down) = 014332h After Instruction TOS = 014332h PC = NEW PUSH Push Top of Return Stack Syntax: PUSH Operands: None Operation: (PC + 2) → TOS Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 0101 Description: The PC + 2 is pushed onto the top of the return stack. The previous TOS value is pushed down on the stack. This instruction allows implementing a software stack by modifying TOS and then pushing it onto the return stack. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode PUSH PC + 2 onto return stack No operation No operation Example: PUSH Before Instruction TOS = 345Ah PC = 0124h After Instruction PC = 0126h TOS = 0126h Stack (1 level down) = 345Ah© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 297 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 RCALL Relative Call Syntax: RCALL n Operands: -1024 ≤ n ≤ 1023 Operation: (PC) + 2 → TOS, (PC) + 2 + 2n → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1101 1nnn nnnn nnnn Description: Subroutine call with a jump up to 1K from the current location. First, return address (PC + 2) is pushed onto the stack. Then, add the 2’s complement number ‘2n’ to the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction, the new address will be PC + 2 + 2n. This instruction is a two-cycle instruction. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘n’ PUSH PC to stack Process Data Write to PC No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE RCALL Jump Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) After Instruction PC = Address (Jump) TOS = Address (HERE + 2) RESET Reset Syntax: RESET Operands: None Operation: Reset all registers and flags that are affected by a MCLR Reset. Status Affected: All Encoding: 0000 0000 1111 1111 Description: This instruction provides a way to execute a MCLR Reset in software. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Start Reset No operation No operation Example: RESET After Instruction Registers = Reset Value Flags* = Reset ValuePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 298 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. RETFIE Return from Interrupt Syntax: RETFIE {s} Operands: s ∈ [0,1] Operation: (TOS) → PC, 1 → GIE/GIEH or PEIE/GIEL; if s = 1, (WS) → W, (STATUSS) → STATUS, (BSRS) → BSR, PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged Status Affected: GIE/GIEH, PEIE/GIEL. Encoding: 0000 0000 0001 000s Description: Return from interrupt. Stack is popped and Top-of-Stack (TOS) is loaded into the PC. Interrupts are enabled by setting either the high or low-priority global interrupt enable bit. If ‘s’ = 1, the contents of the shadow registers, WS, STATUSS and BSRS, are loaded into their corresponding registers, W, STATUS and BSR. If ‘s’ = 0, no update of these registers occurs (default). Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation No operation POP PC from stack Set GIEH or GIEL No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: RETFIE 1 After Interrupt PC = TOS W = WS BSR = BSRS STATUS = STATUSS GIE/GIEH, PEIE/GIEL = 1 RETLW Return Literal to W Syntax: RETLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k → W, (TOS) → PC, PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 1100 kkkk kkkk Description: W is loaded with the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The program counter is loaded from the top of the stack (the return address). The high address latch (PCLATH) remains unchanged. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data POP PC from stack, Write to W No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: CALL TABLE ; W contains table ; offset value ; W now has ; table value : TABLE ADDWF PCL ; W = offset RETLW k0 ; Begin table RETLW k1 ; : : RETLW kn ; End of table Before Instruction W = 07h After Instruction W = value of kn© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 299 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 RETURN Return from Subroutine Syntax: RETURN {s} Operands: s ∈ [0,1] Operation: (TOS) → PC; if s = 1, (WS) → W, (STATUSS) → STATUS, (BSRS) → BSR, PCLATU, PCLATH are unchanged Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0001 001s Description: Return from subroutine. The stack is popped and the top of the stack (TOS) is loaded into the program counter. If ‘s’= 1, the contents of the shadow registers, WS, STATUSS and BSRS, are loaded into their corresponding registers, W, STATUS and BSR. If ‘s’ = 0, no update of these registers occurs (default). Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation Process Data POP PC from stack No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: RETURN After Instruction: PC = TOS RLCF Rotate Left f through Carry Syntax: RLCF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → dest, (f<7>) → C, (C) → dest<0> Status Affected: C, N, Z Encoding: 0011 01da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the left through the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: RLCF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1110 0110 C =0 After Instruction REG = 1110 0110 W = 1100 1100 C =1 C register fPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 300 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. RLNCF Rotate Left f (No Carry) Syntax: RLNCF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → dest, (f<7>) → dest<0> Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0100 01da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the left. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: RLNCF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1010 1011 After Instruction REG = 0101 0111 register f RRCF Rotate Right f through Carry Syntax: RRCF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → dest, (f<0>) → C, (C) → dest<7> Status Affected: C, N, Z Encoding: 0011 00da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the right through the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: RRCF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1110 0110 C =0 After Instruction REG = 1110 0110 W = 0111 0011 C =0 C register f© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 301 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 RRNCF Rotate Right f (No Carry) Syntax: RRNCF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) → dest, (f<0>) → dest<7> Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0100 00da ffff ffff Description: The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated one bit to the right. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank will be selected, overriding the BSR value. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, then the bank will be selected as per the BSR value (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example 1: RRNCF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1101 0111 After Instruction REG = 1110 1011 Example 2: RRNCF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction W =? REG = 1101 0111 After Instruction W = 1110 1011 REG = 1101 0111 register f SETF Set f Syntax: SETF f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: FFh → f Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 100a ffff ffff Description: The contents of the specified register are set to FFh. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write register ‘f’ Example: SETF REG, 1 Before Instruction REG = 5Ah After Instruction REG = FFhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 302 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. SLEEP Enter Sleep mode Syntax: SLEEP Operands: None Operation: 00h → WDT, 0 → WDT postscaler, 1 → TO, 0 → PD Status Affected: TO, PD Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 0011 Description: The Power-Down status bit (PD) is cleared. The Time-out status bit (TO) is set. Watchdog Timer and its postscaler are cleared. The processor is put into Sleep mode with the oscillator stopped. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation Process Data Go to Sleep Example: SLEEP Before Instruction TO = ? PD = ? After Instruction TO = 1 † PD = 0 † If WDT causes wake-up, this bit is cleared. SUBFWB Subtract f from W with Borrow Syntax: SUBFWB f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) – (f) – (C) → dest Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0101 01da ffff ffff Description: Subtract register ‘f’ and Carry flag (borrow) from W (2’s complement method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example 1: SUBFWB REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 3 W =2 C =1 After Instruction REG = FF W =2 C =0 Z =0 N = 1 ; result is negative Example 2: SUBFWB REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 2 W =5 C =1 After Instruction REG = 2 W =3 C =1 Z =0 N = 0 ; result is positive Example 3: SUBFWB REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1 W =2 C =0 After Instruction REG = 0 W =2 C =1 Z = 1 ; result is zero N =0© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 303 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 SUBLW Subtract W from Literal Syntax: SUBLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k – (W) → W Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0000 1000 kkkk kkkk Description W is subtracted from the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example 1: SUBLW 02h Before Instruction W = 01h C =? After Instruction W = 01h C = 1 ; result is positive Z =0 N =0 Example 2: SUBLW 02h Before Instruction W = 02h C =? After Instruction W = 00h C = 1 ; result is zero Z =1 N =0 Example 3: SUBLW 02h Before Instruction W = 03h C =? After Instruction W = FFh ; (2’s complement) C = 0 ; result is negative Z =0 N =1 SUBWF Subtract W from f Syntax: SUBWF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – (W) → dest Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0101 11da ffff ffff Description: Subtract W from register ‘f’ (2’s complement method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example 1: SUBWF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 3 W =2 C =? After Instruction REG = 1 W =2 C = 1 ; result is positive Z =0 N =0 Example 2: SUBWF REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 2 W =2 C =? After Instruction REG = 2 W =0 C = 1 ; result is zero Z =1 N =0 Example 3: SUBWF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1 W =2 C =? After Instruction REG = FFh ;(2’s complement) W =2 C = 0 ; result is negative Z =0 N =1PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 304 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. SUBWFB Subtract W from f with Borrow Syntax: SUBWFB