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Dell UPS 500T
 
 
 
 
 
Dell Multi-UPS Management Console and UPS Local Node Manager Software User Guide Update    
 
 
 
 
Dell Tower UPS 500W, 1000W, and 1920/1500W Getting Started Guide    
 
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Dell UPS Local Node Manager (ULNM) Software User's Guide    
 
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Dell UPS Management Software - Activating Redundancy and Virtualization Modules    
 
 
 
 
Dell UPS Management Software - Common Software Installation Scenarios    
 
 
 
 
Dell UPS Management Software - VMware vCenter Shutdown Scenarios    
 
 
 
 
Dell UPS Management Software - VMware vMA 5.0.0.1 and 5.0.0.2 Shutdown Implementation    
 
 
 
 
Dell UPS Management Software Installation and Configuration User's Guide    
 
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Dell UPS Multi-UPS Management Console (MUMC) Software User's Guide    
 
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Dell UPS Upgrade Software Utility Installation and Configuration User's Guide    
 
 
 
 
Four-Post Rail Kit    
 
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Front Cover Installation - Tower    
 
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Installing Dell UPS Management Software on a Hypervisor-Based Server Environment    
 
 
 
 
Pedestal Installation    
 
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Product Support Quick Notes - Dell UPS Management Software    
 
 
 