f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) – (W) – (C) → dest Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0101 10da ffff ffff Description: Subtract W and the Carry flag (borrow) from register ‘f’ (2’s complement method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example 1: SUBWFB REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 19h (0001 1001) W = 0Dh (0000 1101) C =1 After Instruction REG = 0Ch (0000 1011) W = 0Dh (0000 1101) C =1 Z =0 N = 0 ; result is positive Example 2: SUBWFB REG, 0, 0 Before Instruction REG = 1Bh (0001 1011) W = 1Ah (0001 1010) C =0 After Instruction REG = 1Bh (0001 1011) W = 00h C =1 Z = 1 ; result is zero N =0 Example 3: SUBWFB REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 03h (0000 0011) W = 0Eh (0000 1101) C =1 After Instruction REG = F5h (1111 0100) ; [2’s comp] W = 0Eh (0000 1101) C =0 Z =0 N = 1 ; result is negative SWAPF Swap f Syntax: SWAPF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f<3:0>) → dest<7:4>, (f<7:4>) → dest<3:0> Status Affected: None Encoding: 0011 10da ffff ffff Description: The upper and lower nibbles of register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed in register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: SWAPF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = 53h After Instruction REG = 35h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 305 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TBLRD Table Read Syntax: TBLRD ( *; *+; *-; +*) Operands: None Operation: if TBLRD *, (Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT, TBLPTR – No Change; if TBLRD *+, (Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT, (TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR; if TBLRD *-, (Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT, (TBLPTR) – 1 → TBLPTR; if TBLRD +*, (TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR, (Prog Mem (TBLPTR)) → TABLAT Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 10nn nn=0 * =1 *+ =2 *- =3 +* Description: This instruction is used to read the contents of Program Memory (P.M.). To address the program memory, a pointer called Table Pointer (TBLPTR) is used. The TBLPTR (a 21-bit pointer) points to each byte in the program memory. TBLPTR has a 2-Mbyte address range. TBLPTR<0> = 0:Least Significant Byte of Program Memory Word TBLPTR<0> = 1:Most Significant Byte of Program Memory Word The TBLRD instruction can modify the value of TBLPTR as follows: • no change • post-increment • post-decrement • pre-increment Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation (Read Program Memory) No operation No operation (Write TABLAT) TBLRD Table Read (Continued) Example1: TBLRD *+ ; Before Instruction TABLAT = 55h TBLPTR = 00A356h MEMORY (00A356h) = 34h After Instruction TABLAT = 34h TBLPTR = 00A357h Example2: TBLRD +* ; Before Instruction TABLAT = AAh TBLPTR = 01A357h MEMORY (01A357h) = 12h MEMORY (01A358h) = 34h After Instruction TABLAT = 34h TBLPTR = 01A358hPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 306 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TBLWT Table Write Syntax: TBLWT ( *; *+; *-; +*) Operands: None Operation: if TBLWT*, (TABLAT) → Holding Register, TBLPTR – No Change; if TBLWT*+, (TABLAT) → Holding Register, (TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR; if TBLWT*-, (TABLAT) → Holding Register, (TBLPTR) – 1 → TBLPTR; if TBLWT+*, (TBLPTR) + 1 → TBLPTR, (TABLAT) → Holding Register Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0000 11nn nn=0 * =1 *+ =2 *- =3 +* Description: This instruction uses the 3 LSBs of TBLPTR to determine which of the 8 holding registers the TABLAT is written to. The holding registers are used to program the contents of Program Memory (P.M.). (Refer to Section 6.0 “Flash Program Memory” for additional details on programming Flash memory.) The TBLPTR (a 21-bit pointer) points to each byte in the program memory. TBLPTR has a 2-MByte address range. The LSb of the TBLPTR selects which byte of the program memory location to access. TBLPTR<0> = 0:Least Significant Byte of Program Memory Word TBLPTR<0> = 1:Most Significant Byte of Program Memory Word The TBLWT instruction can modify the value of TBLPTR as follows: • no change • post-increment • post-decrement • pre-increment Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation (Read TABLAT) No operation No operation (Write to Holding Register ) TBLWT Table Write (Continued) Example1: TBLWT *+; Before Instruction TABLAT = 55h TBLPTR = 00A356h HOLDING REGISTER (00A356h) = FFh After Instructions (table write completion) TABLAT = 55h TBLPTR = 00A357h HOLDING REGISTER (00A356h) = 55h Example 2: TBLWT +*; Before Instruction TABLAT = 34h TBLPTR = 01389Ah HOLDING REGISTER (01389Ah) = FFh HOLDING REGISTER (01389Bh) = FFh After Instruction (table write completion) TABLAT = 34h TBLPTR = 01389Bh HOLDING REGISTER (01389Ah) = FFh HOLDING REGISTER (01389Bh) = 34h © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 307 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TSTFSZ Test f, Skip if 0 Syntax: TSTFSZ f {,a} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 a ∈ [0,1] Operation: skip if f = 0 Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 011a ffff ffff Description: If ‘f’ = 0, the next instruction fetched during the current instruction execution is discarded and a NOP is executed, making this a two-cycle instruction. If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1(2) Note: 3 cycles if skip and followed by a 2-word instruction. Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data No operation If skip: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation If skip and followed by 2-word instruction: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE TSTFSZ CNT, 1 NZERO : ZERO : Before Instruction PC = Address (HERE) After Instruction If CNT = 00h, PC = Address (ZERO) If CNT ≠ 00h, PC = Address (NZERO) XORLW Exclusive OR Literal with W Syntax: XORLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: (W) .XOR. k → W Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0000 1010 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of W are XORed with the 8-bit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in W. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to W Example: XORLW 0AFh Before Instruction W = B5h After Instruction W = 1AhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 308 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. XORWF Exclusive OR W with f Syntax: XORWF f {,d {,a}} Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 255 d ∈ [0,1] a ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) .XOR. (f) → dest Status Affected: N, Z Encoding: 0001 10da ffff ffff Description: Exclusive OR the contents of W with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in the register ‘f’ (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’, the Access Bank is selected. If ‘a’ is ‘1’, the BSR is used to select the GPR bank (default). If ‘a’ is ‘0’ and the extended instruction set is enabled, this instruction operates in Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode whenever f ≤ 95 (5Fh). See Section 24.2.3 “Byte-Oriented and Bit-Oriented Instructions in Indexed Literal Offset Mode” for details. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: XORWF REG, 1, 0 Before Instruction REG = AFh W = B5h After Instruction REG = 1Ah W = B5h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 309 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 24.2 Extended Instruction Set In addition to the standard 75 instructions of the PIC18 instruction set, PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 devices also provide an optional extension to the core CPU functionality. The added features include eight additional instructions that augment indirect and indexed addressing operations and the implementation of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode for many of the standard PIC18 instructions. The additional features of the extended instruction set are disabled by default. To enable them, users must set the XINST Configuration bit. The instructions in the extended set can all be classified as literal operations, which either manipulate the File Select Registers, or use them for indexed addressing. Two of the instructions, ADDFSR and SUBFSR, each have an additional special instantiation for using FSR2. These versions (ADDULNK and SUBULNK) allow for automatic return after execution. The extended instructions are specifically implemented to optimize re-entrant program code (that is, code that is recursive or that uses a software stack) written in high-level languages, particularly C. Among other things, they allow users working in high-level languages to perform certain operations on data structures more efficiently. These include: • Dynamic allocation and deallocation of software stack space when entering and leaving subroutines • Function Pointer invocation • Software Stack Pointer manipulation • Manipulation of variables located in a software stack A summary of the instructions in the extended instruction set is provided in Table 24-3. Detailed descriptions are provided in Section 24.2.2 “Extended Instruction Set”. The opcode field descriptions in Table 24-1 (page 268) apply to both the standard and extended PIC18 instruction sets. 24.2.1 EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SYNTAX Most of the extended instructions use indexed arguments, using one of the File Select Registers and some offset to specify a source or destination register. When an argument for an instruction serves as part of indexed addressing, it is enclosed in square brackets (“[ ]”). This is done to indicate that the argument is used as an index or offset. MPASM™ Assembler will flag an error if it determines that an index or offset value is not bracketed. When the extended instruction set is enabled, brackets are also used to indicate index arguments in byteoriented and bit-oriented instructions. This is in addition to other changes in their syntax. For more details, see Section 24.2.3.1 “Extended Instruction Syntax with Standard PIC18 Commands”. TABLE 24-3: EXTENSIONS TO THE PIC18 INSTRUCTION SET Note: The instruction set extension and the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode were designed for optimizing applications written in C; the user may likely never use these instructions directly in assembler. The syntax for these commands is provided as a reference for users who may be reviewing code that has been generated by a compiler. Note: In the past, square brackets have been used to denote optional arguments in the PIC18 and earlier instruction sets. In this text and going forward, optional arguments are denoted by braces (“{ }”). Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 16-Bit Instruction Word Status MSb LSb Affected ADDFSR ADDULNK CALLW MOVSF MOVSS PUSHL SUBFSR SUBULNK f, k k zs, fd zs, zd k f, k k Add Literal to FSR Add Literal to FSR2 and Return Call Subroutine using WREG Move zs (source) to 1st word fd (destination) 2nd word Move zs (source) to 1st word zd (destination) 2nd word Store Literal at FSR2, Decrement FSR2 Subtract Literal from FSR Subtract Literal from FSR2 and Return 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1110 1110 0000 1110 1111 1110 1111 1110 1110 1110 1000 1000 0000 1011 ffff 1011 xxxx 1010 1001 1001 ffkk 11kk 0001 0zzz ffff 1zzz xzzz kkkk ffkk 11kk kkkk kkkk 0100 zzzz ffff zzzz zzzz kkkk kkkk kkkk None None None None None None None NonePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 310 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 24.2.2 EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET ADDFSR Add Literal to FSR Syntax: ADDFSR f, k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 63 f ∈ [ 0, 1, 2 ] Operation: FSR(f) + k → FSR(f) Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 1000 ffkk kkkk Description: The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is added to the contents of the FSR specified by ‘f’. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to FSR Example: ADDFSR 2, 23h Before Instruction FSR2 = 03FFh After Instruction FSR2 = 0422h ADDULNK Add Literal to FSR2 and Return Syntax: ADDULNK k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 63 Operation: FSR2 + k → FSR2, (TOS) → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 1000 11kk kkkk Description: The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is added to the contents of FSR2. A RETURN is then executed by loading the PC with the TOS. The instruction takes two cycles to execute; a NOP is performed during the second cycle. This may be thought of as a special case of the ADDFSR instruction, where f = 3 (binary ‘11’); it operates only on FSR2. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read literal ‘k’ Process Data Write to FSR No Operation No Operation No Operation No Operation Example: ADDULNK 23h Before Instruction FSR2 = 03FFh PC = 0100h After Instruction FSR2 = 0422h PC = (TOS) Note: All PIC18 instructions may take an optional label argument preceding the instruction mnemonic for use in symbolic addressing. If a label is used, the instruction syntax then becomes: {label} instruction argument(s).© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 311 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 CALLW Subroutine Call Using WREG Syntax: CALLW Operands: None Operation: (PC + 2) → TOS, (W) → PCL, (PCLATH) → PCH, (PCLATU) → PCU Status Affected: None Encoding: 0000 0000 0001 0100 Description First, the return address (PC + 2) is pushed onto the return stack. Next, the contents of W are written to PCL; the existing value is discarded. Then, the contents of PCLATH and PCLATU are latched into PCH and PCU, respectively. The second cycle is executed as a NOP instruction while the new next instruction is fetched. Unlike CALL, there is no option to update W, STATUS or BSR. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read WREG PUSH PC to stack No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation Example: HERE CALLW Before Instruction PC = address (HERE) PCLATH = 10h PCLATU = 00h W = 06h After Instruction PC = 001006h TOS = address (HERE + 2) PCLATH = 10h PCLATU = 00h W = 06h MOVSF Move Indexed to f Syntax: MOVSF [zs], fd Operands: 0 ≤ zs ≤ 127 0 ≤ fd ≤ 4095 Operation: ((FSR2) + zs) → fd Status Affected: None Encoding: 1st word (source) 2nd word (destin.) 1110 1111 1011 ffff 0zzz ffff zzzzs ffffd Description: The contents of the source register are moved to destination register ‘fd’. The actual address of the source register is determined by adding the 7-bit literal offset ‘zs’ in the first word to the value of FSR2. The address of the destination register is specified by the 12-bit literal ‘fd’ in the second word. Both addresses can be anywhere in the 4096-byte data space (000h to FFFh). The MOVSF instruction cannot use the PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the destination register. If the resultant source address points to an indirect addressing register, the value returned will be 00h. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Determine source addr Determine source addr Read source reg Decode No operation No dummy read No operation Write register ‘f’ (dest) Example: MOVSF [05h], REG2 Before Instruction FSR2 = 80h Contents of 85h = 33h REG2 = 11h After Instruction FSR2 = 80h Contents of 85h = 33h REG2 = 33hPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 312 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MOVSS Move Indexed to Indexed Syntax: MOVSS [zs], [zd] Operands: 0 ≤ zs ≤ 127 0 ≤ zd ≤ 127 Operation: ((FSR2) + zs) → ((FSR2) + zd) Status Affected: None Encoding: 1st word (source) 2nd word (dest.) 1110 1111 1011 xxxx 1zzz xzzz zzzzs zzzzd Description The contents of the source register are moved to the destination register. The addresses of the source and destination registers are determined by adding the 7-bit literal offsets ‘zs’ or ‘zd’, respectively, to the value of FSR2. Both registers can be located anywhere in the 4096-byte data memory space (000h to FFFh). The MOVSS instruction cannot use the PCL, TOSU, TOSH or TOSL as the destination register. If the resultant source address points to an indirect addressing register, the value returned will be 00h. If the resultant destination address points to an indirect addressing register, the instruction will execute as a NOP. Words: 2 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Determine source addr Determine source addr Read source reg Decode Determine dest addr Determine dest addr Write to dest reg Example: MOVSS [05h], [06h] Before Instruction FSR2 = 80h Contents of 85h = 33h Contents of 86h = 11h After Instruction FSR2 = 80h Contents of 85h = 33h Contents of 86h = 33h PUSHL Store Literal at FSR2, Decrement FSR2 Syntax: PUSHL k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k → (FSR2), FSR2 – 1 → FSR2 Status Affected: None Encoding: 1111 1010 kkkk kkkk Description: The 8-bit literal ‘k’ is written to the data memory address specified by FSR2. FSR2 is decremented by 1 after the operation. This instruction allows users to push values onto a software stack. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read ‘k’ Process data Write to destination Example: PUSHL 08h Before Instruction FSR2H:FSR2L = 01ECh Memory (01ECh) = 00h After Instruction FSR2H:FSR2L = 01EBh Memory (01ECh) = 08h© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 313 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 SUBFSR Subtract Literal from FSR Syntax: SUBFSR f, k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 63 f ∈ [ 0, 1, 2 ] Operation: FSR(f) – k → FSRf Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 1001 ffkk kkkk Description: The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is subtracted from the contents of the FSR specified by ‘f’. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: SUBFSR 2, 23h Before Instruction FSR2 = 03FFh After Instruction FSR2 = 03DCh SUBULNK Subtract Literal from FSR2 and Return Syntax: SUBULNK k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 63 Operation: FSR2 – k → FSR2, (TOS) → PC Status Affected: None Encoding: 1110 1001 11kk kkkk Description: The 6-bit literal ‘k’ is subtracted from the contents of the FSR2. A RETURN is then executed by loading the PC with the TOS. The instruction takes two cycles to execute; a NOP is performed during the second cycle. This may be thought of as a special case of the SUBFSR instruction, where f = 3 (binary ‘11’); it operates only on FSR2. Words: 1 Cycles: 2 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination No Operation No Operation No Operation No Operation Example: SUBULNK 23h Before Instruction FSR2 = 03FFh PC = 0100h After Instruction FSR2 = 03DCh PC = (TOS)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 314 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 24.2.3 BYTE-ORIENTED AND BIT-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS IN INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET MODE In addition to eight new commands in the extended set, enabling the extended instruction set also enables Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode (Section 5.5.1 “Indexed Addressing with Literal Offset”). This has a significant impact on the way that many commands of the standard PIC18 instruction set are interpreted. When the extended set is disabled, addresses embedded in opcodes are treated as literal memory locations: either as a location in the Access Bank (‘a’ = 0), or in a GPR bank designated by the BSR (‘a’ = 1). When the extended instruction set is enabled and ‘a’ = 0, however, a file register argument of 5Fh or less is interpreted as an offset from the pointer value in FSR2 and not as a literal address. For practical purposes, this means that all instructions that use the Access RAM bit as an argument – that is, all byte-oriented and bitoriented instructions, or almost half of the core PIC18 instructions – may behave differently when the extended instruction set is enabled. When the content of FSR2 is 00h, the boundaries of the Access RAM are essentially remapped to their original values. This may be useful in creating backward compatible code. If this technique is used, it may be necessary to save the value of FSR2 and restore it when moving back and forth between C and assembly routines in order to preserve the Stack Pointer. Users must also keep in mind the syntax requirements of the extended instruction set (see Section 24.2.3.1 “Extended Instruction Syntax with Standard PIC18 Commands”). Although the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode can be very useful for dynamic stack and pointer manipulation, it can also be very annoying if a simple arithmetic operation is carried out on the wrong register. Users who are accustomed to the PIC18 programming must keep in mind that, when the extended instruction set is enabled, register addresses of 5Fh or less are used for Indexed Literal Offset Addressing. Representative examples of typical byte-oriented and bit-oriented instructions in the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode are provided on the following page to show how execution is affected. The operand conditions shown in the examples are applicable to all instructions of these types. 