 
Setting Up Your Network Management Card    
 
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User's Guide    
 
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Dell Multi-UPS Management Console and UPS Local Node Manager Software Version 01.06 User Guide Update MUMC and ULNM Software v01.06 User Guide Update December 2012 2 Operating Systems supported by MUMC and ULNM MUMC and ULNM v01.06 support the following systems: Operating system MUMC ULNM Service Pack Platform Software version Service Pack Platform Software version x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 Windows Server 2012 Windows Small Business Server 2012 Standard Latest √ √ Latest √ √ Windows Server 2011 Windows Small Business Server 2011 Standard Latest √ √ √ Latest √ √ √ Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter SP1 √ √ √ SP1 √ √ √ Windows Server 2008 R1 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter SP2 √ √ √ √ SP2 √ √ √ √ Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server R2 Latest √ √ √ √ Latest √ √ √ √ Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server Latest √ √ √ √ Latest √ √ √ √ Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter R2 SP2 √ √ √ √ SP2 √ √ √ √ Windows Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter R1 SP1 √ √ √ √ SP1 √ √ √ √ Windows Small Business Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Premium R2 Latest √ √ √ Latest √ √ √ Windows 8 Windows 8 (Enterprise, Premium, Professional, Ultimate, Basic) Latest √ √ Latest √ √ Windows 7 Windows 7 (Enterprise, Premium, Professional, Ultimate, Basic) SP1 √ √ √ √ SP1 √ √ √ √ Windows Vista Windows Vista (Enterprise, Ultimate, Business) SP2 √ √ √ √ SP2 √ √ √ √ Windows XP Windows XP Professional SP3 √ √ √ SP3 √ √ √ RedHat Enterprise Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 √ √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.9 √ √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8 √ √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7 √ √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform 5.4 (Latest U7 √ √ √ √MUMC and ULNM Software v01.06 User Guide Update December 2012 3 Update) Red Hat Enterprise Linux Base Server 5.4 (Latest Update) U7 √ √ √ √ Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 5 U6 √ √ √ √ Fedora core 15 √ √ √ √ Fedora core 14 √ √ √ √ SUSE/Novel SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2 √ √ √ √ SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1 √ √ √ √ SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4 √ √ √ √ OpenSuse 11.4 √ √ √ √ OpenSuse 11.2 √ √ √ √ Debian GNU Linux Debian 6 (Squeeze) √ √ √ √ Debian 5 (Lenny) √ √ √ Ubuntu 12.10 √ √ √ √ 12.04 LTS √ √ √ √ 11.04 LTS √ √ √ √ 10.04 LTS √ √ √ √ Virtualization environments supported by MUMC and ULNM MUMC and ULNM v01.06 support the following environments: Virtualization Environment MUMC ULNM Service Pack Platform Software version Service Pack Platform Software version x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 VMware ESXi 5.1 (pay version only) √ √ √ √ ESXi 5.0 (pay version only) U1 √ √ √ U1 √ √ √ ESX 4.0 (pay version only) U4 √ √ √ U4 √ √ √ ESXi 4.1 (pay version only) U4 √ √ √ U4 √ √ √ ESX 4.0 (pay version only) √ √ √ √ √ √ ESXi 4.1 (pay version only) √ √ √ √ √ √ Microsoft HyperV Windows Hyper-V Server 2012 √ √ √ √ Windows Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 √ √ √ √ √ √ Windows Hyper-V Server 2008 √ √ √ √ √ √ Citrix XenServer 6.0 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ XenServer 5.6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ OpenSource Xen 2.6 on RHEL 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ OpenSource Xen 3.2 on Debian 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ KVM KVM 0.12.1.2 on RHEL 6 and Debian 5 √ √ √ √ √ √MUMC and ULNM Software v01.06 User Guide Update December 2012 4 Virtualization consoles and features supported by MUMC and ULNM MUMC and ULNM v01.06 support the following virtual environment consoles and features: Virtualization consoles and features MUMC ULNM Service Pack Platform Software version Service Pack Platform Software version x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 x86 x64 V1.04 V1.06 VMware console vCenter √ √ √ √ VMware feature vMotion √ √ √ √ vSphere √ Microsoft HyperV console SCVMM 2012 √ √ √ √ Microsoft HyperV feature LiveMigration √ √ √ √ Citrix console XenCenter √ √ √ √ Citrix feature XenMotion Live Migration √ √ √ √ Release notes MUMC and ULNM version 01.06 Operating systems updates compatibility:  Windows 8  Add new etoast notification tool for operating system providing Metro interface.  SCVMM 2012  ESXi 5.1  RedHat 6.3 Bug fixes:  Remove vCenter plugin does not remove MUMC tab in vCenter  Fix issue with IE10 (Windows 8) compatibility  Fix bad icon in Windows 8 task bar when notification popup is displayed  Fix a crash when special network interfaces are set. This crash has been reported in Red Hat 5.6 using a tuned interface created via openvpn. MUMC and ULNM Software v01.06 User Guide Update December 2012 5 MUMC and ULNM version 01.04 Usability enhancementsto the graphical userinterface  Systemtraymenu added (Windows) including ability to stop/startservice fromthe tray icon contextual menu  Improved alarmacknowledgement options, and audible alarmadded to notification events  Improved eventsorting options  Display of active powerin watts, not Volt‐Amps  UPS shutdown settingsmenu now available in shutdownmenu location Newfunctionality in the graphical userinterface  Improvedmass configuration ofmultipleDellUPSNetwork Cards andULNM agents  XML v4 implementation forimproved security  Improved reverse name resolution capabilitiesforULNM agents and hardware nodes  Enhanced detection of communication loss, which is now available as a shutdown criteria  Added ability to forceUDP or TCP subscription forNMC  MUMC now can be registered as “powered application” inNMC Web interface.  Database logs optimized to handle largerinstallations Expanded virtualization platform support and integration  XenCenter plugin  Force VM shutdown inHA clusters using Remote Virtual Machine Shutdown (RVMS)  Smoother operation of hostmanagementshutdown  Improved documentation for VMware setup Supportfortwo or moreUPSs powering redundant powersupply unit(PSU) devices  UPS software considersmultipleUPS battery status before reaching “low battery” status and shutting down servers.  Ability to create virtual composite groups ofUPSstomanage redundantinstallations as one device Support ofDell’s unique power metrics  Peak headroom, peak consumption, allmetrics now in Watts(W) and not Volt‐Amps(VA). Virtualization  Subscribe MUMC isshown as a “notified application” in theUPSNMC card when a VM host node has a UPS configured in MUMC. MicrosoftIntegration  Trigger vCenter vMotion™ and SCVMM Live Migration™ applications  Transparentlymove virtualmachinesfroma server affected by a powerinterruption to a non‐affected serverMUMC and ULNM Software v01.06 User Guide Update December 2012 6 Citrix integration  XenServer: Remote shutdown from MUMC,remotemaintenance from MUMC, can Add/Protect a XenServerin MUMC  XenCenter: Create an MUMC XenCenter plug‐in, agent‐less hostmanagementfrom MUMC, agent‐less XenMotion VMware integration  Removed the prerequisite of Pearl SDK installation for MUMC to communicate with VMware vCenter  New power events and alarmslogs created in VMware vCenter console  Added ability to force VM shutdown forHA clusters  Can now Add/Protect a standalone ESX/ESXi in MUMC without vCenter Linux Support  Added supportforlatest Linux distributions(seeUserGuide forfull list) Bug fixes:  Crash when emc2 runs out of resources (memory)  ULNM does not detect UPS connected with USB connectivity  Transfer to high efficiency mode not visible in the events list  MUMC may lose nodes, and generates alarms on non‐UPS SNMP devices  When a proxy client reaches shutdown time, all other proxy clients along with server get shut down  No communication lost after network cable is removed  Make sure Scan and communication behaves correctly when USB module is not present  Proxy: when changing power source, previous endpoint is not removed  MUMC upgrade will disable the "Set as Power Source"  ULNM in connected mode in Notified Applications of NMC  Event Pane in Power Source View is Off by One  Detect Lansafe, Netwatch, Lansafe Web View in the installer  Silent uninstall does not remove the install folder Other bug fixes and improvements:  Outlet management improvements  Scan sometime never stops  Removing devices hangs the server FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGCover.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 – FOR PROOF ONLY Template Last Updated -03/06/2010 Dell PowerConnect 5500 Series System User Guide Regulatory Models: PowerConnect 5524, 5524P, 5548, 5548PNotes, Cautions, and Warnings NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of your system. CAUTION: A CAUTION indicates potential damage to hardware or loss of data if instructions are not followed. WARNING: A WARNING indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or death. ____________________ Information in this document is subject to change without notice. © 2013 Dell Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of these materials in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Inc. is strictly forbidden. Trademarks used in this text: Dell™, the DELL logo, Dell Precision™, OptiPlex™, Latitude™, PowerEdge™, PowerVault™, PowerConnect™, OpenManage™, EqualLogic™, KACE™, FlexAddress™ and Vostro™ are trademarks of Dell Inc. Intel®, Pentium®, Xeon®, Core™ and Celeron® are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. AMD® is a registered trademark and AMD Opteron™, AMD Phenom™, and AMD Sempron™ are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Microsoft®, Windows®, Windows Server®, MS-DOS® and Windows Vista® are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Red Hat Enterprise Linux® and Enterprise Linux® are registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Novell® is a registered trademark and SUSE ™ is a trademark of Novell Inc. in the United States and other countries. Oracle® is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Citrix®, Xen®, XenServer® and XenMotion® are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. VMware®, Virtual SMP®, vMotion®, vCenter®, and vSphere® are registered trademarks or trademarks of VMWare, Inc. in the United States or other countries. Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this publication to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their products. Dell Inc. disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own. Regulatory Models PC5524, PC5524P, PC5548 and PC5548P March 2013 A07FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm Contents 3 Contents 1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 IP Version 6 (IPv6) Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Stack Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Power over Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Green Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Head of Line Blocking Prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Flow Control Support (IEEE 802.3X) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Back Pressure Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Virtual Cable Testing (VCT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Auto-Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MDI/MDIX Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MAC Address Supported Features . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Layer 2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Broadcast Storm Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm 4 Contents VLAN Supported Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Spanning Tree Protocol Features . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Link Aggregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Quality of Service Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Device Management Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Port Profile (CLI Macro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Protected Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 iSCSI Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Proprietary Protocol Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3 Hardware Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Device Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Device Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 LED Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4 Stacking Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Stack Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Stack Members and Unit IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm Contents 5 5 Configuring the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Configuration Work Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Connecting the Switch to the Terminal . . . . . . . . . 59 Booting the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Configuring the Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Configuration Using the Setup Wizard . . . . . . . . . 61 6 Advanced Switch Configuration . . . . . . . 67 Using the CLI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Accessing the Device Through the CLI . . . . . . . . . 71 Retrieving an IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Security Management and Password Configuration . . 75 Configuring Login Banners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Startup Menu Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Software Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 7 Using Dell OpenManage Administrator. . 87 Starting the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Understanding the Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Using the Switch Administrator Buttons . . . . . . . . 91 Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Common GUI Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm 6 Contents GUI Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 CLI Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 8 Network Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ACL Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Proprietary Protocol Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Time Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Dot1x Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 9 Configuring System Information . . . . . . 155 General Switch Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Management Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 File Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Stack Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm Contents 7 sFlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 10 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Jumbo Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Green Ethernet Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Protected Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Port Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 LAG Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Storm Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 11 Address Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Static Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Dynamic Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 12 GARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 GARP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 GARP Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm 8 Contents 13 Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Spanning Tree Protocol Overview. . . . . . . . . . . 435 Global Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 STP Port Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 STP LAG Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Rapid Spanning Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Multiple Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 14 VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Virtual LAN Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 VLAN Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Port Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 LAGs Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Protocol Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Protocol Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 GVRP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Private VLAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Voice VLAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 15 Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 Link Aggregation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 LACP Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm Contents 9 LAG Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 16 Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Multicast Support Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Global Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Bridge Multicast Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Bridge Multicast Forward All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Unregistered Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Multicast TV VLAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 17 LLDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 LLDP Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 LLDP Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 LLDP Port Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 MED Network Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 LLDP MED Port Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 Neighbors Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 18 Dynamic ARP Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Dynamic ARP Inspection Overview. . . . . . . . . . . 561 Global Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm 10 Contents Dynamic ARP Inspection List . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Dynamic ARP Inspection Entries . . . . . . . . . . . 566 VLAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Trusted Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 19 DHCP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 DHCP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 DHCP Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 20 iSCSI Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 Optimizing iSCSI Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Global Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 iSCSI Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 iSCSI Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Configuring iSCSI Using CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 21 Statistics/RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 Table Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 RMON Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm Contents 11 22 Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 QoS Features and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 QoS Basic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 QoS Advanced Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 QoS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\Dell_ContaxUG_PrintTOC.fm 12 ContentsDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 13 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 1 Preface PowerConnect 5524/5548 and PowerConnect 5524P/5548P are stackable, advanced multi-layer devices. This guide contains the information needed for installing, configuring, and maintaining the device through the web-based management system, called the OpenManage Switch Administrator. This guide describes how to configure each system through the web-based management system and through CLI commands. The CLI Reference Guide, which is available on the Documentation CD, provides additional information about the CLI commands. 14 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGPrefix.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLYDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 15 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Features This section describes the features of the PowerConnect 5524/P and 5548/P switches. For a complete list of all updated device features, see the latest software version Release Notes. This section contains the following topics: • IP Version 6 (IPv6) Support • Stack Support • Power over Ethernet • Green Ethernet • Head of Line Blocking Prevention • Flow Control Support (IEEE 802.3X) • Back Pressure Support • Virtual Cable Testing (VCT) • Auto-Negotiation • MDI/MDIX Support • MAC Address Supported Features • Layer 2 Features • IGMP Snooping • Port Mirroring • Broadcast Storm Control • VLAN Supported Features • Spanning Tree Protocol Features • Link Aggregation • Quality of Service Features • Quality of Service Features • Device Management Features16 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Security Features • DHCP Server • Protected Ports • iSCSI Optimization • Proprietary Protocol Filtering IP Version 6 (IPv6) Support The device functions as an IPv6-compliant host, as well as an IPv4 host (also known as dual stack). This enables device operation in a pure IPv6 network as well as in a combined IPv4/IPv6 network. For more information, see "IP Addressing" on page 209. Stack Support The system supports up to eight units with two fixed HDMI stacking ports. The HDMI ports are 1.3a specification, Category 2 High Speed cables, 340 MHz (10.2 Gbit/s). it is recommended to use HDMI cable version 1.4 The stacking feature supports the following features: • Fast-link failover • Software auto-synch. • Improved response time to events, such as master failover • Auto-numbering algorithm when choosing unit number For more information, see "Stacking Overview" on page 45 Power over Ethernet Power over Ethernet (PoE) provides power to devices over existing LAN cabling, without updating or modifying the network infrastructure. When PoE is used, the network devices do not have to be placed next to a power source. PoE can be used in the following applications: • IP Phones • Wireless Access PointsDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 17 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • IP Gateways • PDAs • Audio and video remote monitoring For more information, see "Power over Ethernet" on page 162. Green Ethernet Green Ethernet, also known as Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE), is an effort to make networking equipment environmentally friendly, by reducing the power usage of Ethernet connections. The Short-Reach method, which reduces power over Ethernet cables shorter than 40m, is supported by the device. For more information, see "Green Ethernet Configuration" on page 390. Head of Line Blocking Prevention Head of Line (HOL) blocking results in traffic delays and frame loss caused by traffic competing for the same egress port resources. To prevent HOL blocking, the device queues packets, and packets at the head of the queue are forwarded before packets at the end of the queue. Flow Control Support (IEEE 802.3X) Flow control enables lower-speed devices to communicate with higher-speed devices, by requesting that the higher-speed device refrain from sending packets. Transmissions are temporarily halted to prevent buffer overflows. For more information, see "Flow Control" on page 386. Back Pressure Support On half-duplex links, the receiving port prevents buffer overflows by occupying the link so that it is unavailable for additional traffic. For more information, see "Protected Ports" on page 394.18 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Virtual Cable Testing (VCT) VCTdetects and reports copper link cabling faults, such as open cables and cable shorts. For more information, see "Diagnostics" on page 255. Auto-Negotiation Auto-negotiation enables the device to advertise modes of operation. The auto-negotiation function enables an exchange of information between two devices that share a point-to-point link segment, and automatically configures both devices to take maximum advantage of their transmission capabilities. The PowerConnect 5500 series enhances auto-negotiation by providing port advertisement. Port advertisement enables the system administrator to configure the port speeds that are advertised. For more information, see "Port Configuration" on page 403 or "LAG Configuration" on page 409. MDI/MDIX Support Standard wiring for end stations is known as Media-Dependent Interface (MDI), and standard wiring for hubs and switches is known as MediaDependent Interface with Crossover (MDIX). If auto-negotiation is enabled, the device automatically detects whether the cable connected to an RJ-45 port is MDIX (crossed) or MDI (straight). This enables both types to be used interchangeably. If auto-negotiation is not enabled, only MDI (straight) cables can be used. For more information, see "Port Configuration" on page 403 or "LAG Configuration" on page 409. MAC Address Supported Features MAC Address Capacity Support The device supports up to 16K MAC addresses and it reserves specific MAC addresses for system use.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 19 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Static MAC Entries MAC entries can be manually entered in the Bridging Table, as an alternative to learning them from incoming frames. These user-defined entries are not subject to aging, and are preserved across resets and reboots. For more information, see "Static Addresses" on page 424. Self-Learning MAC Addresses The device enables controlled MAC address learning from incoming packets. The MAC addresses are stored in the Bridging Table. For more information, see "Dynamic Addresses" on page 427. Automatic Aging for MAC Addresses MAC addresses from which no traffic is received for a given period, are aged out. This prevents the Bridging Table from overflowing. For more information, see "Dynamic Addresses" on page 427. VLAN-Aware MAC-Based Switching The device always performs VLAN-aware bridging. Classic bridging (IEEE802.1D), in which frames are forwarded based only on their destination MAC address, is not performed. However, a similar functionality can be configured for untagged frames. Frames addressed to a destination MAC address that is not associated with any port are flooded to all ports of the relevant VLAN. MAC Multicast Support Multicast service is a limited Broadcast service that enables one-to-many and many-to-many connections for information distribution. In Layer 2 Multicast service, a single frame is addressed to a specific Multicast address, from which copies of the frame are transmitted to the relevant ports. When Multicast groups are statically enabled, you can set the destination port of registered groups, as well as define the behavior of unregistered Multicast frames. For more information, see "Multicast" on page 516.20 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Layer 2 Features IGMP Snooping Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) Snooping examines IGMP frame contents, when they are forwarded by the device from work stations to an upstream Multicast router. From the frame, the device identifies work stations configured for Multicast sessions, and which Multicast routers are sending Multicast frames. The IGMP Querier simulates the behavior of a Multicast router. This enables snooping of the Layer 2 Multicast domain even if there is no Multicast router. For more information, see "IGMP Snooping" on page 527. Port Mirroring Port mirroring monitors network traffic by forwarding copies of incoming and outgoing packets from a monitored port to a monitoring port. Users specify which target port receives copies of all traffic passing through a specified source port. For more information, see "Port Mirroring" on page 417. Broadcast Storm Control Storm Control enables limiting the number of Multicast and Broadcast frames accepted by and forwarded by the device. When Layer 2 frames are forwarded, Broadcast and Multicast frames are flooded to all ports on the relevant VLAN. This occupies bandwidth, and loads all nodes connected on all ports. For more information, see "Storm Control" on page 414.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 21 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY VLAN Supported Features VLAN Support VLANs are collections of switching ports that comprise a single Broadcast domain. Packets are classified as belonging to a VLAN, based on either the VLAN tag or on a combination of the ingress port and packet contents. Packets sharing common attributes can be grouped in the same VLAN. For more information, see "VLANs" on page 466. Port-Based Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-based VLANs classify incoming packets to VLANs, based on their ingress port. For more information, see "Defining VLAN Membership Using CLI Commands" on page 473. Full 802.1Q VLAN Tagging Compliance IEEE 802.1Q defines an architecture for virtual, bridged LANs, the services provided in VLANs, and the protocols and algorithms involved in the provision of these services. For more information, see "Virtual LAN Overview" on page 467. GVRP Support GARP VLAN Registration Protocol(GVRP) provides IEEE 802.1Qcompliant VLAN pruning and dynamic VLAN creation. When GVRP is enabled, the device registers and propagates VLAN membership on all ports that are part of the active underlying Spanning Tree Protocol topology. For more information, see "GVRP Parameters" on page 490. Voice VLAN Voice VLAN enables network administrators to enhance VoIP service by configuring ports to carry IP voice traffic from IP phones on a specific VLAN. VoIP traffic has a preconfigured OUI prefix in the source MAC address. Network administrators can configure VLANs from which voice IP traffic is 22 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY forwarded. Non-VoIP traffic is dropped from the Voice VLAN in Auto-Voice VLAN Secure mode. Voice VLAN also provides QoS to VoIP, ensuring that the quality of voice does not deteriorate if the IP traffic is received unevenly. For more information, see "Voice VLAN" on page 498. Guest VLAN Guest VLAN provides limited network access to unauthorized ports. If a port is denied network access via port-based authorization, but the Guest VLAN is enabled, the port receives limited network access through the Guest VLAN. For more information, see "Dot1x Authentication" on page 132. Private VLAN The Private VLAN feature provides Layer 2 isolation between ports that share the same Broadcast domain, or in other words, it creates a point-tomultipoint Broadcast domain. The ports can be located anywhere in the Layer 2 network (compared to the Protected Ports feature, where the ports must be in the same stack). For more information, see "Private VLAN" on page 494. Multicast TV VLAN The Multicast TV VLAN feature provides the ability to supply multicast transmissions to Layer 2-isolated subscribers, without replicating the multicast transmissions for each subscriber VLAN. The subscribers are the only receivers of the multicast transmissions. For more information, see "Multicast TV VLAN" on page 535. Spanning Tree Protocol Features Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 802.1d Spanning tree is a standard Layer 2 switch requirement that enables bridges to automatically prevent and resolve Layer 2 forwarding loops. Switches exchange configuration messages using specifically-formatted frames, and selectively enable and disable forwarding on ports. For more information, see "Spanning Tree" on page 434. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 23 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Fast Link STP can take 30–60 seconds to converge. During this time, STP detects possible loops, enabling time for status changes to propagate and for relevant devices to respond. This period of 30-60 seconds is considered too long a response time for many applications. The Fast Link option bypasses this delay, and can be used in network topologies, where forwarding loops do not occur. For more information on enabling Fast Link for ports and LAGs, see "STP Port Settings" on page 442 or "Static Addresses" on page 424. IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Spanning Tree takes 30–60 seconds for each host to decide whether its ports are actively forwarding traffic. Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) detects uses of network topologies to enable faster convergence, without creating forwarding loops. For more information, see "Spanning Tree" on page 434. IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Multiple Spanning Tree (MSTP) operation maps VLANs into STP instances. MSTP provides a different load balancing scenario. Packets assigned to various VLANs are transmitted along different paths within MSTP Regions (MST Regions). Regions are one or more MSTP bridges by which frames can be transmitted. The standard lets administrators assign VLAN traffic to unique paths. For more information, see "Spanning Tree" on page 434. STP BPDU Guard BPDU Guard is used as a security mechanism, to protect the network from invalid configurations. BPDU Guard is usually used either when fast link ports (ports connected to clients) are enabled or when the STP feature is disabled. When it is enabled on a port, the port is shut down if a BPDU message is received and an appropriate SNMP trap is generated. For more information, see "Spanning Tree" on page 434.24 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Link Aggregation Up to 32 Aggregated Links may be defined, each with up to eight member ports, to form a single Link Aggregated Group (LAG). This enables: • Fault tolerance protection from physical link disruption • Higher bandwidth connections • Improved bandwidth granularity • High bandwidth server connectivity A LAG is composed of ports with the same speed, set to full-duplex operation. For more information, see "LAG Configuration" on page 409. Link Aggregation and LACP LACP uses peer exchanges across links to determine, on an ongoing basis, the aggregation capability of various links, and continuously provides the maximum level of aggregation capability achievable between a given pair of devices. LACP automatically determines, configures, binds, and monitors the port binding within the system. For more information, see "Link Aggregation" on page 508. BootP and DHCP Clients DHCP enables additional setup parameters to be received from a network server upon system startup. DHCP service is an on-going process. DHCP is an extension of BootP. For more information, see "DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214. Quality of Service Features Class of Service 802.1p Support The IEEE 802.1p signaling technique is an OSI Layer 2 standard for marking and prioritizing network traffic at the data link/MAC sub-layer. 802.1p traffic is classified and sent to the destination. No bandwidth reservations or limits Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 25 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY are established or enforced. 802.1p is a spin-off of the 802.1Q (VLANs) standard. 802.1p establishes eight levels of priority, similar to the IP Precedence IP Header bit-field. Advanced QoS Frames that match an ACL and were permitted entrance are implicitly labeled with the name of the ACL that permitted their entrance. Advanced mode QoS actions defined in network policies can then be applied to these flows. The switch can set DSCP values and map IPv6 DSCP to egress queues in the same way it does for IPv4. The switch detects IPv6 frames by the IPv6 ethertype. For more information about Advanced QoS, see "QoS Advanced Mode" on page 678. TCP Congestion Avoidance The TCP Congestion Avoidance feature activates an algorithm that breaks up or prevents TCP global synchronization on a congested node, where the congestion is due to multiple sources sending packets with the same byte count. For more information, see "The following is an example of the CLI commands:" on page 666. Device Management Features SNMP Alarms and Trap Logs The system logs events with severity codes and timestamps. Events are sent as SNMP traps to a Trap Recipient List. For more information, see "SNMP" on page 314.26 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNMP Versions 1, 2, and 3 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) over the UDP/IP protocol controls access to the system. A list of community entries is defined, each consisting of a community string and its access privileges. There are three levels of SNMP security: read-only, read-write, and super. Only a super user can access the Community table. For more information, see "SNMP" on page 314. Web-Based Management Web-based management enables managing the system from any web browser. The system contains an Embedded Web Server (EWS) that serves HTML pages, through which the system can be monitored and configured. The system internally converts web-based input into configuration commands, MIB variable settings, and other management-related settings. Management IP Address Conflict Notification This feature validates the uniqueness of the switch's IP address, whether it is assigned manually or through DHCP. If the IP address is not unique, the switch performs actions according to the address type. If the IP address is static, see more information about this in "IPv4 Interface Parameters" on page 210. If the IP address is dynamic, see more information about this in"DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214. Flow Monitoring (sflow) The switch supports statistics collection, using a sampling technology called sFlow that is based on RFC 3176. The sFlow sampling technology is embedded within the switch, and provides the ability to continuously monitor traffic flows on some or all the interfaces simultaneously. For more information, see "sFlow" on page 375. Configuration File Download and Upload The device configuration is stored in a configuration file. The configuration file includes both system-wide and port-specific device configuration. The system can display configuration files as a collection of CLI commands that are stored and manipulated as text files.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 27 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Auto-Update of Configuration/Image File This feature facilitates installation of new devices. When you enable the various auto-update options, the device automatically downloads a new image or configuration file when it receives its IP address from a TFTP server, and automatically reboots, using the image or configuration file it received. For more information, see "Auto-Update/Configuration Feature" on page 338. TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol The device supports boot image, software, and configuration upload/download via TFTP. USB File Transfer Protocol The device supports boot image, software, and configuration upload/download via USB. Remote Monitoring Remote Monitoring (RMON) is an extension to SNMP that provides comprehensive network traffic monitoring capabilities. RMON is a standard MIB that defines MAC-layer statistics and control objects, enabling real-time information to be captured across the entire network. For more information, see "Statistics/RMON" on page 606. Command Line Interface Command Line Interface (CLI) syntax and semantics conform as much as possible to common, industry standards. CLI is composed of mandatory and optional elements. The CLI interpreter provides command and keyword completion to assist users and save typing. Syslog Syslog is a protocol that enables event notifications to be sent to a set of remote servers, where they can be stored, examined, and acted upon. The system sends notifications of significant events in real time, and keeps a record of these events for after-the-fact usage. For more information on Syslog, see "Logs" on page 195.28 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNTP The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) assures accurate network Ethernet Switch clock time synchronization up to the millisecond. Time synchronization is performed by a network SNTP server. Time sources are prioritized by strata. Strata define the distance from the reference clock. The higher the stratum (where zero is the highest), the more accurate the clock. For more information, see "Time Synchronization" on page 169. Domain Name System Domain Name System (DNS) converts user-defined domain names into IP addresses. Each time a domain name is assigned, the DNS service translates the name into a numeric IP address. For example, www.ipexample.com is translated into 192.87.56.2. DNS servers maintain domain name databases containing their corresponding IP addresses. For more information, see "Domain Name System" on page 242. 802.1ab (LLDP-MED) The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) enables network managers to troubleshoot, and enhances network management by discovering and maintaining network topologies over multi-vendor environments. LLDP discovers network neighbors by standardizing methods for network devices to advertise themselves to other systems, and to store discovered information. The multiple advertisement sets are sent in the packet Type Length Value (TLV) field. LLDP devices must support chassis and port ID advertisement, as well as system name, system ID, system description, and system capability advertisements. LLDP Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) increases network flexibility by enabling various IP systems to co-exist on a single network LLDP. It provides detailed network topology information, emergency call service via IP phone location information, and troubleshooting information. For more information, see "LLDP" on page 540.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 29 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Security Features SSL Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an application-level protocol that enables secure transactions of data through privacy, authentication, and data integrity. It relies upon certificates and public and private keys. Port-Based Authentication (Dot1x) Port-based authentication enables authenticating system users on a per-port basis via an external server. Only authenticated and approved system users can transmit and receive data. Ports are authenticated via the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server using the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Dynamic VLAN Assignment (DVA) enables network administrators to automatically assign users to VLANs during the RADIUS server authentication. For more information, see "Dot1x Authentication" on page 132. Locked Port Support Locked Port increases network security by limiting access on a specific port to users with specific MAC addresses. These addresses are either manually defined or learned on that port. When a frame is seen on a locked port, and the frame source MAC address is not tied to that port, the protection mechanism is invoked. For more information, see "Port Security" on page 98. RADIUS Client RADIUS is a client/server-based protocol. A RADIUS server maintains a user database that contains per-user authentication information, such as user name, password, and accounting information. RADIUS Accounting This feature enables recording device management sessions (Telnet, serial, and WEB but not SNMP) and/or 802.1x authentication sessions.30 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Due to the complexity of 802.1x setup and configuration, many mistakes can be made that might cause loss of connectivity or incorrect behavior. The 802.1x Monitor mode enables applying 802.1x functionality to the switch, with all necessary RADIUS and/or domain servers active, without actually taking any action that may cause unexpected behavior. In this way, the user can test the 802.1x setup before actually applying it. For more information, see "RADIUS" on page 291. SSH Secure Shell (SSH) is a protocol that provides a secure, remote connection to a device. SSH version 2 is currently supported. The SSH server feature enables an SSH client to establish a secure, encrypted connection with a device. This connection provides functionality that is similar to an inbound telnet connection. SSH uses RSA and DSA Public Key cryptography for device connections and authentication. For more information, see "Security Management and Password Configuration" on page 75. TACACS+ TACACS+ provides centralized security for validation of users accessing the device. TACACS+ provides a centralized, user management system, while still retaining consistency with RADIUS and other authentication processes. For more information, see "TACACS+" on page 282. Password Management Password management provides increased network security and improved password control. Passwords for SSH, Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, and SNMP access are assigned security features. For more information, see "Password Management" on page 286. The switch provides the ability to demand strong passwords, meaning that they must contain both upper and lower-case letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. For more information, see "Password Management" on page 286.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 31 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Access Control Lists (ACL) Access Control Lists (ACL) enable network managers to define classification actions and rules for specific ingress ports. Packets entering an ingress port with an active ACL, are either admitted or denied entry and the ingress port is disabled. If they are denied entry, the user can disable the port. Dynamic ACL/Dynamic Policy Assignment (DACL/DPA) The network administrator can specify the user's ACL in the RADIUS server. After successful authentication, the user is assigned that ACL. For more information, see "Network Security" on page 97. DHCP Snooping DHCP Snooping expands network security by providing firewall security between untrusted interfaces and DHCP servers. By enabling DHCP Snooping, network administrators can differentiate between trusted interfaces connected to end-users or DHCP servers and untrusted interfaces located beyond the network firewall. For more information, see "DHCP Snooping" on page 573. ARP Inspection Dynamic ARP inspection is a security feature that validates ARP packets in a network. It intercepts, logs, and discards ARP packets with invalid IP-to-MAC address bindings. This capability protects the network from certain man-inthe-middle attacks. Port Profile (CLI Macro) Macros provide a convenient way to save and share a common configuration. A macro is a set of CLI commands with a unique name. When a macro is applied to a port, the CLI commands contained within it are executed and added to the Running Configuration file. For more information, see "Dynamic ARP Inspection" on page 560.32 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY DHCP Server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a means of passing configuration information (including the IP address of a TFTP server and a configuration file name) to hosts on a TCP/IP network. The switch can serve as a DHCP server or client. For more information on the device serving as a DHCP server, see "DHCP Server" on page 297. For more information on the device serving as a DHCP client, see "DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214. Protected Ports The Protected Ports feature provides Layer 2 isolation between interfaces (Ethernet ports and LAGs) that share the same Broadcast domain (VLAN) with other interfaces. For more information, see "Protected Ports" on page 394. iSCSI Optimization iSCSI optimization provides the iSCSI flows with specific priority over other network traffic. In addition, the feature provides monitoring of iSCSI sessions. For more information, see "iSCSI Optimization" on page 594. Proprietary Protocol Filtering This feature enables user control over the filtering of packets with proprietary protocols such as CDP, VTP, DTP, UDLD, PaGP, and SSTP. The user can select any combination of the protocols to be filtered, for example: CDP and VTP and UDLD. For more information, see "Network Security" on page 97. DHCP Relay and Option 82 A DHCP relay agent detects DHCP Broadcasts from DHCP clients and relays them to DHCP servers that may reside on different subnets.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 33 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The relay agent information option (Option 82) in the DHCP protocol enables a DHCP relay agent to send additional client information, upon requesting an IP address. Option 82 specifies the relaying switch's MAC address, the port identifier, and the VLAN that forwarded the packet. For more information, see "DHCP Relay" on page 586. Identifying a Switch via LED The switch provides the ability to turn on a LED (through the GUI interface) on a specific unit or on all units in a stack for a specific length of time. For more information, see Unit Identification (Location).34 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGFeatures.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLYDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 35 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 3 Hardware Description This section describes PowerConnect 5500 hardware. It contains the following topics: • Device Models • Device Structure • LED Definitions • Power Supplies36 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Device Models The PowerConnect 5500 switches combine versatility with minimal management requirements. This series includes the following device types: • PowerConnect 5524 — Provides 24 10/100/1000Mbps Base-T ports • PowerConnect 5524P (with PoE) — Provides 24 10/100/1000Mbps Base-T ports, along with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) support • PowerConnect 5548 — Provides 48 10/100/1000Mbps Base-T ports • PowerConnect 5548P (with PoE) — Provides 24 10/100/1000Mbps Base-T ports, along with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) support Each of these devices provides, in addition to the above ports, two HDMI ports, two SPF+ ports, an RS-232 console port, and a USB port, as shown in Figure 3-1. NOTE: 10/100/1000Mbps Baset-T ports are also known as Gigabit ports or G ports. Device Structure This section describes the structure of the devices. It contains the following topics: • Front Panel • Buttons and LEDs • Back Panel • Ventilation System • System LEDs • Port LEDsDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 37 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Front Panel Figure 3-1 shows the front panel of the PowerConnect 5548 device with its various ports labelled. The PowerConnect 5524 device from the PowerConnect 5548 device in that there are 24 G ports and not 48. Figure 3-2 shows the buttons/LEDs on the right side in greater detail. Figure 3-1. PowerConnect 5548 Ports The following ports are found on the devices. • 24/48 G Ports • Two XG Ports (also known as Small Form Factor Plugable (SFP)+ Ports) These are 10 Gigabit ports, designated as 1000Base-X-SFP+. The SFP+ ports are fiber transceivers designated as 10000 Base-SX or LX. They include TWSI (Two-Wire Serial Interface) and internal EPROM. • RS-232 Console Port This port is used for a terminal connection for debugging and software downloads. The default baud rate is 9,600 bps. The baud rate can be configured from 2400 bps up to 115,200 bps. • Two HDMI Ports The HDMI ports are 1.3a specification, category 2 high-speed cables, 340 MHz (10.2 Gbit/s). They are used for stacking purposes. Console SPF+ Ports USB Port HDMI Ports Giga Ports (even numbered) Port Giga Ports (odd numbered)38 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY NOTE: it is recommended to use HDMI cable version 1.4 • Single USB Port This port is used for firmware upgrade from a USB device. Buttons and LEDs LEDs on Front Panel Figure 3-2 shows the extreme, right-hand part of the front panel, which contains buttons and LEDs, in addition to ports. Figure 3-2. Button/LED Panel These LEDs are described in Table 3-1 and Table 3-2. Reset Button The PowerConnect 5500 switches have a reset button, located on the front panel that is used for manual reset (reboot) of the device. The single reset circuit of the switch is activated by power-up or low-voltage conditions. Power Status Fan RPS Reset Stacking Unit ID Master Port LEDs Console PortDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 39 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The Reset button does not extend beyond the unit’s front, and it must be activated with a pin. Back Panel The back panel of the non-PoE models, shown in Figure 3-3, contains a Redundant Power Supply (RPS) connector, Location LED, and power connector. The back panel of the PoE models, shown in Figure 3-4, contains a Modular Power Supply (MPS) connector, Location LED, power connector, and two fan outlets. Figure 3-3. PowerConnect 5524/48 Back Panel Figure 3-4. PowerConnect 5524/48/P Back Panel The elements on the back panel are used as follows: • Locator LED — This LED is lit when the Unit Identification feature is selected. See "Unit Identification (Location)" on page 373 for more information about this feature. • RPS/MPS — Connector for auxiliary power supply. See "Power Supplies" on page 44 for more information. RPS A/C Power Supply Locator Locator MPS Fan Fan A/C Power Supply40 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • A/C Power Supply — Connector for AC power supply. See "Power Supplies" on page 44 for more information. • Fans — Fan outlets. See "Ventilation System" on page 40 for more information. Ventilation System The PowerConnect 5500/P switches have two built-in fans. Operation can be verified by observing the LED that indicates if one or more fans are faulty (see Table 3-1). The fan outlets are shown in Figure 3-4. LED Definitions The front panel contains light emitting diodes(LEDs) that indicate the status of links, power supplies, fans, and system diagnostics. These are described below. System LEDs The system LEDs of the PowerConnect 5500 devices provide information about the power supplies, fans, thermal conditions, and diagnostics. Figure 3-2 shows the location of the system LEDS on the device. Table 3-1 describes the meaning of the colors of the system LEDs. Table 3-1. System LED Indicators LED Color Description Power Supply (PWR) Green Static The switch is turned on. Green Flashing The Locator function is enabled. Off The switch is turned off. Status Green Static The switch is operating normally. Green Flashing The switch is booting. Red Static A critical system error has occurred. Red Flashing A non-critical system error has occurred.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 41 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Stacking No. Indicates the unit ID of the device in the stack. Modular/Redundan cy Power Supply (MPS/RPS) Green Static The MPS/RPS is currently operating. Red Static The MPS/RPS failed. Off The MPS/RPS is not plugged in. Locator Green Flashing Locator function is enabled. Green Static Locator function is disabled. Master Green Static The device is a master unit. Off The device is not a master unit. Fan (FAN) Green Static All device fans are operating normally. Red Static One or more of the device fans are not operating. Table 3-1. System LED Indicators (Continued) LED Color Description 42 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port LEDs Gigabit Ports Each Giga port has two LEDs associated with it. The speed/link (LNK) LED is located on the left side of the port, while the activity/PoE LED is located on the right side of the port. The activity/PoE LED is labelled ACT in non-PoE devices, and is labelled PoE in PoE-enabled devices, as shown in Figure 3-5. Figure 3-5. Giga Port LEDs Table 3-2 describes the LED indications for the Gigabit ports: Table 3-2. Giga Port s on non-PoE-enabled Devices LEDs LED Color Description LNK Green Flashing Link is up and the port is either transmitting or receiving at 1000 Mbs. Yellow Flashing Link is up and the port is either transmitting or receiving data at 100 Mbps. Solid green Solid amber Link is up high speed. Link is up at lower speeds. OFF The port is currently not operating. ACT Green Flashing There is activity on the port. Off There is no activity on the port. LNK ACT/PoE LNK ACT/PoEDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 43 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Table 3-3 describes the LED indications for Gigabit ports on PoE-enabled devices. HDMI Port LEDs The HDMI ports have a Speed/link (LNK) LED on their left side and an activity (ACT) LED on their right side. Table 3-4 describes the HDMP port LEDs: Table 3-3. Giga Port s on PoE-enabled Devices LEDs LED Color Description LNK Flashing green Link is up and the port is either transmitting or receiving at 1000 Mbs. Flashing amber Link is up and the port is either transmitting or receiving data at 100 Mbps. Solid green Solid amber Link is up high speed. Link is up at lower speeds. Off Port is currently not operating. PoE Flashing green There is activity on the port and the PoE is off. Flashing amber There is activity on the port and the PoE is on. Amber solid There is no activity on the port and the PoE power is on. Off There is no activity on the port and the PoE is off. Table 3-4. HDMI (Stacking) Port LEDs LED Color Description Speed/Link Solid green Port is linked to device. Off Port is currently not operating. ACT Flashing green Port is either transmitting or receiving. Off Port is not transmitting or receiving.44 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGHardware.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SFP LEDs The SFP+ ports each have two LEDs, marked as LNK and ACT, associated with them. Figure 3-5 describes these LEDs. Stack ID LED The front panel of the device contains a Stack ID panel used to display the Unit ID for the Stack Master and members, as shown in Figure 3-2. Power Supplies The device has an internal power supply unit (AC unit) and a connector to connect PowerConnect 5500/P devices to a PowerConnect EPS-470 unit, or to a PowerConnect MPS-600 unit. The PowerConnect 5500/P devices have the following internal power supplies: • 24 Port non-PoE devices — 54 Watt. • 48 Port non-PoE devices — 100 Watt. • 24/48 Port PoE devices — 600 Watt. Operation with both power supply units is regulated through load sharing. Power supply LEDs indicate the status of the power supply. The AC power supply unit operates from 90 to 264 VAC, 47 to 63 Hz. The AC power supply unit uses a standard connector. A LED, shown in Figure 3-3, indicates whether the AC unit is connected. When the device is connected to a supplementary power source, the probability of failure in the event of a power outage decreases. Table 3-5. SFP Port LEDs LED Color Description LNK Solid green Link is at highest speed. Solid amber Link is at lowest speed. Off Port is currently not linked. ACT Flashing green Port is either transmitting or receiving.Template Last Updated - 2/7/2007Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 45 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 Stacking Overview This section describes how the Stacking feature of the PowerConnect 5500 series functions. It contains the following topics: • Stack Overview • Stack Members and Unit IDs46 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Stack Overview The PowerConnect 5500 Stacking feature provides multiple switch management through a single switch, so that all units in the stack are treated as if they were a single switch. All stack members are accessed through the management IP address, through which the stack is managed. Each switch is a member in a stack, although the stack may consist of only a single switch. Up to eight units can be stacked. This section covers the following topics: • Stack Operation Modes • Stacking Units • Stack Topology Stack Operation Modes All stacks must have a Master unit, and may have a Master Backup unit. All other units are connected to the stack as members (slaves). A unit in the stack can be in one of the following modes: • Stack Master — Runs the fully operational software of a switch. In addition, it runs configures and manages all other units in the stack. All protocols run in the context of the Master unit. It is responsible for updating and synchronizing the Master Backup. The Stack Master detects and reconfigures the ports with minimal operational impact in the event of: Unit failure Inter-unit stacking link failure Unit insertion Unit removal When the Master unit boots, or when inserting or removing a stack member, the Master unit initiates a stacking discovering process. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 47 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Slave Unit — Runs a slave version of the software that enables the applications running on the Master’s CPU to control and manage the resources of the slave unit. • Master Backup — Runs as a slave unit, as described above, and in addition, continuously monitors the existence and operation of the stack master. If the master unit fails, the master-backup unit assumes the Master Backup role. Stacking Units PowerConnect 5500 series switches use two HDMI 10G ports for stacking. To connect the units in the stack: 1 Insert one end of an HDMI cable into the left-hand HDMI port on the unit at the top of the stack and the other end into the right-hand HDMI port of the unit immediately below it (this is called crossover). 2 Repeat this process until all units are connected. 3 (Optional) Connect the left-hand HDMI port of the unit at the bottom of the stack to the right-hand HDMI port of the unit at the top of the stack. This step provides increased bandwidth and redundancy.48 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The results of this process are shown in Figure . Figure 4-1. Stacking Ring Topology HDMI Ports Front Panel HDMI Ports Front Panel HDMI Ports Front Panel Front Panel HDMI PortsDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 49 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Stack Topology The PowerConnect 5500 series systems operates in a ring or chain topology. Ring Topology In a ring topology all units in the stack are connected to each other, forming a circle. Each unit in the stack accepts data and sends it to the unit to which it is attached. The packet continues through the stack until it reaches its destination. The system discovers the optimal path on which to send traffic. Figure 4-1 shows units of a stack connected in a ring topology. Stacking Failover Topology - Chain Topology Difficulties occur when a unit in the ring becomes non-functional, or a link is severed. In this case, the system automatically switches to a chain topology, without any system downtime. In chain topology, each unit in the stack is connected to neighboring unit except for the last unit, which is not connected to any other unit. In the chain topology, the stack continues to function as long as there is a master- or backup-enabled unit in each segment of the stack. When the ring topology is switched to chain topology, an SNMP message is automatically generated, but no stack management action is required. The unit that failed must be repaired to restore full stacking operation in the ring topology. After the stacking issues are resolved, the units can be reconnected without interruption, and the ring topology is restored. Stack Members and Unit IDs This section describes how to configure the stack. It contains the following topics: • Adding a Unit to the Stack • Assigning Unit IDs • Selecting the Master and Master Backup Units • Switching from the Master to the Master Backup • Replacing Stacking Members50 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Loading Software onto Stack Members • Rebooting the Stack • Managing Configuration Files on the Stack Adding a Unit to the Stack The recommended procedure to add a unit to a stack is as follows: 1 Place the powered-off unit in its physical place in the stack, and insert the stacking link in the unit (but do not connect it to the rest of the stack). 2 Power up the unit, and set the correct Unit ID, as described below. 3 Reboot the unit and connect it to the rest of the stack through the stack link. Assigning Unit IDs Each unit in the stack has a unique ID that defines the unit’s position and function in the stack, as shown in Figure 3-2. The unit that is assigned Unit ID 1 is the Master unit, by default. The unit that is assigned Unit ID 2 is the Master Backup unit. When you power-up the stack, each unit is assigned a unique Unit ID. This is displayed on the front panel of the unit, as shown in Figure 3-2. The Unit ID of each unit can be either automatically assigned or manually assigned, as described in step 1 to step 4 below. To assign IDs to the units in the stack, do the following for each unit in the stack: 1 Connect the unit to the terminal.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 51 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Turn on the unit to begin auto boot and press Return or Esc to abort and enter the Start Up menu. 3 Select Stack Menu to open the Stack Menu. 4 Select Set Unit Stack ID. Enter either a Unit ID for manual assignment or 0 to indicate that the unit ID will be assigned automatically. NOTE: The entire stack should be connected, as shown in Figure 4-1, before powering up the units. Selecting the Master and Master Backup Units A unit is master-enabled if it assigned Unit ID 1 and Unit 2. All other units in the stack (slaves) have unit IDs of 3-8. The stack master assignment is performed during the configuration boot process. One master-enabled stack member is elected as Master, and the other master-enabled stack member is selected as Master Backup, according to the following decision process: • A master is selected from the set of the two Master-enabled units. Priority is given to the lowest unit ID, but also takes into account the amount of time the unit is UP (Up Time) as follows: Startup Menu [1]Download Software [2]Erase Flash File [3]Password Recovery Procedure [4]Set Terminal Baud-Rate [5]Stack Menu [6]Back [1]Show Unit Stack ID [2]Set Unit Stack ID [3]Back52 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – When a master-enabled unit is inserted to a running stack, (or when Master and Backup master both start at the same time), they exchange each other’s UP TIME (the time since they powered up). If the time difference is smaller than 10 minutes, the unit with the lowest unit ID is elected; otherwise, the unit with the longest UP time is elected. – If a Master-enabled unit (with ID 1 or 2) is inserted into an operational stack, it will be elected as a backup master. – If a Master unit and/or a backup Master unit is removed from the stack and the user wishes to configure one of the slave units (numbered 3-8) to be a Master backup, the user must reset the unit’s ID. This can be done as follows: • If there is a Master-enabled unit in the stack: Do -switch n renumber 2 (through CLI or GUI). This makes the nth unit a master-enabled unit. • If there is no Master-enabled unit in the stack: Press the reset button on the unit to be master-enabled, and assign it a unit ID= 1 using the boot menu. • The user can force a master-enabled unit to be the master unit of the stack, even if the master election process did not select it. This is done by switching over to the backup unit. NOTE: Two stacking member are considered the same age if they were inserted within a ten minute interval, for example, if Unit 2 is inserted in the first minute of a ten-minute cycle, and Unit 1 is inserted in fifth minute of the same cycle, the units are considered to be the same age. NOTE: If two stack members are discovered to have the same Unit ID, only the older unit is included in the stack. The stack continues to function and a message is sent notifying that a unit failed to join the stack. The Stack Master and the Master Backup maintain a Warm Standby. The Warm Standby ensures that the Master Backup takes over for the Stack Master if a failover occurs, so that the stack continues to operate normally. During the Warm Standby, the Master and the Master Backup are synchronized with the static configuration. When the Stacking Master is configured, it must synchronize the Master Backup. The dynamic Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 53 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY configuration is not saved, for example, dynamically-learned MAC addresses are not saved, but dynamic information is learned quickly and automatically by network traffic. Switching from the Master to the Master Backup The Master Backup replaces the Stack Master if one or more of the following events occur: • The Stack Master fails or is removed from the stack. • Links from the Stack Master to the stacking members fails. • User performs soft switchover via the Web interface or the CLI. Switching between the Stack Master and the Master Backup results in limited service loss. Dynamic tables are relearned if a failure occurs. The Running Configuration file is synchronized between Stack Master and the Master Backup, and continues running on the Master Backup. Replacing Stacking Members If a unit is removed from the stack, and replaced with a unit with the same unit ID, the stack member is configured with the original unit configuration. Otherwise, if the new unit has either more or fewer ports than the previous unit, the results depend on the device type of the new and original units, as defined in Table 4-1: Table 4-1. Port Configurations when Replacing Units New Unit Original Unit New Port Configuration 5548P or 5548 5548P or 5548 Port configurations remain the same. 5524 or 5524P The first 24 Giga (GE) ports receive the respective 5524/P 24 GE port configurations. The 10 G port configurations remain the same. 54 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Loading Software onto Stack Members Software can be downloaded to all units simultaneously, or to the master unit alone. If software is only loaded to the master unit, when new software is selected, and the Master is rebooted, the Master updates the software on the remaining units. In this way, all units in the stack run the same software version. Rebooting the Stack Whenever a reboot occurs, topology discovery is performed, and the Master learns all units IDs in the stack. Configuration files are changed only through explicit user configuration, and are not automatically modified when units are added, removed or reassigned unit IDs. Each time the system reboots, the Startup Configuration file in the Master unit is used to configure the stack. Managing Configuration Files on the Stack The Startup Configuration and Running Configuration file are stored on the stack master. Each port in the stack is referenced in the configuration files by its port type and unit ID/0/port number, for example "gi1/0/24", which means Giga port 24 on unit 1 (the middle 0 is reserved for future use). Configuration files are managed from the Stack Master, including: • Saving to flash memory 5524P or 5524 5548P or 5548 The PowerConnect 5524/P 24 Gigabit ports receives the first 24 Giga 5548/P port configurations. The 10 Giga port configurations remain the same. The remaining ports receive the default port configuration. 5524P or 5524 Port configurations remain the same. Table 4-1. Port Configurations when Replacing Units (Continued) New Unit Original Unit New Port ConfigurationDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 55 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Uploading configuration files to an external TFTP server/HTTP client • Downloading configuration files from an external TFTP server/HTTP client • Download/upload through the USB port NOTE: Stack configuration for all configured ports is saved, even if the stack is reset and/or the ports are no longer present.56 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGStacking.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLYTemplate Last Updated - 2/7/2007Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 57 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 5 Configuring the Switch This section describes the configuration that must be performed after the switch is installed and connected to power supplies. Additional advanced functions are described in "Advanced Switch Configuration" on page 67. NOTE: Before proceeding further, read the release notes for this product. You can download the release notes from the Dell Support website at support.dell.com. NOTE: We recommend that you obtain the most recent revision of the user documentation from the Dell Support website at support.dell.com. It contains the following topics: • Configuration Work Flow • Connecting the Switch to the Terminal • Booting the Switch • Configuring the Stack • Configuration Using the Setup Wizard58 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuration Work Flow To configure the switches: 1 For each switch in the stack: a Connect it to a terminal, as described in the "Connecting the Switch to the Terminal" on page 59. b Boot the switch, as described in the "Booting the Switch" on page 60. c Assign a unit ID to the switch, as described in "Assigning Unit IDs" on page 50. 2 Connect the units in the stack to each other, as described in "Configuring the Stack" on page 61. 3 Connect the Master unit to the terminal, reboot the unit and the Setup Wizard is run automatically, as described in "Configuration Using the Setup Wizard" on page 61. 4 Respond to the Setup Wizard prompts. 5 Continue managing the switch, either through the console or Telnet, using the CLI or the web GUI.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 59 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Connecting the Switch to the Terminal The switch is configured and monitored through a terminal desktop system that runs terminal emulation software. The switch connects to the terminal through the console port. To connect the switch to a terminal: 1 Connect an RS-232 cable to a VT100-compatible terminal or the serial connector of a desktop system running terminal emulation software. 