24.2.3.1 Extended Instruction Syntax with Standard PIC18 Commands When the extended instruction set is enabled, the file register argument, ‘f’, in the standard byte-oriented and bit-oriented commands is replaced with the literal offset value, ‘k’. As already noted, this occurs only when ‘f’ is less than or equal to 5Fh. When an offset value is used, it must be indicated by square brackets (“[ ]”). As with the extended instructions, the use of brackets indicates to the compiler that the value is to be interpreted as an index or an offset. Omitting the brackets, or using a value greater than 5Fh within brackets, will generate an error in the MPASM Assembler. If the index argument is properly bracketed for Indexed Literal Offset Addressing, the Access RAM argument is never specified; it will automatically be assumed to be ‘0’. This is in contrast to standard operation (extended instruction set disabled) when ‘a’ is set on the basis of the target address. Declaring the Access RAM bit in this mode will also generate an error in the MPASM Assembler. The destination argument, ‘d’, functions as before. In the latest versions of the MPASM assembler, language support for the extended instruction set must be explicitly invoked. This is done with either the command line option, /y, or the PE directive in the source listing. 24.2.4 CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ENABLING THE EXTENDED INSTRUCTION SET It is important to note that the extensions to the instruction set may not be beneficial to all users. In particular, users who are not writing code that uses a software stack may not benefit from using the extensions to the instruction set. Additionally, the Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode may create issues with legacy applications written to the PIC18 assembler. This is because instructions in the legacy code may attempt to address registers in the Access Bank below 5Fh. Since these addresses are interpreted as literal offsets to FSR2 when the instruction set extension is enabled, the application may read or write to the wrong data addresses. When porting an application to the PIC18F2420/2520/ 4420/4520, it is very important to consider the type of code. A large, re-entrant application that is written in ‘C’ and would benefit from efficient compilation will do well when using the instruction set extensions. Legacy applications that heavily use the Access Bank will most likely not benefit from using the extended instruction set. Note: Enabling the PIC18 instruction set extension may cause legacy applications to behave erratically or fail entirely. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 315 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 ADDWF ADD W to Indexed (Indexed Literal Offset mode) Syntax: ADDWF [k] {,d} Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 95 d ∈ [0,1] Operation: (W) + ((FSR2) + k) → dest Status Affected: N, OV, C, DC, Z Encoding: 0010 01d0 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of W are added to the contents of the register indicated by FSR2, offset by the value ‘k’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’ (default). Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read ‘k’ Process Data Write to destination Example: ADDWF [OFST] , 0 Before Instruction W = 17h OFST = 2Ch FSR2 = 0A00h Contents of 0A2Ch = 20h After Instruction W = 37h Contents of 0A2Ch = 20h BSF Bit Set Indexed (Indexed Literal Offset mode) Syntax: BSF [k], b Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 95 0 ≤ b ≤ 7 Operation: 1 → ((FSR2) + k) Status Affected: None Encoding: 1000 bbb0 kkkk kkkk Description: Bit ‘b’ of the register indicated by FSR2, offset by the value ‘k’, is set. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read register ‘f’ Process Data Write to destination Example: BSF [FLAG_OFST], 7 Before Instruction FLAG_OFST = 0Ah FSR2 = 0A00h Contents of 0A0Ah = 55h After Instruction Contents of 0A0Ah = D5h SETF Set Indexed (Indexed Literal Offset mode) Syntax: SETF [k] Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 95 Operation: FFh → ((FSR2) + k) Status Affected: None Encoding: 0110 1000 kkkk kkkk Description: The contents of the register indicated by FSR2, offset by ‘k’, are set to FFh. Words: 1 Cycles: 1 Q Cycle Activity: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Decode Read ‘k’ Process Data Write register Example: SETF [OFST] Before Instruction OFST = 2Ch FSR2 = 0A00h Contents of 0A2Ch = 00h After Instruction Contents of 0A2Ch = FFhPIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 316 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 24.2.5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH MICROCHIP MPLAB® IDE TOOLS The latest versions of Microchip’s software tools have been designed to fully support the extended instruction set of the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 family of devices. This includes the MPLAB C18 C compiler, MPASM assembly language and MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE). When selecting a target device for software development, MPLAB IDE will automatically set default Configuration bits for that device. The default setting for the XINST Configuration bit is ‘0’, disabling the extended instruction set and Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode. For proper execution of applications developed to take advantage of the extended instruction set, XINST must be set during programming. To develop software for the extended instruction set, the user must enable support for the instructions and the Indexed Addressing mode in their language tool(s). Depending on the environment being used, this may be done in several ways: • A menu option, or dialog box within the environment, that allows the user to configure the language tool and its settings for the project • A command line option • A directive in the source code These options vary between different compilers, assemblers and development environments. Users are encouraged to review the documentation accompanying their development systems for the appropriate information.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 317 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 25.0 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT The PIC® microcontrollers are supported with a full range of hardware and software development tools: • Integrated Development Environment - MPLAB® IDE Software • Assemblers/Compilers/Linkers - MPASMTM Assembler - MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 C Compilers - MPLINKTM Object Linker/ MPLIBTM Object Librarian - MPLAB ASM30 Assembler/Linker/Library • Simulators - MPLAB SIM Software Simulator • Emulators - MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator - MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator • In-Circuit Debugger - MPLAB ICD 2 • Device Programmers - PICSTART® Plus Development Programmer - MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer - PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer • Low-Cost Demonstration and Development Boards and Evaluation Kits 25.1 MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software development previously unseen in the 8/16-bit microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows® operating system-based application that contains: • A single graphical interface to all debugging tools - Simulator - Programmer (sold separately) - Emulator (sold separately) - In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately) • A full-featured editor with color-coded context • A multiple project manager • Customizable data windows with direct edit of contents • High-level source code debugging • Visual device initializer for easy register initialization • Mouse over variable inspection • Drag and drop variables from source to watch windows • Extensive on-line help • Integration of select third party tools, such as HI-TECH Software C Compilers and IAR C Compilers The MPLAB IDE allows you to: • Edit your source files (either assembly or C) • One touch assemble (or compile) and download to PIC MCU emulator and simulator tools (automatically updates all project information) • Debug using: - Source files (assembly or C) - Mixed assembly and C - Machine code MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a single development paradigm, from the cost-effective simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility and power.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 318 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 25.2 MPASM Assembler The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal macro assembler for all PIC MCUs. The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines and generated machine code and COFF files for debugging. The MPASM Assembler features include: • Integration into MPLAB IDE projects • User-defined macros to streamline assembly code • Conditional assembly for multi-purpose source files • Directives that allow complete control over the assembly process 25.3 MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 C Compilers The MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 Code Development Systems are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18 and PIC24 families of microcontrollers and the dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 family of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of use not found with other compilers. For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE debugger. 