2 Connect the RS-232 cable to the switch console port on the front panel of the switch (see Figure 5-1) using an 8-pin RJ-45 male connector. Figure 5-1. Front-Panel Console Port 3 Set the terminal emulation software as follows: a Select the appropriate serial port to connect to the switch. b Set the data rate to 9600 baud. c Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. d Set Flow Control to none. e Select VT100 for Emulation mode within your communication software. f Select Terminal keys for Function, Arrow, and Ctrl keys. Ensure that the setting is for Terminal keys (not Windows keys). NOTE: You can connect a console to the console port on any unit in the stack, but stack management is performed only from the stack master (Unit ID 1 or 2). Console Port60 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Booting the Switch After the local terminal is connected, turn on power. The switch then goes through power-on self-test (POST). POST runs every time the switch is started and checks hardware components, to determine if the switch is operational before completely booting. If the system detects a critical problem, the boot process stops. If POST passes successfully, a valid executable image is loaded into RAM. POST messages are displayed on the terminal and indicate test success or failure. The boot process runs for approximately 40-45seconds. When the boot process completes, the following LEDs are lit, as shown in Figure 5-2: • Power • Status • Fan (should be green) • RPS (if it is being used) Figure 5-2. Initial LEDs Power Status Fan RPSDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 61 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring the Stack The switch is always considered to be a stack of switches even if the stack only contains a single switch. If there is more than one switch in the stack, each switch must be configured individually. See "Assigning Unit IDs" on page 50 for instructions on how to configure the stack. Configuration Using the Setup Wizard The Setup Wizard guides you through the initial switch configuration to get the system up and running as quickly as possible. Note that you can skip the Setup Wizard and configure the switch manually through the CLI. The Setup Wizard configures the following fields: • SNMP Community String and SNMP Management System IP address (optional) • Username and password • Management switch IP address • IP subnet mask • Default gateway IP address NOTE: The Setup Wizard assumes the following: • The PowerConnect switch was never configured before and is in the same state as when you received it. • The PowerConnect switch booted successfully. • The console connection is established and the console prompt is displayed on the screen of a VT100 terminal switch. Connect the Master unit to a terminal. You can identify the Master unit by the illuminated Master LED on the front panel of the switch (see Figure 3-2). To configure the system using the Setup Wizard: 1 Obtain the following information from the network administrator: • SNMP Community String and SNMP Management System IP address (optional) • Username and password62 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • The IP address to be assigned to the VLAN 1 interface through which the switch is to be managed (by default, every external and internal port is a member of the VLAN 1) • The IP subnet mask for the network • The default gateway (next hop router) IP address for configuring the default route 2 Boot the Master unit. The system automatically prompts you to use the Setup Wizard. The Setup Wizard displays the following information: Welcome to Dell Easy Setup Wizard The Setup Wizard guides you through the initial switch configuration and gets you up and running easily and quickly. You can skip the Setup Wizard and enter CLI mode to manually configure the switch. The system will prompt you with a default answer; by pressing Enter, you accept the default value. You must respond to the next question to run the Setup Wizard within 60 seconds, otherwise the system will continue with normal operation using the default system configuration. Would you like to enter the Setup Wizard (you must answer this question within 60 seconds)? (Y/N) 3 Enter [Y] to run the wizard. If you enter [N] or if you do not respond within 60 seconds, the Setup Wizard automatically exits and the CLI console prompt appears. If you enter [Y] the wizard provides interactive guidance through the initial switch configuration. The following information is displayed: You can exit the Setup Wizard at any time by entering [ctrl+Z]. The system is not set up for SNMP management by default. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 63 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To manage the switch using SNMP (required for Dell Network Manager) you can: • Setup the initial SNMP version 2 account now. • Return later and set up the SNMP version account. For more information on setting up a SNMP version 2 account, see the user documentation. Would you like to set up the SNMP management interface now? [Y/N] 4 Enter [N] to skip to Step 7 or enter [Y] to continue the Setup Wizard. If you enter [Y] the following information is displayed: To set up the SNMP management account you must specify the management system IP address and the "community string" or password that the particular management system uses to access the switch. The wizard automatically assigns the highest access level [Privilege Level 15] to this account. You can use Dell Network Manager or other management interfaces to change this setting later and to add additional management system later. For more information on adding management systems, see the user documentation. To add a management station: Please enter the SNMP community string to be used: 5 Enter the SNMP community string. You can use the default name "public" Please enter the IP address of the Management System (A.B.C.D) or wildcard (0.0.0.0) to manage from any Management Station:[0.0.0.0]. 6 Enter the SNMP Management System IP. 7 Set up user account privilege level, as follows: The following information is displayed: Now we need to set up your initial privilege (Level 15) user account. This account is used to login to the CLI and Web interface. You may set up 64 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY other accounts and change privilege levels later. For more information on setting up user accounts and changing privilege levels, see the user documentation. To set up a user account: Enter the user name: Please enter the user password: Please reenter the user password: 8 Enter the following: • User name, for example "admin" • Password and password confirmation. 9 Press Enter. The following information is displayed: Next, an IP address is setup. The IP address is defined on the default VLAN (VLAN 1). This is the IP address you use to access the Telnet, Web interface, or SNMP interface for the switch. To set up an IP address: Please enter the IP address of the device (A.B.C.D): Please enter the IP subnet mask (A.B.C.D or nn): 10 Enter the management IP address and IP subnet mask, for example 192.168.2.100 as the IP address and 255.255.255.0 as the IP subnet mask. 11 Press Enter. The following information is displayed: Finally, set up the default gateway. Please enter the IP address of the gateway from which this network is reachable (e.g. 192.168.2.1).Default gateway (A.B.C.D):[0.0.0.0] Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 65 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 12 Enter the default gateway. 13 Press Enter. The following is displayed (example): This is the configuration information that has been collected: SNMP Interface = "Dell Network Manager"@192.168.2.10 User Account setup = admin Password = ********** Management IP address = 192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway = 192.168.2.1 The following information is displayed: If the information is correct, please select (Y) to save the configuration and copy to the start-up configuration file. If the information is incorrect, select (N) to discard configuration and restart the wizard: [Y/N] 14 Enter [N] to restart the wizard or enter [Y] to complete the Setup Wizard. If you enter [Y] the following is displayed: Configuring SNMP management interface. Configuring user account....... Configuring IP and subnet...... Thank you for using Dell Easy Setup Wizard. You will now enter CLI mode. The CLI prompt is displayed. You have finished the initial configuration. After the initial configuration is complete, you can manage the switch from the connected console port using the CLI or remotely through the management interface, using Telnet or the Web GUI. See the Dell PowerConnect 5500 Series User Guide found on the Documentation CD.66 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUG_InitialConfiguration_gsg.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLYDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 67 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 6 Advanced Switch Configuration This section describes how to perform various configuration operations through the CLI. It includes the following topics: • Using the CLI • Accessing the Device Through the CLI • Retrieving an IP Address • Security Management and Password Configuration • Configuring Login Banners • Startup Menu Procedures • Software Download68 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Using the CLI This section provides some general information for using the CLI. For a complete description of CLI commands, refer to the Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems CLI Reference Guide. Command Mode Overview The CLI is divided into command modes, each with a specific command set. Entering a question mark at the terminal prompt displays a list of commands available for that particular command mode. In each mode, a specific command is used to navigate from one mode to another. These modes are described below. User EXEC Mode During CLI session initialization, the CLI is in User EXEC mode. Only a limited subset of commands is available in User EXEC mode. This level is reserved for tasks that do not change the terminal configuration and is used to access configuration sub-systems. After logging into the device, User EXEC command mode is enabled. The user-level prompt consists of the host name followed by the angle bracket (>). For example: console> NOTE: The default host name is console unless it has been modified during initial configuration. The User EXEC commands enable connecting to remote devices, changing terminal settings on a temporary basis, performing basic tests, and listing system information. To list the User EXEC commands, enter a question mark at the command prompt. To enter the next level, Privileged EXEC mode, a password is required (if configured). Privileged EXEC Mode Privileged EXEC mode provides access to the device global configuration. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 69 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Privileged access can be protected, to prevent unauthorized access and to secure operating parameters. Passwords are displayed on the screen, and are case-sensitive. NOTE: The enable command is only necessary if you login with privilege level less than 15. To access and list the Privileged EXEC mode commands: 1 At the prompt type enable and press . 2 When a password prompt displays, enter the password and press . The Privileged EXEC mode prompt displays as the device host name followed by #. For example: console# To list the Privileged EXEC commands, type a question mark at the command prompt. To return from Privileged EXEC mode to User EXEC mode, type disable and press . The following example illustrates accessing privileged EXEC mode and then returning to the User EXEC mode: Use the exit command to return to a previous mode. To configure the device, enter the next level, Global Configuration mode. Global Configuration Mode The Global Configuration mode manages device configuration on a global level. Global Configuration commands apply to system features, rather than a specific protocol or interface. console> enable Enter Password: ****** console# console# disable console>70 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To access Global Configuration mode, at the Privileged EXEC Mode prompt, type configure and press . The Global Configuration mode displays as the device host name followed by (config) and the pound sign #. To list the Global Configuration commands, enter a question mark at the command prompt. The following example illustrates how to access Global Configuration mode and return back to the Privileged EXEC mode: Interface Configuration Mode The Interface Configuration mode configures the device at the physical interface level (port, VLAN, or LAG). Interface commands that require subcommands have another level, called the Subinterface Configuration mode. A password is not required to access this level. The following example, places the CLI in Interface Configuration mode on port 1/0/1. The sntp command is then applied to that port. To run a command in a mode, which does not contain it, use do before the command, as in the following example: console# configure console(configure)# console# console# configure console(config)# exit console# console# configure console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# sntp client enable console# configure console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# sntp client enable console(config-if)# do show sntp configurationDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 71 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Accessing the Device Through the CLI You can manage the device using CLI commands, over a direct connection to the terminal console, or via a Telnet connection. Direct Connection Connect the device to the console and enter the CLI commands upon receiving a prompt. Telnet Connection Telnet is a terminal emulation TCP/IP protocol. RS-232 terminals can be virtually connected to the local device through a TCP/IP protocol network. Telnet is an alternative to a local login terminal, where a remote login is required. The device supports up to four simultaneous Telnet sessions. All CLI commands can be used over a Telnet session. If access is via a Telnet connection, ensure that the device has an IP address and that software has been downloaded to the device. To start a Telnet session: 1 Select Start > Run. The Run window opens. 2 Type cmd. The cmd window opens. 3 In the cmd window, type Telnet . The Telnet session begins.72 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Retrieving an IP Address Receiving an IP Address from a DHCP Server When using the DHCP protocol to retrieve an IP address, the device acts as a DHCP client. When the device is reset, the DHCP command is saved in the configuration file, but the IP address is not. To retrieve an IP address from a DHCP server, perform the following steps: 1 Select and connect any port to a DHCP server or to a subnet that has a DHCP server on it. 2 Type the following commands to use the selected port for receiving the IP address. a Assigning dynamic IP Addresses on a port: b Assigning a dynamic IP Addresses on a VLAN: The interface receives the IP address automatically. console# configure console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# ip address dhcp console# configure console(config)# interface vlan 1 console(config-if)# ip address dhcpDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 73 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 3 To verify the IP address, type show ip interface at the system prompt, as shown in the following example. When configuring/receiving IP addresses through DHCP and BOOTP (an older version of DHCP), the configuration received from these servers includes the IP address and may include the subnet mask and default gateway. NOTE: It is not necessary to delete the device configuration to retrieve an IP address from the DHCP server. NOTE: When copying configuration files, avoid using a configuration file that contains an instruction to enable DHCP on an interface that connects to the same DHCP server, or to one with an identical configuration. In this instance, the device retrieves the new configuration file and boots from it. The device then enables DHCP, as instructed in the new configuration file, and the DHCP instructs it to reload the same file. NOTE: If you configure a DHCP IP address, this address is dynamically retrieved, and the ip address dhcp command is saved in the configuration file. In the event of master failure, the backup will again attempt to retrieve a DHCP address. This could result in one of the following: • The same IP address may be assigned. • A different IP address may be assigned, which could result in loss of connectivity to the management station. • The DHCP server may be down, which would result in IP address retrieval failure, and possible loss of connectivity to the management station. Receiving an IP Address From a BOOTP Server The standard BOOTP protocol is supported and enables the device to automatically download its IP host configuration from any standard BOOTP server in the network. In this case, the device acts as a BOOTP client. console# show ip interface IP Address I/F Type Directed Precedence Status Broadcast ----------------- --------- -------- -------- -------- ----- 0.0.0.0/32 gi2/0/1 DHCP disable No Valid 10.5.234.232/24 vlan 1 Static disable No Valid74 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To retrieve an IP address from a BOOTP server: 1 Select and connect any port to a BOOTP server or subnet containing such a server. 2 At the system prompt, enter the delete startup configuration command to delete the Startup Configuration from flash. The device reboots with no configuration and in 60 seconds starts sending BOOTP requests. The device receives the IP address automatically. NOTE: When the device reboot begins, any input at the ASCII terminal or keyboard automatically cancels the BOOTP process before completion and the device does not receive an IP address from the BOOTP server. The following example illustrates the process: To display the IP address, enter the show ip interface command. The device is now configured with an IP address. console> enable console# delete startup-config Startup file was deleted console# reload You haven’t saved your changes. Are you sure you want to continue (Y/N) [N]? This command will reset the whole system and disconnect your current session. Do you want to continue (Y/N) [N]? ************************************************ /* the device reboots */Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 75 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Security Management and Password Configuration System security is handled through the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) mechanism that manages user access rights, privileges, and management methods. AAA uses both local and remote user databases. Data encryption is handled through the SSH mechanism. Passwords can be configured for the following services: • Terminal • Telnet • SSH • HTTP • HTTPS NOTE: When creating a user name, the default priority is 1, which provides access but not configuration rights. A priority of 15 must be set to enable access and configuration rights to the device. Although user names can be assigned privilege level 15 without a password, it is recommended to always assign a password. If there is no specified password, privileged users can access the Web interface with any password. NOTE: Passwords can be secured by using password management commands to force aging out of passwords, or expiration of passwords. For more information, see "Management Security" on page 261. Initial Configuration and Password Recovery The system is delivered without a default password, and all passwords must be defined by the user. If a user-defined password is lost, a password recovery procedure can be invoked from the Startup menu. This procedure is applicable for the local terminal only and enables a single access to the device from the local terminal with no password entered. The full mode of password recovery mechanism can be enabled/disabled through the CLI (service password-recovery command). This affects password recovery in the following way: • Enabled: When the password-recovery mechanism is invoked, one-time access to the device without a password is enabled and all configuration and user files are retained.76 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Disabled: When the password-recovery mechanism is invoked, one-time access to the device without a password is stilled enabled, however all configuration files (startup and backups) are removed and the following log message is generated to the terminal after boot process completed: “All configuration and user files were removed” Configuring an Initial Terminal Password To configure an initial terminal password, enter the following commands: Configuring an Initial Telnet Password To configure an initial Telnet password, enter the following commands: console(config)# aaa authentication login default line console(config)# aaa authentication enable default line console(config)# line console console(config-line)# login authentication default console(config-line)# enable authentication default console(config-line)# password george console(config)# aaa authentication login default line console(config)# aaa authentication enable default line console(config)# line telnet console(config-line)# login authentication default console(config-line)# enable authentication default console(config-line)# password bobDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 77 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring an Initial SSH Password To configure an initial SSH password, enter the following commands: Configuring an Initial HTTP Password To configure an initial HTTP password, enter the following commands: Configuring an Initial HTTPS Password To configure an initial HTTPS password, enter the following commands: Enter the following commands once when configuring use of a terminal, a Telnet, or an SSH session, for an HTTPS session. NOTE: In the Web browser, enable SSL 2.0 or greater for the page content to be displayed. NOTE: HTTP and HTTPS services require privilege level 15 access and connect directly to the configuration level access. console(config)# aaa authentication login default line console(config)# aaa authentication enable default line console(config)# line ssh console(config-line)# login authentication default console(config-line)# enable authentication default console(config-line)# password jones console(config)# ip http authentication aaa loginauthentication local console(config)# username admin password user1 privilege 15 console(config)# ip http authentication aaa loginauthentication local console(config)# username admin password user1 privilege 15 console(config)# crypto certificate 1 generate keygenerate console(config)# ip http secure-server78 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring Login Banners Banners can be defined for each line, such as console and telnet) or for all lines. They are disabled by default. The following types of banners can be defined: • Message-of-the-Day Banner (motd) — Displayed when the user connects to the device, before login. The following defines a message-of-the-day for the console: console# configure console(config)# line console console(config-line)# motd-banner console(config-line)# exit console (config)# banner motd * Welcome* console# do show banner motd Welcome Would you like to enable this banner to all lines? (Y/N)[Y] Y console(config)#Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 79 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Login Banner— Displayed after the Message-of-the-Day Banner, and before the user has logged in. The following defines a login banner for the console: • Exec Banner — Displayed after successful login (in all privileged levels and in all authentication methods). The following defines an exec banner for the console: console# configure console(config)# line console console(config-line)# login-banner console(config-line)# exit console (config)# banner login * Please log in* console# do show banner login Would you like to enable this banner to all lines? (Y/N)[Y] Y Please log in console# configure console(config)# line console console(config-line)# exec-banner console(config-line)# exit console (config)# banner exec * Successfully logged in* Would you like to enable this banner to all lines? (Y/N)[Y] Y console# do show banner exec Successfully logged in80 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Startup Menu Procedures The Startup menu enables performing various tasks, such as software download, flash handling and password recovery. You can enter the Startup menu when booting the device. User input must be entered immediately after the POST test. To enter the Startup menu: • Turn the power on. After the auto-boot messages appear, the following menu is displayed: The following sections describe the available Startup menu options. NOTE: When selecting an option from the Startup menu, take time-out into account. If no selection is made within 10 seconds (default), the device times out. This default value can be changed through the CLI. Download Software - Option[1] The software download procedure is used to replace corrupted files or upgrade system software, when the device does not have IP connectivity or when both software images of the device are corrupted and therefore you cannot use the web-based management system. NOTE: it is highly recommended that, before loading via xmodem, the baud rate of the device and terminal be set to 115200. Startup Menu [1]Download Software [2]Erase Flash File [3]Password Recovery Procedure [4]Set Terminal Baud-Rate [5]Stack menu [6]BackDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 81 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To download software through the Startup menu: 1 From the Startup menu, press [1]. The following prompt is displayed: 2 When using the HyperTerminal, click Transfer on the HyperTerminal Menu Bar and select Send File. 3 In the Filename field, enter the file path for the file to be downloaded. 4 Ensure that the Xmodem protocol is selected in the Protocol field. 5 Press Send. The software is downloaded. NOTE: After software download, the device reboots automatically. Erase FLASH File - Option[2] In some cases, the device Startup Configuration file must be erased. If the configuration is erased, all parameters configured via CLI, web-management or SNMP must be reconfigured. To erase the device configuration in the Startup Configuration file: 1 From the Startup menu, select [2]. The following message is displayed: Warning! About to erase a Flash file. Are you sure (Y/N)? 2 Press Y. The following message is displayed. Write Flash file name (Up to 8 characters, Enter for none.): 3 Enter config ("config" is the standard name for the Startup configuration file although you can use any name). The following is displayed: Downloading code using XMODEM !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! File config (if present) will be erased after system initialization ======== Press Enter To Continue ========82 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The configuration is erased when the system is reset. Password Recovery - Option[3] If a password is lost, the Password Recovery procedure can be called from the Startup menu. The procedure enables entry to the device a single time without entering a password. To recover a lost password when entering the local terminal only: 1 From the Startup menu, select [3]. 2 Continue the regular startup by logging in without a password. 3 Enter a new password or press 'ESC' to exit. NOTE: To ensure device security, reconfigure passwords for applicable management methods. Set Terminal Baud-Rate - Option[4] To set the terminal baud-rate: 1 Type [4] and press . 2 Enter the new baud rate. The following is displayed: Note that after this step, your terminal will no longer respond. Adjust your terminal speed to the configured one. Stack Menu - Option[5] To configure the stack, type [5] and press . For more information, see "Assigning Unit IDs" on page 50. Set new device baud-rate: 38,400Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 83 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Software Download This section contains instructions for downloading device software (system and boot images) through a TFTP server or USB port. The TFTP server must be configured before downloading the software. Software Auto Synch in Stack When several units are stacked, they must all run the same software version. When a new slave device is inserted into the stack, it is first checked for compatibility (meaning that the master can run firmware upgrade/downgrade to the slave unit), and if found compatible, its boot and image software versions are automatically updated with the Master’s. If the slave is found not compatible, it is shutdown. A SYSLOG message is sent when a master synchronizes a slave's software. System Image Download When the device boots, it decompresses the system image from the flash memory area and runs it. When a new image is downloaded, it is saved in the other area allocated for the other system image copy. On the next boot, the device decompresses and runs the image from the currently active system image. A system image can be downloaded through a USB port or a TFTP server. To download the system image from a TFTP server, ensure that an IP address is configured on one of the device ports and pings can be sent to the TFTP server. In addition, ensure that the file to be downloaded is saved on the TFTP server. To download a system image through the USB port or TFTP server: 1 Enter the show version command, to verify which software version is currently running on the device. The following is an example of the information that appears: Unit SW version Boot version HW version ------ ------------------- ------------------- -------- 2 1.0.0.24 1.0.0.11 console#84 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Enter the show bootvar command, to verify which system image is currently active. The following is an example of the information that is displayed: 3 Enter the one of the following commands to copy a new system image to the current unit: – copy {tftp://|usb://}{tftp address}/{file name} image (current unit) or To copy a new system image to all units in the stack: – copy tftp://{tftp address}/{file name} unit://*/image 4 When the new image is downloaded, it is saved in the area allocated for the other copy of system image (image-2, as shown in the example). The following is an example of the information that appears: Exclamation symbols indicate that a copying process is in progress. Each symbol (!) corresponds to 512 bytes transferred successfully. A period indicates that the copying process is timed out. Many periods in a row indicate that the copying process failed. console# show bootvar Unit Image Filename Version Date Status ---- ----- --------- --------- --------------------- --------- 2 1 image-1 1.0.0.13 04-Aug-2010 08:27:30 Active* 2 2 image-2 1.0.0.12 29-Jul-2010 17:02:26 Not active console# console# copy tftp://176.215.31.3/file1.ros image Accessing file ‘file1’ on 176.215.31.3Ö Loading file1 from 176.215.31.3: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Copy took 00:01:11 [hh:mm:ss]Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 85 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 5 Select the image for the next boot by entering the boot system command. After this command, enter the show bootvar command to verify that the copy indicated as a parameter in the boot system command is selected for the next boot. The following is an example of the information that appears: If the image for the next boot is not selected by entering the boot system command, the system boots from the currently active image. 6 Enter the reload command. The following message is displayed: 7 Enter Y. The device reboots. Boot Image Download Loading a new boot image from the TFTP server or USB port, updates the boot image. The boot image is loaded when the device is powered on. A user has no control over the boot image copies. To download a boot image through the TFTP server: console# boot system image-2 console# show bootvar Images currently available on the Flash Image-1 active Image-2 not active (selected for next boot) console# reload This command will reset the whole system and disconnect your current session. Do you want to continue (y/n) [n]?86 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdvanced Configuration.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 1 Enter the show version command to verify which software version is currently running on the device. The following is an example of the information that appears: 2 Enter the copy {tftp://|usb://}{tftp address}/{file name} boot command to copy the boot image to the device. The following is an example of the information that appears: 3 Enter the reload command. The following message is displayed: 4 Enter Y. The device reboots. console# show version Unit SW version Boot version HW version ----- -------------- ----------------- ---------- 2 1.0.0.24 1.0.0.11 console# console# copy tftp://50.1.1.7/contax-10014.ros image 01-Oct-2006 11:57:35 %COPY-I-FILECPY: Files Copy - source URL tftp://50.1.1.7/contax-10014.ros destination URL flash://image !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 01-Sep-2010 11:57:38 %INIT-I-Startup: Cold Startup !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 01-Sep-2010 11:59:05 %COPY-N-: The copy operation was completed successfully! Copy: 5954757 bytes copied in 00:01:30 [hh:mm:ss] console# reload This command will reset the whole system and disconnect your current session. Do you want to continue (Y/N) [N]?Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 87 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 7 Using Dell OpenManage Administrator This section provides an introduction to the Dell OpenManage Switch Administrator user interface. It contains the following topics: • Starting the Application • Understanding the Interface • Using the Switch Administrator Buttons • Field Definitions • Common GUI Features • CLI Commands88 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Starting the Application NOTE: Before starting the application the IP address must be defined. For more information, see "Accessing the Device Through the CLI" on page 71. 1 Open a web browser. 2 Enter the device’s IP address in the address bar and press . 3 When the Log In window displays, enter a user name and password. NOTE: Passwords are both case sensitive and alpha-numeric. 4 Click OK. The Dell OpenManage Switch Administrator home page displays. Understanding the Interface The home page contains the following views: • Tree view — Located on the left side of the home page, the tree view provides an expandable view of the features and their components. The branches in the tree view can be expanded to view all the components under a specific feature, or retracted to hide the feature's components. By dragging the vertical bar to the right, the tree area can be expanded to display the full name of a component. • Device View — Located in on the top center of the home page, the device view provides information about device ports, current configuration and status, table information, and feature components. For further information, see "Device Representation" on page 89 • Components List — Located in the bottom center of the home page, contains a list of the feature components. When a feature is expanded, the GUI page for that feature is displayed. • Information Buttons— Located at the top of the home page, provide access to information about the device and access to Dell Support. For more information, see "Information Buttons" on page 91.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 89 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Device Representation The home page contains a graphical representation of the units in the stack’s front panels. Figure 7-1 displays the 5548 model, but the display for the other models are similar. Figure 7-1. PowerConnect Device Port Indicators The graphic display on the home page displays the Unit ID and port indicators that specify whether a specific port is currently active. Table 7-1 describes the port colors that are displayed and their meaning: Table 7-1. Port Colors NOTE: For more information about LEDs, see "LED Definitions" on page 40. To configure a port double-click on its icon. Only ports that are physically present are displayed in the PowerConnect OpenManage Switch Administrator home page, and can be configured through the web management system. Non-present ports can be configured through the CLI or SNMP interfaces. Port Representation Ports are referred to in the notation: [gi/te]x/0/z, where: Component Description Amber The port is currently connected at 100 Mbps. Green The port is currently connected at 1000 Mbps Grey The port is currently disconnected Stacking Unit ID Giga Ports (odd numbered) Giga Ports (even numbered)90 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • gi—Giga port • te —Ten Giga port • x — Unit ID • z — Port numberDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 91 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Using the Switch Administrator Buttons This section describes the buttons found on the OpenManage Switch Administrator interface. Information Buttons Table 7-2 describes the information buttons that provide access to online support and online help, as well as information about the OpenManage Switch Administrator interfaces. These are displayed at the top of each page. Device Management Icons Table 7-3 describes the device management buttons. Table 7-2. Information Buttons Button Description Support Opens the Dell Support page at support.dell.com About Contains the version and build number and Dell copyright information. Logout Opens the Log Out window. Table 7-3. Device Management Icons Button Icon Description Apply&Save Saves changes to the Running and Startup Configuration files. Help Open online help. The online help pages are context-sensitive. For example, if the IP Addressing page is open, the help topic for that page is displayed when Help is clicked. Print Prints the Network Management System page and/or table information.92 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Refresh Refreshes device information from the Running Configuration file. Table 7-3. Device Management Icons (Continued)Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 93 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Field Definitions Fields that are user-defined can contain between 1–159 characters, unless otherwise noted on the OpenManage Switch Administrator web page. All letters or characters can be used, except the following: "\ / : * ? < >" Common GUI Features Table 7-4 describes the common functions that can be performed on many GUI pages. Table 7-4. Common GUI Elements Button Description Apply Save changes entered in GUI page to the Running Configuration file. Back Go to previous page. Cancel Cancel changes entered in GUI page. Clear All Counters Delete counters. Clear Counters Delete selected counters. Clear Log Delete entries from log. Clear Statistics Delete statistics. Copy parameters from Copy the parameters from a selected row to the selected target rows. Copy parameters from port Copy the parameters from a selected port to the selected target ports. Details Shows further details relevant to the current page. Next Go to next page. Query Run a query after query criteria have been entered. Remove Remove checked elements in the page. If Select All is selected, all elements are removed. Reset All Counters Delete all counters. Restore Defaults Restores parameters entered in page to default values.94 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY GUI Terms Each GUI page in the tree view is described in the following sections. A brief introduction is provided along with steps specifying how to enter information in the page. The following terms are used: • Enter — Indicates that information may be entered in the field. It does not imply that the field is mandatory. • Select —Indicates that information may be selected from a drop-down list or from radio buttons. • Displays —Indicates that the field is display only. CLI Commands There are certain command entry conventions that apply to all commands. The following table describes these conventions. Table 7-5. Common GUI Elements Telnet Opens a Telnet window. This only works in the Explorer 6 and Firefox browsers. Button Description [ ] In a command line, square brackets indicate an optional entry.. { } In a command line, curly brackets indicate a selection of compulsory parameters separated by the | character. One option must be selected. For example: flowcontrol {auto|on|off} means that for the flowcontrol command either auto, on, or off must be selected. Italic Font Indicates a parameter value. Bold Italic Font Indicates a parameter key word. Any individual key on the keyboard. For example click . Table 7-4. Common GUI Elements (Continued) Button DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 95 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Ctrl+F4 Any combination of keys clicked simultaneously, for example: Ctrl and F4. Screen Display Indicates system messages and prompts appearing on the console. all When a parameter is required to define a range of ports or parameters and all is an option, the default for the command is all when no parameters are defined. For example, the command interface range port-channel has the option of either entering a range of channels, or selecting all. When the command is entered without a parameter, it automatically defaults to all. Button Description96 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGAdmin.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLYDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 97 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 8 Network Security This section describes the various mechanisms for providing security on the switch. It contains the following topics: • Port Security • ACLs • ACL Binding • Proprietary Protocol Filtering • Absolute Time Range • Time Range Recurrence • Dot1x Authentication98 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Security Network security can be enhanced by limiting access on a port to users with specific MAC addresses. The MAC addresses can be dynamically learned, or they can be statically configured. Port security has the following modes: • Classic Lock — Locked port security monitors both received and learned packets that are received on specific ports. Access to the locked port is limited to users with specific MAC addresses. These addresses are either manually defined on the port, or learned on that port before it was locked. • Limited Dynamic Lock — When a packet is received on a locked port, and the packet’s source MAC address is not tied to that port (either it was learned on a different port, or it is unknown to the system), a protection mechanism, which provides various options is invoked. Unauthorized packets arriving to a locked port are either: – Forwarded – Discarded with no trap – Discarded with a trap – The port is shutdown Locked port security enables storing a list of MAC addresses in the configuration file. The MAC addresses are restored when the device is reset. Disabled ports can be activated from the Port Configuration page. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 99 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To configure port security: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Port Security to display the Port Security: Summary page. Figure 8-1. Port Security: Summary Security parameters are displayed for all ports or LAGs, depending on the selected interface type. 2 To modify the security parameters for a port, select it, and click Edit. 3 Enter the following fields: – Interface — Select the interface to be configured. – Current Port Status — Displays the current port status. – Set Port — Select to either lock or unlock the port. – Learning Mode — Set the locked port type. The Learning Mode field is enabled only if Locked is selected in the Set Port field. The possible options are: • Classic Lock — Locks the port using the classic lock mechanism. The port is immediately locked, regardless of the number of addresses that have already been learned. 100 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Limited Dynamic Lock — Locks the port by deleting the dynamic MAC addresses associated with the port. The port learns up to the maximum addresses allowed on the port. Both relearning and aging MAC addresses are enabled. – Max Entries (0-128) — Enter the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port. The Max Entries field is enabled only if Locked is selected in the Set Port field, and the Limited Dynamic Lock mode is selected in Learning Mode field. – Action on Violation — Select the action to be applied to packets arriving on a locked port. The possible options are: • Discard — Discard the packets from any unlearned source. • Forward — Forward the packets from an unknown source, without learning the MAC address. • Shutdown — Discard the packet from any unlearned source, and shut down the port. Ports remain shutdown until they are reactivated, or the device is reset. – Trap — Enable/disable traps being sent when a packet is received on a locked port. – Trap Frequency (1-1000000) — Enter the amount of time (in seconds) between traps. Configuring Port Security Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring port security. . Table 8-1. Port Security CLI Commands CLI Command Description set interface active {[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethern et] interface|port-channel LAGnumber} Reactivates an interface that is shutdown due to port security reasons.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 101 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY port security max {max-addr} no port security max Specifies the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port. Use the no form of this command to restore the default port security mode {lock | maxaddresses } no port security mode Configures the port security learning mode. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. port security [forward | discard | discard-shutdown] [trap seconds] no port security Enables port security on an interface. Use the no form of this command to disable port security on an interface. port security [forward|discard|discard-shutdown] [trap seconds] no port security Configures port security on an interface. Use the no form of this command to disable port security. show ports security [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethern et] port-number ]|port-channel LAG-number] Displays lock status of specified interface or of all interfaces. Table 8-1. Port Security CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description102 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console # show ports security Port Status Learning Action Maximum Trap Frequency ------- -------- -------- -------- ------- ---- --------- gi1/0/1 Disabled Max-Addresses - 10 - - gi1/0/2 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/3 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/4 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/5 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/6 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/7 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/8 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/9 Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/10Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/11Disabled Lock - 1 - - gi1/0/12Disabled Lock - 1 - -Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 103 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY ACLs This section describes Access Control Lists (ACLs), which enable defining classification actions and rules for specific ingress or egress ports. It contains the following topics: • ACL Overview • MAC-Based ACLs • MAC-Based ACEs • IPv4-Based ACLs • IPv4-Based ACEs • IPv6-Based ACLs • IPv6-Based ACEs ACL Overview Access Control Lists (ACLs) enable network managers to define classification actions and rules for specific ingress or egress ports. Packets entering an ingress or egress port, with an active ACL, are either admitted or denied entry. If entry is denied, the ingress or egress port may be disabled, for example, a network administrator defines an ACL rule that states that port number 20 can receive TCP packets, however, if a UDP packet is received, the packet is dropped. ACLs are composed of Access Control Entries (ACEs) that are rules that determine traffic classifications. Each ACE is a single rule, and up to 256 rules may be defined on each ACL, and up to 3000 rules globally. Rules are not only used for user configuration purposes, they are also used for features like DHCP Snooping, Protocol Group VLAN and iSCSI, so that not all 3000 rules are available for ACEs. It is expected that there will be at least 2000 rules available. If there are fewer rules available, this may be due to DHCP Snooping or iSCSI optimization. Reduce the number of entries in DHCP Snooping or reduce the max number of TCP connections in the iSCSI configuration in order to free rules for ACEs. The following types of ACLs can be defined: • MAC-based ACL — Examines Layer 2 fields only • IPv4-based ACL —Examines the Layer 3 layer of IPv4 frames104 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • IPv6-based ACL —Examines the Layer 3 layer of IPv6 frames MAC-Based ACLs To define a MAC-based ACL: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > MAC Based ACL to display the MAC Based ACL: Summary page. Figure 8-2. MAC Based ACL: Summary The currently-defined MAC-based ACLs are displayed. 2 To add a new ACL, click Add ACL, and enter the name of the new ACL.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 105 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring MAC-Based ACLs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring MAC-based ACLs. The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: Table 8-2. MAC Based ACL CLI Commands CLI Command Description mac access-list extended aclname no mac access-list extended aclname Defines an ACL and places the device in MAC-extended ACL configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to remove the ACL. show interfaces access-lists Displays access lists applied on interfaces. console# show access-lists Extended IP access list ACL1 permit 234 172.30.40.1 0.0.0.0 any permit 234 172.30.8.8 0.0.0.0 any106 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY MAC-Based ACEs To add rules to an ACL: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > MAC Based ACE to display the MAC Based ACE: Summary page. Figure 8-3. MAC Based ACE: Summary The currently-defined rules for the selected ACL are displayed. 2 To add a rule click Add ACE. 3 Select the ACL for which a rule is being created. 4 Enter the fields: – New Rule Priority — Enter the priority of the ACE. ACEs with higher priority are processed first. One is the highest priority – Source MAC Address — Match the source MAC address from which packets have arrived to this source address. In addition to the Source MAC address, you can enter a Wildcard Mask that specifies which bits in the source address are used for matching and which bits are ignored. A wildcard of 00:00:00:00:00:00 means the bits must be matched exactly; ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff means the bits are irrelevant. Any combination of 0s and ffs can be used. – Any — Check to indicate that the source address is not matched.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 107 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Dest. MAC Address — Match the destination MAC address to which packets are addressed to this address. In addition to the Destination MAC address, you can enter a Wildcard Mask that specifies which bits in the source address are used for matching and which bits are ignored. A wildcard of 00:00:00:00:00:00 means the bits must be matched exactly; ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff means the bits are irrelevant. Any combination of 0s and ffs can be used. – Any — Check to indicate that the destination address is not matched. – VLAN ID — Match the packet’s VLAN ID to this VLAN ID. The possible VLAN IDs are 1 to 4095. – CoS — Match the packet’s CoS value to this CoS value. – Cos Mask — Match the packet’s CoS value to one of these CoS values. – Ether type — Match the packet’s Ethertype to this one. – Time Range Name — Check to associate a time range with the ACE. Select one of the time ranges defined in the Time Range page. – Action — Select the action taken upon a match. The following options are available: • Permit — Forward packets that meet the ACL criteria. • Deny — Drop packets that meet the ACL criteria. • Shutdown — Drop packets that meet the ACL criteria, and disable the port to which the packet was addressed. – Logging of Dropped Packets — Check to activate logging of dropped packets. 108 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring MAC-Based ACEs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring MACbased ACEs. The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: Table 8-3. MAC Based ACE CLI Commands CLI Command Description permit {any|source-ip-address source-wildcard} {any|destination destinationwildcard} [eth-type 0|aarp|amber|decspanning|decnetiv|diagnostic|dsm|etype-6000] [vlan vlan-id] [cos cos coswildcard] [time-range timerange-name] Sets permit conditions for an MAC access list (in MAC ACL configuration mode). deny {any|source sourcewildcard} {any|destination destination-wildcard} [eth-type 0|aarp|amber|decspanning|decnet-iv | diagnostic |dsm|etype-6000] [vlan vlan-id] [cos cos cos-wildcard] [timerange time-range-name][disableport|log-input] Sets deny conditions for an MAC access list. console(config)# mac access-list extended server1 console(config-mac-al)# permit 00:00:00:00:00:01 00:00:00:00:00:ff anyDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 109 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY IPv4-Based ACLs To define an IPv4-based ACL: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > IPv4 Based ACL to display the IPv4 Based ACL: Summary page. Figure 8-4. IPv4 Based ACL: Summary The previously-defined IPv4 ACLs are displayed. 2 To add a new ACL, click Add ACL. 3 Enter the name of the new ACL. Names are case-sensitive.110 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring IP-based ACLs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring IP-based ACLs. The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: IPv4-Based ACEs To add a rule to an ACL: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > IPv4 Based ACE to display the IPv4 Based ACE page. Figure 8-5. IPv4 Based ACE: Summary Table 8-4. IP-Based ACL CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip access-list extended aclname no ip access-list extended aclname Defines an IPv4 access list and places the device in IPv4 access list configuration mode Use the no form of this command to remove the access list. console(config)# ip access-list extended server-aclDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 111 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The currently-defined rules for the selected ACL are displayed. 2 To add a rule, click Add ACE. 3 Select a user-defined ACL, and enter the following fields: – New ACE Priority (1-2147483647) —Enter the priority of the ACE. ACEs with higher priority are processed first. One is the highest priority. – Protocol Select From List — Select to create an ACE, based on a specific protocol. The following options are available: • ICMP — Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The ICMP enables the gateway or destination host to communicate with the source host, for example, to report a processing error. • IGMP — Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Enables hosts to notify their local switch or router that they want to receive transmissions assigned to a specific multicast group. • IPinIP — IP in IP. Encapsulates IP packets to create tunnels between two routers. This ensures that IPIP tunnel appears as a single interface, rather than several separate interfaces. IPIP enables tunnel intranets occur the internet, and provides an alternative to source routing. • TCP — Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Enables two hosts to communicate and exchange data streams. TCP guarantees packet delivery, and guarantees that packets are transmitted and received in the order they are sent. • EGP — Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). Permits exchanging routing information between two neighboring gateway hosts in an autonomous systems network. • IGP — Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Enables for routing information exchange between gateways in an autonomous network. • UDP — User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Communication protocol that transmits packets but does not guarantee their delivery.112 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • HMP — Host Mapping Protocol (HMP). Collects network information from various networks hosts. HMP monitors hosts spread over the internet as well as hosts in a single network. • RDP — Reliable Data Protocol (RDP). provide a reliable data transport service for packet-based applications. • IDPR— Matches the packet to the IDPR protocol. • IDRP— Matches the packet to the Inter-Domain Routing Protocol (IDRP). • RVSP — Matches the packet to the ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP). • AH — Authentication Header (AH). Provides source host authentication and data integrity. • EIGRP — Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). Provides fast convergence, support for variable-length subnet mask, and supports multiple network layer protocols. • OSPF — The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing Layer Two (2) Tunneling Protocol, an extension to the PPP protocol that enables ISPs to operate Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). • IPIP — IP over IP (IPinIP). Encapsulates IP packets to create tunnels between two routers. This ensures that IPIP tunnel appears as a single interface, rather than several separate interfaces. IPIP enables tunnel intranets occur the internet, and provides an alternative to source routing. • PIM — Matches the packet to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM). • L2TP— Matches the packet to Internet Protocol (L2IP). • ISIS — Intermediate System - Intermediate System (ISIS). Distributes IP routing information throughout a single autonomous system in IP networks. – Protocol ID To Match— Enter a protocol number if you did not select a protocol by name. – Any(IP) — Check to use any protocol. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 113 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Source Port (0 - 65535) — Enter the TCP/UDP source port. Enter either Single, Range or select Any to include all ports. – Destination Port (0 - 65535) — Enter the TCP/UDP destination port. Enter either a Single, Range or select Any to include all ports. – Source IP Address — Enter the source IP address to which addresses in the packet are compared. • Wildcard Mask —In addition to the Source MAC address, you can enter a mask that specifies which bits in the source address are used for matching and which bits are ignored. A wildcard of 0.0.0.0 means the bits must be matched exactly in addition to the IP source address; ff.ff.ff.ff means the bits are irrelevant. Any combination of 0s and ffs can be used. • Any — Check to indicate that the source address is not matched. – Dest. IP Address — Enter the destination IP address to which addresses in the packet are compared. • Wildcard Mask —In addition to the Destination MAC address, you can enter a mask that specifies which bits in the source address are used for matching and which bits are ignored. A wildcard of 0.0.0.0 means the bits must be matched exactly in addition to the IP destination address; ff.ff.ff.ff means the bits are irrelevant. Any combination of 0s and ffs can be used. • Any — Check to indicate that the destination address is not matched. – TCP Flags — To use TCP flags, check the TCP Flag checkbox and then check the desired flag(s). – ICMP — Specifies an ICMP message type for filtering ICMP packets. This field is available only when ICMP is selected in the Protocol field. The following options are available: • Select from List — Select an ICMP type from the list. • ICMP Type — Enter the ICMP type. • Any — Check to use all ICMP types.114 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – ICMP Code — Enter an ICMP message code for filtering ICMP packets that are filtered by ICMP message type or ICMP message code. This field is available only when ICMP is selected in the Protocol field. The following options are available: • ICMP Code — Enter an ICMP code. • Any — Check to use all ICMP codes. – IGMP — IGMP packets can be filtered by IGMP message type. This field is available only when IGMP is selected in the Protocol field. The following options are available: • Select from List — Select an IGMP message type from the list. • IGMP Type — Enter the IGMP message type. • Any — Check to use all IGMP message types. – Classification — Select one of the following matching options: • Match DSCP(0-63) — Matches the packet DSCP value to the ACL. • Match IP Precedence(0-7) — Check to enable matching IP-precedence with the packet IP-precedence value. IPprecedence enables marking frames that exceed the CIR threshold. In a congested network, frames containing a higher DP value are discarded before frames with a lower DP value. If this field is checked, enter a value to be matched. – Time Range Name — Check to associate a time range with the ACE. Select one of the time ranges defined in the Time Range page. – Action — Select the ACL forwarding action. The following options are available: • Permit — Forward packets which meet the ACL criteria. • Deny — Drop packets which meet the ACL criteria. • Shutdown — Drop packet that meet the ACL criteria, and disable the port to which the packet was addressed. – Logging of Dropped Packets — Check to activate logging of dropped packets. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 115 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring IP-based ACEs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring IP-based ACLs. Table 8-5. IP-Based ACE CLI Commands CLI Command Description permit protocol {any|source-ip-address source-wildcard} {any|destination-ipaddress destination-wildcard} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] permit icmp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard} [any|icmptype][any|icmp-code]] [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] permit igmp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard}[igmp-type] [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] permit tcp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|source-port/portrange}{any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard} {any|destinationport/port-range } [dscp number|precedence number] [match-all list-of-flags] [timerange time-range-name] permit udp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|source-port|port-range} {any|destination-ip-address destinationwildcard} {any|destination-port/port-range } [dscp number|precedence number] [matchall time-range-name] [time-range timerange-name] Sets conditions to allow a packet to pass a named IP access list ( in access list configuration mode). The list of protocols is found above.116 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: deny protocol {any|source-ip-address source-wildcard} {any|destination-ipaddress destination-wildcard} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny icmp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard{any|icmp-type} {any|icmp-code} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny igmp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard}[igmp-type] [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny tcp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|source-port|portrange}{any|destination-ip-address destination-wildcard} {any|destinationport/port-range } [dscp number|precedence number] [match-all list-of-flags] [timerange time-range-name] [disable-port|loginput] deny udp {any|source-ip-address sourcewildcard} {any|source-port|port-range} {any|destination-ip-address destinationwildcard} {any|destination-port|port-range } [dscp number|precedence number] [matchall time-range-name] [time-range timerange-name] [disable-port|log-input] Sets deny conditions for IPv4 access list (in access list configuration mode). console(config)# ip access-list extended server console(config-ip-al)# permit ip 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 1.1.2.0 0.0.0.0 Table 8-5. IP-Based ACE CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 117 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY IPv6-Based ACLs The IPv6 Based ACL Page displays and enables the creation of IPv6 ACLs, which check pure IPv6-based traffic. IPv6 ACLs do not check IPv6-over-IPv4 or ARP packets. To define IPv6-based ACLs: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > IPv6 Based ACL to display the IPv6 Based ACL: Summary page. Figure 8-6. IPv6 Based ACL: Summary A list of all of the currently defined IPv6-based ACLs is displayed. 2 To add a new ACL, click Add ACL. 3 Enter the name of the new ACL. Names are case-sensitive.118 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring IPv6-based ACLs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring IPv6-based ACLs. The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: IPv6-Based ACEs To add a rule to an IPv6-based ACL: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > IPv6 Based ACE to display the IPv6 ACE: Summary page. Figure 8-7. IPv6 Based ACE: Summary Table 8-6. IP-Based ACL CLI Commands CLI Command Description ipv6 access-list [access-listname] no ipv6 access-list [accesslist-name] Defines an IPv6 access list and places the device in IPv6 access list configuration mode Use the no form of this command to remove the access list. console(config)# ipv6 access-list server-aclDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 119 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The currently-defined rules for the selected ACL are displayed. 2 To add a rule click Add ACE. 3 Select a user-defined ACL for which a rule is being created. 4 Enter the following fields: – New Rule Priority — Enter the ACE priority that determines which ACE is matched to a packet, based on a first match. – Protocol Select from List — Select to create an ACE, based on a specific protocol. The following options are available: • TCP — Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Enables two hosts to communicate and exchange data streams. TCP guarantees packet delivery, and guarantees packets are transmitted and received in the order the are sent. • UDP — User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Communication protocol that transmits packets but does not guarantee their delivery. • ICMP — Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The ICMP allows the gateway or destination host to communicate with the source host. For example, to report a processing error. • IPV6 — Matches the packet to the IPV6 protocol. – Protocol ID To Match — Enter a protocol. – Any — Check to use any protocol. – Source Port — Enter the TCP/UDP source port. Enter either a Single, Range or select Any to include all ports. – Destination Port — Enter the TCP/UDP destination port. Enter either a Single, Range or select Any to include all ports. – TCP Flags — To use TCP flags, check the TCP Flag checkbox and then check the desired flag(s). – ICMP — Specifies an ICMP message type for filtering ICMP packets. This field is available only when ICMP is selected in the Protocol field. The following options are available: • Select from List — Select an ICMP type from the list. • ICMP Type — Enter the ICMP type.120 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Any — Check to use all ICMP types. – ICMP Code — Specifies an ICMP message code for filtering ICMP packets that are filtered by ICMP message type or ICMP message code. This field is available only when ICMP is selected in the Protocol field. The following options are available: • ICMP Code — Enter an ICMP code. • Any — Check to use all ICMP codes. – Source IP Address — Enter the source IP address to which addresses in the packet are compared. The following options are available: • Prefix Length —The number of bits that comprise the source IP address prefix of the subnetwork. • Any — Check to indicate that the source address is not matched. – Dest. IP Address — Enter the destination IP address to which addresses in the packet are compared. The following options are available: • Prefix Length —The number of bits that comprise the destination IP address prefix of the subnetwork. • Any — Check to indicate that the destination address is not matched. – Traffic Class — Select one of the following options: • Match DSCP — Matches the packet DSCP value to the ACL. • Match IP Precedence — Matches the IP-precedence with the packet IP-precedence value. IP-precedence enables marking frames that exceed CIR threshold. In a congested network, frames containing a higher DP value are discarded before frames with a lower DP value. – Time Range Name — Check to associate a time range with the ACE. Select one of the time ranges defined in the Time Range page. – Action — The ACL forwarding action. The following options are available: • Permit — Forwards packets that meet the ACL criteria. • Deny — Drops packets that meet the ACL criteria.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 121 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Shutdown — Drops packet that meet the ACL criteria, and disables the port to which the packet was addressed. – Logging of Dropped Packets — Check to activate logging of dropped packets. Configuring IP-based ACEs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring IP-based ACLs. Table 8-7. IP-Based ACE CLI Commands CLI Command Description permit protocol {any|{source-prefix/length }{any|destination- prefix/length } [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] permit icmp {any|{source-prefix/length }{any|destination-prefix/length } {any|icmp-type}{any|icmp-code} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] permit tcp {any|{source-prefix/length } {any|source-port/port-range} }{any|destination prefix/length } {any|destination-port/port-range} [dscp number|precedence number] [match-all listof-flags] [time-range time-range-name] permit udp {any|{source-prefix/length }} {any|source-port|port-range} }{any|destination prefix/length } {any|destination-port/port-range} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] Sets permit conditions for IPv6 access list.122 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: deny protocol {any|{source-prefix/length }{any|destination-prefix|length} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny icmp {any|{source-prefix/length }{any|destination-prefix/length } {any|icmp-type} {any|icmp-code} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny tcp {any|{source-prefix/length } {any|source-port/port-range} }{any|destination-prefix/length} {any|destination-port/port-range} [dscp number|precedence number] [match-all listof-flags] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] deny udp {any|{source-prefix/length }} {any|source-port/port-range} }{any|destination-prefix|length} {any|destination-port/port-range} [dscp number|precedence number] [time-range time-range-name] [disable-port|log-input] Sets deny conditions for IPv4 access list (in Access List Configuration mode). console(config)# ipv6 access-list server console(config-ipv6-al)# permit tcp 3001::2/64 any any 80 Table 8-7. IP-Based ACE CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 123 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY ACL Binding When an ACL is bound to an interface, all the rules that have been defined for the ACL are applied to that interface. Whenever an ACL is assigned on a port or LAG, flows from that ingress or egress interface that do not match the ACL, are matched to the default rule, which is to Drop unmatched packets. To change the default action for unmatched packets to an action other than Drop, do the following: • Add an additional ACE to the ACL with "Any" in all fields • Set its action other than Drop • Set the priority to the lowest in the ACL. To bind ACLs to interfaces: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > ACL Binding to display the ACL Binding: Summary page. Figure 8-8. ACL Binding: Summary The ports on the selected unit are displayed along with their associated ACLs.124 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 To bind an ACL to an interface, select an interface and click Edit. 3 Select an ACL(s). You can select one of each type (MAC-based ACL, IPv4-based ACL or IPv6-based ACL) or one IPv4-based ACL and one IPv6-based ACL. Configuring ACL Bindings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring ACL Bindings. . The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: Table 8-8. ACL Bindings CLI Commands CLI Command Description service-acl input acl-name1 [acl-name2] no service-acl input Controls access to an interface Use the no form of the command to remove access control. show access-lists [acl-name] Displays access control lists (ACLs) configured on the switch. console(config)# mac access-list extended server console(config-mac-al)# permit 00:00:00:00:00:01 00:00:00:00:00:ff any console(config-mac-al)# exit console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# service-acl input serverDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 125 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Proprietary Protocol Filtering Protocol filters are used to disallow receiving specific proprietary protocol packets through an interface. These can be enabled for specific ports. If a protocol filter is enabled on a port, you cannot enable a QoS ACL on this port. To configure Proprietary Protocol Filtering: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Proprietary Protocol Filtering to display the Proprietary Protocol Filtering: Summary page. Figure 8-9. Proprietary Protocol Filtering: Summary A list of the ports and their filtered protocols is displayed. 