25.4 MPLINK Object Linker/ MPLIB Object Librarian The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects from precompiled libraries, using directives from a linker script. The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and modification of library files of precompiled code. When a routine from a library is called from a source file, only the modules that contain that routine will be linked in with the application. This allows large libraries to be used efficiently in many different applications. The object linker/library features include: • Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many smaller files • Enhanced code maintainability by grouping related modules together • Flexible creation of libraries with easy module listing, replacement, deletion and extraction 25.5 MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker and Librarian MPLAB ASM30 Assembler produces relocatable machine code from symbolic assembly language for dsPIC30F devices. MPLAB C30 C Compiler uses the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler generates relocatable object files that can then be archived or linked with other relocatable object files and archives to create an executable file. Notable features of the assembler include: • Support for the entire dsPIC30F instruction set • Support for fixed-point and floating-point data • Command line interface • Rich directive set • Flexible macro language • MPLAB IDE compatibility 25.6 MPLAB SIM Software Simulator The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of the simulator to record and track program execution, actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers. The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 C Compilers, and the MPASM and MPLAB ASM30 Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software development tool. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 319 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 25.7 MPLAB ICE 2000 High-Performance In-Circuit Emulator The MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator is intended to provide the product development engineer with a complete microcontroller design tool set for PIC microcontrollers. Software control of the MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator is advanced by the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment, which allows editing, building, downloading and source debugging from a single environment. The MPLAB ICE 2000 is a full-featured emulator system with enhanced trace, trigger and data monitoring features. Interchangeable processor modules allow the system to be easily reconfigured for emulation of different processors. The architecture of the MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator allows expansion to support new PIC microcontrollers. The MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator system has been designed as a real-time emulation system with advanced features that are typically found on more expensive development tools. The PC platform and Microsoft® Windows® 32-bit operating system were chosen to best make these features available in a simple, unified application. 25.8 MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE), included with each kit. The MPLAB REAL ICE probe is connected to the design engineer’s PC using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with either a connector compatible with the popular MPLAB ICD 2 system (RJ11) or with the new high-speed, noise tolerant, LowVoltage Differential Signal (LVDS) interconnection (CAT5). MPLAB REAL ICE is field upgradeable through future firmware downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new features will be added, such as software breakpoints and assembly code trace. MPLAB REAL ICE offers significant advantages over competitive emulators including low-cost, full-speed emulation, real-time variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters) interconnection cables. 25.9 MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger Microchip’s In-Circuit Debugger, MPLAB ICD 2, is a powerful, low-cost, run-time development tool, connecting to the host PC via an RS-232 or high-speed USB interface. This tool is based on the Flash PIC MCUs and can be used to develop for these and other PIC MCUs and dsPIC DSCs. The MPLAB ICD 2 utilizes the in-circuit debugging capability built into the Flash devices. This feature, along with Microchip’s In-Circuit Serial ProgrammingTM (ICSPTM) protocol, offers costeffective, in-circuit Flash debugging from the graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment. This enables a designer to develop and debug source code by setting breakpoints, single stepping and watching variables, and CPU status and peripheral registers. Running at full speed enables testing hardware and applications in real time. MPLAB ICD 2 also serves as a development programmer for selected PIC devices. 25.10 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal, CE compliant device programmer with programmable voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display (128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3 connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable. The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and optimized algorithms for quick programming of large memory devices and incorporates an SD/MMC card for file storage and secure data applications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 320 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 25.11 PICSTART Plus Development Programmer The PICSTART Plus Development Programmer is an easy-to-use, low-cost, prototype programmer. It connects to the PC via a COM (RS-232) port. MPLAB Integrated Development Environment software makes using the programmer simple and efficient. The PICSTART Plus Development Programmer supports most PIC devices in DIP packages up to 40 pins. Larger pin count devices, such as the PIC16C92X and PIC17C76X, may be supported with an adapter socket. The PICSTART Plus Development Programmer is CE compliant. 25.12 PICkit 2 Development Programmer The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer is a low-cost programmer and selected Flash device debugger with an easy-to-use interface for programming many of Microchip’s baseline, mid-range and PIC18F families of Flash memory microcontrollers. The PICkit 2 Starter Kit includes a prototyping development board, twelve sequential lessons, software and HI-TECH’s PICC™ Lite C compiler, and is designed to help get up to speed quickly using PIC® microcontrollers. The kit provides everything needed to program, evaluate and develop applications using Microchip’s powerful, mid-range Flash memory family of microcontrollers. 25.13 Demonstration, Development and Evaluation Boards A wide variety of demonstration, development and evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware and source code for examination and modification. The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs, temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232 interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional EEPROM memory. The demonstration and development boards can be used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom circuits and for learning about various microcontroller applications. In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN, IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL® evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate sensing, plus many more. Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com) for the complete list of demonstration, development and evaluation kits.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 321 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 26.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings(†) Ambient temperature under bias.............................................................................................................-40°C to +125°C Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD and MCLR) ................................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ......................................................................................................... -0.3V to +7.5V Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ......................................................................................... 0V to +13.25V Total power dissipation (Note 1) ...............................................................................................................................1.0W Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)...................................................................................................................... ±20 mA Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) .............................................................................................................. ±20 mA Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................25 mA Maximum current sunk by all ports .......................................................................................................................200 mA Maximum current sourced by all ports ..................................................................................................................200 mA Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD – ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOL x IOL) 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus, a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR/VPP/ RE3 pin, rather than pulling this pin directly to VSS. † NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 322 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 26-1: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH (INDUSTRIAL) FIGURE 26-2: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH (EXTENDED) Frequency Voltage 6.0V 5.5V 4.5V 4.0V 2.0V 40 MHz 5.0V 3.5V 3.0V 2.5V 4.2V PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Frequency Voltage 6.0V 5.5V 4.5V 4.0V 2.0V 25 MHz 5.0V 3.5V 3.0V 2.5V 4.2V PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 323 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 26-3: PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH (INDUSTRIAL) Frequency Voltage 6.0V 5.5V 4.5V 4.0V 2.0V 40 MHz 5.0V 3.5V 3.0V 2.5V FMAX = (16.36 MHz/V) (VDDAPPMIN – 2.0V) + 4 MHz Note: VDDAPPMIN is the minimum voltage of the PIC® device in the application. 4 MHz 4.2V PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 324 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 26.1 DC Characteristics: Supply Voltage PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Typ Max Units Conditions D001 VDD Supply Voltage PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 2.0 — 5.5 V HS, XT, RC and LP Oscillator mode PIC18F2X20/4X20 4.2 — 5.5 V D002 VDR RAM Data Retention Voltage(1) 1.5 — — V D003 VPOR VDD Start Voltage to Ensure Internal Power-on Reset Signal — — 0.7 V See section on Power-on Reset for details D004 SVDD VDD Rise Rate to Ensure Internal Power-on Reset Signal 0.05 — — V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details VBOR Brown-out Reset Voltage D005 PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 BORV<1:0> = 11 2.00 2.11 2.22 V BORV<1:0> = 10 2.65 2.79 2.93 V D005 All Devices BORV<1:0> = 01(2) 4.11 4.33 4.55 V BORV<1:0> = 00 4.36 4.59 4.82 V Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode, or during a device Reset, without losing RAM data. 2: With BOR enabled, full-speed operation (FOSC = 40 MHz) is supported until a BOR occurs. This is valid although VDD may be below the minimum voltage for this frequency.