2 Click Edit to modify the filtered protocols for a specific port. 3 Select a unit and an interface.126 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 Move the required protocols from the Available Protocols list to the Filtered Protocols list. The following displays the protocols and the addresses that are blocked: Configuring Proprietary Protocol Filtering Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields in the Proprietary Protocol Filtering pages. Only one of the following CLI commands can be active on a port at the same time. To add other protocol filters, the command must be negated and then run again with all the required protocol names. . The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: Table 8-9. Protocol Filtering Protocol Destination Address Protocol Type blockcdp 0100.0ccc.cccc 0x2000 blockvtp 0100.0ccc.cccc 0x2003 blockdtp 0100.0ccc.cccc 0x2004 blockudld 0100.0ccc.cccc 0x0111 blockpagp 0100.0ccc.cccc 0x0104 blocksstp 0100.0ccc.cccd - blockall 0100.0ccc.ccc0 - 0100.0ccc.cccf - Table 8-10. Proprietary Protocol Filtering CLI Commands CLI Command Description service-acl input protocol1 [protocol2 … protocol6] no service-acl input Discards packets that are classified to specific protocols. Use the no form of those commands to disable discarding of the packets. console (Config-if)# service-acl input blockcdp blockvtpDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 127 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Time Range Time ranges can be defined and associated with an QoS ACL, so that it is applied only during that time range. There are two types of time ranges: • Absolute —This type of time range begins on a specific date or immediately and ends on a specific date or extends infinitely. It is created in the Time Range pages. A recurring element can be added to it. • Recurring — This is a time range element that is added to an absolute range, and begins and ends on a recurring basis. It is defined in the Time Range Recurrence pages. If a time range includes both absolute and recurring ranges, the ACL is activated only if both absolute start time and the recurring time range have been reached. The ACL is deactivated when either of the time ranges is reached. The switch supports a maximum of 10 absolute time ranges. All time specifications are interpreted as local time (Daylight Savings Time does not affect this). To ensure that the time range entries take effect at the desired times, the system time must be set. For more information on setting the system time, see "Time Synchronization" on page 169. A possible use for this feature is to limit access of computers to the network only during business hours, after which they are locked, and access to the rest of the network is blocked.128 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Absolute Time Range To define an absolute time range: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Time Range to display the Time Range: Summary page. Figure 8-10. Time Range: Summary The existing Time Ranges are displayed. 2 To add a new time range, click Add. 3 Enter the name of the time range in the Time Range Name field. 4 Define the Absolute Start time. – To begin the Time Range immediately, click Immediate. – To determine at what time in the future the Time Range will begin, enter values in the Date and Time fields.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 129 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 5 Define the Absolute End time. – To indicate that the Time Range should not end, click Infinite. – To determine the time at which the Time Range ends, enter values in the Date and Time fields. See "Configuring Time Ranges Using CLI Commands" on page 130 for the CLI commands for creating time ranges. Time Range Recurrence To add a recurring time range element to an absolute time range: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Time Range Recurrence to display the Recurring Time Range: Summary page. Figure 8-11. Recurring Time Range: Summary A daily and weekly recurring element of the time range that is selected is displayed if they exist.130 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 To add a recurring time range element to a time range, click Add. 3 Select the Time Range Name to which you want to add the Time Range Recurrence. The Absolute Start and Absolute End fields are displayed. 4 Check if the recurrence is Daily or Weekly in Recurrence type. 5 If the recurrence is Daily, enter: – Start Time — Select the time on which the time range starts. – End Time— Select the time on which the time range ends. – Weekday — Select the day of the week on which the time range occurs. 6 If the recurrence is Weekly, enter: • Start — Select the Day of the Week and Time on which the time range starts. • End —Select the Day of the Week and Time on which the time range ends. Configuring Time Ranges Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring time ranges. Table 8-11. Time Range CLI Commands CLI Command Description time-range time-range-name no time-range time-range-name Enables time-range configuration mode, and defines time ranges for functions (such as access lists). Use the no form of this command to remove the time range configuration. absolute start hh:mm day month year no absolute start absolute end hh:mm day month year no absolute end Adds start and end times to the time range. Use the no form of the commands to remove the start and end times from the time range.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 131 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of some of the CLI commands: periodic day-of-the-week hh:mm to day-of-the-week hh:mm no periodic day-of-the-week hh:mm to day-of-the-week hh:mm periodic list hh:mm to hh:mm day-of-theweek1 [day-of-the-week2… day-ofthe-week7] no periodic list hh:mm to hh:mm day-of-the-week1 [day-of-theweek2… day-of-the-week7] periodic list hh:mm to hh:mm all no periodic list all hh:mm to hh:mm all Adds a recurring time range to the time range. Use the no form of the commands to remove the recurring time range. console (config)# time-range http-allowed console (config-time-range)# absolute start 12:00 1 jan 2005 end 12:00 31 dec 2005 console (config-time-range)# periodic monday 8:00 to friday 20:00 Table 8-11. Time Range CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description132 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Dot1x Authentication This section describes Dot1x authentication. It contains the following topics: • Port-Based Authentication Overview • Dot1x Overview • Port-Based Authentication Global • Port-Based Authentication Interface Settings • Monitoring Users • Host Authentication • Port Authentication Users Port-Based Authentication Overview Port-based authentication enables authenticating system users on a per-port basis via an external server. Only authenticated and approved system users can transmit and receive data. Ports are authenticated via the RADIUS server using the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Port Authentication includes: • Authenticators — Specifies the device port that is authenticated before permitting system access. • Supplicants — Specifies the host connected to the authenticated port hat is requesting to access the system services. • Authentication Server — Specifies the external server, for example, a RADIUS server, which performs authentication on behalf of the authenticator, and indicates whether the supplicant is authorized to access system services. Port-based authentication creates two access states: • Controlled Access — Permits communication between the supplicant and the system, if the supplicant is authorized. • Uncontrolled Access — Permits uncontrolled communication, regardless of the port authorization state.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 133 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The device supports Port Based Authentication via RADIUS servers. Dot1x Overview Dot1x is an IEEE standard for port-based network access control. The Dot1x framework enables a device (the supplicant) to request port access from a remote device (authenticator) to which it is connected. The supplicant is permitted to send data to the port only after it is authenticated and authorized. If it is not authenticated and authorized, the authenticator discards the supplicant data, unless the data is sent to a Guest VLAN and/or non-authenticated VLANs. Authentication of the supplicant is performed by an external RADIUS server through the authenticator. The authenticator monitors the results of the authentication. In the Dot1x standard, a device can be a supplicant and an authenticator at a port, simultaneously requesting and granting port access. However, this device can only act as an authenticator, and does not take on the role of a supplicant. The following varieties of Dot1x exist: • Single session Dot1x: – A1—Single-session/Single Host — In this mode, the switch, as an authenticator, supports a single Dot1x session, and grants permission to use the port to an authorized supplicant. All other access requests, made by other devices received from the same port, are denied until the authorized supplicant is no longer using the port, or the access request is to an unauthenticated or guest VLAN. – Single-session/Multiple Hosts—This follows the Dot1x standard. In this mode, the switch, as an authenticator, enables any device to use a port, as long as it has been granted permission as a supplicant at the port. • Multi-Session Dot1x—Every device (supplicant) connecting to a port must be authenticated and authorized by the switch (authenticator), separately in a different Dot1x session. This is the only mode that supports Dynamic VLAN Assignment (DVA).134 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Dynamic VLAN Assignment (DVA) Dynamic VLAN Assignment (DVA) is also referred to as RADIUS VLAN Assignment in this guide. When a port is in Multiple Session mode and is DVA-enabled, the switch automatically adds the port as an untagged member of the VLAN that is assigned by the RADIUS server during the authentication process. The switch classifies untagged packets to the assigned VLAN if the packets originated from the devices or ports that are authenticated and authorized. For a device to be authenticated and authorized at a DVA-enabled port: • The RADIUS server must authenticate the device and dynamically assign a VLAN to the device. • The assigned VLAN must not be the default VLAN and must have been created on the switch. • The switch must not be configured to use both a DVA and a MAC-based VLAN group. • A RADIUS server must support DVA with RADIUS attributes tunnel-type (64) = VLAN (13), tunnel-media-type (65) = 802 (6), and tunnel-privategroup-id = a VLAN ID. Dynamic Policy/ACL Assignment The Dynamic Policy/ACL Assignment feature enables specifying a userdefined ACL or policy in the RADIUS server. After a successful authentication, the user is assigned that ACL. Authentication Methods The possible authentication methods are: • Dot1x — The switch supports this authentication mechanism, as described in the standard, to authenticate and authorize Dot1x supplicants. • MAC-based — The switch can be configured to use this method to authenticate and authorize devices that do not support Dot1x. The switch emulates the supplicant role on behalf of the non-Dot1x-capable devices, and uses the MAC address of the devices as the username and password, when communicating with the RADIUS servers. MAC addresses for Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 135 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY username and password must be entered in lower case and with no delimiting characters (for example: aaccbb55ccff). To use MAC-based authentication at a port: – A Guest VLAN must be defined. – The port must be Guest-VLAN-enabled. – The packets from the first supplicant, at the port before it is authorized, must be untagged. You can configure a port to use Dot1x only, MAC-based only, or Dot1x and MAC-based authentication. If a port is configured to use both Dot1x and MAC-based authentication, a Dot1x supplicant has precedence over a non-Dot1x device. The Dot1x supplicant preempts an authorized, but non-Dot1x device, at a port that is configured with a single session. Unauthenticated VLAN and Guest VLANs Unauthenticated VLANs and Guest VLANs provide access to services that do not require the subscribing devices or ports to be Dot1x or MAC-Based authenticated and authorized. An unauthenticated VLAN is a VLAN that allows access by authorized and unauthorized devices or ports. You can configure one or more VLAN to be unauthenticated in the VLAN Membership pages in "VLANs" on page 466. An unauthenticated VLAN has the following characteristics: • It must be a static VLAN, and cannot be the Guest VLAN or the default VLAN. • The VLAN’s member ports must be manually configured as tagged members. • The member ports must be trunk and/or general ports. An access port cannot be member of an unauthenticated VLAN. The Guest VLAN, if configured, is a static VLAN with the following characteristics. • It must be manually defined from an existing, static VLAN. • It is automatically available only to unauthorized devices, or to ports of devices that are connected and Guest VLAN enabled. 136 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • If a port is Guest-VLAN-enabled, the switch automatically adds the port as an untagged member of the Guest VLAN when the port is not authorized, and removes the port from the Guest VLAN when the first supplicant of the port is authorized. • The Guest VLAN cannot be used as both the Voice VLAN and an unauthenticated VLAN. The switch also uses the Guest VLAN for authentication at ports configured with Multiple Session mode and MAC-based authentication. Therefore, you must configure a Guest VLAN before you can use the MAC-based authentication mode. For authentication to function, it must be activated both globally, in the PortBased Authentication Global page and individually on each port, in the PortBased Authentication Interface Settings pages. Monitoring Mode Monitoring mode enables providing users who fail authentication with limited network access. This enables these users to correct the reason that the authentication failed. The following are the main aspects of this feature: • Enables successful authentications using the returned RADIUS information • Provides a mechanism to report unsuccessful authentications without negative repercussions to the user due to administrator errors • Accurately reports the data received from the successful and nonsuccessful operations so that appropriate changes to problem areas may be made. The Dot1x monitoring activation command includes a special VLAN that is used when there is no access interface configuration present and the client(s) unsuccessfully authenticates. These clients are placed in the special VLAN. For users that unsuccessfully authenticate during re-authentication process, but already have existing VLANs configured, the failure to authenticate does not put them in a disabled state but places them back to the existing configuration.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 137 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port-Based Authentication Global To globally configure authentication: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Dot1 Authentication > Port Based Authentication Global to display the Port Based Authentication Global page. Figure 8-12. Port Based Authentication Global 2 Enter the following fields: – Port Based Authentication State — Enable/disable port-based authentication. – Authentication Method — Select an authentication method. The possible options are: 138 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • RADIUS, None — Perform port authentication first by using the RADIUS server. If no response is received from RADIUS (for example, if the server is down), then no authentication is performed, and the session is permitted. • RADIUS — Authenticate the user on the RADIUS server. If no authentication is performed, the session is not permitted. • None — Do not authenticate the user. Permit the session. – Guest VLAN — Enable/disable the use of a Guest VLAN for unauthorized ports. If a Guest VLAN is enabled, all unauthorized ports automatically join the VLAN selected in the Guest VLAN ID field. If a port is later authorized, it is removed from the Guest VLAN. – VLAN List — Select the Guest VLAN from the VLAN list. – Monitoring Mode — Enable/disable logging authentication attempts. – Monitoring VLAN — Enter the ID of the VLAN to which traffic being monitored is routed after unsuccessful Dot1x authentication. – Accept Supplicant when Dynamic Policy/ACL Assignment Has No Resources — If no resources remain in the TCAM, the system can either reject (disable) or allow (enable) successful authentication. Enabling Port-Based Authentication Globally Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for enabling the port based authentication as displayed in the Port Based Authentication Global page. Table 8-12. Port-Based Authentication Global CLI Commands CLI Command Description aaa authentication dot1x default method1 [method2] no aaa authentication dot1x default Specifies one or more AAA methods for use on interfaces running IEEE 802.1X. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x system-auth-control no dot1x system-auth-control Enables 802.1x globally. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 139 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: dot1x system-auth-control monitor [vlan vlan-id] no dot1x system-auth-control monitor Enables 802.1x globally the 802.1x Monitoring mode and define the Monitor VLAN. Use the no format of the command to return to default. dot1x guest-vlan no dot1x guest-vlan Contains a list of VLANs. The guest VLAN is selected from the VLAN List. Use the no form of this command to disable access. show dot1x Displays 802.1X status for the device. console(config)# aaa authentication dot1x default none console(config)# interface vlan 5 console# show dot1x 802.1x is disabled Admin Oper Reauth Reauth Username Port Mode Mode Control Period -------- ------------------ ------------- -------- ------- -------- gi1/0/1 Force Authorized Authorized* Disabled 3600 n/a gi1/0/2 Force Authorized Authorized* Disabled 3600 n/a gi1/0/3 Force Authorized Authorized* Disabled 3600 n/a gi1/0/4 Force Authorized Authorized* Disabled 3600 n/a Table 8-12. Port-Based Authentication Global CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description140 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port-Based Authentication Interface Settings To configure 802.1x authentication on an interface: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Dot1 Authentication > Port Based Authentication Interface Settings to display the Port Based Authentication Interface Settings: Summary page. Figure 8-13. Port Based Authentication Interface Settings Port parameters for the selected unit are displayed. 2 Click Edit. 3 Select a port for which the authentication parameters apply in the Interface drop-down list. 4 Enter the parameters: – User Name — Displays the username of the port. – Admin Interface Control — Select the port authorization state. The possible options are: • Auto — Enables port-based authentication on the interface. The interface moves between an authorized or unauthorized state, based on the authentication exchange between the device and the client.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 141 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Authorized — Places the interface into an authorized state without being authenticated. The interface resends and receives normal traffic without client port-based authentication. • Unauthorized — Denies the selected interface system access by moving the interface into unauthorized state. The device cannot provide authentication services to the client through the interface. – Current Interface Control — Displays the current port authorization state. – Authentication Type — Select the type of authentication on the port. The possible options are: • 802.1x Only — 802.1X authentication is the only authentication method performed on the port. • MAC Only — Port is authenticated, based on the supplicant MAC address. Only eight MAC-based authentications can be used on the port. • 802.1x & MAC — Both 802.1X and MAC-based authentication are performed on the switch. The 802.1X authentication takes precedence. NOTE: For MAC authentication to succeed, the RADIUS server supplicant username and password must be the supplicant MAC address. The MAC address must be in lower case letters and entered without the “:” or “-” separators; for example: 0020aa00bbcc. – Dynamic VLAN Assignment — Enable/disable dynamic VLAN assignment for this port. This feature enables you to automatically assign users to VLANs during the RADIUS server authentication. When a user is authenticated by the RADIUS server, the user is automatically joined to the VLAN configured on a RADIUS server. • Port Lock and Port Monitor should be disabled when DVA is enabled. • Dynamic VLAN Assignment (DVA) can occur only if a RADIUS server is configured, and port authentication is enabled and set to 802.1x multi-session mode. • If the RADIUS Accept Message does not contain the supplicant’s VLAN, the supplicant is rejected.142 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Authenticated ports are added to the supplicant VLAN as untagged. • Authenticated ports remain unauthenticated VLAN and Guest VLAN members. Static VLAN configuration is not applied to the port. • The following list of VLANs cannot participate in DVA: an Unauthenticated VLAN, a Dynamic VLAN that was created by GVRP, a Voice VLAN, a Default VLAN and a Guest VLAN. • Delete the supplicant VLAN while the supplicant is logged in. The supplicant is authorized during the next re-authentication if this supplicant VLAN is re-created, or a new VLAN is configured on the RADIUS server. NOTE: DVA provides the same functionality as the MAC to VLAN Assignment feature, but does so in a standard way. Therefore, when DVA is available, MAC to VLAN Assignment is not available. – Guest VLAN — Enable/disable port access to the Guest VLAN. If enabled, unauthorized users, connected to this interface, can access the Guest VLAN. – Dynamic Policy / ACL Assignment — Enable/disable this feature. – Periodic Reauthentication — Select to enable port re-authentication attempts after the specified Reauthentication Period. – Reauthentication Period (300-4294967295) — Enter the number of seconds after which the selected port is reauthenticated. – Reauthenticate Now — Select to enable immediate port re-authentication. – Authentication Server Timeout (1-65535) — Enter the time interval that lapses before the device resends a request to the authentication server. The field value is specified in seconds. – Resending EAP Identity Request (1-65535) — Enter the amount of time that lapses before EAP request are resent. – Quiet Period (0-65535) — Enter the number of seconds that the device remains in the quiet state, following a failed authentication exchange.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 143 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Supplicant Timeout (1-65535) — Enter the amount of time that lapses before EAP requests are resent to the supplicant. The field value is in seconds. – Max EAP Requests (1-10) — Enter the maximum number of EAP requests that can be sent. If a response is not received after the defined period (supplicant timeout), the authentication process is restarted. Enabling Port-Based Authentication on Interfaces Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for enabling the port based authentication as displayed in the Port Based Authentication Global page. Table 8-13. Port-Based Authentication Interface CLI Commands CLI Command Description dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | forceunauthorized} no dot1x port-control Enables manual control of the port authorization state. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x mac-authentication {mac-only|mac-and-802.1x} no dot1x mac-authentication Enables authentication based on the station’s MAC address. Use the no form of this command to disable access. dot1x radius-attributes vlan no dot1x radius-attributes vlan Enables user-based VLAN assignment. Use the no form of this command to disable user-based VLAN assignment. dot1x guest-vlan enable no dot1x guest-vlan enable Enables unauthorized users on the interface access to the guest VLAN. Use the no form of this command to disable access. dot1x max-req count no dot1x max-req Sets the maximum number of times that the device sends an EAP to the client, before restarting the authentication process. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.144 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY dot1x re-authentication no dot1x re-authentication Enables periodic re-authentication of the client. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds no dot1x timeout supp-timeout Sets the number of seconds between reauthentication attempts. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x re-authenticate [[gigabitethernet|tengigabit ethernet] port-number] Manually initiates a re-authentication of all 802.1X-enabled ports or the specified 802.1X-enabled port. dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds no dot1x timeout quiet-period Sets the number of seconds that the device remains in the quiet state following a failed authentication exchange. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x timeout server-timeout seconds no dot1x timeout servertimeout Sets the time for the retransmission of packets to the authentication server. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x timeout supp-timeout seconds no dot1x timeout supp-timeout Sets the time for the retransmission of an EAP request frame to the client. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. dot1x timeout tx-period seconds no dot1x timeout tx-period Sets the number of seconds that the device waits for a response to an EAP - request/identity frame, from the client, before resending the request. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show dot1x [[gigabitethernet|tengigabit ethernet] port-number] Displays 802.1X status for the device or for the specified interface. Table 8-13. Port-Based Authentication Interface CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 145 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show dot1x advanced Displays 802.1X advanced features for the switch or specified interface. show dot1x users [username username] Displays 802.1X users for the device. dot1x guest-vlan enable no dot1x guest-vlan enable Enables using a guest VLAN for unauthorized ports. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. console(config)# aaa authentication dot1x default none console(config)# interface vlan 5 console(config-if)# dot1x auth-not-req console(config)# vlan database console(config-vlan)# vlan 2 console(config-vlan)# exit console(config)# interface vlan 2 console(config-if)# dot1x guest-vlan console# show dot1x Interface Admin Mode Oper Mode Reauth Control Reauth Period Username -------- ------- ---------- -------- ------ -------- gi1/0/1 Auto Authorized Enabled 3600 Bob gi1/0/2 Auto Authorized Enabled 3600 John gi1/0/3 Auto Unauthoriz ed Enabled 3600 Clark gi1/0/4 Forceauth Authorized Disabled 3600 n/a Table 8-13. Port-Based Authentication Interface CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description146 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Monitoring Users Use the Monitoring Users page to view rejected users. 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Dot1 Authentication > Monitoring Users to display the Monitoring Users page. Figure 8-14. Monitoring Users 2 Select a supplicant that was authenticated on the port. The supplicant’s information is displayed. – User Name — Name assigned to this port. – Port — Number of port. – VLAN — Port belongs to this VLAN. – MAC Address — Source of traffic. – Reject Reason — Reason that traffic was rejected. See Table 8-14 for a list of the possible reject reasons. – Time — Time that traffic was rejected.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 147 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Table 8-14. Reject Reason Description Abbreviation Description ACL-DEL ACL was deleted by a user. ACL-NOTEXST ACL sent by the RADIUS server does not exist on the device. ACL-OVRFL ACL sent by the RADIUS server cannot be applied because of TCAM overflow. AUTH-ERR Rejected by RADIUS due to wrong user name or password in the RADIUS server. FLTR-ERR RADIUS accept message contains more than two filter IDs. FRS-MTH-DENY First method is deny. IPv6WithMAC RADIUS accept message contains filter with IPv6 DIP and MAC addresses. IPV6WithNotIP RADIUS accept message contains IPv6 and not IP simultaneously. POL-BasicMode Policy is not supported in the QoS basic mode. POL-DEL Policy was deleted by a user. POL-OVRFL Policy sent by radius server can not be applied because of TCAM overflow. RAD-APIERR RADIUS API returned error (e.g. No RADIUS server is configured). RAD_INVLRES RADIUS server returned invalid packet (e.g. EAP attribute is missing). RAD-NORESP RADIUS server is not responding. VLAN-DFLT VLAN sent by a RADIUS server cannot be applied because it is the default VLAN. VLAN-DYNAM VLAN sent by RADIUS server cannot be applied because it is a dynamic VLAN. VLAN-GUEST VLAN sent by RADIUS server cannot be applied because it is the Guest VLAN.148 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Monitoring Users Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for monitoring users: The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 8-15. Monitoring Users CLI Commands CLI Command Description show dot1x monitoring result [username username] Displays the captured information of each interface/host on the switch/stack. console# show dot1x monitoring Tom Username: Tom Port g1 Quiet period: 60 Seconds Tx period: 30 Seconds Max req: 2 Supplicant timeout: 30 Seconds Server timeout: 30 Seconds Session Time (HH:MM:SS): 08:19:17 MAC Address: 00:08:78:32:98:78 Authentication Method: Remote Assigned VLAN: 207 Reason for Failure:VLAN was not defined on SwitchDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 149 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Host Authentication Use the Host Authentication page to define the authentication mode on the port, and the action to perform if a violation is detected. To view ports and their authentication information: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Dot1 Authentication > Host Authentication to display the Host Authentication: Summary page. Figure 8-15. Host Authentication: Summary A list of the ports and their authentication modes is displayed. The fields are defined on the Edit page with the exception of the following field: – Single Host Status — Displays the host status. The possible options are: • Unauthorized — The port control is Force Unauthorized, the port link is down or the port control is Auto, but a client has not been authenticated via the port.150 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Not in Auto Mode — The port control is Forced Authorized, and clients have full port access. • Single-host Lock — The port control is Auto and a single client has been authenticated via the port. • No Single Host — Multiple Host is enabled. – Number of Violations — Displays the number of packets that arrive on the interface in single-host mode, from a host whose MAC address is not the supplicant MAC address. 2 Click Edit. 3 In the Port drop-down list, select the port to which you want to apply the authentication mode. 4 Enter the fields: – Host Authentication — Define the host authentication type. The options are: • Single — Only a single authorized host can access the port. (Port Security cannot be enabled on a port in single-host mode.) • Multiple Host — Multiple hosts can be attached to a single 802.1x-enabled port. Only the first host must be authorized, and then the port is wide-open for all who want to access the network. If the host authentication fails, or an EAPOL-logoff message is received, all attached clients are denied access to the network. • Multiple Session — A number of specific authorized hosts may access the port. Each host is treated as if it was the first and only user and must be authenticated. Filtering is based on the source MAC address. – Action on Single Host Violation — Select the action to be applied to packets arriving in Single Session/Single Host mode, from a host whose MAC address is not the supplicant MAC address. The options are: • Discard — Discard the packets from any unlearned source. • Forward — Forward the packets from an unknown source, however, the MAC address is not learned.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 151 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Shutdown — Discard the packet from any unlearned source and shut down the port. Ports remain shutdown until they are activated, or the switch is reset. Host Authentication pages: The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 8-16. Host Authentication CLI Commands CLI Command Description dot1x host-mode {multihost|single-host|multisessions} Allows a single host (client) or multiple hosts on an IEEE 802.1x-authorized port. dot1x traps macauthentication failure no dot1x traps macauthentication failure Enables sending traps when a MAC address is successfully authenticated by the 802.1X mac-authentication access control. Use the no form of this command to disable the traps. dot1x traps macauthentication success no dot1x traps macauthentication success Enables sending traps when MAC address was failed in authentication of the 802.1X MAC authentication access control. Use the no form of this command to disable the traps. dot1x violation-mode {restrict | protect | shutdown} no dot1x violation-mode Configures the action to be taken, when a station whose MAC address is not the supplicant MAC address, attempts to access the interface. Use the no form of this command to return to default. show dot1x advanced [gigabitethernet|tengigabite thernet] port-number] Displays 802.1x advanced features for the device or specified interface. console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# dot1x host-mode multi-host console(config-if)# dot1x host-mode single-host console(config-if)# dot1x host-mode multi-sessions152 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Authentication Users The Port Authentication Users page enables you to view users that attempted to be authenticated. To view ports and their authentication definitions: 1 Click Switching > Network Security > Dot1 Authentication > Port Authentication Users to display the Port Authentication Users page. Figure 8-16. Port Authentication Users The ports and their authentication definitions are displayed. – User Name — Supplicant names that were authenticated on each port. – Port — Number of port. – Session Time — Amount of time (in seconds) that the supplicant was logged on the port.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 153 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Authentication Method — Method by which the last session was authenticated. The options are: • None—No authentication is applied; it is automatically authorized. • RADIUS—Supplicant was authenticated by a RADIUS server. • MAC Address—Displays the supplicant MAC address. – MAC Address — MAC address of user who attempted to be authenticated. – VLAN — VLAN assigned to the user. – Filter — Filter that was applied to the user by receiving the policy/ACL name from the RADIUS server (Dynamic ACL Assignment). 2 Click Details to view the names of the VLAN filters (Filter #1 and Filter #2) defined on the port, in addition to the above fields.154 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxU_Switching_NetworkSecurity.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Display Port Authentication Users Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for displaying port authentication users: The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 8-17. Display Port Authentication Users CLI Commands CLI Command Description show dot1x users Displays active 802.1x authenticated users for the device. console# show dot1x users Port User Session Auth MAC VLAN Filter Name Time Method Address ------ ----- ----------- -------- -------------- ---- ------ gi1/0/1 Bob 1d 03:08:58 Remote 0008.3b79.8787 3 Port User Session Auth MAC VLAN Filter Name Time Method Address ------ ----- ----------- -------- -------------- ---- ------ gi1/01 Bob 1d 09:07:38 Remote 0008.3b79.8787 3 OK gi1/01 Tim 03:08:58 Remote 0008.3b79.3232 9 OK gi1/03 Paul 02:12:48 Remote 0008.3b89.8237 8 Warning console# show dot1x users username Bob Port User Session Auth MAC VLAN Filter Name Time Method Address ------ ----- ----------- -------- -------------- ---- ------ gi1/01 Bob 1d 09:07:38 Remote 0008.3b79.8787 3 OKTemplate Last Updated - 2/7/2007Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 155 DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 9 Configuring System Information This section describes how to set system parameters, such as security features, switch software, system time, logging parameters and more. It contains the following topics: • General Switch Information • Time Synchronization • Logs • IP Addressing • Diagnostics • Management Security • DHCP Server • DHCP Server • File Management • Stack Management • sFlow156 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY General Switch Information This section describes how to view and set general switch parameters. It contains the following topics: • Asset Information • System Health • Power over Ethernet Asset Information Use the Asset page to view and configure general device information, including the system name, location, contact, system MAC Address, System Object ID, date, time, and system up time. To configure general device parameters: 1 Click System > General > Asset in the tree view to display the Asset page. Figure 9-1. AssetDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 157 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Enter/view the parameters: – System Name (0-159 Characters) — Enter the user-defined device name. – System Contact (0-159 Characters) — Enter the name of the contact person. – System Location (0-159 Characters) — Enter the location where the system is currently running. – MAC Address — Displays the device MAC address. – Sys Object ID — Displays the vendor's authoritative identification of the network management subsystem contained in the entity. – Date — Enter the current date (mandatory). This date can also be entered in the Manual Time Settings page. If SNTP has been defined, but the SNTP server is not available, the switch uses the date and time in this field and the Time field. – Time — Enter the current time (mandatory). This time can also be entered in the Manual Time Settings page. If SNTP has been defined, but the SNTP server is not available, the switch uses the date and time in this field and the Date field. – System Up Time — Displays the amount of time since the last device reset. 3 For each unit in the stack (displayed in Unit No.), the following information is displayed: – Service Tag — Displays the service reference number used when servicing the device. – Asset Tag — Enter the device asset tag. – Serial No. — Displays the device serial number. 4 Enter the Asset Tag (0-16 Characters) for each unit in the stack. This is the user-defined reference for the unit.158 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Entering Asset Information Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for entering fields displayed on the Asset page. The following is an example of the CLI commands Table 9-1. Asset CLI Command CLI Command Description snmp-server contact text no snmp-server contact Configures the system contact (sysContact) name. Use the no form of the command to remove the system contact information. snmp-server location text no snmp-server location Configures the system location string. Use the no form of this command to remove the location string. hostname name no hostname Specifies the device host name. Use the no form of the command to remove the existing host name. clock set hh:mm:ss {month|day} year Sets the system clock to this time. asset-tag [unit unit] tag no asset-tag [unit unit] Assigns the asset tag to the unit. Removes the asset tag from the unit. console (config)# asset-tag 2365491870Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 159 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY System Health To view the device’s power information and set fan administration state: 1 Click System > General > System Health in the tree view to display the System Health page. Figure 9-2. System Health The System Health page displays the following fields: – Unit No. — The unit in the stack for which information is displayed. Power Supply Status —Displays the following columns: – PS — The power status of the internal power unit. The possible options are: • Checked — The power supply is operating normally. • Unchecked — The power supply is not operating normally. • Not Present — The power supply is currently not present.160 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – RPS — The device has one of two auxiliary power supplies: Redundant Power Supply (RPS) for non-PoE devices and Modular Power Supply (MPS) for PoE devices. Only one of these may be present at one time. For each type of power supply, the possible options are: • Checked — The power supply is operating normally. • Unchecked — The power supply is not operating normally. • Not Present — The power supply is currently not present. – Temperature — Displays the temperature on the device. – Fan Status — The device has two fans. The device constantly measures the internal temperature, and powers the fans on/off according to the temperature. The user can set the fans to be constantly on. The possible options are: • Checked — The fans are operating normally. • Unchecked — At least one of the fans is not operating normally. – Fan Admin State — On/Auto status that user configured in the Edit page. – Fan Current Level — Specifies whether the fan is actually on or off. 2 The lower block displays the condition under which a fan will be turned on or off. – Fan Level — The on or off level. – Condition — The temperature at which the fans will be turned on or off. The device temperature is displayed in Celsius. The device temperature threshold is 40 C (104 F).Table 9-2 displays the temperature in Fahrenheit in increments of 5. NOTE: It is recommended to leave Fan User Level at Auto so that the fans operate according to the temperature of the switch. 3 To control the fans on a unit, or set the default value, click Edit, and enter the fields: – Unit ID — Select the unit ID whose fan will be adjusted.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 161 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Fan Admin State — Set one of the options: • Auto — Fans are turned on when the internal temperature of the switch is higher than the threshold displayed on the Summary page in the Condition field. • ON — Turns fan on under all conditions Table 9-2. Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion Table Viewing System Health Information Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing fields displayed on the System Health page. Celsius Fahrenheit 0 32 5 41 10 50 15 59 20 68 25 77 30 86 35 95 40 104 Table 9-3. System Health CLI Command CLI Command Description show system [unit unit] Displays system information. system fans always-on [unit unit] no system fans always-on Sets the system fans to On regardless of device temperature. Use the no form of the command to return to default show system fans Displays the fans’ status.162 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: Power over Ethernet A Power over Ethernet (PoE) switch is a type of PSE (Power Sourcing Equipment) that delivers electrical power to connected Powered Devices (PDs) over existing copper cables, without interfering with the network traffic, updating the physical network or modifying the network infrastructure. Using PoE eliminates the need to: • Place all network devices next to power sources. • Deploy double-cabling systems, significantly decreasing installation costs. PoE can be used in any network that deploys relatively low-powered devices connected to the Ethernet LAN. PDs are devices that receive power from the PowerConnect power supplies, such as: • IP phones console# show system Unit Type ---- ---------------------- 2 PowerConnect 5548 Unit Main Power Supply Redundant Power Supply ---- ----------------- ---------------------- 2 OK Unit Fans Status ---- ------------- 2 OK Unit Temperature (Celsius) Temperature Sensor Status ---- ------------------------- --------------------- 2 41 OK Unit Up time ---- --------------- 2 02,00:03:32Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 163 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Wireless access points • IP gateways • Audio and video remote monitoring devices PDs are connected to the device via the Gigabit ports. Error Conditions Traps are generated when the following occur: • Status change to port delivering/not delivering power to PD. • Indication that power usage is above the defined threshold. • Indication that power usage is below the threshold.164 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring PoE To configure PoE parameters on devices equipped with PoE: 1 Click System > General > Power over Ethernetin the tree view to display the Power Over Ethernet: Summary page. Figure 9-3. Power Over Ethernet: Summary 2 The PoE global parameters are displayed: – Power Status — The inline power source status. • On — The power supply unit is functioning. • Off — The power supply unit is not functioning. • Faulty — The power supply unit is functioning, but an error has occurred, for example, a power overload or a short circuit. – Nominal Power — The actual amount of power the device can supply, in watts.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 165 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Consumed Power — The amount of the power used by the device, in watts. 3 Enter the following parameters: – Power Limit Mode — Enter one of the following options for the system power limit mode. • Port — The power limit of the port depends on port configuration. • Max Port Power — In this mode, each port can get up to the maximum power, which is 15.4W. – System Usage Threshold (1-99 Percent) — Enter the percentage of power consumed before a trap is generated. – Traps — Enable/disable PoE traps on the device. If enabled, traps are generated if one of the following situations occurs: • Status change to port delivering/not delivering power to PD • Indication that power usage is above the defined threshold • Indication that power usage is below the threshold NOTE: If traps are enabled, you must also enable SNMP, and configure at least one SNMP notification recipient. 4 To view PoE port settings for a unit in the stack, select its Unit ID. The port PoE parameters are displayed for all ports on the unit. The fields displayed in this block are described in the Edit page. 5 To set PoE settings for a port, click Edit. 6 Select a port in the Port field, and enter the following PoE parameters for the PDs connected to this port. – PoE Admin Status — Select the device PoE mode. The possible options are: • Auto — Enables the Device Discovery protocol, and provides power to the device using the PoE unit. The Device Discovery Protocol enables the device to discover Powered Devices attached to the device interfaces, and to learn their classification. • Never — Disables the Device Discovery protocol, and stops the power supply to the device using the PoE module.166 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Power Priority Level— Enter the priority that determines the power that is used if the power supply is from Critical to Low. If, for example, the power supply is running at 99% usage, and port 1 is prioritized as Critical, but port 3 is prioritized as Low, port 1 is will receive power before port 3. – Power Limit (0-15.4) — Enter the maximum amount of power that the PoE unit may deliver to this port. – Powered Device (0-24 characters) — Enter a user-defined description of the PD connected to the port, such as: "Bob Smith’s telephone". The following fields are displayed on this page: – PoE Operational Status — Whether the port is currently providing power. If it is not providing power, the reason is displayed. – Power Consumption — The amount of power being consumed by the powered device. – Overload Counter — Total power overload occurrences. – Short Counter — Total power shortage occurrences. – Denied Counter — Number of times the powered device was denied power. – Absent Counter— Number of times the power supply was stopped to the PD because it was no longer detected. – Invalid Signature Counter — Number of times an invalid signature was received. Signatures are the means by which the powered device identifies itself to the PSE. Signatures are generated during powered device detection, classification, or maintenance.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 167 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Managing PoE Using the CLI Commands The following table describes the CLI commands for viewing fields displayed on the Power Over Ethernet pages. Table 9-4. Power Over Ethernet CLI Commands CLI Command Description power inline {auto|never} Configures the administrative status of the inline power on an interface. power inline powered-device pdtype no power inline powered-device Adds a description of the powered device type. Use the no version of the command to remove the description. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. power inline priority {critical|high|low} no power inline priority Configures the priority of the interface from the point of view of inline power management. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. power inline usage-threshold no power inline usage-threshold Configures the threshold for triggering alarms. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. power inline traps enable no power inline traps enable Enables PoE device traps. Use the no form of this command to disable traps. power inline limit-mode {maxport-power|port} no power inline limit-mode Sets the power limit mode of the system. Use the no form of this command to return to default.168 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show power inline [[[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet]port-number]|module stackmember-number] Displays PoE configuration information for all interfaces or for a unit in the stack. console# show power inline Unit Power Nominal Power Consumed Power Usage Threshold Traps ---- ------- ------------- ------------------ --------------- ----- 1 Off 1 Watts 0 Watts (0%) 95 Disable 2 Off 1 Watts 0 Watts (0%) 95 Disable 3 Off 1 Watts 0 Watts (0%) 95 Disable 4 Off 1 Watts 0 Watts (0%) 95 Disable Table 9-4. Power Over Ethernet CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 169 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Time Synchronization The system clock runs from the moment the system starts up, and keeps track of the date and time. The date and time may be either set manually, or it may be received from an SNTP server. This section describes how to set system time, and contains the following sections: • Manual Time Settings – Setting System Time and Daylight Savings Time – CLI Commands for Setting Manual Time • System Time from an SNTP Server – Global Settings (Clock Source) – SNTP Global Settings – SNTP Authentication – SNTP Servers – SNTP Interfaces – CLI Script for Receiving Time from an SNTP Server Manual Time Settings This section describes how to set the system time manually on the device. It contains the following topics: • Setting System Time and Daylight Savings Time • CLI Commands for Setting Manual Time170 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Setting System Time and Daylight Savings Time Use the Manual Time Settings page to set system date/time manually (as opposed to receiving them from an external SNTP server). For more information on SNTP, see "System Time from an SNTP Server" on page 177. If system time is kept using an external SNTP clock, and the external SNTP clock fails, the system time reverts to the time set here or in the Asset page. In addition to setting the local clock, you can use this page to enable Daylight Savings Time (DST) on the device. The following is a list of DST start and end times in various countries: • Albania — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Australia — From the end of October until the end of March. • Australia - Tasmania — From beginning of October until the end of March. • Armenia — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Austria — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Bahamas — From April to October, in conjunction with U.S. summer hours. • Belarus — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Belgium — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Brazil — From the 3rd Sunday in October until the 3rd Saturday in March. During the period of Daylight Saving Time, Brazilian clocks go forward one hour in most of the Brazilian southeast. • Chile — Easter Island 9th March 12th October. The first Sunday in March or after 9th March. • China — China does not operate Daylight Saving Time. • Canada — From the first Sunday in April until the last Sunday of October. Daylight Saving Time is usually regulated by provincial and territorial governments. Exceptions may exist in certain municipalities. • Cuba — From the last Sunday of March to the last Sunday of October. • Cyprus — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Denmark — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Egypt — Last Friday in April until the last Thursday in September. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 171 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Estonia — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Finland — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • France — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Germany — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Greece — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Hungary — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • India — India does not operate Daylight Saving Time. • Iran — From 1st Farvardin until the 1st Mehr. • Iraq — From 1st April until 1st October. • Ireland — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Israel — Varies year-to-year. • Italy — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Japan — Japan does not operate Daylight Saving Time. • Jordan — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Latvia — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Lebanon — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Lithuania — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Luxembourg — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Macedonia — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Mexico — From the first Sunday in April at 02:00 to the last Sunday in October at 02:00. • Moldova — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Montenegro — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Netherlands — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • New Zealand — From the first Sunday in October until the first Sunday on or after 15th March. • Norway — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Paraguay — From 6th April until 7th September. • Poland — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Portugal — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October.172 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Romania — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Russia — From the 29th March until the 25th October. • Serbia — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Slovak Republic — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • South Africa — South Africa does not operate Daylight Saving Time. • Spain — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Sweden — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Switzerland — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • Syria — From 31st March until 30th October. • Taiwan — Taiwan does not operate Daylight Saving Time. • Turkey — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • United Kingdom — Last weekend of March until the last weekend of October. • United States of America — From the second Sunday of March at 02:00 to the first Sunday of November at 02:00.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 173 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To manually set the device time: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > Manual Time Settingsin the tree view to display the Manual Time Settings page. Figure 9-4. Manual Time Settings 2 Enter the following local settings: – Date — The system date. – Local Time — The system time. – Time Zone Offset — The difference between Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and local time. For example, the Time Zone Offset for Paris is GMT +1:00, while the local time in New York is GMT –5:00. 3 To set Daylight Savings Time (DST), select the Daylight Savings field and select one of the possible options: – USA — The device switches to DST at 2 a.m. on the second Sunday of March, and reverts to standard time at 2 a.m. on the first Sunday of November. 174 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – European — The device switches to DST at 1:00 am on the last Sunday in March, and reverts to standard time at 1:00 am on the last Sunday in October. The European option applies to EU members, and other European countries using the EU standard. – Other — Specifies that you will set DST manually in the fields described below. If you selected USA or European you are finished. If you selected Other, proceed to the next step. There are two types of DST possible when Others is selected. You can set a specific date in a particular year, or you can set a recurring setting, irrespective of the year. For a specific setting in a particular year, complete the Daylight Savings area, and for a recurring setting, complete the Recurring area. If Other is selected, the From and To fields must be defined either in the Non-recurring or Recurring section. 4 To enter non-recurring DST parameters, enter the following fields: – From — The time that DST begins. The possible options are: • DD/MMM/YY — The date, month, and year at which DST begins. • HH/MM — The time (hour and minutes) at which DST begins. – To — The time that DST ends. The possible options are: • DD/MMM/YY — The date, month, and year at which DST ends. • HH/MM — The time (hour and minutes) at which DST ends. 5 To enter recurring DST parameters, select Recurring and enter the following fields: – From — The time that DST begins each year, for example, DST begins locally every second Sunday in April at 5:00 am. The possible options are: • Day — The day of the week from which DST begins every year. • Week — The week within the month from which DST begins every year. • Month — The month of the year in which DST begins every year. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 175 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Time — The time at which DST begins every year. – To — The recurring time that DST ends each year, for example, DST ends locally every fourth Friday in October at 5:00 am. The possible options are: • Day — The day of the week at which DST ends every year. • Week — The week within the month at which DST ends every year. • Month — The month of the year in which DST ends every year. • Time — The time at which DST ends every year. CLI Commands for Setting Manual Time The following steps (in any order) must be completed before setting time manually: • Set system time • Define the time zone in relation to GMT. • Configure Daylight Savings Time. The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Manual Time Setting pages when the clock source is Local. Table 9-5. Manual Time Setting CLI Commands CLI Description clock set hh:mm:ss {[day month]|[month day]} year Set the system clock to this time. clock summer-time zone recurring {usa|eu|{week day month hh:mm week day month hh:mm}}[offset] Configures the system to automatically switch to summer time (according to the USA and European standards) every year on a recurring basis. 176 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY clock summer-time zone date date month year hh:mm date month year hh:mm [offset] clock summer-time zone date month date year hh:mm month date year hh:mm [offset] no clock summer-time Configures the system to automatically switch to summer time (Daylight Savings Time) for a specific period - date/month/year format. Use the no form of the command to configure the system not to switch to summer time (Daylight Savings Time). clock timezone zone hoursoffset [minutes offset] Sets the time zone and names it "zone" for display purposes. show clock Displays the time and date from the system clock. Table 9-5. Manual Time Setting CLI Commands (Continued) CLI DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 177 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY A sample script to set system time manually is shown below System Time from an SNTP Server This section describes how to receive date/time from an SNTP server. It contains the following topics: • SNTP Overview • SNTP Global Settings • SNTP Authentication • SNTP Servers • SNTP Interfaces Table 9-6. CLI Script to Set Manual System Time CLI Description Console# clock set 13:32:00 7 Nov 2010 Set the system time. console# configure console(config)# clock timezone Ohio +2 Set the time zone to GMT plus 2 hours. The name of the zone "Ohio" is purely for documentation purposes. This is not mandatory for manual time, but is recommended. It enables anyone seeing the time to know what that time is in respect to their timezone. console(config)# clock summer-time Ohio_Summer recurring usa Set Daylight Savings Time such that it recurs every year and is based on the summer time schedule of the USA. The name of the zone "Ohio_Summer" is for documentation purposes only. console(config)# exit console# show clock Display the system time.178 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNTP Overview The switch supports the Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP), which provides accurate network switch clock time synchronization of up to 100 milliseconds. The implementation of SNTP is based on SNTPv4 (RFC 2030). SNTP is a simple and lighter version of NTP, and can be used when the ultimate performance of the full NTP implementation, described in RFC-1305, is not required. SNTP operates with NTP, thus an SNTP client can work with both SNTP and NTP servers. The switch operates only as a client, and cannot provide time services to other systems. SNTP Server Types The switch can accept time information from the following server types: • Unicast Polling for Unicast information is used for polling a server whose IP address is known. This is the preferred method for synchronizing device time, as it is most secure. Up to eight SNTP servers can be defined. If this method is selected, SNTP information is accepted only from SNTP servers defined in the SNTP Servers page. Time levels T1 - T4 (see the "Algorithm for Selecting Designated SNTP Server" on page 180 section) are used to determine from which server time information is accepted. If Unicast polling is not enabled or if no servers are defined on the device, the device accepts time information from any SNTP server of the type that is enabled, which responds. • Anycast Polling for Anycast information is used when the SNTP server’s IP address is not defined or it cannot be reached. If this method is enabled, time information can be received from any SNTP server on the network. The Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 179 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY device time and date are synchronized when it proactively requests synchronization information. Anycast polling to get time information is preferable to Broadcast polling, because it is more secure. Time levels T3 and T4 are used to determine from which server time information is accepted. • Broadcast Broadcast information is used if receiving Broadcast packets has been enabled, and one of the following situations occurs: – The SNTP server IP address has not been defined. – Several time-information packets are received and the Broadcast time is best according to the algorithm defined in "Algorithm for Selecting Designated SNTP Server" on page 180. Broadcast is the least secure method of receiving time, because it is both unsecured and the time information was not specifically requested by the device. Anycast is also unsecured, but time-information packets are only accepted if they were requested. Stratums Each SNTP server is characterized by stratums, which define the accuracy of its clock. The stratum is the distance, in terms of NTP hops, from the most authoritative time server. The lower the stratum (where zero is the lowest), the more accurate the clock. The switch accepts time from stratum 1 and above. The following provides examples of clocks from various stratums: • Stratum 0 — A real time clock is used as the time source, for example, a GPS system. • Stratum 1 — A server that is directly linked to a Stratum 0 time source is used. • Stratum 2 — The time source is distanced from the Stratum 1 server over a network path, for example, a Stratum 2 server receives the time over a network link, via NTP, from a Stratum 1 server.180 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Algorithm for Selecting Designated SNTP Server Messages received from SNTP servers are logged, until there are three responding servers, or the timer expires. In any event, when the third message is received, the timer expires. A server is selected to be the “designated server” according to the following criteria: • The stratum (the distance in terms of NTP hops from the best authoritative time servers) is considered, and the server with the best (lowest) stratum is selected. • If there is a tie in stratums, packets from servers defined on the device are preferred to Anycast packets, which in turn are preferred to Broadcast packets. • If multiple servers pass the above criteria, then the server that sent the first (earliest) time packet is chosen. If a better server is discovered later, it is selected to be the “designated server” at that time. Polling You can configure the system to acquire time information in the following ways: • Enable polling — Time information is requested every polling interval. • Do not enable polling — Time information is received when the system is brought up and every time that a topological change is made to the Running Configuration file, for example when an SNTP Unicast server is added. This is configured by the user in the SNTP Global Settings page. On power up, when the switch sends a request and there is no reply, it issues another request (three retries at most) after 20 seconds of waiting. If no SNTP server is found, the process is invoked every “poll interval” (set in the SNTP Global Settings page), and a management trap is triggered. Authentication You can require that SNTP servers be authenticated, although this is not mandatory (see the SNTP Authentication pages). Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 181 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY MD5 (Message Digest 5) Authentication safeguards device synchronization paths to SNTP servers. MD5 is an algorithm that produces a 128-bit hash value. MD5 is a variation of MD4, and increases MD4 security. MD5 both verifies the integrity of the communication and authenticates the origin of the communication. Global Settings (Clock Source) System time can be set manually, or it may be received from an external SNTP server. You if wish to set the system time manually, you do not to use the Global Settings page, because the default is manual (local) system time. To set the clock source: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > Global Settings in the tree view to display the Global Settings page. Figure 9-5. Global Settings182 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Select the Clock Source. The possible options are: – Local—System time is taken from the device’s internal clock. Set this as defined in "Manual Time Settings" on page 169. – SNTP— System time is set via an SNTP server. Set SNTP parameters as defined in "System Time from an SNTP Server" on page 177. Defining the Clock Source Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting the clock source. The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNTP Global Settings If SNTP was selected as the clock source in the Global Settings page, you must define the mechanism of setting time from an SNTP server. This is done in the SNTP pages, described below. Table 9-7. Clock Source CLI Command CLI Description clock source {sntp} no clock source Configures an external time source for the system clock. Use the no form of this command to disable the external time source. show clock [detail] Displays the time and date from the system clock and its source. console# configure console(config)# clock source sntp console# show clock detail 3:29:03 UTC Sep 7 2010 Time source is sntp Time zone: Offset is UTC+0Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 183 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To define the types of server from which the device accepts SNTP information and the polling interval: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > SNTP Global Settings in the tree view to display the SNTP Global Settings page. Figure 9-6. SNTP Global Settings 2 Enter the fields: – Poll Interval (60-86400) — Enter the interval (in seconds) at which the SNTP servers are polled. – Receive Broadcast Servers Updates — Enable/disable receiving time information from Broadcast servers. – Receive Anycast Servers Updates — Enable/disable receiving time information from Anycast SNTP servers. – Receive Unicast Servers Updates — Enable/disable receiving time information from the SNTP servers defined on the switch. – Poll Unicast Requests — Enable/disable sending SNTP Unicast server time information requests to the SNTP server.184 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining SNTP Global Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the SNTP Global Settings pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNTP Authentication Use the SNTP Authentication page to enable/disable SNTP authentication between the device and an SNTP server, and to set the means by which the SNTP server is authenticated. Table 9-8. SNTP Global Parameters CLI Commands CLI Command Description sntp client poll timer seconds no sntp client poll timer Sets the polling time for an SNTP client. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. sntp broadcast client enable no sntp broadcast client enable Enables SNTP Broadcast clients. Use the no form of this command to disable SNTP Broadcast clients. sntp anycast client enable no sntp anycast client enable Enables SNTP Anycast clients. Use the no form of this command to disable SNTP Anycast clients. sntp unicast client enable no sntp unicast client enable Enables SNTP predefined Unicast clients. Use the no form of this command to disable SNTP Unicast clients. show sntp configuration Displays SNTP configuration console(config)# sntp anycast client enableDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 185 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To configure SNTP authentication: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > SNTP Authentication in the tree view to display the SNTP Authentication: Summary page. Figure 9-7. SNTP Authentication: Summary The previously-defined authentication keys are displayed. 2 Enable/disable SNTP Authentication. This enables/disables authenticating SNTP sessions between the device and an SNTP server. 3 Multiple keys can be defined. To add a new SNTP authentication key, click Add, and enter the fields. – Encryption Key ID (1 - 4294967295) — Enter the number used to identify this SNTP authentication key internally. – Authentication Key (1 - 8 Characters) — Enter the key used for authentication. The SNTP server must send this key for the switch to use its time/date information.186 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Trusted Key — Check to specify that the encryption key is used to authenticate the (Unicast) SNTP server. If this is not checked, the key is not used for authentication (and another key(s) is used). Defining SNTP Authentication Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the SNTP Authentication pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-9. SNTP Authentication CLI Commands CLI Command Description sntp authenticate no sntp authenticate Defines authentication for received SNTP traffic from servers. Use the no form of this command to disable the feature. sntp trusted-key keynumber no sntp trusted-key keynumber Authenticates the identity of a system to which SNTP will synchronize. Use the no form of this command to disable system identity authentication. sntp authentication-key key-number md5 value no sntp authenticationkey key-number Defines an authentication key for SNTP. Use the no form of this command to remove the authentication key for SNTP. console(config)# sntp authenticate console(config)# sntp trusted-key 8 console(config)# sntp authentication-key 8 md5 ClkkeyDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 187 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNTP Servers To add an SNTP server or display SNTP server information: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > SNTP Servers in the tree view to display the SNTP Servers: Summary page. Figure 9-8. SNTP Servers: Summary The following is displayed for the previously-defined servers: – SNTP Server — IP address of server. – Polling — Polls the selected SNTP server for system time information, when enabled. – Encryption Key ID — Key Identification used to communicate between the SNTP server and device. 188 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Preference — SNTP server providing SNTP system time information. The system displays on of the following options: • Primary — The server from which time was last accepted. • Secondary — All other servers from which time was received. – Status — The operating SNTP server status. The possible options are: • Up — The SNTP server is currently operating normally. • Down — An SNTP server is currently not available, for example, the SNTP server is currently not connected or is currently down. • In progress — The SNTP server is currently sending or receiving SNTP information. • Unknown — The progress of the SNTP information currently being sent is unknown, for example, the device is currently looking for an interface. – Last Response — The last time a response was received from the SNTP server. – Offset — The estimated offset of the server's clock, relative to the local clock, in milliseconds. The host determines the value of this offset, using the algorithm described in RFC 2030. – Delay — The estimated round-trip delay of the server's clock, relative to the local clock over the network path between them, in milliseconds. The host determines the value of this delay, using the algorithm described in RFC 2030. 2 To add an SNTP Server, click Add, and enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether IPv4 or IPv6 format is used for the IP address of the SNTP server. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. Select one of the possible options: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 189 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. Select one of the possible options: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – SNTP Server — Enter the SNTP server’s IP address. – Poll Interval — Enable/disable polling the selected SNTP server for system time information, when enabled. – Encryption Key ID — Check to use an encryption key, and select one of the encryption keys that was defined in the SNTP Authentication pages. Defining SNTP Servers Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the SNTP Server pages. Table 9-10. SNTP Server CLI Commands CLI Command Description sntp server {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|ipv6- address|hostname} [poll] [key key-id] no sntp server {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|ipv6- address|hostname} Configures the device to use SNTP to request and accept SNTP traffic from a server. Use the no form of this command to remove a server from the list of SNTP servers. sntp unicast client poll no sntp unicast client poll Enables polling for the SNTP predefined Unicast clients. Use the no form of this command to disable the polling for the SNTP client. show sntp status Displays the SNTP server statuses.190 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNTP Interfaces If receiving time information from Anycast servers is enabled, you can determine through which interface the Anycast packets are sent and received. If no interface is defined, Anycast requests are not sent. console(config)# sntp server 100.1.1.1 poll key 10 console# show sntp status Clock is unsynchronized Unicast servers: Server Status Last Response Offset Delay [mSec] [mSec] --------------- --------- ------------- -------- ------- Anycast server: Server Interface Status Last Response Offset Delay [mSec] [mSec] --------------- -------- -------------- ------ ------ Broadcast: Interface IP Address Last Response ------------ --------------- ----------------------- gi1/0/1 00:00:00.0 Jan 1 2010Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 191 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To enable receiving Anycast updates on an interface: 1 Click System > Time Synchronization > SNTP Interface Settings to display the SNTP Interface Settings: Summary page. Figure 9-9. SNTP Interface Settings: Summary The following fields are displayed for every interface for which an SNTP interface has been enabled: – Interface — The port, LAG or VLAN on which SNTP is enabled. – Receive Servers Updates — Displays whether the interface is enabled to receive updates from the SNTP server. 2 To add an interface that can receive SNTP server updates, click Add. 3 Select an interface and enable/disable State to indicate that the interface can now receive/not receive SNTP server updates.192 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining SNTP Interface Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the SNTP Interface Settings pages. Table 9-11. SNTP Interface Settings CLI Commands CLI Command Description sntp client enable {[[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethern et] port-id|vlan vlan-id|portchannel LAG-number]} no sntp client enable {[[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethern et]port-number|vlan vlan-id|portchannel LAG-number]} Enables the SNTP client on an interface in Global Configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to disable the SNTP client. sntp client enable no sntp client enable Enables SNTP client on an interface in Interface Configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to disable the SNTP client. show sntp configuration Shows the configuration of the Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP).Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 193 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: CLI Script for Receiving Time from an SNTP Server The following is a sample script that configures receiving system time from an SNTP server. console# configure console(config)# sntp client enable gi1/0/1 console# exit console# configure console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# sntp client enable console# show sntp configuration SNTP port : 123. Polling interval: 1024 seconds. No MD5 authentication keys. Authentication is not required for synchronization. No trusted keys. Unicast Clients: Disabled Unicast Clients Polling: Disabled Server Polling Encryption Key ----------------------------- ---------- ----------- Broadcast Clients: disabled Anycast Clients: disabled Broadcast Interfaces: gi1/0/1 Table 9-12. Manual Time Setting CLI Commands CLI Description console# configure console(config)#clock source sntp Set the source of time as an SNTP server.194 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY console(config)#sntp client poll timer 6 Set polling time to 6 seconds. console(config)#sntp unicast client enable Enable accepting time from predefined Unicast clients. console(config)#sntp unicast client poll Enable polling predefined Unicast clients. console(config)#sntp server 10.4.1.3 poll Define the server that will be used as an SNTP server. console(config)#exit console# show sntp configuration Display SNTP settings. console# show sntp status Display SNTP servers. Table 9-12. Manual Time Setting CLI Commands (Continued) CLI DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 195 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Logs The Logs feature enables the switch to keep several, independent logs. Each log is a set of entries that record system events. It contains the following topics: • System Log Overview • Global Parameters • RAM Log • Log File (in Flash) • Login History • Remote Log Server System Log Overview System logs record events and report errors or informational messages. Some aspects of system logging can be configured, as described below. When you configure system logging, the configuration applies to all units in the stack. Some events are automatically logged, such as hardware problems. You may enable/disable logging the following types of events: • Authentication Events in the Global Parameters page • Copy File Events in the Global Parameters page • Management Access Events in the Global Parameters page • Login History in the Login History page Event messages have a unique format, as per the System Logs (SYSLOG) protocol recommended message format for all error reporting, for example, SYSLOG and local device reporting messages are assigned a severity code, and include a message mnemonic that identifies the source application generating the message. Messages may be filtered, based on their urgency or relevancy. Events may be logged to the following destinations: • Console • Logging buffer (RAM)— Messages are stored in a cyclical file buffer. When the maximum number of messages is reached, messages are written starting at the beginning of the buffer (overwriting the old messages). 196 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Logs stored on the Logging buffer are deleted when the device is reset. • Logging file (flash) — Messages are stored in flash memory. When the buffer is full, messages are written starting at the beginning of the memory block (overwriting the old messages). • SYSLOG Server — Messages are sent to a remote server. This is useful for central and remote management and to provide more space for storage of messages. Up-to eight SYSLOG servers can be defined in the Remote Log Server Settings pages. You can select where to send logging messages according to their severity. Each of the severity level can be directed to the console, RAM log, flash log file or SYSLOG server or to any combination of these destinations. Global Parameters Use the Global Parameters page to enable/disable logging for the following logging severity levels. – Emergency — If the device is down or not functioning properly, an emergency log message is saved to the specified logging location. – Alert — An alert log is saved if there is a serious device malfunction, for example, all device features are down. – Critical — A critical log is saved if a critical device malfunction occurs, for example, two device ports are not functioning, while the rest of the device ports remain functional. – Error — A device error has occurred, for example, a single port is offline. – Warning — The lowest level of a device warning. The device is functioning, but an operational problem has occurred. – Notice — Provides device information to which you might have to respond. – Informational — Provides device information to which you do not have to respond. – Debug — Provides debugging messages. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 197 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY If you enable logging, some events are automatically logged, and in addition, you can enable/disable specific types of logging and set their destination. To configure logging: 1 Click System > Logs > Global Parameters in the tree view to display the Global Parameters page. Figure 9-10. Global Parameters 2 Enable/disable logging in the Logging drop-down list. Console logs are enabled by default, and cannot be disabled. 3 If Logging is enabled, select the types of events to be logged in addition to the events that are always logged: – Log Authentication Events — Enable/disable generating logs when users are authenticated. 198 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Log Copy Files Events — Enable/disable generating logs when files are copied. – Log Management Access Events — Enable/disable generating logs when the device is accessed using a management method, for example, each time the device is accessed using SSH, a device log is generated. 4 To select the destination of logging messages, according to their severity levels, check the minimum severity level that will be associated with the console log, RAM log, Log file (Flash memory) and remote SYSLOG servers. When a severity level is selected, all severity levels above the selection are selected automatically. Enabling Logs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Global Parameters page. Table 9-13. Global Log Parameters CLI Commands CLI Command Description logging on no logging Enables error message logging. Turns off error message logging. logging console level no logging console level Limits messages logged to the console, based on severity. Use the no form of this command to disable logging limiting to the console. logging file level no logging file Limits SYSLOG messages stored in flash memory, based on severity. Use the no form of this command to cancel using the buffer. file-system logging {copy|delete-rename} Enables the logging of file system events.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 199 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: management logging {deny} no management logging {deny} Enables Management Access List (ACL) deny events. Use the no form of this command to disable logging management access list events. aaa logging {login} no aaa logging {login} Enables logging authentication login events. Use the no form of this command to disable logging authentication login events. console# configure console(config)# logging on console(config)# logging console errors console(config)# logging file alerts Table 9-13. Global Log Parameters CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description200 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY RAM Log To manage the RAM log buffer: 1 Click System > Logs > RAM Log in the tree view to display the RAM Log page. Figure 9-11. RAM Log The Max RAM Log Entries (20-400) line, which contains the maximum number of RAM log entries permitted, is displayed. When the log buffer is full, the oldest entries are overwritten. The Current Setting contains how many entries are currently permitted, and you can change this number in the New Setting (after reset) field. The following is displayed for the existing logs: – Log Index — The log number in the RAM Log table.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 201 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Log Time — The time at which the log was entered into the RAM Log table. – Severity — The log severity. – Description — The log entry text. 2 To remove all entries from the RAM log, click Clear Log. Viewing and Clearing the RAM Log Table Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting the size of the RAM log buffer, viewing, and clearing entries in the RAM log. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-14. RAM Log Table CLI Commands CLI Command Description logging buffered size no logging buffered Sets the number of SYSLOG messages stored in the internal buffer (RAM). Use the no form of this command to cancel using the buffer. show logging Displays the RAM logging buffer. clear logging Clears the RAM logging buffer. console(config)# logging buffered 300 04-Oct-2010 09:47:04 %SYSLOG-N-LOGGINGBFRSIZE: the number of syslog messages stored in the internal buffer will be changed to 300 (after reboot).202 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Log File (in Flash) To view and/or clear the flash memory log file: 1 Click System > Logs > Log File in the tree view to display the Log File page. Figure 9-12. Log File The following is displayed for the existing logs: – Log Index — The log number in the Log file. – Log Time — The time at which the log was entered. – Severity — The log severity. – Description — The log entry text. 2 To remove all entries from the log file, click Clear Log.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 203 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Displaying the Log File Table Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Log File page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Login History Use the Login History page to monitor users, including the time a user logged in, and the protocol used to log on to the device. Table 9-15. Log File Table CLI Commands CLI Command Description show logging file Displays the logging state and the SYSLOG messages stored in the logging file. console# show logging file Logging is enabled. Console Logging: Level info. Console Messages: 0 Dropped. Buffer Logging: Level info. Buffer Messages: 62 Logged, 62 Displayed, 200 Max. File Logging: Level debug. File Messages: 11 Logged, 51 Dropped. SysLog server 1.1.1.1 Logging: info. Messages: 0 Dropped. 01-Jan-2000 01:12:01 :%COPY-W-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfully 01-Oct-2010 01:11:49 :%LINK-I-Up: gi/1/0/11 01-Oct-2010 01:11:46 :%LINK-I-Up: gi/1/0/12204 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To enable user history logging and view user login history: 1 Click System > Logs > Login History in the tree view to display the Login History page. Figure 9-13. Login History The login history for the selected user or all users is displayed. 2 Enable/disable Login History to File to record login history. 3 Select a user or All from the User Name drop-down list. The login history for this user is displayed in the following fields: • Login Time — The time the selected user logged on to the device. • User Name — The user that logged on to the device. • Protocol — The means by which the user logged on to the device. • Location — The IP address of the station from which the device was accessed.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 205 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Displaying the Device Login History Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing and setting fields displayed in the Login History page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-16. Login History CLI Commands CLI Command Description aaa login-history file no aaa login-history file Enables writing to the login history file. Use the no form of this command to disable writing to the login history file. show users login-history [username] Displays the user’s login history. console (config)# aaa login-history file console# show users login-history Login Time Username Protocol Location ----------- -------- -------- ---------- 01-Oct-2010 23:58:17 admin HTTP 172.16.1.8 01-Oct-2010 07:59:23 admin Telnet 172.16.0.8206 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Remote Log Server Log messages can be sent to remote log servers, using the SYSLOG protocol. To add a remote log server: 1 Click System > Logs > Remote Server Settings in the tree view to display the Remote Log Server: Summary page. Figure 9-14. Remote Log Server: Summary The previously-defined remote servers are displayed. 2 To add a remote log server, click Add, and enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 207 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – New Log Server IP Address — Enter the IP address of the remote SYSLOG server. – UDP Port (1-65535) — Enter the UDP port to which the logs are sent for the selected server. – Facility — Select a user-defined application from which system logs are sent to the remote server. Only a single facility can be assigned to a single server. If a second facility level is assigned, the first facility level is overridden. All applications defined for a device utilize the same facility on a server. – Description (0-64 Characters) — Enter a server description. – Severity to Include — Check the severity levels to be logged to the remote server. The event severity levels are listed on this page in descending order from the highest severity to the lowest. When a severity level is selected to appear in a log, all higher severity events are automatically selected to appear in the log. When a security level is not selected, no lower severity events appear in the log. 208 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Working with Remote Server Logs Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI command for working with remote log servers. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-17. Remote Log Server CLI Commands CLI Command Description logging host {ipv4-address|ipv6- address|hostname} [port port-id] [severity level] [facility facility] [description text] no logging host {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|hostname} Logs messages to a remote server with this IP address. Use the no form of this command to delete the SYSLOG server with the specified address from the list of SYSLOGs. show syslog-servers Displays list of SYSLOG servers. console (configure) # logging host 1.1.1.1 console# show syslog-servers Device Configuration --------------------------------------------------------- IP Address Port Facility Severity Description ----------- ----- -------- ----------- ----------- 1.1.1.1 514 local7 info 1.1.1.2 514 local7 info 1.1.1.3 514 local7 info 1.1.1.4 514 local7 infoDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 209 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY IP Addressing This section describes how to configure IP addresses on the switch, and contains the following topics: • IP Addressing Overview • IPv4 Interface Parameters • DHCP IPv4 Interface • IPv4 Static Routing • IPv6 Interfaces • IPv6 Default Gateway • ISATAP Tunnel • IPv6 Neighbors • IPv6 Routes Table • Domain Name System • Default Domain Names • Host Name Mapping • ARP • UDP Relay IP Addressing Overview The device functions as an IPv6-compliant host, as well as an IPv4-host (also known as dual stack). This enables device operation in a pure-IPv6 network, as well as in a combined IPv4/IPv6 network. Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing The primary difference between IPv4 to IPv6 is the length of network addresses. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits, whereas IPv4 addresses are 32 bits. Thus, IPv6 addresses enable the use of many more unique addresses. The 128-bit IPv6 address format is divided into eight groups of four hexadecimal digits. Abbreviation of this format by replacing a group of zeros with double colons (::) is acceptable. IPv6 address representation can be further simplified by suppressing the leading zeros.210 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY All IPv6 address formats are acceptable, yet for display purposes, the system displays the most abbreviated form, which replaces groups of zeros with double colons and removes the leading zeros. IPv6 Prefixes While Unicast IPv6 addresses written with their prefix lengths are permitted, in practice their prefix lengths are always 64 bits, and therefore are not required to be expressed. Any prefix that is less than 64 bits is a route or address range that summarizes a portion of the IPv6 address space. For every assignment of an IP address to an interface, the system runs the Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) algorithm to ensure uniqueness. An intermediary transition mechanism is required for IPv6-only nodes to communicate with IPv6 nodes over an IPv4 infrastructure. The tunneling mechanism implemented is the Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP). This protocol treats the IPv4 network as a virtual IPv6 local-link, with each IPv4 address mapped to a Link Local IPv6 address. IPv4 Interface Parameters You can assign IP addresses to the interface in the following ways: • Manual Assignment — Described below • DHCP Server Assignment — Described in "DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214 Multiple IP addresses can be configured in the IPv4 Interface Parameters pages. These IP addresses can be assigned to a port, LAG, or VLAN interface. When an IP address is assigned, it is checked for uniqueness in the following way: • A gratuitous ARP request is sent three times every three seconds. • If after (3+1)*3 = 12 seconds the switch has not received the ARP response, the IP address is considered to be unique. • During the procedure the switch has to reply to gratuitous ARP and probe ARP requests with the validated IP address.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 211 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The IP address is assigned even if the above validation procedure concludes that the IP address in question is not unique, but a SYSLOG message is generated. In addition to the above validation procedure every time a switch receives an ARP request with a sender IP address that is equal to its IP address defined on the input interface it sends a SYSLOG message informing of IP duplication, containing the sender IP and MAC addresses, from the received ARP message. To assign an IP address to an interface, and to define subnets to which traffic can be routed: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv4 Interface Parameters in the tree view to display the IP Interface Parameters: Summary page. Figure 9-15. IPv4 Interface Parameters: Summary212 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The previously-assigned IP addresses are displayed. 2 To add an IP address to an interface, click Add, and enter the fields: – IP Address — Enter the IP address assigned to the interface. – Network Mask — Select the subnetwork mask to which traffic can be routed. – Prefix Length — Enter the number of bits that comprise the IP address prefix of the subnetwork. – Interface — Select the interface for which the IP address is defined. Select an interface type Port, LAG, or VLAN and the specific interface number. Defining IPv4 Interfaces Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the IPv4 Interfaces Parameters page. Table 9-18. IPv4 Interface Parameters CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip address ip-address {mask|prefix-length} no ip address [ip-address] Sets an IP address. Use the no form of the command to remove an IP address. show ip interface [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitet hernet]port-number|vlan vlanid|port-channel LAG-number] Displays the usability status of interfaces configured for IP.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 213 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following are sample procedures to configure a static IPv4 address on an interface using CLI and then to remove it: Table 9-19. Sample CLI Script to Configure IPv4 Statically on a VLAN CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface vlan 1 Enter Interface mode for VLAN 1. console(config-if)# ip address 10.5.225.40 /27 Set the routing interface with prefix length of 27. console(config-if)# ip defaultgateway 10.5.225.33 Set the address of the default gateway console(config-if)# no ip address Remove the address (if required). Table 9-20. Sample CLI Script to Configure IPv4 Statically on a Port CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 Enter Interface mode for port 1 on unit 1. console(config)# no switchport Enable the port to work as an IP interface (Layer 3 mode). console(config-if)# ip address 10.5.225.40 /27 Configure an IP address with prefix length of 27. console(config-if)# ip defaultgateway 10.5.225.33 Set the address of the default gateway console(config-if)# no ip address Remove the address (if required).214 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY DHCP IPv4 Interface The switch can operate in the following ways: • It can function as a DHCP client that obtains its own IP from a DHCP server, as described in this section • It can function as a DHCP server that allocates IP addresses to other devices, as described in "DHCP Server" on page 297 When the interface is configured as a DHCP client, it keeps requesting an IP address from the DHCP server, until it receives one. It then sends Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets to confirm the uniqueness of the IP address. If the ARP response shows that the IP address is in use, the switch sends a DHCPDECLINE message to the DHCP server, and sends another DHCPDISCOVER packet that restarts the process. IP address collisions occur when the same IP address is used in the same IP subnet by more than one device. Address collisions require administrative actions on the DHCP server and/or the devices that collide. Up to 32 interfaces (ports, LAGs, and/or VLAN) on the switch can be configured with a static or dynamic IP address. The IP subnets to which these IP addresses belong are known as directly connected/attached IP subnets. The IP address assignment rules for the switch are as follows: • If the IP address on the switch is changed, the switch issues gratuitous ARP packets to the corresponding VLAN, to check IP address collisions. • When a client must renew its lease, prior to its expiration date, a DHCPREQUEST message is sent. • A specific interface can have either a static IP address or a dynamic IP address, but not both.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 215 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To define the switch as a DHCP client: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > DHCP IPv4 Interface in the tree view to display the DHCP IPv4 Interface: Summary page. Figure 9-16. DHCP IPv4 Interface: Summary216 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The previously-configured DHCP IPv4 interfaces are displayed. 2 To add an interface that can receive an IP address, click Add and select the whether the interface is a port, LAG or VLAN in the Interface field. Defining DHCP IPv4 Interfaces Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields in the DHCP IPv4 Interface pages. Table 9-21. DHCP IPv4 Interface CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip address dhcp no ip address dhcp Acquires an IP address on an Ethernet interface from the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Use the no form of this command to release an acquired IP address.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 217 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring DHCP IPv4 Interfaces Using CLI The following is a sample CLI script to configure a dynamic IPv4 address on an interface and then to remove it: IPv4 Static Routing IPv4 static routes can be configured for IP addresses that are not on directly connected networks. These are defined in the IPv4 Static Routing pages. Table 9-22. Sample CLI Script to Configure IPv4 Dynamically on a VLAN CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface vlan 1 Enter VLAN mode for VLAN 1. console(config)# no switchport Enable the port to work as an IP interface (Layer 3 mode). console(config-if)# ip address dhcp Use the DHCP protocol to acquire the IP address. console(config-if)# no ip address dhcp Remove the address (if required). Table 9-23. Sample CLI Script to Configure IPv4 Dynamically on a Port CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface vlan 1 Enter VLAN mode for VLAN 1. console(config-if)# ip address dhcp Use the DHCP protocol to acquire the IP address. console(config-if)# no switchport Enable the port to work as an IP interface (Layer 3 mode). console(config-if)# no ip address dhcp Remove the address (if required).218 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY When routing traffic, the next hop is determined according to the longest prefix match (LPM algorithm). A destination IPv4 address may match multiple routes in the IPv4 Static Route table. The switch uses the matched route with the longest prefix match. To add an IPv4 static route: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv4 Static Routing in the tree view to display the IPv4 Static Routing: Summary page. Figure 9-17. IPv4 Static Routing: Summary 2 Click Add to add a destination, and enter the fields: – Destination IP Prefix — Enter the destination IPv4 prefix. If all zeros are entered, this represents a default route. – Network Mask — Select the destination IPv4 mask. – Prefix Length — Select the length of the destination IPv4 address prefix. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 219 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Next Hop — Enter the IP address to which the packet is forwarded on the route to the destination address. This is typically the address of a neighboring switch. – Route Type — Select the route type. The possible options are: • Reject — Rejects the route and stops routing to the destination network via all gateways. This ensures that if a frame arrives with the destination IP of this route, it is dropped. • Remote — The route is a remote path. – Metric (1-255) — Enter the administrative distance (cost) to the destination. Defining IPv4 Static Routing Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring IPv4 static routing. The following is an example of the CLI command: Table 9-24. IPv4 Static Routing CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip routing no ip routing Enables IPv4 Routing. Use the no format of the command to disable IPv4 Routing. ip route prefix {mask|prefixlength} ip-address-next-hop [metric distance] [reject-route] no ip route prefix {mask|prefixlength} [ip-address-next-hop] Configures static routes. Use the no form of this command to remove static routes. show ip route Displays the current routing table state. console(config)# ip route prefix 192.168.1.1 /8 10.5.234.255 metric 3 reject-route220 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring Two IP Networks on Two Different VLANS Using CLI The following shows how to configure two IP networks on two different VLANS using CLI: To test this setup described in Figure 9-18: 1 Connect a host whose address is 1.1.1.2 to interface 1/0/1 (default route 1.1.1.1) 2 Connect a host whose address 2.1.1.2 to port 1/0/2 (default route 2.1.1.1) 3 Ping from 1.1.1.2 to 2.1.1.2 to verify the configuration Table 9-25. Sample CLI Script to Configure Two IP Networks on Two Different VLANSs CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# vlan database Enter VLAN mode. console(config-vlan)# vlan 100-150 Create VLANs number 100 to 150. console(config-vlan)# exit Exit VLAN mode. console(config)#interface gi1/0/1 Enter Interface mode for port 1 on unit 1. console(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100 Make port a member of VLAN 100. console(config-if)# ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 Set the IP address with mask. console(config-vlan)# exit Exit Interface mode for port. console(config)#interface gi1/0/2 Enter Interface mode for port 2 on unit 1. console(config-if)# switchport access vlan 150 Make port a member of VLAN 150. console(config-if)# ip address 2.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 Set the IP address with mask. console(config-vlan)# exit Exit Interface mode for port.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 221 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Figure 9-18. IP Routing Setup IPv6 Interfaces The system supports IPv6-addressable hosts. To define IPv6 interfaces: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv6 Interface in the tree view to open the IPv6 Interface: Summary page. Figure 9-19. IPv6 Interface: Summary PC 1.1.1.1 Switch PC 2.1.1.1 VLAN 100 VLAN 150222 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Select an interface. The IPv6 addresses defined on the interface are displayed. In addition to the fields described in the Add pages, the following fields are displayed: – ICMP Error Rate Limit Interval (0-2147483647) — Enter the rate-limit interval for ICMPv6 error messages in milliseconds. The value of this parameter together with the Bucket Size parameter (below) determines how many ICMP error messages may be sent per time interval, for example, a rate-limit interval of 100 ms and a bucket size of 10 messages translates to 100 ICMP error messages per second. – ICMP Error Rate Limit Bucket Size (1-200) — Enter the bucket size for ICMPv6 error messages. The value of this parameter together with the ICMP Error Rate Limit Interval parameter determines how many ICMP error messages may be sent per time interval, for example, a rate-limit interval of 100 ms and a bucket size of 10 messages translates to 100 ICMP error messages per second. 3 To add a new IPv6 interface, click Add IPv6 Interface, and enter the fields: – Interface — Select an IPv6 interface to be configured. – Number of DAD Attempts — Enter the number of consecutive neighbor solicitation messages that are sent on an interface while Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is performed on Unicast IPv6 addresses on this interface. New addresses remain in a tentative state while duplicate address detection is performed. A field value of 0, disables duplicate address detection processing on the specified interface. A field value of 1, indicates a single transmission without follow up transmissions. – Autoconfiguration — Enable/disable stateless auto configuration of IPv6 address assignment. When enabled, the router solicitation ND procedure is initiated. This discovers a router in order to assign an IP address to the interface, based on prefixes received with RA messages. When auto configuration is disabled, no automatic assignment of IPv6 global Unicast addresses is performed, and existing, automatically-assigned IPv6 global Unicast addresses are removed from the interface. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 223 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Send ICMP Unreachable — Enable/disable transmission of ICMPv6 address Unreachable messages. When enabled, unreachable messages are generated for any packet arriving on the interface with unassigned TCP/UDP port. 4 To add an address to an IPv6 interface, click Add IPv6 Address, and enter the fields for the selected interface: – IPv6 Address Type — Check the means by which the IP address was added to the interface. The possible options are: • Link Local — The IP address is link local; non-routable and can be used for communication on the same network only. A Link Local address has a prefix of 'FE80'. • Global Unicast — The IP address is a globally unique IPv6 Unicast address; visible and reachable from different subnets. • Global Anycast — The IP address is a globally unique IPv6 Anycast address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – IPv6 Address — Enter the IPv6 address assigned to the interface. The address must be a valid IPv6 address, specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons. An example of an IPv6 address is 2031:0:130F:0:0:9C0:876A:130D and the compressed version is represented as 2031:0:130F::9C0:876A:130D. Up to five IPv6 addresses (not including Link Local addresses) can be set per interface, with the limitation of up to128 addresses per system. – Prefix Length — For global Unicast or Anycast, enter the length of the IPv6 prefix. The length is a decimal value that indicates how many of the high-order contiguous bits of the address comprise the prefix (the network portion of the address). The Prefix field is applicable only on a static IPv6 address defined as a Global IPv6 address. – EUI-64 — For global Unicast or Anycast, check to use the EUI-64 option.224 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining IPv6 Interfaces Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the IPv6 Interface pages. Table 9-26. IPv6 Interfaces CLI Commands CLI Command Description ipv6 enable [no-autoconfig] no ipv6 enable Enables the IPv6 addressing mode on an interface. Use the no form of this command to disable the IPv6 addressing mode on an interface ipv6 address autoconfig no ipv6 address autoconfig Enables automatic configuration of IPv6 addresses, using stateless auto configuration on an interface. Addresses are configured depending on the prefixes received in Router Advertisement messages. Use the no form of this command to disable address auto configuration on the interface. ipv6 icmp error-interval milliseconds [bucketsize] no ipv6 icmp error-interval Configures the rate limit interval and bucket size parameters for IPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error messages. Use the no form of this command to return the interval to its default setting. ipv6 address ipv6- address/prefix-length [eui-64] [anycast] no ipv6 address [ipv6- address/prefix-length] [eui- 64] Configures an IPv6 address for an interface. Use the no form of this command to remove the address from the interface.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 225 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY ipv6 address ipv6- address/prefix-length linklocal no ipv6 address link-local Configures an IPv6 link-local address for an interface. Use the no form of this command to return to the default link local address on the interface. ipv6 unreachables no ipv6 unreachables Enables the generation of ICMP for IPv6 (ICMPv6) unreachable messages for packets arriving on a specified interface. Use the no form of this command to prevent the generation of unreachable messages. ipv6 nd dad attempts attempt Configures the number of consecutive neighbor solicitation messages that are sent on an interface while Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is performed on the unicast IPv6 addresses of the interface. show ipv6 interface [[gigabitethernet|tengigabite thernet] port-number|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAGnumber] Displays the usability status of interfaces configured for IPv6. show ipv6 icmp error-interval Displays the IPv6 ICMP error interval. Table 9-26. IPv6 Interfaces CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description226 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is a sample script to configure IPv6 using CLI: IPv6 Default Gateway Use the IPv6 Default Gateway pages to configure and view the default IPv6 router addresses. This list contains routers that are candidates to become the switch default router for non-local traffic. The switch randomly selects a router from the list. The switch supports one static IPv6 default router. Dynamic default routers are routers that have sent router advertisements to the switch IPv6 interface. When adding or deleting IP addresses, the following events occur: • When removing an IP interface, all of its default gateway IP addresses are removed. • Dynamic IP addresses cannot be removed. • An alert message is displayed after a user attempts to insert more than one IP address. • An alert message is displayed when attempting to insert a non-Link Local type address. Table 9-27. Sample CLI Script to Configure IPv6 on a Port CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface vlan 1 Enter VLAN mode for VLAN 1. console(config-if)# ipv6 enable Enable IPv6 (dynamic). console(config-if)# ipv6 address 5::1/64 Set the IPv6 address (static)Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 227 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To configure a router: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv6 Default Gateway in the tree view to display the IPv6 Default Gateway: Summary page. Figure 9-20. IPv6 Default Gateway: Summary The previously-defined routers are displayed with the following fields: – IPv6 Default IPv6 Address — The router’s address. – Interface — The interface on which the router is accessed. – Type — The means by which the default gateway was configured. The possible options are: • Static — The default gateway is user-defined. • Dynamic — The default gateway is dynamically configured through router advertisement.228 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – State — The router’s status. The possible options are: • Incomplete — Address resolution is in progress and the link-layer address of the default gateway has not yet been determined. • Reachable — The default gateway is known to have been reachable recently (within tens of seconds ago). • Stale — The default gateway is no longer known to be reachable but until traffic is sent to the default gateway, no attempt is made to verify its reachability. • Delay — The default gateway is no longer known to be reachable, and traffic has recently been sent to the default gateway. Rather than probe the default gateway immediately, however, there is a delay sending probes for a short while in order to give upper-layer protocols a chance to provide reachability confirmation. • Probe — The default gateway is no longer known to be reachable, and Unicast Neighbor Solicitation probes are being sent to verify reachability. • Unreachable — No reachability confirmation was received. 2 To add an IPv6 default gateway, click Add, and enter the fields: – IPv6 Address Type — Displays that the IP address was added to the interface through a link local address. – Link Local Interface — Displays the outgoing interface through which the default gateway can be reached. – Default Gateway IPv6 Address — Enter the Link Local IPv6 address of the default gateway. Defining IPv6 Default Gateway Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the IPv6 Default Gateway pages . Table 9-28. IPv6 Default Gateway CLI Commands CLI Command Description ipv6 default-gateway ipv6- address Defines an IPv6 default gateway.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 229 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following are examples of these CLI command: ISATAP Tunnel To deliver IPv6 addresses in an IPv4 network, a tunneling process must be defined that encapsulates IPv6 packets in IPv4 packets. The Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) is an IPv6 transition mechanism that is used to transmit IPv6 packets between dual-stack nodes (nodes that can accept both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses) on top of an IPv4 network. When enabling ISATAP on a tunnel interface, an explicit IPv4 address is configured as the tunnel source, or an automatic mode exists, where the lowest IPv4 address is assigned to an IP interface. This source IPv4 address is used for setting the tunnel interface identifier according to ISATAP addressing conventions. When a tunnel interface is enabled for ISATAP, the tunnel source must be set for the interface in order for the interface to become active. An ISATAP address is represented using the [64-bit prefix]:0:5EFE:w.x.y.z, where 5EFE is the ISATAP identifier and w.x.y.z is a public or private IPv4 address. Thus, a Link Local address will be represented as FE80::5EFE:w.x.y.z show ipv6 route Displays the current state of the IPv6 routing table. console(config)# ipv6 default-gateway fe80::abcd console(config-if)# do show ipv6 route Codes: L - Local, S - Static, I - ICMP, ND - Router Advertisement The number in the brackets is the metric. L 3000::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 20 Lifetime Infinite L 4003::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 20 Lifetime Infinite L 5003::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 20 Lifetime Infinite L 6003::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 20 Lifetime Infinite Table 9-28. IPv6 Default Gateway CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description230 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY After the last IPv4 address is removed from the interface, the ISATAP IP interface state becomes inactive and is represented as Down, however the Admin state remains Enabled. When defining tunneling, note the following: • An IPv6 Link Local address is assigned to the ISATAP interface. The initial IP address is assigned to the interface, and the interface state becomes Active. • If an ISATAP interface is active, the ISATAP router IPv4 address is resolved via DNS by using ISATAP-to-IPv4 mapping. If the ISATAP DNS record is not resolved, the ISATAP host name-to-address mapping is searched in the host name cache. • When an ISATAP router IPv4 address is not resolved via the DNS process, the status of the ISATAP IP interface remains Active. The system does not have a default gateway for ISATAP traffic until the DNS procedure is resolved. • In order for an ISATAP Tunnel to work properly over an IPv4 network, an ISATAP router is must be set up.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 231 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To define an IPv6 ISATAP tunnel: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv6 ISATAP Tunnel in the tree view to display the ISATAP Tunnel page. Figure 9-21. IPv6 ISATAP Tunnel 2 Enter the fields: – ISATAP Status —Enable/disable the status of ISATAP on the device. – IPv4 Address Type — Enter the source of the IPv4 address used by the tunnel. The options are: • Auto —Use the dynamic address. • None —Disable the ISATAP tunnel • Manual —Use the manual address assigned. – IPv4 Address — Enter the local (source) IPv4 address of a tunnel interface. 232 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Tunnel Router's Domain Name — Enter a specific automatic tunnel router domain name. – Domain Name Query Interval(10 - 3600) — Enter the interval between DNS queries (before the IP address of the ISATAP router is known) for the automatic tunnel router domain name. – ISATAP Router Solicitation Interval(10 - 3600) — Enter the interval between router solicitations messages when there is no active router. – ISATAP Robustness (1 - 20) — Enter the number of DNS Query/Router Solicitation refresh messages that the device sends per second. Select the Use Default option to use the default setting of a field. Defining ISATAP Tunnel Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the ISATAP Tunnel pages. Table 9-29. ISATAP Tunnel CLI Commands CLI Command Description interface tunnel number Enters tunnel interface configuration mode. tunnel mode ipv6ip {isatap} no tunnel mode ipv6ip Configures an IPv6 transition mechanism global support mode. Use the no form of this command to remove an IPv6 transition mechanism. tunnel isatap router router_name no tunnel isatap router Configures a global string that represents a specific automatic tunnel router domain name. Use the no form of this command to remove the string associated with the router domain name and restore the default configuration. tunnel source {auto|ip-address ipv4-address} no tunnel source Sets the local (source) IPv4 address of a tunnel interface. Use the no form of the command to delete the tunnel local address.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 233 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of a CLI script to create a tunnel: tunnel isatap query-interval seconds no tunnel isatap query-interval Configures the interval between DNS Queries (before the IP address of the ISATAP router is known) for the automatic tunnel router domain name. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. tunnel isatap solicitationinterval seconds no tunnel isatap solicitationinterval Configures the interval between ISATAP router solicitations messages (when there is no active ISATAP router). Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. tunnel isatap robustness number no tunnel isatap robustness Configures the number of DNS Query/Router Solicitation refresh messages that the device sends. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show ipv6 tunnel Displays information on the ISATAP tunnel. Table 9-30. ISATAP Tunnel CLI Script CLI Command Description console#config Enter Global Configuration mode. console(config)# interface vlan 1 Enter Interface mode for VLAN 1. console(config-if)# ip address 10.5.225.40 /27 Configure an IP address with prefix length of 27. console(config-if)# ip default-gateway 10.5.225.33 console(config-if)#exit Set the address of the default gateway and exit Interface mode. Table 9-29. ISATAP Tunnel CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description234 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY console (config)# ip domain lookup Enable DNS lookup console(config)# ip name-server 176.16.1.18 Define DNS server console(config)# interface tunnel 1 Enter tunnel mode console(config-tunnel)#tunnel mode ipv6ip isatap Enable tunnel. console(config-tunnel)#tunnel source auto The system minimum IPv4 address will be used as the source address for packets sent on the tunnel interface. console(config-tunnel)# do show ipv6 tunnel Display tunnel configuration Table 9-30. ISATAP Tunnel CLI Script CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 235 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY IPv6 Neighbors The Neighbors feature is similar in functionality to the IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) feature. It enables detecting Link Local addresses within the same subnet, and includes a database for maintaining reachability information about active neighbors. The device supports a total of up to 64 neighbors, obtained statically or dynamically. When removing an IPv6 interface, all neighbors entered statically or learned dynamically, are removed. To add an IPv6 neighbor: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > IPv6 Neighbors in the tree view to display the IPv6 Neighbors: Summary page. Figure 9-22. IPv6 Neighbors: Summary236 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The previously-defined neighbors are displayed along with their states. The possible states are: – Incomplete — An address resolution is in progress, and the link-layer address of the neighbor has not yet been determined. – Reachable — The neighbor is known to have been reachable recently (within tens of seconds). – Stale — The neighbor is no longer known to be reachable, but until traffic is sent to the neighbor, no attempt is made to verify its reachability. – Delay — The neighbor is no longer known to be reachable, and traffic has recently been sent to the neighbor. Rather than probe the neighbor immediately, however, there is a delay sending probes for a short while, in order to give upper-layer protocols a chance to provide reachability confirmation. – Probe — The neighbor is no longer known to be reachable, and Unicast Neighbor Solicitation probes are being sent to verify reachability. 2 To clear the Neighbors table, select one of the following options: – None — Does not clear any entries. – Static Only — Clears the static entries. – Dynamic Only — Clears the dynamic entries. – All Dynamic and Static — Clears the static and dynamic address entries. 3 To add a new IPv6 neighbor, click Add, and enter the fields: – IPv6 Interface — Displays the interface on which IPv6 Interface is defined. – IPv6 Address — Enter the neighbor IPv6 address. – MAC Address — Enter the MAC address assigned to the interface.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 237 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 To modify or remove an IPv6 neighbor, click Edit, and enter the fields described on the Add page. 5 If an entry for the specified IPv6 address already exists in the neighbor discovery cache, as learned through the IPv6 neighbor discovery process, you can convert the entry to a static entry. To do this, select Static in the Type field. Defining IPv6 Neighbors Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the IPv6 Neighbors pages. Table 9-31. IPv6 Neighbors CLI Commands CLI Command Description ipv6 neighbor ipv6_addr {[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethernet] port-number|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAG-number]} mac_addr no ipv6 neighbor ipv6_addr {[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethernet] port-number|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAG-number]} Configures a static entry in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache. Use the no form of this command to remove a static IPv6 entry from the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache. show ipv6 neighbors {static|dynamic}[ipv6-address ipv6- address] [mac-address mac-address] [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethernet] port-number|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAG-number]] Displays IPv6 neighbor discovery cache information. clear ipv6 neighbors Deletes all entries in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache.238 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console# config console(config)# ipv6 neighbor 3000::a31b vlan 1 001b.3f9c.84ea console# show ipv6 neighbors dynamic Interface IPv6 Address HW Address State Router --------- ------------ ---------- ----- ----- VLAN 1 3000::a31b 0001b.3f9c.84ea Reachable YesDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 239 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY IPv6 Routes Table The IPv6 Routes Table describes how to reach IPv6 destinations. The routing table is used to determine the next-hop address and the interface used for forwarding. Each dynamic entry also has an associated invalidation timer value (extracted from Router Advertisements). This timer is used to delete entries that are no longer advertised. To view IPv6 destinations and how they are reached: • Click System > IP Addressing > IPv6 Routes Table in the tree view to display the IPv6 Routes Table page. Figure 9-23. IPv6 Routes Table The following is displayed for each IP address: – IPv6 Address — The destination IPv6 address.240 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Prefix Length — The length of the IPv6 prefix. This field is applicable only when the destination address is defined as a global IPv6 address. – Interface — The interface that is used to forward the packet. Interface refers to any Port, LAG or VLAN. – Next Hop — The address to which the packet is forwarded on the route to the Destination address (typically the address of a neighboring router). This can be either a Link Local or Global IPv6 address. – Metric — The value used for comparing this route to other routes with the same destination in the IPv6 route table. This is an administrative distance with the range of 0-255. – Life-Time — The timeout interval of the route if no activity takes place. Infinite means the address is never deleted. – RouteType — Specifies whether the destination is directly-attached and the means by which the entry was learned. The possible options are: • Local — A directly-connected route entry. • Static — Manually configured route, supported only for default gateway, learned through the Neighbor Discover (ND) process. • ICMP — The route was learned through ICMP Redirect messages, sent by the router. • ND — Route was learned by the ND protocol from Router Advertisement messages. Viewing IPv6 Routes Table Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the IPv6 Routes Table page. Table 9-32. IPv6 Routes Table CLI Commands CLI Command Description show ipv6 route Displays the current state of the ipv6 routing table.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 241 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console> show ipv6 route Codes: L - Local, S - Static, I - ICMP, ND - Router Advertisement The number in the brackets is the metric. S::/0 via fe80::77 [0] VLAN 1 Lifetime Infinite ND::/0 via fe80::200:cff:fe4a:dfa8 [0] VLAN 1 Lifetime 1784 sec L 2001::/64 is directly connected, g2 Lifetime Infinite L 2002:1:1:1::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 1 Lifetime 2147467 sec L 3001::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 1 Lifetime Infinite L 4004::/64 is directly connected, VLAN 1 Lifetime Infinite L 6001::/64 is directly connected, g2 Lifetime Infinite242 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) converts user-defined domain names into IP addresses. Each time a domain name is assigned, the DNS service translates the name into a numeric IP address, for example, www.ipexample.com is translated into 192.87.56.2. DNS servers maintain domain name databases and their corresponding IP addresses. To add a DNS server and specify the active DNS server: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > Domain Name System in the tree view to display the Domain Name System: Summary page. Figure 9-24. Domain Name System: Summary The list of previously-defined DNS servers is displayed. 2 To enable mapping of host names into IP addresses through a DNS server, select DNS Status. 3 To activate one of the currently-defined DNS servers, enable Active Server.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 243 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 To add a DNS server, click Add, and enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – DNS Server — Enter the IP address of the DNS server being added. – DNS Server Currently Active — Displays the DNS server that is currently active. – Set DNS Server Active — Check to activate the selected DNS server. Configuring DNS Servers Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring the fields in the Domain Name System pages. Table 9-33. DNS CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip domain lookup Enables DNS system for translating host names to IP addresses. ip name-server {server1- ipv4-address|server1-ipv6- address} [server-address2 …server-address8] no ip name-server [serveraddress … server-address8] Sets the available name servers. Up to eight name servers can be set. The no form of the command removes a name server.244 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: clear host Deletes entries from the host name-toaddress cache. clear host dhcp {name|*} Deletes entries from the host name-toaddress mapping received from DHCP. show hosts Displays the default domain name, the list of name server hosts, the static and the cached list of host names and addresses console (config)# ip domain lookup console(config)# ip name-server 176.16.1.18 Table 9-33. DNS CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 245 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Default Domain Names A default domain name is used when an IP address cannot be mapped to a known domain name. This domain name is applied to all unqualified host names. To define the default domain name: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > Default Domain Name to display the Default Domain Name page. Figure 9-25. Default Domain Name If there is a currently-defined default domain name, it is displayed. 2 Enter the Default Domain Name (1 - 160 Characters). Its Type is displayed, and has one of the following options: – Dynamic — The IP address was created dynamically. – Static — The IP address is a static IP address.246 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining Default Domain Names Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring the default domain name: The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-34. Default Domain Name CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip domain-name name no ip domain-name Defines a default domain name that the software uses to complete unqualified host names. The no form of the command disables the use of the Domain Name System (DNS). console(config)# ip domain-name dell.com Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 247 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Host Name Mapping Host names can be dynamically mapped to IP addresses through the Domain Name System pages, or statically through the Host Name Mapping page. To assign IP addresses to static host names. 1 Click System > IP Addressing > Host Name Mapping in the tree view to display the Host Name Mapping: Summary page. Figure 9-26. Host Name Mapping: Summary The currently-defined host names are displayed. 2 Click Add to add a new host name. Up to four IP addresses can be added. 3 For each IP address, enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. 248 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. • Host Name (1-160 Characters) — Enter the host name to be associated with the IP address entered below. • IP Address — Enter the IP address of the domain. Four addresses can be entered. 4 Click Remove to delete a host name. All addresses for this host name are deleted at the same time. Mapping IP Addresses to Domain Host Names Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for mapping domain host names to IP addresses. Table 9-35. Domain Host Name CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip host name address [address2 address3 address4] Defines the static host name-to-address mapping in the host cache no ip host name Removes the name-to-address mapping. clear host {name|*} Deletes entries from the host name-to-address cache. show hosts [name] Displays the default domain name, list of name server hosts, the static and the cached list of host names and addresses.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 249 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: ARP The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) converts IP addresses into physical MAC addresses. ARP enables a host to communicate with other hosts when their IP addresses are known. To add an IP/MAC address mapping: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > ARP in the tree view to display the ARP: Summary page. Figure 9-27. ARP: Summary console(config)# ip host accounting.abc.com 176.10.23.1250 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The entries in the table are displayed. 2 Enter the parameters: • ARP Entry Age Out (1 - 40000000) — Enter the amount of time in seconds that can pass between ARP requests for this address. After this period, the entry is deleted from the table. • Clear ARP Table Entries — Select the type of ARP entries that are cleared on all devices. The possible options are: • None — ARP entries are not cleared. • All — All ARP entries are cleared. • Dynamic — Only learned ARP entries are cleared. • Static — Only static ARP entries are cleared. 3 To add a mapping, click Add, and enter the fields: – Interface — Select an interface to be associated with the addresses. – IP Address — Enter the station IP address, which is associated with the MAC address filled in below. – MAC Address — Enter the station MAC address, which is associated in the ARP table with the IP address. 4 To change the status of a mapping from static to dynamic or vice versa, click Edit and enter the field: – Status — Select the entry’s status. The possible options are: • Static — The entry was statically entered. • Dynamic — The entry was dynamically learned. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 251 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring ARP Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the ARP pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-36. ARP CLI Commands CLI Command Description arp ip_addr mac_addr {[gigabitethernet|tengigabit ethernet] port-number|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAGnumber} Adds a permanent entry in the ARP cache. no arp ip-address Removes an ARP entry from the ARP Table. arp timeout seconds Configures how long an entry remains in the ARP cache. This command can be used in Global Configuration mode for all interfaces, or in Interface Configuration mode for a specific interface. clear arp-cache Deletes all dynamic entries from the ARP cache show arp Displays entries in the ARP Table. show arp configuration Displays the global and interface configuration of the ARP protocol console(config)# arp 198.133.219.232 00-00-0c-40-0f-bc console(config)# arp timeout 12000 console(config)# exit console# show arp ARP timeout: 12000 Seconds Interface IP Address HW Address Status --------- ---------- ---------- ------ gi1/0/11 10.7.1.102 00:10:B5:04:DB:4B dynamic gi1/0/12 10.7.1.135 00:50:22:00:2A:A4 static252 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY UDP Relay Switches do not typically route IP Broadcast packets between IP subnets. However, if configured, the switch can relay specific UDP Broadcast packets received from its IPv4 interfaces to specific destination IP addresses. To configure the relaying of UDP packets received from a specific IPv4 interface with a destination UDP port: 1 Click System > IP Addressing > UDP Relay in the tree view to display the UDP Relay: Summary page. Figure 9-28. UDP Relay: SummaryDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 253 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The UDP relays are displayed. 2 To add a UDP relay, click Add, and enter the fields: – Source IP Address — Select the source IP address to where the switch is to relay UDP Broadcast packets, based on a configured UDP destination port. The interface must be one of the IPv4 interfaces configured on the switch. Select All for all addresses. – UDP Port (1 - 65535) — Check Default Services to select all of the following default ports: • IEN-116 Name Service (port 42) • DNS (port 53) • NetBIOS Name Server (port 137) • NetBIOS Datagram Server (port 138) • TACACS Server (port 49) • Time Service (port 37) If Default Services are not selected, check the text box and enter a UDP port. – Destination IP Address — Enter the IP address that receives the UDP packet relays. If this field is 0.0.0.0, UDP packets are discarded. If this field is 255.255.255.255, UDP packets are flooded to all IP interfaces. Configuring UDP Relay Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the UDP Relay pages. Table 9-37. UDP Relay CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip helper-address {ipinterface|all} address [udpport-list] no ip helper-address {ipinterface|all} address Enables the forwarding of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcast packets received on an interface to a specific (helper) address. Use the no form of this command to disable the forwarding of broadcast packets to a specific (helper) address.254 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console (config)# ip helper-address all 172.16.9.9 49 53 console (config)# do show ip helper-address Interface Helper Address UDP Ports ----------- --------------- -------------------------- All 172.16.9.9 49,53Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 255 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Diagnostics This section describes how to perform cable tests on copper and fiber optic cables. It contains the following sections: • Integrated Cable Test • Optical Transceiver Diagnostics256 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Integrated Cable Test Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology is used to test the quality and characteristics of a copper cable attached to a port. Cables up to 120 meters long can be tested. Cables can only be tested when the ports are in the down state, with the exception of Approximated Cable Length test. This test can only be performed when the port is up and operating at 1 Gbps. To perform a cable test and view the results: 1 Click System > Diagnostics > Integrated Cable Test: Summary in the tree view to display the Integrated Cable Test: Summary page. Figure 9-29. Integrated Cable Test: Summary 2 Select a unit in the stack in the Unit ID field. Results from previously-run tests on that unit are displayed. 3 Ensure that both ends of the copper cable are connected to a device. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 257 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 Ensure that the cable is connected to tested port. Go to the Test tab. 5 Click Test Now. The copper cable and Approximate Cable Length tests are performed, and the following test results are displayed: – Test Result — Displays the cable test results. The possible options are: • No Cable — There is no cable connected to the port. • Open Cable — The cable is connected on only one side. • Short Cable — A short has occurred in the cable. • OK — The cable passed the test. – Cable Fault Distance — Displays the distance from the port where the cable error occurred. – Last Update — Displays the last time the port was tested. – Approximate Cable Length — Displays the approximate cable length. Performing Integrated Cable Tests Using CLI Commands The following table contains the CLI commands for performing integrated cable tests. Table 9-38. Integrated Cable Test CLI Commands CLI Command Description test cable-diagnostics tdr interface[gigabitethernet|tengigab itethernet] port-number Performs VCT tests. show cable-diagnostics tdr interface[gigabitethernet|tengigab itethernet] port-number Shows results of last VCT tests on ports. show cable-diagnostics cablelength interface [gigabitethernet|tengigabitetherne t] port-number Displays the estimated copper cable length attached to a port.258 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: Optical Transceiver Diagnostics The Optical Transceiver Diagnostics page displays the operating conditions reported by the SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceiver. Some information might not be available for SFPs that do not support the digital diagnostic monitoring standard SFF-8472. The following is the list of the compatible SFPs: • SFP: – X3366 — 1000Base-SX, Finisar FTLF8519P2BNL – U3650 — 1000Base-LX, Finisar FTRJ1319P1BTL • SFP+: – N743D — SR, Finisar FTLX8571D3BCL – T307D — LR, Finisar FTLX1471D3BCL – C043H — LRM, Avago AFBR-707SDZ-D1 – N198M — LRM, Finisar FTLX1371D3BCL console> enable console# test cable-diagnostics tdr gi1/0/3 Cable is open at 100 meters. console# show cable-diagnostics cable-length interface gi2/0/5 Port Length [meters] ------- ---------------- gi2/0/5 < 50Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 259 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To view the results of optical fiber tests: • Click System > Diagnostics > Optical Transceiver Diagnostics in the tree view to display the Optical Transceiver Diagnostics page. Figure 9-30. Optical Transceiver Diagnostics The following fields are displayed for the selected unit: – Port — The port number on which the cable was tested. – Temperature — The temperature (C) at which the cable is operating. – Voltage — The voltage at which the cable is operating. – Current — The current at which the cable is operating. – Output Power — The rate at which output power is transmitted. – Input Power — The rate at which input power is transmitted. – Transmitter Fault — A fault occurred during transmission. – Loss of Signal — A signal loss occurred in the cable. – Data Ready — The transceiver has achieved power up, and data is ready.260 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Performing Fiber Optic Cable Tests Using CLI Commands The following table contains the CLI command for performing fiber optic cable tests. The following is an example of the CLI command: Table 9-39. Fiber Optic Cable Test CLI Commands CLI Command Description show fiber-ports opticaltransceiver [interface [gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number] [detailed] Displays the optical transceiver diagnostics. console# show fiber-ports optical-transceiver detailed Port Temp [C] Voltage Current [aM] Output [mWat] Input [mWa] POWER [mWa] LOS ------- ---- ------- ---- ---- ---- ---- --- gi1/0/1 48 5.15 50 1.789 1.789 No No gi1/0/2 43 5.15 10 1.789 1.789 No NoDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 261 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Management Security This section describes the pages used to manage device security. It contains the following topics: • Access Profiles • Profile Rules • Authentication Profiles • Select Authentication • Active Users • Local User Database • Line Passwords • Enable Password • TACACS+ • Password Management • RADIUS Access Profiles Access to management functions may be limited to users identified by: • Ingress interface (Port, LAG, or VLAN) • Source IP address • Source IP subnet Management access may be separately defined for the following types of management access methods: • Telnet (CLI over Telnet sessions) • Secure Telnet • Web (HTTP) • Secure Web (HTTPS, Using SSL) • SNMP 262 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY This means, for example, that the set of managers allowed via Telnet may be different than the set of Web-based managers which is, in turn, may be different than the set of secure-web based managers, and so on. A specific management access method may be completely disabled by denying all user access to it (e.g. denying all users access to CLI/Telnet management effectively disables CLI/Telnet as an available management interface to the system). By default, management access to the system, through all methods, is enabled over all interfaces. NOTE: If you enable management access through a physical port, all VLANs and IP interfaces on that port will be acceptable management traffic sources. If you enable management access through a VLAN, all ports and IP interfaces on that VLAN will be acceptable. If specific IP address(es) are specified, only traffic from the specified IP addresses on the appropriate ports will be accepted. Access Profiles Rules Each management access profile is composed of at least one rule, which acts as a filter, and defines the device management method, interface type, source IP address, network mask, and the device management access action. Users can be blocked or permitted management access. Rule priority sets the order in which the rules are implemented. Assigning an access profile to an interface denies access via other interfaces. If an access profile is not assigned to any interface, the device can be accessed by all interfaces. A total of 256 rules can be defined for all Management Access profiles. To add rules to existing access profiles, see "Profile Rules" on page 266.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 263 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Creating an Access Profile To define an access profile with a single rule: 1 Click System > Management Security > Access Profiles in the tree view to display the Access Profiles: Summary page. Figure 9-31. Access Profiles: Summary The currently-defined access profiles are displayed. 2 To activate an access profile, select it in the Active Access Profile field. If you select Console Only, active management of the device can only be performed using the console connection. This profile cannot be removed. 3 To add a new profile, click Add, and enter the fields: – Access Profile Name (1-32 Characters) — Enter a name for the access profile. 264 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Rule Priority (1-65535) — Enter the rule priority. Rules are applied to packets according to their priority. These can be viewed in the Profile Rules: Summary page. – Management Method — Select the management method to which the access profile is applied. Users using this management method are authenticated using this access profile. The possible options are: • All — The access profile is applied to all management methods. • Telnet — The access profile is applied to Telnet users. • Secure Telnet (SSH) — The access profile is applied to SSH users. • HTTP — The access profile is applied to HTTP users. • Secure HTTP (HTTPS) — The access profile is applied to HTTPS users. • SNMP — The access profile is applied to SNMP users. – Interface — Check the fields and select the interface type to which the rule applies. – Enable Source IP Address — Check this parameter to restrict access, based on the source IP address. When this field is not selected, the source IP address cannot be entered into a configured rule. – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported for the source IP addresses. – Source IP Address — Enter the interface source IP address for which the rule applies. This is an optional field and indicates that the rule is valid for a subnetwork. – Network Mask — Enter the IP subnetwork mask if Supported IP Format is IPv4. – Prefix Length — Enter the number of bits that comprise the source IP address prefix, or the network mask of the source IP address. – Action — Select whether to permit or deny management access to the defined interface. The possible options are: • Permit — Permits access to the device. • Deny — Denies access to the device. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 265 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining Access Profiles Using CLI Commands The following table contains the CLI command for defining an access profile, without its rules. The CLI commands for defining the rules are described in "Defining Access Profile Rules Using CLI Commands" on page 267. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-40. Access Profile CLI Commands CLI Command Description management access-list name no management access-list name Defines an access-list for management. Use the no form of this command to delete an access list. console(config)# management access-list mlist console(config-macl)#266 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Profile Rules If an access profile already exists, meaning that a single rule has been defined on it, use the Profile Rules pages to add additional rules to it. To add a rule to a management access profiles: 1 Click System > Management Security > Profile Rules in the tree view to display the Profile Rules: Summary page. Figure 9-32. Profile Rules: Summary 2 Select an access profile name. Its rules are displayed in the order that they will be implemented. 3 To add a rule to the selected management access profile, click Add. 4 Select a management access profile. 5 Complete the fields that are defined in Access Profiles pages.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 267 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining Access Profile Rules Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for adding rules to access profiles. Table 9-41. Access Profiles CLI Commands CLI Command Description permit[[gigabitethernet|tengigab itethernet port-number]|vlan vlan-id|port-channel LAG-number] [service service] Sets port permit conditions for the management access list. permit ip-source {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|prefixlength} [mask mask|prefixlength] [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet][port-number|vlan vlanid|port-channel LAG-number] [service service] Sets port permitting conditions for the management access list, and the selected management method. deny [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number|vlan vlanid|port-channel LAG-number] [service service] Sets port denying conditions for the management access list, and the selected management method. deny ip-source {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|prefixlength} [mask mask|prefixlength] [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number|vlan vlanid|port-channel LAG-number] [service service] Sets port denying conditions for the management access list, and the selected management method. management access-class {console-only|name} no management access-class Defines which access-list is used as the active management connections. Use the no form of this command to disable management connection restrictions.268 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show management access-list [name] Displays the active management access-lists. show management access-class Displays information about management access-class. console(config)# management access-list mlist console(config-macl)# permit gi1/0/1 console(config-macl)# permit gi1/0/2 console(config-macl)# deny gi1/0/3 console(config-macl)# deny gi1/0/4 console(config-macl)# exit console(config)# management access-class mlist console(config)# exit console# show management access-list mlist ----- permit gi1/0/1 permit gi1/0/2 deny gi1/0/3 deny gi1/0/4 ! (Note: all other access implicitly denied) console# show management access-class Management access-class is enabled, using access list mlist Table 9-41. Access Profiles CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 269 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Authentication Profiles In addition to access profiles, you can configure authentication for management access methods, such as SSH, console, Telnet, HTTP, and HTTPS. User authentication can occur: • Locally • Via an external server, such as a TACACS+ or a RADIUS server User authentication occurs in the order that the methods are selected, for example, if both the Local and RADIUS options are selected, the user is authenticated first locally. If the local user database is empty, the user is authenticated via the RADIUS server. If an error occurs during the authentication, the next selected method is used. If an authentication method fails, or the user has an insufficient privilege level, the user is denied access to the switch. The switch then stops, does not continue, and does not attempt to use the next authentication method. If a privilege level is redefined, the user must also be re-defined. User authentication can also be set to None, in which case no authentication is performed. The process of configuring authentication for management access methods is divided into the following stages: • Create an authentication profile, as described below • Assign an authentication profile to a management method, as described in "Select Authentication" on page 272270 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To create an authentication profile: 1 Click System > Management Security > Authentication Profiles in the tree view to display the Authentication Profiles: Summary page. Figure 9-33. Authentication Profiles: Summary All currently-defined authentication profiles are displayed. 2 Click Add to add a new authentication profile, and enter the fields: – Profile Name (1-12 Characters) — Enter the name of the new authentication profile. Profile names cannot include blank spaces. – Authentication Method: Optional Methods — Select a user authentication methods that can be assigned to this authentication profile. The possible options are: • Line — The line password is used for user authentication (defined in "Line Passwords" on page 279).Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 271 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Enable — The enable (encrypted) password is used for authentication (defined in "Enable Password" on page 281). • Local — The user authentication is performed by the device, which checks the user name and password for authentication. • RADIUS — The user authentication is performed by the RADIUS server. For more information, see "RADIUS" on page 291. • TACACS+ — The user authentication is performed by the TACACS+ server. For more information, see "TACACS+" on page 282. • None — No user authentication occurs. Select a method by highlighting it in the Optional Methods list, and clicking on the right arrow to move it to the Selected Methods list. Configuring an Authentication Profile Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Authentication Profiles pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-42. Authentication Profile CLI Commands CLI Command Description aaa authentication login {default|list-name} method1 [method2] no aaa authentication login {default|list-name} Configures login authentication. Use the no form of the command to remove a login authentication profile. console(config)# aaa authentication login default radius local enable none272 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Select Authentication After Authentication Profiles are defined, the Authentication Profiles can be assigned to Management Access methods, for example, console users can be authenticated by Authentication Profile 1, while Telnet users can be authenticated by Authentication Profile 2. To assign an authentication profile to a management access method: 1 Click System > Management Security > Select Authentication in the tree view to display the Select Authentication page. Figure 9-34. Select Authentication 2 For the Console, Telnet and Secure Telnet (SSH) types of users, select either the default authentication profile or one of the previously-defined authentication profiles.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 273 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 3 For Secure HTTP and HTTP types of users, select one or all of the Optional Methods and click the right-arrow to move them to the Selected Methods. The options are: – Local — Authentication occurs locally. – None — No authentication method is used for access. – RADIUS — Authentication occurs at the RADIUS server. – TACACS+ — Authentication occurs at the TACACS+ server. Assigning Access Authentication Profiles Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Select Authentication page. Table 9-43. Select Authentication CLI Commands CLI Command Description aaa authentication enable {default|listname} method [method2 ...] no aaa authentication enable {default|listname} Indicates the authentication method list when accessing a higher privilege level from a remote Telnet, Console or SSH. enable authentication [default|list-name] no enable authentication Specifies the authentication method for accessing a higher privilege level from a remote Telnet or console. Use the no form of this command to restore the default authentication method login authentication [default|list-name] Indicates the login authentication method list for a remote Telnet, Console or SSH. ip http authentication aaa loginauthentication method1 [method2] no ip http authentication aaa loginauthentication Indicates authentication methods for HTTP or HTTPS servers. show authentication methods Displays information about the authentication methods.274 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands that sets authentication for the console using the default method list that was previously-defined: The following is an example of the CLI commands that creates an authentication method list for http server access (RADIUS and local): console(config)#line console console(config-line)# enable authentication default console(config-line)# login authentication default console(config-line)# exit console(config)# ip http authentication aaa loginauthentication radius local console(config)# exitDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 275 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Active Users To view active users on the device: • Click System > Management Security > Active Users in the tree view to display the Active Users page. Figure 9-35. Active Users The following fields are displayed for all active users: – Name — Active users logged into the device. – Protocol — The management method by which the user is connected to the device. – Location — The user’s IP address.276 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Displaying Active Users Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing active users connected to the device. The following example shows an example of the CLI command: Table 9-44. Active Users CLI Commands CLI Command Description show users Displays information about active users. console> show users Username Protocol Location -------- -------- --------- Bob Serial John SSH 172.16.0.1 Robert HTTP 172.16.0.8 Betty Telnet 172.16.1.7Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 277 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Local User Database Use the Local User Database pages to define users, passwords and access levels. To add a new user: 1 Click System > Management Security > Local User Database in the tree view to display the Local User Database: Summary page. Figure 9-36. Local User Database: Summary All users are displayed even if they have been suspended. If a user has been suspended, it can be restored here by selecting the Reactivate Suspended User field. 2 To add a user, click Add, and enter the fields: – User Name (1-20 characters) — Enter the username of the user.278 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Access Level — Select a user access level. The lowest user access level is 1 and 15 is the highest user access level. Users with access level 15 are Privileged Users, and only they can access and use the switch administrator. – Password (8-64 characters) — Enter the password of the user. – Confirm Password — Confirm the password of the user. The following fields are displayed: • Expiry Date — The expiration date of the user-defined password. • Lockout Status — Specifies whether the user currently has access (status Usable), or whether the user is locked out due to too many failed authentication attempts since the user last logged in successfully (status Locked). • Reactivate Suspended User — Check to reactivate the specified user’s access rights. Access rights can be suspended after unsuccessfully attempting to login. Configuring Local Users Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring local users. Table 9-45. Local User CLI Commands CLI Command Description username name {nopassword|password password|password encrypted encrypted-password} username name [privilege-level] no username name Establishes a username-based authentication system. Use the no form to remove a user name. set username name active Reactivates a suspended user’s access rights. show user accounts Displays users information.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 279 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: Line Passwords To add a line password for Console, Telnet, and Secure-Telnet users: 1 Click System > Management Security > Line Passwords in the tree view to display the Line Password page. Figure 9-37. Line Password 2 Enter the fields for each type of user, separately: – Password (0 - 159 Characters) — Enter the line password for accessing the device. – Confirm Password — Confirm the line password. console(config)# username bob password lee privilege 15 console# set username bob active280 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Console/Telnet/Secure Telnet Line Aging (1-365) — Check to set the amount of time in days that elapses before a line password is aged out. Enter the number of days after which the password expires. – Expiry Date — Displays the expiration date of the line password. – Lockout Status — Displays whether the user currently has access (status Usable), or whether the user is locked out due to too many failed authentication attempts since the user last logged in successfully (status Locked). – Reactivate Locked Line — Check to reactivate the line password for a Console/Telnet/Secure Telnet session. Access rights can be suspended after a number of unsuccessful attempts to log in. Assigning Line Passwords Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Line Password page . The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-46. Line Password CLI Commands CLI Command Description line {console|telnet|ssh} Identifies a specific line for configuration and enters the Line Configuration command mode. password password [encrypted] no password Sets a password on a line. Use the no form of this command to remove the password. console(config)# line console console(config-line)# password dellDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 281 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Enable Password To set a local password to control access to Normal and Privilege levels activities. 1 Click System > Management Security > Enable Passwords in the tree view to display the Enable Password page. Figure 9-38. Enable Password 2 Enter the fields: – Select Enable Access Level — Select the access level to associate with the enable password. The lowest user access level is 1 and 15 is the highest user access level. Users with access level 15 are Privileged Users, and only they can access and use the OpenManage Switch Administrator. – Password (0-159 characters) — Enter the enable password. – Confirm Password — Confirm the password.282 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Expiry Date — If Aging is selected, displays the expiration date of the enable password. – Lockout Status — Displays the number of failed authentication attempts since the user last logged in successfully (if the Enable Login Attempts checkbox is selected in the Password Management page.) Specifies LOCKOUT, when the user account is locked. – Reactivate Suspended User — Check to reactivate the specified user’s access rights. Access rights can be suspended after unsuccessfully attempting to login. Assigning Enable Passwords Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Enable Password page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: TACACS+ The device can act as a Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) client. TACACS+ provides centralized validation of users accessing the device, while still retaining consistency with RADIUS and other authentication processes. TACACS+ provides the following services: • Authentication — Provides authentication during login and via user names and user-defined passwords. • Authorization — Performed at login after authentication. The TACACS+ server checks the privileges of the authenticated user. Table 9-47. Enable Password CLI Commands CLI Command Description enable password [level level] d [encrypted] no enable password [level level] Sets a local password to control access to user and privilege levels. Use the no form of this command to remove the password requirement. console(config)# enable password level 15 secretDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 283 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The TACACS+ protocol ensures network integrity through encrypted protocol exchanges between the device and TACACS+ server. To configure TACACS+ servers: 1 Click System > Management Security > TACACS+ in the tree view to display the TACACS+: Summary page. Figure 9-39. TACACS+: Summary The list of currently-defined TACACS+ servers is displayed. The parameters for each server is displayed, along with its connection status. 2 Enter the default parameters for TACACS+ servers. These values are used unless values are added in the TACACS+ Add or Edit pages. – Source IP Address — The device IP address used for the TACACS+ session between the device and the TACACS+ server. The default is 0.0.0.0., which means that any IP address of the device can be used to communicate with the TACACS+ server.284 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Key String (1-128 Characters) — The authentication and encryption key for TACACS+ communications between the device and the TACACS+ server. This key must match the encryption key sent by the TACACS+ server. This key is encrypted. – Timeout for Reply (1-30) — The amount of time that passes before the connection between the device and the TACACS+ server times out. 3 To add a TACACS+ server, click Add, and enter the fields on the page. The fields below are those that were not described on the TACACS+: Summary page. – Host IP Address — Enter the TACACS+ server IP address. – Priority (0-65535) — Enter the order in which the TACACS+ servers are used if several are defined. – Source IP Address — Enter either specific device IP address for the TACACS+ server. – Authentication Port (0-65535) — Enter the port number through which the TACACS+ session occurs. – Timeout for Reply (1-30) — Enter the amount of time that passes before the connection between the device and the TACACS+ server times out. – Single Connection — Check to maintain a single open connection between the device and the TACACS+ server.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 285 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Wherever available, check Use Default to use a value that was entered in the TACACS+: Summary page. Defining TACACS+ Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the TACACS+ Settings pages. Table 9-48. TACACS+ CLI Commands CLI Command Description tacacs-server host {ip address|hostname}[singleconnection] [port port-number] [timeout timeout][key keystring][source source] [priority priority] no tacacs-server host {ipaddress|hostname} Configures a TACACS+ host. Use the no form of this command to delete the specified TACACS+ host. tacacs-server key key-string no tacacs-server key Specifies the authentication and encryption key for all TACACS+ communications between the device and the TACACS+ server. Use the no form of this command to disable the key. tacacs-server timeout timeout no tacacs-server timeout Specifies the timeout value in seconds. tacacs-server source-ip source no tacacs-server source-ip source Specifies the source IP address. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show tacacs [ip-address] Displays configuration and statistics for a TACACS+ server.286 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: Password Management Password management provides increased network security and improved password control. This feature is optional and must be enabled in the Password Management page. Passwords for SSH, Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, and SNMP access can be assigned security features that include: • Minimum password lengths • Password expiration dates (password aging) • Prevention of frequent password reuse • Lockout of users after failed login attempts • Number of repeated characters allowed • Number of different character classes required in the password. Numeric, alphabetic, and special characters are all character classes. console(config)# tacacs-server source-ip 172.16.8.1 console# show tacacs Device Configuration ----------------------------- IP Address Status Port Single TimeOut Source IP Priority Connection ---------- ------ ------ ---------- -------- ---------- -------- 1.1.1.11 Not 49 No Global Global 10 Connected 1.1.1.21 Not 49 No Global Global 19 Connected 1.1.1.31 Not 49 No Global Global 18 Connected 1.1.1.41 Not 49 No Global Global 17 Connected Global values -------------- TimeOut : 5 ----------------------------- Source IP : 0.0.0.0Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 287 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Password aging starts immediately after password management is enabled. However it is only effective if system time on the device is taken from an SNTP server. Passwords expire according to the user-defined expiration date/time. Ten days prior to password expiration, the device displays a password expiration warning message. After the password has expired, users can log in a few additional times. During the remaining logins, an additional warning message displays informing the user that the password must be changed. If the password is not changed, users are locked out of the system, and can only log in using the console. Password warnings are logged in the SYSLOG file. NOTE: Password aging is enabled only after setting the switch to use SNTP for setting time.288 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To define password management parameters: 1 Click System > Management Security > Password Management in the tree view to display the Password Management page. Figure 9-40. Password Management 2 Check the required fields and enter their values: – Enable Strong Passwords — Check to enable this feature. – Number of Classes — Select a number of character classes. The character classes are: upper case characters, lower case characters, digits and punctuation. The number of character classes selected indicates how many different types of characters must be in the password. – Repeated Characters — Select the number of permissible repeated characters in the password.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 289 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Password Minimum Length (8-64 characters) — When checked, specifies the minimum password length. Enter the minimum password length. – Enable Login Attempts — When checked, enables locking a user out of the device when a faulty password is used more than the number of times entered. Select the maximum number of login attempts. – Global Password Aging (1-365) — When checked, specifies that the password will expire in the number of days entered. Enter the number of days. This is only enabled after setting the switch to use SNTP for setting time – Consecutive Passwords Before Reuse (1-10) — When checked, indicates the number of times a password must be changed, before the password can be reused. Select the number of times. – Password History Hold Time (1-365) — When checked, the password history will be deleted after the number of days entered. Enter the number of days. Password Management Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Password Management page. Table 9-49. Password Management CLI Commands CLI Command Description passwords strength-check enable no passwords strength-check Enforces password strength checks. Use the no form of this command to disable enforcing password strength checks. passwords strength [max-limit repeated characters | minimum character-classes] no passwords strength Enforces limits of repeated characters and character classes. Use the no form of this command to disable enforcing limits of repeated characters and character classes.290 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is a sample script that sets password strength rules and creates a user with a valid password. password min-length length no password min-length Defines the minimum password length. Use the no form of this command to remove the restriction. passwords aging days no passwords aging Enforces password aging. Use the no form of this command to return to default. password history number no password history Defines the amount of times a password is changed, before the password can be reused. password history hold-time days no password history hold-time Configures the duration that a password is relevant for tracking passwords history. Use the no form of this command to return to the default configuration. password lockout number no password lockout Defines the number of times a faulty password is entered before the user is locked out of the device. Use the no form of this command to disable the lockout feature. show password configuration Displays password management information. Table 9-50. CLI Script to Configure Strong Password CLI Command Description console#configure console(conf)# passwords strengthcheck enable Enable strong passwords. Table 9-49. Password Management CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 291 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers provide additional security for networks. Up to four RADIUS servers can be defined. RADIUS servers provide a centralized authentication method for: • Telnet Access • Secure Shell Access • Web Access • Console Access console(config)# passwords strength minimum character-classes 3 Enable that passwords must contain at least three character classes. password min-length 8 Enable that passwords must contain at least eight characters. console(config)# username admin privilege 15 password FGH123!@# Create a user named "admin" with privilege level 15 and password that fits the strength rules. Table 9-50. CLI Script to Configure Strong Password CLI Command Description292 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To add a RADIUS server: 1 Click System > Management Security > RADIUS in the tree view to display the RADIUS: Summary page. Figure 9-41. RADIUS: Summary The RADIUS default parameters and previously-defined RADIUS servers are displayed. 2 Enter the default parameters to be used when these parameters are not entered for a specific server. – Default Retries (1-10) — The default number of transmitted requests sent to RADIUS server before a failure occurs. – Default Timeout for Reply (1-30) — The default amount of the time (in seconds) that the device waits for an answer from the RADIUS server before timing out. – Default Dead time (0-2000) — The default amount of time (in minutes) that a RADIUS server is bypassed for service requests. – Default Key String (0-128 Characters) — The Default Key string used for authenticating and encrypting all RADIUS communications between the device and the RADIUS server. This key is used for encryption. – Source IPv4 Address — The source IP v4 address that is used for communication with RADIUS servers.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 293 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Source IPv6 Address — The source IP v6 address that is used for communication with RADIUS servers. 3 To add a RADIUS server, click Add, and enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IP Address — Enter the RADIUS server IP address. – Priority (0-65535) — Enter the priority of the authentication server being added. 0 is the highest value. This is used to configure the order in which servers are queried. – Authentication Port (0-65535) — Enter the authentication port used to verify the RADIUS server authentication. Enter 0 if you do not want this server to be used for authentication purposes. – Accounting Port (0-65535) — Enter the accounting port, which is the UDP port number of the RADUS server used for accounting requests. Enter 0 if you do not want this server to be used for accounting purposes. – Usage Type — Enter the RADIUS server usage. The possible options are: • Login — Used for login authentication and/or accounting. • 802.1x — Used for 802.1x authentication and/or accounting. • All — Used for all types of authentication and/or accounting. 4 Enter the following fields if you do not want to use the default values entered in the RADIUS: Summary page. If you do want to use the default values, check Use Default for these fields. – Number of Retries (1-10) — Enter the number of requests sent to the RADIUS server before a failure occurs. – Timeout for Reply (1-30) — The amount of the time in seconds that the device waits for an answer from the RADIUS server before retrying the query, or switching to the next server. – Dead Time (0-2000) — The amount of time (in minutes) that a RADIUS server is bypassed for service requests. – Key String (0-128 Characters) — The key string used for authenticating and encrypting all RADIUS communications between the device and the RADIUS server. 294 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Source IP Address — The device IP address that is used for communication with RADIUS servers. Defining RADIUS Servers Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining fields displayed on the RADIUS pages. Table 9-51. RADIUS Server CLI Commands CLI Command Description radius-server host {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|ipv6zaddress|hostname} [auth-port auth-port-number] [acct-port acct-port-number][timeout timeout] [retransmit retries] [deadtime deadtime] [key keystring] [source {ipv4- address|ipv6-address}] [priority priority] [usage {login|802.1x|all}] no radius-server host {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|hostname} Specifies a RADIUS server host. Use the no form of the command to delete the specified RADIUS server host. radius-server timeout timeout no radius-server timeout Sets the interval for which a device waits for a server host to reply. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. radius-server source-ip sourceip-address no radius-server source-ip source-ip-address Specifies the source IPv4 address that will be used for the IPv4 communication with RADIUS servers. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 295 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY radius-server source-ipv6 source-ipv6-address no radius-server source-ipv6 source-ipv6-address Specifies the source IPv6 address that will be used for the IPv6 communication with RADIUS servers. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. radius-server retransmit retries no radius-server retransmit Specifies the number of times the software searches the list of RADIUS server hosts. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. radius-server deadtime deadtime no radius-server deadtime Configures unavailable servers to be skipped. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. radius-server key key-string no radius-server key Sets the authentication and encryption key for all RADIUS communications between the router and the RADIUS server. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show radius-servers Displays the RADIUS server settings. Table 9-51. RADIUS Server CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description296 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of CLI commands: console(config)# radius-server host 192.168.10.1 authport 20 timeout 20 console(config)# radius-server key enterprise-server console# show radius-servers IP address Port Port Time- Ret- Dead- Source IP Prio. Usage Auth Acct Out rans Time --------------- ----- ----- ------ ------ ------ --------------- ----- --- 1.1.1.11 1812 1813 Global Global Global Global 10 all 1.1.1.21 1812 1813 Global Global Global Global 19 all 1.1.1.31 1812 1813 Global Global Global Global 18 all 1.1.1.41 1812 1813 Global Global Global Global 17 all 1.1.1.51 1812 1813 Global Global Global Global 16 all Global values -------------- TimeOut : 3 Retransmit : 3 Deadtime : 0 Source IP : 0.0.0.0 Source IPv6 : ::Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 297 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY DHCP Server The switch can operate as either: • DHCP client that obtains its own IP from a DHCP server, as described in "DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214 • DHCP server that allocates IP addresses to other devices, as described in this section This section contains the following topics: • DHCP Server Overview • DHCP Server Properties • Network Pool • Excluded Addresses • Static Hosts • Address Binding DHCP Server Overview A DHCP server uses a defined pool of IP addresses (user-defined) from which it allocates IP addresses to DHCP clients. The DHCP server can allocate IP addresses in the following modes: • Static Allocation — The hardware address of a host is manually mapped to an IP address. • Permanent Allocation — An IP address sent to the client through a standard request-reply mechanism, is owned by that client permanently (unless changes in the network environment/connections take place, for any reason). • Dynamic Allocation — A client obtains a leased IP address for a specified period of time. The IP address is revoked at the end of this period, and the client must request another IP address. 298 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY DHCP Server Properties If the device is configured to act as a DHCP server, pinging capability can be enabled. The DHCP server pings an IP address in the address pool before assigning that IP address to a requesting client. If the ping is unanswered, the DHCP server assumes that the address is not in use and assigns the address to the client. To configure the device as a DHCP server: 1 Click System > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Properties in the tree view to display the DHCP Server Properties page. Figure 9-42. DHCP Server PropertiesDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 299 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Enter the fields: – DHCP Server Status — Enable/disable the ability of the device to function as a DHCP server. – DHCP Ping — Enable/disable the DHCP server to ping the offered IP address before responding to a client request. – DHCP Ping Retries — Enter the number of pings that are sent before discarding an IP address. Use Default reverts to the default Ping Retries setting. – DHCP Ping Timeout — Enter the maximum time interval (in milliseconds) that the DHCP server waits for a ping reply. Use Default reverts to the default Ping Timeout. Defining DHCP Server Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining the switch as a DHCP server. Table 9-52. DHCP Server CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip dhcp server no ip dhcp server Enables the DHCP server feature on the device. Use the no form of this command to disable the DHCP server feature. ip dhcp ping enable no ip dhcp ping enable Enables the DHCP server to send ping packets before assigning the address to a requesting client. Use the no form of this command to prevent the server from pinging pool addresses. ip dhcp ping count number no ip dhcp ping count Specifies the number of packets a DHCP server sends to a pool address as part of a ping operation. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.300 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: ip dhcp ping timeout milliseconds no ip dhcp ping timeout Specifies the time interval during which a DHCP server waits for a ping reply from an address pool. Use the no form of this command to restore default values. console(config)# ip dhcp ping enable console(config)# ip dhcp ping count 5 Table 9-52. DHCP Server CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 301 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Network Pool When the device is serving as a DHCP server, a pool of IP addresses must be defined, from which the switch will allocate IP addresses to clients. Each IP pool has a lease duration. To create a pool of IP addresses, and define their lease durations: 1 Click System > DHCP Server > Network Pool in the tree view to display the Network Pool: Summary page. Figure 9-43. Network Pool: Summary The previously-defined network pools are displayed. 2 Click Add to define a new network pool, and enter the fields: – Pool Name — Enter the pool name. – Subnet IP Address — Enter the subnet in which the network pool resides.302 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Network Mask — Check and enter the pool’s network mask. • Prefix Length — Check and enter the number of bits that comprise the address prefix. – Address Pool Start — Enter the first IP address in the range of the network pool. – Address Pool End — Enter the last IP address in the range of the network pool. – Lease Duration — Enter the amount of time a DHCP client can use an IP address from this pool. The total lease duration is 4294967295 seconds, i.e. 49710.2696 days. Thus a lease of 49710 days, 0 hours, 0 minutes and 0 seconds is a legal value, while a lease of 49710 days, 23 hours, 59 minutes and 59 seconds results in an Out of Range alert. • Days — The duration of the lease in number of days. The range is 0 to 49710 days. • Hours — The number of hours in the lease. A days value must be supplied before an hours value can be added. • Minutes — The number of minutes in the lease. A days value and an hours value must be added before a minutes value can be added. • Infinite — The duration of the lease is unlimited. – Default Router — Enter the default router for the DHCP client. – Domain Name Server — Enter the DNS server available to the DHCP client. – Domain Name — Enter the domain name for a DHCP client. The domain name may contain up to 32 characters. – NetBIOS WINS Server — Enter the NetBIOS WINS name server available to a DHCP client. – NetBIOS Node Type — Select how to resolve the NetBIOS name. Valid node types are: • Empty— Default value. • Broadcast — IP Broadcast messages are used to register and resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 303 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Peer-to-Peer — Point-to-point communications with a NetBIOS name server are used to register and resolve computer names to IP addresses. • Mixed — A combination of b-node and p-node communications is used to register and resolve NetBIOS names. M-node first uses b-node; then, if necessary, p-node. M-node is typically not the best choice for larger networks because its preference for b-node Broadcasts increases network traffic. • Hybrid — A hybrid combination of b-node and p-node is used. When configured to use h-node, a computer always tries p-node first and uses b-node only if p-node fails. This is the default. – SNTP Server — Enter the IP address of the time server for the DHCP client. – Next Server — Enter the IP address of the next server in the boot process of a DHCP client. If the next server in the boot process is not configured, the DHCP server uses inbound interface helper addresses as boot servers. – Next Server Name — Enter the name of the next server in the boot process. – Image File Name — Enter the name of the file that is used as a boot image. Configuring Network Pool Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining a pool of addresses on the DHCP server. Table 9-53. Network Pool CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip dhcp pool network name no ip dhcp pool network name Configures a DHCP address pool on a DHCP Server and enters DHCP Pool Configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to remove the address pool.304 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY address {network-number|low low-address high highaddress} {mask|prefixlength} no address Configures the subnet number, mask and start and end addresses for a DHCP address pool on a DHCP Server. Use the no form of this command to remove the subnet number and mask. lease {days [{hours} [minutes]]|infinite} no lease Configures the time duration of the lease for an IP address that is assigned from a DHCP server to a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to restore the default value default-router ip-address [ip-address2 ... ipaddress8] no default-router Configures the default router list for a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the default router list. dns-server ip-address [ipaddress2 ... ip-address8] no dns-server Configures the DNS IP servers available to a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the DNS server list. domain-name domain no domain-name Specifies the domain name for a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the domain name. netbios-name-server ipaddress [ip-address2 ... ipaddress8] no netbios-name-server Configures the NetBIOS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) servers that are available to Microsoft DHCP clients. Use the no form of this command to remove the NetBIOS name server list. netbios-node-type {b-node|pnode|m-node|h-node} no netbios-node-type Configures the NetBIOS node type for Microsoft Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) clients. Use the no form of this command to remove the NetBIOS node type. Table 9-53. Network Pool CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 305 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: time-server ip-address [ipaddress2 ... ip-address8] no time-server Specifies the time servers list for a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the time servers list. next-server ip-address no next-server Configures the next server in the boot process of a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the boot server. next-server-name name no next-server-name Configures the next server name in the boot process of a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to remove the boot server name. bootfile filename no bootfile Specifies the default boot image file name for a DHCP client. Use the no form of this command to delete the boot image file name. show ip dhcp pool network [name] Displays the DHCP network pool configuration. console(config)# ip dhcp pool network pool1 console(config-dhcp)# address 10.12.1.99 255.255.255.0 01b7.0813.8811.66 console(config-dhcp)# lease 1 Table 9-53. Network Pool CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description306 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Excluded Addresses By default, the DHCP server assumes that all pool addresses in a pool may be assigned to clients. A single IP address or a range of IP addresses can be excluded. To define an excluded address range: 1 Click System > DHCP Server > Excluded Addresses in the tree view to display the Excluded Addresses: Summary page. Figure 9-44. Excluded Addresses: Summary The previously-defined excluded IP addresses are displayed. 2 To add a range of IP addresses to be excluded, click Add, and enter the fields: – Start IP Address — First IP address in the range of excluded IP addresses.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 307 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – End IP Address — Last IP address in the range of excluded IP addresses. Excluding Addresses Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for excluding addresses. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-54. Excluding Addresses Using CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip dhcp excluded-address lowaddress [high-address] no ip dhcp excluded-address low-address [high-address] Configures a DHCP address pool on a DHCP Server and enter DHCP Pool Configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to remove the address pool. show ip dhcp excluded-addresses Displays the excluded addresses. console(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address 172.16.1.100 172.16.1.199 console> show ip dhcp excluded-addresses The number of excluded addresses ranges is 2 Excluded addresses: 10.1.1.212- 10.1.1.219, 10.1.2.212- 10.1.2.219308 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Static Hosts To manually allocate permanent IP addresses to clients (known as static hosts): 1 Click System > DHCP Server > Static Hosts in the tree view to display the Static Hosts: Summary page. Figure 9-45. Static Hosts: Summary The static hosts are displayed. 2 To add a static host, click Add, and enter the fields: – Host Name — Enter the host pool name, which can be a string of symbols and an integer. – IP Address — Enter the IP address that was statically assigned to the host. • Network Mask — Enter the pool’s network mask. • Prefix Length — Enter the number of bits that comprise the address prefix.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 309 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Client Identifier — Enter a unique identification of the client specified in dotted hexadecimal notation, such as: 01b6.0819.6811.72. or: – MAC Address — Enter the MAC address of DHCP static host. – Client Name — The name of the client, using a standard set of ASCII characters. The client name must not include the domain name. – Default Router — Enter the default router for the DHCP client. – Domain Name Server — Enter the DNS server available to the DHCP client. – Domain Name — Enter the domain name for a DHCP client. The domain name may contain up to 32 characters. – NetBIOS WINS Server — Enter the NetBIOS WINS name server available to a DHCP client. – NetBIOS Node Type — Select how to resolve the NetBIOS name. Valid node types are: • Empty — Default value. • Broadcast — IP Broadcast messages are used to register and resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses. • Peer-to-Peer — Point-to-point communications with a NetBIOS name server are used to register and resolve computer names to IP addresses. • Mixed — A combination of b-node and p-node communications is used to register and resolve NetBIOS names. M-node first uses b-node; then, if necessary, p-node. M-node is typically not the best choice for larger networks because its preference for b-node Broadcasts increases network traffic. • Hybrid — A hybrid combination of b-node and p-node is used. When configured to use h-node, a computer always tries p-node first and uses b-node only if p-node fails. This is the default. – SNTP Server — Enter the IP address of the time server for the DHCP client.310 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Next Server — Enter the IP address of the next server in the boot process of a DHCP client. If the next server in the boot process is not configured, the DHCP server uses inbound interface helper addresses as boot servers. – Next Server Name — Enter the name of the next server in the boot process. – Image File Name — Enter the name of the file that is used as a boot image. Defining Static Hosts Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining static hosts. See Table 9-53 for the remaining CLI commands that are common to the Network Pool pages, but are used in the context DHCP Pool Host context. Table 9-55. Defining Static Hosts Using CLI Commands CLI Command Description ip dhcp pool host no ip dhcp pool host Configures a DHCP static address on a DHCP Server and enters the DHCP Pool Host Configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to remove the address pool. ip host name address [address2 address3 address4] no ip host name Defines the static host name-toaddress mapping in the host cache. Use the no form of this command to remove the static hostname-toaddress mapping. show hosts Displays the default domain name, the list of name server hosts, the static and the cached list of host names and addresses. clear host Deletes entries from the host nameto-address cache.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 311 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# ip dhcp pool host station console(config-dhcp)#ip host accounting.website.com 176.10.23.1 console# show hosts System Name: Default domain: Domain name is not configured Name/address lookup is enable Name servers (Preference order): 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3 1.1.1.4 1.1.1.5 Configured host name-to-address mapping: Host IP Address --------------------------------- ----------------------- accounting.website.com 176.10.23.1312 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Address Binding Use the Address Binding page to view and remove the IP addresses allocated by the switch and their corresponding MAC addresses. To view and/or remove address bindings: • Click System > DHCP Server > Address Binding in the tree view to display the Address Binding page. Figure 9-46. Address Binding The following fields for the address bindings are displayed: – IP Address — The IP addresses of the client. – Client Identifier/MAC Address — A unique identification of the client specified as a MAC Address or in dotted hexadecimal notation, e.g., 01b6.0819.6811.72. – Lease Expiration — The lease expiration date and time of the host’s IP address. – Type — The manner in which the IP address was assigned to the client. The possible options are: • Static — The hardware address of the host was mapped to an IP address.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 313 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Permanent — The IP address, obtained dynamically from the switch, is owned by the client permanently (unless changes in the network environment/connections take place, for any reason). • Dynamic — The IP address, obtained dynamically from the switch, is owned by the client for a specified period of time. The IP address is revoked at the end of this period, at which time the client must request another IP address. 314 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNMP This section describes the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for managing network devices. It contains the following topics: • SNMP Overview • SNMP Global Settings • SNMP Views • SNMP Access Control (Groups) • SNMP User Security Model (Users) • SNMP Communities • SNMP Notification Filters • SNMP Notification Recipients SNMP Overview The switch supports the SNMPv1, SNMPv2 and SNMPv3. SNMP v1 and v2 The SNMP agent maintains a list of variables that are used to manage the switch. These variables are stored in the Management Information Base (MIB) from which they may be presented. The SNMP agent defines the MIB specification format, as well as the format used to access the information over the network. Access rights to the SNMP agents are controlled by access strings. SNMPv1 and v2 are enabled by default. SNMP v3 In addition to the features provided by SNMPv1 and SNMPv2, SNMPv3 applies access control and a new trap mechanism to SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 PDUs. In addition, a User Security Model (USM) can be defined, which includes: • Authentication — Provides data integrity and data origin authentication. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 315 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Privacy — Protects against disclosure of message content. Cipher BlockChaining (CBC) is used for encryption. Either authentication alone can be enabled on an SNMP message, or both authentication and privacy can be enabled on an SNMP message. However privacy cannot be enabled without authentication. • Timeliness — Protects against message delay or message redundancy. The SNMP agent compares incoming message to the message time information. • Key Management — Defines key generation, updates, and use. The switch supports SNMP notification filters, based on Object IDs (OIDs), which are used by the system to manage switch features. Authentication or Privacy Keys are modified in the User Security Model (USM). SNMPv3 can only be enabled if the Local Engine ID is enabled. SNMP Access Rights Access rights in SNMP are managed in the following ways: • SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 — Communities The community name is a password sent by the SNMP management station to the device for authentication purposes. A community string is transmitted along with the SNMPv1,v2 frames, but neither the frames nor the community string are encrypted. Since SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 are not encrypted, they are not secure. Communities can be associated with views or groups, and they are defined in the Community pages. • SNMPv3 — Users and Groups SNMP v3 works with users instead of communities. The users belong to groups that have access rights assigned to them. Users are defined in the User Security Model pages SNMPv3 provides two security mechanisms: – Authentication — The switch checks that the SNMP user is an authorized system administrator. This is done for each and every frame. 316 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Privacy — SNMP frames can carry encrypted data. These mechanisms can be combined to provide three levels of security: – No security – Authentication – Authentication and Privacy. Note that for both authentication and privacy to be enabled, two groups with the same name, one with authentication and one with privacy, must be created. A group is a label for a combination of attributes that determines whether members have read, write, and/or notify privileges. Users can be associated with a group. A group is operational only when it is associated with an SNMP user. Model OIDs The following are the switch model Object IDs (OIDs): SNMP Global Settings The Engine ID is used by SNMPv3 entities to uniquely identify themselves. An SNMP agent is considered an authoritative SNMP engine. This means that the agent responds to incoming messages (Get, GetNext, GetBulk, Set), and sends Trap messages to a manager. The agent's local information is encapsulated in fields in the message. Each SNMP agent maintains local information that is used in SNMPv3 message exchanges (not relevant for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2). The default SNMP Engine ID is comprised of the enterprise number and the default MAC address. The SNMP engine ID must be unique for the administrative domain, so that no two devices in a network have the same engine ID. Model Name Object ID PC5524 10895.3030 PC5524P 10895.3032 PC5548 10895.3031 PC5548P 10895.3033Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 317 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The local information is stored in four read-only MIB variables: snmpEngineId, snmpEngineBoots, snmpEngineTime, and snmpEngineMaxMessageSize. To configure SNMP: 1 Click System > SNMP > Global Parameters in the tree view to display the Global Parameters page. Figure 9-47. Global Parameters The global parameters are displayed. 2 Enter the fields: – Local Engine ID (10-64 Hex Characters) — Check and enter the local device engine ID. The field value is a hexadecimal string. Each byte in hexadecimal character strings is two hexadecimal digits. Each byte can be separated by a period or a colon. The Engine ID must be defined before SNMPv3 is enabled. For stacked devices, verify that the Engine ID is unique for the administrative domain. This prevents two devices in a network from having the same Engine ID. 318 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Use Default — Check to use the device-generated Engine ID. The default Engine ID is based on the device MAC address, and is defined per standard as: • First 4 octets — First bit = 1, the rest is IANA Enterprise number = 674. • Fifth octet — Set to 3 to indicate the MAC address that follows. • Last 6 octets — MAC address of the device. – SNMP Notifications — Enable/disable the switch sending SNMP notifications. – Authentication Notifications — Enable/disable the switch sending SNMP traps when authentication fails. Setting SNMP Global Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields in the Global Parameters page. Table 9-56. SNMP Global Parameters Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server engine ID local {engine-id-string|default} no snmp-server engine ID local Specifies the local device engine ID. The field values is a hexadecimal string. Each byte in hexadecimal character strings is two hexadecimal digits. Each byte can be separated by a period or colon. The Engine ID must be defined before SNMPv3 is enabled. Use the no form of this command to remove the configured engine ID. snmp-server enable traps no snmp-server enable traps Enables the router to send Simple Network Management Protocol traps. Use the no form of the command to disable SNMP traps.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 319 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNMP Views An SNMP view, which is a collection of MIB subtrees, provides or blocks access to device features. Each subtree is defined by the Object ID (OID) of the root of its subtrees. In extreme cases this subtree can be a leaf. Well-known names can be used to specify the root of the desired subtree, or an OID can be entered (see "Model OIDs" on page 316). Each subtree is either included in or excluded from the view being defined. snmp-server trap authentication no snmp-server trap authentication Enables the router to send Simple Network Management Protocol traps when authentication fails. Use the no form of this command to disable SNMP failed authentication traps. show snmp Checks the status of SNMP communications. console(config)# snmp-server enable traps console(config)# snmp-server trap authentication console(config)# snmp-server engineid local default The engine-id must be unique within your administrative domain. Do you wish to continue? [Y/N]y The SNMPv3 database will be erased. Do you wish to continue? [Y/N]y Table 9-56. SNMP Global Parameters Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description320 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Views can be attached to groups in the Access Control pages. To create an SNMP view: 1 Click System > SNMP > View Settings in the tree view to display the View Settings: Summary page. Figure 9-48. View Setting: Summary 2 Select a view name. Its subtrees are displayed. 3 To remove a subtree from an SNMP view, click Remove. The subtrees of the default views (Default, DefaultSuper) cannot be changed. 4 To add a new view, click Add, and enter a new View Name (1-30 Characters). 5 To complete the definition of the view, click Edit, and select a View Name to modify. Enter the fields: – New Object ID Subtree — Check to specify the device feature OID included or excluded in the selected SNMP view.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 321 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Selected from List — Select the device feature OID by using the Up and Down buttons to scroll through a list of all device OIDs. Or: • Insert — Specify the device feature OID. – View Type — Specify if the defined OID branch will be included or excluded in the selected SNMP view. Defining SNMP Views Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining fields displayed in the View Settings pages. The following is an example of CLI commands: Table 9-57. SNMP View CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {included|excluded} no snmp-server view view-name [oid-tree] Creates or updates a SNMP server view entry. Use the no form of this command to remove an SNMP server view entry. show snmp views [viewname] Displays the configuration of a view or all views. console(config)# snmp-server view user1 1 included console(config)# end console# show snmp views Name OID Tree Type ------------ --------------- -------- user1 system included Default iso included Default snmpVacmMIB excluded Default usmUser excluded Default rndCommunityTable excluded DefaultSuper iso included322 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY SNMP Access Control (Groups) For ease of use, users may be assigned to groups. In this way, it is possible to assign feature access rights to an entire group, instead of assigning them individually to users. Users are created in the User Security Model pages. Groups can be defined in any version of SNMP, but only SNMPv3 groups can be assigned authentication methods. To add an SNMP group, and assign it access control privileges: 1 Click System > SNMP > Access Control in the tree view to display the Access Control: Summary page. Figure 9-49. Access Control: Summary Previously-defined groups are displayed. 2 To add a new group, click Add, and enter the fields: – Group Name (1-30 Characters) — Enter a group name. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 323 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Security Model — Select the SNMP version of the group. – Security Level — Select the security level attached to the group. Security levels apply to SNMPv3 only. The possible options are: • No Authentication — Neither authentication nor the privacy security levels are assigned to the group. • Authentication — Authenticates SNMP messages, and ensures that the origin of the SNMP message is authenticated. • Privacy — Encrypts SNMP message. – Operation — Select the group access rights. The possible options are: • Read — The management access is restricted to read-only, and changes cannot be made to the assigned SNMP view. If desired, select a view from the drop-down list. • Write — The management access is read-write and changes can be made to the assigned SNMP view. If desired, select a view from the drop-down list. • Notify — Sends traps for the assigned SNMP view. If desired, select a view from the drop-down list. Defining SNMP Access Control Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining fields displayed in the Access Control pages. Table 9-58. SNMP Access Control CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server group groupname {v1|v2|v3 {noauth|auth|priv}} [read readview] [write writeview] [notify notifyview] no snmp-server group groupname {v1|v2|v3 [noauth|auth|priv]} [context-name] Configure a new Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) group, or a table that maps SNMP users to SNMP views. Use the no form of this command to remove a specified SNMP group. show snmp groups [groupname] Displays the configuration of groups 324 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNMP User Security Model (Users) An SNMP user is defined by the following: • Login credentials (username, password, and authentication method) • Context and scope in which the user operates • Association with a group • Engine ID SNMP user login credentials are verified using a local database. After a user is authenticated, it takes on the attributes of its group, and can then access the views permitted to this group. A user can only be a member of a single group. Before you create an SNMPv3 user, create an SNMPv3 group in the Access Control pages. When the configuration file is saved, SNMP communities/users are not saved. This means that if you configure another device with this configuration file, you must define the SNMP communities/users on that device. console (config)# snmp-server group user-group v3 priv read user-view console# show snmp groups Name Security Views Model Level Read Write Notify ----- ----- ------- ------- ------- ---------- 1 V1 noauth - - - 2 V1 noauth - - - 3 V1 noauth - - - 4 V1 noauth - - - 5 V1 noauth - - -Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 325 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To create an SNMP V3 user, and assign it to a group and view: 1 Click System > SNMP > User Security Model in the tree view to display the User Security Model: Summary page. Figure 9-50. User Security Model: Summary The currently-defined users and their groups are displayed. 2 To add a user, click Add, and enter the fields: – User Name (1-30 Characters) — Enter a new user name. – Engine ID — Specifies the local or remote SNMP entity, to which the user is connected. Changing or removing the local SNMP Engine ID deletes the SNMPv3 User Database. Select either Local or Remote. If Remote is selected, enter the remote engine ID. – Group Name — Select from a list of user-defined SNMP groups. SNMP groups are defined in the Access Control Group pages.326 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Authentication Method — Select an authentication method used to authenticate users. The possible options are: • None — No user authentication is used. • MD5 Password — HMAC-MD5-96 password is used for authentication. • SHA Password — Users are authenticated using the HMAC-SHA- 96 authentication level. • MD5 Key — Users are authenticated using the HMAC-MD5 algorithm. • SHA Key — Users are authenticated using the HMAC-SHA-96 authentication level. – Password (0-32 Characters) — If the MD5 Password or SHA Password authentication method was selected, enter the user-defined password for a group. – Authentication Key (MD5-16; SHA-20 Hex Characters) — If the MD5 Key or SHA Key authentication method was selected, enter the HMAC-MD5-96 or HMAC-SHA-96 keys. The authentication and privacy keys are entered to define the authentication key. If only authentication is required, 16 bytes are defined for MD5. If both privacy and authentication are required, 32 bytes are defined for MD5. Each byte in hexadecimal character strings is two hexadecimal digits. Each byte can be separated by a period or a colon. – Privacy Key (16 Hex Characters) — If the MD5 Key or SHA Key authentication method was selected, enter the privacy key. If only authentication is required, 20 bytes are defined. If both privacy and authentication are required, 16 bytes are defined. Each byte in hexadecimal character strings is two hexadecimal digits. Each byte can be separated by a period or colon. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 327 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining SNMPv3 Users Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining fields displayed in the User Security Model pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNMP Communities When using SNMP v1,2, communities strings (passwords) are used to provide access rights in the following ways: • Basic Table — The access rights of a community can be read-only, readwrite, or SNMP Admin. In addition, you can restrict access to the community to only certain MIB objects using a view. Views are defined in the Views Setting pages. • Advanced Table — Access rights to a community are assigned to a group that consists of users. A group can have Read, Write, and Notify access to views. Groups are defined in the Access Control pages. Table 9-59. SNMP Users CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server user username groupname {v1|v2c|[remote-host] v3 [encrypted] [auth {md5|sha} auth-password]} no snmp-server user username [remotehost] Configures a new SNMP V3 user. Use the no form of the command to remove a user. show snmp users [username] Displays the configuration of users. console(config)# snmp-server user tom acbd v1 console(config)# snmp-server user tom acbd v2c console(config)# snmp-server user tom acbd v3328 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To define an SNMP community: 1 Click System > SNMP > Communities in the tree view to display the Communities: Summary page. Figure 9-51. SNMP Community The Basic and Advanced tables are displayed. 2 To add a new community, click Add. 3 Define the SNMP management station by entering its IP address information: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is being used. – IPv6 Address Type — When the community supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 329 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – SNMP Management Station — Enter the management station IP address for which the SNMP community is defined, or choose All to be able to receive SNMP messages from anywhere. – Community String (1-20 Characters) — Enter the community string, which functions as a password, and is used to authenticate the management station to the device. 4 To associate access mode and views directly with the community, enter the fields: – Basic — Check to enable SNMP Basic mode for a selected community. – Access Mode — If Basic is selected, specify the access rights of the community. The possible options are: • Read-Only — Management access is restricted to read-only, and changes cannot be made to the community. • Read-Write — Management access is read-write and changes can be made to the device configuration, but not to the community. • SNMP Admin — User has access to all device configuration options, as well as permissions to modify the community. – View Name — Select a view from a list of user-defined SNMP views. The view determines other characteristics associated with the community. 5 To use Advanced mode, enter the fields: – Advanced — When SNMP Advanced mode is selected, you can select an SNMP group to specify the SNMP access control rules for the selected community. The SNMP Advanced mode is defined only with SNMPv3. 330 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Group Name — Select the group to be associated with the community. Configuring Communities Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields in the Community pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: SNMP Notification Filters Notification filters determine the type of SNMP notifications that are sent to the management station, based on the OID of the notification to be sent. Each OID is linked to a device feature or a feature aspect. SNMP notification filters provide the following services: • Identification of management trap targets • Trap filtering Table 9-60. SNMP Community CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server community community [view view-name] [ro|rw|su] {ipv4-address|ipv6-address} [mask mask-value|prefix-length prefix-value] [type router|oob] Sets up the community access string to permit access to the SNMP protocol. Use the no form of this command to remove the specified community string snmp-server community-group community group-name [ipv4- address|ipv6- address][mask|prefix-length] [type router|oob] no snmp-server community string [ipv4-address|ipv6-address] Sets up community access string to permit limited access to the SNMP protocol, based on group access rights. show snmp Displays the current SNMP device configuration. console (config)# snmp-server community dell ro 10.1.1.1Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 331 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Selection of trap generation parameters • Access control checks After creating a notification filter, attach it to a notification recipient in the SNMPv1,2 Notification Recipients pages. To add a notification filter: 1 Click System > SNMP > Notification Filters in the tree view to display the Notification Filter: Summary page. Figure 9-52. Notification Filter: Summary 2 The OIDs of the selected filter are displayed. 3 If required, the notification filter type can be changed by selecting one of the following options: – Excluded — OID traps or informs will not be sent. – Included — OID traps or informs will be sent.332 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 4 To add a new notification filter, click Add. 5 In addition to the fields described in the Summary page, enter the fields: – Filter Name (1-30 Characters) — Enter the notification filter name. – New Object Identifier Tree — Check to specify the device feature OID included or excluded in the selected SNMP view. • Selected from List — Select the device feature OID by using the Up and Down buttons to scroll through a list of all device OIDs. or: • Object ID — Specify the device feature OID. – Filter Type — Select whether the defined OID branch will be Included or Excluded in the selected SNMP view. Configuring Notification Filters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes CLI commands for defining fields displayed in the Notification Filter pages. Table 9-61. SNMP Notification Filter CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server filter filter-name oidtree {included|excluded} no snmp-server filter filter-name [oid-tree] Creates or updates an SNMP notification filter. Use the no form of this command to remove the specified SNMP server filter entry. show snmp filters [filter-name] Displays the configuration of SNMP notification filtersDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 333 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of CLI commands: SNMP Notification Recipients An SNMP notification is a trap message, sent from the switch to the SNMP management station, indicating that a certain event has occurred, such as a link up or down. Trap receivers, also known as notification recipients, are network nodes to which trap messages are sent by the switch. A trap receiver entry contains the IP address of the node and the SNMP credentials corresponding to the version that will be included in the trap message. When an event arises that requires a trap message to be sent, it is sent to every node listed in the trap receiver list. Some messages are of an informational nature and are called "informs" instead of traps. console (config)# snmp-server filter user1 iso included console(config)# end console # show snmp filters Name OID Tree Type ----------- ------------- -------- user1 iso Included334 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To add notification recipients, and attach them to notification filters: 1 Click System > SNMP > Notification Recipient in the tree view to display the Notification Recipients: Summary page. Figure 9-53. Notification Recipients: Summary The previously-defined notification recipients are displayed. 