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 325 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Power-Down Current (IPD) (1) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 0.1 0.5 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V (Sleep mode) 0.1 0.5 μA +25°C 0.2 2.5 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 0.1 0.7 μA -40°C VDD = 3.0V (Sleep mode) 0.1 0.7 μA +25°C 0.3 3.5 μA +85°C All devices 0.1 1.0 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V (Sleep mode) 0.2 1.0 μA +25°C 0.7 10 μA +85°C Extended devices only 10 100 μA +125°C Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 326 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 13 25 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 31 kHz (RC_RUN mode, INTRC source) 13 22 μA +25°C 14 25 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 42 61 μA -40°C 34 46 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 28 45 μA +85°C All devices 103 160 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 82 130 μA +25°C 67 120 μA +85°C Extended devices only 71 230 μA +125°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 320 440 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 1 MHz (RC_RUN mode, INTOSC source) 330 440 μA +25°C 330 440 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 630 800 μA -40°C 590 720 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 570 700 μA +85°C All devices 1.2 1.6 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 1.0 1.5 mA +25°C 1.0 1.5 mA +85°C Extended devices only 1.0 1.5 mA +125°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 327 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 0.8 1.1 mA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 4 MHz (RC_RUN mode, INTOSC source) 0.8 1.1 mA +25°C 0.8 1.1 mA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 1.3 1.7 mA -40°C 1.3 1.7 mA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 1.3 1.7 mA +85°C All devices 2.5 3.5 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 2.5 3.5 mA +25°C 2.5 3.5 mA +85°C Extended devices only 2.5 3.5 mA +125°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 2.9 5 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 31 kHz (RC_IDLE mode, INTRC source) 3.1 5 μA +25°C 3.6 9.5 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 4.5 8 μA -40°C 4.8 8 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 5.8 15 μA +85°C All devices 9.2 16 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 9.8 16 μA +25°C 11.0 35 μA +85°C Extended devices only 21 160 μA +125°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 328 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 165 250 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 1 MHz (RC_IDLE mode, INTOSC source) 175 250 μA +25°C 190 270 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 250 360 μA -40°C 270 360 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 290 380 μA +85°C All devices 500 700 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 520 700 μA +25°C 550 700 μA +85°C Extended devices only 0.6 1 mA +125°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 340 500 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 4 MHz (RC_IDLE mode, INTOSC source) 350 500 μA +25°C 360 500 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 520 800 μA -40°C 540 800 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 580 850 μA +85°C All devices 1.0 1.6 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 1.1 1.4 mA +25°C 1.1 1.4 mA +85°C Extended devices only 1.1 2.0 mA +125°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 329 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 250 350 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 1 MHZ (PRI_RUN, EC oscillator) 260 350 μA +25°C 250 350 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 550 650 μA -40°C 480 640 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 460 600 μA +85°C All devices 1.2 1.5 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 1.1 1.4 mA +25°C 1.0 1.3 mA +85°C Extended devices only 1.0 3.0 mA +125°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 0.72 1.0 mA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 4 MHz (PRI_RUN, EC oscillator) 0.74 1.0 mA +25°C 0.74 1.0 mA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 1.3 1.8 mA -40°C 1.3 1.8 mA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 1.3 1.8 mA +85°C All devices 2.7 4.0 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 2.6 4.0 mA +25°C 2.5 4.0 mA +85°C Extended devices only 2.6 5.0 mA +125°C Extended devices only 8.4 13 mA +125°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 25 MHz (PRI_RUN, EC oscillator) 11 16 mA +125°C VDD = 5.0V All devices 15 20 mA -40°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 40 MHZ (PRI_RUN, EC oscillator) 15 20 mA +25°C 15 20 mA +85°C All devices 20 25 mA -40°C 20 25 mA +25°C VDD = 5.0V 20 25 mA +85°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 330 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Supply Current (IDD) (2) All devices 7.5 10 mA -40°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 4 MHZ, 16 MHz internal (PRI_RUN HS+PLL) 7.4 10 mA +25°C 7.3 10 mA +85°C Extended devices only 8.0 12 mA +125°C All devices 10 12 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V FOSC = 4 MHZ, 16 MHz internal (PRI_RUN HS+PLL) 10 12 mA +25°C 9.7 12 mA +85°C Extended devices only 10 14 mA +125°C All devices 15 20 mA -40°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 10 MHZ, 40 MHz internal (PRI_RUN HS+PLL) 15 20 mA +25°C 15 20 mA +85°C All devices 20 25 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V FOSC = 10 MHZ, 40 MHz internal (PRI_RUN HS+PLL) 20 25 mA +25°C 20 25 mA +85°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 331 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 65 100 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 1 MHz (PRI_IDLE mode, EC oscillator) 65 100 μA +25°C 70 110 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 120 140 μA -40°C 120 140 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 130 160 μA +85°C All devices 230 300 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 235 300 μA +25°C 240 300 μA +85°C Extended devices only 260 500 μA +125°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 260 360 μA -40°C VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 4 MHz (PRI_IDLE mode, EC oscillator) 255 360 μA +25°C 270 360 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 420 620 μA -40°C 430 620 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 450 650 μA +85°C All devices 0.9 1.2 mA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 0.9 1.2 mA +25°C 0.9 1.2 mA +85°C Extended devices only 1 1.3 mA +125°C Extended devices only 2.8 6.0 mA +125°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 25 MHz (PRI_IDLE mode, EC oscillator) 4.3 8.0 mA +125°C VDD = 5.0V All devices 6.0 10 mA -40°C VDD = 4.2V FOSC = 40 MHz (PRI_IDLE mode, EC oscillator) 6.2 10 mA +25°C 6.6 10 mA +85°C All devices 8.1 13 mA -40°C 9.1 12 mA +25°C VDD = 5.0V 8.3 12 mA +85°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 332 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Supply Current (IDD) (2) PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 10 25 μA -40°C(3) VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 32 kHz(3) (SEC_RUN mode, Timer1 as clock) 11 21 μA +25°C 12 25 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 42 57 μA -40°C(3) 33 45 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 29 45 μA +85°C All devices 105 150 μA -40°C(3) 81 130 μA +25°C VDD = 5.0V 67 130 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 3.0 12 μA -40°C(3) VDD = 2.0V FOSC = 32 kHz(3) (SEC_IDLE mode, Timer1 as clock) 3.0 6 μA +25°C 3.7 10 μA +85°C PIC18LF2X2X/4X20 5.0 15 μA -40°C(3) 5.4 10 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 6.3 15 μA +85°C All devices 8.5 25 μA -40°C(3) 9.0 20 μA +25°C VDD = 5.0V 10.5 30 μA +85°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 333 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Module Differential Currents (ΔIWDT, ΔIBOR, ΔILVD, ΔIOSCB, ΔIAD) D026 (ΔIAD) A/D Converter 0.2 1.0 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 2.0V A/D on, not converting 0.2 1.0 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 3.0V 0.2 1.0 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 5.0V 0.5 4.0 μA -40°C to +125°C D022 (ΔIWDT) Watchdog Timer 1.3 2.2 μA -40°C 1.4 2.2 μA +25°C VDD = 2.0V 1.6 2.3 μA +85°C 1.9 3.5 μA -40°C 2.0 3.5 μA +25°C VDD = 3.0V 2.2 3.5 μA +85°C 3.0 7.5 μA -40°C VDD = 5.0V 3.5 7.5 μA +25°C 3.5 7.8 μA +85°C 4.0 10 μA +125°C D022A (ΔIBOR) Brown-out Reset(4) 35 50 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 3.0V 40 55 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 5.0V 55 65 μA -40°C to +125°C 0 2 μA -40°C to +85°C Sleep mode, 0 5 μA -40°C to +125°C BOREN<1:0> = 10 D022B (ΔILVD) High/Low-Voltage Detect(4) 22 38 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 2.0V 25 40 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 3.0V 29 45 μA -40°C to +85°C VDD = 5.0V 30 45 μA -40°C to +125°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 334 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. D025L (ΔIOSCB) Timer1 Oscillator 4.5 9.0 μA -40°C(3) VDD = 2.0V 32 kHz on Timer1 0.9 1.6 μA -10°C 0.9 1.6 μA +25°C 0.9 1.8 μA +85°C 4.8 10 μA -40°C(3) VDD = 3.0V 32 kHz on Timer1 1.0 2.0 μA -10°C 1.0 2.0 μA +25°C 1.0 2.6 μA +85°C 6.0 11 μA -40°C(3) VDD = 5.0V 32 kHz on Timer1 1.6 4.0 μA -10°C 1.6 4.0 μA +25°C 1.6 4.0 μA +85°C 26.2 DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial, Extended) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended Param No. Device Typ Max Units Conditions Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.). 2: The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD or VSS; MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: When operation below -10°C is expected, use T1OSC High-Power mode, where LPT1OSC (CONFIG3H<2>) = 0. When operation will always be above -10°C, then the low-power Timer1 oscillator may be selected. 