2 To add a new notification recipient, click Add, and enter the fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether the IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the recipient supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 335 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The IPv6 interface is configured on this VLAN. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – Recipient IP — The IP address to whom the traps are sent. – Notification Type — The notification sent. The possible options are: • Trap — Traps are sent. • Inform — Informs are sent. If SNMP versions 1 and 2 are enabled for the selected recipient, enter the fields: – Community String — The community string of the trap manager. – Notification Version — The message trap SNMP version (v1 or v2). If SNMPv3 is used to send and receive traps, enter the fields: – User Name — The user to whom SNMP notifications are sent. – Security Level — The means by which the packet is authenticated. The possible options are: • No Authentication — The packet is neither authenticated nor encrypted. • Authentication — The packet is authenticated. • Privacy — The packet is both authenticated and encrypted. 3 Enter the fields for all versions of SNMP: – UDP Port (1-65535) — The UDP port used to send notifications. The default is 162. – Filter Name — Select an SNMP filter from a list of previously-defined SNMP filters. – Timeout (1-300) — The amount of time (seconds) the device waits before resending informs. – Retries (1-255) — The amount of times the device resends an inform request. 336 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring SNMP Notification Recipients Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields in the Notification Recipients pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-62. SNMP Notification CLI Commands CLI Command Description snmp-server host {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|hostname} [traps|informs] [version {1|2c|3 [auth|noauth|priv]}] communitystring [udp-port port] [filter filtername] [timeout seconds] [retries retries] no snmp-server host {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|hostname} [traps|informs] [version {1|2c|3}] Creates or updates a notification recipient receiving notifications in SNMP version 1, 2 or 3. Use the no form of this command to remove the specified host. show snmp Shows the current SNMP configuration. console(config)# snmp-server host 172.16.1.1 private console(config)# end console# show snmp CommunityString CommunityAccess View Name IP Address ------------- ------------ --------- ---------- public read only user-view All private read write default 172.16.1.1 private su DefaultSup er 172.17.1.1 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 337 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY File Management This section describes how to manage device firmware (image files) and configuration files. It contains the following topics: • File Management Overview • Auto-Update/Configuration Feature • File Download • File Upload • Active Images • Copy Files • File System File Management Overview This section describes the system files found in the system and how they can be updated (downloaded) and backed up (uploaded). System Files The following system files are maintained on the system: • Startup Configuration File — Files with extension .text. These files contain the commands required to configure the device at startup or after reboot. The Startup Configuration file is created from the Running Configuration file, or can be created from another file. • Running Configuration File — Files with extension .text. These files contain all Startup Configuration file commands, as well as all commands entered during the current session. After the device is powered down or rebooted, all commands stored in the Running Configuration file are lost. During the startup process, all commands in the Startup Configuration file are copied to the Running Configuration file, and applied to the device. During the session, new configuration commands are added to the Running Configuration file. To update the Startup Configuration file with these configuration commands, the Running Configuration file must first be copied to the Startup Configuration file before powering down the 338 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY device. This can be done manually in the Copy Files page or see "AutoUpdate/Configuration Feature" on page 338 for more information about how to perform this automatically. • Image Files—Files with extension .ros. System file images are saved in two flash files called Image 1 and Image 2. The active image contains the active copy, while the other image contains a backup copy. The device boots and runs from the active image. If the active image is corrupted, the system automatically boots from the non-active image. This is a safety feature for faults occurring during the software upgrade process. Downloading/Uploading System Files System files can be manually loaded from (downloaded) or copied to (uploaded) a TFTP server or a USB drive. This can be done in one of the following ways: • Manually—System files can be downloaded using the File Download page and uploaded using the File Upload page. • Automatically (Auto Update/Configuration)—System files can be downloaded automatically, as follows: – Auto-Configuration—If the Auto-Configure feature is enabled (in the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page), the Startup Configuration file (in various conditions described below) might be automatically updated after reboot. – Auto-Update—If the Firmware Auto-Update feature is enabled in the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page, the image file is might be automatically updated (in various conditions described below). Auto-Update/Configuration Feature The Auto-Update/Configuration feature enables initial configuration of the device and upgrading of the firmware through an automatic process, which enables the administrator to ensure that the configuration/firmware of all the devices in the network is up-to-date. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 339 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The required configuration files/images are stored on a USB key or TFTP server, and these are downloaded to all the devices in the network when the device boots up instead of booting from a local startup configuration file. Auto-Update/Configuration also enables quick installation of new devices on the network, since an out-of-box device can be configured to retrieve its configuration file from the network/USB, allowing instant access to it from the administrator's management station and up-to-date configuration on the device. NOTE: If Auto-Update is performed through the USB port, in addition to upgrading the Startup Configuration and image file, a new IP address can also be assigned to the device. See "Setup Files" on page 339 below. Setup Files In addition to placing configuration and image files on the USB key, the USB key might also contain a setup file, which is a file with a .setup extension. Setup File Contents A setup file contains one or more lines. Each line contains some or all of the following fields: • MAC Address—This indicates to which device the line applies. In this way, a single setup file can be used for multiple devices. • New IP Address—The new IP address to be assigned to the device. • New IP Address Mask—The IP address mask to be applied to the new IP address assigned to the device. • Configuration File Name—Name of the configuration file to be used as the Startup Configuration. • Image File Name—Name of the image file to be loaded on device. • Flag—Indicates the status of the line. The following values can be used in this field: – In-Use—This line has already been applied. It is no longer a candidate for future use. – Invalid—The line is invalid, do not use. – Blank—There is no value for the flag field. This line is a candidate to be applied to the device.340 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Setup File Format A line in a setup file contains all or some of the above fields separated by spaces (in the following order): If the field is omitted, it is considered to be blank. A line can be in one of the following formats: • Format A—Contains all possible fields: Examples: – 0080.c200.0010 192.168.0.10 255.255.255.0 switch-X.text pc5500- 4018.ros This means that the line applies to the device with MAC address: 0080.c200.0010; a new IP address of 192.168.0.10 is to be assigned to the device, with mask: 255.255.255.0. The switch-x.text is the Startup Configuration file and pc5500-4018.ros is the new image file. – 0080.c200.0010 192.168.0.10 255.255.255.0 switch-X.text pc5500- 4018.ros in-use This line will not be used because the flag is in-use indicating that it has already been used for some device, and it would be incorrect to use if for another device. – 0080.c200.0010 192.168.0.10 255.255.255.0 switch-X.text pc5500- 4018.ros invalid This line will not be used because the flag is invalid indicating that it is failed in the past.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 341 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Format B—Contains the following 4 fields: Example: 0080.c200.0010 switch-X.text pc5500-4018.ros This means that the line applies to the device with MAC address: 0080.c200.0010. The switch-x.text is the Startup Configuration file and pc5500-4018.ros is the new image file. • Format C—Contains the following 5 fields: Example: 192.168.0.10 255.255.255.0 switch.text pc5500-4018.ros This means that the line applies to any device (no MAC address is supplied); a new IP address of 192.168.0.10 is to be assigned to the device, with mask: 255.255.255.0. The switch-x.text is the Startup Configuration file and pc5500-4018.ros is the new image file. • Format D—Contains the following 3 fields: Example: 192.168.0.10 255.255.255.0 This means that the line applies to any device (no MAC address is supplied); a new IP address of 192.168.0.10 is to be assigned to the device, with mask: 255.255.255.0.342 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Triggering the Auto-Update/Configuration Process When the Auto-Update/Configuration feature is enabled (in the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page), the device automatically attempts to download a new image or configuration file (under certain circumstances) using one of the following processes: • The Auto-Update process is triggered from the USB drive if a USB key in the USB drive is found. • The Auto-Configuration process is triggered from the USB drive after the Auto-Update process completed and the device was rebooted (if a new image file was loaded), and if the following conditions are fulfilled: – There is a USB key in the USB drive. – Force Configuration Download at Next Startup has been enabled by the boot host dhcp command, or the Startup Configuration file is empty. See "Performing Auto-Update from a USB Drive" on page 343. • The Auto-Update from a TFTP server is triggered if the following conditions are fulfilled: – The conditions for a USB Auto-Update are not fulfilled. – An IP address of a TFTP server is received from a DHCP server. – A file name is received from DHCP server. • The Auto-Configuration from a TFTP server is triggered if the following conditions are fulfilled: – The conditions for USB Auto-Configuration are not fulfilled. – The switch as DHCP client received a configuration file name or a TFTP URL. – Force Configuration Download at Next Startup enabled by the boot host dhcp command, or, the Startup Configuration file is empty. See "Preparations for Using Auto Configuration from a TFTP Server" on page 345. NOTES: • DHCP client never triggers the Auto-Update process from a TFTP server after attempting (whether successfully or not) to auto-update/configure configuration/image file from the USB drive. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 343 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • If the auto process involved setting the IP address of the device from the setup file, the auto process from the TFTP server can be triggered. • If the USB drive contains a setup file, but that setup file does not include a line that can be used for the current device, the DHCP client is able to trigger the Auto-Update process from TFTP (because the USB process never started at all). Automatic DHCP IP Interface Assignment The user can manually define a DHCP interface in the DHCP IPv4 page. If the user does not do this, the switch automatically creates a DHCP interface on the VLAN with the lowest VLAN ID that does not have an IP address defined on it after boot if both of the following conditions are fulfilled: • There is no DHCP IP interface. • There is a VLAN without an IP address. Preparations for Using Auto Update/Configuration from a USB Drive Before Auto-Update/Configuration from a USB drive can be performed, the following steps must be performed: 1. Enable Auto-Update/Configuration in the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page. 2. (Optional) Create a line in the setup file for this device containing the required options and load it on the USB key. 3. Load configuration/image files on the USB key as required. 4. Insert the USB key in the USB drive and reboot the device. Performing Auto-Update from a USB Drive When Auto-Update is initiated from a USB drive, the following steps are performed: 1. Locate the correct setup file—The USB drive is searched for a setup file. One of the following can occur: – Setup file is not found—The root folder of the USB is searched for an image files (with .ros extension). • The image file with the most recent version is loaded into the image file if the versions are different.344 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • If a new image file was loaded, the device is rebooted. • The USB drive is searched for a configuration file (.text extension). If there is more than one configuration file, the file named powerconnect.text is loaded (if it is not found the process is stopped). – One or more setup files are found—If a single setup file is found, it is used; if several files are found, the file powerconnect.setup is used. If no setup file with this name is found, the process is stopped. 2. Find the line in the setup file relevant to the device—When the correct setup file is found, it is searched for a line relevant to the device, as follows: – The setup file is searched for a line with format A or B in which there is a match to the device's MAC address. If such line is found, and its format is valid (the field is empty), the line is applied. – If no line for the specific device was found, the setup file is searched for valid lines with formats C or D. The first line found is applied. 3. Apply the correct line—When the correct line in the setup file is found, it is applied, as follows: – If the line contains an IP address and IP mask, the IP address is configured on the default VLAN. – If the line contains an image file and its version differs from the current image file version, the USB image file is loaded and the switch is rebooted. – If a new image file was loaded, it is loaded onto all units in the stack. – If the line contains a configuration file, the configuration file is appended to running configuration file. 4. Mark the flag in the applied line—When the line is applied (successfully or not), its flag is set, as follows: – If the line contains an IP address and IP mask (format C or D), the IP address is configured on the default VLAN and the line is marked as "in-use". This ensures that the line is not used for another device. – If the line was not applied successfully, for one of the following reasons, the line is marked as "invalid" and a SYSLOG message is sent.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 345 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • The configuration file specified by the line does not exist on the USB key or is corrupted. • The image file specified by the line does not exist on the USB key or is corrupted. – If parsing of the line failed for some other reason, the line is ignored and a SYSLOG message is sent. NOTE: When both Auto-Update and Auto-Configuration are performed, the image file is loaded first, the device is booted and then the configuration file is loaded. Preparations for Using Auto Configuration from a TFTP Server The Auto-Update/Configuration feature enables configuring the device from a configuration file found on the TFTP server. Two methods may be used: • One-file Read, described in "Auto Configuration (One File Read Method)" on page 345. This method is used if a configuration file is found on the TFTP server. • Multi-file Read, described in "Auto Configuration (Multi File Read Method)" on page 346. This method is used if a configuration file name is not found on the DHCP server, or the configuration file is not found on the TFTP server. Auto Configuration (One File Read Method) This method requires the following preparations on the DHCP and TFTP servers: • TFTP Server Place a configuration file, for example config.txt in the main directory. This file can be created by copying a configuration file from a device. When the device is booted this becomes the Running configuration file. • DHCP Server – Configure the DHCP server with option 67 and the name of the configuration file on the TFTP server (for example, config.txt). – Configure the DHCP server with option -20 or 66. This is the IP address of the TFTP server.346 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Device - On the device, one of the following cases may exist: – If Configuration Auto-Config is selected, the device is configured with the configuration file on the TFTP server only if the Startup configuration file is empty. – If Force Configuration Download at Next Startup is selected, the device is configured with the configuration file on the TFTP server whether the Startup configuration file is not empty or not. Auto Configuration (Multi File Read Method) If the one-file method has failed and the TFTP Server IP address has been provided by the DHCP Server, the switch applies the multi-file method to download the configuration file. The following steps are performed by the switch: • The switch gets the hostname, as described below. – If the hostname was provided by the DHCP server, this hostname is used. – If the hostname has not been provided by a DHCP server, and if the user has configured the sysName variable, its value is used as a hostname. – If neither of the above occurred, the switch uses the fp-net.cfg Filename List on the TFTP server. Each file in this list is a text file containing commands, each of which: • Occupies one line. • Has the following format: ip host hostname ip-addr. Each line maps an IP address to a hostname. When the switch identifies its own IP address in this list, the hostname associated with it is used. • The switch tries to download a configuration file with the following names: – hostname-config – hostname.cfg if the previous file does not exist – host.cfg if the previous files do not existDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 347 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Preparations for Firmware Image Download from TFTP The image file download consists of the following steps: • The switch downloads the Indirect Image File and extracts from it the name of the image file. Note: If the size of the image name bigger than 160 octets only the first 160 octets will be used • If the image file version differs from the current image file version, then the image file is loaded and the switch is rebooted. The preparations on the DHCP and TFTP servers require the following: • TFTP Server – Create a sub directory in the main directory. Place a software image file in it. – Create an indirect file that contains a path and the name of the software version (for example indirect-contax.txt that contains contax\contax-version.ros). – Copy this file to the TFTP server’s main directory • DHCP Server – Configure the DHCP server with option -20 or 66. This is the IP address of the TFTP server. – Configure the DHCP server with option 125. Enter the following information: • A2-02-00-00 — Enterprise Number 674 (Dell PowerConnet 55xx value). It should be written from right to left. 674=02 a2 • 15 — Data Length • 01 — Sub option code 1 (Dell PowerConnet 55xx value) • 13 — Sub option length • Conversion of the file name (in the above example: conversion of indirect-contax.txt from ASCII to HEX - 69-6E-64-69-72-65-63- 74-2D-63-6F-6E-74-61-78-2E-74-78-74348 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Auto Update Configuration through the GUI To set the auto update and configuration parameters: . NOTE: For the automatic options in this page to work the following must be implemented: • Since Auto-Config depends on retrieving information from a DHCP server, the startup configuration needs to include a DHCP IP interface. The device is defined as a DHCP client, as described in "DHCP IPv4 Interface" on page 214. After reboot, this command is not saved in the Startup configuration. • Preparations described above must be completed on the DHCP server and TFTP servers. 1 Click System > File Management > Auto Update of Configuration/Image File in the tree view to display the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page. Figure 9-54. Auto Update of Configuration/Image File The auto-update-configuration options are displayed. 2 Modify the auto-update configuration parameters as required: – Configuration Auto-Config (boot host auto-config)— Enable/disable automatic download of the configuration parameters to the Running Configuration file. By default, this occurs only if the Startup Configuration file is empty. – Firmware Auto-Update (boot host auto-update)— Enable/disable automatic download of the image file. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 349 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Force Configuration Download at Next Startup (boot host dhcp) — Enable/disable the Configuration Auto Update option to work even if the Startup Configuration file is not empty. – Auto-Copy Running Configuration to Startup Configuration After Download (boot host auto-save)— Enable/disable the Running Configuration file to be automatically copied to the Startup Configuration file after downloading the Running Configuration file. Auto Update Configuration Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Auto Update of Configuration/Image File page. Table 9-63. Auto Update of Configuration/Image File CLI Commands CLI Command Description boot host auto-config no boot host auto-config Enables the support of autoconfiguration via DHCP. Use the no form of this command to disable DHCP auto configuration. boot host auto-update no boot host auto-update Enables the support of auto-update via DHCP. Use the no form of this command to disable DHCP auto configuration boot host dhcp no boot host dhcp Forces the mechanism used to download a configuration file at the next system startup. Use the no form of this command to restore the host configuration file to the default. boot host auto-save no boot host auto-save Enables automatic saving of Running configuration in Startup configuration after download. Use the no form of this command restore default behavior show boot Shows the status of the IP DHCP Auto Config process.350 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI command to view the Auto-Update status: The following is an example of the CLI command to configure auto-update on the switch: console# show boot Auto Config ----------- Config Download via DHCP: enabled Next Boot Config Download via DHCP: force Auto Update ----------- Image Download via DHCP: enabled console# configure console(config)# boot host auto-save console(config)# interface vlan 1 console(config-if)# ip address dhcp console(config-if)# 01-Oct-2006 15:19:51 %BOOTP_DHCP_CL-WDHCPIPCANDIDATE: The device is waiting for IP address verification on interface Vlan 1 , IP 10.5.225.47, mask 255.255.255.224, DHCP server 10.5.224.25 01-Oct-2006 15:20:03 %BOOTP_DHCP_CL-I-DHCPCONFIGURED: The device has been configured on interface Vlan 1 , IP 10.5.225.47, mask 255.255.255.224, DHCP server 10.5.224.25 01-Oct-2006 15:20:03 %COPY-I-FILECPY: Files Copy - source URL tftp://10.5.224.4/33.txt destination URL runningconfig 01-Oct-2006 15:20:03 %COPY-N-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfully 01-Oct-2006 15:20:03 %COPY-I-FILECPY: Files Copy - source URL running-config destination URL flash://startup-config 01-Oct-2006 15:20:10 %COPY-N-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfullyDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 351 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY File Download Software and configuration files can be downloaded from an external device to the switch: • To download from a USB port or when management computer uses HTTP • To download files using TFTP To download from a USB port or when management computer uses HTTP 1 Click System > File Management > File Download in the tree view to display the File Download page. Figure 9-55. File Download 2 For HTTP, enter the IP Format fields for the HTTP server IP address. – Supported IP Format — Select whether IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets.352 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. 3 Select a Firmware/Configuration option. The possible options are: – Firmware Download — A firmware file is downloaded. – Configuration Download — A configuration file is downloaded. 4 Select to download firmware or a configuration file via a USB port or HTTP in Download Protocol. 5 If the Firmware Download option was selected, enter the following: – Source File Name (1-64 characters) — The file to be downloaded. – Destination File Type — The destination file type to which the file is downloaded. The possible options are: • Software Image — Downloads the Image file. The image file overwrites the non-active image. It is recommended to designate that the non-active image becomes the active image after reset, and then to reset the device following the download. During the Image file download a dialog box opens that displays the download progress, and browsing is disabled. • Boot Code — Downloads the Boot file. 6 If the Configuration Download option was selected, enter the following: – Server IP Address — Enter the IP address of the server. – Source File Name (1-64 Characters) — Enter the source file name. – Destination File Name — Select the destination file to which the configuration file is downloaded. The possible options are: • Running Configuration — Check to download commands into the Running Configuration file. The current file is overwritten. • Startup Configuration — Check to download commands into the Startup Configuration file. The current file is overwritten. • New File Name (1-64 Characters) — Check to copy commands into a file in flash memory. Enter the filename.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 353 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 7 Click Activate to start the download process. To download files using TFTP 1 Click System > File Management > File Download in the tree view to display the File Download page. Figure 9-56. File Download 2 Enter the IP Format fields for the TFTP server IP address. – Supported IP Format — Select whether IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only.354 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. 3 Select a Firmware/Configuration option. The possible options are: – Firmware Download — A firmware file is downloaded. – Configuration Download — A configuration file is downloaded. 4 Select to download firmware or a configuration file via a TFTP server in Download Protocol. 5 If the Firmware Download option was selected, enter the following: – Server IP Address — The IP address of the server from which the firmware file is downloaded. – Source File Name (1-64 characters) — The file to be downloaded. – Destination File Type — The destination file type to which the file is downloaded. The possible options are: • Software Image — Downloads the Image file. The image file overwrites the non-active image. It is recommended to designate that the non-active image becomes the active image after reset, and then to reset the device following the download. During the Image file download a dialog box opens that displays the download progress. The window closes automatically when the download is complete. • Boot Code — Downloads the Boot file. 6 If the Configuration Download option was selected, enter the following: – Server IP Address — The TFTP server IP address from which the configuration files are downloaded. – Source File Name (1-64 characters) — The configuration file to be downloaded. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 355 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Destination File Name — The destination file to which the configuration file is downloaded. The possible options are: • Running Configuration — Check to download commands into the Running Configuration file. The current file is overwritten. • Startup Configuration — Check to download commands into the Startup Configuration file. The current file is overwritten. • New File Name (1-64 characters) — Check to download commands into a configuration backup file. Enter the filename. 7 Click Activate to start the download process. Downloading Files Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the File Download page. The following is an example of the CLI command: NOTE: Each exclamation mark (!) indicates that ten packets were successfully transferred. File Upload Software and configuration files can be uploaded to an external device. • To upload from a USB port or when management computer uses HTTP • To upload a file or image using TFTP Table 9-64. File Download CLI Commands CLI Command Description copy source-url destinationurl Copies files from a source to a destination. console# copy tftp://10.6.6.64/pp.txt startup-config ....! Copy: 575 bytes copied in 00:00:06 [hh:mm:ss] 01-Jan-2000 06:41:55 %COPY-W-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfully 356 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following methods can be used: • To upload from a USB port or when management computer uses HTTP • To upload a file or image using TFTP To upload from a USB port or when management computer uses HTTP 1 Click System > File Management > File Upload in the tree view to display the File Upload page. Figure 9-57. File Upload 2 Configuration Upload is selected automatically. 3 Select to upload a configuration file when the management computer is using HTTP or from a USB port in Download Protocol. 4 Enter the fields: – Transfer File Name — The configuration file to which the configuration is uploaded. The possible options are: • Running Configuration — Uploads the Running Configuration file. • Startup Configuration — Uploads the Startup Configuration file. 5 Click Activate to start the upload process. A message will be displayed asking where for the path of the destination file.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 357 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To upload a file or image using TFTP 1 Click System > File Management > File Upload in the tree view to display the File Upload page. Figure 9-58. File Upload 2 Enter the IP Format fields for the TFTP server IP address. – Supported IP Format — Select whether IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets.358 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • VLAN — The VLAN on which the IPv6 interface is configured. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. 3 Select one of the options: – Firmware Upload — A firmware file is uploaded. – Configuration Upload — A configuration file is uploaded. 4 Select to upload firmware or a configuration file via a TFTP server in Download Protocol. 5 If Firmware Upload was selected, enter: – TFTP Server IP Address — The TFTP server IP address to which the software image is uploaded. – Destination File Name (1-64 Characters) — The file name to which the file is uploaded. 6 If Configuration Upload was selected, enter: – TFTP Server IP Address — The TFTP server IP address to which the configuration file is uploaded. – Destination File Name (1-64 Characters) — The configuration file name/path to which the file is uploaded. – Transfer File Name — The configuration file that is uploaded. The possible options are: • Running Configuration — Uploads the Running Configuration file. • Startup Configuration — Uploads the Startup Configuration file. • User-defined Files —Uploads the selected file. A user-defined file is only displayed in this list if one was previously created by a user, for example, if the user copied the running configuration file to a user-defined configuration file called BACKUP-SITE-1, the BACKUP-SITE-1 configuration file is displayed in the list and can be selected. 7 Click Activate to start the upload process.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 359 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Uploading Files Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the File Upload page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-65. File Upload CLI Commands CLI Command Description copy source-url destination-url Copies any file from a source to a destination. console# copy image tftp://10.6.6.64/uploaded.ros !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Copy: 4234656 bytes copied in 00:00:33 [hh:mm:ss] 01-Jan-2000 07:30:42 %COPY-W-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfully360 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Active Images There are two firmware images, Image1 and Image2, stored on the switch. One of these images is identified as the active image, and the other is identified as the inactive image. The switch boots from the active image. You can switch the inactive image to the active image, and then reboot the switch. The active image file for each unit in the stack can be individually selected. To select the image file to be used after reset: 1 Click System > File Management > Active Images in the tree view to display the Active Images page. Figure 9-59. Active Images The following fields are displayed: – Unit ID — ID of the unit.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 361 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Active Image — The name of the image file that is currently active on the unit in the stack. – After Reset — The image file that will be active on the unit in the stack after the device is reset. The possible options are: • Image 1 — Activates Image file 1 after the device is reset. • Image 2 — Activates Image file 2 after the device is reset. 2 Click Apply to select the image file to be used after reset in After Reset. Working with the Active Image File Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing fields displayed in the Active Images. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Copy Files Firmware and configuration files can be copied between units in the stack. Use the Copy Files page to perform the following: • Copy the firmware on the Master unit to another unit in the stack. • Copy the master Running Configuration file to the master sTartup Configuration file, or copy the configuration to a user-defined configuration file. • Copy the master Startup Configuration file to a backup file on the Flash file system or to a USB if available. Table 9-66. Active Image CLI Commands CLI Command Description boot system {image- 1|image-2} [switch number|all] Sets the system image that the device loads at startup. show version [unit unit] Displays version information for the system console# boot system image-1 all362 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Copy a configuration file to the Running Configuration file. It is important to be aware that copying a file to the Running Configuration file actually executes these commands, so some of the configuration commands might fail (for example when trying to create a VLAN that is already defined on the system). • Restore configuration factory defaults. To copy files: 1 Click System > File Management > Copy Files in the tree view to display the Copy Files page. Figure 9-60. Copy Files 2 To copy the firmware from the Master unit to the Backup Master unit or to all other units, select Copy Master Firmware and select the options: – Source— Select either the current Master unit’s software image file or boot code file.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 363 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Destination Unit — Check to copy the firmware to either the Backup Master unit or all units in the stack. 3 To copy the Running Configuration file of the Master unit to the Startup Configuration file of the Master unit or vice versa, select Copy Configuration Firmware and enter the options: – Source — Select either the Running Configuration or the Startup Configuration file. – Destination — Select either the Running Configuration, Startup Configuration file or user-created flash files, depending on the source configuration file. or – New File Name (1-64 characters) — To copy the source file to a user-named file, enter the name of a file. If this option is selected, check where the file is stored: Flash or USB. 4 Select Restore Configuration Factory Defaults to replace the current configuration settings by the factory configuration default settings. 5 Click Activate to initiate the selected process. Copying Files Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for performing actions provided by the Copy Files page. Table 9-67. Copy Files CLI Commands CLI Command Description copy source-url destination-url Copies any file from a source to a destination. delete startup-config Deletes the startup-config file. delete url Deletes a file from the FLASH memory device.364 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console# delete startup-config Delete startup-config [y/n]? y console# 01-Oct-2006 16:10:51 %FILE-I-DELETE: File Delete - file URL flash://startup-config console# copy running-config startup-config Overwrite file [startup-config] ?[Yes/press any key for no]....01-Oct-2006 16:11 :47 %COPY-I-FILECPY: Files Copy - source URL running-config destination URL flash://startup-config 01-Oct-2006 16:12:01 %COPY-N-TRAP: The copy operation was completed successfully Copy succeededDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 365 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY File System Use the File System page to view information about files currently stored on the system, including file names, file sizes, files modifications, and file permissions. The files system permits managing up to two user-defined backup configuration files. To view information about files: 1 Click System > File Management > File System in the tree view to display the File System page. Figure 9-61. File System 2 Select the File Location. The possible options are: – Flash — Files in flash memory are displayed. – USB — Files on the USB device are displayed. 366 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following information is displayed for all files in the system: – File Name — The name of the file currently stored in the file management system. – Size — The file size. – Modified — The date the file was last modified. – Permission — The permission type assigned to the file. 3 The following system-wide information is displayed if Flash was selected: – Total Bytes — The total amount of the space currently being used. – Free Bytes — The remaining amount of space currently free. Total bytes and free bytes are not available when selecting USB. 4 To rename a file, click its Rename button. Change the File Name. Managing Files Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI command for viewing system files. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-68. File Management CLI Command CLI Command Description dir [flash://|usb://] Display list of files on a flash file system rename url new-url Renames a file delete url Deletes a file console# dir flash:// Directory of flash: File Name Permission Flash Size Data Size Modified -------------- ---------- ---------- --------- ----------------------- 1.cfg rw 524160 14065 05-Oct-2006 21:20:36 2.cfg rw 524160 14065 7-Oct-2006 09:11:07 aaafile.prv -- 65520 -- 03-Oct-2006 15:45:41 dhcpdb.sys r- 65520 -- 01-Oct-2006 19:22:49 Total size of flash: 16121856 bytes Free size of flash: 524768 bytesDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 367 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Stack Management This section describes how to manage the stack. It consists of the following topics: • Stack Management Overview • Stack Unit ID • Versions • Reset • Unit Identification (Location) Stack Management Overview A stack consists of up to eight units, with support for up to 400 network ports. Unit 1 usually acts as the stack master and Unit 2 is the backup master. All other units act as slaves. The entire stack, without regard to the stack topology or the number of units in the stack, can be managed as a single switch. For more information about stacking, see "Stacking Overview" on page 45. The stacking pages described in this section enable the following actions: • Switching from the Master unit to the Backup Master unit • Changing unit IDs • Viewing hardware and software versions on each unit • Resetting either a unit or all the units in the stack • Setting the Location LED on a unit(s) Stack Unit ID Use the Stack Unit ID pages to: • Switch stack control from the Master unit to the Backup Master unit • Change unit IDs, or enable them to be automatically numbered by the system368 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To switch from the Backup Master unit to the Master Unit or set unit IDs: 1 Click System > Stack Management > Stack Unit ID in the tree view to display the Stack Unit ID page. Figure 9-62. Stack Unit ID 2 Enter the fields: – Switch Stack Control from Unit 1 to Unit 2 — Check this field to make unit 2 the Master unit. – Unit ID After Reset — Select Auto if you want the system to assign the unit ID after reset. Select a number to assign the unit an ID manually.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 369 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Managing Stacks Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting fields displayed in the Stack Unit ID page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-69. Stack Unit ID CLI Commands CLI Command Description stack master unit no stack master Makes the unit specified be the Master unit. Use the no version to restore the default Master unit. switch current-unit-number renumber new-unit-number Changes the unit ID of a specific unit. console(config)# stack master unit 2 console(config)# switch 3 renumber 6370 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Versions To view the hardware and software versions currently running on the switch: • Click System > Stack Management > Versions in the tree view to display the Versions page. Figure 9-63. Versions The following fields are displayed: – Unit ID — The unit number for which the device versions are displayed. – Software Version — The current software version running on the device. – Boot Version — The current Boot version running on the device. – Hardware Version — The current device hardware version.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 371 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Displaying Device Versions Using the CLI The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing fields displayed in the Versions page. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Reset Use the Reset page to reset the device from a remote location. To reset a unit in the stack: 1 If changes were made to the Running Configuration file, save them to the Startup Configuration file before resetting the device. This prevents the current device configuration from being lost. For more information about saving Configuration files, see "Copy Files" on page 361. Table 9-70. Versions CLI Commands CLI Command Description show version [unit-id] Displays system version information for a unit or for the whole stack. console> show version 2 Unit SW Version Boot Version HW Version ---- ------------- ------------- ------------ 2 1.0.0.8 1.0.0.02 00.00.01372 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Click System > Stack Management > Reset in the tree view to display the Reset page. Figure 9-64. Reset 3 In the Reset Unit ID field, select either the unit ID to be reset or Stack to reset all the units in the stack. Resetting the Device Using the CLI The following table summarizes the CLI commands for performing a reset of the device via the CLI: Table 9-71. Reset CLI Command CLI Command Description reload [slot unit] Reloads the operating system of a single unit or of all the units.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 373 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI command: Unit Identification (Location) The Location LED on a unit helps you to discover a specific unit, or indeed, all the units in a stack. To light up the Location LED: 1 Click System > Stack Management > Unit Identification in the tree view to display the Unit Identification page. Figure 9-65. Unit Identification console# reload You haven't saved your changes. Are you sure you want to continue? (Y/N)[N] Y This command will reset the whole system and disconnect your current session. Do you want to continue? (Y/N)[N]374 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Enter the fields: – Identify Unit ID —Select a unit. This unit’s Location and Power LED start blinking. Select All to cause the Location LEDs in all the units in the stack to light up. – Identification Duration (2-60) —Enter a time interval. The Location and Power LED light up for this period of time. Setting the Location LED Using the CLI The following table summarizes the CLI commands for setting the Location LED: The following is an example of the CLI command: Table 9-72. Location LED CLI Commands CLI Command Description system light [unit unitnumber] [duration seconds] system light stop Lights the location LED on a specific unit. Use the no form of this command to turn off the light. console# system light unit 1Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 375 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY sFlow This section describes sFlow monitoring of traffic. It contains the following sections: • sFlow Overview • Workflow • sFlow Receiver Settings • sFlow Interface Settings • sFlow Statistics sFlow Overview The sFlow feature enables collecting statistics using the sFlow sampling technology, based on sFlow V5. This sampling technology is embedded within switches and routers. It provides the ability to continuously monitor traffic flows on some or all the interfaces, simultaneously. The sFlow monitoring system consists of an sFlow agent (embedded in a switch or router or in a stand alone probe) and a central data collector, known as the sFlow receiver. The sFlow agent uses sampling technology to capture traffic and statistics from the device it is monitoring. sFlow datagrams are used to forward the sampled traffic and statistics to an sFlow receiver for analysis. sFlow V5 defines: • How traffic is monitored. • The sFlow MIB that controls the sFlow agent. • The format of the sample data used by the sFlow agent when forwarding data to a central data collector. The device provides support for two types of sFlow sampling: flow sampling and counters sampling. The following counters sampling is performed according to sFlow V5 (if supported by the interface): – Generic interface counters (RFC 2233) – Ethernet interface counters (RFC 2358)376 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Workflow By default, flow and counter sampling are disabled. To enable sFlow sampling: 1 Set the IP address of a receiver (also known as a collector) for sFlow statistics. Use the sFlow Receivers Settings page for this. 2 Enable flow and/or counter sampling, direct the samples to a receiving interface, and configure the average sampling rate. Use the sFlow Interface Settings pages for this. 3 View and clear the sFlow statistics counters. Use the sFlow Statistics page for this.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 377 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY sFlow Receiver Settings To set the sFlow receiver parameters: 1 Click System > sFlow > sFlow Receivers Settings in the tree view to display the sFlow Receivers Settings: Summary page. Figure 9-66. sFlow Receivers Settings: Summary The sflow parameters are displayed. 2 To add a receiver (sflow analyzer), click Add and select one of the pre-defined sampling definition indices in Index. 3 Enter the receiver’s address fields: – Supported IP Format — Select whether IPv4 or IPv6 format is supported. 378 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – IPv6 Address Type — When the server supports IPv6, this specifies the type of static address supported. The possible options are: • Link Local — A Link Local address that is non-routable and used for communication on the same network only. • Global — A globally unique IPv6 address; visible and reachable from different subnets. – Link Local Interface — When the server supports an IPv6 Link Local address, this specifies the Link Local interface. The possible options are: • None — Disable the ISATAP tunnel. • ISATAP — The IPv6 interface is configured on an ISATAP tunnel. – IP Address — Enter the receiver’s IP address. 4 Enter the fields: – Syslog Port Number — Port to which SYSLOG message are sent. – Maximum Header Size (Bytes) — Maximum number of bytes that can be sent to the receiver in a single sample datagram (frame). Adding an sFlow Receiver Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for adding an sFlow receiver. Table 9-73. sflow Receiver CLI Commands CLI Command Description sflow receiver index {ipv4- address|ipv6-address|hostname} [port port] [max-datagram-size bytes] no sflow receiver index Defines an sFlow receiver. Use the no form of this command to remove the definition of the receiver. show sflow configuration [port_id] Displays the sFlow configuration for ports that are enabled for Flow sampling or Counters sampling.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 379 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# sflow receiver 2 1.1.1.1 port 6343 console# show sflow configuration Receivers Index IP Address Port Max Datagram Size ----- -------------------- -------- ---------------- 1 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 2 172.16.1.2 6343 1400 3 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 4 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 5 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 6 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 7 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 8 0.0.0.0 6343 1400 Interfaces Interface Flow Counters Max Header Collector Index Sampling Sampling Interval Size Sampling Counters --------- --------- ----------------- ------------ ----------- --------- gi1/0/1 1/2048 60 sec 128 1 1 gi1/0/2 1/4096 Disabled 128 0 2380 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY sFlow Interface Settings To sample datagrams or counters from a port, the port must be associated with a receiver. sFlow port settings can be configured only after a receiver has been defined in the sFlow Receiver Settings pages. To enable sampling and configure the port from which to collect the sFlow information: 1 Click System > sFlow > sFlow Interface Settings in the tree view to display the sFlow Interface Settings: Summary page. Figure 9-67. sFlow Interface Settings: Summary The sflow interface settings are displayed. 2 To associate an sFlow receiver with a port, click Add, and enter the fields: – Interface — Select the unit/port from which information is collected. – Flow Sampling — Enable/disable flow sampling. Flow sampling cannot be disabled if Counters Sampling is disabled.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 381 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Flow Sampling Average Sampling Rate(1024–1073741823) — If x is entered, a flow sample will be taken for each x frames. – Flow Sampling Receiver Index — Select one of the indices that was defined in the sFlow Receivers Settings pages. – Flow Sampling Maximum Header Size (20–256) — Maximum number of bytes that should be copied from a sampled packet. – Counters Sampling — Enable/disable counters sampling. Flow sampling cannot be disabled if Flow Sampling is disabled – Counters Sampling Interval (15–86400) — If x is entered, this specifies that a counter sample will be taken for each x seconds. – Counters Sampling Receiver Index — Select one of the indices that was defined in the sFlow Receivers Settings pages. Configuring sFlow Interfaces Using the CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring sFlow interfaces. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-74. sflow Interface CLI Commands CLI Command Description sflow flow-sampling rate receiver-index [max-header-size bytes] no sflow flow-sampling Enables sFlow Flow sampling and configure the average sampling rate of a specific port. Use the no form of this command to disable Flow sampling. sflow counters-sampling interval receiver-index no sflow counters-sampling Enable sFlow counters sampling and to configure the maximum interval of a specific port. Use the no form of this command to disable sFlow Counters sampling. console(config)# interface gi2/0/3 console(config-if)#sflow flow-sampling 1024 1 382 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY sFlow Statistics To view sFlow statistics: 1 Click System > sFlow > sFlow Statistics in the tree view to display the sFlow Statistics page. Figure 9-68. sFlow Statistics The following sflow statistics per interface are displayed: – Interface — Port for which sample was collected. – Packets Sampled — Number of packets sampled. – Datagrams Sent to Receiver — Number of sFlow sampling packets sent. 2 Click Clear Statistics to clear the counters.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 383 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSystemConfig.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Viewing sFlow Statistics Using the CLI The following table summarizes the CLI commands for viewing sFlow statistics: The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 9-75. sFlow Statistics CLI Command CLI Command Description show sflow statistics [port-id] Displays sFlow statistics for ports that are enabled for Flow sampling or Counters sampling. clear sflow statistics [port-id] Clears sFlow statistics for ports that are enabled for Flow sampling or Counters sampling. console # show sflow statistics Total sFlow datagrams sent to collectors: 100 Interface Packets Sampled Datagrams Sent to Collector --------- ------- ------------------------------------ gi1/0/1 30 50 gi1/0/2 10 10 gi2/0/1 0 10 gi2/0/2 0 0384 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 10 Ports This section describes how to configure port functionality. It contains the following topics: • Overview • Jumbo Frames • Green Ethernet Configuration • Protected Ports • Port Profile • Port Configuration • LAG Configuration • Storm Control • Port MirroringDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 385 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Overview This section includes a description of port features and describes the following: • Auto-Negotiation • MDI/MDIX • Flow Control • Back Pressure • Port Default Settings Auto-Negotiation Auto-negotiation enables automatic detection of speed, duplex mode and flow control on all switching 10/100/1000BaseT ports. Auto-negotiation is enabled on all ports by default. Auto-negotiation is a mechanism established between two link partners to enable a port to advertise its transmission rate, duplex mode and flow control abilities to its partner. Both ports then operate at the highest common denominator. If connecting a Network Interface Card (NIC) that does not support autonegotiation or is not set to auto-negotiation, both the device switching port and the NIC must be manually set to the same speed and duplex mode. If the station, on the other side of the link, attempts to auto-negotiate with a device 100BaseT port that is configured to full duplex, the auto-negotiation results in the station attempting to operate in half duplex. MDI/MDIX The device supports auto-detection of straight-through and crossed cables on all 10/100/1000BaseT ports. This feature is part of auto-negotiation and is enabled when Auto-negotiation is enabled. When the MDI/MDIX (Media Dependent Interface with Crossover) is enabled, the automatic correction of errors in cable selection is possible, thus making the distinction between a straight-through cable and a crossover cable 386 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY irrelevant. The standard wiring for end stations is known as MDI (Media Dependent Interface), and the standard wiring for hubs and switches is known as MDIX. Flow Control The device supports 802.3x flow control for ports configured to Full Duplex mode. By default, this feature is enabled on all ports, and it can be disabled per port. Flow control creates a lossless link with no packet loss. The flow control mechanism enables the receiving side to signal to the transmitting side that transmission must temporarily be halted to prevent buffer overflow. This signaling is done by sending PAUSE frames. The ports that receives pause frames stops transmitting traffic. Flow control on the device works in Receive-Only mode, meaning that the interfaces with enabled flow control receive PAUSE frames, but do not send them. When flow control is enabled, the system buffers are allocated per port so that if the buffers of one port are consumed, other ports will still have their free buffers. Back Pressure The device supports back pressure for ports configured to Half Duplex mode. By default, this feature is disabled, and it can be enabled per port. The back-pressure mechanism prevents the sender from transmitting additional traffic temporarily. The receiver may occupy a link so it becomes unavailable for additional traffic. Port Default Settings Table 10-1 describes the port default settings. Table 10-1. Port Default Settings Function Default Setting Port speed and mode 10/100/1000 BaseT copper: auto-negotiation SFP+1000/10G Mbps full duplex, auto discovery Port forwarding state EnabledDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 387 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port tagging No tagging Flow Control On Back Pressure Off Table 10-1. Port Default Settings (Continued) Function Default Setting388 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Jumbo Frames Jumbo frames are frames of up to 10 Kb in size. If Jumbo frames are not enabled, the system supports a packet size of up to 1,632 bytes. To enable jumbo frames: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Jumbo Frames in the tree view to display the Jumbo Frames page. Figure 10-1. Jumbo Frames The current jumbo frames setting is displayed 2 Enable/disable jumbo frames in the New Setting (after reset) field. NOTE: You must save the configuration and reboot the device in order to make jumbo frames operational.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 389 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring Jumbo Frames Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring Jumbo frames. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 10-2. Jumbo Frames CLI Commands CLI Command Description port jumbo-frame no port jumbo-frame Enables jumbo frames on the device. Use the no form of this command to disable jumbo frames. console(config)# port jumbo-frame390 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Green Ethernet Configuration Green Ethernet is a name of a set of features that are designed to reduce the power consumption of a device, and so make it environmentally friendly. The Green Ethernet feature reduces overall power usage in the following ways: • Energy Efficient Ethernet — When using EEE, systems on both sides of the link can disable portions of their functionality and save power during periods of low link utilization. EEE is a hardware feature that is enabled by default, and is transparent to users. This feature is defined per port, regardless of their LAG membership. • Short-Reach Mode — Power usage is adjusted to the actual cable length. In this mode, the VCT (Virtual Cable Tester) length test is performed to measure cable length. If the cable is shorter than a predetermined length, the switch reduces the power used to send frames over the cable, thus saving energy. This mode is only supported on RJ45 ports. Power savings and current power consumption in Short Reach mode can be monitored. The total amount of saved energy can be viewed as a percentage of the power that would have been consumed by the physical interfaces had they not been running in Green Ethernet mode.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 391 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The above two energy saving modes must be enabled globally and then configured per port. Green Ethernet Configuration To configure Green Ethernet settings: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Green Ethernet Configuration in the tree view to display the Green Ethernet Configuration: Summary page. Figure 10-2. Green Ethernet Configuration: Summary 2 The amount of energy saved from the last switch reboot is displayed in the Cumulative Energy Saved field. This value is updated each time there is an event that affects power saving. Click Reset to reset its value. 3 Enter the fields: • Energy Efficient Ethernet — Globally enable/disable the Energy Efficient Ethernet feature. • Link Short-Reach Energy Saving Mode — Globally enable/disable Short Reach mode.392 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Current Power Consumption — Displays the current power consumption. • Power Savings — Displays the percentage of power saved by running in Green Ethernet mode. 4 Select a unit in the stack to display its power consumption parameters. Its ports are displayed along with the following settings. – Energy Efficient Ethernet • Oper — Enabled or not on the port • Remote Peer —Enabled or not on the remote peer – Short-Reach • Oper — Enabled or not on the port • Fault Reason —Reason that short reach is not enabled – Cable Length (Meter) — Length of cable. 5 Click LLDP Interface Details. 6 Select a unit in the stack. The following is displayed for each port on the unit: – Port — Port number. – Oper — Displays the operational status of Green Ethernet. – Resolved Tx Timer(μsec) — Integer that indicates the current Tw_sys_tx is supported by the local system. – Local Tx Timer(μsec) — Indicates the time (in micro seconds) that the transmitting link partner waits before it starts transmitting data after leaving Low Power Idle (LPI mode). – Resolved Rx Timer(μsec) — Integer that indicates the current Tw_sys_tx supported by the remote system. – Local Rx Timer(μsec) — Indicates the time (in micro seconds) that the receiving link partner requests that the transmitting link partner waits before transmission of data following Low Power Idle (LPI mode). – Remote Tx Timer(μsec) — Indicates the local link partner’s reflection of the remote link partner’s Tx value.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 393 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Remote Rx Timer(μsec) — Indicates the local link partner’s reflection of the remote link partner’s Rx value. Configuring Green Ethernet Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring Green Ethernet. Table 10-3. Green Ethernet CLI Commands CLI Command Description green-ethernet short-reach no green-ethernet short-reach Enables/disables Green Ethernet short reach mode. green-ethernet short-reach force no green-ethernet short-reach force Forces short-reach mode on an interface. Use the no form of this command to return to the default. green-ethernet short-reach threshold cable-length no green-ethernet short-reach threshold Set the maximum cable length for applying short-reach mode. Use the no form of this command to return to the default. green-ethernet power-meter reset Resets the power save meter. eee enable no eee enable Enables the EEE mode globally. Can be used globally or per interface. Use the no format of the command to disable the mode. eee lldp enable no eee lldp enable Enables EEE support by LLDP on an Ethernet port. Use the no format of the command to disable the support. show eee Displays EEE information.394 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Protected Ports Protected Port Overview Protected ports provide Layer 2 isolation between interfaces (Ethernet ports and LAGs) that share the same Broadcast domain (VLAN) with other interfaces. This can be used to set up a group of ports that receive similar services. A protected port does not forward traffic (Unicast, Multicast, or Broadcast) to any other protected port on the same switch. A community is a group of protected ports. Protected ports within the same community can forward traffic to each other. The following types of ports can be defined: • Protected Port — Can send traffic only to uplink ports. • Community Port — A protected port that is associated with a community. It can send traffic to other protected ports in the same community and to uplink ports. • Uplink Port — An uplink port is an unprotected port that can send traffic to any port. • Isolated Port — A protected port that does not belong to a community. Port Protection is independent of all other features and configuration settings. Two protected ports in a common VLAN cannot communicate with each other. Protected Port Restrictions The following restrictions apply to protected ports: • When a protected port is placed in a LAG, it loses its protected port attribute and takes upon itself the LAG's protection attributes. When the port is removed from the LAG, its attributes are re-applied. • Mirrored traffic is not subject to protected ports rules. • Routing is not affected by the protected port forwarding rule, so that if a packet enters a protected port, it can be routed by the device to another protected port.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 395 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Protected Port Configuration To configure protected ports and establish their communities: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Protected Ports in the tree view to display the Protected Ports: Summary page. Figure 10-3. Protected Ports: Summary A summary of all the ports and their statuses is displayed. 2 Click Edit. 3 Select the unit and interface. 4 Enter values for the following fields: • State — Select Protected/Unprotected to enable/disable port protection. • Community — Select the community to which to add the port, or define the port as Isolated.396 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring Protected Ports Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring protected ports. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 10-4. Protected Ports CLI Commands CLI Command Description switchport protected-port no switchport protected-port Isolates Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast traffic on a port at Layer 2 from other protected ports on the same switch. Use the no form of this command to disable protection on the port. switchport community community no switchport community Associates a protected port with a community Use the no form of this command to return to default. show interfaces protectedports[gigabitethernet|tengiga bitethernet] port-number Displays protected ports configuration. console(config)# interface gi1/0/3 console(config-if)# switchport protected-port console(config-if)# switchport community 1Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 397 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Profile Port profiles provide a convenient way to save and share a port configuration. When a port profile, which is a set of CLI commands having a unique name, is applied to a port, the CLI commands contained within the profile (macro) are executed and added to the Running Configuration file. Port profiles can be applied to a specific interface, a range of interfaces, or globally. There are two types of port profiles: • User Defined — Enables the user to bundle configurations, as a port profile, and then apply it to one or more interfaces at a time. Up to 20 user-defined macros can be supported. These can only be defined through CLI commands. • Built-In — Pre-defined macros that cannot be changed or deleted. The device includes the following built-in macros: – Global – Desktop – Phone – Switch – Router – Wireless Configuration Before a built-in profile can be applied to an interface, the global profile must be applied. The global profile enables QoS Advanced mode, sets Advanced mode parameters, CoS to queue mapping, and DSCP to queue mapping and defines certain standard ACLs. Use the CLI command show parser macro name profile-global to display the Global profile contents.398 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY To assign a profile to a port: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Port Profile in the tree view to display the Port Profiles: Summary page. Figure 10-4. Port Profile: Summary A summary of all the interfaces and their profiles is displayed. 2 To assign the Global profile to the system, check Run Global Profile. Apply the global profile before applying a built-in interface profile. 3 To assign a profile to an interface, click Edit. 4 Select a unit/interface and a Assigned Profile. The Profile Description is displayed. 5 Each profile requires entering various elements of VLAN information. Enter the fields according to the profile: – VLAN Port Mode — Displays the port mode applied to ports in the profile. – VLAN ID-Untagged (1-4094) — Enter the VLAN for untagged traffic. – VLAN ID-Tagged (1-4095) — Enter the VLAN for tagged traffic.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 399 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Native VLAN ID(1-4094) — Enter the VLAN ID used for untagged traffic to trunk ports, or check None. The remaining fields on this page are display-only, and describe the port configuration of the profile. The following fields are described: Port Security fields: – Mode — Learning mode. The possible options are: • Classic Lock — Locks the port using the classic lock mechanism. The port is immediately locked, regardless of the number of addresses that have already been learned. • Limited Dynamic Lock — Locks the port by deleting the dynamic MAC addresses associated with the port. The port learns up to the maximum addresses allowed on the port. Both relearning and aging MAC addresses are enabled. – Max Entries — Displays the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on the port. – Action on Violation — Action to be applied to packets arriving on a locked port. The possible options are: • Discard — Discard the packets from any unlearned source. • Forward — Forward the packets from an unknown source, without learning the MAC address. • Shutdown — Discard the packet from any unlearned source, and shut down the port. Ports remain shutdown until they are reactivated, or the device is reset. Spanning Tree fields: – Point-to-Point Admin Status — Displays whether a point-to-point links is established. The possible options are: • Enable — Enables the device to establish a point-to-point link, or specifies for the device to automatically establish a point-to-point link. To establish communications over a point-to-point link, the originating PPP first sends Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets to configure and test the data link. After a link is established and optional facilities are negotiated as needed by the LCP, the originating PPP sends Network Control Protocols (NCP) packets to select and configure one or more network layer protocols. 400 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY When each of the chosen network layer protocols has been configured, packets from each network layer protocol can be sent over the link. The link remains configured for communications until explicit LCP or NCP packets close the link, or until some external event occurs. This is the actual switch port link type. It may differ from the administrative state. • Disable — Disables point-to-point link. • Auto — The device automatically establishes a point-to-point link. – Fast Link — Displays whether Fast Link mode is enabled for the port. If this is enabled, the Port State is automatically placed in the Forwarding statewhen the port is up. – BPDU Guard — Displays whether BPDU Guard is enabled on the port. Miscellaneous fields: – Policy Name — Displays the name of a policy if one is defined on the port. – Auto Negotiation — Displays whether auto-negotiation is enabled on the port. Auto-Negotiation enables a port to advertise its transmission rate, duplex mode, and Flow Control abilities to other devices. 6 Click Apply Profile to apply the profile to the specified interface. Configuring Port Profile Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring port profiles. Table 10-5. Port Profiles CLI Commands CLI Command Description macro {apply|trace} macro-name [parameter {value}] [parameter {value}] [parameter {value}] Applies a macro to an interface or traces a macro configuration on an interface.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 401 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: Sample CLI Scripts This section provides sample scripts of CLI commands. These particular actions cannot be performed through the GUI, which only allows applying built-in macros. These scripts describe how to create macros, display them and apply them. The following is a script that creates a global macro. show parser macro [{brief|description [interface [gigabitethernet|tengigabitetherne t] port-number|name macro-name}] Displays the parameters for all configured macros or for one macro on the switch. Switch(config) # interface gi1/0/2 Switch(config-if) # macro trace dup Applying command… ‘duplex full’ Applying command… ‘speed auto’ Switch(config) # interface gi1/0/2 Switch(config-if) # macro apply duplex $DUPLEX full $SPEED auto Switch(config-if) # exit Switch(config) # interface gi1/0/3 Switch(config-if) # macro apply dup Switch(config-if) # exit Table 10-6. Create a Global Macro Script CLI Command Description console#config console(config)# macro name interswitch Enter macro commands one per line. End with the character '@'. Create a macro called interswitch. Table 10-5. Port Profiles CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description402 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is a script that creates an interface macro. vlan database vlan 40-50 @ Enter the commands in the macro, which create VLANs 40 through 50. console(config)# do show parser macro name interswitch Display the macro. console(config)# macro global apply interswitch Apply the macro. Table 10-7. Create an Interface Macro Script CLI Command Description console#config console(config)# interface range gi1/0/1- 24 Enter Interface mode for ports 1-24 on unit 1. console(config-if-range)# macro name access_port Enter macro commands one per line. End with the character '@'. Create a macro called access_port. disable spanning-tree @ Enter the commands in the macro, disables spanning tree on the interfaces. console(config)# do show parser macro name access_port Display the macro. console(config)# macro global apply access_port Apply the macro to ports 1-24 on unit 1. Table 10-6. Create a Global Macro Script (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 403 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Configuration If port configuration is modified while the port is a LAG member, the configuration change is only effective after the port is removed from the LAG. To configure a port: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Port Configuration in the tree view to display the Port Configuration: Summary page. Figure 10-5. Port Configuration: Summary All ports on the selected unit and their configuration settings are displayed. 