4: BOR and HLVD enable internal band gap reference. With both modules enabled, current consumption will be less than the sum of both specifications.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 335 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 26.3 DC Characteristics: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions VIL Input Low Voltage I/O Ports: D030 with TTL Buffer VSS 0.15 VDD V VDD < 4.5V D030A — 0.8 V 4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V D031 with Schmitt Trigger Buffer VSS 0.2 VDD V D031A RC3 and RC4 VSS 0.3 VDD V I2C™ enabled D031B VSS 0.8 V SMBus enabled D032 MCLR VSS 0.2 VDD V D033 OSC1 VSS 0.3 VDD V HS, HSPLL modes D033A D033B D034 OSC1 OSC1 T13CKI VSS VSS VSS 0.2 VDD 0.3 0.3 V V V RC, EC modes(1) XT, LP modes VIH Input High Voltage I/O Ports: D040 with TTL Buffer 0.25 VDD + 0.8V VDD V VDD < 4.5V D040A 2.0 VDD V 4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V D041 with Schmitt Trigger Buffer 0.8 VDD VDD V D041A RC3 and RC4 0.7 VDD VDD V I2C enabled D041B 2.1 VDD V SMBus enabled D042 MCLR 0.8 VDD VDD V D043 OSC1 0.7 VDD VDD V HS, HSPLL modes D043A D043B D043C D044 OSC1 OSC1 OSC1 T13CKI 0.8 VDD 0.9 VDD 1.6 1.6 VDD VDD VDD VDD V V V V EC mode RC mode(1) XT, LP modes IIL Input Leakage Current(2,3) D060 I/O Ports — ±200 ±50 nA nA VDD < 5.5V, VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at high-impedance VDD < 3V, VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at high-impedance D061 MCLR — ±1 μA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD D063 OSC1 — ±1 μA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD IPU Weak Pull-up Current D070 IPURB PORTB Weak Pull-up Current 50 400 μA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC® device be driven with an external clock while in RC mode. 2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 336 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. VOL Output Low Voltage D080 I/O Ports — 0.6 V IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C D083 OSC2/CLKO (RC, RCIO, EC, ECIO modes) — 0.6 V IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C VOH Output High Voltage(3) D090 I/O Ports VDD – 0.7 — V IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C D092 OSC2/CLKO (RC, RCIO, EC, ECIO modes) VDD – 0.7 — V IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins D100 COSC2 OSC2 pin — 15 pF In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is used to drive OSC1 D101 CIO All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC mode) — 50 pF To meet the AC Timing Specifications D102 CB SCL, SDA — 400 pF I2C™ Specification 26.3 DC Characteristics: PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) (Continued) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC® device be driven with an external clock while in RC mode. 2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 337 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 26-1: MEMORY PROGRAMMING REQUIREMENTS DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions Data EEPROM Memory D120 ED Byte Endurance 100K 1M — E/W -40°C to +85°C D121 VDRW VDD for Read/Write VMIN — 5.5 V Using EECON to read/write VMIN = Minimum operating voltage D122 TDEW Erase/Write Cycle Time — 4 — ms D123 TRETD Characteristic Retention 40 — — Year Provided no other specifications are violated D124 TREF Number of Total Erase/Write Cycles before Refresh(1) 1M 10M — E/W -40°C to +85°C D125 IDDP Supply Current during Programming — 10 — mA Program Flash Memory D130 EP Cell Endurance 10K 100K — E/W -40°C to +85°C D131 VPR VDD for Read VMIN — 5.5 V VMIN = Minimum operating voltage D132 VIE VDD for Block Erase 3.0 — 5.5 V Using ICSP™ port, +25°C D132A VIW VDD for Externally Timed Erase or Write 4.5 — 5.5 V Using ICSP™ port, +25°C D132B VPEW VDD for Self-Timed Write VMIN — 5.5 V VMIN = Minimum operating voltage D133 TIE ICSP Block Erase Cycle Time — 4 — ms VDD ≥ 4.5V D133A TIW ICSP Erase or Write Cycle Time (externally timed) 1 — — ms VDD ≥ 4.5V, +25°C D133A TIW Self-Timed Write Cycle Time — 2 — ms D134 TRETD Characteristic Retention 40 100 — Year Provided no other specifications are violated D135 IDDP Supply Current during Programming — 10 — mA † Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Refer to Section 7.8 “Using the Data EEPROM” for a more detailed discussion on data EEPROM endurance.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 338 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. TABLE 26-2: COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS TABLE 26-3: VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS Operating Conditions: 3.0V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +85°C (unless otherwise stated). Param No. Sym Characteristics Min Typ Max Units Comments D300 VIOFF Input Offset Voltage — ±5.0 ±10 mV D301 VICM Input Common Mode Voltage 0 — VDD – 1.5 V D302 CMRR Common Mode Rejection Ratio 55 — — dB 300 TRESP Response Time(1) — 150 400 ns PIC18FXXXX 300A — 150 600 ns PIC18LFXXXX, VDD = 2.0V 301 TMC2OV Comparator Mode Change to Output Valid — — 10 μs Note 1: Response time measured with one comparator input at (VDD – 1.5)/2, while the other input transitions from VSS to VDD. Operating Conditions: 3.0V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +85°C (unless otherwise stated). Param No. Sym Characteristics Min Typ Max Units Comments D310 VRES Resolution VDD/24 — VDD/32 LSb D311 VRAA Absolute Accuracy — — 1/2 LSb D312 VRUR Unit Resistor Value (R) — 2k — Ω 310 TSET Settling Time(1) — — 10 μs Note 1: Settling time measured while CVRR = 1 and CVR3:CVR0 transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 339 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 26-4: HIGH/LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE 26-4: HIGH/LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ Max Units Conditions D420 HLVD Voltage on VDD Transition High-to-Low HLVDL<3:0> = 0000 2.06 2.17 2.28 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0001 2.12 2.23 2.34 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0010 2.24 2.36 2.48 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0011 2.32 2.44 2.56 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0100 2.47 2.60 2.73 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0101 2.65 2.79 2.93 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0110 2.74 2.89 3.04 V HLVDL<3:0> = 0111 2.96 3.12 3.28 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1000 3.22 3.39 3.56 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1001 3.37 3.55 3.73 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1010 3.52 3.71 3.90 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1011 3.70 3.90 4.10 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1100 3.90 4.11 4.32 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1101 4.11 4.33 4.55 V HLVDL<3:0> = 1110 4.36 4.59 4.82 V VLVD HLVDIF(1) VDD (HLVDIF set by hardware) (HLVDIF can be cleared in software) Note 1: VDIRMAG = 0.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 340 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 26.4 AC (Timing) Characteristics 26.4.1 TIMING PARAMETER SYMBOLOGY The timing parameter symbols have been created using one of the following formats: 1. TppS2ppS 3. TCC:ST (I2C specifications only) 2. TppS 4. Ts (I2C specifications only) T F Frequency T Time Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings: pp cc CCP1 osc OSC1 ck CLKO rd RD cs CS rw RD or WR di SDI sc SCK do SDO ss SS dt Data in t0 T0CKI io I/O port t1 T13CKI mc MCLR wr WR Uppercase letters and their meanings: S F Fall P Period H High R Rise I Invalid (High-impedance) V Valid L Low Z High-impedance I 2C only AA output access High High BUF Bus free Low Low TCC:ST (I2C specifications only) CC HD Hold SU Setup ST DAT DATA input hold STO Stop condition STA Start condition© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 341 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 26.4.2 TIMING CONDITIONS The temperature and voltages specified in Table 26-5 apply to all timing specifications unless otherwise noted. Figure 26-5 specifies the load conditions for the timing specifications. TABLE 26-5: TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS – AC FIGURE 26-5: LOAD CONDITIONS FOR DEVICE TIMING SPECIFICATIONS Note: Because of space limitations, the generic terms “PIC18FXXXX” and “PIC18LFXXXX” are used throughout this section to refer to the PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 and PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 families of devices specifically and only those devices. AC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC specification Section 26.1 and Section 26.3. LF parts operate for industrial temperatures only. VDD/2 CL RL Pin Pin VSS VSS CL RL = 464Ω CL = 50 pF for all pins except OSC2/CLKO and including D and E outputs as ports Load Condition 1 Load Condition 2PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 342 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 26.4.3 TIMING DIAGRAMS AND SPECIFICATIONS FIGURE 26-6: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING (ALL MODES EXCEPT PLL) TABLE 26-6: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 1A FOSC External CLKI Frequency(1) DC 1 MHz XT, RC Oscillator mode DC 25 MHz HS Oscillator mode DC 31.25 kHz LP Oscillator mode DC 40 MHz EC Oscillator mode Oscillator Frequency(1) DC 4 MHz RC Oscillator mode 0.1 4 MHz XT Oscillator mode 4 25 MHz HS Oscillator mode 4 10 MHz HS + PLL Oscillator mode 5 200 kHz LP Oscillator mode 1 TOSC External CLKI Period(1) 1000 — ns XT, RC Oscillator mode 40 — ns HS Oscillator mode 32 — μs LP Oscillator mode 25 — ns EC Oscillator mode Oscillator Period(1) 250 — ns RC Oscillator mode 0.25 10 μs XT Oscillator mode 40 250 ns HS Oscillator mode 100 250 ns HS + PLL Oscillator mode 5 200 μs LP Oscillator mode 2 TCY Instruction Cycle Time(1) 100 — ns TCY = 4/FOSC, Industrial 160 — ns TCY = 4/FOSC, Extended 3 TOSL, TOSH External Clock in (OSC1) High or Low Time 30 — ns XT Oscillator mode 2.5 — μs LP Oscillator mode 10 — ns HS Oscillator mode 4 TOSR, TOSF External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or Fall Time — 20 ns XT Oscillator mode — 50 ns LP Oscillator mode — 7.5 ns HS Oscillator mode Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period for all configurations except PLL. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min.” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKI pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max.” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices. OSC1 CLKO Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 1 2 3 3 4 4© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 343 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 TABLE 26-7: PLL CLOCK TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (VDD = 4.2V TO 5.5V) TABLE 26-8: AC CHARACTERISTICS: INTERNAL RC ACCURACY PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (INDUSTRIAL) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (INDUSTRIAL) Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions F10 FOSC Oscillator Frequency Range 4 — 10 MHz HS mode only F11 FSYS On-Chip VCO System Frequency 16 — 40 MHz HS mode only F12 trc PLL Start-up Time (Lock Time) — — 2 ms F13 ΔCLK CLKO Stability (Jitter) -2 — +2 % † Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 (Industrial) Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial Param No. Device Min Typ Max Units Conditions INTOSC Accuracy @ Freq = 8 MHz, 4 MHz, 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 500 kHz, 250 kHz, 125 kHz, 31 kHz(1) PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 -2 +/-1 2 % +25°C VDD = 2.7-3.3V -5 +/-1 5 % -40°C to +85°C VDD = 2.7-3.3V PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 -2 +/-1 2 % +25°C VDD = 4.5-5.5V -5 +/-1 5 % -40°C to +85°C VDD = 4.5-5.5V INTRC Accuracy @ Freq = 31 kHz PIC18LF2420/2520/4420/4520 26.562 — 35.938 kHz -40°C to +85°C VDD = 2.7-3.3V PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 26.562 — 35.938 kHz -40°C to +85°C VDD = 4.5-5.5V Legend: Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table. Note 1: Frequency calibrated at 25°C. OSCTUNE register can be used to compensate for temperature drift.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 344 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 26-7: CLKO AND I/O TIMING TABLE 26-9: CLKO AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Typ Max Units Conditions 10 TosH2ckL OSC1 ↑ to CLKO ↓ — 75 200 ns (Note 1) 11 TosH2ckH OSC1 ↑ to CLKO ↑ — 75 200 ns (Note 1) 12 TckR CLKO Rise Time — 35 100 ns (Note 1) 13 TckF CLKO Fall Time — 35 100 ns (Note 1) 14 TckL2ioV CLKO ↓ to Port Out Valid — — 0.5 TCY + 20 ns (Note 1) 15 TioV2ckH Port In Valid before CLKO ↑ 0.25 TCY + 25 — — ns (Note 1) 16 TckH2ioI Port In Hold after CLKO ↑ 0 — — ns (Note 1) 17 TosH2ioV OSC1 ↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port Out Valid — 50 150 ns 18 TosH2ioI OSC1 ↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port Input Invalid (I/O in hold time) PIC18FXXXX 100 — — ns 18A PIC18LFXXXX 200 — — ns VDD = 2.0V 19 TioV2osH Port Input Valid to OSC1 ↑ (I/O in setup time) 0 — — ns 20 TioR Port Output Rise Time PIC18FXXXX — 10 25 ns 20A PIC18LFXXXX — — 60 ns VDD = 2.0V 21 TioF Port Output Fall Time PIC18FXXXX — 10 25 ns 21A PIC18LFXXXX — — 60 ns VDD = 2.0V 22† TINP INTx pin High or Low Time TCY — — ns 23† TRBP RB<7:4> Change INTx High or Low Time TCY — — ns † These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges. Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC mode, where CLKO output is 4 x TOSC. Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions. OSC1 CLKO I/O pin (Input) I/O pin (Output) Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 10 13 14 17 20, 21 19 18 15 11 12 16 Old Value New Value© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 345 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 26-8: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP TIMER TIMING FIGURE 26-9: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING TABLE 26-10: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min Typ Max Units Conditions 30 TmcL MCLR Pulse Width (low) 2 — — μs 31 TWDT Watchdog Timer Time-out Period (no postscaler) 3.4 4.1 4.71 ms 32 TOST Oscillation Start-up Timer Period 1024 TOSC — 1024 TOSC — TOSC = OSC1 period 33 TPWRT Power-up Timer Period 55.6 65.5 75.4 ms 34 TIOZ I/O High-Impedance from MCLR Low or Watchdog Timer Reset —2— μs 35 TBOR Brown-out Reset Pulse Width 200 — — μs VDD ≤ BVDD (see D005) 36 TIRVST Time for Internal Reference Voltage to become Stable — 20 50 μs 37 TLVD High/Low-Voltage Detect Pulse Width 200 — — μs VDD ≤ VLVD 38 TCSD CPU Start-up Time — 10 — μs 39 TIOBST Time for INTOSC to Stabilize — 1 — μs VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OSC Time-out Internal Reset Watchdog Timer Reset 33 32 30 31 34 I/O pins 34 Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions. VDD BVDD 35 VIRVST Enable Internal Internal Reference 36 Reference Voltage Voltage StablePIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 346 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 26-10: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS TABLE 26-11: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 40 Tt0H T0CKI High Pulse Width No prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — ns With prescaler 10 — ns 41 Tt0L T0CKI Low Pulse Width No prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — ns With prescaler 10 — ns 42 Tt0P T0CKI Period No prescaler TCY + 10 — ns With prescaler Greater of: 20 ns or (TCY + 40)/N — ns N = prescale value (1, 2, 4,..., 256) 45 Tt1H T13CKI High Time Synchronous, no prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — ns Synchronous, with prescaler PIC18FXXXX 10 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 25 — ns VDD = 2.0V Asynchronous PIC18FXXXX 30 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 50 — ns VDD = 2.0V 46 Tt1L T13CKI Low Time Synchronous, no prescaler 0.5 TCY + 5 — ns Synchronous, with prescaler PIC18FXXXX 10 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 25 — ns VDD = 2.0V Asynchronous PIC18FXXXX 30 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 50 — ns VDD = 2.0V 47 Tt1P T13CKI Input Period Synchronous Greater of: 20 ns or (TCY + 40)/N — ns N = prescale value (1, 2, 4, 8) Asynchronous 60 — ns Ft1 T13CKI Oscillator Input Frequency Range DC 50 kHz 48 Tcke2tmrI Delay from External T13CKI Clock Edge to Timer Increment 2 TOSC 7 TOSC — Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions. 46 47 45 48 41 42 40 T0CKI T1OSO/T13CKI TMR0 or TMR1© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 347 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 26-11: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (ALL CCP MODULES) TABLE 26-12: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (ALL CCP MODULES) Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 50 TccL CCPx Input Low Time No prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — ns With prescaler PIC18FXXXX 10 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 20 — ns VDD = 2.0V 51 TccH CCPx Input High Time No prescaler 0.5 TCY + 20 — ns With prescaler PIC18FXXXX 10 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 20 — ns VDD = 2.0V 52 TccP CCPx Input Period 3 TCY + 40 N — ns N = prescale value (1, 4 or 16) 53 TccR CCPx Output Fall Time PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V 54 TccF CCPx Output Fall Time PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions. CCPx (Capture Mode) 50 51 52 CCPx 53 54 (Compare or PWM Mode)PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 348 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 26-12: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (PIC18F4420/4520) TABLE 26-13: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (PIC18F4420, PIC18F4520) Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 62 TdtV2wrH Data In Valid before WR ↑ or CS ↑ (setup time) 20 — ns 63 TwrH2dtI WR ↑ or CS ↑ to Data–In Invalid (hold time) PIC18FXXXX 20 — ns PIC18LFXXXX 35 — ns VDD = 2.0V 64 TrdL2dtV RD ↓ and CS ↓ to Data–Out Valid — 80 ns 65 TrdH2dtI RD ↑ or CS ↓ to Data–Out Invalid 10 30 ns 66 TibfINH Inhibit of the IBF Flag bit being Cleared from WR ↑ or CS ↑ — 3 TCY Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions. RE2/CS RE0/RD RE1/WR RD<7:0> 62 63 64 65© 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39631E-page 349 PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 FIGURE 26-13: EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0) TABLE 26-14: EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 0) Param No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 70 TssL2scH, TssL2scL SS ↓ to SCK ↓ or SCK ↑ Input TCY — ns 73 TdiV2scH, TdiV2scL Setup Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge 20 — ns 73A Tb2b Last Clock Edge of Byte 1 to the 1st Clock Edge of Byte 2 1.5 TCY + 40 — ns (Note 2) 74 TscH2diL, TscL2diL Hold Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge 40 — ns 75 TdoR SDO Data Output Rise Time PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V 76 TdoF SDO Data Output Fall Time — 25 ns 78 TscR SCK Output Rise Time (Master mode) PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V 79 TscF SCK Output Fall Time (Master mode) — 25 ns 80 TscH2doV, TscL2doV SDO Data Output Valid after SCK Edge PIC18FXXXX — 50 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 100 ns VDD = 2.0V Note 1: Requires the use of Parameter #73A. 2: Only if Parameter #71A and #72A are used. SS SCK (CKP = 0) SCK (CKP = 1) SDO SDI 70 71 72 73 74 75, 76 79 78 80 78 79 MSb LSb bit 6 - - - - - -1 MSb In bit 6 - - - -1 LSb In Note: Refer to Figure 26-5 for load conditions.PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 DS39631E-page 350 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 26-14: EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1) TABLE 26-15: EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 1) Param. No. Symbol Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 73 TdiV2scH, TdiV2scL Setup Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge 20 — ns 73A Tb2b Last Clock Edge of Byte 1 to the 1st Clock Edge of Byte 2 1.5 TCY + 40 — ns (Note 2) 74 TscH2diL, TscL2diL Hold Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge 40 — ns 75 TdoR SDO Data Output Rise Time PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V 76 TdoF SDO Data Output Fall Time — 25 ns 78 TscR SCK Output Rise Time (Master mode) PIC18FXXXX — 25 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 45 ns VDD = 2.0V 79 TscF SCK Output Fall Time (Master mode) — 25 ns 80 TscH2doV, TscL2doV SDO Data Output Valid after SCK Edge PIC18FXXXX — 50 ns PIC18LFXXXX — 100 ns VDD = 2.0V 81 TdoV2scH, TdoV2scL SDO Data Output Setup to SCK Edge TCY — ns Note 1: Requires the use of Parameter #73A. 2: Only if Parameter #71A and #72A are used. SS SCK (CKP = 0) SCK (CKP = 1) SDO SDI 81 71 72 74 75, 76 78 80 MSb 7