2 To modify the port settings, click Edit and select a port. 3 Enter the following fields: – Description (1 - 64 Characters) — Enter a user identification attached to the port. – Port Type — Displays the type of port. – Admin Status — Enable/disable traffic forwarding through the port. • Up— Traffic is enabled through the port.404 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Down— Traffic is disabled through the port. – Current Port Status — Displays whether the port is currently operational or non-operational. – Re-Activate Suspended Port — Check to reactivate a port if the port has been disabled through the locked port security option. – Operational Status — Displays the port operational status. The possible options are: • Suspended — Port is currently active, and is not receiving or transmitting traffic. • Active — Port is currently active, and is receiving and transmitting traffic. • Disable — Port is currently disabled, and is not receiving or transmitting traffic. – Admin Speed — Select the configured rate for the port. The port type determines the available speed setting options. You can designate Administrative Speed only when port auto-negotiation is disabled. – Current Port Speed — Displays the actual synchronized port speed (bps). – Admin Duplex — Select the port duplex mode (this is only possible if Auto Negotiation is not enabled). The options are: • Full — The interface supports transmission between the device and the client in both directions simultaneously. • Half — The interface supports transmission between the device and the client in only one direction at a time. – Current Duplex Mode — Displays the synchronized port duplex mode. – Auto Negotiation — Select to enable auto-negotiation on the port. Auto-Negotiation enables a port to advertise its transmission rate, duplex mode, and Flow Control abilities to other devices. • Energy Efficient Ethernet — Globally enable/disable Energy Efficient Ethernet and the EEE LLDP advertisement feature. – Current Auto Negotiation — Displays the current auto-negotiation setting. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 405 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Admin Advertisement — Check the auto-negotiation setting the port advertises. The possible options are: • Max Capability — The port advertises all the options that it can support. • 10 Half — The port advertises for a 10 mbps speed port and half duplex mode setting. • 10 Full — The port advertises for a 10 mbps speed port and full duplex mode setting. • 100 Half — The port advertises for a 100 mbps speed port and half duplex mode setting. • 100 Full — The port advertises for a 100 mbps speed port and full duplex mode setting. • 1000 Full — The port advertises for a 1000 mbps speed port and full duplex mode setting. • 10000 Full — The port advertises for a 10000 mbps speed port and full duplex mode setting. – Current Advertisement — Displays the port advertises its speed to its neighbor port to start the negotiation process. The possible field values are those specified in the Admin Advertisement field. – Neighbor Advertisement — Displays the neighboring port’s advertisement settings. The field values are identical to the Admin Advertisement field values. – Back Pressure — Enable/disable Back Pressure mode that is used with Half Duplex mode to disable ports from receiving messages. – Current Back Pressure — Displays the current Back Pressure setting. – Flow Control — Set flow control on the port. The following options are available: • Enable/Disable — Enable/disable flow control on the port (Enabled is the default). • Auto Negotiation — Enables auto-negotiation of flow control on the port. – Current Flow Control — Displays the current Flow Control setting.406 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – MDI/MDIX — Select one of the options that enables the device to decipher between crossed and uncrossed cables. Hubs and switches are deliberately wired opposite to the way end stations are wired, so that when a hub or switch is connected to an end station, a straight through Ethernet cable can be used, and the pairs are match up properly. When two hubs/switches are connected to each other, or two end stations are connected to each other, a crossover cable is used ensure that the correct pairs are connected. The possible options are: • Auto — Use to automatically detect the cable type. • MDIX — Use for hubs and switches. • MDI — Use for end stations. – Current MDI/MDIX — Displays the current device MDIX settings. – LAG — Displays whether the port is part of a LAG. Configuring Ports Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring ports as displayed in the Port Configuration pages. Table 10-8. Port Configuration CLI Commands CLI Command Description eee enable no eee enable Enables the EEE mode globally. Use the no format of the command to disable the mode. eee lldp enable no eee lldp enable Enables EEE support by LLDP on an Ethernet port. Use the no format of the command to disable the support. description string no description Adds a description to an interface configuration. Use the no form of this command to remove the description. shutdown no shutdown Disables an interfaces. Use the no form of this command to restart a disabled interface.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 407 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY set interface active {[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] interface|port-channel LAGnumber} Reactivates an interface that is shutdown. speed {10|100|1000|10000} no speed Configures the speed of a given Ethernet interface when not using auto negotiation. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. duplex {half|full} no duplex Configures the full/half duplex operation of a given Ethernet interface when not using auto negotiation. negotiation [capability1 [capability2…capability5] no negotiation Enables auto negotiation operation for the speed and duplex parameters of a given interface. Use the no form of this command to disable auto-negotiation. back-pressure no back-pressure Enables Back Pressure on a given interface. Use the no form of this command to disable back pressure. flowcontrol {auto|on|off} no flowcontrol Configures the flow control on a given interface. Use the no form of this command to disable flow control. mdix {on|auto} no mdix Enables automatic crossover on a given interface or Port-channel. Use the no form of this command to disable cable crossover. show interfaces configuration [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number] Displays the configuration for all configured interfaces. Table 10-8. Port Configuration CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description408 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show interfaces advertise Displays the interface’s negotiation advertisement settings. show interfaces status [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number] Displays the status for all configured interfaces. show interfaces description [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethe rnet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number] Displays the description for all configured interfaces. console(config)# interface gi2/0/1 console(config-if)# description "RD SW#3" console(config-if)# shutdown console(config-if)# no shutdown console(config-if)# speed 100 console(config-if)# duplex full console(config-if)# negotiation console(config-if)# back-pressure console(config-if)# flowcontrol on console(config-if)# mdix auto console(config-if)# end console# show interfaces configuration gi2/0/1 Flow Admin Back Mdix Port Type Duplex Speed Neg control State Pressure Mode -------- ------------ ------ ----- -------- ------- ----- -------- ---- gi2/0/1 1G-Copper Full 1000 Enabled Off Up Disabled Auto console# show interfaces status gi2/0/1 Flow Link Back Mdix Port Type Duplex Speed Neg ctrl State Pressure Mode -------- ------------ ------ ----- -------- ---- ----------- -------- ---- gi2/0/1 1G-Copper -- -- -- -- Down -- -- Table 10-8. Port Configuration CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 409 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY LAG Configuration Use the LAG Configuration pages to configure LAGs. The device supports up to 32 LAGs per system, meaning for all units in the stack. For information about Link Aggregated Groups (LAGs) and assigning ports to LAGs, see "Link Aggregation" on page 508. To configure LAGs: 1 Click Switching > Ports > LAG Configuration in the tree view to display the LAG Configuration: Summary page. Figure 10-6. LAG Configuration: Summary The LAG parameters are displayed. 2 To configure a LAG, click Edit. 3 Select the LAG and enter the fields: – LAG Mode — Select the LAG mode. The possible options are:410 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Static — The ports comprise a single logical port for high-speed connections between networking devices. • LACP — Link Aggregate Control Protocol. LACP-enabled LAGs can exchange information with other links in order to update and maintain LAG configurations automatically. – Description (0 - 64 Characters) — Enter a user-defined description of the configured LAG. – LAG Type — Displays the port types that comprise the LAG. – Admin Status — Enable/disable the selected LAG. – Current Status — Displays the LAG is currently operating. – Admin Speed — Select the configured speed at which the LAG is operating. The possible options are: • 10M— The LAG is currently operating at 10 Mbps. • 100M — The LAG is currently operating at 100 Mbps. • 1000M — The LAG is currently operating at 1000 Mbps. • 10000 Full— The LAG is currently operating at 1000 Mbps. – Current Speed — Displays the speed at which the LAG is currently operating. – Admin Auto Negotiation — Enable/disable auto-negotiation, which is a protocol between two link partners that enables a LAG to advertise its transmission rate, duplex mode and flow control abilities to its partner. – Current Auto Negotiation — Displays the current auto-negotiation setting. – Admin Advertisement — If auto-negotiation is enabled, select the auto-negotiation setting the LAG advertises. The possible options are: • Max Capability — All LAG speeds and Duplex mode settings are accepted. • 10 Full — The LAG advertises for a 10 mbps speed LAG and full duplex mode setting. • 100 Full — The LAG advertises for a 100 mbps speed LAG and full duplex mode setting.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 411 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • 1000 Full — The LAG advertises for a 1000 mbps speed LAG and full duplex mode setting. – Current Advertisement — Displays the speed that the LAG advertises to its neighbor LAG to start the negotiation process. The possible field values are those specified in the Admin Advertisement field. – Neighbor Advertisement — Displays the neighboring LAG advertisement settings. The field values are identical to the Admin Advertisement field values. – Admin Flow Control — Enable/disable flow control on the LAG. Flow Control mode is effective on the ports operating in Full Duplex in the LAG. The possible options are: • Enable — Enables flow control on the LAG (default). • Disable — Disables flow control on the LAG. • Auto Negotiation — Enables the auto-negotiation of flow control on the LAG. – Current Flow Control — Displays the current Flow Control setting. Configuring LAGs Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring LAGs as displayed in the LAG Configuration pages. Table 10-9. LAG Configuration CLI Commands CLI Command Description interface port-channel LAGnumber Enters the interface configuration mode of a specific LAG. channel-group port-channel mode {on|auto} no channel-group Sets a mode for a LAG. Use the no form of this command restore the default configuration. description string no description Adds a description to a LAG. Use the no form of this command to remove the description.412 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY shutdown no shutdown Disables the LAG. Use the no form of this command to restart the LAG. speed {10|100|1000|10000} no speed Configures the speed of the LAG when not using auto negotiation. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. negotiation [capability1 [capability2…capability5] no negotiation Enables auto negotiation operation for the speed and duplex parameters of a LAG. Use the no form of this command to disable auto-negotiation. flowcontrol {auto|on|off} no flowcontrol Configures the flow control on a given LAG. Use the no form of this command to disable flow control. show interfaces configuration [port-channel LAG-number] Displays the configuration for the LAGs. show interface advertise Displays the LAG’s negotiation advertisement settings. show interfaces status [portchannel LAG-number] Displays the status for all configured LAGs. show interfaces description [port-channel LAG-number] Displays the description for all configured LAGs. show interfaces port-channel [LAG-number] Displays LAG information. Table 10-9. LAG Configuration CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 413 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# interface port-channel 1 console(config-if)# no negotiation console(config-if)# speed 100 console(config-if)# flowcontrol on console(config-if)# exit console(config)# interface port-channel 2 console(config-if)# shutdown console(config-if)# exit console(config-if)# end console# show interfaces port-channel Channel Ports --------- --------- ch1 Inactive: gi/1/0/(11-13) ch2 Active: gi/1/0/14414 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Storm Control When Broadcast, Multicast, or Unknown Unicast frames are received, they are duplicated, and a copy is sent to all possible egress ports. This means that in practice, they are sent to all ports belonging to the relevant VLAN. In this way, one ingress frame is turned into many, creating the potential for a storm. Storm protection provides the ability to limit the number of frames entering the switch, and to define the types of frames that are counted towards this limit. When a threshold (limit) is configured on the device, the port discards traffic when that threshold is reached. The port remains blocked until the traffic rate drops below this threshold. It then resumes normal forwarding. To configure Storm Control: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Storm Control in the tree view to display the Storm Control: Summary page. Figure 10-7. Storm ControlDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 415 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Storm control parameters are displayed for all ports on the selected unit. 2 To configure Storm Control on a port, click Edit. 3 Select a port from the Port drop-down list and enter the following fields: – Broadcast Control — Enable/disable forwarding Broadcast packets on the specific interface. – Broadcast Mode — Select the counting mode. The possible options are: • Multicast & Broadcast — Counts Broadcast and Multicast traffic together towards the bandwidth threshold. • Broadcast Only — Counts only Broadcast traffic towards the bandwidth threshold. – Broadcast Rate Threshold (3500-1000000) — Enter the maximum rate (Kbits/sec) at which unknown packets are forwarded. Configuring Storm Control Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring Storm Control as displayed on the Storm Control pages. Table 10-10. Storm Control CLI Commands CLI Command Description storm-control includemulticast [unknown-unicast] no storm-control includemulticast Counts Multicast packets in the Broadcast storm control. Use the no form of this command to disable counting of multicast packets in the Broadcast storm control. storm-control broadcast enable no storm-control broadcast enable Enables Broadcast storm control. Use the no form of this command to disable Broadcast storm control. storm-control broadcast level kbps no storm-control broadcast level Configures the maximum Broadcast rate. Use the no form of this command to return the Broadcast level to the default value.416 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show ports storm-control port Displays the storm control configuration. console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# storm-control broadcast enable console(config-if)# storm-control include-multicast unknown-unicast console# show ports storm-control gi1/0/1 Port State Rate [Kbits/Sec] Included -------- -------- ---------------- --------------------- gi1/0/1 Disabled 8500 Broadcast Table 10-10. Storm Control CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 417 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Mirroring Switches usually only forward frames to relevant ports. To monitor traffic, either for information gathering, such as statistical analysis, or for troubleshooting higher-layer protocol operation, the Mirroring feature forwards frames to a monitoring port. Mirroring provides the ability to specify that a desired destination (target) port will receive a copy of all traffic passing through designated source ports. The frames arriving at the destination port are copies of the frames passing through the source port at ingress, prior to any switch action. It is possible to specify several source ports to be monitored by a single target port. However, in this case, the traffic sent to the target port is placed in the target port's queues on a first come, first served basis, and any excess traffic is silently discarded. This may mean that the traffic actually seen by any device attached to the target port is an arbitrarily selected subset of the actual traffic going through the source ports. Port mirroring is only relevant to physical ports. Therefore, if you want a LAG to function as the source of a port mirroring session, the member ports must be individually specified as sources. Up to four sources can be mirrored. This can be any combination of four individual ports. Before configuring Port Mirroring, note the following: • Monitored ports cannot operate faster than the monitoring port. • All Rx/Tx packets should be monitored to the same port. Destination Port Restrictions The following restrictions apply to destination ports: • Destination ports cannot be configured as source ports. • Destination ports cannot be a member of a LAG. • IP interfaces cannot be configured on the destination port. • GVRP cannot be enabled on the destination port. • The destination port cannot be a member of a VLAN. • Only one destination port can be defined.418 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • All QoS/CoS rules that apply to the destination port, as an egress, such as traffic shaping, are suspended for the duration of the mirroring session. Any such settings, configured on the port during the mirroring session, take effect only after the port is no longer a destination port for a mirroring session. • Ingress mirrored packets may arrive at the ingress port either with an 802.1q tag or without. When the packets are mirrored to a port analyzer, they should be transmitted as they are received on the ingress port. However, in the device, the packet is transmitted out of the port analyzer as always tagged or always untagged (user configurable), regardless of the input encapsulation. Source Port Restrictions The following restrictions apply to ports specified as source ports: • Source ports cannot be a member of a LAG. • Source ports cannot be configured as a destination port. • Up to four source ports can be mirrored. NOTE: When a port is set to be a target port for a port-mirroring session, all normal operations on it are suspended. This includes Spanning Tree and LACP. All currently active protocols and services on that port are suspended.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 419 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Port Mirroring To specify source and destination ports for port mirroring: 1 Click Switching > Ports > Port Mirroring in the tree view to display the Port Mirroring: Summary page. Figure 10-8. Port Mirroring: Summary The previously-defined source ports for the selected Destination Port are displayed, along with the fields defined in the Add page and their status. – Status — Indicates if the port is currently being monitored (Active) or not being monitored (notReady), because of some problem. 2 To add a port to be mirrored, click Add, and enter the fields: – Source Port — The port number from which port traffic is copied. – Type — Type of traffic (Tx or Rx or both) to be copied.420 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Configuring Port Mirroring Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring Port Mirroring. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 10-11. Port Mirroring CLI Commands CLI Command Description port monitor srcinterface-id [rx|tx] no port monitor srcinterface-id Starts a port monitoring session. This must be performed in Interface Configuration mode, which is the destination interface. Use the no form of this command to stop a port monitoring session. show ports monitor Displays the port monitoring status. console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# port monitor gi1/0/8 console# show ports monitor Source port Destination Port Type Status ----------- ---------------- ---- ----------- gi1/0/1 gi1/0/8 RX,TX ActiveDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 421 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_Ports.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY422 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 11 Address Tables This section describes how MAC addresses are handled on the device. It contains the following topics: • Overview • Static Addresses • Dynamic AddressesDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 423 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Overview MAC addresses, associated with ports, are stored in the Static Address or the Dynamic Address tables. Packets, addressed to a destination stored in one of these tables, are forwarded to the associated port. MAC addresses are dynamically learned when packets arrive at the device. Addresses are associated with ports by learning the source address of the frame. Frames, addressed to a destination MAC address that is not associated with any port, are flooded to all ports of the relevant VLAN. In order to prevent the bridging table from overflowing, dynamic MAC addresses, from which no traffic is seen for a certain period, are erased. Static addresses are manually entered into the table.424 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Static Addresses Static addresses are manually assigned to a specific interface and VLAN on the switch. If a static address is seen on another interface, the address is ignored and it is not written to the address table. To define a static address: 1 Click Switch > Address Tables > Static Address Table in the tree view to display the Static Address Table: Summary page. Figure 11-1. Static Address Table A list of the currently-defined static addresses is displayed. 2 To add a static address, click Add. 3 Enter the following fields: • Interface — Select a port or LAG for the entry. • MAC Address — Enter the interface MAC address. • VLAN ID — Check and select the VLAN ID for the port. or • VLAN Name — Check and enter the VLAN name. • Status — Select how the entry in the table will be treated. The possible options are:Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 425 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Permanent — The MAC address is never aged out of the table and, if it is saved to the Startup Configuration, it is retained after rebooting. • Delete on Reset — The MAC address is deleted when the device is reset. • Delete on Timeout — The MAC address is deleted when a timeout occurs. • Secure — The MAC address is secure when the interface is in classic locked mode. To prevent Static MAC addresses from being deleted when the Ethernet device is reset, ensure that the port attached to the MAC address is locked. Configuring Static Addresses Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring static address parameters as displayed in the Static Address Table pages. Table 11-1. Static Address CLI Commands CLI Command Description mac address-table static macaddress vlan vlan-id interface {[gigabitethernet|tengigabitethern et] port-number|port-channel LAGnumber} [permanent|delete-onreset|delete-on-timeout|secure] no mac address-table static [macaddress] vlan vlan-id Adds a MAC-layer station source address to the MAC address table. Use the no form of this command to delete the MAC address. show mac address-table [dynamic|static|secure] [vlan vlan] [[[gigabitethernet|tengigabitether net] port-number|port-channel LAGnumber]] [address mac-address] Displays entries in the MAC address table.426 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config-if)#bridge address 00:60:70:4C:73:FF permanent gi1/0/8 console# show mac address-table static Aging time is 300 sec VLAN MAC Address Port Type ---- ------------------ -------- -------- 1 00:60:70:4C:73:FF gi1/0/8 static 1 00:60:70:8C:73:FF gi1/0/8 static 200 00:10:0D:48:37:FF gi1/0/9 staticDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 427 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Dynamic Addresses The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses acquired by monitoring the source addresses of traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports in the VLAN of the frame. To prevent the table from overflowing and to make room for new addresses, an address is deleted from the table if no traffic is received from a dynamic MAC address for a certain period. This period of time is called the aging interval. To configure dynamic addresses: 1 Click Switch > Address Tables > Dynamic MAC Address in the tree view to display the Dynamic Address page. Figure 11-2. Dynamic Address Table The current address table is displayed along with other parameters. 2 Enter Address Aging (10-630). The aging time is a value between the userconfigured value and twice that value minus 1. For example, if you entered 300 seconds, the aging time is between 300 and 599 seconds.428 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 3 To clear the table, check Clear Table. 4 To display a subset of the addresses in a particular order, enter the query criteria and sort key under Query By, and click Query. The following fields are displayed for entries matching the query criteria: – VLAN ID — VLAN ID in the entry. – MAC Address — Interface MAC address. – Interface — Port or LAG associated with the MAC address. Configuring Dynamic Addresses Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring static address parameters as displayed in the Dynamic Address Table pages. Table 11-2. Dynamic Address CLI Commands CLI Command Description mac address-table aging-time seconds no mac address-table aging-time Sets the aging time of the address table. Use the no form of this command to restore the default. clear mac address-table dynamic [interface [{[gigabitethernet|tengigabitether net] port-number|port-channel LAGnumber}} [permanent|delete-onreset|delete-on-timeout|secure]] clear mac address-table secure interface [gigabitethernet|tengigabitetherne t] port-number|port-channel LAGnumber Removes learned or secure entries from the forwarding database. show mac address-table [dynamic|static|secure] [vlan vlan] [interface [gigabitethernet|tengigabitetherne t] port-number|port-channel LAGnumber] [address mac-address] Displays entries in the MAC address table.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 429 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_AddressTables.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# mac address-table aging-time 600 console# show mac address-table dynamic Aging time is 300 sec VLAN MAC Address Port Type ---- ------------------ -------- -------- 1 00:60:70:4C:73:FF gi1/0/8 dynamic 1 00:60:70:8C:73:FF gi1/0/8 dynamic430 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_GARP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 12 GARP This section describes how to configure Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) on the device. It contains the following topics: • GARP Overview • GARP TimersDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 431 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_GARP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY GARP Overview Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) is a general-purpose protocol that registers network connectivity or membership-style information. GARP defines a set of devices interested in a given network attribute, such as VLAN or Multicast address. The Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) provides a generic framework whereby devices in a bridged LAN, such as end stations and switches, can register and de-register attribute values, such as VLAN Identifiers, with each other. In doing so, these attributes are propagated to devices in the bridged LAN, and these devices form a reachability tree that is a subset of an active topology. GARP defines the architecture, rules of operation, state machines and variables for the registration and deregistration of attribute values. When configuring GARP, ensure the following: • The leave time must be greater than or equal to three times the join time. • The leave-all time must be greater than the leave time. • Set the same GARP timer values on all Layer 2-connected devices. If the GARP timers are set differently on the Layer 2-connected devices, GARP application does not operate successfully.432 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_GARP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY GARP Timers To enable a GARP timer on an interface: 1 Click Switching > GARP > GARP Timers in the tree view to open the GARP Timers: Summary page. Figure 12-1. GARP Timers: Summary The GARP timers are displayed. 2 Click Edit. 3 Select an interface, and enter the fields: – GARP Join Timer (10 - 2147483640) — Enter the time, in milliseconds, during which Protocol Data Units (PDU) are transmitted. – GARP Leave Timer (10 - 2147483640) — Enter the time interval, in milliseconds, which the device waits before leaving its GARP state. Leave time is activated by a Leave All Time message sent/received, and cancelled by the Join message received. Leave time must be greater than or equal to three times the join time. – GARP Leave All Timer (10 - 2147483640) — Enter time interval, in milliseconds, which all devices wait before leaving the GARP state. The leave all time must be greater than the leave time. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 433 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_GARP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining GARP Timers Using CLI Commands This table summarizes the CLI commands for defining GARP timers as displayed in the GARP Timers pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 12-1. GARP Timer CLI Commands CLI Command Description garp timer {join|leave|leaveall} timer_value Adjusts the GARP application join, leave, and leaveall GARP timer values. show gvrp configuration [[gigabitethernet|tengigabitether net]port-number|vlan vlanid|port-channel LAG-number] Displays GVRP configuration information, including timer values, whether GVRP and dynamic VLAN creation are enabled, and which ports are running GVRP. console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# garp timer leave 900 console(config-if)# end console# show gvrp configuration gi1/0/11 GVRP Feature is currently Disabled on the device. Maximum VLANs: 223 Port(s) GVRP Registration Dynamic VLAN Timers (milliseconds) Status Creation Join Leave Leave All -------- ------- ------------ ----------- ------ ----- --------- gi1/0/11 Disabled Normal Enabled 200 900 10000434 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 13 Spanning Tree This chapter describes the Spanning Tree Protocol. It contains the following topics: • Spanning Tree Protocol Overview • Global Settings • STP Port Settings • STP LAG Settings • Rapid Spanning Tree • Multiple Spanning TreeDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 435 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Spanning Tree Protocol Overview Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) provides tree topography for any bridge arrangement. STP eliminates loops by providing a unique path between end stations on a network. Loops occur when alternate routes exist between hosts. Loops, in an extended network, can cause bridges to forward traffic indefinitely, resulting in packets not arriving at their destination, increased traffic, and reduced network efficiency. The device supports the following Spanning Tree versions: • Classic STP — Provides a single path between end stations, avoiding and eliminating loops. For more information on configuring Classic STP, see "Global Settings" on page 437. • Rapid STP (RSTP) — Provides faster convergence of the spanning tree than Classic STP. RSTP is most effective when the network topology is naturally tree-structured, and therefore faster convergence might be possible. RSTP is enabled by default. Although Classic STP is guaranteed to prevent Layer 2 forwarding loops, in a general network topology, there might be an unacceptable delay before convergence. This means that before convergence, each bridge or switch in the network must decide if it should actively forward traffic or not, on each of its ports. For more information on configuring Rapid STP, see "Rapid Spanning Tree" on page 450. • Multiple STP (MSTP) — MSTP is based on RSTP. It detects Layer 2 loops, and attempts to mitigate them by preventing the involved port from transmitting traffic. Since loops exist on a per-Layer 2-domain basis, a situation can occur where there is a loop in VLAN A and no loop in VLAN B. If both VLANs are on Port X, and STP wants to mitigate the loop, it stops traffic on the entire port, including VLAN B traffic, where there is no need to stop traffic. Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) solves this problem by enabling several STP instances, so that it is possible to detect and mitigate loops separately in each instance. By associating instances to VLANs, each 436 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY instance is associated with the Layer 2 domain on which it performs loop detection and mitigation. This enables a port to be stopped in one instance, such as traffic from VLAN A that is causing a loop, while traffic can remain active in another domain where no loop was seen, such as on VLAN B. MSTP provides full connectivity for packets allocated to any VLAN, and transmits packets assigned to various VLANs, through different multiple spanning tree (MST) regions. MST regions act as a single bridge. For more information on configuring Multiple STP, see "Multiple Spanning Tree" on page 454.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 437 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Global Settings To enable STP and select the STP mode on the device: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > Global Settings in the tree view to display the Global Settings page. Figure 13-1. Global Settings The currently-defined settings are displayed. 2 Enter the fields: – Spanning Tree State — Enable Spanning Tree on the device. – STP Operation Mode — Select the STP mode enabled on the device. The possible options are: • Classic STP — Enables Classic STP on the device. • Rapid STP — Enables Rapid STP on the device. This is the default value. • Multiple STP — Enables Multiple STP on the device.438 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – BPDU Handling — Select how Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) packets are managed when STP is disabled on the port/device. BPDUs are used to transmit spanning tree information. The possible options are: • Filtering — Filter BPDU packets when spanning tree is disabled on an interface. • Flooding — Flood BPDU packets when spanning tree is disabled on an interface. – Path Cost Default Values — Select the method used to assign default path costs to STP ports. The possible options are: • Short — Specifies 1 through 65,535 range for port path costs. • Long — Specifies 1 through 200,000,000 range for port path costs. The default path costs assigned to an interface vary according to the selected method: Bridge Settings – Priority (0-61440 in steps of 4096) — Enter the bridge priority value. When switches or bridges are running STP, each is assigned a priority. After exchanging BPDUs, the device with the lowest priority value becomes the Root Bridge. The default value is 32768. The port priority value is provided in increments of 4096. For example, 4096, 8192, 12288, etc. – Hello Time (1-10) — Check to use the device Hello Time, which is the interval of time in seconds that a root bridge waits between configuration messages. Enter a value. – Max Age (6-40) — Check to use device Maximum Age Time, which is the time interval in seconds that a bridge waits before sending configuration messages. Enter a value. Interface Long Cost Short Cost LAG 20,000 4 1000 Mbps 20,000 4 100 Mbps 200,000 19 10 Mbps 2,000,000 100Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 439 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Forward Delay (4-30) — Check to use device forward delay time, which is the interval of time in seconds that a bridge remains in a listening and learning state before forwarding packets. Enter a value. Designated Root — Displays the following: – Bridge ID — The bridge priority and MAC address. – Root Bridge ID — The root bridge priority and MAC address. – Root Port — The port number that offers the lowest cost path from this bridge to the Root Bridge. This is significant when the Bridge is not the Root. – Root Path Cost — The cost of the path from this bridge to the root. – Topology Changes Counts — The total amount of STP state changes that have occurred. – Last Topology Change — The amount of time that has elapsed since the bridge was initialized or reset, and the last topographic change occurred. Defining STP Global Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining STP global parameters as displayed in the Global Settings pages. Table 13-1. STP Global Parameter CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree no spanning-tree Enables spanning tree functionality. Use the no form of this command to disable the spanning-tree functionality. spanning-tree mode {stp|rstp|mstp} no spanning-tree mode Configures the mode of the spanning tree protocol. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. spanning-tree bpdu {filtering|flooding|bridging} no spanning-tree bpdu Defines BPDU handling when the spanning tree is disabled globally or on a single interface. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.440 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY spanning-tree pathcost method {long|short} no spanning-tree pathcost method Sets the default path cost method. Use the no form of this command to return to the default configuration. spanning-tree priority priority no spanning-tree priority Configures the spanning tree priority. Use the no form of this command to restore the default device spanning-tree priority. spanning-tree hello-time seconds no spanning-tree hello-time Configures the spanning tree bridge Hello Time, which is how often the device Broadcasts Hello messages to other devices. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. spanning-tree max-age seconds no spanning-tree max-age seconds Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration spanning-tree forward-time seconds no spanning-tree forward-time Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time, which is the amount of time a port remains in the listening and learning states before entering the forwarding state. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show spanning-tree [[gigabitethernet|tengigabite thernet] port-number|portchannel LAG-number] [instance instance-id] Displays spanning tree configuration. show spanning-tree [detail] [active|blockedports] [instance instance-id] Displays detailed spanning tree information on active or blocked ports. show spanning-tree mstconfiguration Displays spanning tree MST configuration identifier. Table 13-1. STP Global Parameter CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command DescriptionDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 441 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# spanning-tree console(config)# spanning-tree mode rstp console(config)# spanning-tree priority 12288 console(config)# spanning-tree hello-time 5 console(config)# spanning-tree max-age 12 console(config)# spanning-tree forward-time 25 console(config)# exit442 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY STP Port Settings To assign STP properties to individual ports: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > STP Port Settings in the tree view to display the STP Port Settings: Summary page. Figure 13-2. STP Port Settings: Summary The ports and their STP settings are displayed. 2 To modify STP settings on a port, click Edit. 3 Select the port, and enter the fields: – STP — Enable/disable STP on the port. – Fast Link — Check to enable Fast Link mode for the port. If this is enabled, the Port State is automatically placed in the Forwarding state when the port is up. Fast Link mode optimizes the time it takes for the STP protocol to converge. STP convergence can take 30-60 seconds in large networks. Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 443 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – BPDU Guard — Check to enable BPDU Guard on the port. – Root Guard — Check to prevent devices outside the network core from being assigned the spanning tree root. – Port State — Displays the current STP state of a port. If the port state is not disabled, it determines what forwarding action is taken on traffic. The possible port states are: • Disabled — STP is currently disabled on the port. The port forwards traffic while learning MAC addresses. • Blocking — The port is currently blocked and cannot be used to forward traffic or learn MAC addresses. Blocking is displayed when Classic STP is enabled. • Listening — The port is currently in the listening mode. The port cannot forward traffic nor can it learn MAC addresses. • Learning — The port is currently in the learning mode. The port cannot forward traffic, however it can learn new MAC addresses. • Forwarding — The port is currently in the forwarding mode. The port can forward traffic and learn new MAC addresses. – Role — Displays the port role assigned by the STP algorithm that provides STP paths. The possible options are: • Root — This port provides the lowest cost path to forward packets to root switch. • Designated — This port is the interface through which the bridge is connected to the LAN, which provides the lowest cost path from the LAN to the Root Bridge. • Alternate — This port provides an alternate LAG to the root switch from the root interface. • Backup — This port provides a backup path to the designated port. Backup ports occur only when two ports are connected in a loop by a point-to-point link. Backup ports also occur when a LAN has two or more connections connected to a shared segment. • Disabled — This port is not participating in the Spanning Tree.444 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Speed — Displays the speed at which the port is operating. – Path Cost (1-200000000) — Enter the port contribution to the root path cost. The path cost is adjusted to a higher or lower value, and is used to forward traffic when a path being rerouted. – Default Path Cost — Check to use the default path cost. – Priority — Select the priority value that influences the port choice when a bridge has two ports connected in a loop. The priority value is provided in increments of 16. – Designated Bridge ID — Displays the bridge priority and the MAC address of the designated bridge. – Designated Port ID — Displays the designated port’s priority and interface. – Designated Cost — Displays the cost of the port participating in the STP topology. Ports with a lower cost are less likely to be blocked if STP detects loops. – Forward Transitions — Displays the number of times the port has changed from the Forwarding state to Blocking. – LAG — Displays the LAG to which the port is attached. Defining STP Port Settings Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining STP port parameters as displayed in the STP Port Settings page. Table 13-2. STP Port Settings CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree disable no spanning-tree disable Disables spanning tree on a specific port. Use the no form of this command to enable the spanning tree on a port. spanning-tree cost cost no spanning-tree cost Configures the spanning tree cost contribution of a port Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 445 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY spanning-tree port-priority priority no spanning-tree port-priority Configures port priority. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show spanning-tree [[gigabitethernet|tengigabiteth ernet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number][instance instanceid] Displays spanning tree configuration. spanning-tree portfast no spanning-tree portfast Enables Fast Link mode. Use the no form of this command to disable the PortFast mode. spanning-tree bpduguard {enable|disable} no spanning-tree bpduguard Shuts down an interface when it receives a bridge protocol data unit (BPDU). Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. spanning-tree guard root Enables root guard on all spanning tree instances on the interface. show spanning-tree [detail] [active|blockedports] [instance instance-id] Displays detailed spanning tree information on active or blocked ports. Table 13-2. STP Port Settings CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description446 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: console> enable console# configure console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# spanning-tree enable console(config-if)# spanning-tree cost 35000 console(config-if)# spanning-tree port-priority 96 console(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast console(config-if)# exit console(config)# exit console# show spanning-tree gi1/0/15 instance 12 Port gi1/0/15 enabled State: discarding Role: alternate Port ID: 128.15 Port cost: 19 Type: P2p (configured: Auto) Internal Port Fast: No (configured: No) Designated bridge Priority : 32768 Address: 00:00:b0:07:07:49 Designated port ID: 128.11 Designated path cost: 0 Guard root: Disabled Number of transitions to forwarding state: 3 BPDU: sent 482, received 1035Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 447 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY STP LAG Settings To assign STP parameters to LAGs: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > LAG Settings in the tree view to display the STP LAG Settings: Summary page. Figure 13-3. STP LAG Settings: Summary The LAGs and their STP settings are displayed. 2 To modify STP settings on a LAG, click Edit. 3 Select a LAG from the Select a LAG drop-down menu. 4 Enter the fields. – STP — Enable/disable STP on the LAG. – Fast Link — Check to enable Fast Link mode for the LAG. If Fast Link mode is enabled for a LAG, the LAG State is automatically placed in Forwarding when the LAG is up. Fast Link mode optimizes the time it takes for the STP protocol to converge. STP convergence can take from 30-60 seconds in large networks. – BPDU Guard — Check to enable BPDU Guard on the LAG. – Root Guard — Check to prevent devices outside the network core from being assigned the spanning tree root. 448 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – LAG State — Displays the current STP state of the LAG. If enabled, the LAG state determines what forwarding action is taken on traffic. If the bridge discovers a malfunctioning LAG, the LAG is placed in the Broken state. Possible LAG states are: • Disabled — STP is currently disabled on the LAG. The LAG forwards traffic while learning MAC addresses. • Blocking — The LAG is blocked and cannot be used to forward traffic or learn MAC addresses. • RSTP Discarding State — The LAG does not learn MAC addresses and does not forward frames. This state is union of Blocking and Listening state introduced in STP (802.1.D). • Listening — The LAG is in the listening mode, and cannot forward traffic or learn MAC addresses. • Learning — The LAG is in the learning mode, and cannot forward traffic, but it can learn new MAC addresses. • Forwarding — The LAG is currently in the forwarding mode, and it can forward traffic and learn new MAC addresses. • Broken — The LAG is currently malfunctioning, and cannot be used for forwarding traffic. – Role — Displays the LAG role assigned by the STP algorithm that provides STP paths. The possible options are: • Root — This LAG provides the lowest cost path to forward packets to root switch. • Designated — This LAG is the interface through which the bridge is connected to the LAN, which provides the lowest cost path from the LAN to the Root Bridge. • Alternate — This LAG provides an alternate LAG to the root switch from the root interface. • Backup — This LAG provides a backup path to the designated port. Backup ports occur only when two ports are connected in a loop by a point-to-point link. Backup ports also occur when a LAN has two or more connections connected to a shared segment. • Disabled — This LAG is not participating in the Spanning Tree.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 449 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Path Cost (1-200000000) — Enter the amount the LAG contributes to the root path cost. The path cost is adjusted to a higher or lower value, and is used to forward traffic when a path is being rerouted. The path cost has a value of 1 to 200000000. – Default Path Cost — Check for the device to use the default path cost. – Priority — Select the priority value of the LAG. The priority value influences the LAG choice when a bridge has looped ports. The priority value is given in steps of 16. – Designated Bridge ID — Displays the priority and the MAC address of the designated bridge. – Designated Port ID — Displays the ID of the selected interface. – Designated Cost — Displays the cost of the port participating in the STP topology. Ports with a lower cost are less likely to be blocked if STP detects loops. – Forward Transitions — Displays the number of times the LAG State has changed from the Forwarding state to a Blocking state. Defining STP LAG Settings Using CLI Commands For information about CLI commands for defining STP LAG settings, see Table 13-2. The following is an example of the CLI commands: console(config)# interface port-channel 1 console(config-if)# spanning-tree disable console(config-if)# spanning-tree cost 35000 console(config-if)# spanning-tree port-priority 96 console(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast450 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Rapid Spanning Tree While classic spanning tree prevents Layer 2 forwarding loops on a general network topology, convergence can take from 30 to 60 seconds. This delay provides time to detect possible loops, and propagate status changes. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) detects and uses network topologies that enable a faster convergence of the spanning tree, without creating forwarding loops. To configure RSTP: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > Rapid Spanning Tree in the tree view to display the Rapid Spanning Tree: Summary page. Figure 13-4. Rapid Spanning Tree: Summary 2 To modify RSTP settings on an interface, click Edit and enter the fields: – Interface — Select a port or LAG. – State — Displays the RSTP state of the selected interface.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 451 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Role — Displays the port role assigned by the STP algorithm in order to provide STP paths. The possible options are: • Root — This port provides the lowest cost path to forward packets to root switch. • Designated — This port is the interface through which the bridge is connected to the LAN, which provides the lowest cost path from the LAN to the Root Bridge. • Alternate — This port provides an alternate LAG to the root switch from the root interface. • Backup — This port provides a backup path to the designated port. Backup ports occur only when two ports are connected in a loop by a point-to-point link. Backup ports also occur when a LAN has two or more connections connected to a shared segment. • Disabled — This port is not participating in the Spanning Tree. – Mode — Displays if RSTP is enabled. – Fast Link Operational Status — Displays if Fast Link is enabled or disabled for the port or LAG. If Fast Link is enabled for an interface, the interface is automatically placed in the forwarding state. The possible options are: • Enable — Fast Link is enabled. • Disable — Fast Link is disabled. • Auto — Fast Link mode is enabled a few seconds after the interface becomes active. – Point-to-Point Admin Status — Select if a point-to-point links is established, or permits the device to establish a point-to-point link. The possible options are: • Enable — Enables the device to establish a point-to-point link, or specifies for the device to automatically establish a point-to-point link. To establish communications over a point-to-point link, the originating PPP first sends Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets to configure and test the data link. After a link is established and optional facilities are negotiated as needed by the LCP, the originating PPP sends Network Control Protocols (NCP) packets to select and configure one or more network layer protocols. When each of the chosen network layer protocols has been 452 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY configured, packets from each network layer protocol can be sent over the link. The link remains configured for communications until explicit LCP or NCP packets close the link, or until some external event occurs. This is the actual switch port link type. It may differ from the administrative state. • Disable — Disables point-to-point link. • Auto — The device automatically establishes a point-to-point link. – Point-to-Point Operational Status — Displays the Point-to-Point operating state. – Active Protocol Migration Test — Check to run a Protocol Migration test. This discovers whether the link partner using STP still exists, and if so whether it has migrated to RSTP or MSTP. If it still exists as an STP link, the device continues to communicate with it by using STP. Otherwise, if it has been migrated to RSTP or MSTP, the device communicates with it using RSTP or MSTP, respectively. Defining Rapid STP Parameters Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining Rapid STP parameters as displayed in the Rapid Spanning Tree pages. Table 13-3. Rapid STP Parameters CLI Command CLI Command Description spanning-tree link-type {pointto-point|shared} no spanning-tree spanning-tree link-type Overrides the default link-type setting determined by the port duplex mode, and enables RSTP transitions to the forwarding state. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. clear spanning-tree detectedprotocols interface [[gigabitethernet|tengigabiteth ernet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number] Restarts the protocol migration process.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 453 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show spanning-tree [[gigabitethernet|tengigabiteth ernet] port-number|port-channel LAG-number] Displays spanning tree configuration. console(config)# interface gi1/0/5 console(config-if)# spanning-tree link-type shared Table 13-3. Rapid STP Parameters CLI Command (Continued) CLI Command Description454 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Multiple Spanning Tree This section describes Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP). It contains the following topics: • MSTP Overview • MSTP Properties • VLAN to MSTP Instance • MSTP Instance Settings • MSTP Interface SettingsDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 455 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY MSTP Overview MSTP maps VLANs into STP instances, using various load balancing scenarios. As a result of this partitioning into instances, if port A is blocked in one STP instance, the same port can be placed in the Forwarding State in another STP instance. In addition, packets assigned to various VLANs are transmitted along different paths within Multiple Spanning Trees Regions (MST Regions). Regions are one or more Multiple Spanning Tree bridges by which frames can be transmitted. MSTP Properties To set an MSTP region: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > MSTP Settings in the tree view to display the MSTP Properties: Summary page. Figure 13-5. MSTP Properties: Summary456 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 2 Enter the following fields: – Region Name (1-32 Characters) — Enter the user-defined MSTP region name. – Revision (0-65535) — Enter the unsigned 16-bit number that identifies the current MST configuration revision. The revision number is required as part of the MST configuration. – Max Hops (1-40) — Enter the total number of hops that occur in a specific region before the BPDU is discarded. Once the BPDU is discarded, the port information is aged out. – IST Master — Displays the Internal Spanning Tree Master ID. The IST Master is the instance 0 root. Configuring MST Properties Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring MST properties in the MSTP Properties pages. Table 13-4. MSTP Properties CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree mst configuration Enters MST Configuration mode. spanning-tree mst max-hops hop-count no spanning-tree mst maxhops Configures the number of hops in an MST region before the BDPU is discarded and the port information is aged out (in Global Configuration mode). Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. name string no name Sets the MSTP region name. Use the no form of this command to restore the default setting. revision value no revision Defines the MST configuration revision number. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. exit Exits the MST region configuration mode after applying configuration changes.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 457 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY The following is an example of the CLI commands: show {current|pending} Displays the current or pending MST region configuration. show spanning tree mstconfiguration Displays the MSTP configuration. console(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration console(config-mst)# instance 1 add vlan 10-20 console(config-mst)# name region1 console(config-mst)# revision 1 console(config)# interface gi1/0/1 console(config-if)# spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 144 console(config)# spanning-tree mst max-hops 10 console(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration console(config-mst)# instance 2 add vlan 21-30 console(config-mst)# name region1 console(config-mst)# revision 1 console(config-mst)# show pending Pending MST configuration Name: Region1 Revision: 1 Instance VLANs Mapped -------- ------------ 0 1-9,31-4094 1 10-20 2 21-30 Table 13-4. MSTP Properties CLI Commands (Continued) CLI Command Description458 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY VLAN to MSTP Instance To map VLANs to MSTP instances: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > VLAN to MSTP Instance in the tree view to display the VLAN to MSTP Instance: Summary page. Figure 13-6. VLAN to MSTP Instance: Summary The MSTP instances and their associated VLANs are displayed. 2 To associate a VLAN with an MSTP instance, click Edit. 3 Select the MSTP instance, the VLAN and whether to add or remove the VLAN from the MSTP instance association. 4 Enter the fields: – Select MST Instance ID — Select an MST instance. – VLANs — Enter the VLANs being mapped to this instance. – Action — Select the mapping action. The possible options are: Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 459 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY • Add —Add these VLANS to the MST instance. • Remove —Remove these VLANS from the MST instance. Mapping VLAN to MSTP Instances Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for mapping VLANs to MSTP instances. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 13-5. Mapping VLAN to MSTP Instances Using CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree mst configuration Enters MST Configuration mode. instance instance-id vlan vlan-range no instance instance-id vlan vlan-range Maps VLANs to an MST instance. Use the no form of this command to restore default mapping. show spanning-tree detail Displays the spanning-tree configuration console(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration console(config-mst)# instance 1 vlan 10-20460 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY MSTP Instance Settings To configure MSTP instances: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > MSTP Instance Settings in the tree view to display the MSTP Instance Settings page. Figure 13-7. MSTP Instance Settings The MSTP instances and their associated VLANs are displayed. 2 Select an Instance ID. 3 Enter the Bridge Priority (0-61440) of this bridge for the selected MSTP instance. 4 The following fields are displayed: – Included VLANs — Displays VLANs included in this instance. – Designated Root Bridge ID — Priority and MAC address of the Root Bridge for the MST instance.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 461 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY – Root Port — Root port of the selected instance. – Root Path Cost — Root path cost of the selected instance. – Bridge ID — Bridge priority and the MAC address of this switch for the selected instance. – Remaining Hops — Number of hops remaining to the next destination. Configuring MSTP Instances Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for configuring the fields in the MSTP Instance pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 13-6. Configuring MSTP Instances CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree mst configuration Enters MST Configuration mode. spanning-tree mst instance-id priority priority no spanning-tree mst instance-id priority Configures the device priority for the specified spanning-tree instance. Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show spanning-tree detail Displays the spanning-tree configuration console(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration console(config-mst)# spanning-tree mst 1 priority 4096462 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY MSTP Interface Settings To assign interfaces to MSTP instances: 1 Click Switching > Spanning Tree > MSTP Interface Settings in the tree view to display the MSTP Interface Settings: Summary page. Figure 13-8. MSTP Interface Settings: Summary MSTP interface settings for the selected instance is displayed. 2 To set MSTP settings for an interface, click Edit. 3 Select an instance, and enter the fields: – Interface ID — Assign either ports or LAGs to the selected MSTP instance. – Port State — Displays whether the port is enabled or disabled in the specific instance. – Type — Displays whether MSTP treats the port as a point-to-point port, or a port connected to a hub, and whether the port is internal to the MST region or a boundary port. A Master port provides connectivity from a MSTP region to the outlying CIST root. A Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 463 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Boundary port attaches MST bridges to LAN in an outlying region. If the port is a boundary port, it also indicates whether the device on the other side of the link is working in RSTP or STP mode. – Role — Displays the port role assigned by the STP algorithm in order to provide to STP paths. The possible options are: • Root — This port provides the lowest cost path to forward packets to root switch. • Designated — This port is the interface through which the bridge is connected to the LAN, which provides the lowest cost path from the LAN to the Root Bridge. • Alternate — This port provides an alternate LAG to the root switch from the root interface. • Backup — This port provides a backup path to the designated port. Backup ports occur only when two ports are connected in a loop by a point-to-point link. Backup ports also occur when a LAN has two or more connections connected to a shared segment. • Disabled — This port is not participating in the Spanning Tree. – Interface Priority— Enter the interface priority for specified instance. – Path Cost (1-200,000,000) — Enter the port contribution to the Spanning Tree instance. If a loop occurs, the spanning tree considers path cost when selecting an interface to put in the Forwarding state. – Default Path Cost — Check to use the default path cost. – Designated Bridge ID — Displays the bridge ID number that connects the link or shared LAN to the root. – Designated Port ID — Displays the Port ID number on the designated bridge that connects the link or the shared LAN to the root. – Designated Cost — Displays the cost of the path from the link or the shared LAN to the root. – Forward Transitions — Displays the number of times the port changed to the forwarding state. – Remain Hops — Displays the number of hops remaining to the next destination.464 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Defining MSTP Interfaces Using CLI Commands The following table summarizes the CLI commands for defining MSTP interfaces as displayed in the MSTP Interfaces pages. The following is an example of the CLI commands: Table 13-7. MSTP Interface CLI Commands CLI Command Description spanning-tree mst instance-id cost cost no spanning-tree mst instance-id cost Sets the path cost of the port for MST calculations (in Interface Configuration mode). Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. spanning-tree mst instance-id portpriority priority Configures the device priority for the specified spanning-tree instance (in Interface Configuration mode). Use the no form of this command to restore the default configuration. show spanning-tree mstconfiguration Displays the MST configuration. console(config)# interface gi1/0/9 console(config-if)# spanning-tree mst 1 cost 4Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 465 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_STP.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY466 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_VLAN.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY 14 VLANs This chapter describes how VLANs are configured on the device. It contains the following topics: • Virtual LAN Overview • VLAN Membership • Port Settings • LAGs Settings • Protocol Groups • Protocol Port • GVRP Parameters • Private VLAN • Voice VLANDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 467 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_VLAN.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Virtual LAN Overview A VLAN is a switched network that is logically segmented on an organizational basis, by functions, project teams, or applications rather than on a physical or geographical basis. For example, all workstations and servers used by a particular workgroup team can be connected to the same VLAN, regardless of their physical connections to the network, or the fact that they might be intermingled with other teams. Reconfiguration of the network can be done through software rather than by physically unplugging and moving devices or wires. A VLAN can be thought of as a Broadcast domain that exists within a defined set of switches. A VLAN consists of a number of end systems, either hosts or network equipment (such as bridges and routers), connected by a single bridging domain. The bridging domain is supported on various pieces of network equipment; for example, LAN switches that operate bridging protocols between them with a separate bridge group for each VLAN. VLANs are created to provide the segmentation services traditionally provided by routers in LAN configurations. VLANs address scalability, security, and network management. Routers in VLAN topologies provide broadcast filtering, security, address summarization, and traffic flow management. None of the switches, within a defined group, will bridge any frames, not even broadcast frames, between two VLANs. 468 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_VLAN.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Frame Flow Figure 14-1 describes the flow of VLAN frames from the Ingress port to the Egress port: Figure 14-1. Frame Flow Through a VLAN When a frame is received, it must be assigned a VLAN. VLAN assignment is accomplished by the following steps: 1 If the frame contains a VLAN tag, that tag is used, otherwise the frame is classified by the port's default VLAN (PVID), if it is defined. 2 After classification, the frame may pass (if enabled) through ingress filtering, where the frame is dropped if the frame's VLAN ID is not one of the VLANs to which the ingress port belongs. 3 A forwarding decision is made, as a function of the VLAN ID and the destination MAC address. 4 The egress rules define whether the frame is to be sent as tagged or untagged. Special-case VLANs VLAN#1 and VLAN#4095 are special-case VLANs: • VLAN1 — Defined as the default VLAN, and may only be used as a Ports Default VLAN ID (PVID). This means that if the VLAN, whose VID is the current port's PVID, is deleted from the port (or from the system), that port's PVID is set to 1. VLAN#1 cannot be deleted from the system. • VLAN #4095 — Defined (according to standard and industry practice) as the "discard" VLAN. A frame classified to this VLAN is silently dropped. Ingress Egress VLAN C lassification Ingress Filtering Egress Filtering Progress Forwarding Decision Filtering Database Received Frame T ransmitted Frame Ingress Egress VLAN C lassification Ingress Filtering Egress Filtering Progress Forwarding Decision Filtering Database Received Frame T ransmitted FrameDell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 469 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_VLAN.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY QinQ Tagging QinQ tagging enables you to add an additional tag to previously-tagged packets. The added tag provides a VLAN ID to each customer, which ensures private and segregated network traffic. The VLAN ID tag is assigned to a customer port in the service provider network. The designated port then provides additional services to the packets with the double-tags. This enables administrators to expand service to VLAN users. Port Modes Ports participating in Layer 2 switching may be classified as: • Access Ports Ports set to Access mode belong to a single VLAN, whose VID is the currently set PVID (default =1). These ports accept all untagged frames, and all frames tagged with the VID, currently set as the port's PVID. All traffic is sent untagged. If the VLAN, whose VID is set as the current PVID of the port, is deleted from the system, or deleted from the port, the port's PVID will be set to 1, meaning that the port will be made a member of VLAN#1, the default VLAN. Ingress filtering is always enabled for ports in Access mode. Setting an Access port’s PVID to 4095 effectively shuts it down, as no frames will be transferred in either direction. Access mode ports are intended to connect end-stations to the system, especially when the end-stations are incapable of generating VLAN tags. • Trunk Ports Ports set to Trunk mode may belong to multiple VLANs. The default VLAN membership of a trunk port is all VLANs (1-4094). A PVID must be set on the port (it can be a non-existing VLAN). Trunk ports accept tagged and untagged frames. Untagged frames will be classified to the VLAN whose VLAN ID (VID) is configured as the port’s PVID. Frames, sent from the port in the VLAN, whose VID is the current PVID, are sent untagged. Frames sent in all other VLANs active on the port are sent tagged.470 Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintenance Projects\Dell Contax\sources\CxUGSwitching_VLAN.fm DELL CONFIDENTIAL – PRELIMINARY 3/11/13 - FOR PROOF ONLY Ingress filtering is always enabled on Trunk-mode ports. Incoming frames will undergo ingress filtering, and if correctly tagged, (tagged with a VID of one of the VLANs to which the port currently belongs) are admitted. The default PVID is 1 (the default VLAN). If another VID is configured as the port’s PVID, and the corresponding VLAN is deleted from the port or from the system, the port’s PVID reverts to 1, meaning that the port is made a member of the default VLAN. Setting a trunk-port’s PVID to 4095 limits traffic to tagged frames. Incoming untagged frames are silently discarded, and no frames are sent untagged. Trunk-mode ports are intended for switch-to-switch links, where traffic is usually tagged. • General Ports Ports set to General mode may be members of multiple VLANs. Each of these VLANs may be configured to be tagged or untagged. This setting applies to transmitted frames. Incoming untagged frames are classified into the VLAN whose VID is the currently configured PVID. Ingress filtering may be disabled on General ports. Ingress filtering is enabled by default. • Promiscuous Ports A promiscuous port can communicate with all ports of the same Private VLAN (PVLAN), including the isolated ports of the same PVLAN. • Isolated An isolated port has complete Layer 2 isolation from the other ports within the same PVLAN, but not from the promiscuous ports. Isolated ports can communicate with promiscuous ports. In the factory default configuration, all ports are designated as Access ports, and are associated with the default VLAN.Dell PowerConnect 55xx Systems User Guide 471 FILE LOCATION: C:\Users\gina\Desktop\Checkout_new\Maintena